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Sample records for large bowel mucosa

  1. Effect of the paclitaxel and radiation the large bowel mucosa of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent with a potent microtubule stabilizing activity that arrests mitosis at G2-M phase of cell cycle which is the most radiosensitive period. Therefore paclitaxel is considered as a cell cycle-specific radiosensitizer. This study investigates the effect of paclitaxel on the radiation response of the normal large bowel mucosa of the rat. The rats were divided into the three groups i.e., single intraperitoneal infusion of paclitaxel (10 mg/kh), a single fraction of irradiation (8 Gy, x-ray) to the whole abdomen, and a combination of irradiation (8 Gy, x-ray) given 24 hours after pacilitaxel infusion. The histological changes as well as kinetics of mitotic arrest and apoptosis were evaluated on the large bowel mucosa at 6 hours, 1 day, 3 days and 5 days after treatment with paclitaxel infusion. The apoptosis appeared in 24 hours after paclitaxel infusion, and the histopathologic changes such as vesiculation, atypia and reduction of the goblet cell of the mucosa of the large bowel were demonstrated during the period from 6 hours to 3 days after, and returned to normal in 5 days after paclitaxel infusion. In irradiated group, the apoptosis was increased in 6 and 24 hours after irradiation, and the histopathologic changes of the mucosa were appeared in 24 hours and markedly increased in 3 days and returned to normal in 5 days. In combined group of irradiation and pacliation and paclitaxel infusion, the apoptosis was appeared in 3 days and the histopathologic changes appeared during the period from 6 hours to 2 days after infusion. On the basis of the incidence of apoptosis and the degree of the histopathologic changes of the large bowel mucosa, there seemed to be additive effect by paclitaxel on radiation rather than sensitizing effect. The histopathological changes of large bowel mucosa in combined group compared to radiation alone group suggested an additive effect of paclitaxel on radiation response in the large bowel of rat

  2. Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel

    OpenAIRE

    Langlands, S J; Hopkins, M.J.; Coleman, N; Cummings, J H

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: The mucosa associated flora of the large intestine is important in determining mucosal function although what controls its composition is unknown. This study has determined the effect of the prebiotic carbohydrates oligofructose and inulin on the mucosal flora.

  3. Increased density of tolerogenic dendritic cells in the small bowel mucosa of celiac patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vorobjova, Tamara; Uibo, Oivi; Heilman, Kaire; Uibo, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the densities of dendritic cells (DCs) and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their interrelations in the small bowel mucosa in untreated celiac disease (CD) patients with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D).

  4. The presence of oncofoetal antigens in large bowel carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; De Boer, W G; Nayman, J

    1982-02-01

    This paper is an immunohistological study of the occurrence of the oncofoetal antigens, (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), small intestine mucin antigen (SIMA), and normal large bowel mucin antigen (LIMA) in 60 surgically resected colons: 10 non-malignant specimens and 50 colorectal carcinomas. SIMA is a new oncofoetal antigen found in mucinous carcinoma of the large bowel. In the adult it is normally present only in the duodenum and jejunum. Of the 50 carcinoma specimens, 13 were mucinous, 17 non-mucinous and 20 mixed mucinous and non-mucinous. LIMA was the only antigen detected in the mucosa of non-malignant specimens. In mucinous carcinomas only SIMA was present, whilst in the non-mucinous specimens CEA was always found and to a lesser extent LIMA. The same relationship was observed in mixed tumours: SIMA in mucinous and CEA-LIMA in the non-mucinous parts. In the mucosa adjacent to the cancer in all 50 cases there was evidence of an increase or decrease in LIMA. In 42 cases (84%) both oncofoetal antigens (CEA and SIMA) could also be detected in this transitional or perineoplastic epithelium at varying distances from the tumour. These results provide evidence to suggest that the majority of large bowel carcinomas occur in areas of metaplastic change. PMID:6280663

  5. Ileal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting with small bowel obstruction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkade, Zoe; Esan, Olukemi A; Rosado, Flavia G; Craig, Michael; Vos, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT Lymphoma) of the gastrointestinal tract commonly involves the stomach in the setting of concurrent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Primary ileal MALT lymphoma is rare, and has not been associated with a specific infectious disease. We report a case of a 58-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with constipation and abdominal distension, and signs of an obstructing mass on computed tomography scan. A small bowel resection was performed which revealed an 8 cm saccular dilatation with thickened bowel wall and subjacent thickened tan-yellow tissue extending into the mesentery. Histologically, there was a diffuse lymphoid infiltrate consisting of small atypical cells with monocytoid features. These cells were CD20-positive B-lymphocytes that co-expressed BCL-2 and were negative for CD5, CD10, CD43, and cyclin D1 on immunohistochemical studies. Kappa-restricted plasma cells were also identified by in situ hybridization. The overall proliferation index was low with Ki-67 immunoreactivity in approximately 10 % of cells. No areas suspicious for large cell or high grade transformation were identified. The pathologic findings were diagnostic of an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma involving the ileum, with early involvement of mesenteric lymph nodes. Small hypermetabolic right mesenteric and bilateral hilar lymph nodes were identified by imaging. The bone marrow biopsy showed no evidence of involvement by lymphoma. The patient was clinically considered advanced stage and opted for therapy with rituximab infusions. After six months of therapy, follow-up radiologic studies demonstrated significant decrease in size of the mesenteric lymph nodes. PMID:26178711

  6. Large bowel obstruction secondary to adhesive bands

    OpenAIRE

    El-Masry, Nabil S.; Geevarghese, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is most commonly due to malignancy, volvulus, hernia, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. LBO due to adhesions is unusual. A literature review was conducted which revealed that only a few such cases have been reported. We report two cases of LBO secondary to adhesions in patients, one with and one without a past abdominal surgical history. We highlight that while rare, the aetiology of LBO secondary to adhesions must be considered in the differen...

  7. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, J.P.; Bonsack, M.E.; Felemovicius, I. (Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Endocrine cells in the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gilja, Odd Helge; Gundersen, Doris; Hausken, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the different endocrine cell types in the oxyntic mucosa of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: Seventy-six patients with IBS were included in the study (62 females and 14 males; mean age 32 years, range 18-55 years), of which 40 also fulfilled the Rome III criteria for functional dyspepsia (FDP). Of the entire IBS cohort, 26 had diarrhea as the predominant symptom (IBS-D), 21 had a mixture of diarrhea and constipation (IBS-M), and 29 had constipation as th...

  10. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and somatostatin in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the possible role and clinical significance of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin(SS) in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the VIP and SS in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa were measured by radioimmunoassay in the control group and the IBS group. The VIP concentration in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa of the IBS patients with constipation was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.01), while that of the IBS patients with diarrhea was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). The SS concentration in two sites was significantly elevated in IBS patients of both types and was significantly higher in IBS with constipation than in IBS with diarrhea (P<0.05). Conclusion: The VIP and SS in IBS are abnormal, which might play a role in the pathogenesis of IBS. The plasma and mucosa concenration of VIP and SS in two kinds of IBS patients are significantly different, which indicates that there might be different pathophysiological basis involved in the pathogenesis of the two kinds of IBS patients. (authors)

  11. Large bowel obstruction secondary to adhesive bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Masry, Nabil S; Geevarghese, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is most commonly due to malignancy, volvulus, hernia, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. LBO due to adhesions is unusual. A literature review was conducted which revealed that only a few such cases have been reported. We report two cases of LBO secondary to adhesions in patients, one with and one without a past abdominal surgical history. We highlight that while rare, the aetiology of LBO secondary to adhesions must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with obstructive symptoms. PMID:25650387

  12. Histological abnormalities of the small bowel mucosa in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilé Wakim-Fleming, Nizar N Zein, Ana Bennett, Rocio Lopez, Janice Santisi, William D Carey

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the small bowel (SB mucosa on biopsy in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension and in non-cirrhotic controls and grade findings according to the Marsh criteria.METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 51 consecutive patients undergoing an upper endoscopy for their routine medical care. Twenty five patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension were compared to 26 controls. We obtained coeliac serology and multiple upper small bowel biopsies on all 51 patients. A GI pathologist interpreted biopsies and graded findings according to the Marsh criteria. We assessed equivalence in Marsh grade between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic controls using the Mann-Whitney test for equivalence.RESULTS: Gender, ethnicity and age were similar between both groups. Marsh grades were equivalent between the groups. Grade of 0 was present in 96% and grade of 1 was present in 4% of both groups and there was no villus atrophy or decrease in villus/crypt ratio in patients with portal hypertension.CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the lack of villus atrophy in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and supports the continuous reliance on the Marsh criteria when the diagnosis of coeliac disease is to be made in the presence of cirrhosis.

  13. ORAL MUCOSA LESIONS AND ORAL SYMPTOMS IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE PATIENTS / Lesões das mucosas orais e sintomatologia oral em doentes com Doença Inflamatória Intestinal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nuno, LARANJEIRA; Jorge, FONSECA; Tânia, MEIRA; João, FREITAS; Sara, VALIDO; Jorge, LEITÃO.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto A doença inflamatória intestinal é conhecida por suas manifestações extraintestinais, a cavidade oral não é exceção. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a associação da doença inflamatória intestinal com lesões da mucosa oral e sintomatologia oral, e complementarmente, avali [...] ar a sua possível relação com a higiene oral, tabagismo, terapêutica farmacológica, duração e atividade da doença. Métodos Os pacientes foram selecionados no serviço de Gastroenterologia de um hospital de referência terciária Português (Hospital Garcia de Horta). Esta amostra foi composta por 113 pacientes previamente diagnosticados com colite ulcerosa ou doença de Crohn, juntamente com um grupo controle de 58 indivíduos saudáveis que acompanhavam os pacientes do grupo nas suas consultas de controle. Entrevistas clínicas e exames clínicos foram realizados para a coleta de dados. Resultados Os pacientes do grupo de estudo foram mais afetados por sintomas orais (P=0,011), e houve também uma tendência para uma maior incidência de lesões da mucosa oral, embora a significância estatística não tenha sido alcançada (8,8% versus 3,4% no grupo de controle; P=0,159). Pacientes em fase ativa foram os mais afetados. Não foram detetadas diferenças entre a doença de Crohn e a colite ulcerosa, ou relativas a hábitos tabágicos. O tratamento com corticosteroides e imunossupressores pareceu aumentar a incidência de sintomas orais (P=0,052). Os dados são ainda compatíveis com aumento das lesões da mucosa oral e diminuição dos sintomas ao longo do curso da doença, no entanto, sem significância estatística. Conclusão As lesões de mucosa oral e sintomas orais foram associados positivamente com a doença inflamatória intestinal, principalmente durante os períodos de atividade da doença e possivelmente, associado a terapêutica com corticosteroides e imunossupressores. Abstract in english Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease is known for its extra intestinal manifestations, the oral cavity is no exception. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and oral mucosa lesions and symptoms, and complementary to evaluate their poss [...] ible relation with oral hygiene, smoking habits, drug therapy, duration and activity of the disease. Methods Patients were selected from the Gastroenterology Clinic of a Portuguese tertiary referral hospital. This sample consisted of 113 patients previously diagnosed with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease along with a control group of 58 healthy individuals that were accompanying the study group patients to their appointments. Clinical interviews and clinical examinations were performed for data collection. Results The patients in the study group were more affected by oral symptoms (P=0.011), and showed a trend towards a higher incidence of oral mucosal lesions, even though statistical significance was not reached (8.8% versus 3.4% in the control group; P=0.159). Patients in active phase were the most affected. No differences were detected between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, or concerning smoking habits. The corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy seemed to increase the incidence of oral symptoms (P=0.052). The oral mucosa lesions increased and the oral symptoms decreased over the course of the disease, however without statistical significance. Conclusion Oral mucosa’s lesions and oral symptoms were positively associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, mainly during disease activity periods and conceivably, associated with corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy.

