WorldWideScience
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Large bowel resection  

Science.gov (United States)

... large intestine to reconnect, you may have a colostomy . In most cases, the colostomy is short-term. It can be closed with ... large part of your bowel is removed, the colostomy may be permanent. Your surgeon may also look ...

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Large bowel resection - discharge  

Science.gov (United States)

... large bowel. You may also have had a colostomy. ... with diarrhea. You may have problems with your colostomy. ... protect it if needed. If you have a colostomy, follow care instructions from your doctor or nurse. ...

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Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting with Bowel Obstruction of the Duodenum and Small Bowels: A Case Report  

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The occurrence of primary duodenal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is extremely rare, and more so is the obstruction of the duodenum for the MALT lymphoma. We describe the small bowel follow through and CT findings in an uncommon case of MALT lymphoma presenting with bowel obstruction of the 2nd portion of the duodenum and small bowels.

Ryu, Guen Ho; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Chang, Yun Woo; Choi, Duek Lin; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kwon, Kui Hyang [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-01-15

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Pathological and clinical significance of increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in small bowel mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) belong to a unique T-cell population interspersed between epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine. It is becoming increasingly recognised that an increased number of IELs with a normal villous architecture is within the wide spectrum of histological abnormalities observed in coeliac disease. An increased number of IELs is the earliest pathological change following gluten challenge and a high IEL count may be the only sign of gluten sensitivity. Therefore, the finding of a raised IEL count with normal villous architecture is of sufficient clinical importance to be reported in routine small bowel biopsies. However, it is evident that not all small intestinal biopsy specimens showing increased IELs are explained by gluten sensitivity. Increased IELs in small bowel mucosa have also been associated with autoimmune disorders, tropical sprue, food protein intolerance, Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, peptic duodenitis, parasitic and viral infections, as well as the development of intestinal lymphoma. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen of the small bowel remains the diagnostic gold standard for coeliac disease. There will be an ever increasing demand for histological confirmation of gluten sensitivity in patients in whom the classic microscopic appearance of flattened villi may not have fully developed. The more widespread recognition by histopathologists of the pattern of injury manifested by increased numbers of IELs in intestinal biopsy specimens will certainly help in early diagnosis of coeliac disease, lessen diagnostic confusion and influence the modern practice of gastrointestinal tract medicine. This review discusses some of the recent developments in clinical pathology pertaining to increased IELs in small bowel mucosal biopsies. PMID:15996156

Chang, Fuju; Mahadeva, Ula; Deere, Harriet

2005-06-01

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Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

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Experimental studies on the pathogenesis of the chronic radiation ulcer of the large bowel in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following local irradiation of a 24 mm segment of the large bowel with 23 Gy, 90% of Wistar rats developed a chronic radiation ulcer leading to progressive large bowel obstruction within 8 weeks. The incidence and latency of the chronic radiation damage was markedly altered by local treatments after irradiation, especially those which modified the amount and texture of the feces. The results of these studies suggest that the primary radiation damage to the large bowel is to the microvasculature of the mucosal and submucosal stroma leading to progressive mucosal atrophy which thus becomes very vulnerable. The chronic radiation ulcer and the hypertrophic, cystic mucosa (which is the result of hyperregeneration of subclinical ulcers) are secondary to the interaction of the primary radiation damage to the vascular-connective tissue of the intestinal wall with mechanical and infectious damage to the chronically atrophic mucosa

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Vasoactive intestinal peptide and somatostatin in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the possible role and clinical significance of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin(SS) in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the VIP and SS in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa were measured by radioimmunoassay in the control group and the IBS group. The VIP concentration in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa of the IBS patients with constipation was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.01), while that of the IBS patients with diarrhea was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). The SS concentration in two sites was significantly elevated in IBS patients of both types and was significantly higher in IBS with constipation than in IBS with diarrhea (P<0.05). Conclusion: The VIP and SS in IBS are abnormal, which might play a role in the pathogenesis of IBS. The plasma and mucosa concenration of VIP and SS in two kinds of IBS patients are significantly different, which indicates that there might be different pathophysiological basis involved in the pathogenesis of the two kinds of IBS patients. (authors)

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Large bowel obstruction secondary to adhesive bands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is most commonly due to malignancy, volvulus, hernia, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. LBO due to adhesions is unusual. A literature review was conducted which revealed that only a few such cases have been reported. We report two cases of LBO secondary to adhesions in patients, one with and one without a past abdominal surgical history. We highlight that while rare, the aetiology of LBO secondary to adhesions must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with obstructive symptoms. PMID:25650387

El-Masry, Nabil S; Geevarghese, Ruben

2015-01-01

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MRI diagnosis of large bowel cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied an usefulness of MRI for preoperative staging of large bowel cancer. Eighteen patients underwent MRI examination under a suitable preparation. Selected pulse sequences are a) ordinal SE(Spin Echo : TR/TE = 1000/40), b) T1 enhanced imaging(short SE : 300/24, Inversion Recovery : TE/TI = 2000/500), c) T2 enhanced imaging(long SE : 2000/80). In 17 of 18 cases the main tumor was detected in ordinal SE imaging. In 14 of 17 cases (82 %), extrabowel invasions were accurately diagnosed. Furthermore, 93 % of overall accuracies were obtained with T1 and T2 enhanced imagings. MRI also accurately staged lymph node metastasis of large bowel cancer in 13 of 14 cases, that were definitely diagnosed by histopathological examination. Sectional imaging along the bowel and enhancement of the elongated T1, T2 of cancer can be easily obtained by MRI. T1, T2 enhancement can make it easy to detect the boundary of cancer because of their fine contrast. MRI was also useful for the preoperative staging of large bowel cancer. (author)

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Histological abnormalities of the small bowel mucosa in cirrhosis and portal hypertension  

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Full Text Available AIM: To study the small bowel (SB mucosa on biopsy in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension and in non-cirrhotic controls and grade findings according to the Marsh criteria.METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 51 consecutive patients undergoing an upper endoscopy for their routine medical care. Twenty five patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension were compared to 26 controls. We obtained coeliac serology and multiple upper small bowel biopsies on all 51 patients. A GI pathologist interpreted biopsies and graded findings according to the Marsh criteria. We assessed equivalence in Marsh grade between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic controls using the Mann-Whitney test for equivalence.RESULTS: Gender, ethnicity and age were similar between both groups. Marsh grades were equivalent between the groups. Grade of 0 was present in 96% and grade of 1 was present in 4% of both groups and there was no villus atrophy or decrease in villus/crypt ratio in patients with portal hypertension.CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the lack of villus atrophy in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and supports the continuous reliance on the Marsh criteria when the diagnosis of coeliac disease is to be made in the presence of cirrhosis.

Jamilé Wakim-Fleming, Nizar N Zein, Ana Bennett, Rocio Lopez, Janice Santisi, William D Carey

2008-11-01

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Plasma carcinoembryonic antigen concentrations and immunohistochemical patterns of epithelial marker antigens in patients with large bowel carcinoma.  

OpenAIRE

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), secretory component (SC), and epithelial IgA were traced by paired immunofluorescence staining in 102 large bowel carcinomas from 99 patients. The immunohistochemical results were evaluated semiquantitatively in relation to histological tumour grade, clinicopathological stage, and preoperative plasma CEA concentration. CEA expression was significantly increased (p less than 0.05) in the following order: histologically normal colon mucosa, transitional mucosa ad...

Rognum, T.; Elgjo, K.; Brandtzaeg, P.; Orjasaeter, H.; Bergan, A.

1982-01-01

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Colon capsule endoscopy: a new method of investigating the large bowel.  

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Using the same principles as small bowel capsule endoscopy, a new wireless device has been developed to explore the colon. Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is a safe and non-invasive method in visualizing the entire large bowel mucosa. A special preparation of the digestive tract is necessary to ensure the cleanliness of the colon and the progression of the capsule. CCE acquires images with a very good quality and accuracy. The actual experience confirms the possibility of using CCE as a method for screening colorectal polyps and cancer. PMID:18836634

Iobagiu, Silviu; Ciobanu, Lidia; Pascu, Oliviu

2008-09-01

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Use of coculture of colonic mucosal biopsies to investigate the release of eicosanoids by inflamed and uninflamed mucosa from patients with inflammatory bowel disease.  

OpenAIRE

Eicosanoid production was measured in cultured biopsies of colonic mucosa from control patients, with the irritable bowel syndrome, and from patients with proctosigmoiditis and with colonic Crohn's disease. Cultured inflamed colonic mucosa from patients with proctosigmoiditis and Crohn's disease produced more prostaglandin E2 and leukotrienes C4 than control tissues. In addition, eicosanoid production by macroscopically uninflamed or 'quiescent' mucosa from the right colon was examined in pat...

Wardle, T. D.; Hall, L.; Turnberg, L. A.

1992-01-01

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The Bowel Microbiota and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases  

OpenAIRE

The human bowel contains a large and biodiverse bacterial community known as the microbiota or microbiome. It seems likely that the microbiota, fractions of the microbiota, or specific species comprising the microbiota provide the antigenic fuel that drives the chronic immune inflammation of the bowel mucosa that is characteristic of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. At least twenty years of microbiological research have been expended on analysis of the composition of the bowel micr...

Tannock, Gerald W.

2010-01-01

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Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Metastatic to Small Bowel Mucosa Causing Polyposis and Intussuseption  

OpenAIRE

A report of alveolar soft part sarcoma metastatic to the small bowel is presented. Hematogenous metastases to the small bowel from primary tumors outside the abdominal cavity are uncommon, and most remain asymptomatic and are not discovered until autopsy. However, small bowel metastases can lead to intestinal obstruction, intussuseption or even perforation. While metastases to the small bowel have been described for other tumor types, including melanoma and lung cancer, this is ex...

Brian Mcgrath; Brooks, John J.; Kraybill, William B.; Allan Litwin; Gibbs, John F.; Sabel, Michael S.

2001-01-01

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Reduced expression of aquaporins in human intestinal mucosa in early stage inflammatory bowel disease  

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Full Text Available Petr Ricanek,1,2 Lisa K Lunde,3 Stephan A Frye,1 Mari Støen,1 Ståle Nygård,4 Jens P Morth,5,6 Andreas Rydning,2 Morten H Vatn,7,8 Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam,3 Tone Tønjum,1,9 1Department of Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog and Campus Ahus, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Lørenskog, 3Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, 4Bioinformatics Core Facility, Institute for Medical Informatics, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, 5Centre for Molecular Medicine, Nordic EMBL Partnership, University of Oslo, 6Institute for Experimental Research, Oslo University Hospital (Ullevaal, Oslo, 7EpiGen Institute, Campus Ahus, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Lørenskog, 8Section of Gastroenterology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, 9Department of Microbiology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between aquaporin (AQP water channel expression and the pathological features of early untreated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in humans. Methods: Patients suspected to have IBD on the basis of predefined symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and/or blood in stool for more than 10 days, were examined at the local hospital. Colonoscopy with biopsies was performed and blood samples were taken. Patients who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for IBD and who displayed no evidence of infection or other pathology in the gut were included as symptomatic non-IBD controls. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9 messenger RNA (mRNA levels were quantified in biopsies from the distal ileum and colon by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of selected AQPs was assessed by confocal microscopy. Through multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences, the putative three-dimensional structures of AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 were modeled. Results: AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 mRNAs were detected in all parts of the intestinal mucosa. Notably, AQP1 and AQP3 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum of patients with Crohn's disease, and AQP7 and AQP8 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum and the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed localization of AQP3, 7, and 8 at the mucosal epithelium, whereas the expression of AQP1 was mainly confined to the endothelial cells and erythrocytes. The reduction in the level of AQP3, 7, and 8 mRNA was confirmed by immunofluorescence, which also indicated a reduction of apical immunolabeling for AQP8 in the colonic surface epithelium and crypts of the IBD samples. This could indicate loss of epithelial polarity in IBD, leading to disrupted barrier function. Conclusion: AQPs 1 and 8 and the aquaglyceroporins AQPs 3 and 7 are the AQPs predominantly expressed in the lower intestinal tract of humans. Their expression is significantly reduced in patients with IBD, and they are differentially expressed in specific bowel segments in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The data present a link between gut inflammation and water/solute homeostasis, suggesting that AQPs may play a significant role in IBD pathophysiology. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins

Ricanek P

2015-01-01

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Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease  

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Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

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Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Metastatic to Small Bowel Mucosa Causing Polyposis and Intussuseption  

Science.gov (United States)

A report of alveolar soft part sarcoma metastatic to the small bowel is presented. Hematogenous metastases to the small bowel from primary tumors outside the abdominal cavity are uncommon, and most remain asymptomatic and are not discovered until autopsy. However, small bowel metastases can lead to intestinal obstruction, intussuseption or even perforation. While metastases to the small bowel have been described for other tumor types, including melanoma and lung cancer, this is extremely uncommon for sarcoma, especially alveolar soft part sarcoma. We describe a 42-year-old male with a long history of alveolar soft part sarcoma, metastatic to the lung and brain, who developed an intussuseption from metastases to the small bowel. PMID:18521439

Sabel, Michael S.; Litwin, Allan; Mcgrath, Brian; Kraybill, William B.; Brooks, John J.

2001-01-01

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Mejoría mucosa endoscópica en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal / Endoscopic mucosal improvememt in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La curación mucosa endoscópica en enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal se asocia con remisión clínica sostenida, reducción de hospitalizaciones y cirugía, pero lograrlo es difícil, según la literatura. Por ello evaluamos la mejoría mucosa endoscópica en nuestros pacientes. Objetivo: Evaluar la mejoría [...] mucosa endoscópica en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. Métodos: estudio multicéntrico, descriptivo, transversal. Incluyó 24 pacientes entre 17 y 73 años. Para evaluar respuesta a tratamiento se realizó colonoscopia, utilizando clasificaciones endoscópicas de Mayo para colitis ulcerosa, Score simplificado para enfermedad de Crohn y Rutgeerts para recurrencia post operatoria, considerando curación endoscópica grado 0 en todas las escalas y mejoría cuando disminuyó un grado en relación al estudio previo. Resultados: colitis ulcerosa: 12 pacientes, 10 recibían aminosalicilatos y 2 terapia biológica. De ellos, 3 tuvieron curación endoscópica y 8 mejoría. De estos, 6 recibían aminosalicilatos y 2 Infliximab. Hubo 1 paciente con aminosalicilatos sin mejoría. Enfermedad de Crohn: 12 pacientes, 7 con aminosalicilatos, 2 con biológicos, 2 con biológicos e inmunomoduladores y 1 con biológicos y aminosalicilatos. De ellos, 4 tuvieron mejoría, 6 mantuvieron igual afectación y 2 curación con aminosalicilatos. Conclusiones: Se observó un alto porcentaje (70,8%) de curación y mejoría endoscópica, asociado a adherencia y optimización del tratamiento. Abstract in english Introduction: endoscopic mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with sustained clinical remission and hospitalizations and surgery reduction, but it has been difficult to achieve, according to the literature. So, we decided to assess improvement in endoscopic mucosal in ou [...] r inflammatory bowel disease patients. Purpose: endoscopic mucosal assess improvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: multicenter, descriptive and transversal. We included 24 patients with IBD between 17-73 years. Control colonoscopy was performed to evaluate the response to treatment using endoscopic Mayo Score for ulcerative colitis, Simplified Score for Crohn’s disease and postoperative recurrence was evaluated with Rutgeerts Index endoscopic healing was considered when the patient had grade 0 at all scales and improvement when they had one point less in the endoscopy scale in decreased relation to the previous study. Results: ulcerative colitis: 12 patients, 10 received aminosalicylates and 2 biological therapy. The group receiving aminosalicylates, 3 had endoscopic healing, there was endoscopic improvement in 8 of which 6 are aminosalicylates and 2 Infliximab. There was one patient with no improvement aminosalicylates. Crohn’s Disease: 12 patients, 7 with aminosalicylates, 2 biological therapy alone, 2 with biological and immunomodulatory and 1 with biological and aminosalicylates. Of which 4 had endoscopic improvement, 12 stayed the same degree of involvement and 2 with aminosalicylates was endoscopic healing. Conclusions: There was a high percentage (70.8%) of healing and endoscopic improvement associated with adherence and treatment optimization.

Guillermo, Veitia; Beatriz, Pernalete; María Alejandra, La Cruz; María Josefina, Rodríguez; Lisbeth, Cachima; José, Soto; Ivanova, Esquerre; Juan, Manuitt; Guillermo, Pérez.

2014-03-01

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Lower Bifidobacteria counts in both duodenal mucosa-associated and fecal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome patients  

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Full Text Available AIM: To determine the composition of both fecal and duodenal mucosa-associated microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS patients and healthy subjects using molecular-based techniques.METHODS: Fecal and duodenal mucosa brush samples were obtained from 41 IBS patients and 26 healthy subjects. Fecal samples were analyzed for the composition of the total microbiota using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and both fecal and duodenal brush samples were analyzed for the composition of bifidobacteria using real-time polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS: The FISH analysis of fecal samples revealed a 2-fold decrease in the level of bifidobacteria (4.2 ± 1.3 vs 8.3 ± 1.9, P < 0.01 in IBS patients compared to healthy subjects, whereas no major differences in other bacterial groups were observed. At the species level, Bifidobacterium catenulatum levels were significantly lower (6 ± 0.6 vs 19 ± 2.5, P < 0.001 in the IBS patients in both fecal and duodenal brush samples than in healthy subjects.CONCLUSION: Decreased bifidobacteria levels in both fecal and duodenal brush samples of IBS patients compared to healthy subjects indicate a role for microbiotic composition in IBS pathophysiology.

Angèle PM Kerckhoffs, Melvin Samsom, Michel E van der Rest, Joris de Vogel, Jan Knol, Kaouther Ben-Amor, Louis MA Akkermans

2009-06-01

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Large bowel leiomyosarcoma - a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report a case of a 49-year-old male patient with leiomyosarcoma of the ascending colon. The patient presented with anemia and an abdominal mass, and the symptoms progressed until a final diagnosis was made nine months later. A plain abdominal x-ray showed the presence of gas outside the bowel, in the right hypochondrium. The double contrast barium enema showed a sublevel displacement of the hepatic flexure and diverticula. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a heterogeneous expansive lesion below the liver containing gas, and a computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an excavated mass below the liver containing liquid, that was not filled by contrast medium. The patient was submitted to a right hemicolectomy with ileocoloanastomosis and the histopathological analysis of the excised material revealed a leiomyosarcoma of the ascending colon. (author)

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The Bowel Microbiota and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The human bowel contains a large and biodiverse bacterial community known as the microbiota or microbiome. It seems likely that the microbiota, fractions of the microbiota, or specific species comprising the microbiota provide the antigenic fuel that drives the chronic immune inflammation of the bowel mucosa that is characteristic of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. At least twenty years of microbiological research have been expended on analysis of the composition of the bowel microbiota of inflammatory bowel disease patients in comparison to that of control subjects. Despite extensive speculations about the aetiological role of dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel diseases, knowledge that can be easily translated into effective remedies for patients has not eventuated. The causes of this failure may be due to poorly defined and executed bacteriological studies, as well as the overwhelming complexity of a biome that contains hundreds of bacterial species and trillions of bacterial cells.

Gerald W. Tannock

2010-01-01

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Cancer chemotherapy model using autochthonous large bowel cancer in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemotherapy of methylnitrosourea-induced autochthonous large bowel cancer in rats, which is similar to that in man, was studied to evaluate the intrarectal administration or topical application of chemotherapeutic agents. Rats with large bowel tumors confirmed by endoscopic examination received an intrarectal instillation of 1 mg of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), 1 mg of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (Me-CCNU), or 5 mg of 5-fluorouracil (ir groups), or intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 mg of 5-fluorouracil (ip group) daily for 8 weeks. All the rats, including non-treated control rats, were necropsied after the treatment. The number of large bowel tumors per rat detected by endoscopy before the treatment was mostly the same among groups, whereas that observed at necropsy after the treatment was significantly smaller in ir groups, compared to non-treated group and ip group. The tumors increased significantly in rats of non-treated group and ip group between the time of endoscopy and necropsy, but not in rats of ir groups. These results showed that the maximum tolerated dosage of the agents administered intrarectally suppressed the development of new tumors after start of the treatment and also the growth of tumors which were detected by endoscopy before the treatment. PMID:669141

Narisawa, T; Kono, K; Yamaguchi, T; Takahashi, T

1978-06-01

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Cytokine changes in colonic mucosa associated with Blastocystis spp. subtypes 1 and 3 in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.  

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We determined cytokines (e.g. interleukin-8, 10, 12 and TNF-?) expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in rectal mucosa in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) with Blastocystis spp. Eighty patients with D-IBS and Blastocystis spp. infection were classified as 'cases' and 80 with D-IBS without Blastocystis spp. infection were classified as 'control'. Cases were subdivided into D-IBS and Blastocystis sp. defined type 1 (subtype-specific primer SB83) and type 3 (SB227). Stool microscopy and culture were performed. Rectal biopsies were obtained for histology and cytokines by real-time PCR for mRNA expression of cytokines. PBMCs IL-8 was similar in different groups but in type 1, IL-8mRNA was increased compared with type 3 (P = 0·001) and control (P = 0·001). In type 1, IL-10 by PBMCs had a low mean value (14·5±1·6) compared with (16·7±1·5) type 3 and (16±2·3) in controls (P<0·001 and P<0·001, respectively). In Blastocystis sp. type 1, low IL-10 was associated with lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration (P = 0·015 and P = 0·002, respectively). In Blastocystis sp. type 1 and type 3, IL-12 was associated with goblet cell depletion 23 (85%) (P<0·001) and 8 (29%) (P = 0·037), respectively. In Blastocystis sp. type 1, low IL-10 was associated with a proinflammatory response characterized by IL-8. PMID:24598032

Yakoob, Javed; Abbas, Zaigham; Usman, Muhammad Waqas; Sultana, Aisha; Islam, Muhammad; Awan, Safia; Ahmad, Zubair; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

2014-06-01

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Radiological diagnosis of large-bowel obstruction: nonneoplastic etiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-bowel obstruction (LBO) is a relatively common abdominal emergency. Computed tomography (CT) diagnosis of LBO is often easy, but it is essential to clarify LBO etiology and to decide how to treat it. Therefore, it is important for the radiologist to become familiar with the imaging findings of LBO, including plain radiography and CT, to determine its various causes, as well as the many diseases mimicking LBO. In this article, we show the characteristics of radiological findings of plain radiograph, barium study, and CT and their correlations with pathologic findings. LBO etiology comprises two main categories: neoplastic and nonneoplastic disease. However, the primary causes of LBO are neoplastic etiologies, and nonneoplastic causes are relatively uncommon and unfamiliar to many radiologists in clinical practice. Therefore, in this review, we present nonneoplastic etiology of LBO and diseases simulating LBO and provide critical information concerning the causes of LBO and viability of the involved bowel loops. PMID:22744438

Hayakawa, Katsumi; Tanikake, Masato; Yoshida, Shoko; Urata, Yoji; Inada, Yuki; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Eiji; Morimoto, Taisuke

2012-08-01

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Severe large and small bowel fibrosis clinically mimicking gross splenomegaly.  

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The case of an 18-year-old female, with mild left hypochondrial pain and an abdominal mass mimicking gross splenomegaly, with severe small and large bowel fibrosis and adhesions and numerous mononuclear cellular infiltrate on histology, is presented. A clear picture of intestinal obstruction only unfolded terminally. She died within 48 hours of presentation. Our patient illustrates the fact that severe intestinal adhesions may present with very mild symptoms and signs and therefore a high index of suspicion is necessary, to reduce the attendant high mortality in intestinal obstruction in our environment. PMID:8347448

Olubodun, J O; Ikerionwu, S E; Kuti, J A; Jaiyesimi, A E; Talabi, O A; Adefuye, B O

1993-01-01

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The double contrast examination in inflammatory large bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a prospective clinical series of 2371 consecutive patients referred for double contrast examination (DCE) of the large bowel, 154 had clinical and/or radiographic signs of inflammatory disease. The patients were followed up from May 1976 until May 1981. At the time of interpretation of the roentgenograms, the radiologist was unaware of clinical and laboratory findings. In 31 patients, organ specimens were studied histologically and in 101 other multiple endoscopic biopsies were available. Basing on the clinical observations and the pathology reports, the accuracy of the DCE was calculated at 99%; the predictive value of a positive DCE at 92, and that of a negative DCE at 99%. (orig.)

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Gallstone Ileus of the Sigmoid Colon: An Unusual Cause of Large-Bowel Obstruction  

OpenAIRE

Gallstone ileus of the colon is an exceedingly rare cause of large-bowel obstruction. It is usually the result of fistula formation between the gallbladder and large bowel facilitating entry of the stone into gastrointestinal tract. Contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography is an important diagnostic aid. Surgical management is the treatment of choice to prevent the disastrous complications of large-bowel obstruction. We describe the case of a 92-year-old man who presented with symptoms...

Andrzej Goscimski; Mong-Yang Loh; Daren Subar; Nadir Osman

2010-01-01

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[Torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices of the large bowel].  

Science.gov (United States)

The features of the clinical symptoms was studied, the possibility of laparoscopy in modern diagnosis and treatment of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel was assessed in the article. It was done the retrospective analysis of the medical records of 87 patients with a diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel. The patients had laparoscopic operations in our hospital in the period from January 1995 to December 2012. The clinical picture, laboratory and instrumental datas in cases of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis were scarce and nonspecific. An abdominal pain preferentially localized in the lower divisions was the main symptom (97.7%). The instrumental methods did not allow to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in the majority of cases and all these techniques were used for the differential diagnosis with other diseases. The assumption of the presence of appendices torsion and necrosis occured just in 34.5% of cases before the operation. Diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis present significant difficulties on prehospital and preoperative stages. The diagnostic laparoscopy is the method of choice in unclear situations and it allows to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in 96.6% of cases. Successful surgical treatment by using laparoscopic approach is possible in 90.8% of cases. PMID:24736537

Timofeev, M E; Fedorov, E D; Krechetova, A P; Shapoval'iants, S G

2014-01-01

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Large Intraluminal Ileal Hematoma Presenting as Small Bowel Obstruction in a Child  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraluminal small bowel hematoma has been rarely reported in children, as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. We present a case of an intraluminal ileal hematoma presenting as small bowel obstruction in a child. Computed Tomography (CT) indicated a large intraluminal hyperdense lesion in the distal ileum as the cause of small bowel obstruction. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) showed an echogenic mass-like lesion with multiple septa in the distal ileum. Small bowel obstruction due to a complicated cystic mass was provisionally diagnosed. Histopathologic examination of the resected mass suggested a submucosal ileal hematoma. Although intraluminal small bowel hematoma is rare in children, it can present as an intraluminal cystic mass and should be considered as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. The US and CT findings of submucosal ileal hematoma could be useful for the diagnosis of such cases in the future.

Lim, Yun Jung; Nam, So Hyun; Kim, Seon Jeong

2015-01-01

31

Small bowel adenocarcinoma mimicking a large adrenal tumor  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel is a rare gastrointestinal neoplasm usually affecting the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum. Because of their rarity and poorly defined abdominal symptoms, a correct diagnosis is often delayed. Case Outline. We present a 43-year-old woman admitted at the Clinic for Endocrinology due to a large tumor (over 7 cm of the left adrenal gland. The tumor was detected by ultrasound and confirmed by CT scan. The patient complained of abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant, fatigue and septic fever. Normal urinary catecholamines excluded pheochromocytoma. The endocrine evaluations revealed laboratory signs of subclinical hypercorticism: midnight cortisol 235 nmol/L, post 1 mg - overnight Dexamethasone suppression test for cortisol 95.5 nmol/L and basal ACTH 4.2 pg/mL. Plasma rennin activity and aldosterone were within the normal range. Surgery was performed. Intraoperative findings showed signs of acute peritonitis and a small ulceration of the jejunum below at 70 cm on the anal side from the Treitz’s ligament. Adrenal glands were not enlarged. Patohistology and immunochemistry identified adenocarcinoma of the jejunum without infiltration of the lymphatic nodules. The extensive jejunal resection and lavage of the peritoneum were performed. Due to complications of massive peritonitis, the patient died seven days after surgery. Conclusion. Poorly defined symptoms and a low incidence make the diagnosis of small bowel carcinoma, particularly of the jejunal region, very difficult in spite of the new endoscopic techniques.

Ivovi? Miomira

2013-01-01

32

Radiological diagnosis of large-bowel obstruction: neoplastic etiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-bowel obstruction (LBO) is a relatively common abdominal emergency. The CT exam has become the most important imaging modality for the diagnosis of LBO, following abdominal ultrasound and plain radiography. The recent multi-detector CT (MD-CT) is able to clarify the etiology of LBO and to help in deciding how to treat LBO. Therefore, it is important for the radiologists to become familiar with the imaging findings of LBO, including plain radiograph and CT, due to various causes. In this article, we have shown the characteristics of the radiological findings including plain radiograph, barium study, and CT as well as their correlations with pathologic findings of LBO. The etiology of LBO is usually divided into neoplastic diseases and nonneoplastic diseases. However, the most common cause is the neoplastic etiology. Now, we can afford the critical information concerning the level of obstruction, its cause, the viability of the involved bowel loops, and a decision-making regarding the therapy for patients with LBO, using MD-CT high technology. PMID:23109230

Hayakawa, Katsumi; Tanikake, Masato; Yoshida, Shoko; Urata, Yoji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Morimoto, Taisuke

2013-01-01

33

Evaluation of large intestinal mucosa regeneration in ulcerative colitis using linear measurements  

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Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by three phases: active, regression and remission phase. The active phase is followed by atrophy of the large intestinal mucosa. Although its evaluation is sometimes difficult, quantification of ceratin mucosal parameters can be used as an accessory method. The aim of the study was to determine the parameters of linear micrometry in order to estimate the regeneration of the large intestinal mucosa in ulcerative colitis, and to evaluate the efficiency of this method in everyday work. The measurements were performed on routine bioptic samples after qualitative histologic analysis and determination of the type and stage of the disease. The measurements were carried out to determine: the number of crypts per unit length, the height of crypt epithelium, diameter of crypts, their lumen and interstices; also, the quotient between the diameters of crypts and interstices was calculated. The analysis of the measured parameters points to presence and degree of regeneration and/or atrophy of mucosa, particularly by following the parameters of crypt epithelium. Linear measurements can be used in estimation of regeneration and atrophy of large intestinal mucosa. .

?olai Matilda

2005-01-01

34

Gallstone Ileus of the Sigmoid Colon: An Unusual Cause of Large-Bowel Obstruction  

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Full Text Available Gallstone ileus of the colon is an exceedingly rare cause of large-bowel obstruction. It is usually the result of fistula formation between the gallbladder and large bowel facilitating entry of the stone into gastrointestinal tract. Contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography is an important diagnostic aid. Surgical management is the treatment of choice to prevent the disastrous complications of large-bowel obstruction. We describe the case of a 92-year-old man who presented with symptoms and signs of large-bowel obstruction. Radiological investigation showed a large gallstone impacted in the sigmoid colon. Open enterolithotomy was undertaken relieving the obstruction and the patient made a full recovery.

Andrzej Goscimski

2010-01-01

35

Sclerosing mesenteritis: A rare case of large bowel and rectum involvement.  

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Sclerosing mesenteritis (SM) is an uncommon non-neoplastic inflammatory process in the mesentery that is seen as a pseudotumour, usually involving the small-bowel mesentery and, less commonly, the mesentery of the large bowel. The disease has two well-established histological types: the acute or sub-acute form known as mesenteric panniculitis and the chronic form known as retractile or SM. Because SM lacks special clinical manifestation and typical signs, the possibility of misdiagnosis is very high. The correct diagnosis of SM depends on pathological examination. Here in, we report a case of a 41-year-old male patient with SM of the large bowel. PMID:22980600

Naser, Mahmoud; Dabeh, Maamoun

2012-06-01

36

Broad MICA/B Expression in the Small Bowel Mucosa: A Link between Cellular Stress and Celiac Disease  

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The MICA/B genes (MHC class I chain related genes A and B) encode for non conventional class I HLA molecules which have no role in antigen presentation. MICA/B are up-regulated by different stress conditions such as heat-shock, oxidative stress, neoplasic transformation and viral infection. Particularly, MICA/B are expressed in enterocytes where they can mediate enterocyte apoptosis when recognised by the activating NKG2D receptor present on intraepithelial lymphocytes. This mechanism was suggested to play a major pathogenic role in active celiac disease (CD). Due to the importance of MICA/B in CD pathogenesis we studied their expression in duodenal tissue from CD patients. By immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we established that MICA/B was mainly intracellularly located in enterocytes. In addition, we identified MICA/B+ T cells in both the intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments. We also found MICA/B+ B cells, plasma cells and some macrophages in the lamina propria. The pattern of MICA/B staining in mucosal tissue in severe enteropathy was similar to that found in in vitro models of cellular stress. In such models, MICA/B were located in stress granules that are associated to the oxidative and ER stress response observed in active CD enteropathy. Our results suggest that expression of MICA/B in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients is linked to disregulation of mucosa homeostasis in which the stress response plays an active role. PMID:24058482

Allegretti, Yessica L.; Bondar, Constanza; Guzman, Luciana; Cueto Rua, Eduardo; Chopita, Nestor; Fuertes, Mercedes; Zwirner, Norberto W.; Chirdo, Fernando G.

2013-01-01

37

The time-course of late developing lesions in murine large bowel after /sup 137/Cs ?-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The time-course of development of sublethal lesions in mouse large bowel was assessed using a histological scoring system and autoradiography after 1 hr. labeling with /sup 3/HTdR. 22 mm of colon and rectum were irradiated with a range of single doses. Mice were sacrificed from 1 to 15 months after treatment. Acute mucosal and submucosal changes resolved by 3 months. Between 3 and 12 months the mucosa appeared normal, but a progressive sclerosis of submucosal blood vessels was seen. Normal submucosal connective tissue was replaced by dense fibrotic tissue. Late mucosal and muscularis damage at 15 months probably resulted from these submucosal lesions. Significantly elevated histological scores were not seen until 9 months after doses of 10-17 Gy. The 1 hr. labeling index (LI) was separately measured for cells in the mucosal epithelium, the submucosa, and the muscularis external. The largest changes in proliferative activity were found in the submucosa where the LI increased from 6 to 15 months, a ten-fold increase over controls. No changes in LI were seen in the muscularis but values remained slightly higher than controls in the mucosa

38

The impact of helical computed tomography on the diagnosis of unsuspected inflammatory bowel disease in the large bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are diagnoses that can be easily overlooked clinically. The aim of this study was to investigate if CT is able to make a contribution to the identification of previously unsuspected cases of IBD. We retrospectively identified cases in which the possibility of an IBD was raised in CT reports (over a 4-year period), by utilising a keyword search of the radiology database. Cases with a previously known or suspected IBD were rigorously excluded by review of case notes, and endoscopic, radiological, histological and microbiological findings. The CT images of the identified cases were reviewed by a blinded observer to document the extent of bowel wall thickening, the location of lesion(s), and presence of peri-colic fat abnormality, ascites and/or collections. The observer also attempted to corroborate the presence, and to identify the type, of IBD based on the CT appearances alone. Thirty-five cases (out of approximately 19,000 body CTs performed) of clinically unsuspected IBD were identified, of which 27 underwent further investigation. An IBD was confirmed in 48% (13 of 27): Crohn's disease (n=6), ulcerative colitis (n=2), pseudomembranous colitis (n=3) and other (n=2), of which 70% (9 of 13) were correctly typed by the reviewer. Inflammatory bowel disease was not substantiated in the remainder (14 of 27), although 7 of these had other bowel pathologies: diverticular disease (n=4); and carcinoma (n=3). Prospectively determining the prese(n=3). Prospectively determining the presence, and furthermore type, of IBD on CT is challenging largely because of the considerable overlap in the appearances of the individual IBDs and indeed of normality. Nevertheless, CT is able to identify clinically unsuspected cases and radiologists should be alert to this treatable and not infrequently elusive diagnosis. (orig.)

39

The impact of helical computed tomography on the diagnosis of unsuspected inflammatory bowel disease in the large bowel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are diagnoses that can be easily overlooked clinically. The aim of this study was to investigate if CT is able to make a contribution to the identification of previously unsuspected cases of IBD. We retrospectively identified cases in which the possibility of an IBD was raised in CT reports (over a 4-year period), by utilising a keyword search of the radiology database. Cases with a previously known or suspected IBD were rigorously excluded by review of case notes, and endoscopic, radiological, histological and microbiological findings. The CT images of the identified cases were reviewed by a blinded observer to document the extent of bowel wall thickening, the location of lesion(s), and presence of peri-colic fat abnormality, ascites and/or collections. The observer also attempted to corroborate the presence, and to identify the type, of IBD based on the CT appearances alone. Thirty-five cases (out of approximately 19,000 body CTs performed) of clinically unsuspected IBD were identified, of which 27 underwent further investigation. An IBD was confirmed in 48% (13 of 27): Crohn's disease (n=6), ulcerative colitis (n=2), pseudomembranous colitis (n=3) and other (n=2), of which 70% (9 of 13) were correctly typed by the reviewer. Inflammatory bowel disease was not substantiated in the remainder (14 of 27), although 7 of these had other bowel pathologies: diverticular disease (n=4); and carcinoma (n=3). Prospectively determining the presence, and furthermore type, of IBD on CT is challenging largely because of the considerable overlap in the appearances of the individual IBDs and indeed of normality. Nevertheless, CT is able to identify clinically unsuspected cases and radiologists should be alert to this treatable and not infrequently elusive diagnosis. (orig.)

Markose, G.; Freeman, A.H. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ng, C.S. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s NHS Trust and the University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

2003-01-01

40

[Ganglioneuromatosis with carcinoid foci in the large bowel].  

Science.gov (United States)

A rare case of a 27-year-old man who suffered from ganglioneuromatosis with five carcinoid foci arising from the colon and underwent subtotal colectomy is reported. There was no malignancy. The tumors extended to the mucosa and/or submucosa, and in most parts, tumors created polypoid lesions protruding into the intestinal lumen. In the rectum the tumors showed circumscribed extension around the wall. In the sigmoid and descending colon, polypoid lesions were seen on the side opposite from the attachment line of the mesocolon. In one of five carcinoid foci, a transitional pattern between carcinoid and neuroma was investigated. PMID:4032775

Uehara, T; Matsubara, O; Kasuga, T; Kamiyama, R; Imashiro, M; Utsunomiya, J

1985-07-01

41

RNA sequencing shows transcriptomic changes in rectosigmoid mucosa in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea: a pilot case-control study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to conduct a pilot case-control study of RNA expression profile using RNA sequencing of rectosigmoid mucosa of nine females with -diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) with accelerated colonic transit and nine female healthy controls. Mucosal total RNA was isolated and purified, and next-generation pair-end sequencing was performed using Illumina TruSeq. Analysis was carried out using a targeted approach toward 12 genes previously associated with IBS and a hypothesis-generating approach. Of the 12 targeted genes tested, patients with IBS-D had decreased mRNA expression of TNFSF15 (fold change controls to IBS-D: 1.53, P = 0.01). Overall, up- and downregulated mRNA expressions of 21 genes (P = 10(-5) to 10(-8); P values with false detection rates are shown) were potentially relevant to IBS-D including the following: neurotransmitters [P2RY4 (P = 0.001), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, P = 0.02)]; cytokines [CCL20 (P = 0.019)]; immune function [C4BPA complement cascade (P = 0.0187)]; interferon-related [IFIT3 (P = 0.016)]; mucosal repair and cell adhesion [trefoil protein (TFF1, P = 0.012)], retinol binding protein [RBP2 (P = 0.017)]; fibronectin (FN1, P = 0.009); and ion channel functions [guanylate cyclase (GUCA2B, P = 0.017), PDZ domain-containing protein 3 (PDZD3, P = 0.029)]. Ten genes associated with functions related to pathobiology of IBS-D were validated by RT-PCR. There was significant correlation in fold changes of the selected genes (Rs = 0.73, P = 0.013). Up- or downregulation of P2RY4, GUC2AB, RBP2, FNI, and C4BPA genes were confirmed on RT-PCR, which also revealed upregulation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter (IBAT/ASBT). RNA-Seq and RT-PCR analysis of rectosigmoid mucosa in IBS-D show transcriptome changes that provide the rationale for validation studies to explore the role of mucosal factors in the pathobiology of IBS-D. PMID:24763552

Camilleri, Michael; Carlson, Paula; Acosta, Andres; Busciglio, Irene; Nair, Asha A; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico; Klee, Eric W

2014-06-15

42

FOLLOW UP IN LARGE BOWEL RESECTIONS: WERNICKE-KORSAKOFF’S SYNDROME  

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Full Text Available Introduction. The main complication of large bowel resection is the malabsorption syndrome, a rare form of which is the syndrome of Wernicke-Korsakoff. Patients and Methods. B.E. following gastro-entero anastomosis develops Syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff characterized by progressive state of disorientation, fixity of gaze, dysphoria. Results. Syndrome Wernicke-Korsacoff is linked to a deficiency of thiamin (also known as vitamin B1. Conclusions. In the follow up of patients who underwent a large bowel resection will be important to carry out systematic blood tests that can detect any frameworks-megaloblastic anemia macrocytosis deficiency vit. B12, iron deficiency, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalcemia, ipodisprotidemy. In the follow up of patients who underwent a large bowel resection will be important to carry out systematic blood tests that can detect any frameworks-megaloblastic anemia macrocytosis deficiency vit. B12, iron deficiency, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalcemia,ipodisprotidemy.

G. Marzocca

2009-11-01

43

Biology of large bowel cancer. Present status and research frontiers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Man and laboratory rodents exposed to chemical carcinogens both show changes in growth characteristics of colonic epithelial cells during neoplastic transformation. Progressive phases of abnormal cell development appear in colonic epithelial cells which gain an increased ability to proliferate and accumulate in the mucosa. These phases in the expression of neoplastic transformation of colonic cells are best defined in the dominant inherited disease of man as adenomatosis of the colon and rectum. Individuals with inherited adenomatosis and those in lesser risk categories can be classified by cell phenotype based on changes in the proliferation and maturation of colonic and other cells. These classifications are leading to new predictive indices which identify heightened degrees of susceptibility of individuals who are at increased risk for colon cancer, and the stage of development of their disease. The indices also are being used to study the contribution of specific elements in the enviroment that modify or accelerate the progression of disease. PMID:2379

Lipkin, M

1975-12-01

44

Small and large bowel volvulus: Clues to early recognition and complications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small and large bowel volvulus are uncommon causes of bowel obstruction with nonspecific clinical manifestations which may delay the diagnosis and increase morbidity. Therefore, radiologists play an important role in promptly establishing the diagnosis, recognizing underlying congenital or acquired risk factors and detecting potentially life-threatening complications. Multidetector CT performed with intravenous contrast is currently the preferred modality for the evaluation of volvulus, which is best appreciated when imaging is perpendicular to the axis of bowel rotation, hence the benefit of multiplanar reformations. In this pictorial essay we review the pathophysiology of the different types of intestinal volvulus, discuss diagnostic criteria for prompt diagnosis of volvulus and emphasize early recognition of the complications.

45

Small and large bowel volvulus: Clues to early recognition and complications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small and large bowel volvulus are uncommon causes of bowel obstruction with nonspecific clinical manifestations which may delay the diagnosis and increase morbidity. Therefore, radiologists play an important role in promptly establishing the diagnosis, recognizing underlying congenital or acquired risk factors and detecting potentially life-threatening complications. Multidetector CT performed with intravenous contrast is currently the preferred modality for the evaluation of volvulus, which is best appreciated when imaging is perpendicular to the axis of bowel rotation, hence the benefit of multiplanar reformations. In this pictorial essay we review the pathophysiology of the different types of intestinal volvulus, discuss diagnostic criteria for prompt diagnosis of volvulus and emphasize early recognition of the complications.

Lepage-Saucier, Marianne [Departement de radiologie, Hopital Saint-Luc, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), 1058 rue Saint-Denis, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 3J4 (Canada); Tang, An [Departement de radiologie, Hopital Saint-Luc, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), 1058 rue Saint-Denis, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 3J4 (Canada)], E-mail: duotango@gmail.com; Billiard, Jean-Sebastien; Murphy-Lavallee, Jessica; Lepanto, Luigi [Departement de radiologie, Hopital Saint-Luc, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), 1058 rue Saint-Denis, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 3J4 (Canada)

2010-04-15

46

MRI for chronic inflammatory bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is diagnosed and monitored by the combination of colonoscopy and small bowel enteroklysis. Magnetic resonance imaging has become the gold standard for the imaging of perirectal and pelvic fistulas. With the advent of ultrafast MRI small and large bowel imaging has become highly attractive and is being advocated more and more in the diagnostic work up of inflammatory bowel disease. Imaging protocols include fast T1-weighted gradient echo and T2-weighted TSE sequences and oral or rectal bowel distension. Furthermore, dedicated imaging protocols are based on breath-hold imaging under pharmacological bowel paralysis and gastrointestinal MR contrast agents (Hydro-MRI). High diagnostic accuracy can be achieved in Crohn's disease with special reference to the pattern of disease, depth of inflammation, mesenteric reaction, sinus tract depiction and formation of abscess. In ulcerative colitis, the mucosa-related inflammation causes significantly less bowel wall thickening compared to Crohn's disease. Therefore with MRI, the extent of inflammatory changes is always underestimated compared to colonoscopy. According to our experience in more than 200 patients as well as the results in other centers, Hydro-MRI possesses the potential to replace enteroklysis in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease and most of the follow-up colonoscopies in Crohn's disease. Further technical improvements in 3D imaging will allowical improvements in 3D imaging will allow interactive postprocessing of the MR data. (orig.)

47

Imbalanced shift of cytokine expression between T helper 1 and T helper 2 (Th1/Th2 in intestinal mucosa of patients with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common functional bowel disorder. The post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS occurs in IBS patients with a history of intestinal infection preceding the onset of symptoms. However, the underlying cause of PI-IBS is not fully understood, and the purpose of this study was to investigate the immune regulatory mechanism of PI-IBS. Methods Participants enrolled in this study were divided into three groups including PI-IBS patients (n?=?20, IBS patients without a history of infection (non-PI-IBS, n?=?18, and healthy controls (n?=?20. The expression levels of the Th1-derived cytokines IFN-? and IL-12, and the Th2-derived cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in the mucosal specimens, and in the ascending colon, the descending colon, and the rectal segments were measured by RT-PCR and western blot. Results The IFN-? mRNA levels in the intestinal mucosa were significantly higher in the PI-IBS group than in the non-PI-IBS or control group (both P? Conclusions An increase in IFN-? levels and a decrease in IL-10 levels were found in the intestinal mucosa of PI-IBS patients, suggesting that the infection may affect the Th1/Th2 balance. Thus, the dysregulation of the immune response is likely an important cause of IBS.

Chen Ji

2012-07-01

48

Management of acute large bowel obstruction due to colorectal cancer: Diversion colostomy versus stent placement  

OpenAIRE

Background and Aim: Colonic stenting is a novel and privileged therapeutic option for malignant obstructions of the large bowel, especially as a bridging procedure to elective surgery. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the efficacy of the traditional surgical approach with stent placement in the management of obstructing colorectal tumours. Patients and Methods: Thirty-three patients with malignant colonic obstruction were retrospectively studied. Of them, 17 underwent a dive...

Fotiadis, C.; Givry, A.; Baque, P.; Jl, Bernard; Rahili, A.; Pilichos, C.; Benchimol, D.; Bourgeon, A.

2007-01-01

49

Multidetector Computed Tomography in Large Bowel Lesions—A Study of 100 Cases  

OpenAIRE

This study aims to evaluate the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in detecting and classifying the large bowel lesions. A prospective study of 100 adult patients was conducted from June 2007 to October 2009. Rectal and IV contrast were used for three dimensional reconstruction. Angiography was performed in cases of suspected ischemic pathology. CT colongraphy was done to evaluate adenomas. CT findings were correlated and confirmed by either colonoscopy, biopsy, postoperative fi...

Bhatt, Chhaya Jagat; Patel, Love N.; Baraiya, Mihir; Patel, Kalpesh K.; Vaishnav, Kavita U.; Shah, Dharita S.

2011-01-01

50

Colonization of the large bowel by Clostridium difficile in healthy infants: quantitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colonization of the large bowel of healthy infants by Clostridium difficile was studied. Feces were collected from five breast-fed aand five formula-fed infants throughout the first year of life, and levels of C. difficile were quantitated. Three breast-fed and five formula-fed infants were colonized for periods of between 8 and 42 weeks, and another infant harbored the organism only during week 1. Colonization of breast-fed infants commenced before or during weaning, with levels reaching 10(3) to 10(5) organisms per g of wet feces. Colonization of formula-fed infants commenced before solid foods were given, with levels of 10(3) to 10(7) organisms per g of wet feces. Isolates from eight of the babies were shown to produce cytotoxin in vitro. Single fecal specimens from 60 more children aged up to 4 years were also examined, and it was found that the carriage rate of C. difficile fell sharply after 1 year of age, although in the second year it was still higher than in adults. These findings are discussed in relation to the microbial ecology of the large bowel and the paradox that levels of C. difficile in the large bowel of healthy infants are similar to those causing pseudomembranous colitis in patients. PMID:7068220

Stark, P L; Lee, A; Parsonage, B D

1982-01-01

51

The use of computed tomography in the detection and characterisation of large bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computed tomography (CT) has become the imaging modality of choice for the investigation of patients with clinico-radiological suspicion of obstruction. Appropriate CT technique is discussed, with recommendations on how to improve diagnostic confidence and to reduce radiation dose. The performance of CT in the investigation of LBO is compared to that of the plain abdominal radiograph and contrast enema. CT is unrivalled in its ability to detect and characterise the cause of large bowel obstruction (LBO), identify complications, and guide appropriate treatment. PMID:19966879

Godfrey, Edmund M; Addley, Helen C; Shaw, Ashley S

2009-10-30

52

Excision of a large abdominal wall lipoma improved bowel passage in a Proteus syndrome patient  

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Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder that produces multifocal overgrowth of tissue. This report presents a surgical case of a large lipoma in the abdominal wall of a patient with Proteus syndrome. She was diagnosed with Proteus syndrome based on certain diagnostic criteria. The neoplasm increased in size gradually, producing hemihypertrophy of her left lower extremity and trunk, and spread to her retroperitoneum and her left abdominal wall. She experienced gradually progressive constipation, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the left lower abdominal wall which measured 12 cm × 8 cm x 6 cm in diameter and encased the left colon. This mass in the abdominal wall was excised. The weight of the excised mass was 1550 g. The histopathological diagnosis of this mass was lipoma. After surgery, the encasement of the left colon was improved, and the patient was able to move her bowels twice per day. The excision of the large lipoma in the abdominal wall contributed to the improved bowel passage in this patient with Proteus syndrome.

Yoshifumi Nakayama, Shinichi Kusuda, Naoki Nagata, Koji Yamaguchi

2009-07-01

53

Imaging findings of midgut volvuIus associated with a large small-bowel diverticulum in an aduIt patient: case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although most patients with jejunoileal diverticulum are asymptomatic, a large, small-bowel diverticulum can be associated with midgut volvulus in an adult. We present a rare case of midgut volvulus that was associated with a large, small-bowel diverticulum in a 77-year-old woman presenting with chronic recurrent abdominal pain. The CT showed the characteristic whirl sign of twisted mesentery, the small bowel loops along the superior mesenteric artery and a large sac-like small-bowel diverticulum. A small bowel series also demonstrated a corkscrew appearance of proximal jejunum, a finding suggestive of midgut volvulus, and a large jejunal diverticulum. During the laparotomy, the small bowel was seen twisted counterclockwise 270 .deg.. The mesenteric root was very shortened. A 4 cm sized diverticulum was seen on the mesenteric border of jejunum, on the portion about 40 cm distal from the Treitz ligament.