  14. Increased interleukin 8 expression in the colon mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daig, R; Andus, T; Aschenbrenner, E; Falk, W; Schölmerich, J; Gross, V

    1996-01-01

    To test whether there is a difference in the expression of interleukin 8 (IL8) between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis and to determine the main site of its synthesis this study analysed IL8 in mucosal biopsy specimens of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by in situ hybridisation. IL8 was measured by ELISA in 38 normal control patients, eight inflammatory control patients, 55 Crohn's disease biopsy specimens (26 patients), and 67 ulcerative colitis biopsy specimens (35 patients). IL8 mRNA was determined in samples by in situ hybridisation using a specific IL8 RNA probe. IL8 protein was significantly increased in macroscopically inflamed specimens of Crohn's disease (median 118 pg/specimen, p ulcerative colitis (median 140 pg/specimen, p ulcerative colitis patients (median 9 pg/specimen, p = 0.3). IL8 protein in the mucosa correlated significantly with macroscopic inflammation in Crohn's disease (r = 0.47, p ulcerative colitis (r = 0.60, p ulcerative colitis patients (57%), in five of eight inflammatory controls (63%) and in five of 38 normal controls (13%). Mucosal IL8 mRNA expression correlated with mucosal IL8 protein (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). IL8 mRNA was only detected in inflammatory cells of the interstitium but not in mucosal epithelial cells. IL8 is produced mainly in the lamina propria of the colon in inflammatory bowel disease and correlates with mucosal inflammation. Images Figure 5 PMID:8801200

  15. Reduced expression of aquaporins in human intestinal mucosa in early stage inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricanek P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Petr Ricanek,1,2 Lisa K Lunde,3 Stephan A Frye,1 Mari Støen,1 Ståle Nygård,4 Jens P Morth,5,6 Andreas Rydning,2 Morten H Vatn,7,8 Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam,3 Tone Tønjum,1,9 1Department of Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog and Campus Ahus, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Lørenskog, 3Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, 4Bioinformatics Core Facility, Institute for Medical Informatics, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, 5Centre for Molecular Medicine, Nordic EMBL Partnership, University of Oslo, 6Institute for Experimental Research, Oslo University Hospital (Ullevaal, Oslo, 7EpiGen Institute, Campus Ahus, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Lørenskog, 8Section of Gastroenterology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, 9Department of Microbiology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between aquaporin (AQP water channel expression and the pathological features of early untreated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in humans. Methods: Patients suspected to have IBD on the basis of predefined symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and/or blood in stool for more than 10 days, were examined at the local hospital. Colonoscopy with biopsies was performed and blood samples were taken. Patients who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for IBD and who displayed no evidence of infection or other pathology in the gut were included as symptomatic non-IBD controls. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9 messenger RNA (mRNA levels were quantified in biopsies from the distal ileum and colon by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of selected AQPs was assessed by confocal microscopy. Through multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences, the putative three-dimensional structures of AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 were modeled. Results: AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 mRNAs were detected in all parts of the intestinal mucosa. Notably, AQP1 and AQP3 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum of patients with Crohn's disease, and AQP7 and AQP8 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum and the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed localization of AQP3, 7, and 8 at the mucosal epithelium, whereas the expression of AQP1 was mainly confined to the endothelial cells and erythrocytes. The reduction in the level of AQP3, 7, and 8 mRNA was confirmed by immunofluorescence, which also indicated a reduction of apical immunolabeling for AQP8 in the colonic surface epithelium and crypts of the IBD samples. This could indicate loss of epithelial polarity in IBD, leading to disrupted barrier function. Conclusion: AQPs 1 and 8 and the aquaglyceroporins AQPs 3 and 7 are the AQPs predominantly expressed in the lower intestinal tract of humans. Their expression is significantly reduced in patients with IBD, and they are differentially expressed in specific bowel segments in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The data present a link between gut inflammation and water/solute homeostasis, suggesting that AQPs may play a significant role in IBD pathophysiology. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins

  16. Vascular anomalies of the large bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellino, G; Candilio, G; De Fatico, G S; Marcellinaro, R; Piccione, A; Cautiero, R; Capozzolo, A; Guerniero, R; Volpicelli, A; Reginelli, A; Corvino, A; Sciaudone, G; Canonico, S; Selvaggi, F

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies of the large bowel, commonly known as vascular malformations of the colon (VMC), constitute a rare but important condition, potentially causing significant morbidity and mortality. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date, practical summary evaluating this disease entity, focussing on pathogenesis, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. We reviewed available data in the literature, and discussed it in the form of a narrative, readily applicable review. Most VMC (over 70%) are detected in the caecum and ascending colon, and affect people aged over 50 years. VMC are almost always symptomatic, presenting with lower bleeding. Endoscopy is crucial to identify and locate VMC, and to treat the lesions. In patients who fail or do not fit endoscopic treatment, aggressive approaches (interventional angiology or surgery) are mandatory. Up to 40% of patients may have relapse in the long term. VMC are rare but potentially life-threatening. Advances in endoscopic imaging and therapy have improved the results of treatment. Long-term follow-up after treatment is recommended. PMID:26498888

  17. Recent Advances in Imaging of Small and Large Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chandan J; Manchanda, Smita; Panda, Ananya; Sharma, Anshul; Gupta, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of bowel pathology is challenging in view of the nonspecific clinical presentation. Currently, there are various imaging modalities available to reach an accurate diagnosis. These modalities include conventional techniques (radiographs, small bowel follow-through, conventional enteroclysis), ultrasonography, and cross-sectional examinations (computed tomography [CT] and MR imaging) as well as functional imaging modalities, such as PET-CT or PET-MR imaging. Each modality has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used in isolation or combination. This review discusses the role of CT, MR imaging, and PET-CT in the evaluation of small and large bowel diseases. PMID:26590441

  18. Mejoría mucosa endoscópica en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal / Endoscopic mucosal improvememt in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Veitia; Beatriz, Pernalete; María Alejandra, La Cruz; María Josefina, Rodríguez; Lisbeth, Cachima; José, Soto; Ivanova, Esquerre; Juan, Manuitt; Guillermo, Pérez.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La curación mucosa endoscópica en enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal se asocia con remisión clínica sostenida, reducción de hospitalizaciones y cirugía, pero lograrlo es difícil, según la literatura. Por ello evaluamos la mejoría mucosa endoscópica en nuestros pacientes. Objetivo: Evaluar la mejoría [...] mucosa endoscópica en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. Métodos: estudio multicéntrico, descriptivo, transversal. Incluyó 24 pacientes entre 17 y 73 años. Para evaluar respuesta a tratamiento se realizó colonoscopia, utilizando clasificaciones endoscópicas de Mayo para colitis ulcerosa, Score simplificado para enfermedad de Crohn y Rutgeerts para recurrencia post operatoria, considerando curación endoscópica grado 0 en todas las escalas y mejoría cuando disminuyó un grado en relación al estudio previo. Resultados: colitis ulcerosa: 12 pacientes, 10 recibían aminosalicilatos y 2 terapia biológica. De ellos, 3 tuvieron curación endoscópica y 8 mejoría. De estos, 6 recibían aminosalicilatos y 2 Infliximab. Hubo 1 paciente con aminosalicilatos sin mejoría. Enfermedad de Crohn: 12 pacientes, 7 con aminosalicilatos, 2 con biológicos, 2 con biológicos e inmunomoduladores y 1 con biológicos y aminosalicilatos. De ellos, 4 tuvieron mejoría, 6 mantuvieron igual afectación y 2 curación con aminosalicilatos. Conclusiones: Se observó un alto porcentaje (70,8%) de curación y mejoría endoscópica, asociado a adherencia y optimización del tratamiento. Abstract in english Introduction: endoscopic mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with sustained clinical remission and hospitalizations and surgery reduction, but it has been difficult to achieve, according to the literature. So, we decided to assess improvement in endoscopic mucosal in ou [...] r inflammatory bowel disease patients. Purpose: endoscopic mucosal assess improvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: multicenter, descriptive and transversal. We included 24 patients with IBD between 17-73 years. Control colonoscopy was performed to evaluate the response to treatment using endoscopic Mayo Score for ulcerative colitis, Simplified Score for Crohn’s disease and postoperative recurrence was evaluated with Rutgeerts Index endoscopic healing was considered when the patient had grade 0 at all scales and improvement when they had one point less in the endoscopy scale in decreased relation to the previous study. Results: ulcerative colitis: 12 patients, 10 received aminosalicylates and 2 biological therapy. The group receiving aminosalicylates, 3 had endoscopic healing, there was endoscopic improvement in 8 of which 6 are aminosalicylates and 2 Infliximab. There was one patient with no improvement aminosalicylates. Crohn’s Disease: 12 patients, 7 with aminosalicylates, 2 biological therapy alone, 2 with biological and immunomodulatory and 1 with biological and aminosalicylates. Of which 4 had endoscopic improvement, 12 stayed the same degree of involvement and 2 with aminosalicylates was endoscopic healing. Conclusions: There was a high percentage (70.8%) of healing and endoscopic improvement associated with adherence and treatment optimization.

  19. Effects of the Paclitaxel and Radiation in the Mucosa of the Small Bowel of Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose : Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent with potent microtublue stablelizing activity that arrests cell cycle in G2-M. Because G2-M is the most radiosensitive phase of the cell cycle. Paclitaxel has potential as a cell cycle- specic radio sensitizer. This study was design to investigate the ablity of paclitaxel to increase the radiotoxicity in normal small bowl mucosa of the rat. Methods and Materials : A single intraperitoneal infusion of paciltaxel(10mg/kg). And a single irradiation(8 Gy, x-ray) to the whole abdomen and combination of radiation(8 Gy, x-ray) 24 hours after paclitaxel infusion in the rats were done. The changes of jejunal mucosa. And kinetics of mitotic arrest and apoptosis in the jejunal crypt were defined at 6 hours ? 5 days after each treatment histologically. Results : Paclitaxel blocked jejunal crypt cell in mitosis and induced minmal apoptosis. Mitotic arrest by paclitaxel was peaked at 6 hours after infusion and returned to normal by 24 hours. Radiation induced apoptosis and peaked at 6 hours and returned to normal by 24 hours. Combination of paclitaxel and radiation blocked crypt cell in mitosis at 3 days and induced apoptosis slightly at 6 hours and 24 hours and returned to normal by 3 days. The incidence of apopsis in combined group at 6hours was slightly higher than normal control buy significantly lower than radiation alone group. The major changes of jejunal mucosa were nuclear vesicle and atypia which were appered at 6 hours ? 3 days and returned to normal by 5 days. The degree of mucosal changes are no different in 3 groups except for absence of inflmatory reaction in radiation group. Conclusion : Mitotic arrest by paclitaxel was peaked at 6hours and returned to normal by 24 hours and paclitaxel induced minimal apoptosis. Radiation induced apoptosis, Peaked at 6 hours and returned to normal by 24 hours. Radiation induced apoptosis was less in combined group which suggested that paclitaxel have a radioprotective effech when radiation was given 24 hours after paclitaxel infusion

  20. Microevolution in fimH Gene of Mucosa-Associated Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Iebba, Valerio; Conte, Maria Pia; Lepanto, Maria Stefania; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Santangelo, Floriana; Aloi, Marina; Totino, Valentina; Checchi, Monica Proietti; Longhi, Catia; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Schippa, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Several studies reported increased numbers of mucosa-associated Escherichia coli strains in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), encompassing Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The majority of E. coli strains possess type 1 fimbriae, whose tip fibrillum protein, FimH, naturally undergoes amino acid replacements, an important process in the adaptation of commensal E. coli strains to environmental changes, like those observed in IBD and urinary tract infections. In thi...