Kim, Jee Young; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Bo, Seal Hwang; Byun, Jae Young [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2004-05-01

54

Imaging findings of midgut volvuIus associated with a large small-bowel diverticulum in an aduIt patient: case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although most patients with jejunoileal diverticulum are asymptomatic, a large, small-bowel diverticulum can be associated with midgut volvulus in an adult. We present a rare case of midgut volvulus that was associated with a large, small-bowel diverticulum in a 77-year-old woman presenting with chronic recurrent abdominal pain. The CT showed the characteristic whirl sign of twisted mesentery, the small bowel loops along the superior mesenteric artery and a large sac-like small-bowel diverticulum. A small bowel series also demonstrated a corkscrew appearance of proximal jejunum, a finding suggestive of midgut volvulus, and a large jejunal diverticulum. During the laparotomy, the small bowel was seen twisted counterclockwise 270 .deg.. The mesenteric root was very shortened. A 4 cm sized diverticulum was seen on the mesenteric border of jejunum, on the portion about 40 cm distal from the Treitz ligament

55

Weekly large fraction radiotherapy and 5 fluorouracil as a palliative treatment for large bowel carcinoma: a pilot study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palliative radiotherapy for large bowel cancer is generally given in fraction sizes of 2-3 Gy. Theoretical considerations led us to believe that a larger fraction size would not lead to a decreased response rate and practical considerations led us to treat patients once a week. The results of a pilot study of 32 patients with large bowel cancer are presented. Patients were treated with a fraction size of 6 Gy given weekly and combined with 5 FU. The response rate of 58% and the median survival of 9 months seems comparable with other regimens, as does the rate of acute side effects. The late high dose effect of subcutaneous fibrosis was seen in 30% of the long term survivors; the implications of this are discussed. We draw the conclusion that this treatment is convenient and effective in terms of tumor response, but that the late high dose effects were more severe than expected and that these effects may be potentiated by 5 FU.

Habeshaw, T. (Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland); Adam, J.S.; Kirk, J.

1982-07-01

56

Ileal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma with a Large-Cell Component That Regressed Spontaneously  

OpenAIRE

Reported herein is a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the terminal ileum with a large-cell component, which regressed spontaneously. To the best of our knowledge, only five cases of spontaneously regressing MALT lymphoma have been reported in the English-language literature, and all of these cases were low-grade lymphomas. Spontaneous regression of a MALT lymphoma with a high-grade component is very rare. The present case suggests that MALT lymphoma cells have a re...

Makino, Yohsuke; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Kameyama, Kaori; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Makio; Hibi, Toshifumi

2010-01-01

57

The effect of irradiated volume on the chronic radiation damage of the rat large bowel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dependence of the structural and the functional chronic radiation damage in the large bowel of rats was investigated in order to develop criteria for optimising treatment plans. Rats were locally irradiated to different volumes of their rectum. The resulting chronic damage was determined by clinical observation, by rectoscopy and by histopathology. The structural damage as well as the functional damage depend very much on the dose distribution in the llarge bowel, however, this influence is different for structural and for functional damage expression. Much less field size effect was seen for the structural damage of ulceration than for the functional damage of rectal obstruction when the length of whole circumference irradiation was reduced or when only half of the circumference was irradiated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Strukturelle und funktionelle chronische Strahlenschaeden des Rektums der Ratte nach Bestrahlung unterschiedlicher Volumina und Anteile des Rektums wurden untersucht, um Kriterien fuer die Optimierung von Bestrahlungsplaenen zu entwickeln. Unterschiedliche Volumina des Rattenrektums wurden lokal bestrahlt. Der resultierende chronische Schaden wurde durch klinische Beobachtung, Rektoskopie und Histopathologie untersucht. Sowohl strukturelle als auch funktionelle chronische Strahlenschaeden haengen stark vom bestrahlten Volumen ab, fuer beide Kriterien bestehen aber grosse Unterschiede im Volumeneffekt. Der Volumeneffekt ist fuer das rektoskopisch diagnostizierte Strahlenulkus wesentlich geringer als fuer den klinisch diagnostizierten Befund eines Ileus, wenn die Feldlaenge bei Bestrahlung der gesamten Darmzirkumferenz reduziert wird oder wenn nur die Darmhinterwand bestrahlt wird. (orig.)

Trott, K.R. [St. Bartholomew`s Hospital, Medical Coll., Dept. of Radiation Biology, London (United Kingdom); Tamuo, S. [St. Bartholomew`s Hospital, Medical Coll., Dept. of Radiation Biology, London (United Kingdom); Sassy, T. [GSF, Neuherberg (Germany). Zentrales Laser Lab.; Kiszel, Z. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie

1995-06-01

58

Cirugía de colon abierta con "Fast Track" o recuperación acelerada "Fast Track" large bowel surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La Cirugía resectiva de colon se asocia a una hospitalización de 6 a 10 días. En el último tiempo se ha desarrollado el concepto de rehabilitación multimodal o "Fast track" que involucra una combinación de técnicas que llevan a reducir la respuesta al stress quirúrgico, optimizar la recuperación y reducir los días de hospitalización. Objetivo: Evaluar el postoperatorio de pacientes sometidos a cirugía electiva de colon y recto superior utilizando un protocolo de "Fast track". Material y Método: Ingresaron a un protocolo prospectivo de recuperación acelerada, todos los enfermos sometidos a cirugía electiva de colon y recto superior en el Hospital Militar de Santiago en el período comprendido entre Agosto 2004 a Noviembre 2005. Se evalúa íleo postoperatorio, días de hospitalización, complicaciones postoperatorias y satisfacción de pacientes. Resultados: Ingresaron 40 pacientes consecutivos, 19 hombres (48% y 21 mujeres (52%. La edad promedio fue 66 años (39-87, 24 pacientes (60% eran ASA II y 38% ASA I. El 97,5% expulsó gases en las primeras 48 h. La primera defecación ocurrió dentro de las primeras 48 h en el 47,5% de los pacientes y en el 37,5% a las 72 h. El 78% de los paciente fueron dados de alta al 4° día. La escala visual análoga (EVA para dolor a las 24 h era Introduction: Large Bowel resective surgery requires 6 to 10 days in-hospital stay. Recently the multimodality rehabilitation concept or "fast track" surgery, a combination of different techniques in order to reduce surgical stress, increase recuperation and decrease in-hospital stay, has become an option. Objective: Evaluate postoperative evolution of patients submitted for elective large bowel and rectum resection using "Fast Track" protocol. Material and Method: Prospective Fast track protocol includes all patients submitted for elective large bowel and rectum resection in Military Hospital of Santiago during August 2004 to November 2005. Outcomes concerning postoperative ileus, in-hospital stay, complications and patient satisfaction were recorded. Results: 40 patients, 19 male (48% and 21 female (52% consecutive patients were included. Average age 66 years (39-87, 24 patients (60% were classified ASA II and 38% ASA I. During the first 48 hrs 97.5% had anal flatulence. First defecation occurred before 48 hrs in 47.5% and in 37.5% at 72 hrs. Hospital discharge at 4*11 day was possible in 78%. Pain visual analogical scale at 24 hrs was less than 2 in 95%. Satisfaction rate was very good in 70%. Morbidity was 18% without mortality. Anastomotic dehiscence was 2.5%. Conclusions: Fast Track protocol reduces in- hospital stay, pain and postoperative ileus.

LEONARDO ESPÍNDOLA S

2009-04-01

59

Management of Perforated Essure with Migration into Small and Large Bowel Mesentery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Essure permanent birth control system (Conceptus Inc, San Carlos, CA) is currently the only Food and Drug Administration-approved hysteroscopic sterilization method and has been widely accepted as a safe and effective procedure. We present a rare case of tubal perforation, coil fragmentation, and distal migration into small and large bowel mesentery 8 days after the insertion of the Essure device. We describe the successful management of this complication using laparoscopy and intraoperative fluoroscopy. Providers using Essure must be aware of the possibility of fragmentation of the Essure coils. Intraoperative imaging, ideally fluoroscopy, should be strongly considered in the management of Essure migration to ensure localization and full retrieval of Essure material. PMID:25460518

Braginsky, Lena; George, Sean T; Locher, Stephen R

2015-01-01

60

Development of a cancer of the large bowel following radiotherapy for cancer of the uterine cervix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight patients with a colorectal cancer, following radiotherapy for a cervical cancer have been analyzed. A total of 9 lesions in the large bowel were found. Four were located in the rectum. The average interval between radiation and the diagnosis of a second tumor was 9 years and 6 months. Four patients had had a post-irradiation interval of more than 10 years. In 7 resected specimens, histologic alterations were seen, such as atrophy or the erosion of the mucosal layer around the tumor. Radiotherapy may have contributed to the development of the colorectal cancer in some of these patients. Thus, attention should be paid to monitoring patients who have received radiotherapy for a cervical cancer, since the development of a colorectal cancer after pelvic radiotherapy may occur. (author)

61

High-throughput clone library analysis of the mucosa-associated microbiota reveals dysbiosis and differences between inflamed and non-inflamed regions of the intestine in inflammatory bowel disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut microbiota is thought to play a key role in the development of the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. Shifts in the composition of resident bacteria have been postulated to drive the chronic inflammation seen in both diseases (the "dysbiosis" hypothesis. We therefore specifically sought to compare the mucosa-associated microbiota from both inflamed and non-inflamed sites of the colon in CD and UC patients to that from non-IBD controls and to detect disease-specific profiles. Results Paired mucosal biopsies of inflamed and non-inflamed intestinal tissue from 6 CD (n = 12 and 6 UC (n = 12 patients were compared to biopsies from 5 healthy controls (n = 5 by in-depth sequencing of over 10,000 near full-length bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The results indicate that mucosal microbial diversity is reduced in IBD, particularly in CD, and that the species composition is disturbed. Firmicutes were reduced in IBD samples and there were concurrent increases in Bacteroidetes, and in CD only, Enterobacteriaceae. There were also significant differences in microbial community structure between inflamed and non-inflamed mucosal sites. However, these differences varied greatly between individuals, meaning there was no obvious bacterial signature that was positively associated with the inflamed gut. Conclusions These results may support the hypothesis that the overall dysbiosis observed in inflammatory bowel disease patients relative to non-IBD controls might to some extent be a result of the disturbed gut environment rather than the direct cause of disease. Nonetheless, the observed shifts in microbiota composition may be important factors in disease maintenance and severity.

Parkhill Julian

2011-01-01

62

Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A high dietary intake of n-6 compared to n-3 fatty acids (FAs may promote the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. In two recent studies, short-term (10-day duodenal administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich seal oil ameliorated joint pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Using unpublished data from these two studies we here investigated whether normalisation of the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood and tissues by seal oil administration was associated with improved health related quality of life (HRQOL as assessed by the generic short-form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Results In the first pilot study, baseline n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosal biopsies from 10 patients with IBD (9 of those had joint pain was significantly increased compared with that in 10 control patients without IBD or joint pain. Following seal oil administration, the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio of the IBD-patients was significantly lowered to the level seen in untreated controls. In the subsequent, randomized controlled study (n = 19, seal oil administration reduced the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood similarly and also the SF-36 assessed bodily pain, while n-6 FA rich soy oil administration had no such effect. Conclusion In these two separate studies, short-term duodenal administration of seal oil normalised the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and improved the bodily pain dimension of HRQOL of patients with IBD-related joint pain. The possibility of a causal relationship between n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and bodily pain in IBD-patients warrants further investigations.

Lind Ragna

2006-03-01

63

Management of acute large bowel obstruction due to colorectal cancer: Diversion colostomy versus stent placement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Colonic stenting is a novel and privileged therapeutic option for malignant obstructions of the large bowel, especially as a bridging procedure to elective surgery. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the efficacy of the traditional surgical approach with stent placement in the management of obstructing colorectal tumours. Patients and Methods: Thirty-three patients with malignant colonic obstruction were retrospectively studied. Of them, 17 underwent a diversion colostomy (group I, while 16 were treated with SEMS (group II. Early outcome, late outcome and duration of hospitalisation were evaluated. For statistical analysis chi-square and Student.s t-test were used (statistical significance level P<0.05. Results: One death in each group occurred within the first 3 days following colonic decompression. One case of pulmonary embolism (group I and one case of asymptomatic colonic perforation (group II were the only early morbid situations complicating decompressing interventions. Elective surgery was finally performed on 10 patients in group I and in 9 patients in group II. One case of early local recurrence after tumor resection was observed in the stenting group. The cumulated mortality rate was estimated at 6.9% and 9.1 % and cumulated morbidity rate at 20.7% and 9.1% for the two groups respectively. The mean time of hospitalization was significantly longer in the colostomy group. Conclusions: SEMS are effective for the temporary treatment of malignant occlusions of the large bowel and particularly advantageous not only because of their technical simplicity but also good tolerance and quality of life which they offer epecially in cases of locally or distally extended disease.

C. Fotiadis

2007-03-01

64

[Is anti-helicobacter therapy a rational approach in treatment of erosive and ulcerous lesions of the gastroduodenal mucosa in patients with inflamatory bowel diseases?].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study revealed changes in the oesophagogastroduodenal mucosa in 110 patients with IBD; in 60.9% of cases these changes were associated with Helicobacter pylori. 35 patients with IBD were examined to form two groups. The first group (20 patients) received rabeprazol (pariet) in a dose of 20 mg per day; the rest 15 patients were administered 120 mg of de-nol four times a day; amoxicicline and furazolidon were used as additional therapy in cases with Helicobacter pylori. The study showed that successful eradication did not always result in erosion epithelization but, on the contrary, only 40% cases of clinical and endoscopic remission were associated with Helicobacter pylori elimination. These data suggest that anti-helicobacter therapy is not a rational approach in treatment of this category of patients. PMID:15759491

Maev, I V; Gadzhieva, M G

2005-01-01

65

Accumulation of immunoglobulin-containing cells in the gut mucosa and presence of faecal immunoglobulin in severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice with T cell-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scid mice transplanted either with a gut wall graft or with low numbers of purified CD4+ T cells from immunocompetent syngeneic donor mice show clinical signs of IBD 3-4 months post-transplantation. The disease is mediated by mucosa-infiltrating CD4+ TCR alphabeta+ T cells. The pathology of 52 individual colon segments obtained from 20 gut wall- or CD4+ T cell-transplanted diseased scid mice was evaluated by histology and the numbers of infiltrating immunoglobulin-containing cells were determined. In particular, cells positive for IgM, IgA and non-inflammatory immunoglobulin isotypes such as IgG1 and IgG2b were found to accumulate in colon segments displaying the most severe histopathology, including inflammatory cellular infiltration, epithelial hyperplasia and ulcerative lesions. Compared with colon segments of normal C.B-17 mice, the lesional scid colon shows increased levels of cells positive for the IgG classes. Faecal extracts of the CD4+ T cell-transplanted scid mice revealed the presence of all six murine immunoglobulin isotypes. Disease progression was accompanied by an increased level of excreted IgM and IgG3 and decreased levels of IgA. It is concluded that locally secreted immunoglobulins may play an immunomodulating role in the pathological changes observed in the present model of T cell-induced inflammatory bowel disease.

Bregenholt, S; Brimnes, J

1998-01-01

66

Cirugía de colon abierta con "Fast Track" o recuperación acelerada / "Fast Track" large bowel surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La Cirugía resectiva de colon se asocia a una hospitalización de 6 a 10 días. En el último tiempo se ha desarrollado el concepto de rehabilitación multimodal o "Fast track" que involucra una combinación de técnicas que llevan a reducir la respuesta al stress quirúrgico, optimizar la re [...] cuperación y reducir los días de hospitalización. Objetivo: Evaluar el postoperatorio de pacientes sometidos a cirugía electiva de colon y recto superior utilizando un protocolo de "Fast track". Material y Método: Ingresaron a un protocolo prospectivo de recuperación acelerada, todos los enfermos sometidos a cirugía electiva de colon y recto superior en el Hospital Militar de Santiago en el período comprendido entre Agosto 2004 a Noviembre 2005. Se evalúa íleo postoperatorio, días de hospitalización, complicaciones postoperatorias y satisfacción de pacientes. Resultados: Ingresaron 40 pacientes consecutivos, 19 hombres (48%) y 21 mujeres (52%). La edad promedio fue 66 años (39-87), 24 pacientes (60%) eran ASA II y 38% ASA I. El 97,5% expulsó gases en las primeras 48 h. La primera defecación ocurrió dentro de las primeras 48 h en el 47,5% de los pacientes y en el 37,5% a las 72 h. El 78% de los paciente fueron dados de alta al 4° día. La escala visual análoga (EVA) para dolor a las 24 h era Abstract in english Introduction: Large Bowel resective surgery requires 6 to 10 days in-hospital stay. Recently the multimodality rehabilitation concept or "fast track" surgery, a combination of different techniques in order to reduce surgical stress, increase recuperation and decrease in-hospital stay, has become an [...] option. Objective: Evaluate postoperative evolution of patients submitted for elective large bowel and rectum resection using "Fast Track" protocol. Material and Method: Prospective Fast track protocol includes all patients submitted for elective large bowel and rectum resection in Military Hospital of Santiago during August 2004 to November 2005. Outcomes concerning postoperative ileus, in-hospital stay, complications and patient satisfaction were recorded. Results: 40 patients, 19 male (48%) and 21 female (52%) consecutive patients were included. Average age 66 years (39-87), 24 patients (60%) were classified ASA II and 38% ASA I. During the first 48 hrs 97.5% had anal flatulence. First defecation occurred before 48 hrs in 47.5% and in 37.5% at 72 hrs. Hospital discharge at 4*11 day was possible in 78%. Pain visual analogical scale at 24 hrs was less than 2 in 95%. Satisfaction rate was very good in 70%. Morbidity was 18% without mortality. Anastomotic dehiscence was 2.5%. Conclusions: Fast Track protocol reduces in- hospital stay, pain and postoperative ileus.

LEONARDO, ESPÍNDOLA S.

2009-04-01

67

Multidetector row computed tomography findings from ischemia to infarction of the large bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: MDCT is performed as first imaging examination for patients with acute abdomen in most Emergency Departments. Clinical suspicion of ischemic colitis and infarction is related to specific findings, however, differential diagnosis as well as the staging for a confirmed ischemic affection may be critical. The individual signs from ischemia to infarction of large bowel is a captivating topic. In this study, we report our experience of the MDCT assessment of acute colonic disease from vascular mesenteric disorders. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the MDCT findings of 71 patients admitted to our attention for acute abdomen, with final proven diagnosis of colonic ischemia and/or infarction made by surgery and/or endoscopy. CT-scanning of the abdomen and pelvis was performed after i.v. contrast medium administration, using a multidetector row CT equipment. We correlated the presence of parietal disease, the evidence of mesenteric arterial or venous vessels occlusion, the parietal features as well as others findings, such as free fluid and/or air in peritoneal recess or in retroperitoneum, with the surgical and/or endoscopic findings. Results: Analysis of our data showed a segmental (84%) or complete (16%) involvement of the colon; 57 cases were related to ischemia, 14 to infarction. Inferior mesenteric vessels defect of opacification was noted in 10 cases. Various degree of wall thickening and parietal enhancement, peritoneal fluid, mural or porthancement, peritoneal fluid, mural or portal-mesenteric pneumatosis were compared to evidence of mesenteric arterial or vein occlusion and to final proven diagnosis. A classification in a multi-stage grading for both decreased of arterial supply or impaired venous drainage disorders was done. Conclusions: A grading scale from ischemia to infarction affecting the large bowel from arterial or venous mesenteric vessels origin has been not previously reported in a series at our knowledge. MDCT findings may support the clinical evaluation of patients affected by acute colon from vascular disorders. In particular, it seems to provide effective and valuable information's in differentiating etiology and stage of disease

68

Cistadenoma mucinoso del apéndice cecal como causa de gangrena intestinal / Appendiceal mucocele causing large bowel gangrene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Los tumores del Apéndice Cecal corresponden al 0,5% de las neoplasias gastrointestinales y se encuentran entre el 0,8% y el 1% de las apendicectomías. El término Mucocele Apendicular (AM), se refiere a un grupo de lesiones localizados a nivel del ciego cuyo rango de incidencia está ent [...] re el 0,2% y el 0,3% de todas las apendicectomías, y entre el 8-10% de todos los tumores apendiculares. Las presentaciones clínicas más frecuentes son: cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda, como hallazgo incidental como en el caso de esta paciente, o como masa abdominal en fosa ilíaca derecha. Caso clínico: Se presenta un caso de Cistade-noma Mucinoso Apendicular (CAM) encontrado como hallazgo incidental en un abdomen agudo quirúrgico con la particularidad de presentarse con una necrosis intestinal. Abstract in english Introduction: Appendiceal mucocele are lesions located in the cecum, which are found in 0.2 to 0.3% of appendectomies and correspond to 8-10% of all appendiceal tumors. Clinical case: We report a 83 years old female consulting for abdominal pain lasting 24 hours. On physical examination, signs of pe [...] ritoneal irritation were found. The patient was operated, finding an appendiceal tumor that was coiled up in the mesentery with large bowel gangrene. An intestinal resection, terminal ileostomy, appendectomy and surgical lavage were performed. The pathological study of the surgical piece reported a mucinous cystadenoma.

Humberto, Osnaya M; Tahitiana Abelina, Zaragoza S; Marco Antonio, Mondragón C.

2013-02-01

69

Cellobiose: mannitol differential permeability in small bowel disease.  

OpenAIRE

Cellobiose and mannitol absorption were studied in patients with suspected abnormal function of the small bowel mucosa. The urinary cellobiose:mannitol ratio was increased in subtotal villous atrophy, iron deficiency anaemia, and small intestinal Crohn's disease. The test seems a sensitive indicator of the integrity of small bowel mucosa.

Hodges, S.; Ashmore, S. P.; Patel, H. R.; Tanner, M. S.

1989-01-01

70

Volvulus: Small Bowel and Colon  

OpenAIRE

Volvulus of the intestine is a surgical emergency. Volvulus of the small bowel is more common in children and is most often secondary to malrotation. Small bowel volvulus is an uncommon cause for small bowel obstruction in adults, and is more likely to be secondary to postoperative adhesive bands. Colonic volvulus is a rare cause of large bowel obstruction, but more common than small bowel volvulus. The sigmoid is most frequently involved, with redundant colon as the primary cause. Cecal volv...

Valsdottir, Elsa; Marks, John H.

2008-01-01

71

Management of Recurrent Large Bowel Obstruction Due to Stent Occlusion by ‘Stent-Over-Stent’: A Case Report and Literature Review  

OpenAIRE

Endoscopic stenting for malignant large bowel obstruction is common nowadays. However, recurrent obstruction secondary to stent occlusion due to tumour ingrowth or overgrowth might occur. We reported a case of a 70-year-old man with large bowel obstruction initially treated with colonic stenting. It was complicated with recurrent intestinal obstruction, with colonoscopy showing stent blockage by tumour ingrowth over distal part of the stent. Successful endoscopic implantation of additional co...

Yi-po Tsang, D.; Hester Yui-Shan Cheung; Cliff Chi-Chiu Chung; Michael Ka-Wah Li

2011-01-01

72

Viabilidade celular da mucosa do intestino delgado de ratos, após correção de choque hipovolêmico com solução de NaCl 7,5% / Celular viability of rat small bowel mucosa, after hypovolemic shock correction with NaCl 7,5% solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da correção volêmica com diferentes tipos de solução, na mucosa do intestino delgado de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 120 ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus), machos, adultos, com peso individual entre 310 e 410g, oriundos do Instituto Evandro Chagas de Belém do Pa [...] rá, submetidos a período de adaptação por 15 dias, recebendo água e ração ad libitum, durante todo o experimento. Os animais foram distribuídos em: Grupo Padrão (P), Grupo Choque (C), Grupo Solução Fisiológica (SF) e Grupo Solução Hipertônica (SH), com 30 animais cada. Estes foram divididos em subgrupos com 10 animais cada, de acordo com o dia de pós-operatório (DPO) previsto para a eutanásia dos animais, (1º, 3º ou 7º DPO), sendo após esta, colhido material para realização de teste de absorvância pelo MTT em todos os animais. RESULTADOS: O grupo SF apresentou menores índices de viabilidade celular comparado aos grupos SH e C (p Abstract in english PURPOSE: Study the effect of the volemic correction with different solutions, in the mucous of the small bowel in rats. METHODS: Were used 120 rats Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus), males, adults, seemingly healthy, with individual weight varying between 310 and 410g, originating from of the Insti [...] tuto Evandro Chagas of Belém of Pará, submitted to an adaptation period of 15 days, receiving water and ration ad libitum, during the role experiment. For the research, ten animals were distributed, in groups and subgroups as following: Standard group (S), Shock group (Sh), Physiological Solution group (PS) and Hypertonic Solution Group (HS). The groups were divided in subgroups with 10 animals each, in agreement with the day of postoperative (DPO) foreseen for the euthanasis of the animals, (1st, 3rd or 7th DPO), being after this, picked material for cellular viability in every animals. RESULTS: The group PS took less quantity viable cells. CONCLUSION: The volemic correction with chloride of sodium solution at 7.5%, when compared the correction with chloride of sodium at 0.9% (isotonic solution), took the maintenance of larger amount of viable cells, in the small bowel in rats.

Marcus Vinicius Henriques, Brito; Amaury José Texeira, Nigro; Edna Frasson de Souza, Montero; José Luiz Martins do, Nascimento; Paula Roberta Ferreira da, Silva; Roberta Bianca Peres, Siqueira.

2003-08-01

73

Viabilidade celular da mucosa do intestino delgado de ratos, após correção de choque hipovolêmico com solução de NaCl 7,5% Celular viability of rat small bowel mucosa, after hypovolemic shock correction with NaCl 7,5% solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da correção volêmica com diferentes tipos de solução, na mucosa do intestino delgado de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 120 ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus, machos, adultos, com peso individual entre 310 e 410g, oriundos do Instituto Evandro Chagas de Belém do Pará, submetidos a período de adaptação por 15 dias, recebendo água e ração ad libitum, durante todo o experimento. Os animais foram distribuídos em: Grupo Padrão (P, Grupo Choque (C, Grupo Solução Fisiológica (SF e Grupo Solução Hipertônica (SH, com 30 animais cada. Estes foram divididos em subgrupos com 10 animais cada, de acordo com o dia de pós-operatório (DPO previsto para a eutanásia dos animais, (1º, 3º ou 7º DPO, sendo após esta, colhido material para realização de teste de absorvância pelo MTT em todos os animais. RESULTADOS: O grupo SF apresentou menores índices de viabilidade celular comparado aos grupos SH e C (pPURPOSE: Study the effect of the volemic correction with different solutions, in the mucous of the small bowel in rats. METHODS: Were used 120 rats Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus, males, adults, seemingly healthy, with individual weight varying between 310 and 410g, originating from of the Instituto Evandro Chagas of Belém of Pará, submitted to an adaptation period of 15 days, receiving water and ration ad libitum, during the role experiment. For the research, ten animals were distributed, in groups and subgroups as following: Standard group (S, Shock group (Sh, Physiological Solution group (PS and Hypertonic Solution Group (HS. The groups were divided in subgroups with 10 animals each, in agreement with the day of postoperative (DPO foreseen for the euthanasis of the animals, (1st, 3rd or 7th DPO, being after this, picked material for cellular viability in every animals. RESULTS: The group PS took less quantity viable cells. CONCLUSION: The volemic correction with chloride of sodium solution at 7.5%, when compared the correction with chloride of sodium at 0.9% (isotonic solution, took the maintenance of larger amount of viable cells, in the small bowel in rats.

Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito

2003-08-01

74

What to do with a non-rolling stone? Surgical on-table dilemma in large bowel obstruction due to an impacted gallstone  

OpenAIRE

We present a rare case of large bowel obstruction secondary to colonic gallstones in a frail nonagenarian. Uniquely, the stone was impacted in the descending colon-sigmoid junction, in the absence of underlying bowel pathology distal to the stone. In light of worsening pain and distension after failed endoscopic treatment, the patient was treated with an emergency laparotomy. After an on-table dilemma, a proximal defunctioning loop colostomy was fashioned and the stone left in situ, with the ...

Das, Niloy; Plummer, Nicholas R.; Raja, Hassan; Vashist, Ashok

2014-01-01

75

Primary Breast Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT Lymphoma Transformation to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL of the breast constitutes 0.04%-0.53% of all malignancies and 2.2% of extra nodal lymphomas. In total, 7%-8% of all B-cell lymphomas are the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT type, of which up to 50% of primary gastric MALT lymphoma. Herein we present a patient with breast MALT lymphoma that transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. A 69-year-old female presented with a mass on her left breast. Physical examination showed a 3 × 3-cm mass located 1 cm from the areola on the upper lateral quadrant of the breast at the 1 o’clock position, which was fixed and firm. Excisional biopsy was performed and pathologic examination of the specimen showed MALT lymphoma transformation to DLBCL. The patient was staged as II-EA. The rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP protocol was scheduled as treatment. Following 6 courses of R-CHOP, 2 additional courses of rituximab were administered. Positron emission tomography (PET-CT was done at the end of the treatment. PET showed that the patient was in complete remission. At the time this report was written, the patient was being followed-up at the outpatient clinic on a regular basis. Lymphoma of the breast is a rarity among malignant tumors of the breast. The most common type of lymphoma is DLBCL. Breast MALT lymphoma is extremely rare. Primary MALT lymphoma of the breast can transform from low grade to high grade and recurrence is possible; therefore, such patients should be monitored carefully for transformation.

?erife Hülya Arslan

2012-09-01

76

Large bowel leiomyosarcoma - a case report; Leiomiosarcoma do intestino grosso - relato de um caso  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report a case of a 49-year-old male patient with leiomyosarcoma of the ascending colon. The patient presented with anemia and an abdominal mass, and the symptoms progressed until a final diagnosis was made nine months later. A plain abdominal x-ray showed the presence of gas outside the bowel, in the right hypochondrium. The double contrast barium enema showed a sublevel displacement of the hepatic flexure and diverticula. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a heterogeneous expansive lesion below the liver containing gas, and a computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an excavated mass below the liver containing liquid, that was not filled by contrast medium. The patient was submitted to a right hemicolectomy with ileocoloanastomosis and the histopathological analysis of the excised material revealed a leiomyosarcoma of the ascending colon. (author)

Lopes, Simone Goncalves; Marchiori, Edson; Brick, Julieta Figueiredo; Curty Neto, Eduardo; Scherman, Alexandre; Silva, Ana Carina Gamboa da; Machado, Bruno Beber [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br

2001-04-01

77

The pathogenesis of the chronic radiation ulcer of the large bowel in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have examined the influence of secondary infection, inflammation and the consistency and amount of faeces on the development of chronic radiation ulcers in rats. It is concluded that chronic ulceration is not always fatal but may be repaired if the faeces are soft and their volume reduced. However, this repair is not complete but leads to cystic colitis and repeated and progressive signs of transient rectal obstruction until fatal ileus occurs. From these and other experiments the authors conclude that the development of chronic radiation ulcer and of cystic radiation colitis in rats and in patients is the result of secondary mechanical damage to a susceptible atrophic mucosa and not the direct consequence of radiation damage to a specific target cell population. (UK)

78

Leiomiossarcoma do intestino grosso: relato de um caso / Large bowel leiomyosarcoma: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de leiomiossarcoma de cólon ascendente acometendo um paciente do sexo masculino, de 49 anos de idade. O paciente iniciou o quadro com anemia e massa abdominal, e a evolução dos sintomas até o diagnóstico final foi de nove meses. Na radiografia simples do abdome havia prese [...] nça de coleção aérea localizada no hipocôndrio direito, fora da topografia de alças; no clister opaco com duplo contraste foi demonstrado deslocamento inferior da flexura hepática e divertículos. A ultra-sonografia abdominal mostrou lesão expansiva heterogênea, com gás no seu interior, de localização sub-hepática. A tomografia computadorizada do abdome revelou massa escavada com nível líquido, sub-hepática, que não se impregnou pelo meio de contraste. Foi realizada hemicolectomia direita com ileocoloanastomose, e o diagnóstico histopatológico foi de leiomiossarcoma de cólon ascendente. Abstract in english The authors report a case of a 49-year-old male patient with leiomyosarcoma of the ascending colon. The patient presented with anemia and an abdominal mass, and the symptoms progressed until a final diagnosis was made nine months later. A plain abdominal x-ray showed the presence of gas outside the [...] bowel, in the right hypochondrium. The double contrast barium enema showed a sublevel displacement of the hepatic flexure and diverticula. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a heterogeneous expansive lesion below the liver containing gas, and a computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an excavated mass below the liver containing liquid, that was not filled in by contrast medium. The patient was submitted to a right hemicolectomy with ileocoloanastomosis and the histopathological analysis of the excised material revealed a leiomyosarcoma of the ascending colon.

Simone Gonçalves, Lopes; Edson, Marchiori; Julieta Figueiredo, Brick; Eduardo, Curty Neto; Alexandre, Scherman; Ana Carina Gamboa da, Silva; Bruno Béber, Machado.

2001-04-01

79

Leiomiossarcoma do intestino grosso: relato de um caso Large bowel leiomyosarcoma: a case report  

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Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de leiomiossarcoma de cólon ascendente acometendo um paciente do sexo masculino, de 49 anos de idade. O paciente iniciou o quadro com anemia e massa abdominal, e a evolução dos sintomas até o diagnóstico final foi de nove meses. Na radiografia simples do abdome havia presença de coleção aérea localizada no hipocôndrio direito, fora da topografia de alças; no clister opaco com duplo contraste foi demonstrado deslocamento inferior da flexura hepática e divertículos. A ultra-sonografia abdominal mostrou lesão expansiva heterogênea, com gás no seu interior, de localização sub-hepática. A tomografia computadorizada do abdome revelou massa escavada com nível líquido, sub-hepática, que não se impregnou pelo meio de contraste. Foi realizada hemicolectomia direita com ileocoloanastomose, e o diagnóstico histopatológico foi de leiomiossarcoma de cólon ascendente.The authors report a case of a 49-year-old male patient with leiomyosarcoma of the ascending colon. The patient presented with anemia and an abdominal mass, and the symptoms progressed until a final diagnosis was made nine months later. A plain abdominal x-ray showed the presence of gas outside the bowel, in the right hypochondrium. The double contrast barium enema showed a sublevel displacement of the hepatic flexure and diverticula. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a heterogeneous expansive lesion below the liver containing gas, and a computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an excavated mass below the liver containing liquid, that was not filled in by contrast medium. The patient was submitted to a right hemicolectomy with ileocoloanastomosis and the histopathological analysis of the excised material revealed a leiomyosarcoma of the ascending colon.

Simone Gonçalves Lopes

2001-04-01

80

Colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability display a different pattern of target gene mutations according to large bowel site of origin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a few studies have addressed the molecular pathways specifically involved in carcinogenesis of the distal colon and rectum. We aimed to identify potential differences among genetic alterations in distal colon and rectal carcinomas as compared to cancers arising elsewhere in the large bowel. Methods Constitutional and tumor DNA from a test series of 37 patients with rectal and 25 patients with sigmoid carcinomas, previously analyzed for microsatellite instability (MSI, was studied for BAX, IGF2R, TGFBR2, MSH3, and MSH6 microsatellite sequence alterations, BRAF and KRAS mutations, and MLH1 promoter methylation. The findings were then compared with those of an independent validation series consisting of 36 MSI-H carcinomas with origin from each of the large bowel regions. Immunohistochemical and germline mutation analyses of the mismatch repair system were performed when appropriate. Results In the test series, IGFR2 and BAX mutations were present in one and two out of the six distal MSI-H carcinomas, respectively, and no mutations were detected in TGFBR2, MSH3, and MSH6. We confirmed these findings in the validation series, with TGFBR2 and MSH3 microsatellite mutations occurring less frequently in MSI-H rectal and sigmoid carcinomas than in MSI-H colon carcinomas elsewhere (P = 0.00005 and P = 0.0000005, respectively, when considering all MSI-carcinomas of both series. No MLH1 promoter methylation was observed in the MSI-H rectal and sigmoid carcinomas of both series, as compared to 53% found in MSI-H carcinomas from other locations (P = 0.004. KRAS and BRAF mutational frequencies were 19% and 43% in proximal carcinomas and 25% and 17% in rectal/sigmoid carcinomas, respectively. Conclusion The mechanism and the pattern of genetic changes driving MSI-H carcinogenesis in distal colon and rectum appears to differ from that occurring elsewhere in the colon and further investigation is warranted both in patients with sporadic or hereditary disease.

Santos Lúcio

2010-10-01

81

[A quality of life evaluation in patients with a surgically formed large bowel stoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation objective was estimation of the patients quality of life (QL), in whom a large intestine stoma was formed. Presence of colostoma constitutes a traumatizing factor, which reduce significantly the level of the patients social adaptation and QL. Most significant desadaptation was noted after formation of colostoma in patients, suffering trauma and nontumoral diseases of large intestine. The indices dynamics for the patients QL in presence of large intestine stoma reflects the sanogenesis processes and may serve as an indicator of clinical effectiveness of the conducted treatment. PMID:23285644

Kosovan, V N

2012-09-01

82

Increased pain sensitivity among adults reporting irritable bowel syndrome symptoms in a large population-based study.  

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The aim of this study was to examine whether irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with increased somatic pain sensitivity in a large population-based sample and to test whether this association was independent of sex, age, comorbid chronic pain, and psychological distress. Pain sensitivity tests included assessment of heat-pain threshold (N=4054) and pressure-pain threshold (N=4689) and of cold-pressor pain intensity and tolerance (N=10,487). Cox regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to assess the relationship between IBS and pain sensitivity in stepwise multivariate models. The prevalence of IBS symptoms meeting the ROME II criteria was 5.3%. Compared with control subjects, IBS cases had reduced cold-pressor tolerance (hazard ratio=1.4, Pcold-pressor pain intensity ratings (z-score=+0.20, Pcontrolling for comorbid chronic pain and psychological distress. Results for pressure-pain threshold were not significant. Heat- and cold-pressor pain sensitivity was greatest for the IBS reporting severe chronic abdominal pain, indicating that hyperalgesia in IBS is related to degree of clinical pain rather than to the diagnosis per se. Because all pain tests were all carried out on the upper extremities, our findings indicate the presence of widespread hyperalgesia in IBS, which may be a contributing factor to the high rate of comorbid pain seen in this patient group. PMID:23320954

Stabell, Niklas; Stubhaug, Audun; Flægstad, Trond; Nielsen, Christopher Sivert

2013-03-01

83

Excision of a large abdominal wall lipoma improved bowel passage in a Proteus syndrome patient  

OpenAIRE

Proteus syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder that produces multifocal overgrowth of tissue. This report presents a surgical case of a large lipoma in the abdominal wall of a patient with Proteus syndrome. She was diagnosed with Proteus syndrome based on certain diagnostic criteria. The neoplasm increased in size gradually, producing hemihypertrophy of her left lower extremity and trunk, and spread to her retroperitoneum and her left abdominal wall. She experienced gradually progr...

Yoshifumi Nakayama, Shinichi Kusuda

2009-01-01

84

Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A high dietary intake of n-6 compared to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) may promote the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. In two recent studies, short-term (10-day) duodenal administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich seal oil ameliorated joint pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Using unpublished data from these two studies we here investigated whether normalisation of the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood and tissues by seal oil ad...

Lind Ragna; Arslan Gülen; Valen Merete; Brun Johan G; Bjørkkjær Tormod; Brunborg Linn A; Berstad Arnold; Frøyland Livar

2006-01-01

85

Virtual gastrointestinal colonoscopy in combination with large bowel endoscopy: clinical application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although colorectal cancer (CRC) has no longer been the leading cancer killer worldwide for years with the exponential development in computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography/CT as well as virtual colonoscopy for early detection, the CRC related mortality is still high. The objective of CRC screening is to reduce the burden of CRC and thereby the morbidity and mortality rates of the disease. It is believed that this goal can be achieved by regularly screening the average-risk population, enabling the detection of cancer at early, curable stages, and polyps before they become cancerous. Large-scale screening with multimodality imaging approaches plays an important role in reaching that goal to detect polyps, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and CRC in early stage. This article reviews kinds of presentative imaging procedures for various screening options and updates detecting, staging and re-staging of CRC patients for determining the optimal therapeutic method and forecasting the risk of CRC recurrence and the overall prognosis. The combination use of virtual colonoscopy and conventional endoscopy, advantages and limitations of these modalities are also discussed. PMID:25320519

He, Qing; Rao, Ting; Guan, Yong-Song

2014-10-14

86

Tumours in the Small Bowel  

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Full Text Available Small bowel tumours are rare and originate from a wide variety of benign and malignant entities. Adenocarcinomas are the most frequent primary malignant small bowel tumours. Submucosal tumours like gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST or neuroendocrine tumours (NET may show a central umbilication, pathologic vessels, bridging folds or an ulceration of the overlying mucosa. These signs help to differentiate them from harmless bulges caused by impression from outside, e.g. from other intestinal loops. Sarcomas of the small bowel are rare neoplasias with mesenchymal origin, sometimes presenting as protruding masses. Benign tumours like lipoma, fibrolipoma, fibroma, myoma, and heterotopias typically present as submucosal masses. They cannot be differentiated endoscopically from those with malignant potential as GIST or NET. Neuroendocrine carcinomas may present with diffuse infiltration, which may resemble other malignant tumours. The endoscopic appearance of small bowel lymphomas has a great variation from mass lesions to diffuse infiltrative changes. Melanoma metastases are the most frequent metastases to the small bowel. They may be hard to distinguish from other tumours when originating from an amelanotic melanoma.

N. Kurniawan

2014-01-01

87

Eating and Bowel Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... Children’s Activity & Nutrition Home : Eating and Bowel Control Eating and Bowel Control Some bowel control problems improve ... that may improve your bowel control problems include Eating the right amount of fiber. Fiber can help ...

88

Large bowel multiple tumours.  

Science.gov (United States)

The medical records of all patients with colorectal cancer seen at the "G. Marinaccio" Department of Surgery in Bari between 1997 and 2004 were examined. Cases included in the study met the criteria advocated by Warren and Gates and Moertel et al. Over such period we operated on 103 patients with colon neoplasms, mostly males (64 patients) and aged over 65 (64 patients). Both palliative and radical operations were performed either as elective treatment or as emergency surgery; in some of the latter cases the diagnosis of neoplasm was made casually following the final histological test on the operative specimen. Ten cases of multiple malignant tumours were recorded, corresponding to 9.7%; in particular 1 synchronous-metachronous tumour (0.97%), 3 synchronous tumours (2.7%) and 6 metachronous tumours (5.8%) were observed; two of the metachronous tumours were detected in the same patient and one in a patient that had previously been operated on for a synchronous carcinoma, thus making a total of 8 patients in all. It is concluded that full examination of the colon in all patients presenting with primary colorectal cancer is mandatory and that, in the light of this experience and recent reports in the literature, this should be done by pre- or perioperative colonoscopy. Colonoscopy not only provides accurate detection of lesions, but also allows the surgeon to perform polypectomies, thereby obviating the need for extending surgery at the time of resection of the coexisting cancer. In conclusion, we recommend preoperative colonoscopy for all patients who present non-obstructive colorectal neoplasms. PMID:17500177

Filograna, Maria Alessandra; Ugenti, Ippazio; Lattarulo, Serafina; Pezzolla, Angela; Ferrarese, Filippo; Fabiano, Gennaro

2007-01-01

89

Hemorragia maciça do intestino grosso: o que está ao nosso alcance? Massive large bowel bleeding: what is within our reach?  

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Full Text Available A forma de avaliar e lidar com a hemorragia aguda digestiva baixa tem sido modificado com os recentes desenvolvimentos de novas técnicas e aparelhos. O nosso objetivo, por esse manuscrito, é demonstrar com simplicidade uma forma de condução dos pacientes com hemorragia digestiva baixa aguda, sobretudo para os sangramentos que parecem mais graves, principalmente quando nos faltam os recursos das avançadas tecnologias atuais. Doenças localizadas no intestino grosso respondem por ¼ dos casos de hemorragias digestivas que são motivos para admissão hospitalar e têm como principais agentes etiológicos os divertículos, na moléstia diverticular, e as alterações vasculares, nas angiodisplasias. Na grande maioria das vezes o sangramento que pode parecer abundante cessa espontaneamente. Os distúrbios circulatórios graves não são comuns e os sinais mais frequentes são a queda do valor da hemoglobina observada na metade dos pacientes, e algumas alterações hemodinâmicas como a variação pressórica postural que pode ser vista em até 30% dos casos; a síncope em 10% e alguma forma de colapso circulatório, em 9%. Contudo, a faixa etária em que ocorre, as condições da senilidade, as doenças eventualmente associadas e a falta de recursos materiais e humanos para lidar com esse tipo de problema são os motivos que mais causam preocupação. A abordagem clínica simples com uma história bem elaborada; o exame físico com atenção e objetividade, a inclusão do exame proctológico, a obrigatória disponibilidade de aparelho para a coloscopia e os conhecimentos básicos sobre o evento formam o conjunto necessário e, na maioria das vezes, suficiente para o correto desempenho profissional na elaboração dos cuidados que devem ser dados a esses pacientes.The evaluation and management of the acute lower digestive hemorrhage has been modified with the recent development of new techniques and devices. The aim of this manuscript was to demonstrate with simplicity how to treat the patients with acute lower intestinal hemorrhage. Diseases of the large bowel account for the ¼ of the cases of digestive hemorrhages on the hospital admission and have as main etiological agents the diverticula, in the diverticular disease, and small vascular malformation, in the angiodysplasias. Sometime, it can be seen as a life-threatening condition, however, most of the times, the hemorrhage stops spontaneously. The serious circulatory disturbances are not common; the most frequent signs are the decrease in hemoglobin occurring on about one half of patients and some form of circulatory disturbance as orthostatic changes in 30%; as syncope in 10% and as cardiovascular collapse in 9%. However, the age group, the conditions of the senility, the eventually associated diseases and the lack of material and human resources to handle with that kind of problem are the reasons for concern. The simple clinical approach with a well elaborated history; the physical examination released with attention and objectivity, the inclusion of the proctologic exam, the obligatory readiness for an endoscope for colonoscopy, the basic knowledge on the event are necessary and, in most of the times, enough for the good professional acting in the elaboration of the cares that it should be given to those patient ones.

Júlio César M Santos Jr.

2010-06-01

90

The effect of cis-diammine dichloro platinum(II) on radiation injury in the rat bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experimental study was performed for evaluate the effects of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) on the radiation injury of rat bowel by histopathologic changes. Rats were exposed to entire abdomen by a single doses of X-ray(6-10 Gy) without or with cis-DDP(2.5mg/kg). Rats were divided into 3 groups such as radiation alone, cis-DDP alone and combined group. In combined group, cis-DDP was given 30 minutes before or immediately after irradiation. Cis-DDP induced the inflammatory cell infiltrations with focal necrosis of the mucosa in the small bowel and no abnormal change in the large bowel. In radiation alone group, mucosal necrosis, submucosal fibrosis and muscular necrosis were prominent changes in small bowel and submucosal fibrosis in the large bowel. The submucosal fibrosis in the small bowel was appeared in 10 Gy of radiation alone group and 8 Gy of cis-DDP infusion after radiation and 6 Gy of cis-DDP infusion before radiation of combined group. In the large bowel, submucosal fibrosis was noted in 8 Gy of radiation alone group 8 Gy of cis-DDP infusion after radiation and 6 Gy of cis-DDP infusion before radiation of combined group. In the small bowel, the enhancement ratio was 1.67 in a group of cis-DDP infusion before radiation and 1.25 in group of cis-DDP infusion after radiation as the end point was the submucosal fibrosis. In the large bowel, the enhancement ratio was 1.33 in a group of cis-DDP infusion before radiation and 1.0 in a group of cis-DDore radiation and 1.0 in a group of cis-DDP infusion after radiation as the end point was the submucosal fibrosis. This study suggested that cis-DDP enhance the radiation effect in the small and large bowel especially when cis-DDP was infused before radiation

91

Primary colon resection or Hartmann's procedure in malignant left-sided large bowel obstruction? The use of stents as a bridge to surgery  

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Full Text Available There is still significant debate regarding the best surgical treatment for malignant left-sided large bowel obstruction. Primary resection and anastomosis offers the advantages of a definite procedure without need for further surgery. Its main disadvantages are related to the increased technical challenge and to the potential higher risk of anastomotic leakage that occurs in the emergency setting. Primary resection with end colostomy (Hartmann’s procedure is considered the safer option. Tan et al compared in a systematic review and meta-analysis the use of self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS as a bridge to surgery vs emergency surgery in the management of acute malignant left-sided large bowel obstruction. The authors concluded that the technical and clinical success rates for stenting were lower than expected. SEMS was associated with a high incidence of clinical and silent perforation. Stenting instead of loop colostomy can be recommended only if the appropriate expertise is available in the hospital. The goal of stenting, a decrease of the stoma rate, may be advocated only if the complication rates of stenting are lower than those of stoma creation in the emergency situation. Until now, this was not demonstrated in a prospective randomized trial.

Reinhart T Grundmann

2013-01-01

92

Relato de caso: metástase de carcinoma de mama para o intestino grosso / Case report: metastasis from breast cancer to the large bowel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O envolvimento metastático do trato gastrointestinal é relativamente infreqüente. Tumores malignos de mama, entretanto, podem muito raramente produzir metástases para o intestino. Relatamos aqui o caso de uma paciente com quadro clínico compatível com o de um abdômen agudo obstrutivo submetida a lap [...] arotomia exploradora com colectomia. O exame anátomo-patológico da peça cirúrgica revelou tratar-se de um carcinoma metastático, sendo que a história clínica da paciente indicava o tratamento cirúrgico prévio de um carcinoma lobular de mama. Nossa revisão da literatura demonstrou que o carcinoma lobular, dentre as neoplasias malignas da mama, é o que mais freqüentemente leva ao comprometimento metastático do intestino, sendo o estômago o local mais afetado. Como a disseminação sistêmica é comum nestes casos, o tratamento conservador, quando possível, é o mais indicado, sendo a cirurgia reservada para as complicações. Abstract in english Gastrointestinal manifestations of breast cancer are not commom. We report a case of a female patient who was submitted to a laparotomy with clinical and radiological signs of large bowell obstruction. Her clinical hitory showed that she was treated for breast cancer several years before. Pathology [...] indicated that a metastatic carcinoma within the bowell wall was the cause of the obstruction. Previous reports described the lobular carcinoma of the breast as the most commom type of breast cancer to produce bowell metastases. The stomach is described as the most frequent site of this metastatic dissemination. Since sistemic disease is common within these patients, surgical ressection is indicated only in the presence of complications like obstruction or bleeding.

Lúcio Sarubbi, Fillmann; Cláudia Müller, Pinho; Henrique Sarubbi, Fillmann; Érico Ernesto Pretzel, Fillmann.

2007-12-01

93

Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathogenesis  

OpenAIRE

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. It has been a worldwide health-care problem with a continually increasing incidence. It is thought that IBD results from an aberrant and continuing immune response to the microbes in the gut, catalyzed by the genetic susceptibility of the individual. Although the etiology of IBD remains largely unknown, it involves a complex interaction between t...