  1. Increased Immunoendocrine Cells in Intestinal Mucosa of Postinfectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients 3 Years after Acute Shigella Infection - An Observation in a Small Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Sun; Lim, Jung Hyun; Park, Hyojin; LEE, SANG IN

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Postinfectiously irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) develops in 3-30% of individuals with bacterial gastroenteritis. Recent studies demonstrated increases in inflammatory components in gut mucosa of PI-IBS patients even after complete resolution of infection. We aimed to investigate histological changes in colon and rectum of PI-IBS subjects after long term period of infection. Materials and Methods We recruited PI-IBS subjects who had been diagnosed IBS after complete resolution of en...

  2. Sarcomatous malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with large bowel involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoaki Kaneko; Kimihiko Funahashi; Hiroshi Matsumoto; Yoichiro Okubo; Kazutoshi Shibuya; Hironori Kaneko

    2010-01-01

    Sarcomatous malignant peritoneal mesothelioma developing in the abdominal cavity is very rare, and little is known about its behavior. A 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with anemia and weight loss. Tumor marker levels were within normal limits. Abdominal computed tomography showed an 11Â¥7 cm tumor in the pelvis, with possible invasion of the large bowel. Colonoscopy revealed a tumor protruding into the cecal lumen with an ulceration of the cecal wall. Although malignancy was s...

  3. Hormone Therapy in Relation to Survival from Large Bowel Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Chia, Victoria M.; Hampton, John M; Doria-Rose, V. Paul; Dietz, Amy Trentham

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of hormone therapy (HT) and colorectal cancer incidence consistently show an inverse association; however, few studies considered prediagnostic use of HT on mortality among colorectal cancer patients. We evaluated the relationship of HT and survival among a population-based cohort of women with large bowel cancer. Cases (n=1297) were newly diagnosed with invasive cancer of the colon or rectum, aged 40-74 years at diagnosis, who were identified by Wisconsin’s statewide re...

  4. Radiological diagnosis of large-bowel obstruction: nonneoplastic etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi; Tanikake, Masato; Yoshida, Shoko; Urata, Yoji; Inada, Yuki; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Eiji; Morimoto, Taisuke

    2012-08-01

    Large-bowel obstruction (LBO) is a relatively common abdominal emergency. Computed tomography (CT) diagnosis of LBO is often easy, but it is essential to clarify LBO etiology and to decide how to treat it. Therefore, it is important for the radiologist to become familiar with the imaging findings of LBO, including plain radiography and CT, to determine its various causes, as well as the many diseases mimicking LBO. In this article, we show the characteristics of radiological findings of plain radiograph, barium study, and CT and their correlations with pathologic findings. LBO etiology comprises two main categories: neoplastic and nonneoplastic disease. However, the primary causes of LBO are neoplastic etiologies, and nonneoplastic causes are relatively uncommon and unfamiliar to many radiologists in clinical practice. Therefore, in this review, we present nonneoplastic etiology of LBO and diseases simulating LBO and provide critical information concerning the causes of LBO and viability of the involved bowel loops. PMID:22744438

  5. The Bowel Microbiota and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald W. Tannock

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The human bowel contains a large and biodiverse bacterial community known as the microbiota or microbiome. It seems likely that the microbiota, fractions of the microbiota, or specific species comprising the microbiota provide the antigenic fuel that drives the chronic immune inflammation of the bowel mucosa that is characteristic of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. At least twenty years of microbiological research have been expended on analysis of the composition of the bowel microbiota of inflammatory bowel disease patients in comparison to that of control subjects. Despite extensive speculations about the aetiological role of dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel diseases, knowledge that can be easily translated into effective remedies for patients has not eventuated. The causes of this failure may be due to poorly defined and executed bacteriological studies, as well as the overwhelming complexity of a biome that contains hundreds of bacterial species and trillions of bacterial cells.

  6. Colon cancer and large bowel function in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W J; Bjerrum, L; Paerregaard, A; Helms, P; Burton, R

    1982-01-01

    Stool weight and transit time through the gut were measured in 4 groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, randomly selected from populations in urban (Copenhagen) and rural (Them) Denmark and urban (Helsinki) and rural (Parikkala) Finland. These populations exhibited a 3-4 fold difference in risk for...... +/- 15 g, Parikkala) were different and had a significant inverse relationship to total large bowel cancer incidence, with larger stool weights being found in the low-risk population. A high proportion of study subjects, especially in Finland, were found to be taking medication or to have a history of...

  7. Large bowel obstruction due to sesame seed bezoar: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Aidan G; Peacock Oliver; Lund Jonathan N; Tierney Gillian M; Larvin Mike; Speake William

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of a 79 year old man with a known benign anastomotic stricture presenting with large bowel obstruction. At laparotomy the obstruction was found to be caused by a large sesame seed bezoar. Seed bezoars are well known to cause impaction in the rectum but have never been previously reported to cause large bowel obstruction. We recommend that patients with known large bowel strictures should be advised not to eat seeds as this could ultimately lead to obstruction, ischae...

  8. Sarcomatous malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with large bowel involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Kaneko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcomatous malignant peritoneal mesothelioma developing in the abdominal cavity is very rare, and little is known about its behavior. A 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with anemia and weight loss. Tumor marker levels were within normal limits. Abdominal computed tomography showed an 11Â¥7 cm tumor in the pelvis, with possible invasion of the large bowel. Colonoscopy revealed a tumor protruding into the cecal lumen with an ulceration of the cecal wall. Although malignancy was suspected, the histological type was not identified in the biopsy specimens. Right hemicolectomy and ileocolic anastomosis were performed as a treatment. A postoperative histopathological examination confirmed the initial diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. Finally, immunohistochemical examination revealed a localized sarcomatous malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with regional lymph node metastases. The patient was followed up postoperatively as an outpatient, and local recurrence was detected in the abdominal cavity 11 months after surgery. In conclusion, localized malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, especially the sarcomatous type, with large bowel involvement is very rare. We should carefully consider the diagnosis and select adequate therapy, because little is known about the behavior of this disease.

  9. Radiological diagnosis of large-bowel obstruction: neoplastic etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi; Tanikake, Masato; Yoshida, Shoko; Urata, Yoji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Morimoto, Taisuke

    2013-01-01

    Large-bowel obstruction (LBO) is a relatively common abdominal emergency. The CT exam has become the most important imaging modality for the diagnosis of LBO, following abdominal ultrasound and plain radiography. The recent multi-detector CT (MD-CT) is able to clarify the etiology of LBO and to help in deciding how to treat LBO. Therefore, it is important for the radiologists to become familiar with the imaging findings of LBO, including plain radiograph and CT, due to various causes. In this article, we have shown the characteristics of the radiological findings including plain radiograph, barium study, and CT as well as their correlations with pathologic findings of LBO. The etiology of LBO is usually divided into neoplastic diseases and nonneoplastic diseases. However, the most common cause is the neoplastic etiology. Now, we can afford the critical information concerning the level of obstruction, its cause, the viability of the involved bowel loops, and a decision-making regarding the therapy for patients with LBO, using MD-CT high technology. PMID:23109230

  10. Evaluation of large intestinal mucosa regeneration in ulcerative colitis using linear measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?olai Matilda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by three phases: active, regression and remission phase. The active phase is followed by atrophy of the large intestinal mucosa. Although its evaluation is sometimes difficult, quantification of ceratin mucosal parameters can be used as an accessory method. The aim of the study was to determine the parameters of linear micrometry in order to estimate the regeneration of the large intestinal mucosa in ulcerative colitis, and to evaluate the efficiency of this method in everyday work. The measurements were performed on routine bioptic samples after qualitative histologic analysis and determination of the type and stage of the disease. The measurements were carried out to determine: the number of crypts per unit length, the height of crypt epithelium, diameter of crypts, their lumen and interstices; also, the quotient between the diameters of crypts and interstices was calculated. The analysis of the measured parameters points to presence and degree of regeneration and/or atrophy of mucosa, particularly by following the parameters of crypt epithelium. Linear measurements can be used in estimation of regeneration and atrophy of large intestinal mucosa. .

  11. Large Intraluminal Ileal Hematoma Presenting as Small Bowel Obstruction in a Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraluminal small bowel hematoma has been rarely reported in children, as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. We present a case of an intraluminal ileal hematoma presenting as small bowel obstruction in a child. Computed Tomography (CT) indicated a large intraluminal hyperdense lesion in the distal ileum as the cause of small bowel obstruction. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) showed an echogenic mass-like lesion with multiple septa in the distal ileum. Small bowel obstruction due to a complicated cystic mass was provisionally diagnosed. Histopathologic examination of the resected mass suggested a submucosal ileal hematoma. Although intraluminal small bowel hematoma is rare in children, it can present as an intraluminal cystic mass and should be considered as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. The US and CT findings of submucosal ileal hematoma could be useful for the diagnosis of such cases in the future

  12. Morphological changes of intestinal mucosa in patients with different clinical variants of irritable bowel syndrome using tetracyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagieva S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess histological changes of colonic mucosa in patients with clinically different types of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS before and after the treatment with tetracyclic antidepressant and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Methods. Adult patients (over 18 years with confirmed diagnosis of IBS were examined. Biopsy specimens were taken from colon during colonoscopy for the next histological examination. One expert gastrointestinal pathologist assessed all tissue samples. We patent semi quantitative assessment of the severity of cell infiltration of colonic mucosa, which could be assessed as inflammatory (neutrophils, immune (lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, or allergic (eosinophils response (0 to 3 degrees. All patients received treatment due to the clinical variant of IBS: 1 IBS-constipation – mirtazapinum 15 mg/night+lactulose 30ml/morning (+30ml/night if needed; 2 IBS-diarrhea – escitalopram 5mg/night+rifaximine 600mg/twice a day; 3 IBS-unspecified – mirtazapinum 15 mg/escitalopram 5mg/ night; 4 IBS-mixed – mirtazapinum 15 mg, lactulose 30ml/morning (+30ml/night if needed / escitalopram 5mg/night+rifaximine 600mg/twice a day. Results. 107 patients were examined, 36 of them had constipation (I group, 35 – diarrhea (II group, 22- unspecified variant (III group and 12 patients had mixed variant of IBS (IV group due to Rome III criteria (2006. 1st degree of lymphocyte infiltration was detected in 100% IBS-constipation patients and in 58,3% IBS-mixed variant (p0.05. No cases of 2nd or 3rd degree of colonic mucosa infiltration were found. Conclusion. After the treatment with tetracyclic antidepressant and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor we found that the degree of inflammation of colonic mucosa was reduced or disappeared, due to the zero degree of infiltration according to our patented classification. Citation: Nagieva S, Svintsitskyy A, Kuryk O, Korendovych I. [Morphological changes of intestinal mucosa in patients with different clinical variants of irritable bowel syndrome using tetracyclic antidepressants and selective seroto-nin reuptake inhibitor]. Morphologia. 2015;9(4:49-56. Ukrainian.