Zhang, Yi-zhen; Li, Yong-yu

2014-01-01

94

Phenotypic & Genotypic Characteristics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in French-Canadians: comparison with a large North American repository  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Phenotype characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may differ significantly among ethnic subpopulations. The aim of this study was to characterize the IBD phenotype in French-Canadians, the most prominent founder population in North America. METHODS Using well-characterized phenotype data in the NIDDK-IBD Genetics Consortium repository on IBD patients, we compared phenotypic characteristics of 202 French-Canadians to those of 1287 other Caucasian patients. These included: diagnosis, anatomical location, disease behaviour, extraintestinal manifestations, surgical history, and family history of IBD. RESULTS French-Canadian CD patients were less likely to have stricturing disease (11 vs 21%, P=0.005; OR 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24– 0.85). Using a stringent definition of ethnicity (3 out of 4 grandparents being French-Canadian, as opposed to self-report, n= 148), French-Canadians had a tendency towards developing fistulizing CD (37% vs 28%, p= 0.07), and there was an increased prevalence of sacroiliitis among French-Canadians with IBD (4% vs 2%, p=0.045). Among French-Canadians, the numbers of current smokers in CD (40 vs 25%, p=0.006) and former smokers in UC (35% vs 20%, p=0.03) were significantly higher. The prevalence of one of the three main variant NOD2 SNPs among French-Canadian CD patients was 43.2%. The 3020insC SNP correlated with small bowel disease in French-Canadians (75% versus 0%, P=0.006). CONCLUSION French-Canadians exhibit an IBD phenotype profile distinct from other Caucasian IBD populations, with an accentuated association between smoking status and IBD. This unique profile may have implications regarding the need for a different approach to management of IBD in this population. PMID:19513023

Bhat, Mamatha; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Pare, Pierre; Lahaie, Raymond; Deslandres, Colette; Bernard, Edmond-Jean; Aumais, Guy; Jobin, Gilles; Wild, Gary; Cohen, Albert; Langelier, Diane; Brant, Steven; Dassopoulos, Themistocles; McGovern, Dermot; Torres, Esther; Duerr, Richard; Regueiro, Miguel; Silverberg, Mark S; Steinhart, Hillary; Griffiths, Anne M.; Elkadri, Abdul; Cho, Judy; Proctor, Deborah; Goyette, Philippe; Rioux, John; Bitton, Alain

2009-01-01

95

Complementary and alternative medicine use and cost in functional bowel disorders: A six month prospective study in a large HMO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Bowel Disorders (FBD are chronic disorders that are difficult to treat and manage. Many patients and doctors are dissatisfied with the level of improvement in symptoms that can be achieved with standard medical care which may lead them to seek alternatives for care. There are currently no data on the types of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM used for FBDs other than Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, or on the economic costs of CAM treatments. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence, types and costs of CAM in IBS, functional diarrhea, functional constipation, and functional abdominal pain. Methods 1012 Patients with FBD were recruited through a health care maintenance organization and followed for 6 months. Questionnaires were used to ascertain: Utilization and expenditures on CAM, symptom severity (IBS-SS, quality of life (IBS-QoL, psychological distress (BSI and perceived treatment effectiveness. Costs for conventional medical care were extracted from administrative claims. Results CAM was used by 35% of patients, at a median yearly cost of $200. The most common CAM types were ginger, massage therapy and yoga. CAM use was associated with female gender, higher education, and anxiety. Satisfaction with physician care and perceived effectiveness of prescription medication were not associated with CAM use. Physician referral to a CAM provider was uncommon but the majority of patients receiving this recommendation followed their physician's advice. Conclusion CAM is used by one-third of FBD patients. CAM use does not seem to be driven by dissatisfaction with conventional care. Physicians should discuss CAM use and effectiveness with their patients and refer patients if appropriate.

Drossman Douglas A

2008-07-01

96

Metabolic epidemiology of large bowel cancer: fecal bulk and constituents of high-risk North American and low-risk Finnish population.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dietary pattern and fecal constituents of two populations with distinct risk for the development of colon cancer, a high-risk population in New York Metropolitan area and a low-risk population in rural Kuopio, were studied. The average daily intake of dietary fat and protein was the same in the two groups, but the sources of fat were different, a greater portion coming from dairy products in rural Kuopio and from meat in the New York Metropolitan area. Not only the frequency of bowel movements was higher, but also the daily total stool output as well as the fecal fiber excretion were greater in Kuopio compared with New York due to high dietary intake in rural Kuopio of cereal products rich in fiber. The concentration of fecal secondary bile acids and bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity was lower in rural Kuopio, but the total daily excretion of these constituents was the same in two populations. The daily fecal excretion of bacterial nuclear dehydrogenase activity and of neutral sterols was higher in rural Kuopio, and the concentration of these constituents was the same in the two groups. The high daily excretion of cholesterol metabolites in Kuopio might be due to high dietary intake of dairy products. The data suggest that one of the factors contributing to the low-risk of large bowel cancer in Finland, in spite of high dietary intake of fat, appears to be the fact that a high dietary fiber leads to an increase in stool bulk, thus diluting bile acids, which have promoting activity. PMID:728877

Reddy, B S; Hedges, A R; Laakso, K; Wynder, E L

1978-12-01

97

[Bowel gases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Abdominal bloating is one of the most common symptoms in patients with different gastrointestinal disorders. The majority of patients usually attribute this complaint to increased intestinal gas volume. Recent experimental studies using the gas challenge test help us to better understand the gas dynamics and tolerance in humans. Although there are some clinical conditions that are clearly related to impaired gas dynamics, the role of gases in functional gastrointestinal disorders especially in irritable bowel syndrome is much more complicated. Impaired gas handling, abnormal reflexes and visceral hypersensitivity seem to be the main factors resulting in abdominal bloating in this group of patients. Further clinical studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms of intestinal gas and this may contribute to the evaluation of optimal therapy. PMID:18436509

Pregun, István; Tulassay, Zsolt

2008-05-01

98

Review article: the potential role of nitric oxide in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aetiology of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases-ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease-as well as 'microscopic colitis'-both collagenous (COC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)-remains unknown. Autoimmune mechanisms, cytokine polymorphism, commensal bacteria, infectious agents and vascular impairment have all been proposed as playing important roles in the pathogenesis of this spectrum of diseases. A variety of proinflammatory mediators, including tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta, interferon gamma, leukotriene B4 and platelet activating factor, promote the adherence of phagocytes to the venular endothelium and extravasation of these cells into the colonic mucosa. In addition to large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), injurious peroxynitrite may be formed in the epithelium by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is considered to elicit cytotoxicity by the generation of superoxide with reduced L-arginine availability. In active ulcerative colitis, and to a lesser extent in Crohn's disease, a greatly increased production of NO has been demonstrated by indirect and direct measurements. Surprisingly, even higher rates of production have been observed in COC-a condition which is never associated with injurious inflammation. The latter observation favours the notion that NO promotes mucosal integrity. Further evidence for a protective role of NO in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders is provided by the observation of increased susceptibility to the induction of experi mental colitis in 'knock-out' mice deficient in iNOS. Selective inhibitors of iNOS activity, as well as topical L-arginine, may therefore prove beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease by reducing the production of superoxide by iNOS, while only the former option may be expected to reduce diarrhoea in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders. Clearly, further experimental work needs to be done before testing topical L-arginine in human inflammatory bowel disease.

Perner, Anders; Rask-Madsen, J

1999-01-01

99

Review article : the potential role of nitric oxide in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aetiology of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases-ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease-as well as 'microscopic colitis'-both collagenous (COC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)-remains unknown. Autoimmune mechanisms, cytokine polymorphism, commensal bacteria, infectious agents and vascular impairment have all been proposed as playing important roles in the pathogenesis of this spectrum of diseases. A variety of proinflammatory mediators, including tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta, interferon gamma, leukotriene B4 and platelet activating factor, promote the adherence of phagocytes to the venular endothelium and extravasation of these cells into the colonic mucosa. In addition to large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), injurious peroxynitrite may be formed in the epithelium by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is considered to elicit cytotoxicity by the generation of superoxide with reduced L-arginine availability. In active ulcerative colitis, and to a lesser extent in Crohn's disease, a greatly increased production of NO has been demonstrated by indirect and direct measurements. Surprisingly, even higher rates of production have been observed in COC-a condition which is never associated with injurious inflammation. The latter observation favours the notion that NO promotes mucosal integrity. Further evidence for a protective role of NO in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders is provided by the observation of increased susceptibility to the induction of experi mental colitis in 'knock-out' mice deficient in iNOS. Selective inhibitors of iNOS activity, as well as topical L-arginine, may therefore prove beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease by reducing the production of superoxide by iNOS, while only the former option may be expected to reduce diarrhoea in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders. Clearly, further experimental work needs to be done before testing topical L-arginine in human inflammatory bowel disease.

Perner, A; Rask-Madsen, J

1999-01-01

100

CT evaluation of target-like bowel wall thickening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT features of target-like bowel wall thickenings and to correlate target layers with histopathologic layers. We retrospectively analyzed 37 target-like bowel wall thickenings with inner high-, middle low- and outer high attenuated layers on CT scan. Bowel lesions included 15 cases of ischemic lesion, 12 of inflammation, four of carcinomatosis, four of trauma, and two of radiation enteritis. Target-like bowel wall thickenings were classified into three types : with inner most thickened high-attenuated layer(type 1); with middle most thickened low-attenuated layer(type 2), and with outer most thickened high-attenuated layer(type 3). We analyzed the characteristic CT features of these bowel lesions and correlated target and histopathologic layers in resected bowel specimens. Target-like bowel wall thickening was type 1 in 18 cases(49%), type 2 in 13 cases(35%), and type 3 in 6 cases(16%). Type 1 ischemic bowel lesions and inflammations were most common, and were found in 60% and 67% of cases, retrospectively. All cases of trauma were type 2 and radiation colitis was type 3. Histopathologic findings showed that each layer of target lesions did not exactly correlated with histopathologic layers. However, the inner high attenuated layer correlated with mucosa and some submucosa, the middle low-attenuated layer correlated with most submucosa and some muscularis, and the outer high-attenuated layer correlated with muscularis, serated layer correlated with muscularis, serosa, and periserosal mesentery. CT features of target-like bowel wall thickenings showed type characteristics according to bowel lesions. Histopathologic comparison and analysis were considered helpful for the differential diagnosis of bowel lesions

101

CT evaluation of target-like bowel wall thickening  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT features of target-like bowel wall thickenings and to correlate target layers with histopathologic layers. We retrospectively analyzed 37 target-like bowel wall thickenings with inner high-, middle low- and outer high attenuated layers on CT scan. Bowel lesions included 15 cases of ischemic lesion, 12 of inflammation, four of carcinomatosis, four of trauma, and two of radiation enteritis. Target-like bowel wall thickenings were classified into three types : with inner most thickened high-attenuated layer(type 1); with middle most thickened low-attenuated layer(type 2), and with outer most thickened high-attenuated layer(type 3). We analyzed the characteristic CT features of these bowel lesions and correlated target and histopathologic layers in resected bowel specimens. Target-like bowel wall thickening was type 1 in 18 cases(49%), type 2 in 13 cases(35%), and type 3 in 6 cases(16%). Type 1 ischemic bowel lesions and inflammations were most common, and were found in 60% and 67% of cases, retrospectively. All cases of trauma were type 2 and radiation colitis was type 3. Histopathologic findings showed that each layer of target lesions did not exactly correlated with histopathologic layers. However, the inner high attenuated layer correlated with mucosa and some submucosa, the middle low-attenuated layer correlated with most submucosa and some muscularis, and the outer high-attenuated layer correlated with muscularis, serosa, and periserosal mesentery. CT features of target-like bowel wall thickenings showed type characteristics according to bowel lesions. Histopathologic comparison and analysis were considered helpful for the differential diagnosis of bowel lesions.

Bae, In Young; Kim, Mi Young; Suh, Chang Hea; Kim, Jin Hee; Chung, Won Kyun [Inha Univ. Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Soon Gu [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seol (Korea, Republic of)

1997-02-01

102

Irritable bowel syndrome - aftercare  

Science.gov (United States)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be a lifelong condition. You may be suffering from cramping and loose stools, diarrhea, ... Irritable bowel syndrome . NIH Publication No. 12-693. July 2012. ... Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC). Talley NJ. ...

103

Abdominal scintigraphy for ectopic gastric mucosa: a retrospective analysis of 143 studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective analysis of 143 studies of abdominal scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate for the diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa (usually located in Meckel diverticulum) was undertaken. The rectilinear scanner was used for 57 studies and the gamma camera for 86. The final diagnosis, at laparotomy or after clinical and laboratory investigation with long-term clinical follow-up, was correlated to the interpretation of the scintigrams. Of 57 rectilinear scans, five were true positive, 46 true negative, two false positive, and four false negative. Of the 86 camera studies 10 were true positive, 74 true negative, one false negative, and one patient showed large bowel activity (positive atypical study). The results of this analysis indicate the value of the properly performed and interpreted abdominal pertechnetate scintigraphy in the diagnosis of (bleeding) ectopic gastric mucosa; it was also shown that the sensitivity and the specificity of this test have improved since the introduction of the gamma camera and the standardization of the procedure

104

Acute small bowel obstruction: a rare initial presentation for the metastasis of the large-cell carcinoma of the lung  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract We present one case with symptom of paroxysmal abdominal pain for over 20 days. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT scan revealed intestinal obstruction and a mass of 6.0 cm × 6.0 cm in size located at the left adrenal. Chest CT scan showed a lobulated mass of 2.7 cm × 2.7 cm in size at the upper left lung. Core needle biopsy of the lung mass confirmed the diagnosis of large cell carcinoma. The patient underwent an emergency abdominal laparotomy and received a chemotherapy regimen that consisted of pemetrexed and cisplatin postoperatively. In addition, we made a review of the literature of the occurrence, diagnosis and outcome of this manifestation.

Song Yongmao

2012-01-01

105

Distribution and Phenotype of Epstein-Barr Virus-Infected Cells in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

OpenAIRE

Little is known about Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of colon mucosa, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are thought to differ in T-helper lymphocyte composition and cytokine secretion patterns. Some of the implicated cytokines are growth factors for EBV-infected cells. We examined colon mucosa for differences in the distribution and phenotype of EBV-infected cells. Colon tissues with Crohn’s disease (n = 31) or ulcerative colitis (n = ...

Spieker, Tilmann; Herbst, Hermann

2000-01-01

106

Detection of a fluorescent-labeled avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly by confocal laser endomicroscopy in the microvasculature of chronically inflamed intestinal mucosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Andrea Buda,1,* Sonia Facchin,1,* Elisa Dassie,2 Elisabetta Casarin,3 Mark A Jepson,4 Helmut Neumann,5 Giorgia Hatem,1 Stefano Realdon,6 Renata D’Incà,1 Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo,1 Margherita Morpurgo3 1Department of Surgical, Oncological, and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padova, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 3Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 4School of Biochemistry and Wolfson Bioimaging Facility, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 5Ludwig Demlig Endoscopic Center of Excellence, ESGE Endoscopy Training Center, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany; 6Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padova, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal pathologies causing great discomfort in both children and adults. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases is not yet fully understood and their diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Nanoparticle-based strategies have been tested in local drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Here, we have investigated the use of the novel avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly (ANANAS platform as a potential diagnostic carrier in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Fluorescent-labeled ANANAS nanoparticles were administered to mice with chemically induced chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Localization of mucosal nanoparticles was assessed in vivo by dual-band confocal laser endomicroscopy. This technique enables characterization of the mucosal microvasculature and crypt architecture at subcellular resolution. Intravascular nanoparticle distribution was observed in the inflamed mucosa but not in healthy controls, demonstrating the utility of the combination of ANANAS and confocal laser endomicroscopy for highlighting intestinal inflammatory conditions. The specific localization of ANANAS in inflamed tissues supports the potential of this platform as a targeted carrier for bioactive moieties in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Keywords: confocal laser endomicroscopy, inflammatory bowel disease, diagnostics, dextran sodium sulfate, avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly, fluorescent nanoparticles, ulcerative colitis

Buda A

2015-01-01

107

Radiation injury of colorectal mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rectal mucosa samples were obtained from patients treated with external irradiation of 30 Gy for rectal cancer and treated with intracavitary irradiation of 10 - 30 Gy for cervical cancer to histologically examine acute and chronic radiation-induced changes in rectal mucosa. Immediately after irradiation, crypt had remarkably degenerated with marked infiltration of eosinocytes. Regenerated ducts occurred within one week, and mucosa structure returned to normal within 3 weeks. Chronic changes observed 6 months or later after irradiation were characterized by thinned mucosa, and dilated crypt and capillary vessels. According to the staining method of Culling et al, the normal colorectal mucosa could be divided into red and blue types. The ratio of red to blue types was 4:1 in both normal rectal mucosa and radiation proctitis. Blue crypt index occurring per cm of red type rectal mucosa was 0.1 for chronic radiation proctitis, being significantly higher than for normal mucosa. It increased at the time of recovery of acute radiation proctitis. (Namekawa, K.)

108

Bleeding small bowel diverticulosis  

OpenAIRE

Diverticular disease affecting the small bowel, specifically the jejunum, is rare with an incidence of 1–2% in the general population. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who presented with clinical signs and symptoms suggesting peptic ulcer disease, but complications resulting from small bowel diverticular disease should be borne in mind as they may mimic the above pathology. The diagnosis of small bowel diverticulosis can often be challenging in someone who presents or develops massive ...

Hamid, Umar Imran; Khattak, Shahid

2009-01-01

109

Why is damage limited to the mucosa in ulcerative colitis but transmural in Crohn’s disease?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been a big puzzle as why the inflammation of ulcerative colitis (UC is limited to the mucosa, while in Crohn’s disease (CD the inflammation is transmural and can be seen in all layers of the gut. Here, I give a tentative explanation extended from the unified hypothesis I proposed on the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. This hypothesis suggested that both UC and CD are caused by weakening of the gut barrier due to damage of the protective mucus layer and the underlying tissue by the poorly inactivated digestive proteases resulting from a reduction of gut bacteria by dietary chemicals like saccharin and sucralose. However, the large amounts of bacteria in the colon make the recruitment of neutrophils and formation of crypt abscess the main manifestation of UC, while the infiltration of antigens and dietary particles in the small and large intestine mainly cause the recruitment of macrophages and formation of granulomas as the main manifestations in CD. The fast reacting and short life span of neutrophils make the fight and damage limited to the surface of the mucosa. In contrast, the long life span and constant movement of macrophages may bring the harmful agents deep into the tissue. Therefore, the pathogenesis of UC may be more like bacterial pneumonia, while CD may be more like pneumoconiosis or tuberculosis of the lung.

Xiaofa Qin

2013-01-01

110

CT findings of bowel injury following blunt abdominal trauma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the diagnostic value of CT, the author retrospectively reviewed preoperative CT findings of 57 cases with surgically proven bowel injury following blunt trauma. The small bowel injuries were divided into two groups, i.e., those without mesenteric injury, group A, and those with mesenteric injury, group B. The incidence of CT findings including extraluminal air, bowel wall thickening, peritoneal fluid, mesenteric thickening, and high density hematoma, were determined. CT findings were also assessed by time intervals between injury and examination. CT scans of small bowel injury were compared with those of surgically proven 25 cases of mesenteric injury without bowel injury, group C. CT showed findings suggestive of bowel injury in 96.4% of the cases. There were 5 false negative CT scans, which consisted of 4 small bowel and one large bowel injuries, all performed within 2 hours from injury. The patients in group A small bowel injury had a higher incidence of pneumoperitoneum on CT scans performed over 4 hours after injury than on those performed within 4 hours. Bowel wall thickening was more frequent in group A than in group B or C. Peritoneal fluid collection within 4 hours from injury was less frequent in group A than in group B or C. High density hematoma was more frequent in group B and C than in group A. The analysis suggested that early diagnosis of isolated small bowel injury was difficult because of lack of signs indicating mesenteric injury. In these cases bowel wall thickening appeared earlier, then peritoneal fluid developed, with and without mesenteric thickening or extraluminal air. Thus in those with suspicion of bowel injury, bowel wall thickening on initial CT should be carefully followed up in regard to additional or progressive findings. Operative indication can be determined with careful clinical correlation before detection of extraluminal air. (K.H.)

Machida, Yukino [St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

1997-10-01

111

CT findings of bowel injury following blunt abdominal trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the diagnostic value of CT, the author retrospectively reviewed preoperative CT findings of 57 cases with surgically proven bowel injury following blunt trauma. The small bowel injuries were divided into two groups, i.e., those without mesenteric injury, group A, and those with mesenteric injury, group B. The incidence of CT findings including extraluminal air, bowel wall thickening, peritoneal fluid, mesenteric thickening, and high density hematoma, were determined. CT findings were also assessed by time intervals between injury and examination. CT scans of small bowel injury were compared with those of surgically proven 25 cases of mesenteric injury without bowel injury, group C. CT showed findings suggestive of bowel injury in 96.4% of the cases. There were 5 false negative CT scans, which consisted of 4 small bowel and one large bowel injuries, all performed within 2 hours from injury. The patients in group A small bowel injury had a higher incidence of pneumoperitoneum on CT scans performed over 4 hours after injury than on those performed within 4 hours. Bowel wall thickening was more frequent in group A than in group B or C. Peritoneal fluid collection within 4 hours from injury was less frequent in group A than in group B or C. High density hematoma was more frequent in group B and C than in group A. The analysis suggested that early diagnosis of isolated small bowel injury was difficult because of lack of signs indicating mesenteric injury. In th signs indicating mesenteric injury. In these cases bowel wall thickening appeared earlier, then peritoneal fluid developed, with and without mesenteric thickening or extraluminal air. Thus in those with suspicion of bowel injury, bowel wall thickening on initial CT should be carefully followed up in regard to additional or progressive findings. Operative indication can be determined with careful clinical correlation before detection of extraluminal air. (K.H.)

112

Avaliação e seguimento de pacientes adultos com síndrome do intestino curto pelo exame contrastado de trânsito intestinal / Barium follow through in the assessment and follow-up of adult patients with short bowel syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A síndrome do intestino curto é definida pela incapacidade da superfície do intestino delgado em manter as condições adequadas de absorção de nutrientes, ocasionando deficiências nutricionais. Em adultos, as principais causas de síndrome do intestino curto são as ressecções cirúrgicas amplas ou múlt [...] iplas, secundárias a infarto mesentérico, doença de Crohn e enterite actínica. Além de avaliar o tempo de trânsito até o intestino grosso, o exame contrastado de trânsito intestinal pode ser utilizado na medição da extensão do intestino remanescente e no acompanhamento dos fenômenos de adaptação estrutural das alças delgadas e colônicas. Em pacientes com síndrome do intestino curto, a adaptação estrutural do intestino delgado consiste na hiperplasia das vilosidades e das pregas mucosas, que se tornam mais numerosas, profundas e de maior diâmetro, assim como a dilatação do segmento remanescente. Esses achados morfológicos são mais pronunciados e bem estabelecidos nas alças ileais, evidenciando sua maior capacidade adaptativa. O conhecimento dos achados por imagem das características morfológicas e adaptativas do intestino delgado é de grande importância na abordagem multidisciplinar da síndrome do intestino curto. Abstract in english Short bowel syndrome is defined as the small bowel functional absorptive surface inability to provide adequate nutrition, leading to intestinal failure and chronic malnutrition. In adult individuals the main etiologies for short bowel syndrome are related to extensive or multiple surgical bowel rese [...] ctions secondary to mesenteric ischemia, Crohn's disease and actinic enteritis. Besides evaluating the transit time through the large bowel, barium follow through may be utilized in the measurement of bowel remnants length as well as in the follow-up of structural adaptation phenomena of small bowel and colonic loops. In patients with short bowel syndrome, structural small bowel adaptation consists in hyperplasia of villi and mucosal folds, which become more numerous, deeper and larger in diameter, as well as remnant segment dilation. Such morphological findings are more prominent and best established in the ileal loops, whose remarkable adaptive capacity has been well documented. Therefore, the knowledge of imaging findings regarding morphological and adaptive characteristics of the small bowel is extremely relevant in the multidisciplinary approach to short bowel syndrome.

Francisco Abaeté das, Chagas Neto; André Rodrigues Façanha, Barreto; Valdair Francisco, Muglia; Jorge, Elias Junior; Ângela Delete, Bellucci; Júlio Sérgio, Marchini; Selma Freire de Carvalho da, Cunha.

2011-06-01

113

No difference in small bowel microbiota between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and healthy controls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have indicated that colonic microbiota may exhibit important differences between patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls. Less is known about the microbiota of the small bowel. We used massive parallel sequencing to explore the composition of small bowel mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with IBS and healthy controls. We analysed capsule biopsies from the jejunum of 35 patients (26 females) with IBS aged 18-(36)-57 years and 16 healthy volunteers (11 females) aged 20-(32)-48 years. Sequences were analysed based on taxonomic classification. The phyla with the highest total abundance across all samples were: Firmicutes (43%), Proteobacteria (23%), Bacteroidetes (15%), Actinobacteria (9.3%) and Fusobacteria (7.0%). The most abundant genera were: Streptococcus (19%), Veillonella (13%), Prevotella (12%), Rothia (6.4%), Haemophilus (5.7%), Actinobacillus (5.5%), Escherichia (4.6%) and Fusobacterium (4.3%). We found no difference among major phyla or genera between patients with IBS and controls. We identified a cluster of samples in the small bowel microbiota dominated by Prevotella, which may represent a common enterotype of the upper small intestine. The remaining samples formed a gradient, dominated by Streptococcus at one end and Escherichia at the other. PMID:25687743

Dlugosz, Aldona; Winckler, Björn; Lundin, Elin; Zakikhany, Katherina; Sandström, Gunnar; Ye, Weimin; Engstrand, Lars; Lindberg, Greger

2015-01-01

114

No difference in small bowel microbiota between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and healthy controls  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have indicated that colonic microbiota may exhibit important differences between patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls. Less is known about the microbiota of the small bowel. We used massive parallel sequencing to explore the composition of small bowel mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with IBS and healthy controls. We analysed capsule biopsies from the jejunum of 35 patients (26 females) with IBS aged 18-(36)-57 years and 16 healthy volunteers (11 females) aged 20-(32)-48 years. Sequences were analysed based on taxonomic classification. The phyla with the highest total abundance across all samples were: Firmicutes (43%), Proteobacteria (23%), Bacteroidetes (15%), Actinobacteria (9.3%) and Fusobacteria (7.0%). The most abundant genera were: Streptococcus (19%), Veillonella (13%), Prevotella (12%), Rothia (6.4%), Haemophilus (5.7%), Actinobacillus (5.5%), Escherichia (4.6%) and Fusobacterium (4.3%). We found no difference among major phyla or genera between patients with IBS and controls. We identified a cluster of samples in the small bowel microbiota dominated by Prevotella, which may represent a common enterotype of the upper small intestine. The remaining samples formed a gradient, dominated by Streptococcus at one end and Escherichia at the other. PMID:25687743

Dlugosz, Aldona; Winckler, Björn; Lundin, Elin; Zakikhany, Katherina; Sandström, Gunnar; Ye, Weimin; Engstrand, Lars; Lindberg, Greger

2015-01-01

115

Povidone-iodine bowel irrigation before resection of colorectal carcinoma.  

OpenAIRE

Preoperative mechanical bowel preparation, peroperative topical antiseptic measures, and postoperative antibiotic therapy have all been shown to reduce infection after colorectal surgery. We report the results of a randomised trial of preoperative irrigation with a 10% aqueous solution of povidone-iodine (Betadine) versus water in patients undergoing major resection for large bowel carcinoma. All patients had mechanical bowel preparation, preoperative topical povidone-iodine and per and posto...

Parker, M. C.; Ashby, E. C.; Nicholls, M. W.; Dowding, C. H.; Brookes, J. C.

1985-01-01

116

Perforated jejunal ulcer associated with gastric mucosa in a jejunal diverticulum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jejunal diverticula are rare and subsequent complications even more so. The usual small bowel diverticulum encountered by general surgeons is a Meckel's. These are embryological remnants of the vitello-intestinal duct and are on the anti-mesenteric surface of the terminal ileum. They may contain heterotopic gastric or pancreatic mucosa. Herein we explore the case of a young girl who presented with features of peritonitis secondary to a complication from a jejunal diverticulum. The case, pathology, complications and treatment of jejunal diverticulosis and heterotopic gastric mucosa in the jejunum are explored. PMID:24945008

Bunni, John; Barrett, Helen L; Cook, Tim A

2014-06-16

117

Regional differences in colonic mucosa-associated microbiota determine the physiological expression of host heat shock proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytoprotective heat shock proteins (Hsps) are critical for intestinal homeostasis and are known to be decreased in inflammatory bowel diseases. Signals responsible for maintenance of Hsp expression are incompletely understood. In this study, we find that Hsp25/27 and Hsp70 protein expressions are differentially regulated along the longitudinal length of the large intestine, being highest in the proximal colon and decreasing to the distal colon. This longitudinal gradient was similar in both conventionally colonized mouse colon as well as biopsies of human proximal and distal colon but was abolished in the colon of germ-free mice, suggesting a role of intestinal microbiota in the Hsp regional expression. Correspondingly, analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes of bacteria from each colonic segment indicated increased bacterial richness and diversity in the proximal colon. The mechanism of regulation is transcriptional, as Hsp70 mRNA followed a similar pattern to Hsp70 protein expression. Lysates of mucosa-associated bacteria from the proximal colon stimulated greater Hsp25 and Hsp70 mRNA transcription and subsequent protein expression in intestinal epithelial cells than did lysates from distal colon. In addition, transrectal administration of cecal contents stimulated Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression in the distal colon. Thus host-microbial interactions resulting in differential Hsp expression may have significant implications for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and possibly for development of inflammatory diseases of the bowel. PMID:20864653

Hu, Shien; Wang, Yunwei; Lichtenstein, Lev; Tao, Yun; Musch, Mark W; Jabri, Bana; Antonopoulos, Dionysios; Claud, Erika C; Chang, Eugene B

2010-12-01

118

Irritable bowel syndrome: new findings in pathophysiological and therapeutic field.  

Science.gov (United States)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a high prevalence disease, whose symptoms are reported by a large number of young adults with significant effects on quality of life and social costs. Traditionally, IBS has been treated with dietary and lifestyle modification, fiber supplementation, psychological and pharmacological therapy. Since its complex and multifactorial etiopathogenesis is only partially known, therapeutic choices may be difficult and not always effective. New research efforts focused on the role of relationship between central nervous system and gut disorders (brain-gut axis), altered composition of gut microbiota (e.g. an eight times increased risk for IBS after Salmonella infection), immune activation with an increased number of T lymphocytes and mast cells associated with mucosa as well as an increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-12, suggesting Th1 polarization), visceral hypersensitivity causing perception of pain even for minimal abdominal distension. Based on these findings, new possibilities of treatment are emerging with encouraging outcomes. Attention is directed to drugs that showed good tolerability profile and poor systemic absorption, which may make them suitable for repeated or long term treatments, as frequently required in patients with IBS. They have been successfully used drugs such as tachykinin receptors antagonists, tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitors, bile acid sequestrants, µ agonist and ? antagonist opioid receptors. Recent studies are discussed in this review, focusing both on new therapeutic approaches and innovative adaptation of previously available treatments. PMID:24780949

Catanzaro, R; Occhipinti, S; Calabrese, F; Anzalone, M G; Milazzo, M; Italia, A; Marotta, F

2014-06-01

119

Oral manifestations of patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Crohn?s disease (CD is considered to be a disease involving the whole gastrointestinal tract, while ulcerative colitis (UC is a disease exclusively located in the large bowel. The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with either CD or UC are at increased risk for developing oral manifestations. Patients-Methods: A wide spectrum of oral lesions was carefully sought by the same oral dentist in a consecutive series of 30 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (15 with CD and 15 with UC. Forty-seven healthy individuals (matched for age and sex, attendants of our dental clinic served as controls. Results: 93% of UC and 87% of the CD group had at least one lesion compared to 55% of the control group (P<0.005. Significantly more patients with CD had mandibula lymphadenopathy (P<0.0001, ulcers (P=0.011, angular cheilitis (P<0.0001, hair tongue (P=0.011, periodontitis (P=0.011, gingival bleeding (P<0.0001, gingivitis (P=0.002, cobblestone appearance of the mucosa (P=0.002, polypoid tags (P=0.002, buccal trauma (P<0.0001 and lip swelling (P=0.002 as compared to healthy controls. Ulcerative colitis patients had in a significantly higher proportion of involvement of salivary glands (P<0.0001, as well as lymphadenopathy (P=0.002, buccal trauma (P<0.0001 and angular cheilitis (P<0.0001, compared to healthy controls. Significantly more patients with CD or UC had concurrently 3 or more oral manifestations as compared to normal controls (P<0.0001. On multivariate analysis, age and IBD were the only factors significantly related to the existence of oral lesions (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02 ? 1.13, P=0.009. No correlation between activity and duration of disease, sex and smoking habit, with the presence of oral manifestations, was noticed. No significant differences between patients and controls in the incidence of other lesions, including leukoplakia, and aphthouslike ulcers were found. No cases of pyostomatitis vegetans in either patients with IBD or controls were found. Conclusion: Although the number of patients included in the study is small we can conclude that oral manifestations in patients with IBD (especially in those with CD, is a frequent and underestimated event that needs further clinical validation. Key words: Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, Ulcerative colitis, Oral manifestations

Flora Zervou

2007-03-01

120

Efficacy of abdominal plain film and CT in bowel obstruction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The studies of 106 patients who underwent both plain film and CT studies in the course of assessment for suspected bowel obstruction were subjected to a blinded retrospective analysis. Plain film and CT scans were divided into six groups on the basis of bowel gas pattern (within normal limits=WNL, non-obstructive ileus=NOI, small bowel obstruction suspected=SBOs, small bowel obstruction definite=SBOd, large bowel obstruction suspected=LBOs, large bowel obstruction definite=LBOd), and a comparison was made with the surgically and/or clinically proved diagnosis. Overall sensitivity was 71.1% on plain film and 83.0% on CT. The positive predictive value of SBO was 80.3% on plain film, 95.1% on CT. The false negative ratio in small bowel obstruction was 8.2% on plain film, but only 1.6% on CT. Half of the cases (50.8%) that were read as SBOs on plain film were `definite` on CT. Causes of obstruction and abnormalities other than bowel lesion were more often detected by CT. The author stresses that a plain film study should initially be carried out in bowel obstruction and that, by adding CT as a subsequent examination, diagnosis becomes more definite. (author).

Miyazaki, Osamu [St. Marianna Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

1995-03-01

121

The Effect of Probiotics for Preventing Radiation-Induced Morphological Changes in Intestinal Mucosa of Rats  

OpenAIRE

Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality for abdominal or pelvic cancer, but there is a common and serious complication such as radiation-induced enteritis. Probiotics is reported to have positive effects against radiation-induced enteropathy. In this study, morphological changes of bowel mucosa were analyzed in rats to presume the effect of probiotics on radiation-induced enteritis and its correlation with radiation dose. A total of 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly...

Ki, Yongkan; Kim, Wontaek; Cho, Heunglae; Ahn, Kijung; Choi, Youngmin; Kim, Dongwon

2014-01-01

122

The effects of glutamine-supplemented diet on the intestinal mucosa of the malnourished growing rat  

OpenAIRE

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and plays a key role in the response of the small intestine to systemic injuries. Mucosal atrophy is an important phenomenon that occurs in some types of clinical injury, such as states of severe undernutrition. Glutamine has been shown to exert powerful trophic effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa after small bowel resection or transplant, radiation injury, surgical trauma, ischemic injury and administration of cytotoxic drugs. Since n...

Tannuri Uenis; Carrazza Francisco R; Iriya Kiyoshi

2000-01-01

123

Perforated jejunal ulcer associated with gastric mucosa in a jejunal diverticulum  

OpenAIRE

Jejunal diverticula are rare and subsequent complications even more so. The usual small bowel diverticulum encountered by general surgeons is a Meckel’s. These are embryological remnants of the vitello-intestinal duct and are on the anti-mesenteric surface of the terminal ileum. They may contain heterotopic gastric or pancreatic mucosa. Herein we explore the case of a young girl who presented with features of peritonitis secondary to a complication from a jejunal diverticulum. The case, pat...

Bunni, John; Barrett, Helen L.; Cook, Tim A.

2014-01-01

124

Inflammatory bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiology is of considerable value in all forms of inflammatory bowel disease to establish its presence and extent, and to differtiate lesions. The commenest inflammatory bowel diseases are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Crohn's disease may occur anywhere in the disgestive tract, but is most common in the terminal ileum. Since there is no practical endoscopic method of examining the small bowel, barium studies of the latter are most important. Modern radiological techniques, especially the doublecontrast barium enema, show excellent correlation between the macroscopic changes and the radiological features. Radiology alone does not provide the answers and the radiological features must be interpreted in conjunction with clinical investigation

125

Detection of ectopic gastric mucosa using 99mTc pertechnetate. Review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technetium-99m (99mTc) pertechnetate scintigraphy in a child with acute gastrointestinal bleeding of unknown origin suggests ectopic gastric mucosa caused by Meckel's diverticulum or gastrointestinal duplication cysts. Our objective was to define the patterns of scintigraphic findings likely to be encountered in patients with ectopic gastric mucosa with illustrative cases and to review the literature. Fifty children (age 1 year to 14 years) were evaluated for ectopic gastric mucosa using 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy. Functioning ectopic gastric mucosa was detected in eight patients with Meckel's diverticula and three patients with bowel duplication. Three patients showed atypical findings on scintigraphy which were perforated appendix, calyceal stasis, and regional enteritis. Ectopic functioning gastric mucosa in Meckel's diverticulum is visualized simultaneously with the stomach, whereas in intestinal duplications tracer activity can be visualized in the dynamic sequence or before gastric tracer visualization in an irregular pattern. A variety of scintigraphic patterns can be found in patients with ectopic gastric mucosa undergoing 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy depending on the location and size of the ectopic tissue. Also, acquisition of delayed images is useful when the initial images are equivocal in children. (author)

126

Epithelial expression of interleukin-37b in inflammatory bowel disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interleukin (IL)-37 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family. We investigated IL-37b expression in the inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Furthermore, we analysed IL-37b expression in human colonic epithelial cells. The human colonic epithelial cell line T84 and human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts (SEMFs) were used. IL-37b expression in the IBD mucosa was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. IL-37b mRNA and protein expression were determined by real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. IL-37b was not detected in the normal colonic mucosa. In the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients, epithelial IL-37b expression was increased markedly. In ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, IL-37b expression was enhanced in the affected mucosa. In the intestinal epithelial cell line T84, the expression of IL-37b mRNA and protein was enhanced by tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?. This IL-37b induction by TNF-? was mediated by nuclear factor (NF)-?B and activator protein (AP)-1 activation. Furthermore, IL-37b inhibited TNF-?-induced interferon-?-inducible protein (IP)-10 expression significantly in human colonic SEMFs. Epithelial IL-37b expression was increased in IBD patients, especially UC patients. IL-37b may be involved in the pathophysiology of IBD as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and an inhibitor of both innate and acquired immune responses. PMID:23600829

Imaeda, H; Takahashi, K; Fujimoto, T; Kasumi, E; Ban, H; Bamba, S; Sonoda, H; Shimizu, T; Fujiyama, Y; Andoh, A

2013-06-01

127

Effect of Freezing and Type of Mucosa on Ex Vivo Drug Permeability Parameters  

OpenAIRE

The porcine esophageal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies mainly due to its large surface area as well as its easier preparation. Therefore, this study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of two drugs (carmabazepine (CBZ) and triamcinolone acetonide (TAC)) with different permeabilities and physicochemical properties through buccal and esophageal mucosae using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method...

Caon, Thiago; Simo?es, Cla?udia Maria Oliveira

2011-01-01

128

Buccal mucosa urethroplasty in a reoperative and reconstructive challenge hypospadias: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Buccal mucosa graft is usually used in a second operation. A buccal mucosa graft from the lower lip was used for large fistula reconstruction in one patients. The patient previously had been operated on several times at another center. The use of the buccal mucosa graft for urethral reconstruction in complex urethroplasties is a successful method with a low incidence of complications.

Hayrettin Ozturk

2014-01-01

129

Molecular evidence that the hepatitis C virus replicates in the oral mucosa.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) often have extrahepatic manifestations, which significantly contribute to HCV-related morbidity, but whose pathogenesis is largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the HCV replication in oral mucosa of chronic hepatitis C patients. METHODS: We collected oral mucosa specimens from 17 anti-HCV-positive and four anti-HCV-negative patients. Fifteen had oral lichen (12 anti-HCV-positive). Total mucosa RNA was extracted and analyze...

Gandolfo, Sergio; Pentenero, Monica

2002-01-01

130

Povidone-iodine bowel irrigation before resection of colorectal carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preoperative mechanical bowel preparation, peroperative topical antiseptic measures, and postoperative antibiotic therapy have all been shown to reduce infection after colorectal surgery. We report the results of a randomised trial of preoperative irrigation with a 10% aqueous solution of povidone-iodine (Betadine) versus water in patients undergoing major resection for large bowel carcinoma. All patients had mechanical bowel preparation, preoperative topical povidone-iodine and per and postoperative antibiotics. Of 22 study patients only one (4.6%) developed abdominal wound infection, whereas in 23 controls nine (39.1%) did so (P less than 0.01). In three of the study patients cultures of swabs taken at operation from the transected bowel ends showed no bacterial growth. Arguably the bacterial population would have been markedly reduced in other patients. These results suggest that povidone-iodine irrigation before large bowel resection reduces wound sepsis. PMID:4037631

Parker, M. C.; Ashby, E. C.; Nicholls, M. W.; Dowding, C. H.; Brookes, J. C.

1985-01-01

131

Bowel vaginoplasty in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe our experience with bowel vaginoplasty done in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of eight children aged 10 months to 8 years, who underwent bowel vaginoplasty over a period of 5 years (2000-2005. The indications of bowel vaginoplasty included anorectovestibular fistula (ARVF associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome (n=6 and cloaca (n=2. The bowel segment used for vaginoplasty included colon (n=3, ileum (n=2 and duplicated rectum (n=1. In two patients of ARVF associated with uterovaginal agenesis, the distal- most part of ARVF was transected at the level of peritoneal reflection and left as neovagina, whereas the proximal bowel was pulled through at the proposed neo-anal site. All the patients were advised daily home dilatation of the neo vaginal orifice with Hegar?s dilators, for a period of six weeks. RESULTS: Bowel vaginoplasty was done in eight patients. None had any significant per-operative complication. Two patients had abdominal wound dehiscence, requiring secondary suturing. Two patients had mucosal prolapse of the neovagina, which required trimming. One patient died two months after discharge, because of meningitis. Out of the eight patients, seven are in regular follow-up. Six patients have neovagina, cosmetically acceptable to the parents; all have been radiologically proven to have adequate length. One patient had unacceptable perineal appearance with nipple-like vaginal orifice and scarred perineal wound, that merits a revision. None of the patients had vaginal stenosis and excessive mucus discharge, during follow-up visits. Although post surgical results are acceptable to the parents cosmetically, the sexual and psychological outcome is yet to be assessed. Conclusions: Bowel vaginoplasty is a safe and acceptable procedure to treat the pediatric patients of uterovaginal agenesis and cloaca.

Sarin Yogesh

2006-01-01

132

Fecal constituents of a high-risk North American and a low-risk Finnish population for the development of large bowel cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feces collected in Kuopio, Finland, a low-risk population for colon cancer, and in the New York metropolitan area, a high-risk population for colon cancer, were compared. The dietary intake of fat and protein were the same in the two populations, but the sources of fat were different, a greater portion coming from meat in New York, and from dairy products in Kuopio. The daily stool output was higher in Kuopio due to the high intake of cereal products rich in fiber. The concentration of fecal secondary bile acids and the bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity were lower in Kuopio, but the daily output of these constituents was the same in the two groups. The daily fecal excretion of neutral sterols was higher in Kuopio than in New York. Our data suggest that the greater fecal bulk in Kuopio may dilute tumorigenic compounds which come in direct contact with the colon mucosa. PMID:647662

Reddy, B S; Hedges, A; Laakso, K; Wynder, E L

1978-04-01

133

Reduction of small and large bowel irradiation using an optimized intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy technique in patients with prostate cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate the role of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to irradiate the prostate gland and pelvic lymph nodes while sparing critical pelvic organs, and to optimize the number of beams required. Methods and Materials: Target, small bowel, colon, rectum, and bladder were outlined on CT planning scans of 10 men with prostate cancer. Optimized conventional (RT) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plans were created and compared to inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions using dose-volume histograms. Optimization of beam number was undertaken for the IMRT plans. Results: With RT the mean percentage volume of small bowel and colon receiving >45 Gy was 21.4 ± 5.4%. For 3D-CRT it was 18.3 ± 7.7% (p 0.0043) and for 9-field IMRT it was 5.3 ± 1.8% (p 45 Gy was reduced from 50.5 ± 16.3% (3D-CRT) to 5.8 ± 2.1% by 9-field IMRT (p < 0.001) and bladder from 52.2 ± 12.8% to 7 ± 2.8% (p < 0.001). Similar benefits were maintained for 7, 5, and 3 IMRT fields. Conclusions: The reduction in critical pelvic organ irradiation seen with IMRT may reduce side effects in patients, and allow modest dose escalation within acceptable complication rates. These reductions were maintained with 3-5 IMRT field plans which potentially allow less complex delivery techniques and shorter delivery techniques and shorter delivery times

134

True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa  

OpenAIRE

Benign fibrous overgrowths are often found in the oral cavity, almost always being reactive/irritational in nature. However, benign mesenchymal neoplasms of the fibroblasts are extremely uncommon. Here we report a case of “True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa” for its rarity.

Shankargouda Patil; Rao, Roopa S.; Sanketh Sharath; Anveeta Agarwal

2014-01-01

135

Bowel obstruction: Differential diagnosis and clinical management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents a practical guide to the diagnosis and management of obstruction, both mechanical and organic, of the large and small bowel. Obstruction is a common problem for surgeons, and this text emphasizes differential diagnosis and the use of all radiologic modalities. It presents the surgical and medical considerations involved with gallstones, bezoars, parasites, tumors, inflammation, trauma, intussusception, more

136

Pregnancy and Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

... Who We Are Contact Us Donate Pregnancy and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Jump to Topic Living with IBS Relationships and ... age represent a significant portion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). There is evidence that the menstrual cycle ...

137

Buccal mucosa ureteroplasty for the treatment of complex ureteric injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bowel interposition and auto-transplantation of kidney, thought to be a major undertaking, remain the traditional option for the treatment of major and complex ureteric lesions. Buccal mucosa, a well known tissue for urethral reconstruction, can be used safely for the repair of ureter. However, this has been reported poorly in the literature. Here we report a 59- year-old female who had a major ureteric injury by Dormia basket during ureteroscopic extraction of a 2.6 cm impacted stone at pelvi- ureteric junction. On exploration, a long anterior slit was found in the upper ureter measuring approximately 8 cm. It was successfully repaired by free buccal mucosal patch graft over a Double J stent. Thus, a major surgery was avoided. Intra venous urography at 6-month follow up demonstrated a patent ureter. Our experience is encouraging and merits wider application in complex ureteric lesion. PMID:22211045

Sadhu, Sagar; Pandit, Kuntal; Roy, Manas K; Bajoria, Suresh K

2011-01-01

138

The lack of impact of pelvic irradiation on small bowel mobility: implications for radiotherapy treatment planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Small bowel contrast is frequently used during simulation for patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy to assist in the design of blocks that exclude small bowel from the radiation field. In many instances, a large field is treated to 45 gray (Gy), followed by a field reduction to exclude the small bowel. This prospective study was designed to assess whether the position and mobility of the small bowel changed after the initial 45 Gy, thereby determining whether a special small bowel series done at initial simulation is applicable at the time of field reduction. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients undergoing pelvic irradiation were given small bowel contrast for their initial simulation. Radiographs were taken with the bladder empty and the bladder full. The location of the small bowel and its displacement with bladder distention was measured. This entire procedure was repeated prior to field reduction (after 39.6-46.0 Gy). Results: There was no demonstrable alteration in small bowel mobility after 39.6-46.0 Gy. The approximate position of the small bowel relative to bony landmarks was unchanged. Conclusion: The position and mobility of the small bowel appears not to be affected by 39.6-46.0 Gy of pelvic radiotherapy. Therefore, it is reasonable to design reduced pelvic fields to exclude the small bowel based on special small bowel series done at initial treatment simulation

139

Laser capture microdissection and metagenomic analysis of intact mucosa-associated microbial communities of human colon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metagenomic analysis of colonic mucosa-associated microbes has been complicated by technical challenges that disrupt or alter community structure and function. In the present study, we determined the feasibility of laser capture microdissection (LCM) of intact regional human colonic mucosa-associated microbes followed by phi29 multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and massively parallel sequencing for metagenomic analysis. Samples were obtained from the healthy human subject without bowel preparation and frozen sections immediately prepared. Regional mucosa-associated microbes were successfully dissected using LCM with minimal contamination by host cells, their DNA extracted and subjected to phi29 MDA with a high fidelity, prior to shotgun sequencing using the GS-FLX DNA sequencer. Metagenomic analysis of approximately 67 million base pairs of DNA sequences from two samples revealed that the metabolic functional profiles in mucosa-associated microbes were as diverse as those reported in feces, specifically the representation of functional genes associated with carbohydrate, protein, and nucleic acid utilization. In summary, these studies demonstrate the feasibility of the approach to study the structure and metagenomic profiles of human intestinal mucosa-associated microbial communities at small spatial scales. PMID:20931185

Wang, Yunwei; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Zhu, Xiaorong; Harrell, Laura; Hanan, Ira; Alverdy, John C; Meyer, Folker; Musch, Mark W; Young, Vincent B; Chang, Eugene B

2010-12-01

140

Small bowel injury in low-dose aspirin users.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of low-dose aspirin (LDA) is well known to be associated with an increased risk of serious upper gastrointestinal complications, such as peptic ulceration and bleeding. Until recently, attention was mainly focused on aspirin-induced damage of the stomach and duodenum. However, recently, there has been growing interest among gastroenterologists on the adverse effects of aspirin on the small bowel, especially as new endoscopic techniques, such as capsule endoscopy (CE) and balloon-assisted endoscopy, have become available for the evaluation of small bowel lesions. Preliminary CE studies conducted in healthy subjects have shown that short-term administration of LDA can induce mild mucosal inflammation of the small bowel. Furthermore, chronic use of LDA results in a variety of lesions in the small bowel, including multiple petechiae, loss of villi, erosions, and round, irregular, or punched-out ulcers. Some patients develop circumferential ulcers with stricture. In addition, to reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal lesions in LDA users, it is important for clinicians to confirm the differences in the gastrointestinal toxicity between different types of aspirin formulations in clinical use. Some studies suggest that enteric-coated aspirin may be more injurious to the small bowel mucosa than buffered aspirin. The ideal treatment for small bowel injury in patients taking LDA would be withdrawal of aspirin, however, LDA is used as an antiplatelet agent in the majority of patients, and its withdrawal could increase the risk of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus, novel means for the treatment of aspirin-induced enteropathy are urgently needed. PMID:25501289

Endo, Hiroki; Sakai, Eiji; Kato, Takayuki; Umezawa, Shotaro; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Nakajima, Atsushi

2015-04-01

141

Interstitial gamma-therapy of oral mucosa cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data on the high effectiveness of the interstitial method of gamma therapy of oral mucosa cancer are presented. The 3-year results presented coincide with the data of scientific publications and in some cases exceed them. The undoubtful advantages of the interstitial method of radiation therapy of oral mucosa cancer are 1) the radiation dose to teeth and jaws is lower than that in distant irradiation 2) large salivary glands are placed practically beyond the sphere of radiation effect 3) the directed irradiation of a desired tissue object is possible

142

Small Bowel Lymphangioma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusions: Small bowel lymphangiomas can cause gross or occult GI bleeding, anemia, abdominal pain, and/or obstruction. Endoscopists should be aware of this rare tumor and its unique endoscopic features. The optimal treatment is radical excision, since incomplete resection may lead to recurrence. Argon plasma coagulation or polypectomy have been used to achieve endoscopic ablation and palliation of GI bleeding.