  13. Reduction in diversity of the colonic mucosa associated bacterial microflora in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, S.J.; Musfeldt, M; Wenderoth, D F; Hampe, J; Brant, O; Fölsch, U.R.; Timmis, K.N.; Schreiber, S.

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: The intestinal bacterial microflora plays an important role in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As most of the colonic bacteria cannot be identified by culture techniques, genomic technology can be used for analysis of the composition of the microflora.

  14. Large bowel obstruction due to sesame seed bezoar: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Aidan G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of a 79 year old man with a known benign anastomotic stricture presenting with large bowel obstruction. At laparotomy the obstruction was found to be caused by a large sesame seed bezoar. Seed bezoars are well known to cause impaction in the rectum but have never been previously reported to cause large bowel obstruction. We recommend that patients with known large bowel strictures should be advised not to eat seeds as this could ultimately lead to obstruction, ischaemia or perforation.

  15. Toll-Like Receptor mRNA Expression Is Selectively Increased in the Colonic Mucosa of Two Animal Models Relevant to Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, Declan P.; Nolan, Aoife; Brint, Elizabeth K.; O Mahony, Siobhain M.; Hyland, Niall P.; Cryan, John F.; DINAN, TIMOTHY G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is largely viewed as a stress-related disorder caused by aberrant brain-gut– immune communication and altered gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that stress modulates innate immune responses; however, very little is known on the immunological effects of stress on the GI tract. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system. Activation of TLRs by bacteria...

  16. The impact of helical computed tomography on the diagnosis of unsuspected inflammatory bowel disease in the large bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markose, G.; Freeman, A.H. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ng, C.S. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s NHS Trust and the University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are diagnoses that can be easily overlooked clinically. The aim of this study was to investigate if CT is able to make a contribution to the identification of previously unsuspected cases of IBD. We retrospectively identified cases in which the possibility of an IBD was raised in CT reports (over a 4-year period), by utilising a keyword search of the radiology database. Cases with a previously known or suspected IBD were rigorously excluded by review of case notes, and endoscopic, radiological, histological and microbiological findings. The CT images of the identified cases were reviewed by a blinded observer to document the extent of bowel wall thickening, the location of lesion(s), and presence of peri-colic fat abnormality, ascites and/or collections. The observer also attempted to corroborate the presence, and to identify the type, of IBD based on the CT appearances alone. Thirty-five cases (out of approximately 19,000 body CTs performed) of clinically unsuspected IBD were identified, of which 27 underwent further investigation. An IBD was confirmed in 48% (13 of 27): Crohn's disease (n=6), ulcerative colitis (n=2), pseudomembranous colitis (n=3) and other (n=2), of which 70% (9 of 13) were correctly typed by the reviewer. Inflammatory bowel disease was not substantiated in the remainder (14 of 27), although 7 of these had other bowel pathologies: diverticular disease (n=4); and carcinoma (n=3). Prospectively determining the presence, and furthermore type, of IBD on CT is challenging largely because of the considerable overlap in the appearances of the individual IBDs and indeed of normality. Nevertheless, CT is able to identify clinically unsuspected cases and radiologists should be alert to this treatable and not infrequently elusive diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Clinical applications of small bowel capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, Uri; Seidman, Ernest G

    2013-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy has revolutionized our ability to visualize the entire small bowel mucosa. This modality is established as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors, and other conditions involving the small bowel mucosa. This review includes an overview of the current and potential future clinical applications of small bowel video endoscopy. PMID:23983481

  18. FOLLOW UP IN LARGE BOWEL RESECTIONS: WERNICKE-KORSAKOFF’S SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lo Gatto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The main complication of large bowel resection is the malabsorption syndrome, a rare form of which is the syndrome of Wernicke-Korsakoff. Patients and Methods. B.E. following gastro-entero anastomosis develops Syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff characterized by progressive state of disorientation, fixity of gaze, dysphoria. Results. Syndrome Wernicke-Korsacoff is linked to a deficiency of thiamin (also known as vitamin B1. Conclusions. In the follow up of patients who underwent a large bowel resection will be important to carry out systematic blood tests that can detect any frameworks-megaloblastic anemia macrocytosis deficiency vit. B12, iron deficiency, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalcemia, ipodisprotidemy. In the follow up of patients who underwent a large bowel resection will be important to carry out systematic blood tests that can detect any frameworks-megaloblastic anemia macrocytosis deficiency vit. B12, iron deficiency, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalcemia,ipodisprotidemy.

  19. Combined small and large bowel MR imaging in patients with Crohn's disease: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narin, Burcu; Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne; Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122, Essen (Germany); Langhorst, Jost; Gerken, Guido [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany); Akgoez, Haldun [Siyami Ersek Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey); Ruehm, Stefan G. [Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles (United States)

    2004-09-01

    MRI of the small bowel is a new method for the assessment of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, inflammatory bowel disease can affect both the small and large bowel. Therefore, our goal was to assess the feasibility of displaying the small bowel and colon simultaneously by MR imaging. Eighteen patients with inflammatory bowel disease were studied. For small bowel distension, patients ingested a solution containing mannitol and locust bean gum. Furthermore, the colon was rectally filled with water. MR examinations were performed on a 1.5-T system. Before and after intravenous gadolinium administration, a T1w data set was collected. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy as a standard of reference. The oral ingestion and the rectal application of water allowed an assessment of the small bowel and colon in all patients. By means of MRI (endoscopy), 19 (13) inflamed bowel segments in the colon and terminal ileum were detected. Furthermore, eight additional inflammatory lesions in the jejunum and proximal ileum that had not been endoscopically accessible were found by MRI. The simultaneous display of the small and large bowel by MRI is feasible. Major advantages of the proposed MR concept are related to its non-invasive character as well as to the potential to visualize parts of the small bowel that cannot be reached by endoscopy. (orig.)

  20. Gallstone ileus of the sigmoid colon: an extremely rare cause of large bowel obstruction detected by multiplanar CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Tarryn; Gandhi, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Gallstone ileus of the sigmoid colon is an important, though extremely rare, cause of large bowel obstruction. The gallstone often enters the large bowel through a fistula formation between the gallbladder and colon, and impacts at a point of narrowing, causing large bowel obstruction. We describe the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with features of bowel obstruction. Multiplanar abdominal CT demonstrated a cholecystocolonic fistula in exquisite detail. The scan also showed obstruction of the colon due to a large gallstone impacted just proximal to a stricture in the sigmoid. Owing to inflammatory adhesions and a stricture from extensive diverticular disease, the gallstone could not be retrieved. This frail and elderly woman was treated with a loop colostomy to relieve bowel obstruction. The patient made an uneventful recovery. PMID:26682834

  1. Isolated polyarteritis nodosa of the large bowel: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Giovanni; Rizzuto, Maria Rosa; Spallitta, Ivan Salvatore; Rizzo, Aroldo; Branca, Massimo; Guccione, Marzio; Airò Farulla, Marco; Scio, Antonio; Nicoli, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa is a form of vasculitis that affects several organs. Gastrointestinal involvement is frequent, but cases in which the gastrointestinal tract is the only site of disease are rare. In this paper we report a case of a 70-year-old patient with polyarteritis nodosa restricted to the large intestine, who underwent a total colectomy. The patient had no other signs of chronic vasculitis and for this reason surgical treatment resolved the clinical symptoms. PMID:18709790

  2. Melatonin for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Wong, Reuben Kong Min; Ho, Khek Yu

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort, in combination with disturbed bowel habits in the absence of identifiable organic cause. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced by the pineal gland and also large number by enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin plays an important part in gastrointestinal physiology which includes regulation of gastrointestinal motility, local anti-inflammator...

  3. A comparison of two methods of palliation of large bowel obstruction due to irremovable colon cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Richard; Marsh, Ralph; Corson, John; Seymour, Keith

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Untreated malignant large bowel obstruction is rapidly fatal. Short-term palliation of symptoms can be achieved by formation of a stoma in those patients for whom resection surgery is inappropriate. In the final months of life, a stoma represents a significant burden for both patients and carers. Palliative endoluminal stenting may therefore be an attractive alternative option for this poor prognostic group. PATIENTS: Thirty-six patients were studied of whom 18 had obstructing l...

  4. Optimizing bowel cleansing for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Seth; Baron, Todd H

    2015-04-01

    Adequate bowel cleansing is essential for complete examination of the colon mucosa during colonoscopy. Suboptimal bowel preparation has potential adverse consequences, such as missed pathologic abnormalities, the need for repeated procedures, and increased procedure-related complications. Several factors can predict individuals at increased risk for inadequate bowel preparation. If predictors of inadequate bowel preparation are identified, then education should be intensified and a more aggressive bowel regimen recommended. On completion of this article, you should be able to (1) define the frequency of inadequate colon preparations, (2) identify predictors of poor bowel preparation, and (3) use a more aggressive bowel regimen when clinically indicated. PMID:25841255

  5. Ileal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma with a Large-Cell Component That Regressed Spontaneously

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Yohsuke; SUZUKI, HIDEKAZU; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Kameyama, Kaori; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Makio; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Reported herein is a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the terminal ileum with a large-cell component, which regressed spontaneously. To the best of our knowledge, only five cases of spontaneously regressing MALT lymphoma have been reported in the English-language literature, and all of these cases were low-grade lymphomas. Spontaneous regression of a MALT lymphoma with a high-grade component is very rare. The present case suggests that MALT lymphoma cells have a re...

  6. Blood-based Biomarkers at Large Bowel Endoscopy and Prediction of Future Malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Thomas S; Piper, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble cancer-related protein biomarker levels may be increased in subjects without findings at large bowel endoscopy performed due to symptoms associated with colorectal cancer. The present study focused on a possible association between increased biomarker levels in such subjects and subsequent development of malignant diseases. In a major study of 4,990 subjects undergoing large bowel endoscopy, 691 were without pathology and comorbidity. Plasma levels of TIMP-1, CEA, CA19-9, and YKL-40 were determined in samples collected just before endoscopy and compared with subsequent development of a malignant disease within a period of 7-8 years. The upper 90% limits of the reference levels of every single protein were used to differentiate between normal and increased levels. The levels were separated into three groups: 0, none of the biomarkers increased; 1, one biomarker increased; 2, two or more biomarkers increased. A total of 43 subjects developed a primary malignant disease in the observation period. Univariatly, increase of all four biomarkers was significantly associated with subsequent development of a malignant disease. A multivariate analysis showed that increased biomarker levels were associated with subsequent development of a malignant disease (P = 0.002). The cumulative risk of developing malignant disease within the first 5 years after endoscopy was group 0, 3.3%; group 1, 5.8%; group 2, 7.8%. It is concluded that increased levels of plasma TIMP-1, CEA, CA19-9, and serum YKL-40 at large bowel endoscopy without findings may be associated with an increased risk of developing a subsequent malignant disease.