Shou-jiang Tang

2014-01-01

143

Small Bowel Obstruction- A Surprise  

Science.gov (United States)

Trans - omental hernia is very rare, accounting to 1-4% of all internal hernias which is an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction. Here we present a case report of a small bowel obstruction in a female due to trans - omental hernia presenting with central abdominal pain, distension and bilious vomiting. She had no previous history of trauma, surgery. Plain X-ray abdomen erect showed multiple air fluid levels with dilated small bowel loops. Emergency laparotomy revealed a segment of congested small bowel loop (ileum) through a defect in greater omentum. On table the herniated bowel loop was reduced and the defect in greater omentum was closed primarily. There was no necessity for bowel resection as it regained normal colour after reduction. Postoperative period was uneventful with complete resolution of symptoms. This case is presented for its rarity and its importance in clinical differential diagnosis of acute abdomen due to small bowel obstruction. PMID:25738033

CP, Ganesh Babu; M, Balachandar; M, Ramanathan

2015-01-01

144

Feeding associated neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (Primary NEC) is an inflammatory bowel disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis which develops after feeding preterm infants is characterized by severe intestinal inflammation and profound systemic metabolic acidosis. The fermentation of undigested dietary carbohydrate by colonic flora yields gases (CO2 and H2) and short chain organic acids. These organic acids can disrupt the intestinal mucosa and initiate inflammation driven predominantly by resident mast cells and by granulocytes which are recruited from blood. A systemic acidosis ensues derived from intestinal acids, not classic lactic acidosis produced from anaerobic metabolism. The systemic acidosis further compromises inflamed bowel leading to bowel necrosis. PMID:24406172

Clark, David A; Munshi, Upender K

2014-02-01

145

Colonoscopia como método diagnóstico e terapêutico das moléstias do instestino grosso: análise de 2.567 exames / Colonoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic method of the large bowel diseases: analysis of 2,567 exams  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese RACIONAL: Com o surgimento das fibras ópticas na área médica, houve grande avanço tecnológico na observação do aparelho digestivo, com a introdução dos endoscópios flexíveis, usados anteriormente para o trato digestivo superior. OBJETIVO: Rever os resultados da aplicação da colonoscopia diagnóstica [...] e terapêutica na Disciplina de Coloproctologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, respeitando as características de instituição de ensino e aprimoramento médico. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva dos dados referentes a 2.567 exames de fibrocolonoscopia realizados entre os anos de 1984 e 2002, seja em regime de internação hospitalar ou ambulatorial. As principais indicações de exame nesta casuística foram o sangramento retal/anemia em 571 (22,24%) doentes, alteração do hábito intestinal em 379 (14,76%), moléstia inflamatória em 222 (8,65%) e pós-operatório de neoplasia em 186 (7,25%). O preparo intestinal com manitol foi realizado na maioria dos doentes. A sedação, quando não contra-indicada, foi feita com meperidina e benzodiazepínico. Todos exames foram feitos com monitorização com oxímetro de pulso. RESULTADOS: O resultado do exame foi normal em 1.089 (42,42%) casos. Pólipos foram diagnosticados em 397 (15,47%) casos, doença diverticular em 330 (12,86%), doença inflamatória em 305 (11,88%) e câncer colorretal em 262 (10,21%). Foram realizadas 819 polipectomias em 397 doentes, gerando a média de 2,21 polipectomias por doente com pólipo. A colonoscopia foi considerada incompleta (quando não atingiu o ceco) em 181 (7,05%) casos. Houve um caso de perfuração por fratura de tumor subestenosante de retossigmóide. Complicações relacionadas à sedação levaram à interrupção do exame em 0,42% das vezes, sem maiores prejuízos aos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: A colonoscopia foi método eficaz no diagnóstico e tratamento de afecções colorretais, sendo seguro e com baixo índice de morbidade em ambiente universitário. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Since the sixties, when the optic fibers were reported, colonoscopy had emerged as the first line imaging investigation of the colon. AIM: To review the results of diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy at the Discipline of Coloproctology of the University of São Paulo Medical School, Sã [...] o Paulo, SP, Brazil, respecting the characteristics of an institution of medical eduction. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of basis related to 2,567 fibro colonoscopies between 1984 and 2002. The procedure was performed in hospitalized and in outpatients. The most common indications for colonoscopy were investigation of rectal bleeding and anemia (22.4%), change of bowel habit (14.76%), inflammatory bowel disease (8.65%) and carcinoma (7.25%). Bowel preparation with manitol was used by most of the patients. Sedation, when not contra-indicated, was administered. The most common combination was meperidine and benzodiazepine. All the exams were monitored with pulse oximeter. A normal colonoscopy to the point of maximum insertion was reported in 42.42% of procedures. The most common diagnosis was polyps (15.47%), followed by diverticular disease (12.86%). Inflammatory disease was recorded in 11.88% and carcinoma in 10.21%. Polypectomy was undertaken in 397 patients (2.21 polypectomy per patient with polyps). Colonoscopy was considered incomplete (when the colonoscope did not pass to the cecum or terminal ileum) in 181 (7.05%) cases. Perforation was reported in one patient who had a subestenosing retossigmoid tumor. In 0.42%, reasons for failing to complete the procedure included complication related to sedation, with no further prejudice for the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Colonoscopic examination of the entire colon remains the standard for visualization, biopsy and treatment of colonic affections. The incidence of complication of endoscopy of the large bowel is quite low, even in a school hospital.

Sergio Carlos, Nahas; Carlos Frederico Sparapan, Marques; Sérgio Alonso, Araújo; Adilson Akihide, Aisaka; Caio Sérgio Rizkallah, Nahas; Rodrigo Ambar, Pinto; Desidério Roberto, Kiss.

2005-06-01

146

Colonoscopia como método diagnóstico e terapêutico das moléstias do instestino grosso: análise de 2.567 exames Colonoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic method of the large bowel diseases: analysis of 2,567 exams  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RACIONAL: Com o surgimento das fibras ópticas na área médica, houve grande avanço tecnológico na observação do aparelho digestivo, com a introdução dos endoscópios flexíveis, usados anteriormente para o trato digestivo superior. OBJETIVO: Rever os resultados da aplicação da colonoscopia diagnóstica e terapêutica na Disciplina de Coloproctologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, respeitando as características de instituição de ensino e aprimoramento médico. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva dos dados referentes a 2.567 exames de fibrocolonoscopia realizados entre os anos de 1984 e 2002, seja em regime de internação hospitalar ou ambulatorial. As principais indicações de exame nesta casuística foram o sangramento retal/anemia em 571 (22,24% doentes, alteração do hábito intestinal em 379 (14,76%, moléstia inflamatória em 222 (8,65% e pós-operatório de neoplasia em 186 (7,25%. O preparo intestinal com manitol foi realizado na maioria dos doentes. A sedação, quando não contra-indicada, foi feita com meperidina e benzodiazepínico. Todos exames foram feitos com monitorização com oxímetro de pulso. RESULTADOS: O resultado do exame foi normal em 1.089 (42,42% casos. Pólipos foram diagnosticados em 397 (15,47% casos, doença diverticular em 330 (12,86%, doença inflamatória em 305 (11,88% e câncer colorretal em 262 (10,21%. Foram realizadas 819 polipectomias em 397 doentes, gerando a média de 2,21 polipectomias por doente com pólipo. A colonoscopia foi considerada incompleta (quando não atingiu o ceco em 181 (7,05% casos. Houve um caso de perfuração por fratura de tumor subestenosante de retossigmóide. Complicações relacionadas à sedação levaram à interrupção do exame em 0,42% das vezes, sem maiores prejuízos aos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: A colonoscopia foi método eficaz no diagnóstico e tratamento de afecções colorretais, sendo seguro e com baixo índice de morbidade em ambiente universitário.BACKGROUND: Since the sixties, when the optic fibers were reported, colonoscopy had emerged as the first line imaging investigation of the colon. AIM: To review the results of diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy at the Discipline of Coloproctology of the University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, respecting the characteristics of an institution of medical eduction. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of basis related to 2,567 fibro colonoscopies between 1984 and 2002. The procedure was performed in hospitalized and in outpatients. The most common indications for colonoscopy were investigation of rectal bleeding and anemia (22.4%, change of bowel habit (14.76%, inflammatory bowel disease (8.65% and carcinoma (7.25%. Bowel preparation with manitol was used by most of the patients. Sedation, when not contra-indicated, was administered. The most common combination was meperidine and benzodiazepine. All the exams were monitored with pulse oximeter. A normal colonoscopy to the point of maximum insertion was reported in 42.42% of procedures. The most common diagnosis was polyps (15.47%, followed by diverticular disease (12.86%. Inflammatory disease was recorded in 11.88% and carcinoma in 10.21%. Polypectomy was undertaken in 397 patients (2.21 polypectomy per patient with polyps. Colonoscopy was considered incomplete (when the colonoscope did not pass to the cecum or terminal ileum in 181 (7.05% cases. Perforation was reported in one patient who had a subestenosing retossigmoid tumor. In 0.42%, reasons for failing to complete the procedure included complication related to sedation, with no further prejudice for the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Colonoscopic examination of the entire colon remains the standard for visualization, biopsy and treatment of colonic affections. The incidence of complication of endoscopy of the large bowel is quite low, even in a school hospital.

Sergio Carlos Nahas

2005-06-01

147

Tc-99m sucralfate scanning for inflammatory bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors investigated 14 patients with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by administering Tc-99m sucralfate (TcS) orally and imaging the abdomen 4 and 24 hours after dose. All patients had either barium radiographic studies or colonoscopy before the scan. The scan identified seven of nine patients who had radiologically demonstrated small-bowel lesions and four of five patients with colonic disease. The authors' preliminary experience suggests that TcS maybe a useful procedure to document location and extent of active disease. It provides information about both small and large bowel in one procedure, is noninvasive, easy to perform, and has low radiation absorbed dose

148

The effects of glutamine-supplemented diet on the intestinal mucosa of the malnourished growing rat Os efeitos de dieta com suplementação de glutamina sobre a mucosa intestinal do rato desnutrido em crescimento  

OpenAIRE

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and plays a key role in the response of the small intestine to systemic injuries. Mucosal atrophy is an important phenomenon that occurs in some types of clinical injury, such as states of severe undernutrition. Glutamine has been shown to exert powerful trophic effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa after small bowel resection or transplant, radiation injury, surgical trauma, ischemic injury and administration of cytotoxic drugs. Since n...

Uenis Tannuri; Carrazza, Francisco R.; Kiyoshi Iriya

2000-01-01

149

Inflammatory pathways of importance for management of inflammatory bowel disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Their etiologies are unknown, but they are characterised by an imbalanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, e.g., tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, as well as increased recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Advantages in understanding the role of the inflammatory pathways in IBD and an inadequate response to conventional therapy in a large portion of patients, has over the last two decades lead to new therapies which includes the TNF inhibitors (TNFi), designed to target and neutralise the effect of TNF-?. TNFi have shown to be efficient in treating moderate to severe CD and UC. However, convenient alternative therapeutics targeting other immune pathways are needed for patients with IBD refractory to conventional therapy including TNFi. Indeed, several therapeutics are currently under development, and have shown success in clinical trials. These include antibodies targeting and neutralising interleukin-12/23, small pharmacologic Janus kinase inhibitors designed to block intracellular signaling of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibodies targeting integrins, and small anti-adhesion molecules that block adhesion between leukocytes and the intestinal vascular endothelium, reducing their infiltration into the inflamed mucosa. In this review we have elucidated the major signaling pathways of clinical importance for IBD therapy and highlighted the new promising therapies available. As stated in this paper several new treatment options are under development for the treatment of CD and UC, however, no drug fits all patients. Hence, optimisations of treatment regimens are warranted for the benefit of the patients either through biomarker establishment or other rationales to maximise the effect of the broad range of mode-of-actions of the present and future drugs in IBD. PMID:24415859

Pedersen, Jannie; Coskun, Mehmet; Soendergaard, Christoffer; Salem, Mohammad; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

2014-01-01

150

Diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa using Tc99m-pertechnetate: spectrum of findings and utility of delayed imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: The utility of Tc99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy in the diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa is well established, particularly in the case of Meckel's diverticulum. However, there is substantial variation in the reported sensitivity of Tc99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy for the diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa. None of these authors used delayed imaging. Aims and Objectives: We highlight spectrum of scintigraphic findings likely to be encountered in patients with ectopic gastric mucosa with illustrative cases for each such finding and the utility of delayed imaging as a part of Tc99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy in the diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa, when initial images are equivocal or negative. Materials and Methods: Six children (aged 4 months to 48 months, all males) underwent Tc99m-pertechnetate scintigraphic evaluation for ectopic gastric mucosa. Static images were obtained for 1 minute for every 5 minutes during the first 60 minutes and subsequently at 6 hours post injection. Results: Ectopic gastric mucosa was found in intrathoracic fore-gut duplication cysts in two, in small bowel duplications in two, in a gastric duplication in one and in a Meckel's diverticulum in one patient. In the two patients with intrathoracic duplication cysts, the ectopic gastric mucosa was evident only in delayed images. Conclusion: A variety of scintigraphic patterns may be found in patients with ectopic gastric mucosa undergoing Tc99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy depgoing Tc99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy depending upon the location and size of the ectopic tissue. Acquisition of delayed images may be useful when the initial images are negative, particularly in infants with intrathoracic ectopic gastric mucosa

151

Surgical treatment of bowel occlusion as late radiation effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

67 patients were operated for intestinal complications following radiotherapy. The lesions were located in the small bowel (n = 41) and in the sigmoid colon/rectum (n = 33). 98.5% of the patients were females, the most frequent cause for irradiation being ovarian cancer. Bowel stenosis with resultant chronic or acute ileus was the most frequent indication for operation. Percutaneous irradiation resulted in a significantly higher proportion of small bowel lesions (77%, p = 0.001), whilst endocavitary irradiation was followed in 67% of cases by colorectal lesions. Different application modality of irradiation also resulted in completely different symptoms for small and large bowel lesions. The operative mortality was 9.5%. Peritonitis following anastomotic leakage was the cause of death in 6 of 7 cases. In the treatment of small bowel ileus mortality following bowel resection (9%, one of 11 cases) was comparable to that of the bypass operation (6%, one of 18 cases). Both operation methods seem to be justified. Single-layer anastomosis resulted in zero mortality (21 cases) for ileus operation compared with 19% mortality (16 cases) in double-layer anastomosis and should be prefered for operations on the irradiated bowel. (author)

152

Small bowel adenocarcinomas--existing evidence and evolving paradigms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small bowel cancers account for 3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies and small bowel adenocarcinomas represent a third of all small bowel cancers. Rarity of small bowel adenocarcinomas restricts molecular understanding and presents unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Better cross-sectional imaging techniques and development of enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy have facilitated earlier and more-accurate diagnosis. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of therapy for locoregional disease. In the metastatic setting, fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy has shown clinical benefit in prospective non-randomized trials. Although frequently grouped under the same therapeutic umbrella as large bowel adenocarcinomas, small bowel adenocarcinomas are distinct clinical and molecular entities. Recent progress in molecular characterization has aided our understanding of the pathogenesis of these tumours and holds potential for prospective development of novel targeted therapies. Multi-institutional collaborative efforts directed towards cogent understanding of tumour biology and designing sensible clinical trials are essential for developing improved therapeutic strategies. In this Review, we endeavour to outline an evidence-based approach to present-day management of small bowel adenocarcinoma, describe contemporary challenges and uncover evolving paradigms in the management of these rare 'orphan' neoplasias. PMID:23897080

Raghav, Kanwal; Overman, Michael J

2013-09-01

153

Bowel preparation: current status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite emerging evidence from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses questioning its use, mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) continues to hold an accepted place among surgeons. MBP has been administered to patients for over a century, and though the methods and agents used for intestinal cleansing have evolved over time, many surgeons still embrace MBP as a necessary, essential regimen. The accepted rationale for MBP includes evacuation of stool to allow visualization of the luminal surfaces as well as to reduce the fecal flora, which is believed to translate into lower risk of infectious and anastomotic complications at surgery. The authors describe the history of MBP as it relates to colorectal surgery and review the agents currently used for mechanical bowel preparation. Additionally, they summarize the recent trials, meta-analyses, and other emerging data from the medical literature that suggest MBP offers no benefit as a preoperative measure and question its place in current surgical practice. PMID:20119551

Duncan, James E; Quietmeyer, Christie M

2009-02-01

154

Localization of ectopic gastric mucosa by scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When gastric mucosal tissue occurs outside of the confines of the stomach, it is termed ectopic or heterotopic. Ectopic gastric mucosa may be found within Meckel's diverticulum, duplications of the alimentary tract, and Barrett's esophagus. In addition, a surgeon may inadvertently leave behind antral gastric mucosa while performing a partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease (i.e., retained gastric antrum). It is important to detect the presence and location of ectopic mucosa because acid and pepsin secretion may cause ulceration in the adjacent tissue resulting in serious complications. The only currently available specific diagnostic technique for detecting ectopic gastric mucosa is pertechnetate Tc 99m (TcO4-) scintigraphy. This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of gastric mucosa, the mechanism of TcO4- localization, the various entities containing ectopic gastric mucosa, and the methods and results of TcO4- scanning for these disorders

155

Bowel hath no fury like a gallbladder inflamed  

OpenAIRE

Gallstone ileus is a well-established phenomenon in which a large gallstone leads to mechanical small bowel obstruction. This case, however, reports the novel finding of a patient presenting with suprapubic pain and guarding caused by paralytic ileus of the small bowel and a duodenal perforation secondary to a necrotic gallbladder. It highlights the importance of distinguishing between gallstone ileus and paralytic ileus and how the management of the two conditions differs. Furthermore, this ...

Khan, Amad; Flavin, Kathyrn Ellen; Harris, Lauren Sarah; Chaudhry, Mohammad Naushad; Reading, Nicholas

2014-01-01

156

Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy  

OpenAIRE

Colonoscopy is the premier method for colonic evaluation and its diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic safety depends on the quality of the colonic cleansing. Bowel cleansing with polyethylene glycol and sodium phosphate provides cleansing with high-quality preparations with an acceptably low morbidity rate and a high degree of patient satisfaction in a cost-effective manner. Modifications have reduced the volume of the polyethylene glycol preparations. Sodium phosphate has been associated with...

Beck, David E.

2010-01-01

157

Short bowel syndrome.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

Donohoe, Claire L

2012-02-01

158

Venous outflow system in rabbit gastric mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to compare the organisation of the gastric mucosal venous system in larger animals, exemplified by rabbits, with that of the rat and the hamster which we have described previously. Rabbits were given atropine and hexamethonium followed by intravital ligation of all veins draining the stomach, causing strong hyperaemia. The distribution of vessels was studied in the non-mounted mucosa, in mounts of mucosa cleared in light mineral oil and in paraffin or semi-thin plastic sections. We found that blood from rabbit gastric mucosa is drained by collecting venules, running from the subepithelial layer towards the muscularis mucosae. The collecting venules join the paramuscular vessels parallel and adjacent to the muscularis mucosae. Neighbouring venules form numerous arcade-like connections and gradually enlarge. Two venules and an arteriole form triplets initially situated at the luminal face of the muscularis mucosae and gradually passing onto its abluminal surface. In rats vascular triplets were absent and the collecting venules drained into paramuscular vessels joining submucosal veins. In hamsters both connections between paramuscular vessels and submucosal veins and the passing of vascular triplets across muscularis mucosae were observed. Contraction/relaxation of the muscularis mucosae may regulate the amount of blood in the venous system of the mucosa and change the intramucosal pressure, affecting movement of the tissue fluid and, indirectly, the function of the gastric cells. PMID:15232769

Moskalewski, Stanis?aw; Biernacka-Wawrzonek, Dorota; Klimkiewicz, Justyna; Zdun, Rafa?

2004-05-01

159

Comparison of leukocyte excretion and blood loss in inflammatory disease of the bowel.  

OpenAIRE

Clinical relapse of inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by increased neutrophil migration into the intestine. The site of the neutrophil chemoattractant(s), whether luminal or mucosal, may be important since, on contact with a chemoattractant, neutrophils cause indiscriminate damage to their immediate surroundings by generating reactive oxygen species and by lysosomal enzyme release. If this happens within the mucosa, inflammation should correlate significantly with tissue damage as a...

Teahon, K.; Bjarnason, I.

1993-01-01

160

High-grade B-cell lymphoma arising in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the duodenum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a rare neoplasm. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma located in the descending duodenum that was not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. A surgical resection due to obstruction of the bowel lumen above the ligament of Treitz was performed. No invasion into the adjacent structure was confirmed at surgery. The pathological examination showed an infiltration of the duodenal mucosa and submucosa with B lymphocytes. Monoclonal proliferation of the lymphoid tissue was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction. The histological appearance and the demonstration of monoclonality fulfilled the criteria for malignant high-grade B-cell lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. PMID:12172414

Leone, Nicola; Brunello, Franco; Baronio, Monica; Giordanino, Chiara; Morgando, Anna; Marchesa, Pierenrico; Delsedime, Luisa; Rizzetto, Mario

2002-08-01

161

Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micronscale via endoscopes. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. Recently, the use of CLE was reported in the study of colonic mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and in particular in patients affected by ulcerative colitis. CLE has the potential to have an important role in management of IBD patients as it can be used to assess the grading of colitis and in detection of microscopic colitis in endoscopically silent segments. Moreover, CLE can be used in surveillance programs especially in high-risk patients. This report aims to evaluate the current data on the application of confocal endomicroscopy in clinical gastroenterology and particularly in the study of colonic mucosa in UC patients. PMID:22474440

Salvatori, Francesca; Siciliano, Saverio; Maione, Francesco; Esposito, Dario; Masone, Stefania; Persico, Marcello; De Palma, Giovanni D.

2012-01-01

162

Small bowel faeces sign in patients without small bowel obstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To evaluate frequency and clinical relevance of the 'small bowel faeces' sign (SBFS) on computed tomography (CT) in patients with and without small bowel obstruction (SBO) presenting with acute abdominal or acute abdominal and flank pain. Methods: Abdominal CTs of consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with abdominal or flank pain over a 6 month period were retrospectively reviewed by six radiologists, independently, for the presence of the SBFS. Examinations with positive SBFS were further evaluated in consensus by three radiologists, blinded to the final diagnosis. The small bowel was graded as non-dilated (4 cm) dilated. The location of SBFS and presence of distal small bowel collapse indicative of SBO was recorded. Imaging findings were subsequently correlated with the final diagnosis via chart review and compared between patients with and without SBO. Results: Of 1642 CT examinations, a positive SBFS was found in 100 (6%) studies. Of 100 patients with a positive SBFS, 32 (32%) had documented SBO. The remaining 68 patients had other non-obstructive diagnoses. SBFS was located in proximal, central, distal and multisegmental bowel loops in one (3.1%), eight (25.0%), 21 (65.6%) and two (6.3%) patients with SBO, and in zero (0%), 10 (14.7%), 53 (77.9%) and five (7.4%) of patients without SBO (p < 0.273). The small bowel was non-dilated and mildly, moderately or severely dilatd and mildly, moderately or severely dilated in one (3%), five (16%), 20 (62%) and six (19%) patients with SBO, and in 61(90%), seven (10%), zero (0%) and zero (0%) patients without SBO. Normal or mildly dilated small bowel was seen in all (100%) patients without SBO, but only in six (19%) of 32 patients with SBO (p < 0.0001). Moderate or severe small bowel dilatation was seen in 26 (81%) patients with SBO (p < 0.0001), but it was absent in patients without SBO. Distal small bowel collapse was found in 27 (84.4%) of 32 patients with SBO, but not in patients without SBO (p < 0.0001). A combination of SBFS, moderate or severe small bowel distension and distal collapse was found in 23 (71.9%) patients with SBO (p < 0.0001), but was not found in patients without SBO. Conclusion: A SBFS is more frequent in patients presenting with acute abdominal/flank pain without bowel obstruction. When seen in association with moderate or severe small bowel dilatation, a SBFS is significantly more common in patients with SBO. When a SBFS is associated with normal or mildly dilated small bowel, the majority of patients have no bowel obstruction

163

Breastfeeding and genetic factors in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic, debilitating disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease has not been elucidated, but is thought to be multifactorial with both environ-mental and genetic influences. A large body of research has been conducted to elucidate the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. This article reviews this literature, emphasizing the studies of breastfeeding and the studies of genetic factors, particularly NOD2 polymorphisms.

Theresa A Mikhailov, Sylvia E Furner

2009-01-01

164

Small bowel mesentery fibroma  

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Full Text Available Fibromas are rarely localized in the abdomen, but almost always in the mesentery or omentum. We present a 63-year old woman in whom the examination of the upper abdominal pain showed a well distinct abdominal mass at the level of the lower edge of the pancreas. During the operation a tumor 100 ? 87 x 70 mm in size, from the radix of small bowel mesentery, was excised, Seven months later the patient is symptom-free with normal ultrasonographic and CT findings.

?olovi? Radoje B.

2002-01-01

165

Primary malignant small bowel tumor  

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Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings.

Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

1990-07-15

166

Primary malignant small bowel tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings

167

Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages of the small bowel in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune activation have repeatedly been suggested as pathogentic factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The driving force for immune activation in IBS remains unknown. The aim of our study was to find out if the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methods We studied 65 patients (61 females with IBS and 42 (29 females healthy controls in which IBS had been excluded. Full thickness biopsies from the jejunum and mucosa biopsies from the duodenum and the jejunum were stained with a monoclonal antibody to Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS and species-specific monoclonal antibodies to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. We used polyclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, CD68, CD11c, and CD117 to identify enteroendocrine cells, macrophages, dendritic, and mast cells, respectively. Results Chlamydia LPS was present in 89% of patients with IBS, but in only 14% of healthy controls (p C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP. Staining for C. pneumoniae was negative in both patients and controls. Chlamydia LPS was detected in enteroendocrine cells of the mucosa in 90% of positive biopsies and in subepithelial macrophages in 69% of biopsies. Biopsies taken at different time points in 19 patients revealed persistence of Chlamydia LPS up to 11 years. The odds ratio for the association of Chlamydia LPS with presence of IBS (43.1; 95% CI: 13.2-140.7 is much higher than any previously described pathogenetic marker in IBS. Conclusions We found C. trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages in the small bowel mucosa of patients with IBS. Further studies are required to clarify if the presence of such antigens has a role in the pathogenesis of IBS.

Sandström Gunnar

2010-02-01

168

Leptin secretion by white adipose tissue and gastric mucosa  

OpenAIRE

Leptin is a hormone that plays a central role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Originally discovered in mature white adipocytes, it was subsequently isolated from the gastric mucosa. This tissue contains a large number of epithelial endocrine and exocrine cells secreting leptin in the blood stream and in the gastric lumen, respectively. Light and electron microscopy have shown that adipocytes and gastric epithelial cells contain leptin along the...

Cammisotto, P. G.; Bendayan, M.

2007-01-01

169

Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

1999-04-29

170

Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.)

171

Intestinal epithelial cells in inflammatory bowel diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs seems to involve a primary defect in one or more of the elements responsible for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and oral tolerance. The most important element is represented by the intestinal barrier, a complex system formed mostly by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs. IECs have an active role in producing mucus and regulating its composition; they provide a physical barrier capable of controlling antigen traffic through the intestinal mucosa. At the same time, they are able to play the role of non-professional antigen presenting cells, by processing and presenting antigens directly to the cells of the intestinal immune system. On the other hand, immune cells regulate epithelial growth and differentiation, producing a continuous bi-directional cross-talk within the barrier. Several alterations of the barrier function have been identified in IBD, starting from mucus features up to its components, from epithelial junctions up to the Toll-like receptors, and altered immune responses. It remains to be understood whether these defects are primary causes of epithelial damage or secondary effects. We review the possible role of the epithelial barrier and particularly describe the role of IECs in the pathogenesis of IBD.

Giulia Roda, Alessandro Sartini, Elisabetta Zambon, Andrea Calafiore, Margherita Marocchi, Alessandra Caponi, Andrea Belluzzi, Enrico Roda

2010-09-01

172

Intestinal small bowel lymphomas - diagnosis and treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary intestinal lymphomas are most common in the stomach. The mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)-lymphoma which is closely associated with helicobacter pylori is very well known. In most cases, these malignancies are from B-cells origin. Another possible point of manifestation, although not well known, is the small bowel. Both tumors have enormous capabilities to enlarge in the abdominal cave. This is responding to their often asymptomatic manifestation. The symptoms, if they occur, are widespread and unspecific. Ileus, diarrhae, abdominal pain or bleeding will be observed, in rare cases also perforation or gastrointestinal or cutaneous fistulas. Diagnostic imaging often demonstrates a tumour of massive size by then, which is echopoor in the abdominal ultrasound. Our report concerns two cases of small intestine lymphomas, which were diagnosed by CT-scanning and treated in our clinic in only a short period of time. The first case was a low malignant jejunal lymphoma which was almost asymptomatic, whereas the second case had an ileus, due to compression of the intestine because of a high malignant lymphoma of the ileocecal region. (orig.)

173

Diarrhoea due to small bowel diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small intestinal diseases are a common, though often overlooked cause of diarrhoeal illness. Fully 1% of the Caucasian population are affected by coeliac disease and a substantial portion of children living in poverty in the developing world are affected by environmental enteropathy. These are but two examples of the many diseases that cause mucosal injury to the primary digestive and absorptive organ in our body. While diarrhoea may be a common, though not universally seen symptom of small bowel mucosal disease, the consequent malabsorption can lead to substantial malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies. The small intestine, unlike the colon, has been relatively inaccessible, and systematic evaluation is often necessary to identify and treat small intestinal mucosal diseases that lead to diarrhoea. Immunodeficiency states, including HIV enteropathy, adult autoimmune enteropathy, drug-associated enteropathy, and tropical sprue continue to occur and require specific therapy. All patients with severe diarrhoea or diarrhoea associated with features suggestive of malabsorption may have a disease of the small intestinal mucosa that requires careful evaluation and targeted management. PMID:23384804

Murray, Joseph A; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto

2012-10-01

174

CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer. Of the 1468 patients with primary lung cancer between 1990 and 2000, 13 patients who had metastasis to the small intestine were collected. Of these 13 patients, nine who underwent CT scan were included for analysis. The pathologic diagnoses of primary lung cancer in these nine patients were squamous cell carcinoma in six, adenocarcinoma in two, and large cell carcinoma in one. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the site and patterns (intraluminal mass/bowel wall thickening/bowel implants) of metastatic masses, and the presence or absence of complication such as intussusception, obstruction, or perforation of the small bowel. The medical records of the patients were also reviewed retrospectively for evaluation of presenting abdominal symptom and time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Metastatic lesions were distributed throughout the small intestine: the duodenum in five, the jejunum in four, the ileum in six, and both jejunum and ileum in one patient. The size of metastatic masses of small bowel ranged from 1.3 cm to 5.0 cm (mean size, 2.6 cm) On CT, the small bowel was involved with intraluminal masses (mean size, 3.4 cm) in eight patients, diffuse wall thickening (mean thickness, 1.6 cm) in five, and bowel implants (mean size, 2.2 cm) in two. Complications occurred in seven patients, including intussusceptions without obstruction in two patients and with obut obstruction in two patients and with obstruction in two, obstruction without intussusceptions in two, and bowel perforation in one. Of 9 patients, 6 had at least one symptom referable to the small bowel including abdominal pain in 4, anemia in 3, vomiting in 1, and jaundice in 1. Lung cancer and small bowel lesions were detected simultaneously in four patients and the time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer ranged from 10 days to 30 months (median interval, 54 days) in patients. CT helps in defining the extent and pattern of small bowel metastases as well as in demonstrating their complication

175

CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer. Of the 1468 patients with primary lung cancer between 1990 and 2000, 13 patients who had metastasis to the small intestine were collected. Of these 13 patients, nine who underwent CT scan were included for analysis. The pathologic diagnoses of primary lung cancer in these nine patients were squamous cell carcinoma in six, adenocarcinoma in two, and large cell carcinoma in one. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the site and patterns (intraluminal mass/bowel wall thickening/bowel implants) of metastatic masses, and the presence or absence of complication such as intussusception, obstruction, or perforation of the small bowel. The medical records of the patients were also reviewed retrospectively for evaluation of presenting abdominal symptom and time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Metastatic lesions were distributed throughout the small intestine: the duodenum in five, the jejunum in four, the ileum in six, and both jejunum and ileum in one patient. The size of metastatic masses of small bowel ranged from 1.3 cm to 5.0 cm (mean size, 2.6 cm) On CT, the small bowel was involved with intraluminal masses (mean size, 3.4 cm) in eight patients, diffuse wall thickening (mean thickness, 1.6 cm) in five, and bowel implants (mean size, 2.2 cm) in two. Complications occurred in seven patients, including intussusceptions without obstruction in two patients and with obstruction in two, obstruction without intussusceptions in two, and bowel perforation in one. Of 9 patients, 6 had at least one symptom referable to the small bowel including abdominal pain in 4, anemia in 3, vomiting in 1, and jaundice in 1. Lung cancer and small bowel lesions were detected simultaneously in four patients and the time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer ranged from 10 days to 30 months (median interval, 54 days) in patients. CT helps in defining the extent and pattern of small bowel metastases as well as in demonstrating their complication.

Kim, Jae Wook; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Gab Choul; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-11-01

176

Integrating-Sphere Measurements for Determining Optical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgical procedures carried out in the oral and maxillofacial region can result in large tissue defects. Accounting for the shortage of oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues, different models of an organotypic substitute of the oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering have recently been proposed. In this work, the propagation of light radiation through artificial human oral mucosa substitutes based on fibrin-agarose scaffolds (fibrin, fibrin-0.1% agarose, fibrin-0.2%agarose) is investigated, and their optical properties are determined using the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method based on integrating-sphere measurements. Similar values for the absorption and scattering coefficients between the fibrin and fibrin-0.1% agarose bioengineered tissues and the native oral mucosa were found. These results suggest the adequacy of these biomaterials for potential clinical use in human oral mucosa applications. These optical properties represent useful references and data for applications requiring the knowledge of the light transport through this type of tissues, applications used in clinical practice. It also provides a new method of information analysis for the quality control of the development of the artificial nanostructured oral mucosa substitutes and its comparison with native oral mucosa tissues.

Ionescu, A. M.; Cardona, J. C.; Garzón, I.; Oliveira, A. C.; Ghinea, R.; Alaminos, M.; Pérez, M. M.

2015-02-01

177

Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5 - 3.0 / 100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. An 83 - year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting, cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine. (author)

178

Severe adhesive small bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adhesive small bowel obstruction is a frequent cause of hospital admission. Water soluble contrast studies may have diagnostic and therapeutic value and avoid challenging demanding surgical operations, but if bowel ischemia is suspected, prompt surgical intervention is mandatory. A 58-year-old patient was operated for extensive adhesive small bowel obstruction after having had two previous laparotomies for colorectal surgery, and had a complex clinical course with multiple operations and several complications. Different strategies of management have been adopted, including non-operative management with the use of hyperosmolar water soluble contrast medium, multiple surgical procedures, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support, and finally use of antiadherences icodextrin solution. After 2 years follow-up the patient was doing well without presenting recurrent episodes of adhesive small bowel obstruction. For patients admitted several times for adhesive small bowel obstruction, the relative risk of recurring obstruction increases in relation to the number of prior episodes. Several strategies for non-operative conservative management of adhesive small bowel obstruction have already addressed diagnostic and therapeutic value of hyperosmolar water soluble contrast. According to the most recent evidence-based guidelines, open surgery is the preferred method for surgical treatment of strangulating adhesive small bowel obstruction as well as after failed conservative management. Research interest and clinical evidence are increasing in adhesions prevention. Hyaluronic acid-carboxycellulose membrane and icodextrin may reduce incidence of adhesions. PMID:23054502

Di Saverio, Salomone; Catena, Fausto; Kelly, Michael D; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Ansaloni, Luca

2012-12-01

179

Small bowel volvulus in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two children with small bowel volvulus diagnosed on barium enema examination are reported. In one patient the volvulus was associated with malrotation and in the other patient there was a post-operative peritoneal adhesion. In both cases the diagnosis was based on beaking of the head of the barium column at the site of volvulus. Radiographic demonstration of a beak sign in the small bowel on barium enema examination should suggest a diagnosis of small bowel volvulus, and indicates the need for immediate surgery. (orig.)

180

Up-regulation and Pre-activation of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: TRAF3 and TRAF5 share a common ancestral gene, and interact as essential components of signaling pathways in immunity. TRAF3 and TRAF5 are overexpressed in the colon of rat/mouse models with colitis. However, the expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study is to explore the potential roles of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.Methods: Plasma levels of TRAF3 and TRAF5 proteins were detected by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Colonic expression of TRAF3 and TRAF5 proteins was detected by western blot analysis. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was applied for gene expression. Inflamed intestinal mucosa and non-inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal mucosa was analyzed from healthy controls.Results: The plasma levels of TRAF3 and TRAF5 were significantly higher both in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in healthy controls. Only soluble TRAF5 showed a weak correlation with endoscopic disease activity index (Baron score in patients with ulcerative colitis (spearman's r=0.358, P=0.022. Gene expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were significantly higher both in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in healthy controls (all P<0.0001. Gene and protein expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 were significantly higher in inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in non-inflamed colonic mucosa and normal mucosa of healthy controls (all P<0.0001. Furthermore, gene and protein expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 were also significantly higher in non-inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in normal mucosa of healthy controls.Conclusions: TRAF3 and TRAF5 are overexpressed in inflammatory bowel disease. Although the endoscopic appearance can be normal, TRAF3 and TRAF5 pre-activation can be detected in non-inflamed colonic segments.

Jun Shen, Yu-qi Qiao, Zhi-hua Ran, Tian-rong Wang

2013-01-01

181

Sources of variability in estimating ornithine decarboxylase activity and polyamine contents in human colorectal mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first enzyme in polyamine synthesis, is elevated during epithelial carcinogenesis. Since this enzyme is a target for colon and other cancer chemoprevention strategies, we sought to identify sources of variability affecting the measurement of tissue ODC activities and polyamine contents. Multiple colorectal biopsies were obtained from 39 patients undergoing colonoscopy. Biopsy size affected polyamine but not ODC values. Spermidine (spd):spermine (spm) ratios varied less than the contents of the individual amines. Bowel preparation methods did not affect any of the measurements. ODC activities and spd:spm ratios did not vary with bowel location. Lab assay methods contributed to sources of error. Variability was greatest for polyamine content measurements but was reduced when polyamine contents were analyzed as spd:spm ratios. Intrapatient variability of these parameters was as great or greater than interpatient variability. When measured in apparently unaffected colorectal mucosa, none of these parameters were significantly correlated with prior polyp history, number of prevalent polyps found at current colonoscopy, or polyp size. Thus, neither ODC activity nor polyamine contents of normal mucosa appear to be discriminatory markers of colorectal carcinogenesis. However, spd:spm ratios, which show the least variability among measures of polyamine contents, should be a good marker of the consequence of polyamine synthesis inhibition in chemoprevention trials. PMID:8061580

Hixson, L J; Emerson, S S; Shassetz, L R; Gerner, E W

1994-06-01

182

CT assessment of anastomotic bowel leak  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To evaluate the predictors of clinically important gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Subjects and methods: Ninety-nine patients, 73 with clinical suspicion of anastomotic bowel leak and 26 non-bowel surgery controls underwent CT to investigate postoperative sepsis. Fifty patients had undergone large bowel and 23 small bowel anastomoses. The time interval from surgery was 3-30 days (mean 10 {+-} 5.9 SD) for the anastomotic group and 3-40 days (mean 14 {+-} 11 SD) for the control group (p = 0.3). Two radiologists blinded to the final results reviewed the CT examinations in consensus and recorded the presence of peri-anastomotic air, fluid or combination of the two; distant loculated fluid or combination of fluid and air; free air or fluid; and intestinal contrast leak. Final diagnosis of clinically important anastomotic leak (CIAL) was confirmed at surgery or by chart review of predetermined clinical and laboratory criteria. Results: The prevalence of CIAL in the group undergoing CT was 31.5% (23/73). The CT examinations with documented leak were performed 5-28 (mean; 11.4 {+-} 6 SD) days after surgery. Nine patients required repeat operation, 10 percutaneous abscess drainage, two percutaneous drainage followed by surgery, and two prolonged antibiotic treatment and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Of the CT features examined, only peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air was more frequently seen in the CIAL group as opposed to the no leak group (p = 0.04). There was no intestinal contrast leakage in this cohort. Free air was present up to 9 days and loculated air up to 26 days without CIAL. Conclusion: Most postoperative CT features overlap between patients with and without CIAL. The only feature seen statistically more frequently with CIAL is peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air.

Power, N. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Atri, M. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)]. E-mail: mostafa.atri@sw.ca; Ryan, S. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Haddad, R. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Smith, A. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

2007-01-15

183

CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the role of CT in the diagnosis of bowel and mesenteric injury we studied the CT findings and its usefulness in patients of abdominal trauma. CT scans of 27 patients who were confirmed to have bowel and/or mesenteric injury due to abdominal trauma were analyzed retrospectively. Of these 27 patients 15 had bowel injury only and 12 had both bowel and mesenteric injury. CT findings analysed were bowel wall thickening, presence or absence of highly attenuated bowel wall, sentinel clot, mesenteric infiltration, peritoneal fluid collection and free intraabdominal air in cases with bowel injury only and with both bowel and mesenteric injury respectively. Ten patients had other accompanying abdominal injuries, such as liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, bladder injuries, intraperitoneal abscess or retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Findings observed were bowel wall thickening in 23 cases (85%), peritoneal fluid collection in 21 (78%), highly attenuated bowel wall in 19 (70%), mesenteric infiltration in 17 (63%), free intraperitoneal air in 10 (37%) and sentinel clot in 7 (26%). Pneumoperioneum were observed in 10 of 24 patients (41,7%) having bowel perforation. Two cases did not show any CT findings suggesting bowel and/or mesenteric injury. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the CT findings between the patient group with bowel injury only and the patient group with both bowel and meseneric injury. CT scan is a useful tool in evaluating the degree and extent of bowel and/or mesenteric injury as well as in planning the patient's management.

Lee, Hyang Mee [Cheil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Hee Soo [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1995-10-15

184

Clinical, endoscopical and morphological efficacy of mesalazine in patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Andrey E Dorofeyev1, Elena A Kiriyan2, Inna V Vasilenko1, Olga A Rassokhina1, Andrey F Elin11National Medical University, Donetsk, Ukraine; 2Gastroenterological Center of Poltava Hospital Clinic, Poltava, UkraineObjectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical efficacy and cytomorphologic changes of colon mucosa following the treatment of patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS with mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA].Methods: In this controlled, randomized, blind clinical trial, a total of 360 patients with varying subtypes of IBS were randomly treated with 500 mg of mesalazine qid or by standard therapy without mesalazine for a period of 28 days. Pre- and post-treatment pain intensity, pain duration, meteorism, stool abnormalities and endoscopic parameters were monitored, and biopsies or brush biopsies were examined histologically.Results: Treatment of IBS patients with mesalazine significantly reduced intensity and duration of pain in all subtypes of IBS, except for duration of pain in the subtype “undifferentiated”, where the difference was not significant. In addition, in patients with diarrhea type and undifferentiated type of IBS, mesalazine also significantly reduced the abnormal stool pattern. In comparison to the control group, administration of mesalazine reduced the incidence of endoscopic and cytomorphologic changes of the bowel mucosa, including changes in colon mucus, mucus production, cytologic or histologic parameters, epithelial cell degeneration, appearance of leukocytes and macrophages and cell infiltrations.Conclusion: Mesalazine was effective in reducing several symptoms characteristic of IBS. It significantly reduced pain intensity and duration and improved cytohistologic parameters of the bowel mucosa.Keywords: 5-amino salicylic acid, 5-ASA, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome, IBS, meteorism, stool abnormalities

Dorofeyev AE

2011-06-01

185

Influência da glutamina na mucosa do instestino de ratos submetidos à enterectomia extensa / Influence of glutamine on intestinal mucosa of rats after extensive enterectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de uma dieta suplementada com glutamina sobre as alterações adaptativas no intestino delgado de ratos com enterectomia extensa. MÉTODO: Vinte ratos Wistar, divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de dez animais, foram enterectomizados e alimentados com dois tipos difer [...] entes de dieta nos 14 dias de pós-operatório: grupo controle (GC)-dieta padrão; grupo glutamina (GG)-dietapadrão acrescida de 3,05% de glutamina. Avaliou-se evolução ponderal, peso da mucosa intestinal (PM), profundidade das criptas (PC), altura das vilosidades (AV), espessura da parede (EP) e o conteúdo de ácido desoxirribonucléico (DNA) na mucosa intestinal, no início e no final do experimento. RESULTADOS: Com exceção da PC ileal do Grupo GG, todas as variáveis estudadas tiveram um aumento significativo em seus valores finais tanto no jejuno quanto no íleo (p0,05). No jejuno inicial, a PC no grupo GC foi maior (p=0,005). A EP do jejuno e íleo final foi maior no grupo GC. CONCLUSÃO: A suplementação dietética com a glutamina não melhorou as alterações adaptativas que ocorrem no remanescente intestinal. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of glutamine supplementation in the adaptive response of the intestinal mucosa in rats submitted to extensive resection of the small bowel. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were randomized to two groups of ten animals which received [...] different nutrition regimens after operation: control group (GC n=10)-standard rat chow; glutamine group (GG n=10)-standart rat chow supplemented with 3.05% glutamine. The weight evolution, mucosa weight (PM), crypts depth (PC), vilus height (AV), thickness wall (EP) and the mucosal content of DNA were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the experiment both at the jejunum and ileum. RESULTS: In both groups all parameters showed significant increase in final values both at the jejunum and ileum (p

José de Souza, Neves; José Eduardo de Aguilar, Nascimento; Maria Helena Gaiva Gomes da, Silva; Alberto Salomão, Bicudo; Mariana, Nascimento; Rubens, Nochi Junior.

2003-12-01

186

Mucosa associated lymphoma of the lung.  

OpenAIRE

Two cases of mucosa associated lymphoma (pseudolymphoma) of the lung are described which highlight the varied clinical and radiological features of this rare pulmonary condition. Following chemotherapy with prednisolone and chlorambucil, both patients are disease free three years later.

Bolton-maggs, P. H.; Colman, A.; Dixon, G. R.; Myskow, M. W.; Williams, J. G.; Donnelly, R. J.; Hind, C. R.

1993-01-01

187

Ostomy Surgery of the Bowel  

Science.gov (United States)

... have oils, perfumes, or deodorants, which may cause skin problems or keep the skin barrier from sticking. A ... of ostomy surgery of the bowel may include skin irritation stoma problems blockage diarrhea bleeding electrolyte imbalance infection irritation of ...

188

Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo  

OpenAIRE

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the ...

Gojkov-vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-01-01

189

Preparing the bowel for colonoscopy.  

OpenAIRE

Bowel preparation methods for total colonoscopy in children generally involve whole gut irrigation with electrolyte lavage solutions, which in most children will require hospitalisation for nasogastric tube administration. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of oral bisacodyl combined with a single phosphate enema as a bowel preparation regimen in children. In an open prospective trial, 30 children (aged 18 months-15 years) were given oral bisacodyl on each morning of the two d...

Abubakar, K.; Goggin, N.; Gormally, S.; Durnin, M.; Drumm, B.

1995-01-01

190

Long-Term Outcomes of Simultaneous Skin and Bowel Flaps for Esophageal Reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Esophageal reconstruction can be performed with skin or bowel flaps. The choice of flap remains controversial, as the long-term outcomes of skin flaps cannot always be assessed in patients with limited life expectancies due to advanced malignancy, unlike the pediatric and benign cases which have had esophageal reconstruction using bowel flaps. We report the long-term clinical and histopathological outcomes in a series of 45 cases repaired with combined skin and bowel flaps.Four patients developed symptomatic strictures after corrosive esophageal injuries were repaired with a combination of a tubed free radial forearm fasciocutaneous flap and a pedicled bowel flap. On average, 24 years had passed since uneventful initial esophageal reconstructions. Barium esophagograms were obtained in all cases and pathological examination was performed upon all surgical specimens.The cutaneous portions of the reconstructed esophagus exhibited a variety of findings on barium examination. Each of the 4 cases developed an esophagocutaneous fistula after revision; an average of 4 surgeries was required to close these fistulae. The inner surfaces of the portion of esophagus repaired with skin flaps showed extensive ulceration, polypoid lesions, and fibrosis. Pathology specimens from skin flaps showed extensive acute and chronic inflammation, microabscesses, fibrosis, and acanthosis, with depletion and degeneration of the pilosebaceous units. By contrast, adjacent parts of the esophagus repaired with bowel were widely patent with normal appearing mucosa.Our findings indicate that a bowel flap is durable with good tolerance to gastrointestinal content over long periods, whereas skin flaps often developed morphological changes and could not maintain long-term esophageal function without eventual stricture and dysphagia. We therefore recommend use of bowel flaps for esophageal reconstruction in patients with long life expectancy. PMID:25003411

Imaizumi, Atsushi; Liem, Anita A; Yang, Chun-Fan; Chen, Wency; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Hung-Chi

2014-07-01

191

Bombesin stimulates enterocyte turnover following massive small bowel resection in a rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent evidence suggests that bombesin (BBS) is involved in modulation of growth and differentiation of normal small intestine. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of BBS on enterocyte turnover after massive small bowel resection in a rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three experimental groups: Sham rats underwent bowel transection and re-anastomosis, short bowel syndrome (SBS) rats underwent a 75% small bowel resection, and SBS-BBS rats underwent bowel resection and were treated with BBS given subcutaneously at a dose of 20 mug/kg, once daily, from postoperative day 3 through 14. Parameters of intestinal adaptation (bowel and mucosal weights, mucosal DNA and protein, villus height and crypt depth), enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined in jejunum and ileum on day 15 following operation. RT-PCR technique was used to determine Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in ileal mucosa. Statistical analysis was performed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test, with P less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. Treatment with BBS resulted in a significant increase in ileal bowel and mucosal weight, ileal mucosal DNA and protein, jejunal and ileal villus height, jejunal crypt depth, and jejunal and ileal proliferation index compared to SBS-animals. SBS rats showed a significant increase in Bax and Bcl-2 expression in ileum that was accompanied by a significant increase in cell apoptosis compared to sham animals. SBS-BBS rats demonstrated a significant decrease in Bax and Bcl-2 expression in ileum and a decrease in apoptotic index compared to SBS-animals. In conclusion, in a rat model of SBS, BBS enhances enterocyte turnover and stimulates structural intestinal adaptation. Decreased Bax expression may be responsible for the inhibitory effect of BBS on enterocyte apoptosis. PMID:17440764

Sukhotnik, Igor; Slijper, Nadav; Karry, Rachel; Shaoul, Ron; Coran, Arnold G; Lurie, Michael; Shiloni, Eitan; Mogilner, Jorge G

2007-05-01

192

Úlcera eosinófila de la mucosa oral / Eosinophilic ulcer of oral mucosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La Úlcera Eosinófila de la Mucosa Oral, es una entidad poco frecuente, pobremente descrita en la literatura mundial. Se define como una lesión benigna autolimitada que si bien puede presentarse en distintas áreas de la cavidad bucal, presenta una marcada predilección por la mucosa ventral de la leng [...] ua. Clínicamente, se presenta como una lesión ulcerada de bordes indurados y sobreelevados. Los hallazgos histopatológicos son característicos y consisten en un infiltrado mixto rico en eosinófilos, acompañado de una población de grandes células mononucleadas. Recientes artículos basados en estudios inmunohistoquimicos, permiten afirmar la presencia de grandes linfocitos atípicos CD30+ y por lo tanto, incluir esta lesión en el espectro de las entidades simuladoras de desordenes linfoproliferativos. A pesar de esto, el mecanismo etiopatogenico permanece oscuro y el trauma local juega un rol todavía no dilucidado; aunque se halla presente en la mayoría de las publicaciones, explicando el fenómeno como un mecanismo reactivo. La importancia de esta lesión, radica en su diagnostico diferencial por su semejanza clínica al carcinoma espinocelular, histoplasmosis, chancro sifilítico, Úlcera tuberculosa, carcinoma epidermoide y otras. En nuestro trabajo se revisa la literatura y se discuten la características clínicas, histopatológicas y alternativas terapéuticas, a partir del artículo de un caso clínico en una paciente joven, que luego de la biopsia escisión como método para el diagnostico de certeza, se produce una recidiva de la lesión; lo que orientó el tratamiento hacia la cirugía combinada con corticoterapia local intralesional, logrando su remisión. Abstract in english Eosinophilic Ulcer of the Oral Mucosa, an entity, poorly deciphers in world-wide literature. It is defined as a self-limited, benign injury that although it can appear in different areas of the buccal cavity it presents a noticeable predilection via the ventral mucosa of the tongue. Clinically, one [...] looks like an ulcer with hard and risen edges. The histo-pathological findings are typical and consist of a rich infiltrated mix of eosinophils, as well as a population of large mononuclear cells. Recent reports based on immunohistochemical studies allow us to confirm the presence of large atypical lymphocytes CD30+ and therefore include this lesion injury in the spectrum of lympho proliferative disorder simulators. Despite this the etiopathogenic mechanism remains unknown and local trauma still plays an unexplained roll; although the majority of publications have explained the phenomena as a reactive mechanism. The importance of this injury is established by its differential diagnostic because of its clinical similarity to Spinocellular Carcinoma, Histoplasmosis, syphilitic chancre, Ulcer Tuberculosis, Epidermoid Carcinoma and others. In our work the literature is reviewed and clinical characteristics, histo-pathologies and alternative therapies are discussed. We use the case of a young patient who has a biopsy in an effort to diagnose with certainty has a relapse of the lesion which directs the treatment towards combined surgery and local intra lesion cortico therapy which led to successful remission.