  7. The bacterial colonization of the large bowel of pre-term low birth weight neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, P L; Lee, A

    1982-01-01

    The bacterial colonization of the large bowel of 11 pre-term, low birth weight neonates who were nourished by expressed breast milk was examined by culturing serial faecal samples and compared to that observed in eight breast-fed and seven formula-fed full-term neonates. Pre-term neonates were colonized by high counts of facultatively anaerobic bacteria from the first days of life while bifidobacteria colonized only six babies during the first week and appeared in only one baby before day 5. ...

  8. Excision of a large abdominal wall lipoma improved bowel passage in a Proteus syndrome patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Nakayama, Shinichi Kusuda, Naoki Nagata, Koji Yamaguchi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder that produces multifocal overgrowth of tissue. This report presents a surgical case of a large lipoma in the abdominal wall of a patient with Proteus syndrome. She was diagnosed with Proteus syndrome based on certain diagnostic criteria. The neoplasm increased in size gradually, producing hemihypertrophy of her left lower extremity and trunk, and spread to her retroperitoneum and her left abdominal wall. She experienced gradually progressive constipation, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the left lower abdominal wall which measured 12 cm × 8 cm x 6 cm in diameter and encased the left colon. This mass in the abdominal wall was excised. The weight of the excised mass was 1550 g. The histopathological diagnosis of this mass was lipoma. After surgery, the encasement of the left colon was improved, and the patient was able to move her bowels twice per day. The excision of the large lipoma in the abdominal wall contributed to the improved bowel passage in this patient with Proteus syndrome.

  9. Clinical applications of small bowel capsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopylov U

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Uri Kopylov, Ernest G Seidman Division of Gastroenterology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Abstract: Video capsule endoscopy has revolutionized our ability to visualize the entire small bowel mucosa. This modality is established as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors, and other conditions involving the small bowel mucosa. This review includes an overview of the current and potential future clinical applications of small bowel video endoscopy. Keywords: small bowel video capsule endoscopy, obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn’s disease, small bowel tumors, patency capsule

  10. Expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 and CD14 in human intestina mucosa from patiens with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolová, Lenka; Drastich, P.; Rossmann, Pavel; Tlaskalová, Helena

    Vienna : Basic Science in Allergology, 2006, s. 253-253. [Congress of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology /25./. Vienna (AT), 10.06.2006-14.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ?R GD310/03/H147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Toll-like receptors * intestinal mucosa * cd14 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Management of perforated essure with migration into small and large bowel mesentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braginsky, Lena; George, Sean T; Locher, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The Essure permanent birth control system (Conceptus Inc, San Carlos, CA) is currently the only Food and Drug Administration-approved hysteroscopic sterilization method and has been widely accepted as a safe and effective procedure. We present a rare case of tubal perforation, coil fragmentation, and distal migration into small and large bowel mesentery 8 days after the insertion of the Essure device. We describe the successful management of this complication using laparoscopy and intraoperative fluoroscopy. Providers using Essure must be aware of the possibility of fragmentation of the Essure coils. Intraoperative imaging, ideally fluoroscopy, should be strongly considered in the management of Essure migration to ensure localization and full retrieval of Essure material. PMID:25460518

  12. Management of acute large bowel obstruction due to colorectal cancer: Diversion colostomy versus stent placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fotiadis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Colonic stenting is a novel and privileged therapeutic option for malignant obstructions of the large bowel, especially as a bridging procedure to elective surgery. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the efficacy of the traditional surgical approach with stent placement in the management of obstructing colorectal tumours. Patients and Methods: Thirty-three patients with malignant colonic obstruction were retrospectively studied. Of them, 17 underwent a diversion colostomy (group I, while 16 were treated with SEMS (group II. Early outcome, late outcome and duration of hospitalisation were evaluated. For statistical analysis chi-square and Student.s t-test were used (statistical significance level P<0.05. Results: One death in each group occurred within the first 3 days following colonic decompression. One case of pulmonary embolism (group I and one case of asymptomatic colonic perforation (group II were the only early morbid situations complicating decompressing interventions. Elective surgery was finally performed on 10 patients in group I and in 9 patients in group II. One case of early local recurrence after tumor resection was observed in the stenting group. The cumulated mortality rate was estimated at 6.9% and 9.1 % and cumulated morbidity rate at 20.7% and 9.1% for the two groups respectively. The mean time of hospitalization was significantly longer in the colostomy group. Conclusions: SEMS are effective for the temporary treatment of malignant occlusions of the large bowel and particularly advantageous not only because of their technical simplicity but also good tolerance and quality of life which they offer epecially in cases of locally or distally extended disease.

  13. Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Ragna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high dietary intake of n-6 compared to n-3 fatty acids (FAs may promote the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. In two recent studies, short-term (10-day duodenal administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich seal oil ameliorated joint pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Using unpublished data from these two studies we here investigated whether normalisation of the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood and tissues by seal oil administration was associated with improved health related quality of life (HRQOL as assessed by the generic short-form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Results In the first pilot study, baseline n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosal biopsies from 10 patients with IBD (9 of those had joint pain was significantly increased compared with that in 10 control patients without IBD or joint pain. Following seal oil administration, the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio of the IBD-patients was significantly lowered to the level seen in untreated controls. In the subsequent, randomized controlled study (n = 19, seal oil administration reduced the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in blood similarly and also the SF-36 assessed bodily pain, while n-6 FA rich soy oil administration had no such effect. Conclusion In these two separate studies, short-term duodenal administration of seal oil normalised the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and improved the bodily pain dimension of HRQOL of patients with IBD-related joint pain. The possibility of a causal relationship between n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and bodily pain in IBD-patients warrants further investigations.

  14. High-throughput clone library analysis of the mucosa-associated microbiota reveals dysbiosis and differences between inflamed and non-inflamed regions of the intestine in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkhill Julian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut microbiota is thought to play a key role in the development of the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. Shifts in the composition of resident bacteria have been postulated to drive the chronic inflammation seen in both diseases (the "dysbiosis" hypothesis. We therefore specifically sought to compare the mucosa-associated microbiota from both inflamed and non-inflamed sites of the colon in CD and UC patients to that from non-IBD controls and to detect disease-specific profiles. Results Paired mucosal biopsies of inflamed and non-inflamed intestinal tissue from 6 CD (n = 12 and 6 UC (n = 12 patients were compared to biopsies from 5 healthy controls (n = 5 by in-depth sequencing of over 10,000 near full-length bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The results indicate that mucosal microbial diversity is reduced in IBD, particularly in CD, and that the species composition is disturbed. Firmicutes were reduced in IBD samples and there were concurrent increases in Bacteroidetes, and in CD only, Enterobacteriaceae. There were also significant differences in microbial community structure between inflamed and non-inflamed mucosal sites. However, these differences varied greatly between individuals, meaning there was no obvious bacterial signature that was positively associated with the inflamed gut. Conclusions These results may support the hypothesis that the overall dysbiosis observed in inflammatory bowel disease patients relative to non-IBD controls might to some extent be a result of the disturbed gut environment rather than the direct cause of disease. Nonetheless, the observed shifts in microbiota composition may be important factors in disease maintenance and severity.

  15. Clinical applications of small bowel capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov U; Seidman EG

    2013-01-01

    Uri Kopylov, Ernest G Seidman Division of Gastroenterology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Abstract: Video capsule endoscopy has revolutionized our ability to visualize the entire small bowel mucosa. This modality is established as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors, and other conditions involving the small bowel mucosa. This review includes an overview of the current and potential future c...

  16. Liver uptake of sup(99m)Tc-labeled diphosphonate (DPD) by metastatic lesions from large bowel carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate was observed in 2 of 12 patients with liver metastases who had primary adenocarcinoma of the large bowel. The area of excessive radionuclide concentration corresponded well to the location of the hepatic metastases. The literature on this subject is reviewed and a possible mechanism of radionuclide accumulation is discussed. (orig.)

  17. In vivo reflectance measurement of optical properties, blood oxygenation and motexafin lutetium uptake in canine large bowels, kidneys and prostates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonenko, Michael; Cheung, Rex; Busch, Theresa M; Kachur, Alex; Griffin, Gregory M; Vulcan, Theodore; Zhu, Timothy C; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Hahn, Stephen M; Yodh, A G

    2002-03-21

    Motexafin lutetium (MLu) is a second-generation photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. We have developed and applied a diffuse optical reflectance spectrometer for in vivo measurement of MLu uptake, optical properties, haemoglobin concentration and haemoglobin oxygen saturation in normal canine large bowels, kidneys and prostates. The probe consists of a broadband fibre-optic-coupled light source and detector fibres placed at various distances from the source fibre to collect reflected light. An analysis based on the diffusion approximation of the photon transport equation was used to recover tissue optical properties from the reflectance measurements. The instrumentation and analysis methods were validated using measurements from homogeneous, highly scattering phantoms with known MLu concentrations. The same techniques were then used to estimate chromophore concentrations of normal canine large bowels, kidneys and prostates. We estimated (mean (standard deviation)) total haemoglobin concentrations of 119 (25), 340 (92) and 51 (11) microM in the large bowels, kidneys and prostates of four dogs, respectively; tissue blood oxygen saturations in these same organs were 75 (15), 76 (21) and 74 (16) per cent, respectively. Tissue MLu concentrations (mg l(-1)) were estimated from data taken 3.5 h after injection of a 2 mg kg(-1) injected dose; data from three dogs gave concentrations of 2.4 (0.4) in large bowels, 6.8 (1.3) in kidneys and 2.2 (1.1) in prostates. The reduced scattering coefficients, mu's, estimated for large bowels, kidneys and prostates at 730 nm were, respectively: 10.1 (1.3), 19.6 (4.0) and 12.7 (0.6) cm(-1). We observed significant variability in MLu uptake, tissue scattering and haemoglobin concentration between organs and even between the same organ in different dogs. This class of in situ optical property measurement may be desirable to individualize PDT drug and light delivery. PMID:11936174

  18. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Can my inflammatory bowel disease make it harder for me to get pregnant? I have inflammatory ... goes into the large intestine makes water absorption harder. This causes a watery bowel movement, or diarrhea. ...

  19. Cistadenoma mucinoso del apéndice cecal como causa de gangrena intestinal Appendiceal mucocele causing large bowel gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Osnaya M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los tumores del Apéndice Cecal corresponden al 0,5% de las neoplasias gastrointestinales y se encuentran entre el 0,8% y el 1% de las apendicectomías. El término Mucocele Apendicular (AM, se refiere a un grupo de lesiones localizados a nivel del ciego cuyo rango de incidencia está entre el 0,2% y el 0,3% de todas las apendicectomías, y entre el 8-10% de todos los tumores apendiculares. Las presentaciones clínicas más frecuentes son: cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda, como hallazgo incidental como en el caso de esta paciente, o como masa abdominal en fosa ilíaca derecha. Caso clínico: Se presenta un caso de Cistade-noma Mucinoso Apendicular (CAM encontrado como hallazgo incidental en un abdomen agudo quirúrgico con la particularidad de presentarse con una necrosis intestinal.Introduction: Appendiceal mucocele are lesions located in the cecum, which are found in 0.2 to 0.3% of appendectomies and correspond to 8-10% of all appendiceal tumors. Clinical case: We report a 83 years old female consulting for abdominal pain lasting 24 hours. On physical examination, signs of peritoneal irritation were found. The patient was operated, finding an appendiceal tumor that was coiled up in the mesentery with large bowel gangrene. An intestinal resection, terminal ileostomy, appendectomy and surgical lavage were performed. The pathological study of the surgical piece reported a mucinous cystadenoma.

  20. Cistadenoma mucinoso del apéndice cecal como causa de gangrena intestinal / Appendiceal mucocele causing large bowel gangrene

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Humberto, Osnaya M; Tahitiana Abelina, Zaragoza S; Marco Antonio, Mondragón C.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los tumores del Apéndice Cecal corresponden al 0,5% de las neoplasias gastrointestinales y se encuentran entre el 0,8% y el 1% de las apendicectomías. El término Mucocele Apendicular (AM), se refiere a un grupo de lesiones localizados a nivel del ciego cuyo rango de incidencia está ent [...] re el 0,2% y el 0,3% de todas las apendicectomías, y entre el 8-10% de todos los tumores apendiculares. Las presentaciones clínicas más frecuentes son: cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda, como hallazgo incidental como en el caso de esta paciente, o como masa abdominal en fosa ilíaca derecha. Caso clínico: Se presenta un caso de Cistade-noma Mucinoso Apendicular (CAM) encontrado como hallazgo incidental en un abdomen agudo quirúrgico con la particularidad de presentarse con una necrosis intestinal. Abstract in english Introduction: Appendiceal mucocele are lesions located in the cecum, which are found in 0.2 to 0.3% of appendectomies and correspond to 8-10% of all appendiceal tumors. Clinical case: We report a 83 years old female consulting for abdominal pain lasting 24 hours. On physical examination, signs of pe [...] ritoneal irritation were found. The patient was operated, finding an appendiceal tumor that was coiled up in the mesentery with large bowel gangrene. An intestinal resection, terminal ileostomy, appendectomy and surgical lavage were performed. The pathological study of the surgical piece reported a mucinous cystadenoma.

  1. [The assessment of the local immune reaction of the mucosa of the large intestine in patients with nonspecific ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudar', L V; Bychkova, N G

    1994-01-01

    The article presents data on the features of local immune reaction in lamina propria of colonic mucosa in patients with severe unspecific ulcerous colitis. Identification of immunocompetent cells with monoclonal antibodies, considered the most effective method to date, was used in the study. Number of immunocompetent cells in lamina propria of colonic mucosa was established to be significantly higher in patients with severe UUC as compared to that of the control group, subpopulations of B-lymphocytes prevailing. Production of all immunoglobulins, especially of IgG, was increased. This evidences sharp activation of local immune reaction and attempt of the body to strengthen both first and second lines of immune protection in colonic mucosa. PMID:8067029

  2. Intestinal perfusion of dietary levels of aluminium: association with the mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J. J.; Ainley, C C; R. Evans; Thompson, R P

    1994-01-01

    An aluminium (93 microM) sulphate solution freshly adjusted to pH 7.0 was perfused through the rat small bowel to mimic the reported physiological conditions that follow dietary aluminium ingestion. One third of this aluminium was taken up from the perfusate, but > 90% of this was then recovered from the intestinal mucus/mucosa and most (> 70%) from the distal third of the small bowel. The fresh perfusate was shown by ultrafiltration to contain largely particulate/colloidal aluminium-hydroxid...

  3. Primary Breast Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT Lymphoma Transformation to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?erife Hülya Arslan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL of the breast constitutes 0.04%-0.53% of all malignancies and 2.2% of extra nodal lymphomas. In total, 7%-8% of all B-cell lymphomas are the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT type, of which up to 50% of primary gastric MALT lymphoma. Herein we present a patient with breast MALT lymphoma that transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. A 69-year-old female presented with a mass on her left breast. Physical examination showed a 3 × 3-cm mass located 1 cm from the areola on the upper lateral quadrant of the breast at the 1 o’clock position, which was fixed and firm. Excisional biopsy was performed and pathologic examination of the specimen showed MALT lymphoma transformation to DLBCL. The patient was staged as II-EA. The rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP protocol was scheduled as treatment. Following 6 courses of R-CHOP, 2 additional courses of rituximab were administered. Positron emission tomography (PET-CT was done at the end of the treatment. PET showed that the patient was in complete remission. At the time this report was written, the patient was being followed-up at the outpatient clinic on a regular basis. Lymphoma of the breast is a rarity among malignant tumors of the breast. The most common type of lymphoma is DLBCL. Breast MALT lymphoma is extremely rare. Primary MALT lymphoma of the breast can transform from low grade to high grade and recurrence is possible; therefore, such patients should be monitored carefully for transformation.

  4. Colonic stenting as a bridge to surgery in malignant large-bowel obstruction: a report from two large multinational registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Pérez, J; Casellas, J; García-Cano, J; Vandervoort, J; García-Escribano, O Roncero; Barcenilla, J; Delgado, A Alvarez; Goldberg, P; Gonzalez-Huix, F; Vázquez-Astray, E; Meisner, S

    2011-01-01

    To date, this is the largest prospective series in patients with malignant colorectal obstruction to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of colonic self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) as an alternative to emergency surgery. SEMSs allow restoration of bowel transit and careful tumor staging in...... preparation for elective surgery, hence avoiding the high morbidity and mortality associated with emergency surgery and stoma creation....

  5. The expression of HSP60 and HSP10 in large bowel carcinomas with lymph node metastase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) in cancer development and progression is a widely debated topic. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence and expression of HSP60 and HSP10 in a series of large bowel carcinomas and locoregional lymph nodes with and without metastases. 82 Astler and Coller's stage C2 colorectal cancers, of which 48 well-differentiated and 34 poorly-differentiated, were selected along with 661 lymph nodes, including 372 with metastases and 289 with reactive hyperplasia only, from the same tumours. Primitive tumours and both metastatic and reactive lymph nodes were studied; specifically, three different compartments of the lymph nodes, secondary follicle, paracortex and medullary sinus, were also analysed. An immunohistochemical research for HSP60 and HSP10 was performed and the semiquantitative results were analysed by statistical analysis to determine the correlation between HSPs expression and 1) tumour grading; 2) degree of inflammation; 3) number of lymph nodes involved; 4) lymph node compartment hyperplasia. Moreover, western blotting was performed on a smaller group of samples to confirm the immunohistochemical results. Our data show that the expression of HSP60, in both primary tumour and lymph node metastasis, is correlated with the tumoral grade, while the HSP10 expression is not. Nevertheless, the levels of HSP10 are commonly higher than the levels of HSP60. In addition, statistical analyses do not show any correlation between the degree of inflammation and the immunopositivity for both HSP60 and HSP10. Moreover, we find a significant correlation between the presence of lymph node metastases and the positivity for both HSP60 and HSP10. In particular, metastatic lymph nodes show a higher percentage of cells positive for both HSP60 and HSP10 in the secondary follicles, and for HSP10 in the medullary sinuses, when compared with hyperplastic lymph nodes. HSP60 and HSP10 may have diagnostic and prognostic significance in the management of this tumour and their overexpression in tumoral cells may be functionally related to tumoral progression. We hypothesise that their expression in follicular and medullary cells of lymph nodes may be induced by formation of metastases. Further studies based on these observations could lead to a better understanding of the HSPs involvement in colorectal cancer progression, as well as other neoplasms

  6. The Interaction of Large Bowel Microflora with the Colonic Mucus Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Jeffrey P.; Brownlee, Iain A.

    2010-01-01

    The colonic mucus barrier is the first line of defence that the underlying mucosa has against the wide range of potentially damaging agents of microbial, endogenous, and dietary origin that occur within the colonic lumen. The functional component of mucus is the secreted, polymeric glycoprotein mucin. The mucus barrier can either act as an energy source or a support medium for growth to the intestinal microflora. The mucus barrier appears to effectively partition the vast number of microbial ...

  7. Notable contribution of large CFTR gene rearrangements to the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in fetuses with bowel anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Becdelièvre, Alix; Costa, Catherine; LeFloch, Annick; Legendre, Marie; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Bresson, Jean-Luc; Gobin, Stéphanie; Martin, Josiane; Goossens, Michel; Girodon, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    Grade III fetal bowel hyperechogenicity and/or loop dilatation observed at the second trimester of pregnancy can be due to several disease conditions, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Screening for frequent CF mutations is performed as a first step and, in certain situations, such as when a frequent CF mutation is found in the fetus, the increased risk of CF justifies an in-depth study of the second allele. To determine the contribution of large CFTR gene rearrangements in such cases, detected using a semiquantitative fluorescent multiplex PCR (QFM-PCR) assay, we collated data on 669 referrals related to suspicion of CF in fetuses from 1998 to 2009. Deletions were found in 5/70 cases in which QFM-PCR was applied, dele19, dele22_23, dele2_6b, dele14b_15 and dele6a_6b, of which the last three remain undescribed. In 3/5 cases, hyperechogenicity was associated with dilatation and/or gallbladder anomalies. Of the total cases of CF recognized in the subgroup of first-hand referrals, deletions represent 16.7% of CF alleles. Our study thus strengthens the need to consider large CFTR gene rearrangements in the diagnosis strategy of fetal bowel anomalies, in particular in the presence of multiple anomalies. PMID:20512161

  8. The pathogenesis of the chronic radiation ulcer of the large bowel in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have examined the influence of secondary infection, inflammation and the consistency and amount of faeces on the development of chronic radiation ulcers in rats. It is concluded that chronic ulceration is not always fatal but may be repaired if the faeces are soft and their volume reduced. However, this repair is not complete but leads to cystic colitis and repeated and progressive signs of transient rectal obstruction until fatal ileus occurs. From these and other experiments the authors conclude that the development of chronic radiation ulcer and of cystic radiation colitis in rats and in patients is the result of secondary mechanical damage to a susceptible atrophic mucosa and not the direct consequence of radiation damage to a specific target cell population. (UK)

  9. Increased fasting serum levels of growth hormone and gastrin in patients with gastric and large bowel cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafillidis J.K.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Background: Growth hormone (GH, Insulin-like growth factor-I (somatomedine, IGF-I and gastrin seem to play a significant role in cell proliferation in mamalian and rat cells. The role of these factors in the etiology of gastric and large bowel cancer has not been completely elucitated. The aim of this study was to concurrently estimate the levels of GH, IGF-I and gastrin in a group of patients with gastric and colorectal cancer and to compare the results with those of a group of normal controls. Patients and Methods: In 33 consequtive patients with gastric (16 patients and large bowel (17 patients cancer, the serum levels of GH, IGF-I and gastrin were measured by radioimmunoassay. Fiftyfour normal people served as controls. Results: Significantly higher levels of serum GH (3.16?3.12 ng/ml in gastric cancer patients vs 3.01?2.91 ng/ml in colorectal cancer patients vs 0.69?1.60 ng/ml in normal controls, adjusted P<0.001 and gastrin (98.2?87.9 pg/ml in gastric cancer patients vs 95.3?85.4 pg/ml in colorectal cancer patients, vs 47.5?32.4 pg/ml in normal controls, adjusted P<0.035 and <0.05 respectively were found in both groups of patients compared with normal controls. The levels of IGF-I in patients with gastric and colorectal cancer patients and normal controls did not differ significantly (Gastric cancer 98.2 pg/ml?87.9 vs 95.3?85.4 vs 47.5?32.4 respectively (adjusted P=0.070. Conclusion: It is concluded that in patients with gastric and colorectal cancer a significant increase of serum GH and gastrin can be found. This increase is likely to play a role in gastric and colorectal carcinogenesis. Key words: Growth hormone, Somatomedine, IGF-I, Gastrin, Gastric cancer, Large bowel cancer

  10. Capsule endoscopy and imaging tests in the elective investigation of small bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsule endoscopy enables high-resolution depiction of small bowel mucosa and has been shown, by several studies, to have a high diagnostic yield in a variety of small bowel diseases. In this review, we critically assess the contributions of capsule endoscopy and imaging tests in common small bowel disorders. Radiological tests that only assess the small bowel mucosa will be less useful in the era of capsule endoscopy

  11. Acute pseudo-obstruction of the large bowel with caecal perforation following normal vaginal delivery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seenath Marlon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute pseudo-obstruction of the large bowel following normal vaginal delivery is an extremely rare complication of normal vaginal delivery. It can be fatal if not recognized early. Only one previous report has been found in the English literature. Case presentation A 36-year old Caucasian, normally fit woman presented with abdominal distension and vomiting five days post-normal vaginal delivery at term. Localised peritonitis in the right iliac fossa developed in the next few days, and caecal perforation was found at laparotomy, without evidence of appendicitis or colitis. Conclusion Although very rare, Ogilvie's syndrome should be considered by obstetricians, general surgeons and general practitioners as a potential cause of vomiting and abdominal pain following normal vaginal delivery. Early recognition and management are essential to minimize the possibility of developing serious complications.