A.C., Bencini; C.A., Bencini; V., Strada; M., Florencia Soldavini; G.M., Bruno; M.F., Cordeu; M.A., Cotignola.

2009-08-01

193

Úlcera eosinófila de la mucosa oral Eosinophilic ulcer of oral mucosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La Úlcera Eosinófila de la Mucosa Oral, es una entidad poco frecuente, pobremente descrita en la literatura mundial. Se define como una lesión benigna autolimitada que si bien puede presentarse en distintas áreas de la cavidad bucal, presenta una marcada predilección por la mucosa ventral de la lengua. Clínicamente, se presenta como una lesión ulcerada de bordes indurados y sobreelevados. Los hallazgos histopatológicos son característicos y consisten en un infiltrado mixto rico en eosinófilos, acompañado de una población de grandes células mononucleadas. Recientes artículos basados en estudios inmunohistoquimicos, permiten afirmar la presencia de grandes linfocitos atípicos CD30+ y por lo tanto, incluir esta lesión en el espectro de las entidades simuladoras de desordenes linfoproliferativos. A pesar de esto, el mecanismo etiopatogenico permanece oscuro y el trauma local juega un rol todavía no dilucidado; aunque se halla presente en la mayoría de las publicaciones, explicando el fenómeno como un mecanismo reactivo. La importancia de esta lesión, radica en su diagnostico diferencial por su semejanza clínica al carcinoma espinocelular, histoplasmosis, chancro sifilítico, Úlcera tuberculosa, carcinoma epidermoide y otras. En nuestro trabajo se revisa la literatura y se discuten la características clínicas, histopatológicas y alternativas terapéuticas, a partir del artículo de un caso clínico en una paciente joven, que luego de la biopsia escisión como método para el diagnostico de certeza, se produce una recidiva de la lesión; lo que orientó el tratamiento hacia la cirugía combinada con corticoterapia local intralesional, logrando su remisión.Eosinophilic Ulcer of the Oral Mucosa, an entity, poorly deciphers in world-wide literature. It is defined as a self-limited, benign injury that although it can appear in different areas of the buccal cavity it presents a noticeable predilection via the ventral mucosa of the tongue. Clinically, one looks like an ulcer with hard and risen edges. The histo-pathological findings are typical and consist of a rich infiltrated mix of eosinophils, as well as a population of large mononuclear cells. Recent reports based on immunohistochemical studies allow us to confirm the presence of large atypical lymphocytes CD30+ and therefore include this lesion injury in the spectrum of lympho proliferative disorder simulators. Despite this the etiopathogenic mechanism remains unknown and local trauma still plays an unexplained roll; although the majority of publications have explained the phenomena as a reactive mechanism. The importance of this injury is established by its differential diagnostic because of its clinical similarity to Spinocellular Carcinoma, Histoplasmosis, syphilitic chancre, Ulcer Tuberculosis, Epidermoid Carcinoma and others. In our work the literature is reviewed and clinical characteristics, histo-pathologies and alternative therapies are discussed. We use the case of a young patient who has a biopsy in an effort to diagnose with certainty has a relapse of the lesion which directs the treatment towards combined surgery and local intra lesion cortico therapy which led to successful remission.

A.C. Bencini

2009-08-01

194

Sensitization to epithelial antigens in chronic mucosal inflammatory disease. Characterization of human intestinal mucosa-derived mononuclear cells reactive with purified epithelial cell-associated components in vitro.  

OpenAIRE

To explore the auto-reactive potential of cells infiltrating the gut mucosa in idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) were isolated, characterized morphologically and phenotypically, and evaluated for antigen-specific reactivity. The last was assessed by quantitating LPMC cytotoxic capabilities against purified, aqueous-soluble, organ-specific epithelial cell-associated components (ECAC) characterized previously. Enzyme-isolated infla...

Roche, J. K.; Fiocchi, C.; Youngman, K.

1985-01-01

195

Changes in human mucosal gamma delta T cell repertoire and function associated with the disease process in inflammatory bowel disease.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Although gamma delta T cells are a major component of the human intestinal mucosa, it is not clear what role they play in mucosal immunity or if they are involved in the disease process of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were used to identify quantitative and qualitative changes in the repertoire of gamma delta T cells present in surgical and/or biopsy samples or normal and ...

Mcvay, L. D.; Li, B.; Biancaniello, R.; Creighton, M. A.; Bachwich, D.; Lichtenstein, G.; Rombeau, J. L.; Carding, S. R.

1997-01-01

196

Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are characterized by a chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. The etiology and pathogenesis of these disorders such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are incompletely understood. Recently, antimicrobial peptides, which are expressed by leukocytes and epithelia, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. Antimicrobial peptides are pivotal for intestinal defense, shaping the composition of the luminal flora and contributing thereby to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Apart from their antimicrobial activity affecting commensal bacteria, immunomodulatory properties of antimicrobial peptides have been identified, which link innate and adaptive immune response. There is increasing evidence that alterations in mucosal levels of these peptides contribute to IBD pathogenensis.

Stefan Vordenbäumen

2011-11-01

197

Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Associated Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn’s disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials.

David R. Mack

2011-02-01

198

Trichuris suis ova in inflammatory bowel disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some but not all epidemiological studies suggest that helminth infection in childhood protects against development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in later years. In animal models of IBD, helminths have shown protective effects and changed bacterial flora in the gut. Based on these concepts, small trials and series have been published showing some positive effects of Trichuris suis ova in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Currently, large randomized placebo-controlled trials are under way. Results remain to be awaited in order to clarify a possible role of T. suis ova in the treatment of IBD. PMID:24246995

Schölmerich, Jürgen

2013-01-01

199

Oral mucosa grafts for urethral reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Urethral reconstruction has continued to present formidable and enormous challenges for urologic, paediatric and plastic surgeons as diverse opinions have been expressed on the quality and type of ideal substitution material. This literature review is aimed at drawing attention of surgeons to the versatile nature of oral mucosal grafts. Methods: A review of the utilization of oral mucosa in urethral reconstruction was made. Structured Medline search was performed looking at all aspects of utilization of oral mucosa including mucosal harvest, donor site morbidity and outcome. Results: The unique demands of the urethra set a high standard for autogenous graft substitutes; hence literature reports reveal that split and full thickness skin grafts from the scrotum, penis, extragenital sites (ureter, saphenous vein, appendix, colon, medial upper arm, neck, lateral chest, abdomen, bladder mucosa and more recently oral mucosa have been used. Unlike other tissues, oral mucosa grafts are flexible, easy to harvest and trim and have an excellent microvasculature favorable for graft-taking. Furthermore, the natural moist location of the oral mucosa in the oral environment favours its easy adaptability in the urethral passage thus giving good long-term results. However, there are reports of complications at the donor site with the commonest being anaesthesia or paraesthesia of the cheek or lips. Regional variations of the oral mucosa, length of the graft required, the decision to close or leave donor site open and harvesting technique are some of the factors suggested to account for differences in donor site morbidity. Conclusion: Oral mucosal graft is a versatile urethral substitute with excellent outcome. It is becoming the gold standard for urethral substitution.

Ugboko V

2009-12-01

200

Experience with an alternative contrast medium in oral small bowel imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The image quality of oral small bowel imaging is often poor on account of the small bowel enema. A new contrast medium should increase the image quality due to better compliance of patient because of the better taste of substance. The loading of patient with radiation or time should not increase. Methods and patients: We investigated prospectively 40 patients, randomized in two groups of 20 patients each. Two different substances were used as contrast medium: barium-methylcellulose and Barium-Mucofalk trademark, respectively. The quality of the double contrast, profile of the mucosa, duration of radiation, duration of examination, dose-area product, and taste of the substance were judged for significance. Results: The taste of the new contrast medium was judged to be better: twice as often as ''good'' and five times less often as ''bad'', the difference was not significant due to the small number of patients. There is no significant difference in the other criterias. Conclusion: Mucofalk trademark is an alternative contrast medium for oral small bowel radiology in cases of difficult placement of the tube for enema. The quality of double contrast and visualization of the profile of mucosa are the same while the taste is better. (orig.)

201

Distribution and phenotype of Epstein-Barr virus-infected cells in inflammatory bowel disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of colon mucosa, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are thought to differ in T-helper lymphocyte composition and cytokine secretion patterns. Some of the implicated cytokines are growth factors for EBV-infected cells. We examined colon mucosa for differences in the distribution and phenotype of EBV-infected cells. Colon tissues with Crohn's disease (n = 31) or ulcerative colitis (n = 25) and controls (n = 60) were characterized by in situ hybridization and immunohistology for six EBV gene products as indicators of latent and replicative EBV infection. The cells were additionally phenotyped by combined detection of the EBV transcripts and B- or T-cell antigens. B lymphocytes predominated as the site of latent EBV infection in the colon and were most numerous in ulcerative colitis. In active ulcerative colitis, EBV-positive lymphocytes accumulated under and within the epithelium and displayed evidence for replicative infection. The patterns of mucosal EBV gene expression indicate local impairment of virus-specific T-cell responses in active ulcerative colitis. Detection of EBV may help to discriminate between active ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory bowel diseases. Colon mucosa is a potential site of EBV replication and may be relevant for EBV transmission. PMID:10880375

Spieker, T; Herbst, H

2000-07-01

202

The evolution of bowel preparation and new developments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bowel preparation is essential for successful colonoscopy examination, and the most important factor is the bowel preparation agent used. However, selection of a bowel preparation agent invariably involves compromise. Originally, bowel preparation was performed for radiologic and surgical purposes, when the process involved dietary limitations, cathartics, and enemas, which had many side effects. Development of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution led to substantive advancement of bowel preparation; however, despite its effectiveness and safety, the large volume involved, and its salty taste and unpleasant odor reduce compliance. Accordingly, modified PEG solutions requiring consumption of lower volumes and sulfate-free solutions were developed. Aqueous sodium phosphate is more effective and better tolerated than PEG solutions; however, fatal complications have occurred due to water and electrolyte shifts. Therefore, aqueous sodium phosphate was withdrawn by the US Food and Drug Administration, and currently, only sodium phosphate tablets remain available. In addition, oral sulfate solution and sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate are also available, and various studies have reported on adjunctive preparations, such as hyperosmolar or stimulant laxatives, antiemetics, and prokinetics, which are now in various stages of development. PMID:24870298

Park, Jeong Bae; Lee, Yong Kook; Yang, Chang Heon

2014-05-01

203

Bowel hath no fury like a gallbladder inflamed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gallstone ileus is a well-established phenomenon in which a large gallstone leads to mechanical small bowel obstruction. This case, however, reports the novel finding of a patient presenting with suprapubic pain and guarding caused by paralytic ileus of the small bowel and a duodenal perforation secondary to a necrotic gallbladder. It highlights the importance of distinguishing between gallstone ileus and paralytic ileus and how the management of the two conditions differs. Furthermore, this article discusses how paralytic ileus caused by intra-abdominal inflammatory conditions such as cholecystitis can mask the typical clinical findings making the diagnosis difficult. PMID:24876462

Khan, Amad; Flavin, Kathyrn Ellen; Harris, Lauren Sarah; Chaudhry, Mohammad Naushad; Reading, Nicholas

2014-04-01

204

Effects of stressful life events on bowel symptoms: subjects with irritable bowel syndrome compared with subjects without bowel dysfunction.  

OpenAIRE

A standardised inventory of stressful life events and a bowel symptom questionnaire were administered at three month intervals for one year to 383 women who were unselected with respect to bowel symptoms. A NEO Personality Inventory was given initially to assess neuroticism. Subjects who satisfied restrictive diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome were compared with those who complained of abdominal pain plus altered bowel habits but who did not meet restrictive diagnostic criteria ...

Whitehead, W. E.; Crowell, M. D.; Robinson, J. C.; Heller, B. R.; Schuster, M. M.

1992-01-01

205

Bowel infarction: Complication of ethanol ablation of renal tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of infarction of the large bowel resulting from transcatheder ablation of a malignant renal tumor with absolute ethanol is presented. The causal mechanism of this complication is described to that preventive steps can be taken to avoid this accident in the future. (orig.)

206

[Novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of irritable bowel syndrome due to the heterogeneous clinical symptoms and coexisting psychiatric disorders is still controversial. Although several agents with different mechanisms of action are widely used in clinical practice, there are only few drugs available with strong evidence of their efficacy, safety and tolerability at present. The etiology of irritable bowel syndrome is considered to be multifactorial: experimental and clinical research on visceral hypersensitivity, motility and brain-gut axis involving its neurotransmitters and receptors created the foundation of novel therapeutic approaches. Albeit nowadays several drugs (alosetron, tegaserod) have been registered in a few countries for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, further large clinical trials are required related to the new chemical entities. PMID:17509972

Pregun, István; Herszényi, László; Juhász, Márk; Miheller, Pál; Tulassay, Zsolt

2007-05-20

207

If I Had - Bowel Control Issues  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... patient manage to hold this in?” But, in effect, under perfect healthy conditions, the bowel should be ... in the pelvis that can have a profound effect on bowel function and can drive patients towards ...

208

If I Had - Bowel Control Issues  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... family member with bowel control issues. Dr. Galloway: Well, fecal incontinence is the name that doctors give ... also going to have bowel control issues as well. There are many paradoxes associated with leakage, and ...

209

If I Had - Bowel Control Issues  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that doctors give to patients who have problems controlling the bowel, and typically controlling gas is less of a problem than controlling the stool or the bowel movement. This is ...

210

Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Matteo Bosani, Sandro Ardizzone, Gabriele Bianchi PorroChair of Gastroenterology, “L. Sacco” University Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has not yet been clarified and immunosuppressive agents which nonspecifically reduce inflammation and immunity have been used in the conventional therapies for IBD. Evidence indicates that a dysregulation of mucosal immunity in the gut of IBD causes an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and trafficking of effector leukocytes into the bowel, thus leading to an uncontrolled intestinal inflammation. Under normal situations, the intestinal mucosa is in a state of “controlled” inflammation regulated by a delicate balance of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor [TNF-?], interferon-gamma [IFN-?], interleukin-1 [IL-1], IL-6, IL-12 and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-11. The mucosal immune system is the central effector of intestinal inflammation and injury, with cytokines playing a central role in modulating inflammation. Cytokines may therefore be a logical target for inflammatory bowel disease therapy using specific cytokine inhibitors. Biotechnology agents targeted against TNF, leukocyte adhesion, Th1 polarization, T cell activation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B, and other miscellaneous therapies are being evaluated as potential therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. In this context, infliximab and adalimumab are currently the only biologic agents approved in Europe for the treatment of inflammatory Crohn’s disease. Other anti-TNF biologic agents have emerged, including CDP571, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, onercept. However, ongoing research continues to generate new biologic agents targeted at specific pathogenic mechanism involved in the inflammatory process. Lymphocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by adhesion molecules are important in leukocyte migration and recruitment to sites of inflammation, and selective blockade of these adhesion molecules is a novel and promising strategy to treat Crohn’s disease. Therapeutics agents to inhibit leukocyte trafficking include natalizumab (approved for use in Crohn’s disease in USA, MLN-02, and ISIS 2302. Other agents being investigated for the treatment of Crohn’s disease include inhibitors of T cell activation, proinflammatory cytokine receptors, Th1 polarization, growth hormone, and growth factors. Agents being investigated for treatment of ulcerative colitis include many of those mentioned above. Controlled clinical trials are currently being conducted, exploring the safety and efficacy of old and new biologic agents, and the search certainly will open new and exciting perspective on the development of therapies for inflammatory bowel disease. A review is made of the main areas of research exploring the mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of IBD, providing advances in the agents currently in use, and identifying a host of new therapeutic biologic targets.Keywords: Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, biological therapy

Matteo Bosani

2009-02-01

211

Prenatal diagnosis of bowel obstruction initially manifested as isolated hyperechoic bowel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal bowel obstruction has a prevalence of 1 in 3000 to 5000 live births. Ultrasonographic diagnosis is made by demonstrating distended loops of bowel. Echogenic bowel, defined as small bowel more echogenic than liver or bone, has been associated with congenital infections, cystic fibrosis, chromosomal abnormalities, and bowel obstruction. Fetal ascites, defined as fluid in the peritoneal cavity partly surrounding the liver and bladder, also has been associated with bowel obstruction. We present a case of jejunal atresia whose presenting appearance consists of echogenic bowel, transient ascites, and massive dilatation of intestinal loops. PMID:9805311

Font, G E; Solari, M

1998-11-01

212

Radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixteen patients with cancer of the vagina that were controlled locally for a minimum of eighteen months after teletherpay (T) or brachytherapy (B) or both (T and B), were analyzed for radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa. The site of vaginal necrosis did not always coincide with the site of the tumor. The posterior wall appeared more vulnerable than the anterior or lateral walls. For the distal vaginal mucosa, necrosis requiring surgical intervention occurred following combined T and B, if summated rad exceeded9800. The upper vagina tolerated higher dosages. No patient surgery for upper vaginal necrosis even though summated (T and B) dosage up to 14,000 rad was applied. Placing radioactive needles on the surface of the vaginal cylinder with or without interstitial perincal needles should be avoided. Further accumulation of data is needed to define these vaginal mucosa tolerance limits more closely

213

Intestinal anisakiasis as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anisakiasis, a parasitic infection by larvae of the nematode Anisakis found in raw or undercooked saltwater fish, mostly involves stomach but rarely small intestine. We report a rare case of a 61-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and developed small bowel obstruction caused by intestinal anisakiasis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed segmental edema of the intestinal wall with proximal dilatation. The patient underwent urgent laparotomy because strangulated small bowel obstruction was suspected. A localized portion of the intestine around jejunoileal junction was found to be erythematous, edematous, and hardened, which was resected. The resected specimen showed a linear whitish worm, Anisakis simplex, penetrating into the intestinal mucosa. It is often clinically challenging to consider intestinal anisakiasis in the differential diagnosis because of its nonspecific abdominal symptoms and findings. Although gastrointestinal anisakiasis is still rare in the United States, the incidence is expected to rise given the growing popularity of Japanese cuisine such as sushi or sashimi. Anisakiasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients with nonspecific abdominal symptoms after consumption of raw or undercooked fish. PMID:23786678

Kojima, Gotaro; Usuki, Shinichiro; Mizokami, Ken; Tanabe, Marianne; Machi, Junji

2013-09-01

214

Gastrointestinal symptoms in the irritable bowel compared with peptic ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease.  

OpenAIRE

Symptoms of 50 patients with the irritable bowel syndrome were compared with those of 49 with endoscopically proven peptic ulcer disease and 49 with radiologically or endoscopically proven inflammatory bowel disease using a questionnaire which was administered after the diagnosis was made. Symptoms of bowel dysfunction including pain related to bowel movements were more likely to occur in the irritable bowel syndrome than peptic ulcer disease. Only abdominal distension, straining at stool and...

Thompson, W. G.

1984-01-01

215

Scintigraphic diagnosis of inflammatory small bowel stenoses in Crohn's disease using 111In-labelled leucocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

17 patients with known small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease (clinically active, n=14; clinically inactive, n=3) were examined within 8 days via barium enemas of the small bowel (Pansdorf's method or enteroclysma) and by 111In-oxin labelled leucocytes. From 19 radiologically diagnosed small bowel stenoses 14 were classified as inflammatory and 5 as non-inflammatory. The leucocyte scan also showed 14 inflammatory stenoses. The not inflamed stenoses could not be diagnosed scintigraphically. The barium enemas of the small bowel and the leukocyte scans both correctly diagnosed the acute inflamed segments. The inability to show non-inflamed segments (n=5) and to localise small bowel stenoses exactly is disadvantageous in the scan. The advantage of the leucocyte scan is a non invasive examination without specific bowel preparation and the possibility to diagnose additionally inflamed large bowel segments (n=4), fistulas and abscesses (n=2). The leucocyte scan offers a useful expansion of the diagnostic tools in small bowel diseases, especially in radiological problems in patients with Crohn's disease. (orig.)

216

A retrospective study of 5-year outcomes of radiotherapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The favorable response rate of radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication has been demonstrated. However, there are limited data available on the long-term outcomes. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication. Thirty-four consecutive patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma that were refractory to eradication were treated with radiotherapy (a total dose of 30 Gy). The response and adverse events of radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed as short-term outcomes, and recurrence-free, overall and disease-specific survival rates were calculated as long-term outcomes. Thirty-three (97.1%) patients achieved complete remission and radiotherapy was well tolerated. One patient underwent emergency gastrectomy due to severe hematemesis. Of the 34 patients during the median follow-up period of 7.5 (1.2-13.0) years, one patient had local recurrence after 8.8 years, one patient underwent surgery for bowel obstruction secondary to small bowel metastasis after 5.1 years and one patient had pulmonary metastasis after 10.9 years. Pathologically, all three recurrences revealed mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma without any transformation to high-grade lymphoma. None died of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 97.0%. The 5-year overall survival rates and disease-specific survival rates were 97.0 and 100%, respectively. Radiotherapy in patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication can achieve excellent overall survival. However, long-term surveillance is necessary to identify late recurrences. (author)

217

Accidental Bowel Leakage  

Science.gov (United States)

... or anus cannot function, in rare cases a colostomy may be needed so the body can get ... small and large intestines. Colon: The large intestine. Colostomy: An opening that connects the colon to a ...

218

Caracterização anatômica e citométrica em biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.]) / Anatomical and cytometric characterization in biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.])  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.]) é uma frutífera nativa da América Central e América do Sul que se destaca das demais espécies do gênero por apresentar frutos grandes e comestíveis. Tendo em vista que pouco se conhece a respeito da anatomia da planta, tipo de reserva da semente, como também s [...] obre o conteúdo de DNA de espécies da família anonáceas, este trabalho teve por objetivos caracterizar histoquimicamente as sementes e anatomicamente as plântulas, e determinar o conteúdo de DNA de biribazeiro. As plântulas foram obtidas de sementes coletadas na região Amazônica pela Embrapa Roraima e enviadas à Universidade Federal de Lavras. Os frutos foram despolpados, e suas sementes foram previamente lavadas e semeadas em bandejas de 48 células, contendo como substrato pó de serragem, permanecendo em câmara de germinação a 30ºC por 90 dias. Nas plantas obtidas, procedeu-se à análise histoquímica, à caracterização anatômica e à determinação do conteúdo de DNA. As principais conclusões deste trabalho foram que: (1) as sementes da Rollinia mucosa apresentam reserva principal lipídica; (2) as secções transversais da lâmina foliar indicam organização dorsiventral, do tipo hipoestomática com estômatos paracíticos e tricomas em ambas as faces da folha; (3) as folhas de biribazeiro apresentam, em média, 4,77 pg de DNA. Abstract in english The biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.]) is a native fruit of Central America and South America that stands out from the other species of the genus because it has large and edible fruits. Considering that little is known about the anatomy of the plant, the type of reserve of the seed, as well as li [...] ttle is known about the DNA content of species of Annonaceae family, this study aimed to characterize seeds histochemically and seedlings anatomically, and determine DNA content of biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.]). The seedlings were obtained from seeds collected in the Amazon region by Embrapa Roraima and then, sent to UFLA, Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State. The pulp of the fruits were extracted and the seeds were previously washed and sown in trays of 48 cells containing sawdust as substrate, remaining in a germination chamber at 30ºC for 90 days. A histochemical analysis, anatomical characterization and determination of DNA content of the plants obtained were made. The main conclusions of this research were: (1) the seeds of Biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa) present mainly lipid reserve, (2) The cross-sections of the leaf blade indicate dorsiventral organization, hypostomatic with paracitic stomata and trichomes on both sides of the sheet (3) the leaves of biribazeiro have on average 4.77 pg of DNA.

Joyce Dória Rodrigues, Soares; Gabrielen de Maria Gomes, Dias; Filipe Almendagna, Rodrigues; Moacir, Pasqual; Edvan Alves, Chagas.

219

CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the role of CT in the diagnosis of bowel and mesenteric injury we studied the CT findings and its usefulness in patients of abdominal trauma. CT scans of 27 patients who were confirmed to have bowel and/or mesenteric injury due to abdominal trauma were analyzed retrospectively. Of these 27 patients 15 had bowel injury only and 12 had both bowel and mesenteric injury. CT findings analysed were bowel wall thickening, presence or absence of highly attenuated bowel wall, sentinel clot, mesenteric infiltration, peritoneal fluid collection and free intraabdominal air in cases with bowel injury only and with both bowel and mesenteric injury respectively. Ten patients had other accompanying abdominal injuries, such as liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, bladder injuries, intraperitoneal abscess or retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Findings observed were bowel wall thickening in 23 cases (85%), peritoneal fluid collection in 21 (78%), highly attenuated bowel wall in 19 (70%), mesenteric infiltration in 17 (63%), free intraperitoneal air in 10 (37%) and sentinel clot in 7 (26%). Pneumoperioneum were observed in 10 of 24 patients (41,7%) having bowel perforation. Two cases did not show any CT findings suggesting bowel and/or mesenteric injury. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the CT findings between the patient group with bowel injury only and the patient group with both bowel and meseneric injury. CT scan is a useful tool in evaluating the degree and useful tool in evaluating the degree and extent of bowel and/or mesenteric injury as well as in planning the patient's management

220

Increases in free radicals and cytoskeletal protein oxidation and nitration in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Overproduction of colonic oxidants contributes to mucosal injury in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the mechanisms are unclear. Our recent findings using monolayers of intestinal cells suggest that the mechanism could be oxidant induced damage to cytoskeletal proteins. However, oxidants and oxidative damage have not been well characterised in IBD mucosa. Aims: To determine whether there are increases in oxidants and in tissue and cytoskeletal protein oxidation in IBD mucosa. Methods: We measured nitric oxide (NO) and markers of oxidative injury (carbonylation and nitrotyrosination) to tissue and cytoskeletal proteins in colonic mucosa from IBD patients (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, specific colitis) and controls. Outcomes were correlated with IBD severity score. Results: Inflamed mucosa showed the greatest increases in oxidants and oxidative damage. Smaller but still significant increases were seen in normal appearing mucosa of patients with active and inactive IBD. Tissue NO levels correlated with oxidative damage. Actin was markedly (>50%) carbonylated and nitrated in inflamed tissues of active IBD, less so in normal appearing tissues. Tubulin carbonylation occurred in parallel; tubulin nitration was not observed. NO and all measures of oxidative damage in tissue and cytoskeletal proteins in the mucosa correlated with IBD severity. Disruption of the actin cytoarchitecture was primarily within the epithelial cells and paracellular area. Conclusions: Oxidant levels increase in IBD along with oxidation of tissue and cytoskeletal proteins. Oxidative injury correlated with disease severity but is also present in substantial amounts in normal appearing mucosa of IBD patients, suggesting that oxidative injury does not necessarily lead to tissue injury and is not entirely a consequence of tissue injury. Marked actin oxidation (>50%)—which appears to result from cumulative oxidative damage—was only seen in inflamed mucosa, suggesting that oxidant induced cytoskeletal disruption is required for tissue injury, mucosal disruption, and IBD flare up. PMID:12692059

Keshavarzian, A; Banan, A; Farhadi, A; Komanduri, S; Mutlu, E; Zhang, Y; Fields, J Z

2003-01-01

221

Prophylactic and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa. Part I. Results of a German multicenter questionnaire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, it was to evaluate the remedies, which are used for prevention and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of the skin and mucosa (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small and large bowel, rectum and vagina). A questionnaire was sent to 130 radiotherapeutic departments in Germany in Juli 1995. The questionnaire had been designed with 22 open questions concerning the preventive and therapeutic management of acute radiation related morbidity of skin and mucosal sites. From 130 questionnaires, 89 (68.4%) were sent back till August 1995. All of them were evaluable. The recommendations showed a broad spectrum for each site. Especially the oral mucositis was treated in many different ways and combinations. The prevention and therapy of complicating superinfections seem to be the joint principle of most of the recommendations. The management of the acute radiation related morbidity has a wide clinical spectrum among different radiation therapy centers. Systematic prospectively designed investigations are necessary in order to achieve a further reduction in the radiation related acute morbidity. Therefore, a multicenter collaborative working group has been founded. (orig./MG)

222

CT enteroclysis in small bowel Crohn's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnostic evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease has changed dramatically over the last decade. The introduction of wireless capsule endoscopy, double balloon endoscopy and the introduction of newer therapeutic agents have changed the role of imaging in the small bowel. Additionally, advances in multidetector CT technology have further changed how radiologic investigations are utilized in the diagnosis and management of small bowel Crohn's disease. This article describes how we perform CT enteroclysis in the investigation of small bowel Crohn's disease and discusses the role of CT enteroclysis in the current management of small bowel Crohn's disease.

223

[Short bowel syndrome: definition, causes, intestinal adaptation and bacterial overgrowth].  

Science.gov (United States)

The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a complex entity due to anatomical or functional loss of part of the small bowel originating a clinical picture with severe metabolic and nutritional impairments due to reduction of the effective absorptive surface area of the gut. SBS is one of the causes of a larger entity known as "intestinal failu-Currently, mesenteric vascular accidents are the main cause in adults, followed by inflammatory bowel disease, and radiation enteritis, whereas in children, the main causes are congenital and perinatal diseases. The clinical picture associated with SBS varies according to the length and location of affected small bowel, the presence of underlying disease, the presence or absence of the large bowel and ileocecal valve, and the nature of the underlying disease. Intestinal adaptation is the process by which, throughout 1-2 years, intestinal absorption is reestablished to the situation prior to intestinal resection, and is a key factor determining whether a patient with SBS will progress to intestinal failure and depend on DPN. Intestinal adaptation may take place if the patient does oral intake higher than the usual one (hyperphagia); besides, the bowel may also adapt to secure a more effective absorption per surface area unit, either by increasing the absorptive surface area (structural adaptation) and/or slowing intestinal transit (functional adaptation). These changes are not still clearly established in humans, but there are so in animal models. The presence of nutrients within the intestinal lumen and certain gastrointestinal hormones, particularly GLP-2, have an influence on a successful adaptation process. Patients with SBS are prone to the occurrence of bacterial overgrowth that makes adaptation difficult and worsens the symptoms, besides being a factor for dependence on parenteral nutrition. PMID:17679296

Ballesteros Pomar, M D; Vidal Casariego, A

2007-05-01

224

Lignans from leaves of Rollinia mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new furofuranic lignan named (+)-epimembrine together with known (+)-epieudesmine and (+)-epimagnoline were isolated from leaves of R. mucosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data. Palmitone and a mixture of beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol were also isolated. PMID:11926539

Estrada-Reyes, Rosa; Alvarez, Ana Laura; López-Rubalcava, Carolina; Rocha, Luisa; Heinze, Gerardo; Moreno, Julia; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

2002-01-01

225

Bioactive annonaceous acetogenins from Rollinia mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new bioactive Annonaceous acetogenins, rollitacin (1) and rollinacin (2), along with one known acetogenin, javoricin, were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rollinia mucosa. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited selective inhibitory effects among six human solid tumour cell lines. The structural elucidations of 1 and 2 were achieved by various spectroscopic analyses and chemical derivatizations. PMID:9195761

Shi, G; MacDougal, J M; McLaughlin, J L

1997-06-01

226

Mucocele of the lower lip mucosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mucocele, also known as mucous extravasation phenomenon, is a pseudocyst of traumatic etiology, in which a minor salivary gland ductruptures. Clinically it can be observed as a tumefaction or bubble; it is flaccid on palpation, asymptomatic, with a smooth surface andvariable size, and with coloring equal to that of the adjacent mucosa, or bluish, depending on its depth in the tissue. The patient generally reports a bubble that has burst and fills up again, releasing a salty tasting liquid. There is greater incidence in women (25.4%, between the ages of 8 and 14 years, the commonest site being the mucosa of the lower lip. In the present study, the authors will present a clinical case of mucocele seen at the School of Dentistry at the Federal University of Pelotas, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in a patient, a 23-year-old leukoderma man, who presented a lesion situated in the mucosa of the lower lip on the right side, close to the bottom of the fold, measuring approximately 0.6 cm, with coloring similar to the adjacent normal mucosa. The treatment performed was surgical excision of the mucocele and the accessory glands involved in the region of the lesion. The histopathologic report confirmed the clinical diagnosis of mucocele.

Tais Frenzel da Rosa

2008-01-01

227

Ectopic intestinal glands after segmental small bowel irradiation in the cat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following segmental irradiation of the small bowel, 5 of 64 cats demonstrated ectopic intestinal glands in the submucosal tissue. In addition, one of these 5 cats had foci of abnormal glands in the muscularis mucosae. In 2 of the 5 animals, cellular polymorphism, nucleolar irregularity and loss of cellular polarity were present in irradiation-induced ectopic intestinal glands. The review of the literature indicates that intestinal irradiation may induce intestinal adenocarcinomas with metastatic growth. The possibility that ectopic intestinal glands are precancerous lesions in the irradiated cat is discussed. (Auth.)

228

Investigation of bowels adjacent to the uterus using MRI. For relief of bowel complications following intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracavitary brachytherapy occasionally causes bowel injuries other than rectum. To relieve these adverse events, we investigated the relationships between uterine bodies and surrounding bowels using MRI. A hundred and ten of serial 252 pelvic MRI of women, excluding the following, were reviewed. The excluded items were large intrapelvic extrauterine masses over 3.5 cm in greater diameter, large uterine corpus masses over 2 cm, three or more uterine corpus masses, past history of hysterectomy or rectocolonic resection, and massive ascites. We investigated the fundus-bowel distance (FBD), site of the nearest bowel to the uterine body, flexion type and deviation of uterus, uterine wall thickness, subcutaneous fat thickness and age. FBD ranged from 8 to 42 mm (20.2±8.2 mm). In 66 cases (60%), FBD was 20 mm or less. The sites of the nearest bowel were 67 sigmoid colons, 27 rectums, 8 small intestines, and 7 descending colons. Eighty-three uteri (75.5%) were anteflexion and 27 uteri (24.5%) were retroflexion. Of the anteflexion group, 78.3% were adjacent to the sigmoid colon, and 92.6% of the retroflexion group were adjacent to rectum. Right-deviation uteri represented 33 cases (30%); mid-position 33, (30%); and left-deviation uteri, 44 (40%). Uterine wall thickness was 5 to 33 mm (17.8±5.2). Subcutaneous fat thickness was 10 to 47 mm (20.2±9.3). The age of patients ranged from 21 to 83 years (39.9±14.4). FBD showed statistical good correlation to uterine wall thickneod correlation to uterine wall thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness. In anteflexion group, correlation of uterine wall thickness with FBD was significant. In retroflexion group, however, it was not significant. The site of bowels, flexion type, and deviation type did not correlate with FBD. FBD, uterine wall thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness showed regression of quadric curves with age; these peaked at ages 50.4, 46.0 and 46.2, respectively. It is presumed that predictive factors of bowel complication are thin uterine wall, young and aged, thin patients and retroflexion uterus. Uterine deviation does not shorten FBD. To relieve a radiation injury to bowels adjacent to the uterine fundus, the isodose curve must be decrease the irradiation dose of the tandem tip. At this time we conformed so as to recommend refering to MRI, CT and ultrasonography to detect the uterine wall thickness and the involved area of primary carcinoma. Retroflexion uterus as should be reformed to anteflexion by hard tandem applicator. Laterally-deviated uteruses should be adjusted such that they lie within the central shielding zone of the external beam. (author)

229

Mountains and bowels of Tajikistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book dedicated to description of physical and geographic and geologic particularities and also wealth of Tajikistan bowels. It was done consecutive rate of the particularities of relief, the history of investigations, the geological formation and deposits of treasures of the soil and unique natural monuments

230

Fetal bowel anomalies - US and MR assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technical quality of prenatal US and fetal MRI has significantly improved during the last decade and allows an accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology prenatally. Accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology in utero is important for parental counseling and postnatal management. It is essential to recognize the US presentation of bowel pathology in the fetus in order to refer the patient for further evaluation or follow-up. Fetal MRI has been shown to offer some advantages over US for specific bowel abnormalities. In this paper, we review the normal appearance of the fetal bowel on US and MRI as well as the typical presentations of bowel pathologies. We discuss more specifically the importance of recognizing on fetal MRI the abnormalities of size and T1-weighted signal of the meconium-filled distal bowel. (orig.)

Rubesova, Erika [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

2012-01-15

231

Multidetector CT of bowel obstruction: value of post-processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The value of imaging in patients with suspicion of bowel obstruction is dependent on the ability to answer questions relevant to the clinical management of patients. Is there mechanical obstruction? Is it a small bowel obstruction (SBO) or a large bowel obstruction (LBO)? What is the transition point? What is the cause of the obstruction? What is the severity of the obstruction? The results of studies published more than 10 years ago using axial and single-slice helical CT gave rise to findings based on axial slices that enables CT to answer these different questions. With the recent advent of multislice CT, large numbers of thin sections can be generated with short image intervals, which is well suited to postprocessing. Postprocessing techniques include standard reformatting methods such as sagittal, coronal and oblique reformatting, curved reformatting, maximum and minimum-intensity projection, variable thickness viewing, and volume and surface rendering. This pictorial review illustrates the added value of postprocessing for answering different questions concerning patients with suspicion of bowel obstruction. (orig.)

232

Hialinose cutaneo-mucosa: relato de um caso Hyalinosis cutis et mucosae: a case report  

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Full Text Available Apresenta-se o caso de uma paciente com hialinose cutâneo-mucosa e comentam-se os aspectos neurológicos, radiológicos e dermatológicos. Evidencia-se a presença de calcificações intracranianas comprovadas no exame radiológico, consideradas patognomônicas.The clinical case of a patient with hyalinosis cutis et mucosae is reported, and the neurological, radiological and dermatological aspects involved are discussed. We point out the presence of intracranial calcifications, demonstrated by radiological examination, considered to be pathognomonic.

Eduardo Abujamra Asseis

1984-12-01

233

Giant mesenteric lymphatic malformation presenting as small bowel volvulus  

OpenAIRE

Abdominal pain with bilious emesis is an ominous clinical presentation with many possible causes. We describe a previously healthy 4-year-old boy who presented with these symptoms and ultrasound findings of fluid throughout most of the abdominal cavity. Computed tomography imaging revealed a large cystic mass (21-by-13 cm) associated with a small bowel obstruction due to volvulus. A laparoscopic exploration was undertaken, revealing a large mass arising from the small intestinal mesentery and...

Cauley, Christy E.; Spencer, Philip J.; Sagar, Pallavi; Goldstein, Allan M.

2013-01-01

234

Bacteria, genetics and irritable bowel syndrome.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

EVALUATION OF: Villani AC, Lemire M, Thabane M et al. Genetic risk factors for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome following a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 138, 1502-1513 (2010). While the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains to be fully defined, two clinical observations - the occurrence, de novo, of IBS following bacterial gastroenteritis and the history, commonly obtained from IBS patients, of other instances of the syndrome within their families - have instigated investigations, in IBS, of the potential roles, on the one hand, of the gut microbiota and the host response and, on the other hand, of genetic factors. The study reviewed here relates to both of these factors by studying genetic predisposition to postinfective IBS in a large population of individuals who were exposed to a multimicrobial enteric infection, which resulted in a severe outbreak of gastroenteritis and was followed by the development of IBS in over a third. In this detailed study, the investigators identified a number of genes that were linked significantly to the development of postinfectious-IBS in the Toll-like receptor 9, IL-6 and cadherin 1 regions. These genes play important roles in bacterial recognition, the inflammatory response and epithelial integrity, respectively, and provide considerable support for the hypothesis that links IBS onset to disturbances in the microbiota and the host response.

Craig, Orla F

2010-06-01

235

Diet and the irritable bowel syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food intake plays a key role in triggering or perpetuating symptoms in patients with IBS. Evaluation of the impact of diet in the individual patient requires a precise dietary history and a 7-day prospective dietary analysis, which should include the quality and quantity of food consumed, chronologic sequence and nature of symptoms, and the frequency and consistency of bowel movements. The caloric density of the meal, total fat intake, the quantity and quality of lactose-containing foods, sorbitol, fructose, and the nature and quantity of soluble and insoluble fiber intake must be noted. Patients with reflux esophageal symptoms should eliminate foods that decrease LES pressure, such as chocolate, peppermint, alcohol, and coffee. Direct esophageal mucosal irritants such as tomatoes, citrus juices, sharp condiments, and alcohol should be limited. Gastric emptying is slowed with the ingestion of fats and soluble fiber. Small bowel motility is slowed by soluble fiber and fatty foods. Gaseous syndromes may be reduced by avoidance of smoking, chewing gum, excessive liquid intake, and carbonated drinks. The reduced intake of large amounts of lactose-containing foods, sorbitol, and fructose may limit postprandial bloating. Flatus production can be lowered by reducing fermentable carbohydrates such as beans, cabbage, lentils, brussel sprouts, and legumes. Soluble and insoluble fiber ingestion will reduce sigmoidal intraluminal pressures and overcome spastic constipation when given in progressive graded doses. Effective dietary manipulations remain a key factor in reducing symptoms in IBS. PMID:2066155

Friedman, G

1991-06-01

236

Irritable Bowel Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

I believe there are four essential elements in the management of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): to establish a good physician-patient relationship; to educate patients about their condition; to emphasize the excellent prognosis and benign nature of the illness; and to employ therapeutic interventions centering on dietary modifications, pharmacotherapy, and behavioral strategies tailored to the individual. Initially, I establish the diagnosis, exclude organic causes, educate patients about the disease, establish realistic expectations and consistent limits, and involve patients in disease management. I find it critical to determine why the patient is seeking assistance (eg, cancer phobia, disability, interpersonal distress, or exacerbation of symptoms). Most patients can be treated by their primary care physician. However, specialty consultations may be needed to reinforce management strategies, perform additional diagnostic tests, or institute specialized treatment. Psychological co-morbidities do not cause symptoms but do affect how patients respond to them and influence health care-seeking behavior. I find that these issues are best explored over a series of visits when the physician-patient relationship has been established. It can be helpful to have patients fill out a self-administered test to identify psychological co-morbidities. I often use these tests as a basis for extended inquiries into this area, resulting in the initiation of appropriate therapies. I encourage patients to keep a 2-week diary of food intake and gastrointestinal symptoms. In this way, patients become actively involved in management of their disease, and I may be able to obtain information from the diary that will be valuable in making treatment decisions. I do not believe that diagnostic studies for food intolerances are cost-effective or particularly helpful; however, exclusion diets may be beneficial. I introduce fiber supplements gradually and monitor them for tolerance and palatability. Synthetic fiber is often better-tolerated than natural fiber, but must be individualized. In my experience, excessive fiber supplementation often is counterproductive, as abdominal cramps and bloating may worsen. Antidiarrheal agents are very effective when used correctly, preferably in divided doses. I use them in patients in anticipation of diarrhea and especially in those who fear symptoms when engaged in activities outside the home. I encourage patients to make decisions as to when and how much to use. However, almost always, a morning dose before breakfast is used (loperamide, 2 to 6 mg) and, perhaps again later in the day when symptoms of diarrhea are prominent. I prefer antispasmodics to be used intermittently in response to periods of increased abdominal pain, cramps, and urgency. For patients with daily symptoms, especially after meals, agents such as dicyclomine before meals are useful. For patients with infrequent but severe episodes of unpredictable pain, sublingual hyoscyamine often produces rapid relief and instills confidence. In general, I recommend that oral antispasmodics be used for a limited period of time rather than indefinitely, and generally for periods of time when symptoms are prominent. For chronic visceral pain syndromes, I recommend small doses of tricyclic antidepressants. These agents are especially effective in diarrhea-predominant patients with disturbed sleep patterns but may be unacceptable to patients with constipation. I educate patients that side effects occur early and benefits may not be apparent for 3 to 4 weeks. I consider using SSRIs in low doses in patients with constipation-predominant IBS; cisapride, 10 to 20 mg three times per day, also may be beneficial. When taken with drugs that inhibit cytochrome P450, cisapride has been associated with serious cardiac arrhythmias caused by QT prolongation, including ventricular arrhythmias and torsades de pointes. These drugs include the azole fungicides; erythromycin, clarithromycin, and troleandomycin; some antidepressants; HIV protease inhibitors; and ot

Wald

1999-02-01

237

Weight loss and morphometric study of intestinal mucosa in rats after massive intestinal resection: influence of a glutamine-enriched diet Perda de peso e estudo morfométrico da mucosa intestinal de ratos submetidos à ressecção subtotal de intestino delgado: influência do uso de dieta com glutamina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Short-bowel syndrome is responsible for significant metabolic alterations that compromise nutritional status. Glutamine is considered an essential nutrient for enterocytes, so beneficial effects from supplementation of the diet with glutamine are hypothesized. PURPOSE: In this study, the effect of a diet enriched with glutamine was evaluated in rats undergoing extensive small bowel resection, with analysis of postoperative weight loss and intestinal morphometrics of villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the duodenal and remnant jejunal mucosa. METHODS: Three groups of male Wistar rats were established receiving the following diets: with glutamine, without glutamine, and the standard diet of laboratory ration. All animals underwent an extensive small bowel resection, including the ileocecal valve, leaving a remnant jejunum of only 25 cm from the pylorus that was anastomosed lateral-laterally to the ascendant colon. The animals were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment (20th postoperative day. Then they were killed and the remnant intestine was removed. Fragments of duodenal and jejunal mucosa were collected from the remnant intestine and submitted to histopathologic exam. The morphometric study of the intestinal mucosa was accomplished using a digital system (KS 300 connected to an optic microscope. Morphometrics included villi height, crypt depth, and the total thickness of intestinal mucosa. RESULTS: The weight loss comparison among the 3 groups showed no significant loss difference. The morphometric studies showed significantly taller duodenal villi in the glutamine group in comparison to the without glutamine group, but not different from the standard diet group. The measurements obtained comparing the 3 groups for villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the remnant jejunum mucosa were greater in the glutamine-enriched diet group than for the without-glutamine diet group, though not significantly different from with standard-diet group. CONCLUSIONS: In rats with experimentally produced short-bowel syndrome, glutamine-enrichment of an isonitrogenous test diet was associated with an improved adaptation response by the intestinal mucosa but not reduced weight loss. However, the adaptation response in the group receiving the glutamine-enriched diet was not improved over that for the group fed regular chow.A síndrome do intestino curto é responsável por alterações metabólicas que comprometem o estado nutricional do paciente. A glutamina é nutriente essencial para os enterócitos. OBJETIVOS: Estudou-se o efeito da administração de dieta com glutamina, em ratos submetidos à ressecção subtotal do intestino delgado, avaliando a perda de peso pós-operatória e a morfometria da mucosa intestinal. MÉTODOS: Foram constituídos três grupos de ratos Wistar machos recebendo as seguintes dietas: com glutamina (grupo EG, sem glutamina (grupo EsG, e a dieta padrão do laboratório (grupo ER. A ressecção intestinal foi realizada em todos os animais incluindo-se a válvula íleo-cecal, com remanescente jejunal de apenas 25cm a partir do piloro, anastomosado látero-lateralmente ao cólon ascendente. A diferença entre o peso inicial real e ao final do experimento no 20º dia pós-operatório foi registrada antes do sacrifício. Fragmentos de mucosa do duodeno e jejuno foram colhidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Realizou-se o estudo morfométrico da mucosa intestinal, por meio de sistema digital associado ao microscópio ótico. Mediu-se a altura das vilosidades, a profundidade das criptas e a extensão total da mucosa intestinal. RESULTADOS: A perda de peso entre os três grupos não diferiu estatisticamente. A análise da morfometria da mucosa intestinal mostrou diferença significativa: 1 animais do grupo Enterectomia com Glutamina (EG apresentaram vilosidade duodenal significativamente maior que o grupo EsG (p< 0,05, mas não diferiram do grupo que recebeu dieta padrão do laboratório (ER; 2 nas medidas da vilosidade jejunal, cripta jejunal e mucosa jejunal, o grup

Sidney Resende Ribeiro

2004-01-01

238

An Interesting Case of Recurrent Small Bowel Obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sclerosing mesenteritis is associated with a spectrum of diseases which include mesenteric lipodystrophy and mesenteric panniculitis. This inflammatory and fibrosing disorder can affect the small and large bowel wall and mesenteric vessels by exerting a mass effect. The following case highlights the difficulties with diagnosing and managing this unusual disease. A 64-year-old man presented with acute central abdominal pain, radiating to his back, and profuse vomiting. He was diagnosed clinically with small bowel obstruction. He had had an episode of small bowel obstruction 6 years earlier. At this time, he underwent an exploratory laparotomy, and a mass was identified in the small bowel mesentery. The features were thought to be in keeping with sclerosing mesenteritis. He had a dramatically favourable response to the initiation of prednisolone. He continued to be well and asymptomatic for a further 5 years on long-term maintenance low-dose steroids and 6-mercaptopurine. He re-presented in 2009 (six years after initial presentation) with very severe acute abdominal pain and vomiting. He had no recent change in weight or appetite, and had not had time off work. He underwent a second laparotomy and the tissue diagnosis was of metastatic carcinoid tumour involving the small bowel mesentery. This is the first case to our knowledge where sclerosing mesenteritis has been confirmed histologically on biopsy and then subsequently diagnosed with histologically proven carcinoid tumour. For this particular reason it must be always remembered that sclerosing mesenteritis is a 'pathological' and not a radiological diagnosis and that a large proportion of cases are associated with neoplasia. PMID:21103263

Allen, P B; De Cruz, P; Efthymiou, M; Fox, A; Taylor, A C F; Desmond, P V

2009-01-01

239

Efeitos da injeção de solução bicarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico em mucosa colorretal de coelhos, com vistas a aplicação no preparo pré-operatório do cólon / Local effects of rectal washout with acetylsalicylic acid solution on the colonic mucosa of rabbits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A recidiva local no câncer colorretal tem como principal causa o implante de células tumorais nas anastomoses. 11-15 Dessa maneira, lavagem química do lúmen intestinal é preconizada para evitar tanto o implante quanto à recidiva local. 11-28 Em estudos prévios constatamos que a solução b [...] icarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico tem efeitos citolíticos e anti-tumorais in-vitro.31 OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a toxicidade da solução de aspirina na mucosa colônica de coelhos com o objetivo de usá-la no preparo intestinal de portadores de câncer colorretal. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 coelhos. Um clampe vascular foi colocado acima do cólon sigmóide. Os animais foram submetidos a um enema com 50 ml da solução de aspirina ou soro fisiológico de acordo com o grupo. Os animais foram sacrificados ao término do procedimento ou tardiamente de acordo com o grupo. RESULTADOS: A solução de aspirina não altera a mucosa colônica de coelhos. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da solução bicarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico no preparo intestinal de portadores de câncer colorretal é clinicamente possível. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The implantation of viable exfoliated intraluminal tumour cells is the major cause of local recurrence in colorectal cancer. 11-28 Therefore, the bowel lumen wash with a tumoricidal agent has been recommended. 11-28 In previous study we observe that acetylsalicylic acid solution cause ne [...] oplastic cell death in vitro.31 PURPOSE: Assess the local effect of acetylsalicylic acid solution on the colonic mucosa of rabbits, in order to use this agent in the bowel lumen wash. METHODS: 20 rabbits were used. A vascular clamp was placed on the distal colon, followed by the instillation per rectum of 50 ml of acetylsalicylic acid solution or saline solution, according to the group. The euthanasia was performed immediately or later according to the group. RESULTS: The acetylsalicylic acid solution doesn't cause any injury on the colonic mucosa of rabbits. Conclusion: The use of acetylsalicylic acid solution in the bowel lumen wash seems clinically feasible.