  12. Role of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, Uri; Seidman, Ernest G.

    2014-01-01

    Videocapsule endoscopy (VCE) has revolutionized our ability to visualize the small bowel mucosa. This modality is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure small bowel Crohn’s disease (CD), and can also be used for monitoring of disease activity in patients with established small-bowel CD, detection of complications such as obscure bleeding and neoplasms, evaluation of response to anti-inflammatory treatment and postoperative recurrence following small bowel resection. VCE could also be an...

  13. Colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability display a different pattern of target gene mutations according to large bowel site of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only a few studies have addressed the molecular pathways specifically involved in carcinogenesis of the distal colon and rectum. We aimed to identify potential differences among genetic alterations in distal colon and rectal carcinomas as compared to cancers arising elsewhere in the large bowel. Constitutional and tumor DNA from a test series of 37 patients with rectal and 25 patients with sigmoid carcinomas, previously analyzed for microsatellite instability (MSI), was studied for BAX, IGF2R, TGFBR2, MSH3, and MSH6 microsatellite sequence alterations, BRAF and KRAS mutations, and MLH1 promoter methylation. The findings were then compared with those of an independent validation series consisting of 36 MSI-H carcinomas with origin from each of the large bowel regions. Immunohistochemical and germline mutation analyses of the mismatch repair system were performed when appropriate. In the test series, IGFR2 and BAX mutations were present in one and two out of the six distal MSI-H carcinomas, respectively, and no mutations were detected in TGFBR2, MSH3, and MSH6. We confirmed these findings in the validation series, with TGFBR2 and MSH3 microsatellite mutations occurring less frequently in MSI-H rectal and sigmoid carcinomas than in MSI-H colon carcinomas elsewhere (P = 0.00005 and P = 0.0000005, respectively, when considering all MSI-carcinomas of both series). No MLH1 promoter methylation was observed in the MSI-H rectal and sigmoid carcinomas of both series, as compared to 53% found in MSI-H carcinomas from other locations (P = 0.004). KRAS and BRAF mutational frequencies were 19% and 43% in proximal carcinomas and 25% and 17% in rectal/sigmoid carcinomas, respectively. The mechanism and the pattern of genetic changes driving MSI-H carcinogenesis in distal colon and rectum appears to differ from that occurring elsewhere in the colon and further investigation is warranted both in patients with sporadic or hereditary disease

  14. Asymptomatic perforation of large bowel and urinary bladder as a complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlovi? Miljan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunt, the method of choice in the treatment of hydrocephalus, is often followed by various mechanical and/or infective complications. We present two children with asymptomatic perforation of the large bowel and urinary bladder, relatively rare and potentially severe complications of this surgical procedure. Outline of Cases. In both patients a VP shunt was implanted in the first month after birth; in a boy due to congenital hydrocephalus and in a girl due to the consequences of intracranial haemorrhage. Immediately after surgery, as well as during the further course, in both children growth and development were optimal and without any signs of infection or VP shunt malfunction. In the boy at age 6 months and in the girl at age 4 years, without any signs of complications, mothers noted the prominence of the VP shunt tip from the anus in the first case and from the urethral orifice in the second one. The VP shunts were immediately changed, so that both complications were resolved without any consequences. Conclusion. Insertion of a VP shunt represents the most frequent method of choice of the surgical treat- ment of hydrocephalus, but also potentially a highly risky procedure followed by various complications about which parents should be informed when patients are children. Owing to adequate approach in the follow-up of children with implanted VP shunt, large bowel and urinary bladder perforation, examples of severe and potentially fatal complications of this surgical intervention, could be disclosed on time and adequately resolved.

  15. Leiomiossarcoma do intestino grosso: relato de um caso Large bowel leiomyosarcoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gonçalves Lopes

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de leiomiossarcoma de cólon ascendente acometendo um paciente do sexo masculino, de 49 anos de idade. O paciente iniciou o quadro com anemia e massa abdominal, e a evolução dos sintomas até o diagnóstico final foi de nove meses. Na radiografia simples do abdome havia presença de coleção aérea localizada no hipocôndrio direito, fora da topografia de alças; no clister opaco com duplo contraste foi demonstrado deslocamento inferior da flexura hepática e divertículos. A ultra-sonografia abdominal mostrou lesão expansiva heterogênea, com gás no seu interior, de localização sub-hepática. A tomografia computadorizada do abdome revelou massa escavada com nível líquido, sub-hepática, que não se impregnou pelo meio de contraste. Foi realizada hemicolectomia direita com ileocoloanastomose, e o diagnóstico histopatológico foi de leiomiossarcoma de cólon ascendente.The authors report a case of a 49-year-old male patient with leiomyosarcoma of the ascending colon. The patient presented with anemia and an abdominal mass, and the symptoms progressed until a final diagnosis was made nine months later. A plain abdominal x-ray showed the presence of gas outside the bowel, in the right hypochondrium. The double contrast barium enema showed a sublevel displacement of the hepatic flexure and diverticula. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a heterogeneous expansive lesion below the liver containing gas, and a computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an excavated mass below the liver containing liquid, that was not filled in by contrast medium. The patient was submitted to a right hemicolectomy with ileocoloanastomosis and the histopathological analysis of the excised material revealed a leiomyosarcoma of the ascending colon.

  16. Bowel incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which adds bulk to stools. Bowel retraining and pelvic floor exercises. These methods can help you control your ... provider can show you exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor and anal muscles. Bowel retraining involves trying to ...

  17. Deficiency of the intestinal growth factor, glucagon-like peptide 2, in the colon of SCID mice with inflammatory bowel disease induced by transplantation of CD4+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Hartmann, B; Bregenholt, S; Holst, Jens Juul; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2000-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is produced in endocrine L-cells of the intestinal mucosa. Recently, GLP-2 was found to stimulate intestinal mucosal growth. Our objective was to study the content of GLP-2 in the large intestine in a murine model of T-cell-induced inflammatory bowel disease....

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine use and cost in functional bowel disorders: A six month prospective study in a large HMO

    OpenAIRE

    Drossman Douglas A; Turner Marsha J; Feld Andrew D; Levy Rona L; Palsson Olafur S; van Tilburg Miranda AL; Whitehead William E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Functional Bowel Disorders (FBD) are chronic disorders that are difficult to treat and manage. Many patients and doctors are dissatisfied with the level of improvement in symptoms that can be achieved with standard medical care which may lead them to seek alternatives for care. There are currently no data on the types of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) used for FBDs other than Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), or on the economic costs of CAM treatments. The aim ...

  19. Gastric, small bowel, and colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies are adenocarcinomas. In the colon, adenocarcinoma is practically the only clinically significant tumor, and it is the second most common tumor in the small bowel, with carcinoid being the most common. The stomach harbors the greatest variety of malignant neoplasms. Adenocarcinoma, however, is still the predominant cell type, followed by lymphoma and leiomyosarcoma. Various diagnostic procedures have been used to screen patients for GI tract tumors. Fiberoptic endoscopic examination has been advocated as the study of choice to screen the population at risk of developing stomach and colon cancer because of its ability to directly visualize the mucosa and to permit biopsy of suspicious lesions. However, because fiberoptic endoscopy requires patient sedation, the number of endoscopists is limited, and the number of patients is large, single-contrast and double-contrast roentgenographic examinations of the GI tract remain the most widely accepted screening procedures

  20. Large bowel resection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ready when you can be active around the house for 8 hours and still feel ok when you wake up the next morning. You may want to start back part-time and on light duty at first. Your doctor can write a ...

  1. Accumulation of immunoglobulin-containing cells in the gut mucosa and presence of faecal immunoglobulin in severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice with T cell-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Brimnes, J; Reimann, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    Scid mice transplanted either with a gut wall graft or with low numbers of purified CD4+ T cells from immunocompetent syngeneic donor mice show clinical signs of IBD 3-4 months post-transplantation. The disease is mediated by mucosa-infiltrating CD4+ TCR alphabeta+ T cells. The pathology of 52...... individual colon segments obtained from 20 gut wall- or CD4+ T cell-transplanted diseased scid mice was evaluated by histology and the numbers of infiltrating immunoglobulin-containing cells were determined. In particular, cells positive for IgM, IgA and non-inflammatory immunoglobulin isotypes such as IgG1...... and IgG2b were found to accumulate in colon segments displaying the most severe histopathology, including inflammatory cellular infiltration, epithelial hyperplasia and ulcerative lesions. Compared with colon segments of normal C.B-17 mice, the lesional scid colon shows increased levels of cells...

  2. [Surgical therapy of complicated inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, G

    2005-10-26

    The etiology of chronic inflammatoric bowel disease is unknown, conservative treatment will be reduced to the management of immunologic and inflammatoric reaction. The large majority of patients affected with Crohn's disease and also nearly 50% of patients with ulcerous colitis require surgery during their clinical history. The indication for surgery is a balance between the severity and the complications of the disease and the potential disadvantages of surgery. For surgical therapy the differentiation of Crohn's disease and ulcerous colitis is essential because of the differentiated character of both diseases. In Crohn's disease surgical therapy will be performed by the management of Crohn's specific complications like stenosis, fistula, and abscess by bowel preserveration. Limited resection and/or strictureplasty do not influence morbidity and rate and also time of recurrence. Ulcerous colitis can be cured when the colorectal mucosa will be removed totally by radical surgery, i.e. restorative proctocolectomy. The satisfactory outcome in 70 to 90% of patients with a cumulative failure rate of 10 to 15% over a 10-year-period improves the quality of life. PMID:16276763

  3. Recolonization and colonization resistance of the large bowel after three methods of preoperative preparation of the gastrointestinal tract for elective colorectal surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bogaard, A E; Weidema, W. F.; Van Boven, C P; van der Waay, D.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of three current types of preoperative large bowel preparation on the microbial flora and the colonization resistance (CR) was investigated in 15 volunteers. In the first group a whole gut irrigation was performed without administration of antibiotics (group WGI). In the second group 0.5 g/l metronidazole and 1 g/l neomycin was added to the irrigation fluid (group WGI + AB). A whole gut irrigation with prior oral administration of 1 l mannitol 10% was performed in the third group. ...