Enrico Salomão, Ioriatti; Maria A. M., Rodrigues; Juliana Menezes, Siqueira; Rogério Saad, Hossne.

2007-12-01

240

Influência da glutamina na mucosa do instestino de ratos submetidos à enterectomia extensa Influence of glutamine on intestinal mucosa of rats after extensive enterectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de uma dieta suplementada com glutamina sobre as alterações adaptativas no intestino delgado de ratos com enterectomia extensa. MÉTODO: Vinte ratos Wistar, divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de dez animais, foram enterectomizados e alimentados com dois tipos diferentes de dieta nos 14 dias de pós-operatório: grupo controle (GC-dieta padrão; grupo glutamina (GG-dietapadrão acrescida de 3,05% de glutamina. Avaliou-se evolução ponderal, peso da mucosa intestinal (PM, profundidade das criptas (PC, altura das vilosidades (AV, espessura da parede (EP e o conteúdo de ácido desoxirribonucléico (DNA na mucosa intestinal, no início e no final do experimento. RESULTADOS: Com exceção da PC ileal do Grupo GG, todas as variáveis estudadas tiveram um aumento significativo em seus valores finais tanto no jejuno quanto no íleo (p0,05. No jejuno inicial, a PC no grupo GC foi maior (p=0,005. A EP do jejuno e íleo final foi maior no grupo GC. CONCLUSÃO: A suplementação dietética com a glutamina não melhorou as alterações adaptativas que ocorrem no remanescente intestinal.BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of glutamine supplementation in the adaptive response of the intestinal mucosa in rats submitted to extensive resection of the small bowel. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were randomized to two groups of ten animals which received different nutrition regimens after operation: control group (GC n=10-standard rat chow; glutamine group (GG n=10-standart rat chow supplemented with 3.05% glutamine. The weight evolution, mucosa weight (PM, crypts depth (PC, vilus height (AV, thickness wall (EP and the mucosal content of DNA were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the experiment both at the jejunum and ileum. RESULTS: In both groups all parameters showed significant increase in final values both at the jejunum and ileum (p<0,05, except for ileal PC of GG group (p=0,06. Among groups, the PC in the GC group was higher than GG at the initial jejunum (p=0.005 and the EP, both at the final jejunum and ileum was higher in GC group..There was no significant difference in the others comparations. CONCLUSION: there was no increase in the adaptative response using glutamine supplementation.

José de Souza Neves

2003-12-01

241

Efficacy of radiotherapy of oral mucosa cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of 10-year experience of a radiological department (962 patients) indicated late admission of oral mucosa cancer patients for specialized treatment: 75-85% of the patients were admitted with Stage 2-4 disease. The assessment of the efficacy of radiotherapy according to the 3 ad 5-year survival rates showed that better results were obtained for buccal mucosa cancer and the worst for mouth fundus cancer. Regional metastates are a poor prognostic sign, particularly fixed metastases in patients with tongue and mouth fundus cancer. Combined therapy turned out be the most effective in tongue cancer. In different variants of dose delivery in time the most favorable results were obtained with small fractionation (a conventional course). However it should be noted that a split course was usually applied to weak elderly patients with advanced stages of disease

242

New annonaceous acetogenins from Rollinia mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four new compounds, a mixture of 20,23-cis-2,4-trans-bullatalicinone (1) and 20,23-cis-2,4-cis-bullatalicinone (2), rollimusin (3), and rolliacocin (4), along with eight known acetogenins, were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the unripe fruits of Rollinia mucosa. The structures and stereochemistry of 1-4 were determined on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. PMID:10654411

Liaw, C C; Chang, F R; Chen, Y Y; Chiu, H F; Wu, M J; Wu, Y C

1999-12-01

243

Benign Papules and Nodules of Oral Mucosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews some of the more common benign oral papules and nodules of oral mucosa with emphasis on their etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathology, and treatment. These lesions include mucocele, traumatic fibroma, epulis, pyogenic granuloma, oral papilloma, oral warts, lymphangioma, hemangioma, lipoma, oral nevi and some soft tissue benign tumors. These benign lesions must be separated clinically and histologically from precancerous and malign neoplastic lesions. Accurate clinico-pathological diagnosis is mandatory to insure appropriate therapy.

Mehmet Salih Gürel

2012-12-01

244

A Disguised Tuberculosis in Oral Buccal Mucosa  

OpenAIRE

Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investiga...

Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

2011-01-01

245

An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel. PMID:11043720

Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

2000-10-01

246

Isolated fetal ascites caused by bowel perforation due to colonic atresia.  

Science.gov (United States)

An isolated fetal ascites is a rare ultrasonographic finding. It is commonly diagnosed in association with fetal genitourinary or gastrointestinal conditions, mainly bowel obstruction. We present the sonographic features and neonatal outcome of a fetus with a large bowel obstruction, perforation and subsequent development of meconium peritonitis, prenatally diagnosed as isolated fetal ascites. A colonic atresia should be also included in the differential diagnosis of isolated fetal ascites. PMID:16147839

Agrawala, Geetika; Predanic, Mladen; Perni, Sriram C; Chasen, Stephen T

2005-04-01

247

Candidiasis de la mucosa bucal: Revisión bibliográfica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta una revisión de la literatura actualizada de una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la mucosa bucal y la afección micótica más común en esta localización: la candidiasis de la mucosa bucal. Se detallan los factores predisponentes generales y locales que favorecen la aparición de esta [...] alteración patológica como son los tratamientos prolongados con antibióticos, la diabetes, la anemia, la radioterapia y quimioterapia antineoplásicas, las drogas inmunosupresoras y el SIDA, entre otros. Se exponen las diferentes clasificaciones clínicas, según el criterio de distintos autores y el cuadro clínico de la enfermedad. Finalmente se presentan alternativas terapéuticas tanto en el campo de la medicina convencional como en el de la medicina tradicional y natural. Abstract in english This paper presents an updated literature review of one of the most frequent diseases in the oral mucosa and the most common mycotic affection in this site, i.e, oral mucosal candidiasis. The general and local predisposing factors that favor the occurrence of this pathological disorder such as exten [...] ded antibiotic treatments, diabetes, anemia, anti-neoplastic radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunosuppresive drugs, AIDS, among others. Different clinical classifications, according to several authors´ criteria and the clinical picture of the disease, are stated. Finally, therapeutical options in the fields of conventional medicine and traditional and natural medicine are presented.

Judy, Rodríguez Ortega; Josefa, Miranda Tarragó; Haydée, Morejón Lugones; Julio C, Santana Garay.

2002-08-01

248

Candidiasis de la mucosa bucal: Revisión bibliográfica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura actualizada de una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la mucosa bucal y la afección micótica más común en esta localización: la candidiasis de la mucosa bucal. Se detallan los factores predisponentes generales y locales que favorecen la aparición de esta alteración patológica como son los tratamientos prolongados con antibióticos, la diabetes, la anemia, la radioterapia y quimioterapia antineoplásicas, las drogas inmunosupresoras y el SIDA, entre otros. Se exponen las diferentes clasificaciones clínicas, según el criterio de distintos autores y el cuadro clínico de la enfermedad. Finalmente se presentan alternativas terapéuticas tanto en el campo de la medicina convencional como en el de la medicina tradicional y natural.This paper presents an updated literature review of one of the most frequent diseases in the oral mucosa and the most common mycotic affection in this site, i.e, oral mucosal candidiasis. The general and local predisposing factors that favor the occurrence of this pathological disorder such as extended antibiotic treatments, diabetes, anemia, anti-neoplastic radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunosuppresive drugs, AIDS, among others. Different clinical classifications, according to several authors´ criteria and the clinical picture of the disease, are stated. Finally, therapeutical options in the fields of conventional medicine and traditional and natural medicine are presented.

Judy Rodríguez Ortega

2002-08-01

249

Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions

250

Pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on intestinal mucosa: Not just trefoil peptides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bombesin and neurotensin are neuropeptides which exert a wide spectrum of biological actions on gastrointestinal tissues influencing intestinal growth and adaptation, intestinal motility, blood flow, secretion, nutrient absorption and immune response. Based mainly on their well-established potent enterotrophic effect, numerous experimental studies investigated their potential positive effect on the atrophic or injured intestinal mucosa. These peptides proved to be effective mucosa-healing factors, but the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms for this action remained unresolved. In a recently published study (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14(8: 1222-1230, it was shown that their protective effect on the intestine in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease was related to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions. These results are in close agreement with our previous studies on jaundiced and hepatectomized rats that showed a regulatory effect of bombesin and neurotensin on critical cellular processes such as enterocyte’ proliferation and death, oxidative stress and redox equilibrium, tight junctions’ formation and function, and inflammatory response. The pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on diverse types of intestinal injury may justify their consideration for clinical trials.

Stelios F Assimakopoulos, Chrisoula D Scopa, Vassiliki N Nikolopoulou, Constantine E Vagianos

2008-06-01

251

The effect of probiotics for preventing radiation-induced morphological changes in intestinal mucosa of rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality for abdominal or pelvic cancer, but there is a common and serious complication such as radiation-induced enteritis. Probiotics is reported to have positive effects against radiation-induced enteropathy. In this study, morphological changes of bowel mucosa were analyzed in rats to presume the effect of probiotics on radiation-induced enteritis and its correlation with radiation dose. A total of 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups and received a solution containing 1.0×10(8) colony-forming units of Lactiobacillus acidophilus or water once daily for 10 days. Each of two groups was divided into three subgroups and abdomino-pelvic area of each subgroup was irradiated with 10, 15, and 20 Gy, respectively on the seventh day of feeding the solutions. All rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation and the mucosal thickness and villus height of jejunum, ileum and colon were measured. The morphological parameters of the small intestine represented significant differences between two solution groups irradiated 10 or 15 Gy, except for villus height of jejunum in 15 Gy-subgroup (P=0.065). There was no significant morphometric difference between two groups irradiated with 20 Gy of radiation. Probiotics appear to be effective for the morphological shortening of small intestinal mucosa damaged by radiation less than or equal to 15 Gy. PMID:25368490

Ki, Yongkan; Kim, Wontaek; Cho, Heunglae; Ahn, Kijung; Choi, Youngmin; Kim, Dongwon

2014-10-01

252

Weight loss and morphometric study of intestinal mucosa in rats after massive intestinal resection: influence of a glutamine-enriched diet / Perda de peso e estudo morfométrico da mucosa intestinal de ratos submetidos à ressecção subtotal de intestino delgado: influência do uso de dieta com glutamina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A síndrome do intestino curto é responsável por alterações metabólicas que comprometem o estado nutricional do paciente. A glutamina é nutriente essencial para os enterócitos. OBJETIVOS: Estudou-se o efeito da administração de dieta com glutamina, em ratos submetidos à ressecção subtotal do intestin [...] o delgado, avaliando a perda de peso pós-operatória e a morfometria da mucosa intestinal. MÉTODOS: Foram constituídos três grupos de ratos Wistar machos recebendo as seguintes dietas: com glutamina (grupo EG), sem glutamina (grupo EsG), e a dieta padrão do laboratório (grupo ER). A ressecção intestinal foi realizada em todos os animais incluindo-se a válvula íleo-cecal, com remanescente jejunal de apenas 25cm a partir do piloro, anastomosado látero-lateralmente ao cólon ascendente. A diferença entre o peso inicial real e ao final do experimento no 20º dia pós-operatório foi registrada antes do sacrifício. Fragmentos de mucosa do duodeno e jejuno foram colhidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Realizou-se o estudo morfométrico da mucosa intestinal, por meio de sistema digital associado ao microscópio ótico. Mediu-se a altura das vilosidades, a profundidade das criptas e a extensão total da mucosa intestinal. RESULTADOS: A perda de peso entre os três grupos não diferiu estatisticamente. A análise da morfometria da mucosa intestinal mostrou diferença significativa: 1) animais do grupo Enterectomia com Glutamina (EG) apresentaram vilosidade duodenal significativamente maior que o grupo EsG (p Abstract in english Short-bowel syndrome is responsible for significant metabolic alterations that compromise nutritional status. Glutamine is considered an essential nutrient for enterocytes, so beneficial effects from supplementation of the diet with glutamine are hypothesized. PURPOSE: In this study, the effect of a [...] diet enriched with glutamine was evaluated in rats undergoing extensive small bowel resection, with analysis of postoperative weight loss and intestinal morphometrics of villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the duodenal and remnant jejunal mucosa. METHODS: Three groups of male Wistar rats were established receiving the following diets: with glutamine, without glutamine, and the standard diet of laboratory ration. All animals underwent an extensive small bowel resection, including the ileocecal valve, leaving a remnant jejunum of only 25 cm from the pylorus that was anastomosed lateral-laterally to the ascendant colon. The animals were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment (20th postoperative day). Then they were killed and the remnant intestine was removed. Fragments of duodenal and jejunal mucosa were collected from the remnant intestine and submitted to histopathologic exam. The morphometric study of the intestinal mucosa was accomplished using a digital system (KS 300) connected to an optic microscope. Morphometrics included villi height, crypt depth, and the total thickness of intestinal mucosa. RESULTS: The weight loss comparison among the 3 groups showed no significant loss difference. The morphometric studies showed significantly taller duodenal villi in the glutamine group in comparison to the without glutamine group, but not different from the standard diet group. The measurements obtained comparing the 3 groups for villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the remnant jejunum mucosa were greater in the glutamine-enriched diet group than for the without-glutamine diet group, though not significantly different from with standard-diet group. CONCLUSIONS: In rats with experimentally produced short-bowel syndrome, glutamine-enrichment of an isonitrogenous test diet was associated with an improved adaptation response by the intestinal mucosa but not reduced weight loss. However, the adaptation response in the group receiving the glutamine-enriched diet was not improved over that for the group fed regular chow.

Sidney Resende, Ribeiro; Paulo Engler, Pinto Júnior; Ariney Costa de, Miranda; Sansom Henrique, Bromberg; Fábio Pinatel, Lopasso; Kiyoshi, Irya.

253

Probiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases  

OpenAIRE

Enteric microflora profiles vary considerably between active inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and healthy conditions. Intestinal microflora may partake in the pathogenesis of IBD by one or some ways: specific pathogenic infection induces abnormal intestinal mucosal inflammation; aberrant microflora components trigger the onset of IBD; abnormal host immune response loses normal immune tolerance to luminal components; luminal antigens permeate through the defective mucosal barrier into mucosal...

Bai, A?p; Ouyang, Q.

2006-01-01

254

Management of malignant bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is a common and distressing outcome particularly in patients with bowel or gynaecological cancer. Radiological imaging, particularly with CT, is critical in determining the cause of obstruction and possible therapeutic interventions. Although surgery should be the primary treatment for selected patients with MBO, it should not be undertaken routinely in patients known to have poor prognostic criteria for surgical intervention such as intra-abdominal carcinomatosis, poor performance status and massive ascites. A number of treatment options are now available for patients unfit for surgery. Nasogastric drainage should generally only be a temporary measure. Self-expanding metallic stents are an option in malignant obstruction of the gastric outlet, proximal small bowel and colon. Medical measures such as analgesics according to the W.H.O. guidelines provide adequate pain relief. Vomiting may be controlled using anti-secretory drugs or/and anti-emetics. Somatostatin analogues (e.g. octreotide) reduce gastrointestinal secretions very rapidly and have a particularly important role in patients with high obstruction if hyoscine butylbromide fails. A collaborative approach by surgeons and the oncologist and/or palliative care physician as well as an honest discourse between physicians and patients can offer an individualised and appropriate symptom management plan. PMID:18359221

Ripamonti, Carla Ida; Easson, Alexandra M; Gerdes, Hans

2008-05-01

255

Neurostimulation for neurogenic bowel dysfunction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Loss of normal bowel function caused by nerve injury, neurological disease or congenital defects of the nervous system is termed neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). It usually includes combinations of fecal incontinence, constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. When standard treatment of NBD fails surgical procedures are often needed. Neurostimulation has also been investigated, but no consensus exists about efficacy or clinical use. Methods. A systematic literature search of NBD treated by sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS), sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), peripheral nerve stimulation, magnetic stimulation, and nerve re-routing was made in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Results. SARS improves bowel function in some patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve re-routing is claimed to facilitate defecation through mechanical stimulation of dermatomes in patients with complete or incomplete SCI or myelomeningocele. SNS can reduce NBD in selected patients with a variety of incomplete neurological lesions. Peripheral stimulation using electrical stimulation or magnetic stimulation may represent non-invasive alternatives. Conclusion. Numerous methods of neurostimulation to treat NBD have been investigated in pilot studies or retrospective studies. Therefore, larger controlled trials with well-defined inclusion criteria and endpoints are recommended before widespread clinical use of neurostimulation against NBD.

WorsØe, J; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

2013-01-01

256

Pulmonary involvement in inflammatory bowel disease  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To determine the relationship of pulmonary abnormalities and bowel disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS: Thirty ulcerative colitis (UC) and nine Crohn’s disease patients, and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this prospective study. Detailed clinical information was obtained. Extent and activity of the bowel disease were established endoscopically. Each patient underwent pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Blood samples fo...

Ayd?n Y?lmaz, Nilgu?n Y?lmaz Demirci

2010-01-01

257

Irritable bowel syndrome--a safe diagnosis?  

OpenAIRE

Seventy-seven of 84 surviving patients in whom the irritable bowel syndrome had been diagnosed at least six years previously were reviewed. A different diagnosis was made in only four cases. Forty-four patients remained symptomatic and 29 patients had no further bowel problems. The irritable bowel syndrome is often a chronic, relapsing disorder, and further investigations are not necessary unless symptoms change considerably.

Holmes, K. M.; Salter, R. H.

1982-01-01

258

Small bowel gas in severe ulcerative colitis.  

OpenAIRE

The prognostic significance of excess small bowel gas on a plain abdominal radiograph has been assessed in 75 patients with severe attacks of ulcerative colitis requiring intravenous hydrocortisone. The radiographs were reviewed without knowledge of the subsequent outcome. Small bowel distension was defined as the presence of three or more loops of gas filled small bowel. Forty two patients responded to medical treatment and 33 underwent colectomy. The two groups were comparable for age, sex,...

Chew, Cn; Nolan, Dj; Jewell, Dp

1991-01-01

259

Effect of paclitaxel (TAXOL) alone and in combination with radiation on the gastrointestinal mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paclitaxel is a potentially useful drug for augmenting the cytotoxic action of radiotherapy because it has independent cytotoxic activity against certain cancers and blocks cells in the radiosensitive mitotic phase of the cell cycle. However, all rapidly proliferating tissues, both normal and neoplastic, may be affected by this therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to define the in vivo response of rapidly dividing cells of the small bowel mucosa in mice to paclitaxel given alone and in combination with radiation. Paclitaxel blocked jejunal crypt cells in mitosis and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Fractionating the paclitaxel dose over 1-4 days did not result in any greater accumulation of mitotically blocked cells than did a single dose. Mitosis peaked 2-4 h after paclitaxel and returned to near normal by 24 h. Apoptosis lagged several hours behind mitosis and peaked about 6 h later than mitosis. Despite these kinetic perturbations, there was little or no enhancement of radiation effect when single doses were delivered 2-4 h after paclitaxel administration. The maximum sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.07 observed after a single paclitaxel dose of 40 mg/kg is consistent with independent crypt cell killing. Conversely, when radiation was given 24 h after paclitaxel, a significant protective effect of the drug (SER 0.89-0.92), most probably due to a regenerative overshoot induced by paclitaxel, was observed. Stem cells of the jejunal mucosa detrved. Stem cells of the jejunal mucosa determining radiation response were not radiosensitized by paclitaxel with the drug concentrations and dose deliver schedules used, although additive cytotoxicity was observed with the highest drug dose. A radioprotective effect was observed when radiation was given 24 h after paclitaxel administration. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

260

Incorporation of fatty acids from fish oil and olive oil into colonic mucosal lipids and effects upon eicosanoid synthesis in inflammatory bowel disease.  

OpenAIRE

The incorporation of the fatty acids in fish and olive oil into the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease was examined during 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with the oils, and the influence on colonic mucosal prostaglandin and thromboxane generation was measured. With a dietary supplement of 18 g fish oil daily, concentrations of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, were significantly raised in mucosal lipid...

Hillier, K.; Jewell, R.; Dorrell, L.; Smith, C. L.

1991-01-01

261

Computed tomographic findings in bowel infarction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Findings on computed tomography (CT) were considered diagnostic or highly suggestive in seven cases of bowel infarction. Important findings were portal or mesenteric venous gas, intramural gas, focal thickening of bowel wall, focal or diffusely dilated fluid-filled bowel, and clot in the superior mesenteric artery. Only one patient had unequivocal extraluminal gas on initial abdominal radiographs, although others had equivocal findings or later developed obvious extraluminal gas. Because CT may detect extraluminal gas and mesenteric arterial occlusion not apparent on plain films, and because CT is increasingly used early in the evaluation of abdominal pain, it can play an important role in the diagnosis and management of bowel infarction

262

Mucosal bacterial microflora and mucus layer thickness in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To assess the mucosa-associated bacterial microflora and mucus layer in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD.METHODS: Sixty-one adolescents (mean age 15 years, SD ± 4.13 were included in the study. Intestinal biopsies from inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa of IBD patients and from controls with functional abdominal pain were cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The number of microbes belonging to the same group was calculated per weight of collected tissue. The mucus thickness in frozen samples was measured under a fluorescent microscope.RESULTS: The ratios of different bacterial groups in inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa of IBD patients and controls were specific for particular diseases. Streptococcus spp. were predominant in the inflamed mucosa of Crohn’s disease (CD patients (80% of all bacteria, and Lactobacillus spp. were predominant in ulcerative colitis patients (90%. The differences were statistically significant (P = 0.01-0.001. Lower number of bifidobacteria was observed in the whole IBD group. A relation was also found between clinical and endoscopic severity and decreased numbers of Lactobacillus and, to a lesser extent, of Streptococcus in biopsies from CD patients. The mucus layer in the inflamed sites was significantly thinner as compared to controls (P = 0.0033 and to non-inflamed areas in IBD patients (P = 0.031.CONCLUSION: The significantly thinner mucosa of IBD patients showed a predominance of some aerobes specific for particular diseases, their numbers decreased in relation to higher clinical and endoscopic activity of the disease.

Krzysztof Fyderek, Magdalena Strus, Kinga Kowalska-Duplaga, Tomasz Gosiewski, Andrzej W?drychowicz, Urszula Jedynak-W?sowicz, Ma?gorzata S?adek, Stanis?aw Pieczarkowski, Pawe? Adamski, Piotr Kochan, Piotr B Heczko

2009-11-01

263

Biologic therapy for inflammatory bowel disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite all of the advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we still do not know its cause. Some of the most recently available data are discussed in this review; however, this field is changing rapidly and it is increasingly becoming accepted that immunogenetics play an important role in the predisposition, modulation and perpetuation of IBD. The role of intestinal milieu, and enteric flora in particular, appears to be of greater significance than previously thought. This complex interplay of genetic, microbial and environmental factors culminates in a sustained activation of the mucosal immune and non-immune response, probably facilitated by defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier and mucosal immune system, resulting in active inflammation and tissue destruction. Under normal situations, the intestinal mucosa is in a state of 'controlled' inflammation regulated by a delicate balance of proinflammatory (tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interferon [IFN]-gamma, interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-12) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-11). The mucosal immune system is the central effector of intestinal inflammation and injury, with cytokines playing a central role in modulating inflammation. Cytokines may, therefore, be a logical target for IBD therapy using specific cytokine inhibitors. Biotechnology agents targeted against TNF, leukocyte adhesion, T-helper cell (T(h))-1 polarisation, T-cell activation or nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and other miscellaneous therapies are being evaluated as potential therapies for IBD. In this context, infliximab is currently the only biologic agent approved for the treatment of inflammatory and fistulising Crohn's disease. Other anti-TNF biologic agents have emerged, including CDP 571, certolizumab pegol (CDP 870), etanercept, onercept and adalimumab. However, ongoing research continues to generate new biologic agents targeted at specific pathogenic mechanisms involved in the inflammatory process. Lymphocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by adhesion molecules are important in leukocyte migration and recruitment to sites of inflammation, and selective blockade of these adhesion molecules is a novel and promising strategy to treat Crohn's disease. Therapeutic agents that inhibit leukocyte trafficking include natalizumab, MLN-02 and alicaforsen (ISIS 2302). Other agents being investigated for the treatment of Crohn's disease include inhibitors of T-cell activation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, proinflammatory cytokine receptors and T(h)1 polarisation, and growth hormone and growth factors. Agents being investigated for treatment of ulcerative colitis include many of those mentioned for Crohn's disease. More controlled clinical trials are currently being conducted, exploring the safety and efficacy of old and new biologic agents, and the search certainly will open new and exciting perspectives on the development of therapies for IBD. PMID:16266194

Ardizzone, Sandro; Bianchi Porro, Gabriele

2005-01-01

264

Pancreatic Involvement in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we review the existing data concerning the incidence, pathogenesis, clinical picture, management and longterm outcome of patients with IBD who developed acute or chronic pancreatitis before or during the course of their underlying bowel disease. It seems certain that patients with IBD are considered to be at increased risk for developing acute pancreatitis, although large epidemiological studies are scattered. They have also an elevated risk for developing chronic pancreatitis a...

J.K. Triantafillidis,; Merikas, E.

2010-01-01

265

An Interesting Case of Recurrent Small Bowel Obstruction  

OpenAIRE

Sclerosing mesenteritis is associated with a spectrum of diseases which include mesenteric lipodystrophy and mesenteric panniculitis. This inflammatory and fibrosing disorder can affect the small and large bowel wall and mesenteric vessels by exerting a mass effect. The following case highlights the difficulties with diagnosing and managing this unusual disease. A 64-year-old man presented with acute central abdominal pain, radiating to his back, and profuse vomiting. He was diagnosed clinica...

Allen, P. B.; Cruz, P.; Efthymiou, M.; Fox, A.; Taylor, A. C. F.; Desmond, P. V.

2009-01-01

266

Bowel management for the treatment of pediatric fecal incontinence  

OpenAIRE

Fecal incontinence is a devastating underestimated problem, affecting a large number of individuals all over the world. Most of the available literature relates to the management of adults. The treatments proposed are not uniformly successful and have little application in the pediatric population. This paper presents the experience of 30 years, implementing a bowel management program, for the treatment of fecal incontinence in over 700 pediatric patients, with a success rate of 95%. The mai...

Bischoff, Andrea; Levitt, Marc A.; Pen?a, Alberto

2009-01-01

267

A role of hydrogen peroxide producing commensal bacteria present in colon of adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease in perpetuation of the inflammatory process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria in the gut play a central role in the initiation and progress of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was prepared to elucidate the role in the inflammatory process of the bacterial species which are able to produce hydrogen peroxide, present in samples taken from colon lesions in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease. Fifty eight adolescents were enrolled into the study from January 2004 to October 2006 in Cracow, Poland. Biopsies and stool samples were collected. Bacteriological examinations and measurements of hydrogen peroxide production by enterococci, streptococci and lactobacilli were performed. For the first time it has been shown here that HP producing bacteria may contribute to increased amounts of hydrogen peroxide in the inflamed mucosa of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Moreover, we have been able to demonstrate an increase of total populations of aerobic bacteria but not anaerobes in the studied samples of mucosa of adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease which is an indirect evidence of higher oxygen tension present in inflamed tissues in IBD. We have also been able to demonstrate the direct relationship between presence of blood in stools of IBD adolescents and increased populations of Enterobacteriaceae but not streptococci in samples of colon mucosa. It is, therefore, possible that different products of Enterobacteriaceae and especially their lipopolysaccharides may also contribute to perpetuation of the chronic colon inflammation. PMID:20224151

Strus, M; Gosiewski, T; Fyderek, K; Wedrychowicz, A; Kowalska-Duplaga, K; Kochan, P; Adamski, P; Heczko, P B

2009-12-01

268

Inactivation of corticosteroids in intestinal mucosa by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid: NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146) in human intestinal mucosa was determined by incubating scraped mucosa with 3H-cortisone and 14C-cortisol; these steroids were then extracted, separated chromatographically, and the radioactivity assayed to determine simultaneously both reductase and dehydrogenase activities. This was the only significant metabolic alteration which the substrate underwent. Only two cases had slight (5 and 13%) reductase activity. In 35 patients, 16 male and 19 female, including seven cases of Crohn's disease, three ulcerative colitis, five diverticulitis, two undergoing surgery for repair of injuries and 18 for carcinoma of colon or rectum, cortisol was converted to cortisone in 15 min with a wide range of values distributed uniformly up to 85% dehydrogenation, with a mean of 42%. When tissue homogenates were fortified with coenzymes, excess NADPH lowered dehydrogenase activity 81%; excess NADP increased dehydrogenase activity 2-fold in three cases. It is possible that a value is characteristic of an individual but perhaps more likely enzyme activity varies with metabolic events involving changes in the coenzyme levels in mucosa, and a random sampling might be expected to yield such a distribution of values. In any event, where activity is high most of the cortisol is inactivated within minutes. It is suggested that synthetic corticoids which escape such metabolic alteration might, e escape such metabolic alteration might, except during pregnancy, prove superior in the treatment of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease

269

Histological assessment of small bowel hypoperfusion lesions in the pig  

OpenAIRE

Background Authors propose the use of a quantitative morphological assessment for helping in studies concerning intestinal hypoperfusion. The method was applied to the small intestine mucosa stained with the standard hematoxylin and eosin, from pigs that underwent severe hypotension due to acute hemorrhage.,. Methods Six Large White pigs underwent total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil. 25 ml/kg of arterial blood were passively removed from the femoral artery...

Oliveira, A. L.; Ferreira, D.; Vala, Helena

2010-01-01

270

Unique properties of muscularis mucosae smooth muscle in guinea pig urinary bladder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The muscularis mucosae, a type of smooth muscle located between the urothelium and the urinary bladder detrusor, has been described, although its properties and role in bladder function have not been characterized. Here, using mucosal tissue strips isolated from guinea pig urinary bladders, we identified spontaneous phasic contractions (SPCs) that appear to originate in the muscularis mucosae. This smooth muscle layer exhibited Ca(2+) waves and flashes, but localized Ca(2+) events (Ca(2+) sparks, purinergic receptor-mediated transients) were not detected. Ca(2+) flashes, often in bursts, occurred with a frequency (?5.7/min) similar to that of SPCs (?4/min), suggesting that SPCs are triggered by bursts of Ca(2+) flashes. The force generated by a single mucosal SPC represented the maximal force of the strip, whereas a single detrusor SPC was ?3% of maximal force of the detrusor strip. Electrical field stimulation (0.5-50 Hz) evoked force transients in isolated detrusor and mucosal strips. Inhibition of cholinergic receptors significantly decreased force in detrusor and mucosal strips (at higher frequencies). Concurrent inhibition of purinergic and cholinergic receptors nearly abolished evoked responses in detrusor and mucosae. Mucosal SPCs were unaffected by blocking small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels with apamin and were unchanged by blocking large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels with iberiotoxin (IbTX), indicating that SK and BK channels play a much smaller role in regulating muscularis mucosae SPCs than they do in regulating detrusor SPCs. Consistent with this, BK channel current density in myocytes from muscularis mucosae was ?20% of that in detrusor myocytes. These findings indicate that the muscularis mucosae in guinea pig represents a second smooth muscle compartment that is physiologically and pharmacologically distinct from the detrusor and may contribute to the overall contractile properties of the urinary bladder. PMID:21632849

Heppner, Thomas J; Layne, Jeffrey J; Pearson, Jessica M; Sarkissian, Hagop; Nelson, Mark T

2011-08-01

271

Congenital internal hernia presented with life threatening extensive small bowel strangulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Internal hernia (IH) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction occurs when there is protrusion of an internal organ into a retroperitoneal fossa or a foramen in the abdominal cavity. IH can be presented with acute or chronic abdominal symptom and discovered by accident in operation field. However, various kinds of imaging modalities often do not provide the assistance to diagnose IH preoperatively, but computed tomography (CT) scan has a high diagnostic accuracy. We report a case of congenital IH in a 6-year-old boy who experienced life threatening shock. CT scan showed large amount of ascites, bowel wall thickening with poor or absent enhancement of the strangulated bowel segment. Surgical exploration was performed immediately and had to undergo over two meters excision of strangulated small bowel. To prevent the delay in the diagnosis of IH, we should early use of the CT scan and take urgent operation. PMID:24224153

Lee, Narae; Kim, Su-Gon; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Park, Jae-Hong; Son, Seung-Kook; Kim, Soo-Hong; Hwang, Jae-Yeon

2013-09-01

272

Premalignant alterations of the gastric mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atrophic gastritus or intestinal metaplasia is the precursor to many gastric carcinomas that arise in a dysplatic epithelium. The authors retrospectively reviewed the radiographic features of the gastric mucosa in 30 patients with the pathologic diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (27) or atrophic gastritus (3). In 12 patients (40%) the area gastricae were enlarged to 5 mm or greater. In these 12 patients and in an additional 11 (total of 23, or 76%), a polypoid-nodular gastric mucosal pattern was seen. These findings and patterns are illustrated, and the differential diagnosis and clinical implications are discussed

273

Oral lymphangioma of the buccal mucosa a rare case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lymphangioma are benign hamartomatous tumors of lymphatic vessels that arises from the sequestration of lymphatic that fails to communicate with the lymphatic system. Most common intra oral site being the anterior two-thirds of tongue, usually superficial in location and demonstrates a pebbly surface that resembles a cluster of translucent vesicles, they are typically soft and fluctuant masses. Secondary hemorrhage into the lymphatic spaces may cause some of these vesicles to become purple. They have been known to grow to large size causing difficulties in mastication and speech. A variant of lymphangioma is cystic hygroma grows as lymphatic anomaly found in the neck commonly present with significant airway obstruction. We present a rare case of lymphangioma affecting the buccal mucosa of a 14-year-old male. PMID:25210370

Yoganna, Saligrama Seema; Rajendra Prasad, Rame Gowda; Sekar, B

2014-07-01

274

Neuroendocrine neoplasms arising in inflammatory bowel disease: a report of 14 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly ulcerative colitis (UC), is a premalignant condition, because these patients are at increased risk of adenocarcinoma. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) have rarely been described in this setting. We evaluated 14 cases of NEN arising in a setting of IBD. All of the tumors arose in areas involved by IBD, and all showed immunohistochemical or ultrastructural evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation. The cohort included seven men and seven women (range, 28-71 yr; median, 43 yr). Eight patients had Crohn's disease (CD), and six had UC. Duration of disease ranged from 4 months to 50 years (median, 15 yr), with one of unknown duration. Of the eight patients with CD, five had ileocolitis, one had ileitis, one had colitis, and in one case, the extent of disease was unknown. Of the six patients with UC, four had extensive UC, one had left-sided UC, and the extent of UC was unknown in one case. Reasons for surgery included CD complications (five patients), refractory disease (three patients), dysplasia/carcinoma (five patients), and incontinence (one patient). The NENs were well differentiated in 11 cases and poorly differentiated mixed adenocarcinoma/small cell carcinomas in 3 cases. Tumor sites included the rectum (six cases), appendix (four cases), small bowel (two cases), and sigmoid colon (two cases). High-grade dysplasia was present in adjacent mucosa in four cases, and low-grade dysplasia was present in distant mucosa in two cases. Two patients with poorly differentiated NENs died from the disease at 3 and 11 months after tumor excision. All of the other patients were alive without tumor as of last follow-up. We concluded that NENs rarely arise in a setting of IBD. Most are well-differentiated tumors and are clinically indolent. Dysplasia is found in adjacent mucosa in more than one-third of cases, suggesting that neuroendocrine differentiation might evolve from multipotential cells in dysplastic epithelium. PMID:9647591

Sigel, J E; Goldblum, J R

1998-06-01

275

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of chronic inflammatory bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The case of a 14-year old girl with painful periostitis and ulcerative colitis is reported. The association of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with osteoarthropathy is rare and has previously been reported in eight patients. The periosteal reaction found in association with inflammatory bowel disease is apparently related to a chronic disease course and may cause extreme localized pain. (orig.)

276

Small bowel stricture following abdominal trauma.  

OpenAIRE

A case of small bowel stricture developing 2 months after blunt abdominal trauma from a lap seat belt is presented. The cause of the stricture was probably a small perforation sustained at the time of the injury but overlooked clinically. At operation an abscess around the terminal ileum was found. The patient made an uneventful recovery following resection of the strictured small bowel.

Welch, G. H.; Anderson, J. R.

1985-01-01

277

Perforated small bowel diverticulitis after gastric bypass.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a rare case of complicated jejunal diverticulitis in a patient with previous bariatric surgery. Small bowel diverticulosis is generally considered an inoffensive disease. In this report we describe a case of small bowel perforation in an obese subject who had undergone laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. PMID:24680159

Corcelles, Ricard; Pavel, Mihai; Lacy, Antonio

2014-01-01

278

Radiopathological review of small bowel carcinoid tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Small bowel carcinoid tumours are endocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. This pictorial essay will review the pathology, clinical features, treatment and prognosis and illustrate the radiographic, computed tomographic, sonographic, magnetic resonance and nuclear medicine appearances of small bowel carcinoid tumours.

279

Imaging of inflammatory bowel diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 10 patients with Crohn's disease, 13 CT scannings (5 in an active phase of disease and 8 in remission) were performed. The most common CT finding was thickening of the bowel wall, seen on 11 of the 13 scans. CT proved to be useful for the visualization of mural and extrabowel lesions, providing a clue to the demonstration of whole-layer inflammation characteristic of Crohn's disease. Some of the abnormal CT findings varied according to the disease activity, suggesting the potential of CT to evaluate the regional pathologic condition of this disease. (Namekawa, K.)

280

Epidemiology and inflammatory bowel diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of alcohol in causing or aggravating the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease is unclear. For finding a conclusive answer for this valuable question we conducted this review. Only two studies were identified that successfully fulfilled our inclusive criteria. Usual consumption of alcohol reduced the risk compared with less frequent use (odds ratio = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.37-0.86. Light alcoholic drinking has protective effects against development of ulcerative colitis. But this inverse association disappeared when smoking was included.

Ahmed Mahmoud El-Tawil

2013-01-01

281

Immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic relapsing immune mediated disorders that results from an aberrant response to gut luminal antigen in genetically susceptible host. The adaptive immune response that is then triggered was widely considered to be a T-helper-1 mediated condition in Crohn’s disease and T-helper-2 mediated condition in ulcerative colitis. Recent studies in animal models, genome wide association, and basic science has provided important insights in in the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, one of which was the characterization of the interleukin-23/Th-17 axis.

David Q Shih, Stephan R Targan

2008-01-01

282

Noncolorectal malignancies in inflammatory bowel disease: more than meets the eye.  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients with Crohn's disease, the risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma is 20-40 times higher than the low background risk of the general population. In the subset of patients with longstanding small bowel lesions, the absolute risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma exceeds 1 per 100 patient-years after 25 years of follow-up and becomes equivalent to the risk of colorectal cancer. Growing evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of small bowel adenocarcinoma arising in inflammatory lesions of Crohn's disease is similar to that of colorectal cancer complicating chronic colonic inflammation (inflammation-dysplasia-cancer sequence). However, contrasting with the established endoscopic detection of colonic advanced neoplasias in patients with longstanding extensive colitis, there is no consensus at this time how to face the excess-risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma in patients at high risk. There are no specific clinical or imaging alert signs and endoscopic surveillance of the totality of the inflamed small bowel mucosa would suppose to perform repeated enteroscopies, with the potential limiting factor of stenosis. Very preliminary data suggest that chemoprevention with salicylates could be an alternative way for reducing the risk. Data from referral centers and from the CESAME cohort suggest that intestinal lymphomas may arise in the chronically inflamed segments in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Regarding nonintestinal lymphomas, it is now established that IBD patients treated with thiopurines have an excess risk of lymphomas, exhibiting in most cases pathological features of lymphomas associated with immunosuppression, including the frequent presence of EBV in neoplastic tissues. There is growing evidence that treatment with thiopurines is responsible by itself for this excess risk. IBD patients receiving immunomodulators, especially young men, are also at risk (0.4 for 10,000 patient-years in the CESAME study) for developing fatal early post-mononucleosis lymphomas, like in Purtilo's syndrome, maybe in association with a background genetic susceptibility. Finally, patients receiving thiopurines and/or TNF-inhibitors are at risk for developing fatal hepatosplenic T cell lymphomas, but this risk is low (no case in the CESAME study). Whether patients receiving a monotherapy with methotrexate and/or TNF inhibitors are at increased risk of lymphomas is not known. Concordant data suggest that women receiving immunosuppressive therapy are at increased risk for developing uterine cervix dysplasia and require closer surveillance. But it is not established whether the risk of uterine cervix cancer and basal and squamous cell skin cancers (that may be associated with chronic human papillomavirus infection) is increased in patients receiving immunomodulators. PMID:19786768

Beaugerie, Laurent; Sokol, Harry; Seksik, Philippe

2009-01-01

283

Gut-lung crosstalk in pulmonary involvement with inflammatory bowel diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction or hyper-reactivity occurs in association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD more frequently than previously recognized. Emerging evidence suggests that subtle inflammation exists in the airways among IBD patients even in the absence of any bronchopulmonary symptoms, and with normal pulmonary functions. The pulmonary impairment is more pronounced in IBD patients with active disease than in those in remission. A growing number of case reports show that the IBD patients develop rapidly progressive respiratory symptoms after colectomy, with failure to isolate bacterial pathogens on repeated sputum culture, and often request oral corticosteroid therapy. All the above evidence indicates that the inflammatory changes in both the intestine and lung during IBD. Clinical or subclinical pulmonary inflammation accompanies the main inflammation of the bowel. Although there are clinical and epidemiological reports of chronic inflammation of the pulmonary and intestinal mucosa in IBD, the detailed mechanisms of pulmonary-intestinal crosstalk remain unknown. The lung has no anatomical connection with the main inflammatory site of the bowel. Why does the inflammatory process shift from the gastrointestinal tract to the airways? The clinical and subclinical pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction, or hyper-reactivity among IBD patients need further evaluation. Here, we give an overview of the concordance between chronic inflammatory reactions in the airways and the gastrointestinal tract. A better understanding of the possible mechanism of the crosstalk among the distant organs will be beneficial in identifying therapeutic strategies for mucosal inflammatory diseases such as IBD and allergy.

Hui Wang

2013-01-01

284

Gut-lung crosstalk in pulmonary involvement with inflammatory bowel diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction or hyper-reactivity occurs in association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) more frequently than previously recognized. Emerging evidence suggests that subtle inflammation exists in the airways among IBD patients even in the absence of any bronchopulmonary symptoms, and with normal pulmonary functions. The pulmonary impairment is more pronounced in IBD patients with active disease than in those in remission. A growing number of case reports show that the IBD patients develop rapidly progressive respiratory symptoms after colectomy, with failure to isolate bacterial pathogens on repeated sputum culture, and often request oral corticosteroid therapy. All the above evidence indicates that the inflammatory changes in both the intestine and lung during IBD. Clinical or subclinical pulmonary inflammation accompanies the main inflammation of the bowel. Although there are clinical and epidemiological reports of chronic inflammation of the pulmonary and intestinal mucosa in IBD, the detailed mechanisms of pulmonary-intestinal crosstalk remain unknown. The lung has no anatomical connection with the main inflammatory site of the bowel. Why does the inflammatory process shift from the gastrointestinal tract to the airways? The clinical and subclinical pulmonary abnormalities, dysfunction, or hyper-reactivity among IBD patients need further evaluation. Here, we give an overview of the concordance between chronic inflammatory reactions in the airways and the gastrointestinal tract. A better understanding of the possible mechanism of the crosstalk among the distant organs will be beneficial in identifying therapeutic strategies for mucosal inflammatory diseases such as IBD and allergy. PMID:24187454

Wang, Hui; Liu, Jing-Shi; Peng, Shao-Hua; Deng, Xi-Yun; Zhu, De-Mao; Javidiparsijani, Sara; Wang, Gui-Rong; Li, Dai-Qiang; Li, Long-Xuan; Wang, Yi-Chun; Luo, Jun-Ming

2013-10-28

285

Editorial: Bowel preparation: is fair good enough?  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of colonoscopy in reducing colorectal cancer incidence and mortality has been shown to be associated with an endoscopist's adenoma detection rate, although the ability to detect adenomas depends, in part, on the quality of bowel preparation. Many endoscopists routinely recommend shorter examination intervals for colonoscopies with a fair or intermediate-quality bowel preparation, assuming that the preparation is insufficient for the purpose of colorectal cancer screening. In this issue, Clark et al. performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the adequacy of a fair-quality bowel preparation, finding no difference in the adenoma detection rate of colonoscopies with an intermediate-quality bowel preparation relative to those with a high-quality preparation. Although this finding has potentially significant implications for patient care and healthcare costs, the limitations of the adenoma detection rate as a performance measure and variability in the application of bowel preparation ratings are important issues that must be considered. PMID:25373582

Liang, Peter S; Dominitz, Jason A

2014-11-01

286

Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100 patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis, and 300 control patients without signs of liver disease or portal hypertension. This endoscopic pattern was observed in 94 of the patients with cirrhosis, whereas oesophageal varices were seen in 78 only. In contrast, only one patient of the control group had this aspect. Moreover, this sign was also found in seven of eight patients with non cirrhotic portal hypertension, but was seen neither in 100 patients with chronic alcoholism but without liver disease, nor in 10 cirrhotic patients with end-to-side portacaval shunts. These endoscopic changes might be because of mucosal and/or submucosal oedema and congestion highlighting the normal areae gastricae pattern and related to raised portal pressure. We conclude that the mosaic pattern of the gastric mucosa is a sensible and specific sign for diagnosis of portal hypertension, whatever the cause. Images Figure PMID:3781334

Papazian, A; Braillon, A; Dupas, J L; Sevenet, F; Capron, J P

1986-01-01

287

Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred totwo hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire(FFQ and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve tofind the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis.Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024.Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honeyamount - 0.533(honey amount2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount7.Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis ingastric mucosa.

Alireza Ostadrahimi

2012-07-01

288

Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids acids

289

Morphometric analysis of intestinal mucosa. V. Quantitative histological and immunocytochemical studies of rectal mucosae in gluten sensitivity.  

OpenAIRE

To study changes in rectal mucosa that might be attributable to the effects of gluten, rectal biopsy specimens from untreated and treated gluten sensitised subjects were analysed morphometrically and by immunohistochemical techniques and were compared with a series of disease control mucosae. Although morphometry showed increased populations of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and mast cells in the mucosae of untreated patients, which were reduced (except for mast cells) by dietary gluten restricti...

Ensari, A.; Marsh, M. N.; Loft, D. E.; Morgan, S.; Moriarty, K.

1993-01-01

290

Diclofenac sodium and Imipenem action on rat intestinal mucosa: a biomechanical and histological study / Ação do Diclofenaco de sódio e Imipenem na mucosa intestinal do rato: estudo biomecânico e histológico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas e biomecânicas do diclofenaco de sódio na mucosa intestinal do rato e a associação com o uso de Imipenem. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 240 ratos Wistar distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais: GI: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de soro fi [...] siológico 0,9%; GII: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de diclofenaco de sódio na dose de 6mg/kg de peso por 4 dias; GIII: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de Imipenem na dose de 30 mg/kg de peso por 4 dias; GIV: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de soro fisiológico e diclofenaco de sódio nas doses acima. Em cada grupo os animais foram posteriormente divididos em 4 momentos de 15 animais em cada um para sacrifício, respectivamente, no 4º, 7º, 14º e 21º dias após o início do tratamento. As alterações da cavidade abdominal, assim como as características histológicas e de força de ruptura do intestino delgado foram analisadas em cada momento, em cada grupo. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas alterações histológicas e biomecânicas nos animais do Grupo I nesse estudo. Lesões ulceradas na mucosa do intestino delgado foram observadas nos animais tratados com diclofenaco de sódio, assim como diminuição da força de ruptura. As lesões ulceradas encontradas foram prevenidas pelo uso de Imipenem. CONCLUSÃO: O diclofenaco de sódio induz lesões ulceradas na mucosa intestinal do rato que podem ser prevenidas pelo uso de Imipenem. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To study diclofenac sodium induced histological and mechanical alterations and their prevention with Imipenem in rat intestine. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n=240) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: GI: n=60 treated with 0.9% saline IM; GII: n=60 treated with 6mg/kg body weig [...] ht diclofenac sodium IM for four days; GIII: n=60 treated with 30mg/kg body weight Imipenem IM for four days, and GIV n=60 treated with diclofenac sodium plus Imipenem at the above doses IM for 4 days. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups of 15 rats each and sacrificed at 4, 7, 14, and 21 days of follow-up, respectively. Abdominal cavity macroscopy and histology, and small bowel breaking strength were analyzed at each sacrifice moment. RESULTS: There were no histological or mechanical alterations in normal control rats throughout the study. Ulcerated lesions in intestinal mucosa were observed and breaking strength decreased in all diclofenac sodium treated rats. Ulcerated lesions in intestinal mucosa were prevented by Imipenem in all rats. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium induced ulcerated lesions in rat intestinal mucosa can be prevented by Imipenem treatment.

Irio, Gonçalves Junior; Luiz Eduardo, Naresse; Maria Aparecida Marchesan, Rodrigues; Shoiti, Kobayasi.

2012-02-01

291

Muscularis mucosae contraction evokes colonic secretion via prostaglandin synthesis and nerve stimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This in vitro study tested the hypothesis that muscularis mucosae contractile activity contributes to rabbit colonic mucosal function by mechanisms other than simple mechanical deformation of the epithelium. Experiments were performed by using a technique that allows simultaneous recording of muscle activity and transmucosal potential difference, a measure of epithelial ion transport. ATP, bradykinin, histamine, PGE(2), PGF(1alpha), and PGF(2alpha) elicited muscularis mucosae contractions that were resistant to atropine and TTX. Only ATP-induced contractions were indomethacin sensitive, and only those to dimethylphenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) were reduced by atropine. All agonist-evoked increases in transmucosal potential difference were atropine resistant, and, with the exception of those to PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), and VIP, they were also TTX sensitive. Mucosal responses to ATP, bradykinin, and histamine were indomethacin sensitive, whereas those to DMPP, the prostaglandins, and VIP were not. When cyclooxygenase activity or the mucosal innervation was compromised, even maximal muscularis mucosae contractions did not produce large secretory responses. It is concluded that contraction-related prostaglandin synthesis and noncholinergic secretomotor neuron stimulation represent the physiological transduction mechanism through which muscularis mucosae motor activity is translated into mucosal secretion. PMID:12388209

Percy, W H; Fromm, T H; Wangsness, C E

2003-02-01

292

Association of Levels of Antibodies from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Extracellular Proteins of Food and Probiotic Bacteria  

OpenAIRE

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa and is related to an abnormal immune response to commensal bacteria. Our aim of the present work has been to explore the levels of antibodies (IgG and IgA) raised against extracellular proteins produced by LAB and its association with IBD. We analyzed, by Western-blot and ELISA, the presence of serum antibodies (IgA and IgG) developed against extracellular pro...

Arancha Hevia; Xf Pez, Patricia L.; Ana Suárez; Claudine Jacquot; Urdaci, Mar Xed A. C.; Abelardo Margolles; Xe Nchez, Borja S.

2014-01-01

293

Glucagon-like peptide 2 improves nutrient absorption and nutritional status in short-bowel patients with no colon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is intestinotrophic, antisecretory, and transit-modulating in rodents, and it is mainly secreted from the intestinal mucosa of the terminal ileum and colon after food ingestion. We assessed the effect of GLP-2 on the gastrointestinal function in patients without a terminal ileum and colon who have functional short-bowel syndrome with severe malabsorption of wet weight (>1.5 kg/day) and energy (>2.3 MJ/day) and no postprandial secretion of GLP-2.

Jeppesen, P B; Hartmann, B

2001-01-01

294

New treatment strategies for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, of which ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD are the two most prevailing entities, is unknown. However, IBD is characterized by an imbalanced synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators of the inflamed intestine, and for more than a decade tumour necrosis factor- (TNF ? has been a major target for monoclonal antibody therapy. However, TNF inhibitors are not useful for one third of all patients (i.e. “primary failures”, and further one third lose effect over time (“secondary failures”. Therefore other strategies have in later years been developed including monoclonal antibodies targeting the interleukin (IL-6 family of receptors (the p40 subunit of IL-12/IL-23 as well as monoclonal antibodies inhibiting adhesion molecules (the ?4?7 heterodimers, which direct leukocytes to the intestinal mucosa. Recently small molecules, which are inhibitors of Janus kinases (JAKs, hold promise with a tolerable safety profile and efficacy in UC, and the field of nanomedicine is emerging with siRNAs loaded into polyactide nanoparticles that may silence gene transcripts at sites of intestinal inflammation.Thus, drug development for IBD holds great promise, and patients as well as their treating physicians can be hopeful for the future.

Ole HaagenNielsen

2014-03-01

295

From intestinal stem cells to inflammatory bowel diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pathogenesis of both entities of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, namely Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, is still complex and under investigation. The importance of the microbial flora in developing IBD is beyond debate. In the last few years, the focus has changed from adaptive towards innate immunity. Crohn’s ileitis is associated with a deficiency of the antimicrobial shield, as shown by a reduced expression and secretion of the Paneth cell defensin HD5 and HD6, which is related to a Paneth cell differentiation defect mediated by a diminished expression of the Wnt transcription factor TCF4. In UC, the protective mucus layer, acting as a physical and chemical barrier between the gut epithelium and the luminal microbes, is thinner and in part denuded as compared to controls. This could be caused by a missing induction of the goblet cell differentiation factors Hath1 and KLF4 leading to immature goblet cells. This defective Paneth and goblet cell differentiation in Crohn’s ileitis and UC may enable the luminal microbes to invade the mucosa and trigger the inflammation. The exact molecular mechanisms behind ileal CD and also UC must be further clarified, but these observations could give rise to new therapeutic strategies based on a stimulation of the protective innate immune system.

Michael Gersemann

2011-01-01

296

Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder. PMID:24627581

Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

2014-03-14

297

The value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease. Methods: Sixteen patients with suspected small bowel disease, but without acute inflammatory disease or bowel obstruction, received MR enteroclysis with air infusion. There were 12 males and 4 females, and their age ranged from 17 to 75 years. 10 patients had abdominal pain, 4 with melena or blood stool, and 2 with diarrhea. The longest course was 7 years, and the shortest 1 week. Before MR imaging, a nasoenteric catheter was inserted into the distal part of duodenum, and about 1000 ml of air was infused through the tube to distend the small bowel. 20 mg of IV anisodamine was given to reduce small-bowel peristalsis. All patients were imaged with fat-saturated Gd-DTPA enhanced coronal and axial T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequence and fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence. Comparison between the diagnosis of MRI and the results of surgery, pathology or clinic was performed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of MRI. Results: 5 cases were normal, 6 with Crohn disease, 2 with gastric intestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and 1 each of lymphoma, tuberculosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The lumen of normal small bowel in MR enteroclysis was no signal, the wall was outlined as middle signal by intraluminal air and surrounding air-distended bowel and was between 1-3 mm thick, and the diameter of the lumen was between 17-28 mm. Crohn disease shoen was between 17-28 mm. Crohn disease showed segmental mural thickening, increased enhancement, luminal stricture, and even extraluminal inflammatory mass or fistula. Intestinal tuberculosis invaded the distal section of ileum, cecum, and the proximal ascending colon, the wall thickened and enhanced apparently, and cecum and proximal ascending colon shortened. GIST showed a mass that was iso-signal on T1WI, high signal on T2WI, and enhanced significantly after IV Gd-DTPA. 1 recurrent lymphoma of ileum showed mural thickening and increased enhancement but no stenosis. 1 irritable bowel syndrome is disfunction, so its shape and signal is normal. Except 1 Crohn disease, which showed a large mass, was misdiagnosed as lymphoma and no abnormality was found in 1 irritable bowel syndrome, the other diagnosis of MRI was correct. The sensitivity in diagnosing small intestinal disease was 100%, and the specificity was 83%. Conclusion: MR enteroclysis with air infusion is a sensitive method in diagnosing the small bowel disease, especially in Crohn disease and tumor. It can clearly display the mural thickening and the extraluminal inflammatory mass

298

Bowel endometriosis: Recent insights and unsolved problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bowel endometriosis affects between 3.8% and 37% of women with endometriosis. The evaluation of symptoms and clinical examination are inadequate for an accurate diagnosis of intestinal endometriosis. Transvaginal ultrasonography is the first line investigation in patients with suspected bowel endometriosis and allows accurate determination of the presence of the disease. Radiological techniques (such as magnetic resonance imaging and multidetector computerized tomography enteroclysis are useful for estimating the extent of bowel endometriosis. Hormonal therapies (progestins, gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues and aromatase inhibitors significantly improve pain and intestinal symptoms in patients with bowel stenosis less than 60% and who do not wish to conceive. However, hormonal therapies may not prevent the progression of bowel endometriosis and, therefore, patients receiving long-term treatment should be periodically monitored. Surgical excision of bowel endometriosis should be offered to symptomatic patients with bowel stenosis greater than 60%. Intestinal endometriotic nodules may be excised by nodulectomy or segmental resection. Both surgical procedures improve pain, intestinal symptoms and fertility. Nodulectomy may be associated with a lower rate of complications.

Simone Ferrero, Giovanni Camerini, Umberto Leone Roberti Maggiore, Pier L Venturini, Ennio Biscaldi, Valentino Remorgida

2011-03-01

299

Intestino Corto / Short bowel syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El intestino corto está asociado a pérdida o disfunción del intestino delgado por resección del mismo, que causa diarreas, tránsito intestinal acelerado, malabsorción intestinal, y eventualmente la pérdida de peso y el desgaste muscular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar el conocimiento ace [...] rca de este síndrome. Se realiza una revisión del tema de intestino corto donde se refiere a su definición, causas fundamentales frecuentes e infrecuentes en el niño y en el adulto, cómo se adapta el intestino a la resección de diferentes extensiones, las funciones del íleon terminal. Se hacen una valoración clínica inicial, con el interrogatorio médico, revisión minuciosa de la historia clínica para cuantificar la capacidad de absorción. Se habla de los síntomas y signos de deficiencia nutricional. Se explican las estrategias del tratamiento, que tienen 3 etapas de evolución clínica. Se concluye que se indica la dietoterapia adecuada según el estado nutricional del paciente y la resección intestinal realizada, evitando las complicaciones para lograr una calidad máxima de vida Abstract in english Short bowel is associated with loss or dysfunction of the small bowel due to its resection, which causes diarrheas, accelerated intestinal transit, intestinal malabsorption and, eventually, weight loss ansd muscular waste. The objective of this paper was to update knowledge about this syndrome. A re [...] view of the short intestine topic is made, making reference to its definition, common and uncommon main cuases in the child and adult, how the bowel adapts itslef to resection of different extensions, and the functions of the terminal ileum. An initial clinical assessment is made with the medical questionnaire and a detailed review of the medical history to quantify the absorption capacity. The symptoms and signs of nutritional deficiency are dealt with. The strategies of the treatment consisting of 3 stages of clinical evolution are explained. It is concluded that the adequate diet therapy is indicated according to the nutritional state of the patient and the performed intestinal resections, preventing complications to achieve a maximum quality of life

María Matilde, Socarrás Suárez; Miriam, Bolet Astoviza; Martha, Larrea Fabra.

2004-06-01

300

Does MRI with oral contrast medium allow single-study depiction of inflammatory bowel disease enteritis and colitis?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the feasibility and utility of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the bowel in concurrent small- and large-bowel evaluation for the presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Over a 5-year period, 62 MR examinations performed on 53 patients demonstrated evidence of IBD. Sixteen of these 53 (30.1%) patients had imaging findings of colonic disease and underwent 19 formal MR small bowel examinations. These were further evaluated for bowel distention and image quality. The sensitivity and specificity of the technique compared with colonoscopy as the 'gold standard' was evaluated. Simultaneous imaging of the colon is feasible at MR small bowel follow-through with moderate-to-excellent colonic visibility and colon distention obtained when the contrast medium is present in the colon at the time of image acquisition. MR imaging had a sensitivity of 80% (0.56-0.93), specificity of 100% (0.77-1.00), positive predictive value (PPV) of 1 and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.8 for the identification of colitis (based on available concurrent correlation of 38/62 examinations with colonoscopy). Small and large bowel MR imaging with orally consumed contrast medium represents a promising, feasible, non-invasive, non-radiating single mode of assessment of the entire gastrointestinal tract, performed at a single sitting. (orig.)

301

Does MRI with oral contrast medium allow single-study depiction of inflammatory bowel disease enteritis and colitis?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the feasibility and utility of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the bowel in concurrent small- and large-bowel evaluation for the presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Over a 5-year period, 62 MR examinations performed on 53 patients demonstrated evidence of IBD. Sixteen of these 53 (30.1%) patients had imaging findings of colonic disease and underwent 19 formal MR small bowel examinations. These were further evaluated for bowel distention and image quality. The sensitivity and specificity of the technique compared with colonoscopy as the 'gold standard' was evaluated. Simultaneous imaging of the colon is feasible at MR small bowel follow-through with moderate-to-excellent colonic visibility and colon distention obtained when the contrast medium is present in the colon at the time of image acquisition. MR imaging had a sensitivity of 80% (0.56-0.93), specificity of 100% (0.77-1.00), positive predictive value (PPV) of 1 and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.8 for the identification of colitis (based on available concurrent correlation of 38/62 examinations with colonoscopy). Small and large bowel MR imaging with orally consumed contrast medium represents a promising, feasible, non-invasive, non-radiating single mode of assessment of the entire gastrointestinal tract, performed at a single sitting. (orig.)

Cronin, Carmel G.; Lohan, Derek G.; Browne, Ann Michelle; Roche, Clare; Murphy, Joseph M. [University College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Galway (Ireland)

2010-07-15

302

A Strange Case of Left Bowel Ischemia after Right Hernioplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the first observed case of a young man who suffered of large and unsuspected left bowel ischemia following an elective right open hernioplasty. A 54-year-old man had a 2-year history of right inguinal reducible mass and was admitted to hospital for an elective day case open inguinal hernioplasty for a direct right inguinal hernia. Apart from mild hypertension controlled with ACE inhibitor, he was medically fit and well. The patient was submitted to open tension-free mesh repair with polypropylene preshaped mesh with local infiltration anesthesia and additive sedation with midazolam. The local anesthesia and surgery were uneventful and he was discharged home on the same day as per day case protocol. He was readmitted about 12 h after discharge with a history of central and left lower abdominal pain with palpable mass, and distension and fever (38°C). After imaging and laboratory studies the patient was submitted to explorative surgery with the suspicion of left colonic ischemia. After intraoperative confirmation we performed standard left hemicolectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful; the patient was discharged in good general condition on the 7th postoperative day. Actually, the patient is in follow-up, with normal coagulation and hemochromocytometric pattern, asymptomatic for hypercholesterolemia and atrial flutter/fibrillation. Complications relating to bowel during open techniques of hernia repair are limited to two situations: the freeing of an incarcerated or strangulated segment of bowel and inadvertent laceration of large bowel in the presence of a sliding hernia. Following this strange case of colonic ischemia, a boolean Medline search (terms: hernia, complication, repair, groin, herniorrhaphy, hernioplasty, all major MESH subjects without language restriction) revealed no previous similar cases reported. However, to our knowledge, there is another trouble hypothesis: not causality but casualty. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of large left bowel ischemia following right open hernioplasty. We can conclude that the presence of a dolichocolon is an added risk factor for this rare and uneventful complication, but further investigations and case reports are necessary to estabilish the real causality. PMID:21103221

Geraci, Girolamo; Pisello, Franco; Modica, Giuseppe; Li Volsi, Francesco; Cajozzo, Massimo; Sciumè, Carmelo

2010-01-01

303

An unusual case of bowel perforation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bowel perforation is a potentially fatal complication of obstruction, ischaemia, trauma, surgery and medications. It is recognised by clinical suspicion based on history, symptoms of severe abdominal pain and signs such as rebound tenderness, as well as imaging showing free air in the abdomen. Bevacizumab (aka avastin) is an antineoplastic recombinant monoclonal antibody that inhibits angiogenesis in a variety of malignancies. Colonic perforation is a recognised but rare complication of this therapy, likely due to aforementioned bowel ischaemia or compromised mucosal microcirculation which increases susceptibility to injury. We are presenting a case of an unrecognised bowel perforation caused in a patient with abdominal carcinomatosis. PMID:24957587

Lazarescu, Roxana Elena; Bohm, Kelley

2014-01-01

304

Primary Small Bowel Liposarcoma (Atypical Lipomatous Tumour) with Myogenic Differentiation  

OpenAIRE

Primary small intestinal liposarcomas originating in the small bowel are uncommon with a generally poor prognosis due to the advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. We describe a case of primary small bowel dedifferentiated liposarcoma presenting as a solid mass in the right iliac fossa. The current case is unusual as the tumour seemingly originated from the bowel and the well-differentiated component was seen extensively infiltrating the bowel wall including the small bowel submucosa.

Speake, W.; Macculloch, T. A.; Deb, R.; Patel, J.

2010-01-01

305

Efecto del Tisuacryl sobre la mucosa oral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los ensayos estipulados para el registro de los equipos médico, biomateriales y materiales implantables están regidos por un conjunto de normas que regulan cuáles deben efectuarse. En dependencia del tipo de aplicaci ón que se pretende dar al material en estudio o el tiempo del contacto con el organismo, así será el rigor que se exija para la evaluación. Con el objetivo de ampliar a la zona de la boca las aplicaciones del adhesivo tisular compuesto por cianoacrilato de n-butilo, de fabricación nacional, Tisuacryl, se efectuó la evaluaci ón de la irritación que provoca el producto a la mucosa oral. Estos productos están constituidos entre otras cosas por monómeros de cianoacrilato de nbutilo, que polimerizan con facilidad por contacto con sustratos orgánicos e inorgánicos por lo que exigen un tratamiento especial para aplicar la metodología seleccionada sin invalidar el resultado de las evaluaciones. En los experimentos que se desarrollaron se pudo aplicar directamente la norma internacional vigente con la utilización de un circulo plástico para delimitar la zona de aplicación del adhesivo. En la evaluación macroscópica se encontró una irritación ligera según la puntuación obtenida y en la histológica se observó una irritación promedio de 3,4, lo que le confiere al producto una irritación mínima, aceptable para el uso en mucosa. No obstante los resultados, es recomendable ampliar el estudio incorporando ensayos que no recoge la norma vigente, tales como la evaluación del comportamiento del adhesivo frente a las enzimas bucales antes de su aplicación oral, pues se conoce que tales productos son degradados por dichas enzimas en un corto período. Esto permitiría obtener una informaci ón más completa acerca de la toxicidad del adhesivo.

Gast\\u00F3n Garc\\u00EDa-Simons

2006-01-01

306

Bowel injuries secondary to induced abortion: a dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the pattern of bowel injuries incurred by induced abortion, and the morbidity and mortality associated with them. All patients with bowel injuries due to induced abortion. Detailed data of all the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 22 patients, mostly young with an average age of 26.86 years, presented with bowel injuries following induced abortion. Severe hemorrhage occurred in 8(36.4%) patients while 11(50%) had ileal perforation; 9(40.9%) underwent primary repair and 2(9.1%) ileostomy formation. Two (9.1%) patients with jejunal perforation had primary repair, whereas two with both jejunal and ileal perforations underwent resections with anastomosis in one and ileostomy in another. Seven (31.8%) with large gut involvement had colostomy formation. Septicemia and wound infection occurred in 7(31.8%) patients each, faecal fistula and abdominal wound dehiscence in 3(13.6%), and pelvic abscess in 1(4.6%) patient. The total mortality in this series was 6(27.3%) patients. Iatrogenic injuries during induced abortion, most commonly caused by quacks, can be minimized substantially if the procedure is performed by qualified medical personnel in proper health care facilities. There is a need for radical overhauling of the mind set in our society together with legislation. (author)

307

Disturbances in small bowel motility.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.

Quigley, E M

2012-02-03

308

Inflammatory bowel disease and osteoporosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relation between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and osteoporosis has received increasing attention during the past decade. The prevalence of low bone mass in patients with IBD has been reported to be more than 50%. The development of a quick non-invasive method to diagnose osteoporosis (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) provides a practical tool to identify the patient who needs special attention. The aetiology of the bone disease in patients with IBD has still not been elucidated, but corticosteroids may play a major role. Studies on the prevention/treatment of IBD-related osteoporosis are scarce. In a single uncontrolled study hormone replacement therapy proved effective in preventing bone loss in peri- and post-menopausal women with IBD. A placebo-controlled study showed that supplementation with calcium and vitamin D prevents bone loss in patients with Crohn's disease. The present paper reviews our current knowledge on the mechanisms and epidemiology of IBD-related bone disease.

Andreassen, Hans Steen; Rungby, J

1997-01-01

309

Anemia and inflammatory bowel diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Too often anemia is considered a rare or unimportant manifestation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. However, over the last 10 years a number of studies have been conducted and the most relevant conclusions obtained are: (1 anemia is quite common in IBD; (2 although in many cases anemia parallels the clinical activity of the disease, many patients in remission have anemia, and iron, vitamin B12 and/or folic acid deficiency; (3 anemia, and also iron deficiency without anemia, have important consequences in the clinical status and quality of life of the patient; (4 oral iron can lead to gastrointestinal intolerance and failure of treatment; (5 intravenous iron is an effective and safe way to treat iron deficiency; (6 erythropoietin is needed in a significant number of cases to achieve normal hemoglobin levels. Thus, the clinician caring for IBD patients should have a comprehensive knowledge of anemia, and apply recently published guidelines in clinical practice.

Fernando Gomollón, Javier P Gisbert

2009-10-01

310

Shortened questionnaire on quality of life for inflammatory bowel disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Questionnaires for measuring quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease usually include a large number of items and are time-consuming for both administration and interpretation. Our aim was to elaborate and validate a short quality-of-life questionnaire with the most representative items from the Spanish version of the 36-item Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ-36) using the Rasch analysis. The responses to 311 IBDQ-36 questionnaires from 167 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 144 with Crohn's disease (CD) were analyzed. IBDQ-36 was shortened with successive Rasch analyses until all the remaining items showed acceptable separation and goodness-of-fit properties. Validation of the short questionnaire was studied in a new group of 125 patients by determining its validity and reliability. A 9-item short questionnaire was obtained (IBDQ-9). Its correlation with IBDQ-36 was excellent (r = 0.91). Correlation between IBDQ-9 and clinical indices of activity was statistically significant in UC (r = 0.70) and CD (r= 0.70). IBDQ-9 score discriminates adequately between patients in clinical remission or relapse (P IBDQ-9 changes between both determinations (P IBDQ-9 was also homogeneous, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.95 in UC and 0.91 in CD. In 35-clinically stable patients, test-retest reliability was good, with a statistically-significant correlation between both questionnaires (r = 0.76 in UC and 0.86 in CD, P valid questionnaire to measure quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease was obtained using a new measurement model. Its use should facilitate comprehension of the impact of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:15475746

Alcalá, M J; Casellas, F; Fontanet, G; Prieto, L; Malagelada, J-R

2004-07-01

311

Inmunología de la mucosa oral: Revisión Immunology of oral mucosa: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante los últimos 50 años numerosas publicaciones han tratado de explicar los cambios inmunológicos en relación con exclusivas o determinadas enfermedades. El objetivo de esta presentación es realizar una revisión sobre lo publicado hasta el momento sobre la respuesta del sistema inmune innato y adaptativo en relación con la mucosa oral, un panorama sobre el rol o roles de las células inmunes, citoquinas, receptores, factores de crecimiento y otros productos secretorios y el los distintos elementos inmunológicos que actúan sobre la mucosa oral asociados con los estados de salud, inflamación, stress crónico, desregulación inmune, longevidad tolerancia inmune e inmunosenescencia.During the last 50 years several papers have been put forward to explain induce immunological changes in relationship with exclusive or determinated oral diseases. The objective of this presentation is to make a rewie about what is published at the moment about of innated and adaptative immune response, in relationship with oral mucosa, and an overwie of the role (s of immune cells, cytoquines, receptors, grow factors, and other secretory products associated with health, inflammation, chronic stress, Immune dysregulation aging, inmuno tolerance and inmunosenescence.

Zulema J. Casariego

2012-10-01

312

Inmunología de la mucosa oral: Revisión / Immunology of oral mucosa: A review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Durante los últimos 50 años numerosas publicaciones han tratado de explicar los cambios inmunológicos en relación con exclusivas o determinadas enfermedades. El objetivo de esta presentación es realizar una revisión sobre lo publicado hasta el momento sobre la respuesta del sistema inmune innato y a [...] daptativo en relación con la mucosa oral, un panorama sobre el rol o roles de las células inmunes, citoquinas, receptores, factores de crecimiento y otros productos secretorios y el los distintos elementos inmunológicos que actúan sobre la mucosa oral asociados con los estados de salud, inflamación, stress crónico, desregulación inmune, longevidad tolerancia inmune e inmunosenescencia. Abstract in english During the last 50 years several papers have been put forward to explain induce immunological changes in relationship with exclusive or determinated oral diseases. The objective of this presentation is to make a rewie about what is published at the moment about of innated and adaptative immune respo [...] nse, in relationship with oral mucosa, and an overwie of the role (s) of immune cells, cytoquines, receptors, grow factors, and other secretory products associated with health, inflammation, chronic stress, Immune dysregulation aging, inmuno tolerance and inmunosenescence.

Zulema J., Casariego.

2012-10-01

313

Small bowel barium examination in childrem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The indications for small bowel barium examination, the radiologic findings, and the clinical outcome were compared retrospectively in 331 children, aged 0 to 15 years. Sixty examinations (18%) were pathologic, which is in accordance with adult materials. The most common indications for referral were inflammatory bowel disease (48%) and small bowel obstruction (25%). The examinations were positive in 19% and 17%, respectively. Indications for referring patients with non-specific symptoms led to a low frequency of pathologic findings. A therapeutic or diagnostic procedure was performed in 38 of the 60 pathologic radiologic examinations (63%). In 18 patients (30%) a pathologic finding caused no change in therapy. No consistent difference in sensitivity, specificity or predictive values of a positive or negative result was found concerning enteroclysis or elective follow-through examination. For screening purposes of the small bowel in children follow-through examinations give adequate radiologic information and should be used instead of enteroclysis. (orig.)

314

If I Had - Bowel Control Issues  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... nerves and muscles. And those nerves and muscles function in a way that effectively allows the whole ... that can have a profound effect on bowel function and can drive patients towards problems with fecal ...

315

If I Had - Bowel Control Issues  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... There are many kinds of surgeries that are done for problems like cancer, radiation treatments that may ... the bowel emptying better, and that can be done with simple measures: over-the-counter medication such ...

316

If I Had - Bowel Control Issues  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Insidermedicine In 60 In Depth In the Spotlight If I Had... Universities and Hospitals By Disease or ... Insulin Glargine Just as Effective as Insulin Lispro If I Had - Bowel Control Issues - Dr. Niall Galloway, ...

317

If I Had - Bowel Control Issues  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... incontinence is the name that doctors give to patients who have problems controlling the bowel, and typically ... common problem, and more than 10% of the patients that we see who come to a bladder ...

318

Tuberculous perforation of the small bowel.  

OpenAIRE

Small bowel perforation occurs in up to 2 percent of patients with abdominal tuberculous. Patients present with an acute abdomen. Resection of the diseased segment and 18 months treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs is recommended.

Aston, N. O.; Costa, A. M.

1985-01-01

319

If I Had - Bowel Control Issues  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... In 60 In Depth In the Spotlight If I Had... Universities and Hospitals By Disease or Symptom ... Glargine Just as Effective as Insulin Lispro If I Had - Bowel Control Issues - Dr. Niall Galloway, MD, ...

320

Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Complementary Health Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

... bowel syndrome: the empirical evidence of therapeutic effects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis . 2006;54(1): ... Research Grant Program (SBIR) More » Training About Research Training and Career Development Awards and Opportunities Institutional Training Sites Training Grant ...

321

Diverticulosis of the small bowel with Diverticulitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Case report of diverticulosis of the small bowel complicated by diverticulitis. Radiography is the method of choice to demonstrate this finding preoperatively. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of right lower quadrant abdominal pecin. (orig.)

322

Diverticulosis of the small bowel with Diverticulitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Case report of diverticulosis of the small bowel complicated by diverticulitis. Radiography is the method of choice to demonstrate this finding preoperatively. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of right lower quadrant abdominal pecin.

Barner, L.; Doldt, H.; Strecker, E.P.

1980-11-01

323

If I Had - Bowel Control Issues  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... wrong way to go. How should my doctor approach this issue? Dr. Galloway: I think the first ... to stimulate the bowel to empty. And these approaches, typically, can be used very safely on a ...

324

Cutaneous manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has many extraintestinal manifestations, and skin lesions are one of the most frequently described extraintestinal findings. Reports indicate an incidence of cutaneous manifestations ranging from 2 to 34%, Cutaneous manifestations are usually related to the activity of the bowel disease but may have an independent course. In this review we aim to address the various cutaneous manifestations associated with IBD, their impact on the disease course, and the treatment options available.

Al Roujayee Abdulaziz

2007-01-01

325

Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before the rectal surgery to clean the rectum and facilitate the manipulation for the mechanical anastomosis is used for many surgeons. This is analysed separately

Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio

2011-01-01

326

Trichobezoar: A rare cause of bowel obstruction  

OpenAIRE

A bezoar is an intraluminal mass formed by the accumulation of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract. A trichobezoar is a bezoar made up of hair and is a rare cause of bowel obstruction of the proximal gastrointestinal tract. They are seen mostly in young women with trichotillomania and trichotillophagia and symptoms include epigastric pain, nausea, loss of appetite and bowel or gastric outlet obstruction. We herein describe a case of a trichobezoar that presented as a gastric out...

Xe Bastien Gaujoux, S.; Gaëlle Bach; Joyce Au; Gaëlle Godiris-Petit; Nicolas Munoz-Bongrand; Pierre Cattan; Emile Sarfati

2011-01-01

327

The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Caroline Canavan, Joe West, Timothy Card Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional condition of the bowel that is diagnosed using clinical criteria. This paper discusses the nature of the diagnostic process for IBS and how this impacts epidemiological measurements. Depending on the diagnostic criteria employed, IBS affects around 11% of the population globally. Around 30% of people who experie...

Canavan C; West J; Card T

2014-01-01

328

Correlations between Psoriasis and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases  

OpenAIRE

For a long time the relationship between inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and psoriasis has been investigated by epidemiological studies. It is only starting from the 1990s that genetic and immunological aspects have been focused on. Psoriasis and IBD are strictly related inflammatory diseases. Skin and bowel represent, at the same time, barrier and connection between the inner and the outer sides of the body. The most important genetic correlations involve the chromosomal loci 6p22, 16q, 1...

Concetta Potenza; Valentina Soccodato; Sara Zuber; Ersilia Tolino; Francesca Nicolucci; Giorgio La Viola; Nicoletta Bernardini; Riccardo Pampena; Ilaria Proietti; Nevena Skroza

2013-01-01

329

Nutritional Support Process for a Patient with Short Bowel Syndrome in Conjunction with Panperitonitis: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) is a condition that causes malabsorption and nutrient deficiency because a large section of the small intestine is missing or has been surgically removed. SBS may develop congenitally or from gastroenterectomy, which often change the motility, digestive, and/or absorptive functions of the small bowel. The surgical procedure for SBS and the condition itself have high mortality rates and often lead to a range of complications associated with long-term parenteral nutri...

Kim, Sun Jung; Kim, Bo Ram; Lee, Song Mi; Kong, Hee Jung; Shin, Cheung Soo

2013-01-01

330

Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

Liu, N R; Chen, J X; Zhuo, S M; Zheng, L Q; Jiang, X S [Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou (China); Chen, G [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Yan, J, E-mail: chenjianxin@fjnu.edu.cn, E-mail: ynjun@yahoo.com [Department of Surgery, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou (China)

2011-01-01

331

Transvaginal absorption of estrogens through irradiated mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum concentrations of unconjugated estrone (E1) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) have been measured in eight patients before and after 1.25 mg of conjugated estrogens administered intravaginally. The measurements were repeated using 2 mg of micronized estradiol administered intravaginally 1 week later to six of the women and 7 months later in one. All the patients had completed a full course of irradiation for pelvic malignancy at least 8 months prior to the study. Baseline, 1/2, 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, and 24-hr samples were analyzed. After conjugated estrogens mean serum E2 increased 4.5-fold to peak at 163 pg/ml at 2 hr while serum E1 increased 3.2-fold to peak at 222 pg/ml at 2 hr. After micronized E2 mean serum E2 increased 89.3-fold to peak at 1250 pg/ml at 1 hr while E1 increased 3.1-fold to peak at 416 pg/ml at 2 hr. These data indicate that rapid absorption of E1 and E2 occurs through irradiated vaginal mucosa

332

The effects of glutamine-supplemented diet on the intestinal mucosa of the malnourished growing rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and plays a key role in the response of the small intestine to systemic injuries. Mucosal atrophy is an important phenomenon that occurs in some types of clinical injury, such as states of severe undernutrition. Glutamine has been shown to exert powerful trophic effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa after small bowel resection or transplant, radiation injury, surgical trauma, ischemic injury and administration of cytotoxic drugs. Since no study has been performed on the malnourished animal, we examined whether glutamine exerts a trophic effect on the intestinal mucosa of the malnourished growing rat. Thirty-five growing female rats (aged 21 days were divided into 4 groups: control - chow diet; malnutrition diet; malnutrition+chow diet; and malnutrition+glutamine-enriched chow diet (2%. For the first 15 days of the experiment, animals in the test groups received a malnutrition diet, which was a lactose-enriched diet designed to induce diarrhea and malnutrition. For the next 15 days, these animals received either the lactose-enriched diet, a regular chow diet or a glutamine-enriched chow diet. After 30 days, the animals were weighed, sacrificed, and a section of the jejunum was taken and prepared for histological examination. All the animals had similar weights on day 1 of experiment, and feeding with the lactose-enriched diet promoted a significant decrease in body weight in comparison to the control group. Feeding with both experimental chow-based diets promoted significant body weight gains, although the glutamine-enriched diet was more effective. RESULTS: The morphological and morphometric analyses demonstrated that small intestinal villous height was significantly decreased in the malnourished group, and this change was partially corrected by the two types of chow-based diet. Crypt depth was significantly increased by malnutrition, and this parameter was partially corrected by the two types of chow-based diet. The glutamine-enriched diet resulted in the greatest reduction of crypt depth, and this reduction was also statistically significant when compared with control animals. CONCLUSIONS: Enteral glutamine has some positive effects on body weight gain and trophism of the jejunal mucosa in the malnourished growing rat.

Tannuri Uenis

2000-01-01

333

Current overview of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in etiology and progression of inflammatory bowel diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, relapsing disorders affecting gastrointestinal (GI) tract and associated with intestinal mucosa damage and inflammation. The principal therapeutic goals in IBD include control of the intestinal inflammation and treatment of the major symptoms, mainly abdominal pain and diarrhea. Current therapeutic strategies for IBD rely on the use of non-specific anti-inflammatory agents and immunosuppressive drugs (e.g. aminosalicylates, monoclonal antibodies, and antibiotics), which cause severe side effects, and - in a significant number of patients - do not induce long-term benefits. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology and the most important risk factors of IBD, including genetic, immunological and environmental. Our main focus is to discuss pharmacological targets for current and future treatments of IBD. PMID:25149979

Sobczak, Marta; Fabisiak, Adam; Murawska, Natalia; Weso?owska, Ewelina; Wierzbicka, Paulina; Wlaz?owski, Marcin; Wójcikowska, Marta; Zatorski, Hubert; Zwoli?ska, Marta; Fichna, Jakub

2014-10-01

334

Acute small bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis: A case report and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement of endometriosis has been found in 3%-37% of menstruating women and exclusive localization on the ileum is very rare (1%-7%. Endometriosis of the distal ileum is an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction, ranging from 7% to 23% of all cases with intestinal involvement. We report a case in which endometrial infiltration of the small bowel caused acute obstruction requiring emergency surgery, in a woman whose symptoms were not related to menses. Histology of the resected specimen showed that endometriosis was mainly prevalent in the muscularis propria and submucosa and that the mucosa was not ulcerated but had inflammation and glandular alteration. Endometrial lymph node involvement, with a cystic glandular pattern was also detected.

Antonella De Ceglie, Claudio Bilardi, Sabrina Blanchi, Massimo Picasso, Marcello Di Muzio, Alberto Trimarchi, Massimo Conio

2008-06-01

335

Inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis affect women in their child-bearing years. Family planning has come to be a common discussion between the gastroenterologist and the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patient. Disease control prior to desired conception and throughout pregnancy is the most important thing to keep in mind when caring for the IBD patient. Continued medical management during pregnancy is crucial in optimizing outcomes. Studies indicate that quiescent disease prior to conception infer the best pregnancy outcomes, similar to those in the general population. Active disease prior to and during pregnancy, can lead to complications such as pre-term labor, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. Although there are no definitive long term effects of pregnancy on IBD, there are some limited studies that suggest that it may alter the disease course. Understanding the literature and its limitations is important in the modern era of IBD care. Educating the patient and taking a team approach with the obstetrician will help achieve successful outcomes for mother and baby.

Dawn B Beaulieu

2011-01-01

336

[Multidisciplinary guideline irritable bowel syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

The multidisciplinary guideline 'Diagnostics and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)' provides the basis for a properly coordinated collaboration between the patient suffering from IBS and all healthcare providers involved in his or her treatment, such as the general practitioner, gastroenterologist, internist, occupational-health physician, dietitian and psychologist. The diagnosis 'IBS' is often made in accordance with diagnostic criteria, such as the Rome III criteria, but a somatic condition needs to be excluded first. If there are no indications for this, additional diagnostic tests are not necessary. Management of the condition consists primarily of advice on life-style plus non-pharmacological interventions, in addition to explaining the condition and providing information. Drug treatment is rarely indicated. If the IBS symptoms have a significant impact on quality of life and patients do not respond to the measures taken in accordance with this general policy, there are three options for psychotherapeutic treatment. When the symptoms result in absenteeism or other work-related problems, the doctor can advise the patient to contact the occupational-health physician and to search for specific solutions in consultation with the employer. When individual advice is required or if the patient's diet is not well-balanced, a referral to the dietitian will follow. PMID:24326112

Woutersen-Koch, Hèlen; Smout, André J P M; Flik, Carla E; Hulshof, Carel T J; de Wit, Niek J; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

2013-01-01

337

Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

338

Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

2014-05-15

339

Reconstruction of highly contracted socket after irradiation with antral mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have repaired 3 cases of the highly contracted socket after irradiation by lining it using antral mucosa and obtained excellent results. Although this procedure requires rhinological skill to obtain the mucosa, it has an advantage leaving no visible scar at the donor site. Usually it is not difficult to obtain a sufficient quantity of the mucous membrane to line a whole socket from one antrum. Besides, it is also easy to line its surface since the shape of antral mucosa is originally in a sac form. All we have to do is making 20 mm long incision to the mucosa, putting a silicone conformer into it, and inlaying it into the graft bed. Thus, having once obtained the mucous membrane, the surgical procedure itself is a quite simple one. (author)

340

Ectopic gastric mucosa in the oesophagus mimicking ulceration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report two patients with ectopic gastric mucosa in the oesophagus in whom emergency contrast medium studies after traumatic endoscopy revealed broad, flat depressions on the right lateral wall of the upper oesophagus that could initially be mistaken for ulcers or even intramural dissections. However, the appearance and location of these lesions is so characteristic of ectopic gastric mucosa that confirmation with endoscopic biopsy specimens probably is not required in asymptomatic patients

341

Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in the bovine olfactory mucosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carcinomas of the ethmoidal region of the nose are observed relatively frequently in cattle in several countries in tropical and subtropical latitudes. Viruses have been implicated as causative agents, but it has been observed that affected animals sometimes suffer from aflatoxicosis, and a role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the aetiology has also been proposed. We have examined whether the bovine nasal olfactory mucosa has a capacity to metabolize AFB1. The contents of cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b5, and the NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity in the nasal olfactory mucosa have also been determined. Comparative experiments have been performed with the liver. Incubations with 3H-labelled AFB1 showed that the nasal olfactory mucosa has a much higher capacity than the liver to form lipid-soluble, water-soluble and tissue-bound AFB1-metabolites. High-resolution microautoradiography showed a strong localization of tissue-bound metabolites in the sustentacular cells in the apical portion of the olfactory surface epithelium and in Bowman's glands in the olfactory lamina propria mucosae. Especially in the sustentacular cells the labelling was preferentially located in the nuclei of the cells. Liquid chromatography of chloroform extracts of the nasal olfactory mucosa and the liver incubated with 3H-AFB1 showed formation of several metabolites. The dominating peak in both tissues was aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). However, the amount of AFM1 was higher in the nasal olfactory mucosa than in the liver, and the amounts and proportions of several other metabolites also differed markedly between the two tissues. The level of cytochrome P-450 in the nasal olfactory mucosa was found to be about one quarter of that in the liver, but the NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity was much higher in the nasal olfactory mucosa than in the liver.

Larsson, P.; Pettersson, H.; Tjaelve, H.

1989-06-01

342

Speech and Swallowing Outcomes in Buccal Mucosa Carcinoma  

OpenAIRE

Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs) in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis maj...

John, Sunila; Hassuji, Rashida M.; Rajashekhar, B.

2011-01-01

343

Lymphoid follicles in antral mucosa: immune response to Campylobacter pylori?  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence of lymphoid follicles in endoscopic biopsy specimens from normal antral mucosa (n = 220), mucosa with reflux gastritis (n = 104), and in cases with Campylobacter pylori-associated gastritis (n = 2544) was studied. In the latter group whether there were associations between degree and activity of gastritis and the prevalence of lymphoid follicles and between the occurrence of lymphoid follicles and the presence of intestinal metaplasia in the antrum were investigated. In cases w...

Stolte, M.; Eidt, S.

1989-01-01

344

Alterations in the laryngeal mucosa after exposure to asbestos.  

OpenAIRE

The laryngeal mucosa of 195 workers in an asbestos cement factory (Salonit Anhovo, Yugoslavia) and in a control group was examined. The factory manufactures asbestos cement products containing about 13% of asbestos (8% amosite, 12% crocidolite, and 80% chrysotile) of different provenance. Alterations in the laryngeal mucosa were more frequent in the factory workers than in the control group. The changes, mostly consistent with chronic laryngitis, were closely related to the degree of workplac...

Kambic, V.; Radsel, Z.; Gale, N.

1989-01-01

345

Ileo-colonic intussusception secondary to small-bowel lipomatosis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal lipomatosis is a rare disease with an incidence at autopsy ranging from 0.04% to 4.5%. Because the lipomas are diffusely distributed in the intestine, most patients are symptom-free, and invasive intervention is not advised by most doctors. Here, we describe a case with intussusception due to small-bowel lipomatosis. Partial small bowel resection and anastomosis were performed because the intestinal wall was on the verge of perforation. This case indicates that regular follow-up is necessary and endoscopic treatment should be considered to avoid surgical procedures if the lipoma is large enough to cause intestinal obstruction. PMID:24587685

Gao, Peng-Ji; Chen, Lei; Wang, Fu-Shun; Zhu, Ji-Ye

2014-02-28

346

Small bowel obstruction and perforation secondary to primary enterolithiasis in a patient with jejunal diverticulosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a rare case of small bowel obstruction and perforation secondary to a primary enterolith in an 84-year-old female patient with jejunal diverticulosis. She underwent an emergency laparotomy, small bowel resection and primary anastomosis. Multiple jejunal diverticula and a large stone were identified at the time of operation. Analysis of the stone demonstrated mainly faecal material consistent with a true primary enterolith. A literature search of Medline and PubMed revealed three cases similar to the one described. The pathogenesis and management of enterolithiasis in jejunal diverticular disease is considered. PMID:24626387

Chaudhery, Baber; Newman, Peter Alexander; Kelly, Michael Denis

2014-01-01

347

Detection of acute inflammatory bowel disease with Tc-99m-HSA-sucralfate scans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sucralfate binds to mucosal ulcerations. Twelve studies were performed in 11 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Technetium-sucralfate was prepared in vitro and given orally. Images were obtained at 4-6, 24, and 48 hours. Persistent focal abnormalities or activity in the large bowel beyond 48 hours was interpreted as positive. Patients' charts were reviewed. Technetium-sucralfate was positive in ten of ten studies in nine patients with active disease, one with equivocal activity, and negative in one patient with inactive disease. Nine of 19 abnormal sites were detected with technetium-sucralfate and radiology or endoscopy; six of ten were detected with technetium-sucralfate only. Technetium-sucralfate is very sensitive in detecting active inflammatory bowel disease in individual patients

348

The placebo response in functional bowel disorders: perspectives and putative mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature and determinants of the placebo response are widely unknown, as are the underlying psychological and biological mechanisms. High placebo response rates in functional bowel disorders (functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome) are similar to those in non-intestinal diseases (depression, pain, Parkinson's disease) and not too dissimilar to other organic gastrointestinal diseases (duodenal ulcer, inflammatory bowel diseases). Methodological reasons (regression to the mean, shift in signal detection through manipulation of expectations) and psycho-biological mechanisms (Pavlovian conditioning of biological processes) are proposed to explain a large component of the response variance in clinical trials. Psychobiological mechanisms of the placebo response in functional and organic diseases can also be identified in brain function studies (such as imaging). PMID:15916619

Enck, P; Klosterhalfen, S

2005-06-01

349

Small bowel obstruction secondary to migration of a fragment of lithobezoar: a case report.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

INTRODUCTION: Small bowel obstruction is a common world-wide condition that has a range of etiological factors. The management is largely dependent on the cause of the obstruction. Small bowel obstruction caused by foreign body ingestion is rare; many items have been reported as responsible, but there are no reports implicating polyurethane foam. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 44-year-old Irish male who presented following ingestion of polyurethane foam. He was asymptomatic on presentation but developed a small bowel obstruction shortly thereafter. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting following ingestion of polyurethane foam should be scheduled for elective laparotomy, gastrotomy, and retrieval of the cast on the next available theatre list - given that they are suitable for surgery.

Medani, Mekki

2009-01-01

350

Leptin secretion by white adipose tissue and gastric mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptin is a hormone that plays a central role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Originally discovered in mature white adipocytes, it was subsequently isolated from the gastric mucosa. This tissue contains a large number of epithelial endocrine and exocrine cells secreting leptin in the blood stream and in the gastric lumen, respectively. Light and electron microscopy have shown that adipocytes and gastric epithelial cells contain leptin along their rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi-granules secretory pathway. Both tissues synthesize a soluble form of the leptin receptor that is secreted bound to leptin in the blood and into the gastric juice. This soluble receptor protect leptin and enhances its half-life. Despite the similarities in the mechanisms of leptin secretion by adipocytes and gastric epithelial cells, they are in fact radically different. In gastric cells leptin follows a rapid regulated secretion pathway whereas adipocytes secrete leptin in a constitutive slow fashion. These differences can be explained by the specific roles play by leptin originating from these two different tissues. Gastric leptin is involved in the short-term regulation of digestion, including delay of gastric emptying, absorption of nutrients by the intestinal wall and secretion of gastric, intestinal and pancreatic hormones. On the other hand, leptin secreted by white adipocytes acts primarily on the hypothalamus for the long-term regulation of food intake. Therefore, the coordination of adipose and gastric leptins ensures the proper management of food processing and energy storage. PMID:17149693

Cammisotto, P G; Bendayan, M

2007-02-01

351

MOLECULAR MARKERS OF MUCOSA HARBORING GASTRIC ADENOMAS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Contexto Adenoma gástrico é uma lesão precursora do adenocarcinoma. Objetivo Melhor caracterizar os adenomas de acordo com a imunoexpressão de mucinas e avaliar a imunoexpressão de p53, p16ink4a, BCL-2, cyclin D, Ki-67, nos adenomas e na mucosa gástrica adjacente. Métodos Quarenta espécimes gás [...] tricos provenientes de 20 pacientes portadores de adenomas foram classificados como do tipo intestinal (MUC2 – mucina presente nas células caliciformes) ou gástrico (MUC5AC – mucinas de padrão foveolar). Realizou-se imunoistoquímica para p53, p16ink4a, BCL-2, cyclin D e Ki-67 pelo método do complexo da estreptavidina-biotina. Resultados Doze (60%) pacientes eram homens e a média de idade foi de 67,9 ± 12,9 anos. Os adenomas foram classificados como do tipo intestinal em 13 (65%) pacientes e do tipo gástrico em 7 (35%). Displasia (neoplasia intraepitelial) de baixo grau estava presente em 13 (65%), displasia de alto grau em 3 (15%), e adenocarcinoma no pólipo adenomatoso em 4 (20%) pacientes. Observou-se immunoexpressão do p53 em 6/20 (30%) adenomas, e em 2/6 (33,3%) dos tumores sincrônicos. Houve associação entre imunoexpressão do p53 e adenoma/tumor tipo intestinal, P = 0.04. Não houve associação entre imunoexpressão do p16ink4a, Bcl-2, ciclina D e Ki-67 e as características clinicopatológicas dos adenomas. Conclusão Imunoistoquímica pode ser utilizada para caracterizar os subtipos de adenoma e talvez indicar o caminho de carcinogênese. Abstract in english Context Gastric adenoma is a precursor lesion of the adenocarcinoma. Objective To characterize gastric adenomas according to the mucin immunoexpression and to evaluate the immunoexpression of p53, p16ink4a, BCL-2, cyclin D, Ki-67, in the adenoma and in the gastric mucosa harboring adenoma. Meth [...] ods Forty gastric specimens from 20 patients were classified as intestinal (MUC2 - goblet cell mucin) or foveolar (MUC5AC - gastric-foveolar mucin) adenomas. Immunohistochemistry was performed using streptavidin-biotin-complex method. Results Twelve (60%) patients were men. The mean age was 67.9 ± 12.9 years-old. Intestinal adenomas were detected in 13 (65%) patients and gastric type in 7 (35%). Low-grade dysplasia was present in 13 (65%) of the adenomas, high-grade in 3 (15%), and adenocarcinoma within the polyp in 4 (20%). Six (30%) patients had synchronous adenocarcinoma. p53 immunoexpression was observed in 6/20 (30%) of adenomas, and in 2/6 (33.3%) of synchronous tumors. There was an association between p53 immunoexpression and intestinal type of adenoma/tumor, P = 0.04. There was no association between p16ink4a, Bcl-2, cyclin D and Ki-67 and adenoma clinicopathological characteristics. Conclusion Immunohistochemistry may be useful to classify the adenomas subtypes and may define the pathway of adenoma to carcinoma sequence.

Adriana Vaz, SAFATLE-RIBEIRO; Kátia Adriana Tessima, FRANCO; Carlos Eduardo Pereira, CORBETT; Kiyoshi, IRIYA; Bruno, ZILBERSTEIN; Ulysses, RIBEIRO Jr..

2013-04-01

352

Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the environmental factors leading to inflammatory bowel disease should help to prevent occurrence of the disease and its relapses. AIM: To review current knowledge on dietary risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: The PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Library were searched for studies on diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. RESULTS: Established non-diet risk factors include family predisposition, smoking, appendectomy, and antibiotics. Retrospective case-control studies are encumbered with methodological problems. Prospective studies on European cohorts, mainly including middle-aged adults, suggest that a diet high in protein from meat and fish is associated with a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid may confer risk of ulcerative colitis, whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be protective. No effect was found of intake of dietary fibres, sugar, macronutrients, total energy, vitamin C, D, E, Carotene, or Retinol (vitamin A) on risk of ulcerative colitis. No prospective data was found on risk related to intake of fruits, vegetables or food microparticles (titanium dioxide and aluminium silicate). CONCLUSIONS: A diet high in protein, particular animal protein, may be associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease and relapses. N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may predispose to ulcerative colitis whilst n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid may protect. These results should be confirmed in other countries and in younger subjects before dietary counselling is recommended in high risk subjects.

Andersen, Vibeke; Olsen, Anja

2012-01-01

353

Lymphoepithelial Cyst in Jugal Mucosa / Quiste Linfoepitelial en la Mucosa Yugal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Un quiste linfoepitelial bucal es raro, con pocos casos reportados en la literatura. El objetivo de este artículo es describir un caso clínico, centrándose en los aspectos clínicos y diagnósticos, tratamiento y pronóstico. La lesión tuvo un año de evolución, y se había desarrollado como un nódulo fi [...] broso en la mucosa yugal de un paciente de 71 años de edad con leucoderma. Teniendo en cuenta la hiperplasia fibrosa inflamatoria, fibroma y mucocele como diagnósticos diferenciales, se llevó a cabo una biopsia por escisión. Una cavidad quística limitada por epitelio pseudoestratificado sin proyecciones en el tejido conjuntivo, con tejido linfoide en el interior fue identificado microscópicamente. No se observaron eventos adversos postoperatorios, y el seguimiento clínico al año confirmó el pronóstico favorable de este tipo de lesión. Abstract in english Mouth lymphoepithelial cyst is rare, with few cases reported in literature. The aim of this article is to describe a clinical case, focusing on clinical and diagnostic aspects, treatment and prognosis. The lesion was one year old and had developed as a fibrous nodule in the jugal mucosa of a 71-year [...] -old leucoderma patient. Considering focal inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, fibroma and mucocele as differential diagnosis, excisional biopsy was carried out. A cystic cavity limited by pseudostratified epithelium without projections into the conjunctive tissue, with lymphoid tissue within, was microscopically identified. Without postoperative adverse events, the one-year clinical followup confirmed the favorable prognosis of this kind of lesion.

Marceli Moço, Silva; Alvimar Lima de, Castro; Ana Maria Pires, Soubhia; Marcelo Macedo, Crivelini.

2011-04-01

354

Uretroplastia con mucosa oral en estenosis de uretra anterior / Buccal mucosa urethroplasty in anterior urethral structures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los injertos de mucosa oral pueden ser utilizados para la reparación satisfactoria de estenosis de uretra péndula y bulbar. Material y métodos: Presentamos nuestra experiencia con injertos de mucosa oral en 8 pacientes. La longitud del injerto fue entre 4 y 16 cm. Se han realizado tres uretroplastia [...] s en uretra péndula, dos en uretra bulbar y tres panuretrales. El seguimiento ha sido entre 36 y 60 meses. Resultados: No se han observado recurrencias. Un paciente refirió parestesias en el labio inferior durante seis meses. Abstract in english Buccal mucosal graft can be used for succesfull repair in both pendulous and bulbar strictures. Material and methods: We present our experience with buccal mucosal graft repair in 8 patients with onlay patch that varies from 4 to 16 cm. in length. Three pendulous, two bulbar and three panurethral st [...] rictures were repaired. These patients were observed for 36 to 60 months. Results: No stricture recurrences were observed. Only one patient had lower lip paresthesia for six months.

A., Roca Edreira; C., Aguilera Tubet; B.M., García-Montesinos Perea; M., García Montesinos; R., Hernández Rodríguez.

2008-05-01

355

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Heartburn, Dyspepsia: What's the Difference?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Buy IFFGD Merchandise Take Action Contact Us Donate Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Heartburn, Dyspepsia: What’s the Difference? The anatomical ... esophagitis have functional counterparts with some similar symptoms; irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), dyspepsia, and functional heartburn, but these cannot ...

356

Mucosal healing effect of mesalazine granules in naproxen-induced small bowel enteropathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of mesalazine granules on small intestinal injury induced by naproxen using capsule endoscopy (CE. METHODS: This was a single center, non-randomized, open-label, uncontrolled pilot study, using the PillCam SB CE system with RAPID 5 software. The Lewis Index Score (LIS for small bowel injury was investigated to evaluate the severity of mucosal injury. Arthropathy patients with at least one month history of daily naproxen use of 1000 mg and proton pump inhibitor co-therapy were screened. Patients with a minimum LIS of 135 were eligible to enter the 4-wk treatment phase of the study. During this treatment period, 3 × 1000 mg/d mesalazine granules were added to ongoing therapies of 1000 mg/d naproxen and 20 mg/d omeprazole. At the end of the 4-wk combined treatment period, a second small bowel CE was performed to re-evaluate the enteropathy according to the LIS results. The primary objective of this study was to assess the mucosal changes after 4 wk of mesalazine treatment. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients (16 females, ranging in age from 46 to 78 years (mean age 60.3 years were screened, all had been taking 1000 mg/d naproxen for at least one month. Eight patients were excluded from the mesalazine therapeutic phase of the study for the following reasons: the screening CE showed normal small bowel mucosa or only insignificant damages (LIS < 135 in five patients, the screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric ulcer in one patient, capsule technical failure and incomplete CE due to poor small bowel cleanliness in two patients. Ten patients (9 female, mean age 56.2 years whose initial LIS reached mild and moderate-to-severe enteropathy grades (between 135 and 790 and ? 790 entered the 4-wk therapeutic phase and a repeat CE was performed. When comparing the change in LIS from baseline to end of treatment in all patients, a marked decrease was seen (mean LIS: 1236.4 ± 821.9 vs 925.2 ± 543.4, P = 0.271. Moreover, a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment mean total LIS was detected in 7 patients who had moderate-to-severe enteropathy gradings at the inclusion CE (mean LIS: 1615 ± 672 vs 1064 ± 424, P = 0.033. CONCLUSION: According to the small bowel CE evaluation mesalazine granules significantly attenuated mucosal injuries in patients with moderate-to-severe enteropathies induced by naproxen.

István Rácz

2013-01-01

357

Transient small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media  

OpenAIRE

Three cases of transient proximal small bowel angioedema induced by intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media (CM) are presented. Computed tomography (CT) images in the venous phase displayed the proximal small bowel with circumferential thickening of the wall including the duodenum and proximal segment of the jejunum. The bowel wall was normal in non-enhanced images, and normal or inconspicuous in arterial phase enhanced images. In one of the three cases, the bowel wall...

Xiu-Hua Hu; Xiang-Yang Gong; Peng Hu

2012-01-01

358

Gynaecological consultation in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome.  

OpenAIRE

A 12 month follow up study to assess the impact of symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome in women presenting to gynaecology clinics with pelvic pain is reported. Of 71 women 37 (52%) had symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome at presentation. A firm gynaecological diagnosis was reached in only three (8%) women positive for irritable bowel syndrome compared with 15 (44%) without (p = 0.002). After 12 months 24 (65%) women with irritable bowel syndrome were still symptomatic ...

Prior, A.; Whorwell, P. J.

1989-01-01

359

A case of Polyarteritis Nodosa Mimicking Pyelonephritis and was Misdiagnosed as Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN is characterized by necrotizing inflammation of small- or medium-sized muscular arteries. Atypic clinical presentation leads to delay in diagnosis. For this reason, it can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Here, we described a case which presented first with fever and left costovertebral angle tenderness, and was misdiagnosed as pyelonephritis. The patient did not benefit from intravenous antibiotherapy that was prescribed in the outpatient clinic and then hospitalized for left lower abdominal pain. No source of fever was found despite detailed physical examination and laboratory investigation. An abdominal ultrasonography showed hyperechogenity of the left kidney. An abdominal computed tomography was performed for left lower abdominal pain suggesting inflammatory bowel disease findings. Colonoscopy showed an ulcero-vegetating and nodular mass surrounding the whole sigmoid colon mucosa and suggesting a malignant tumour. A conventional angiography of the mesenteric artery showed total occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery. He developed acute abdominal pain and, left hemicolectomy was performed for colonic perforation. Histopathological findings consistent with PAN were detected in the pathological examination of the resected bowel, and the patient was diagnosed with PAN. After initiation of corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide therapy, the clinical status of the patient was improved dramatically with disappearence of fever and relief of abdominal pain. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2013;59:79-82.

Ebubekir ?ENATE?

2013-03-01

360

Microbial Sensing by the Intestinal Epithelium in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent years have raised evidence that the intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowels diseases. This evidence comes from several observations. First, animals raised under germ-free conditions do not develop intestinal inflammation in several different model systems. Second, antibiotics are able to modulate the course of experimental colitis. Third, genetic polymorphisms in a variety of genes of the innate immune system have been associated with chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases. Dysfunction of these molecules results in an inappropriate response to bacterial and antigenic stimulation of the innate immune system in the gastrointestinal tract. Variants of pattern recognition receptors such as NOD2 or TLRs by which commensal and pathogenic bacteria can be detected have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. But not only pathways of microbial detection but also intracellular ways of bacterial processing such as autophagosome function are associated with the risk to develop Crohn's disease. Thus, the “environment concept” and the “genetic concept” of inflammatory bowel disease pathophysiology are converging via the intestinal microbiota and the recognition mechanisms for an invasion of members of the microbiota into the mucosa.

Gerhard Rogler

2010-01-01

361

Is microscopic colitis a missed diagnosis in diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

  • BACKGROUND: There are controversies about the importance of biopsies of normal colon mucosa in the investigation of patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. On the other hand, microscopic colitis may bemissed based on normal colonoscopy and laboratory examination in this group of patients
  • METHODS: The study took place in Alzahra and Noor hospitals and Poursina Hakim Research Institute, from 2002 to 2004. Eligible patients were those suffering from diarrhea for at least 4 weeks. A total of 138 patients were included in the study after meeting Rome criteria (II with normal CBC, ESR, stool examination and no endoscopic abnormality.
  • RESULTS: The histologic findings in 138 patients with diarrhea predominant IBS with mean age of 34.7 years (female 55.1% and male 44.9% were as follows: 10 patients (7.2% had collagenous colitis and 3 patients (2.2% were compatible with lymphocytic colitis. No significant diagnostic histologic findings were seen in the rest of patients. Collagenouscolitis was detected in 13% of right colon biopsies and in 10% of sigmoid and transverse colon biopsies. Nocturnal diarrhea was found in 30% of collagenous colitis patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Total colonoscopy and multiple biopsies in diarrhea predominant IBS patients are necessary for earlydiagnosis of microscopic colitis.
  • KEY WORDS: Irritable bowel syndrome, microscopic colitis, colonoscopy, biopsy, diarrhea.

Hamid Tavakoli

2008-08-01

362

Mucosal healing in the era of biologic agents in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mucosal healing has been a central issue in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for the last years, and has been proposed to be included as the new treatment goal in IBD. The molecular understanding of both the disruption and the healing of the intestinal epithelial cell lining and the mucosal barrier in IBD is complex and only partly understood. There is no general agreement on how to define healed mucosa, but there is a general acceptance that clinicians should use endoscopy and imaging technique in their assessments. Mucosal healing is an old concept that has been actualized in the present era of the highly effective biological agents. Randomized clinical studies with mucosal healing as end-point parameters have been reported, and early mucosal healing has been associated with low complication rates. We are waiting for documentation of whether treatment to healed mucosa can change the natural course of IBD. The concept of immunological remission has recently been introduced and can be the new treatment goal and one of several criteria for discontinuation of biological treatment in IBD. In conclusion, mucosal healing is a fairly novel concept and goal for biological treatment of IBD. There is a need for a standardization of its assessment and validation of the prognostic value. PMID:25523555

Florholmen, Jon

2015-01-01

363

Manifestaciones reumatológicas de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal Rheumatologic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII se caracteriza por la activación inapropiada del sistema inmune de la mucosa intestinal y sus dos formas de presentación son: la colitis ulcerativa y la enfermedad de Crohn. Las manifestaciones extraintestinales se presentan hasta en el 36% de los pacientes y pueden comprometer cualquier órgano o sistema. La disfunción inmune se caracteriza por el desequilibrio entre los mediadores proinflamatorios y los antinflamatorios y se expresa como una enfermedad sistémica. Las manifestaciones reumatológicas asociadas a la EII son de tres tipos: la artritis periférica, la espondiloartropatía y una tercera categoría que incluye lesiones dérmicas, oftálmicas y del metabolismo óseo, entre otras. El manejo de estas manifestaciones se basa en la terapia sistémica para el control de la actividad inflamatoria local utilizando esteroides, derivados de la 5-ASA, inmunomoduladores y, en los últimos años, terapia anti-TNF. The main feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is the continuous activation of the mucosa-associated immune system; the disease has two major forms of presentation: ulcerative colitis and Crohn´s disease. The extraintestinal manifestations are present in 36% of patients, and any organ can be affected. There is an imbalance between proinflammatory and antinflammatory cytokines leading to a systemic disease. The rheumatologic manifestations of the IBD are: Peripheral arthritis, spondyloarthropathy and a third category that includes dermic and ocular lesions as well as metabolic bone disease. Control of the extraintestinal manifestations is based on systemic therapy with steroids, 5-ASA derivatives and biological anti-TNF therapy.

Octavio Germán Muñoz Maya

2006-01-01

364

Interactions between intestinal microbiota and innate immune system in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the result of an altered immune homeostasis within the intestinal mucosa against the gut microbiota, leading to chronic inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals. Under normal conditions, the immune system defends against pathogens and prevents the passage of excessive intestinal bacteria; regulatory pathways must maintain a low-grade, controlled inflammation in a healthy gut, but also induce a protective response against pathogens. The innate immune system is the first-line defense from microbes; dendritic cells, macrophages, and epithelial cells produce an initial, immediate response. The immune system constantly controls commensal bacteria and utilizes constitutive antimicrobial mechanisms to sustain immune homeostasis. The discovery that several genes linked to IBD modulate microbial recognition and innate immune pathways, such as nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2), and genes that mediate autophagy (ie, ATG16L1, IRGM), has highlighted the critical role of host-microbe interactions in controlling intestinal immune homeostasis. Commensal microorganisms actively interact with the intestinal mucosa and influence the activity of the immune system as well as the amplitude of the immune response. In contrast, host factors can influence microbes, which in turn modulate disease susceptibility. In this paper, we focus on the mechanisms that mediate host-microbe interactions and how the disruption of this balance leads to chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. PMID:22955361

Cucchiara, Salvatore; Stronati, Laura; Aloi, Marina

2012-10-01

365

Bacteria and the mucus blanket in experimental small bowel bacterial overgrowth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-filling blind loops were created experimentally in jejunal segments of specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats, and the loop contents and mucosa were examined over an 8-week period for evaluation of the interaction between mucus and luminal bacteria. Corresponding jejunal segments from rats that did not undergo surgery were used as controls. Proliferation of anaerobic bacteria developed in the test animals by the first week after surgery. Despite anaerobic bacterial proliferation, no adherence by bacteria to the intestinal microvillus surface was observed by scanning or transmission electron microscopy. Rather, bacteria were present within the mucus layer overlying the intestinal mucosal surface. Immunoassay of goblet cell mucin demonstrated an increase in the proportion of mucin present in the intestinal lumen and a decrease in mucin levels in the jejunal mucosa. These results suggest that the interaction of bacteria with mucus is an important mechanism of protection of the mucosal surface in experimental small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:2950765

Sherman, P.; Fleming, N.; Forstner, J.; Roomi, N.; Forstner, G.

1987-01-01

366

Inflammatory bowel disease: etiology, pathogenesis and current therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) constitute the two major groups of idiopathic disorders in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Environmental factors, genetic factors and immune responses have been considered as the major etiology of IBD. Despite the diversified pathogenesis of the disease, no guaranteed curative therapeutic regimen has been developed so far. This review summarizes the knowledge on the pathophysiology and current treatment approaches of IBD. Since IBD is caused by excessive and tissue- disruptive inflammatory reactions of the gut wall, down-regulation of the immune responses may allow the damaged mucosa to heal and reset the physiological functions of the gut back to normal. Current pharmacotherapy through modulation of neutrophil-derived factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules and reactive oxygen/nitrogen metabolites has been utterly described. Categories of treatment modalities include corticosteroids, aminosalicylates, immunomodulators, antibiotics, probiotics, and a series of unique novel agents. The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody (Infliximab), recombinant anti-inflammatory cytokines and related gene therapy has been covered. In addition, discussions on dietary supplementation and heparin treatment are also included. The anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory potential of investigational agents such as nicotine and the filtered protective compounds from tobacco smoke, as well as active herbal medicinal compounds were tested in our previous experimental works, whereas promising findings have been presented here. With the discovery of novel target-oriented agents, more effective and relatively harmless approaches of IBD therapy could be established to achieve a curative outcome. Indeed, more experimental and clinical studies are needed to confirm the relevance of these therapies. PMID:23782147

Ko, Joshua K; Auyeung, Kathy K

2014-01-01

367

Effects of Formaldehyde on Respiratory Mucosa in Rats / Efectos del Formaldehído sobre la Mucosa Respiratoria en Ratas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Es conocido que la inhalación de formaldehído tiene caraterísticas irritantes para la mucosa nasal. En este estudio se examinaron los efectos histopatológicos de la inhalación de formaldehído en ratas mediante microscopía de luz. Se utilizaron en este estudio 16 ratas Wistar albinas adultas, ocho ra [...] tas como grupo control y ocho como grupo experimental. El grupo experimental fue expuesto a 10 ppm formaldehído 8 horas/día, 5 días/semana por 8 semanas. La mucosa nasal fue retirada y colocada en formalina al 10%. Las secciones obtenidas fueron teñidas con Hematoxilina-Eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El epitelio de revestimiento de la mucosa respiratoria mostró una pérdida de células ciliadas con metaplasia de las células caliciformes e hiperplasia de células escamosas. Abstract in english Formaldehyde inhalation, are known to be nasal mucosa irritating feature. This study we are examined the effects histopathologic of formaldehyde inhalation on rats by using light microscopy. 16 adult wistar albino rats were used in this study. 8 rats were in control group and 8 rats were in experime [...] nt group. Experiment group was exposed to 10 ppm formaldhyde 8hours/day,5days/week for 8 week. Nasal mucosa was removed and placed in 10% formaline. Sections were stained with Hematoxylene-Eosine and observed under light microscopy. The lining epithelium of respiratory mucosa showed a loss of ciliated cells with metaplasia of goblet cells and hyperplasia of squamous cells.

E, Yorgancilar; E, Deveci; S, Deveci.

2012-06-01

368

Morphogenesis of a Tunica Mucosa of Oviduct of the Hens Morfogénesis de la Túnica Mucosa del Oviducto de Gallinas  

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Full Text Available The authors have used non-laying and laying hens (Lohmann Brown, in order to study morphological aspects development of tunica mucosa of the oviduct. The results showed that the oviduct of the hen is well-developed at the left side, atrophied at the right side and consists of five different regions: infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell-gland and excretory section (vagina. During 1-120 days in oviduct is the most advanced caudal part, where height and width folds of a tunica mucosa is more than in cranial part, that probably, is caused with the future function of these departments. In the period oviposition (150-540 days, the tunica mucosa is most advanced in such departments, as: magnum, isthmus, shell-glandSe utilizaron gallinas no ponedoras y ponedoras (Lohmann Brown, para estudiar aspectos morfológicos del desarrollo de la túnica mucosa del oviducto. Los resultados mostraron que el oviducto de gallina está bien desarrollado en el lado izquierdo, atrofiado en el lado derecho y consiste de cinco diversas regiones: infúndíbulo, magnum, istmo, glándula cascara y sección excretoria (vagina. Durante 1-120 días en el oviducto la parte caudal está más avanzada, donde la altura y ancho de la túnica mucosa es el doble que en la parte cranial, probablemente, causado por la futura función de ese compartimiento. En el periodo de ovoposición (150-540 días, la túnica mucosa esta más avanzada en los compartimientos: magnum, istmo, y glándula cascara

R. YU. Khokhlov

2007-06-01

369

Effects of Formaldehyde on Respiratory Mucosa in Rats Efectos del Formaldehído sobre la Mucosa Respiratoria en Ratas  

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Full Text Available Formaldehyde inhalation, are known to be nasal mucosa irritating feature. This study we are examined the effects histopathologic of formaldehyde inhalation on rats by using light microscopy. 16 adult wistar albino rats were used in this study. 8 rats were in control group and 8 rats were in experiment group. Experiment group was exposed to 10 ppm formaldhyde 8hours/day,5days/week for 8 week. Nasal mucosa was removed and placed in 10% formaline. Sections were stained with Hematoxylene-Eosine and observed under light microscopy. The lining epithelium of respiratory mucosa showed a loss of ciliated cells with metaplasia of goblet cells and hyperplasia of squamous cells.Es conocido que la inhalación de formaldehído tiene caraterísticas irritantes para la mucosa nasal. En este estudio se examinaron los efectos histopatológicos de la inhalación de formaldehído en ratas mediante microscopía de luz. Se utilizaron en este estudio 16 ratas Wistar albinas adultas, ocho ratas como grupo control y ocho como grupo experimental. El grupo experimental fue expuesto a 10 ppm formaldehído 8 horas/día, 5 días/semana por 8 semanas. La mucosa nasal fue retirada y colocada en formalina al 10%. Las secciones obtenidas fueron teñidas con Hematoxilina-Eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El epitelio de revestimiento de la mucosa respiratoria mostró una pérdida de células ciliadas con metaplasia de las células caliciformes e hiperplasia de células escamosas.

E Yorgancilar

2012-06-01

370

Small bowel endometriosis masquerading as regional enteritis.  

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A 35-year-old female presented with recurrent right lower quadrant pain, nausea, and vomiting. She was afebrile with diffuse abdominal tenderness. Plain x-ray of abdomen revealed small bowel obstruction. A barium x-ray of the small bowel showed stricture of the terminal ileum. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a 6-cm mass in right lower quadrant. She was empirically managed as having Crohn's disease. She underwent laparotomy after failure of medical management with high-dose steroids. There was ulceration and narrowing of terminal ileum. Frozen sections revealed endometriosis. Ileocecectomy was performed. Histopathology of resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis, and there was no evidence of chronic inflammatory bowel disease or neoplasia. Ileal endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease in menstruating females presenting with perimenstrual symptoms. PMID:8174427

Minocha, A; Davis, M S; Wright, R A

1994-05-01

371

Multidetector CT findings of bowel Transection in blunt abdominal trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity.

372

Multidetector CT findings of bowel Transection in blunt abdominal trauma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity.

Cho, Hyun Suk; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Park, Mee Hyun; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young; Hwang, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hong Il [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-15

373

Inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimal management of chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease requires determination of disease localization and intensity. Scintigraphy with the use of 99mTc - HMPAO- White Bloods Cells (99mTc - HMPAO-WBC) is a relatively new noninvasive nuclear medicine procedure. They have evaluated more than 230 children and have found a high correspondence between the disease distribution shown by the 99mTc - HMPAO- WBC scan and that shown by endoscopic, radiologic, or surgical methods. Additionally the 99mTc - HMPAO-WBC scan has the ability of identifying extra intestinal site of inflammation, such as appendicitis and others. The 99mTc - HMPAO-WBC scan is reliable in differentiating Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis. Some patients because of unequivocal demonstrable small bowel uptake are reclassified from ulcerative colitis to Crohn's disease. The medication regimen is frequently altered because of the intensity of uptake displayed by the 99mTc - HMPAO-WBC scan. It is a practical and safe study even in an acutely ill patient who may not tolerate endoscopic or radiological study. At their institution, the 99mTc - HMPAO-WBC scan is now part of the initial evaluation, and follow-up of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In conclusion the 99mTc - HMPAO-WBC is excellent for the detection, localization and characterization of inflammatory bowel disease in children. Compared with bowel disease in children. Compared with the other methods of investigation this study requires no bowel preparation, is noninvasive and has excellent diagnostic accuracy

374

A prospective study of differences in duodenum compared to remaining small bowel motion between radiation treatments: Implications for radiation dose escalation in carcinoma of the pancreas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Purpose As a foundation for a dose escalation trial, we sought to characterize duodenal and non-duodenal small bowel organ motion between fractions of pancreatic radiation therapy. Patients and methods Nine patients (4 women, 5 men undergoing radiation therapy were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients had up to four weekly CT scans performed during their course of radiation therapy. Pancreas, duodenum and non-duodenal small bowel were then contoured for each CT scan. On the initial scan, a four-field plan was generated to fully cover the pancreas. This plan was registered to each subsequent CT scan. Dose-volume histogram (DVH analyses were performed for the duodenum, non-duodenal small bowel, large bowel, and pancreas. Results With significant individual variation, the volume of duodenum receiving at least 80% of the prescribed dose was consistently greater than the remaining small bowel. In the patient with the largest inter-fraction variation, the fractional volume of non-duodenal small bowel irradiated to at least the 80% isodose line ranged from 1% to 20%. In the patient with the largest inter-fraction variation, the fractional volume of duodenum irradiated to at least the 80% isodose line ranged from 30% to 100%. Conclusion The volume of small bowel irradiated during four-field pancreatic radiation therapy changes substantially between fractions. This suggests dose escalation may be possible. However, dose limits to the duodenum should be stricter than for other segments of small bowel.

Wahab Sasha H

2006-09-01

375

Management of the irritable bowel syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common disorder diagnosed by gastroenterologists and one of the more common ones encountered in general practice. The overall prevalence rate is similar (approximately 10%) in most industrialized countries; the illness has a large economic impact on health care use and indirect costs, chiefly through absenteeism. IBS is a biopsychosocial disorder in which 3 major mechanisms interact: psychosocial factors, altered motility, and/or heightened sensory function of the intestine. Subtle inflammatory changes suggest a role for inflammation, especially after infectious enteritis, but this has not yet resulted in changes in the approach to patient treatment. Treatment of patients is based on positive diagnosis of the symptom complex, limited exclusion of underlying organic disease, and institution of a therapeutic trial. If patient symptoms are intractable, further investigations are needed to exclude specific motility or other disorders. Symptoms fluctuate over time; treatment is often restricted to times when patients experience symptoms. Symptomatic treatment includes supplementing fiber to achieve a total intake of up to 30 g in those with constipation, those taking loperamide or other opioids for diarrhea, and those taking low-dose antidepressants or infrequently using antispasmodics for pain. Older conventional therapies do not address pain in IBS. Behavioral psychotherapy and hypnotherapy are also being evaluated. Novel approaches include alosetron; a 5-HT(3) antagonist, tegaserod, a partial 5-HT(4) agonist, kappa-opioid agonists, and neurokinin antagonists to address the remaining challenging symptoms of pain, constipation, and bloating. Understanding the brain-gut axis is key to the eventual development of effective therapies for IBS. PMID:11179242

Camilleri, M

2001-02-01

376

Studies of the small bowel surface by scanning electron microscopy in infants with persistent diarrhea  

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Full Text Available We describe the ultrastructural abnormalities of the small bowel surface in 16 infants with persistent diarrhea. The age range of the patients was 2 to 10 months, mean 4.8 months. All patients had diarrhea lasting 14 or more days. Bacterial overgrowth of the colonic microflora in the jejunal secretion, at concentrations above 10(4 colonies/ml, was present in 11 (68.7% patients. The stool culture was positive for an enteropathogenic agent in 8 (50.0% patients: for EPEC O111 in 2, EPEC O119 in 1, EAEC in 1, and Shigella flexneri in 1; mixed infections due to EPEC O111 and EAEC in 1 patient, EPEC O119 and EAEC in 1 and EPEC O55, EPEC O111, EAEC and Shigella sonnei in 1. Morphological abnormalities in the small bowel mucosa were observed in all 16 patients, varying in intensity from moderate 9 (56.3% to severe 7 (43.7%. The scanning electron microscopic study of small bowel biopsies from these subjects showed several surface abnormalities. At low magnification (100X most of the villi showed mild to moderate stunting, but on several occasions there was subtotal villus atrophy. At higher magnification (7,500X photomicrographs showed derangement of the enterocytes; on several occasions the cell borders were not clearly defined and very often microvilli were decreased in number and height; in some areas there was a total disappearance of the microvilli. In half of the patients a mucus-fibrinoid pseudomembrane was seen partially coating the enterocytes, a finding that provides additional information on the pathophysiology of persistent diarrhea.

U. Fagundes-Neto

2000-12-01

377

Diffuse mesenterial sclerosis: a characteristic feature of chronic small-bowel allograft rejection.  

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Chronic rejection is the major cause of late intestinal allograft dysfunction. The aim of this study was to analyze in detail the histopathological features of chronic rejection in the ACI-to-Lewis rat model of intestinal transplantation. Chronic rejection was achieved in orthotopic small-bowel allografts (ACI-Lewis) by limited immunosuppression with cyclosporin A (CyA). Isogeneic transplants (ACI-ACI) as well as native bowels (ACI) with and without immunosuppression served as controls. Bowels were removed together with the mesenteries 90 days postoperatively and analyzed using sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin as well as Masson's trichrome. The slides were coded, randomized and analyzed by grading of histological abnormalities. The most striking alterations of the allografts were noticed in the mesenteries exhibiting an extensive infiltration by mononuclear cells accompanied by a progressive diffuse fibrosis with shrinking of the mesenteries. These changes were most pronounced in the perivascular areas of the mesenteric arteriae and venae rectae. Three of five allografts showed vasculitis with myointimal proliferation of the arteriae rectae. Focally, there was spill-over of the inflammatory cells onto the intestinal muscularis propria. The mucosa of the allografts showed mild blunting, lymphocytic infiltration of the crypt epithelium and increased crypt cell apoptoses. The submucosa was unaffected, and there were no detectable abnormalities of the enteric ganglion cells. The present data support the view that chronic rejection of intestinal allografts is characterized by a diffuse sclerosing mesenteritis which may significantly contribute to late graft dysfunction. The present model may be useful to study the pathomechanisms of this inflammatory fibrosing process. PMID:12536314

Klaus, Alexander; Margreiter, Raimund; Pernthaler, Heinz; Klima, Günther; Offner, Felix A

2003-01-01

378

A potential role of Escherichia coli pathobionts in the pathogenesis of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.  

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Through genomic analysis of mucosa-associated Escherichia coli strains, we found a close genetic association among isolates from pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. A specific E. coli pathovar, adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC), was found in Crohn's disease (CD) adult patients - this pathovar has enhanced adhesive and invasive properties, mainly due to the mannose-bonding FimH protein. We aimed to characterize 52 mucosa-associated E. coli strains isolated from pediatric IBD and non-IBD patients. Eleven E. coli strains, showing a strong similarity in fimH gene sequence to that of E. coli AIEC LF82, were characterized for fimH gene sequence, genomic profiling, adhesive and invasive ability, and phylogrouping. The results were compared with E. coli strains AIEC LF82 and MG1655. The 11 E. coli isolates showed 82.4% ± 1.4% fimH sequence similarity and 80.6% ± 1.3% genomic similarity to strain AIEC LF82. All these strains harbored V27A and S78N FimH mutations, as found in LF82. Nine of them belonged to the more virulent B2 and D phylogroups. Neuraminidase treatment, mimicking inflamed mucosa, enhanced adhesion of all 11 strains by 3.5-fold, but none showed invasion ability. It could be argued that the 11 selected strains could be a branch of an E. coli subpopulation (pathobionts), that could take advantage in an inflamed context because of a suitable genomic and (or) genetic backdrop. PMID:22439600

Schippa, Serena; Iebba, Valerio; Totino, Valentina; Santangelo, Floriana; Lepanto, Mariastefania; Alessandri, Claudia; Nuti, Federica; Viola, Franca; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Longhi, Catia; Conte, Maria Pia

2012-04-01

379

Case report: Congenital short bowel syndrome.  

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Congenital short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a relatively rare condition as compared to acquired SBS. It is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Infants usually present with failure to thrive, recurrent vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to suspect and diagnose this condition promptly, as early initiation of parenteral nutrition or surgery, if necessary, may result in a favorable outcome. We discuss a case of an infant aged 26 days, who presented with failure to thrive, recurrent vomiting, and weight loss. A contrast study of the gastrointestinal tract revealed a short small bowel, with malrotation. The infant was started on parenteral nutrition, but succumbed shortly thereafter to severe disseminated sepsis. PMID:21042453

Palle, Lalitha; Reddy, Balaji

2010-08-01

380

Achieving the best bowel preparation for colonoscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bowel preparation is a core issue in colonoscopy, as it is closely related to the quality of the procedure. Patients often find that bowel preparation is the most unpleasant part of the examination. It is widely accepted that the quality of cleansing must be excellent to facilitate detecting neoplastic lesions. In spite of its importance and potential implications, until recently, bowel preparation has not been the subject of much study. The most commonly used agents are high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) electrolyte solution and sodium phosphate. There has been some confusion, even in published meta-analyses, regarding which of the two agents provides better cleansing. It is clear now that both PEG and sodium phosphate are effective when administered with proper timing. Consequently, the timing of administration is recognized as one of the central factors to the quality of cleansing. The bowel preparation agent should be administered, at least in part, a few hours in advance of the colonoscopy. Several low volume agents are available, and either new or modified schedules with PEG that usually improve tolerance. Certain adjuvants can also be used to reduce the volume of PEG, or to improve the efficacy of other agents. Other factors apart from the choice of agent can improve the quality of bowel cleansing. For instance, the effect of diet before colonoscopy has not been completely clarified, but an exclusively liquid diet is probably not required, and a low-fiber diet may be preferable because it improves patient satisfaction and the quality of the procedure. Some patients, such as diabetics and persons with heart or kidney disease, require modified procedures and certain precautions. Bowel preparation for pediatric patients is also reviewed here. In such cases, PEG remains the most commonly used agent. As detecting neoplasia is not the main objective with these patients, less intensive preparation may suffice. Special considerations must be made for patients with inflammatory bowel disease, including safety and diagnostic issues, so that the most adequate agent is chosen. Identifying neoplasia is one of the main objectives of colonoscopy with these patients, and the target lesions are often almost invisible with white light endoscopy. Therefore excellent quality preparation is required to find these lesions and to apply advanced methods such as chromoendoscopy. Bowel preparation for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding represents a challenge, and the strategies available are also reviewed here. PMID:25548470

Parra-Blanco, Adolfo; Ruiz, Alex; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Amorós, Ana; Gana, Juan Cristóbal; Ibáñez, Patricio; Ono, Akiko; Fujii, Takahiro

2014-12-21

381

Sexual dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual health is a broad term that encompasses a variety of functions including sexual thoughts, desire, arousal, intercourse, orgasm, and the impact of body image. Sexual dysfunction in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease is multifactorial including the impact of psychosocial factors, disease activity, medical therapies, surgical interventions, body image perceptions and changes, hypogonadism, and pelvic floor disorders. Providers caring for patients with inflammatory bowel disease should be cognizant of these concerns and develop management plans and techniques for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25504236

Ghazi, Leyla J; Patil, Seema A; Cross, Raymond K

2015-04-01

382

Achieving the best bowel preparation for colonoscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Bowel preparation is a core issue in colonoscopy, as it is closely related to the quality of the procedure. Patients often find that bowel preparation is the most unpleasant part of the examination. It is widely accepted that the quality of cleansing must be excellent to facilitate detecting neoplastic lesions. In spite of its importance and potential implications, until recently, bowel preparation has not been the subject of much study. The most commonly used agents are high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) electrolyte solution and sodium phosphate. There has been some confusion, even in published meta-analyses, regarding which of the two agents provides better cleansing. It is clear now that both PEG and sodium phosphate are effective when administered with proper timing. Consequently, the timing of administration is recognized as one of the central factors to the quality of cleansing. The bowel preparation agent should be administered, at least in part, a few hours in advance of the colonoscopy. Several low volume agents are available, and either new or modified schedules with PEG that usually improve tolerance. Certain adjuvants can also be used to reduce the volume of PEG, or to improve the efficacy of other agents. Other factors apart from the choice of agent can improve the quality of bowel cleansing. For instance, the effect of diet before colonoscopy has not been completely clarified, but an exclusively liquid diet is probably not required, and a low-fiber diet may be preferable because it improves patient satisfaction and the quality of the procedure. Some patients, such as diabetics and persons with heart or kidney disease, require modified procedures and certain precautions. Bowel preparation for pediatric patients is also reviewed here. In such cases, PEG remains the most commonly used agent. As detecting neoplasia is not the main objective with these patients, less intensive preparation may suffice. Special considerations must be made for patients with inflammatory bowel disease, including safety and diagnostic issues, so that the most adequate agent is chosen. Identifying neoplasia is one of the main objectives of colonoscopy with these patients, and the target lesions are often almost invisible with white light endoscopy. Therefore excellent quality preparation is required to find these lesions and to apply advanced methods such as chromoendoscopy. Bowel preparation for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding represents a challenge, and the strategies available are also reviewed here. PMID:25548470

Parra-Blanco, Adolfo; Ruiz, Alex; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Amorós, Ana; Gana, Juan Cristóbal; Ibáñez, Patricio; Ono, Akiko; Fujii, Takahiro

2014-01-01

383

[Perspectives in inflammatory bowel diseases treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Development in immunology and better understanding of prolonged inflammatory process is basic in inflammatory bowel diseases treatment development. The new generation of drugs could be included infliximab and adalimumab. To the same group we include tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept, certolizumab, onercept), selective adhesive molecules inhibitors (natalizumab, alicaforsen), Th1 dependent reaction inhibitors (anti-il-12, tacrolismus, il-10), lymphocytes migration inhibitors (natalizumab). Those drug are under development or in various clinical trials phases and are the future of inflammatory bowel diseases treatment. PMID:19606725

Jalocha, Lukasz; Wojtu?, Stanis?aw; Dyrla, Przemyslaw; B?aszak, Antoni; Wojtkowiak, Marek; Zy?ko, Bogus?aw; Stelmaszuk, Tomasz; Gil, Jerzy

2009-05-01

384

Computed tomography features of small bowel volvulus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small bowel volvulus is a cause of acute abdomen and commonly occurs in neonates and young infants. Although it is rare in adults in the Western world,' it is a relatively common surgical emergency in the Middle East, India and Central Africa. It is associated with a mortality rate of 10-67% and, hence, it is important to make an early diagnosis to expedite surgical intervention. Computed tomography has become an important imaging modality in diagnosis and a number of signs have been recognized in a handful of documented case reports. We describe a case of small bowel volvulus that illustrates these important CT signs. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

385

Trichobezoar: A rare cause of bowel obstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A bezoar is an intraluminal mass formed by the accumulation of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract. A trichobezoar is a bezoar made up of hair and is a rare cause of bowel obstruction of the proximal gastrointestinal tract. They are seen mostly in young women with trichotillomania and trichotillophagia and symptoms include epigastric pain, nausea, loss of appetite and bowel or gastric outlet obstruction. We herein describe a case of a trichobezoar that presented as a gastric outlet obstruction and was subsequently successfully removed via a laparotomy.

Sébastien Gaujoux

2011-01-01

386

Clinical Features of Bowel Anisakiasis in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Bowel anisakiasis is rare, and the incidence and clinical features of this condition remain unclear. Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) in-patient database, we identified 201 cases of bowel anisakiasis between the months of July and December during 2007 and 2008. More than 70% were males. The average age was 54.5 years. Overall, 102 (50.7%) cases had ileus, 16 (8.0%) had perforation or peritonitis, and 4 (2.0%) had intestinal bleeding. Allergic responses, including urtic...

Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Hideki; Matsuda, Shinya

2010-01-01

387

Case report: Congenital short bowel syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Congenital short bowel syndrome (SBS is a relatively rare condition as compared to acquired SBS. It is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Infants usually present with failure to thrive, recurrent vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to suspect and diagnose this condition promptly, as early initiation of parenteral nutrition or surgery, if necessary, may result in a favorable outcome. We discuss a case of an infant aged 26 days, who presented with failure to thrive, recurrent vomiting, and weight loss. A contrast study of the gastrointestinal tract revealed a short small bowel, with malrotation. The infant was started on parenteral nutrition, but succumbed shortly thereafter to severe disseminated sepsis.

Palle Lalitha

2010-01-01

388

Effects of smoking on edentulous alveolar ridge mucosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Tobacco use is an important risk factor for advanced histopathological findings on edentulous alveolar ridge mucosa. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on histopathological findings on edentulous alveolar ridge mucosa. Material and methods The experimental group consisted of 48 patients (29 smokers and 19 nonsmokers. The mean age of smokers was 42.6 and of nonsmokers 48.7 years. The anamnesis included the following data: age, sex, diseases and toxic habits-cigarette smoking. Biopsy samples were taken from the edentulous alveolar ridge mucosa without gross signs of symptoms. Results The mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 11.5±7. The results of ?² test proved that there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in histopathological findings on the alveolar ridge mucosa. The mean duration of smoking was 12.7± 5 years. Hyperkeratosis was established in 76.92% of smokers who smoked longer than 15 years. The mean-age at which smokers began smoking was 27.3±8 years and there were no statistically significant differences in histopathological findings on the alveolar ridge mucosa correlated with the beginning of smoking. Conclusion On the basis of our research we conclude that smokers who have been smoking for 15 years are at risk for developing histopathological changes of the alveolar ridge mucosa, but there were no statistically significant differences in histopathological findings on the alveolar ridge mucosa correlated with the number of cigarettes per day and the beginning of smoking. .

Markovi? Dubravka

2005-01-01

389

Broad MICA/B Expression in the Small Bowel Mucosa: A Link between Cellular Stress and Celiac Disease  

OpenAIRE

The MICA/B genes (MHC class I chain related genes A and B) encode for non conventional class I HLA molecules which have no role in antigen presentation. MICA/B are up-regulated by different stress conditions such as heat-shock, oxidative stress, neoplasic transformation and viral infection. Particularly, MICA/B are expressed in enterocytes where they can mediate enterocyte apoptosis when recognised by the activating NKG2D receptor present on intraepithelial lymphocytes. This mechanism was sug...

Allegretti, Yessica L.; Bondar, Constanza; Guzman, Luciana; Cueto Rua, Eduardo; Chopita, Nestor; Fuertes, Mercedes; Zwirner, Norberto W.; Chirdo, Fernando G.

2013-01-01

390

Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases [Retraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bosani M, Ardizzone S, Porro GB. Biologics: Targets and Therapy. 2009;3:77–97.This paper has been retracted after we were made aware that it contains a large amount of reused, and uncited material that was not placed within quotation marks.The following statement has been supplied by Dr Sandro Ardizzone:The review entitled "Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease" has been commissioned by this journal and published in 2009 (Matteo Bosani, Sandro Ardizzone, Gabriele Bianchi Porro. Biologics: Targets & Therapy 2009;3:77–97. The paper was written by our young coworker (Dr M Bosani. He has consulted many papers, including our previous reviews published years before. The not perfect knowledge of English language has greatly influenced the writing of the paper itself. So he saved in word file several parts of our previous papers (Ardizzone S, Bianchi Porro G. Inflammatory bowel disease: new insights into pathogenesis and treatment. J Intern Med 2002;252:475–496 – Ardizzone S, Bianchi Porro G. Biologic therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Drugs 2005:2253–2286, and then transferred to the final paper. He was unaware as we are, of the fact that he could not reuse previously published material in other journals. The reuse of this material was made in good faith.Taking our responsibility for what happened, we intend to apologize for this inconvenience to the Editor (Dr Doris Benbrook and Publisher (Dr Tim Hill. Moreover, for the reasons mentioned above, I consider appropriate to retract the paper itself.This retraction relates to this paper.

Bosani M

2014-01-01

391

Aumento de gengiva queratinizada em mucosa peri-implantar / Increased keratinized gigiva in peri-implant mucosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos recentes são direcionados a explorar a relação da faixa da mucosa queratinizada com a saúde dos tecidos peri-implantares. Quando esta faixa não é suficiente, uma cirurgia para o aumento de mucosa queratinizada pode ser indicada, pois tem sido relatado que a presença ou a reconstr [...] ução de tecido queratinizado ao redor de implantes pode facilitar os procedimentos restauradores, promover a estética e ainda permitir a manutenção de uma higienização oral rotineira sem irritação ou desconforto ao paciente. Dentre os procedimentos cirúrgicos disponíveis, a técnica do enxerto gengival livre é consagrada na literatura periodontal para aumento da faixa de mucosa queratinizada. OBJETIVO: Este estudo relata um caso clínico em que foi realizada cirurgia de enxerto gengival livre com objetivo de aumentar a faixa da mucosa queratinizada na região de implantes previamente instalados na maxila, para suporte de prótese tipo protocolo. RELATO DO CASO: Foi realizada a cirurgia de enxerto gengival livre na região anterior da maxila, obtido do palato, na qual haviam sido instalados implantes osseointegrados para suporte de prótese tipo protocolo e a mucosa peri-implantar apresentava-se sem tecido queratinizado e inflamada. Após dois meses de reparação da cirurgia mucogengival, foi possível observar que o enxerto gengival livre favoreceu a saúde peri-implantar e os procedimentos protéticos de moldagem. CONCLUSÃO: Diante dos resultados clínicos, pode-se concluir que o enxerto gengival livre é uma técnica previsível e de fácil realização para aumento da faixa de mucosa queratinizada em mucosa peri-implantar de prótese protocolo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have evaluated the relationship between the width of keratinized mucosa and peri-implant tissue health. Insufficiently wide keratinized tissue can be increased surgically, for example by free gingival grafting. The presence or reconstruction of keratinized tissue around [...] the implant can facilitate restorative procedures, promote aesthetics and allow the maintenance of an oral hygiene routine without irritation or discomfort to the patient. OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who underwent free gingival graft surgery to increase the width of keratinized tissue in the region of previously implants to support a type of prosthetic protocol. CASE REPORT: A patient who had received dental implants to support a type of prosthetic protocol presented with inflamed peri?implant mucosa, but with no keratinized tissue. Free gingival tissue was obtained from the palate and grafted into the anterior maxilla. Sixty days after muco-gingival surgery, we observed that the free gingival graft favored peri-implant health and prosthetic casting. CONCLUSION: The free gingival graft technique is both easy to perform and effective in increasing the width of keratinized mucosa following implantation.

Juliano Milanezi de, Almeida; Vivian Noronha, Novaes; Paula Lazilha, Faleiros; Valmir Campos, Macarimi; Álvaro Francisco, Bosco; Letícia Helena, Theodoro; Valdir Gouveia, Garcia.

2012-10-01

392

Differential expression of microRNAs in preneoplastic gastric mucosa  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial H.pylori-triggered dynamic process that goes through a cascade of preneoplastic conditions. The expression of miRNAs in the stomach with regard to preneoplastic precursor conditions and H.pylori infection has not been investigated systematically. In this prospective proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the miRNA expression in gastric antrum and corpus mucosa from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG), atrophic gastritis (AG), and GC compared to controls. Gastric normal mucosa shows a unique expression pattern for miR-21, miR-155 and miR-223, which is specific for different regions. In correlation with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, we observed a gradual increase in miR-155 and miR-223 both in corpus and antrum and miR-21 only in the antrum mucosa. Using miRNA expression we calculated a score that allowed us to discriminate patients with AG from subjects with normal mucosa with high diagnostic accuracy in testing and validation cohorts reproducibly. In summary, the expression pattern of miRNAs in the gastric mucosa is gradually increased with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, suggesting miRNAs as potential biomarkers for preneoplastic precursor conditions. However, differences of miRNA expression between the gastric antrum and the corpus need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25652892

Link, Alexander; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Langner, Cosima; Varbanova, Mariya; Bornschein, Jan; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

2015-01-01

393

Differential expression of microRNAs in preneoplastic gastric mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial H.pylori-triggered dynamic process that goes through a cascade of preneoplastic conditions. The expression of miRNAs in the stomach with regard to preneoplastic precursor conditions and H.pylori infection has not been investigated systematically. In this prospective proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the miRNA expression in gastric antrum and corpus mucosa from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG), atrophic gastritis (AG), and GC compared to controls. Gastric normal mucosa shows a unique expression pattern for miR-21, miR-155 and miR-223, which is specific for different regions. In correlation with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, we observed a gradual increase in miR-155 and miR-223 both in corpus and antrum and miR-21 only in the antrum mucosa. Using miRNA expression we calculated a score that allowed us to discriminate patients with AG from subjects with normal mucosa with high diagnostic accuracy in testing and validation cohorts reproducibly. In summary, the expression pattern of miRNAs in the gastric mucosa is gradually increased with progression of Correa's cascade and H.pylori infection, suggesting miRNAs as potential biomarkers for preneoplastic precursor conditions. However, differences of miRNA expression between the gastric antrum and the corpus need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25652892

Link, Alexander; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Langner, Cosima; Varbanova, Mariya; Bornschein, Jan; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

2015-01-01

394

CT enteroclysis in small bowel Crohn's disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The diagnostic evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease has changed dramatically over the last decade. The introduction of wireless capsule endoscopy, double balloon endoscopy and the introduction of newer therapeutic agents have changed the role of imaging in the small bowel. Additionally, advances in multidetector CT technology have further changed how radiologic investigations are utilized in the diagnosis and management of small bowel Crohn's disease. This article describes how we perform CT enteroclysis in the investigation of small bowel Crohn's disease and discusses the role of CT enteroclysis in the current management of small bowel Crohn's disease.

Kohli, Marc D. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Maglinte, Dean D.T. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)], E-mail: dmaglint@iupui.edu

2009-03-15

395

Knotted bowel: small-bowel obstruction from coiled peritoneal shunt catheters. Report of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knotting of a peritoneal catheter around a loop of bowel is a rare occurrence, which may lead to bowel obstruction. The incomplete removal of two ventriculoperitoneal shunts resulted in two cases of iatrogenically knotted peritoneal catheters. One patient underwent a laparotomy for relief of obstruction and the other was successfully treated by uncoiling the catheter by means of a wire passed into its lumen. A plan for management of a knotted peritoneal catheter is outlined. PMID:7760179

Sanan, A; Haines, S J; Nyberg, S L; Leonard, A S

1995-06-01

396

Risk of inflammatory bowel disease following a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) symptoms often overlap. In some IBS cases there are subtle inflammatory changes similar to the immune-mediated pathophysiology of IBD, and the risk of both increases after infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Methods To evaluate the effect of IBS and IGE on IBD risk utilizing US Department of Defense medical encounter data, active duty personnel with IBS were matched to subjects without IBS. Medical encounter...

Porter Chad K; Cash Brooks D; Pimentel Mark; Akinseye Akintunde; Riddle Mark S

2012-01-01

397

[Osteoporosis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory bowel diseases, most frequently Crohn's disease, are frequently accompanied by decreased bone mineral content (30-70%). The osteopenia is not explained by the side effects of treatment or the secondary malabsorption. There must be a common pathological pathway in the background. The mineral content of bones is most easily measured by dual-ray absorptiometry. The measurement should be performed at the time of the diagnosis of bowel disease. It is useful to perform some routine laboratory examinations (serum calcium and phosphate, urinary calcium excretion level, etc.) and some special tests (serum osteocalcin and crosslaps) to exclude some other pathological pathways as well as to plan the anti-osteoporotic therapy. Appropriate calcium and vitamin-D supplementation is essential in prevention and therapy as well. Several drug-classes have proven useful in the therapy of severe osteoporosis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases such as bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators and calcitonin. The authors provide an algorithm for the therapy of metabolic bone disease in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:15202326

Miheller, Pál; Tóth, Miklós; Pregun, István; Tulassay, Zsolt

2004-05-16

398

Current concepts of the irritable bowel syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common clinical problems encountered by the generalist and gastroenterologist. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate, based on available peer-reviewed literature, the current status of our understanding of the pathophysiology of the irritable bowel syndrome. The epidemiology of this disorder, including the characteristics of its presentation, natural history and associated phenomena, have been clarified. Differences between those who seek specialist care ('the consulters') and those in the community are now recognized. While, in both, symptoms may be similar in nature and severity; 'the consulters' are differentiated by how they react to their complaints. In terms of pathophysiology, the focus has moved to visceral sensation and central perception and has led to the identification of visceral hypersensitivity, visceral hyperalgesia and abnormal central perception of visceral events. This is not to dismiss dysmotility; subtle abnormalities in gas transit may be closely associated with the induction of certain symptoms. On the psychological front, attention now focuses on such complex issues as somatosization, abuse and response to major life events. Interactions between enteric flora, mucosal inflammation, immune phenomena and the enteric neuro-muscular apparatus also attract interest; the entity of post-infectious irritable bowel is now clearly recognized and there is experimental evidence to suggest a role for inflammation. While the precise aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome remains uncertain, considerable progress has been made, with recent advances in pathophysiology offering hope for the development of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:12797672

Quigley, E M M

2003-01-01

399