  4. MRI for chronic inflammatory bowel disease; MRT chronisch entzuendlicher Darmerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, H.J.; Hess, T.; Hahmann, M.; Erb, G.; Richter, G.M.; Duex, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik; Elsing, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Abt. IV - Gastroenterologie

    2001-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is diagnosed and monitored by the combination of colonoscopy and small bowel enteroklysis. Magnetic resonance imaging has become the gold standard for the imaging of perirectal and pelvic fistulas. With the advent of ultrafast MRI small and large bowel imaging has become highly attractive and is being advocated more and more in the diagnostic work up of inflammatory bowel disease. Imaging protocols include fast T{sub 1}-weighted gradient echo and T{sub 2}-weighted TSE sequences and oral or rectal bowel distension. Furthermore, dedicated imaging protocols are based on breath-hold imaging under pharmacological bowel paralysis and gastrointestinal MR contrast agents (Hydro-MRI). High diagnostic accuracy can be achieved in Crohn's disease with special reference to the pattern of disease, depth of inflammation, mesenteric reaction, sinus tract depiction and formation of abscess. In ulcerative colitis, the mucosa-related inflammation causes significantly less bowel wall thickening compared to Crohn's disease. Therefore with MRI, the extent of inflammatory changes is always underestimated compared to colonoscopy. According to our experience in more than 200 patients as well as the results in other centers, Hydro-MRI possesses the potential to replace enteroklysis in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease and most of the follow-up colonoscopies in Crohn's disease. Further technical improvements in 3D imaging will allow interactive postprocessing of the MR data. (orig.) [German] Zusammenfassung: Die Standardverfahren in der Diagnostik und der Verlaufskontrolle chronisch entzuendlicher Darmerkrankungen, speziell des Morbus Crohn und der Colitis ulcerosa, sind die Koloskopie und das Enteroklysma. Die MRT hat sich dazu ihren festen Platz in der Diagnostik perirektaler Fisteln erobert. Mit schnellen, T{sub 1}-gewichteten Gradienten-Echo-Sequenzen und T{sub 2}-gewichteten Turbo-Spin-Echo-Sequenzen koennen auch Duenn- und Dickdarm nach oraler oder rektaler Fuellung zuverlaessig dargestellt werden. Die Hydro-MRT als spezielles MR-Untersuchungsprotokoll mit Bildakquisition in Atemstillstand unter medikamentoeser Darmhypotonie und Verwendung intestinaler MR-Kontrastmittel erlaubt die Abbildung intestinaler und extraintestinaler pathologischer Veraenderungen beim M. Crohn. Hierzu rechnen einerseits entzuendliche Darmwandverdickung und Stenosen, andererseits Fisteln, entzuendliche Konglomerate und Abszesse. Bei der Colitis ulcerosa ist im Gegensatz zum Morbus Crohn in der Hydro-MRT eine deutlich geringere entzuendliche Wandverdickung typisch. Ferner ist bei der Colitis ulcerosa die Ausdehnung der Befunde in der MRT regelmaessig geringer als in der Endoskopie. Die Hydro-MRT kann nach unseren eigenen Erfahrungen an mehr als 200 Patienten und den Ergebnissen anderer Zentren das Enteroklysma in der Diagnostik chronisch entzuendlicher Darmerkrankungen und die Mehrzahl von Wiederholungsendoskopien beim Morbus Crohn ersetzen. Weiterentwicklungen der Technik erlauben interaktive multiplanare Nachverarbeitungen der MR-Datensaetze. (orig.)

  5. Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships

  6. Primary colon resection or Hartmann's procedure in malignant left-sided large bowel obstruction? The use of stents as a bridge to surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart T Grundmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is still significant debate regarding the best surgical treatment for malignant left-sided large bowel obstruction. Primary resection and anastomosis offers the advantages of a definite procedure without need for further surgery. Its main disadvantages are related to the increased technical challenge and to the potential higher risk of anastomotic leakage that occurs in the emergency setting. Primary resection with end colostomy (Hartmann’s procedure is considered the safer option. Tan et al compared in a systematic review and meta-analysis the use of self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS as a bridge to surgery vs emergency surgery in the management of acute malignant left-sided large bowel obstruction. The authors concluded that the technical and clinical success rates for stenting were lower than expected. SEMS was associated with a high incidence of clinical and silent perforation. Stenting instead of loop colostomy can be recommended only if the appropriate expertise is available in the hospital. The goal of stenting, a decrease of the stoma rate, may be advocated only if the complication rates of stenting are lower than those of stoma creation in the emergency situation. Until now, this was not demonstrated in a prospective randomized trial.

  7. Fibrolipoma of buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Khubchandani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors.

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine use and cost in functional bowel disorders: A six month prospective study in a large HMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drossman Douglas A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Bowel Disorders (FBD are chronic disorders that are difficult to treat and manage. Many patients and doctors are dissatisfied with the level of improvement in symptoms that can be achieved with standard medical care which may lead them to seek alternatives for care. There are currently no data on the types of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM used for FBDs other than Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, or on the economic costs of CAM treatments. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence, types and costs of CAM in IBS, functional diarrhea, functional constipation, and functional abdominal pain. Methods 1012 Patients with FBD were recruited through a health care maintenance organization and followed for 6 months. Questionnaires were used to ascertain: Utilization and expenditures on CAM, symptom severity (IBS-SS, quality of life (IBS-QoL, psychological distress (BSI and perceived treatment effectiveness. Costs for conventional medical care were extracted from administrative claims. Results CAM was used by 35% of patients, at a median yearly cost of $200. The most common CAM types were ginger, massage therapy and yoga. CAM use was associated with female gender, higher education, and anxiety. Satisfaction with physician care and perceived effectiveness of prescription medication were not associated with CAM use. Physician referral to a CAM provider was uncommon but the majority of patients receiving this recommendation followed their physician's advice. Conclusion CAM is used by one-third of FBD patients. CAM use does not seem to be driven by dissatisfaction with conventional care. Physicians should discuss CAM use and effectiveness with their patients and refer patients if appropriate.

  9. beta-Catenin-accumulated crypts in the colonic mucosa of juvenile ApcMin/+ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Kazuya; Tanaka, Takuji; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Rikako; Qiang, Sheng Hong; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Oyama, Takeshi; Kuno, Toshiya; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Hara, Akira; Mori, Hideki

    2006-07-28

    Although Apc(Min/+) mice are widely used for an animal model of human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a majority of intestinal polyps locate in the small intestine. We recently reported that numerous beta-catenin-accumulated crypts (BCAC), which are reliable precursor lesions for colonic adenocarcinoma, develop in the large bowel of aged Apc(Min/+) mice. In this study, we determined the presence and location of BCAC in the large intestine of juvenile Apc(Min/+) mice (3 and 5 weeks of age). Surprisingly, BCAC were noted in the colon of even Apc(Min/+) mice of both ages, and mainly located in the distal and middle segments of the colon. Also, a few microadenomas were detected in Apc(Min/+) mice of 5-week old. Our results may indicate need of further investigation of the colorectal mucosa of Apc(Min/+) mice for examining colorectal carcinogenesis using Apc(Min/+) mice. PMID:16168560

  10. Is irritable bowel syndrome an organic disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris; Gilja, Odd Helge; HATLEBAKK, JAN GUNNAR; Hausken, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that is generally considered to be functional because there appears to be no associated anatomical defect. Stress and psychological factors are thought to play an important role in IBS. The gut neuroendocrine system (NES), which regulates all functions of the gastrointestinal tract, consists of endocrine cells that are scattered among the epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the enteric nervous system. Although it is capable ...

  11. Understanding Bowel Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Bowel Preparation What bowel preparation steps are involved before the colonoscopy? Your doctor will prescribe the ... side effects of the prep selected for you. Understanding Bowel Preparation Before Colonoscopy It is extremely important ...

  12. Video Capsule Endoscopy of the Small Bowel for Monitoring of Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, Uri; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Seidman, Ernest G; Eliakim, Rami

    2015-11-01

    Video capsule endoscopy has revolutionized our ability to visualize the small bowel mucosa. This modality is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of suspected small bowel Crohn's disease, and it is increasingly used for the monitoring of disease activity in patients with established small bowel Crohn's. The purpose of the current article was to review the literature pertaining to the utilization of capsule endoscopy in established Crohn's disease, for monitoring of mucosal healing, postoperative recurrence, disease classification, and other indications. PMID:26193349

  13. Bowel preparations as quality indicators for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae Young; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2014-03-21

    Colonoscopy is the principal investigative procedure for colorectal neoplasms because it can detect and remove most precancerous lesions. The effectiveness of colonoscopy depends on the quality of the examination. Bowel preparation is an essential part of high-quality colonoscopies because only an optimal colonic cleansing allows the colonoscopist to clearly view the entire colonic mucosa and to identify any polyps or other lesions. Suboptimal bowel preparation not only prolongs the overall procedure time, decreases the cecal intubation rate, and increases the costs associated with colonoscopy but also increases the risk of missing polyps or adenomas during the colonoscopy. Therefore, a repeat examination or a shorter colonoscopy follow-up interval may be suitable strategies for a patient with suboptimal bowel preparation. PMID:24659866

  14. Bowel Retraining: Strategies for Establishing Bowel Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Biofeedback Bowel Retraining Dietary Fiber Fruit Juice Hirschsprung's Disease Laxatives Stool Form Guide Tips on Finding a ... Overview Biofeedback Bowel Retraining Dietary Fiber Fruit Juice Hirschsprung's Disease Laxatives Stool Form Guide Tips on Finding a ...

  15. Comparison of two cathartic preparations, peg-electrolytes solution and sodium phosphate salts, as means for large bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Antonakopoulos, I. Kyrlagkitsis, V. Xourgias, D.G. Karamanolis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The ideal bowel preparation for colonoscopy must combine the characteristics of effectiveness with the least side effects. We compared the relatively novel cathartic preparation of sodium phosphate salts (Fleet Phospho-sodaR with the widely used PEG-electrolytes solution (Klean-prepR. Fiftytwo consecutive patients referred for colonoscopy were randomised to receive either sodium phospate salts or PEG electrolytes. The evaluation of the two preparations was based on two separate questionnaires, one completed by the endoscopist who ignored the kind of bowel preparation used and the other by the patient. Bowel preparation with sodium phospate salts was more effective in bowel cleansing and better tolerated than PEG-electrolytes solution in terms of difficulty in intake and swallowing, fatigue, the presence of colicky abdominal pain, flatulence, vomiting and perianal irritation (p<0,05. Key words: cathartic preparation, PEG-electrolytes, sodium phosphate salts

  16. Modulation of epthelial cell profileration and luminal contents of the huamn large bowel. A link to carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cats, Annemieke,

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes studies that evaluate modulation of colorectal epithelial and luminal factors associated with cancer development; specifically, epithelial cell proliferation, cytolltic activity of faecal water, short-chain fatty acids and bile acids. The development of colorectal cancer varies throughout the large intestine. This thesis also aims to clarify whether segmental heterogeneity of physiological processes could be involved in the regional variation of colorectal carcinogenesis...

  17. Expression of CD4+ T cell cytokine genes in the colorectal mucosa of inflammatory colorectal polyps in miniature dachshunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hiroshi; Takada, Kanae; Torisu, Shidow; Yuki, Masashi; Tamura, Yu; Yokoyama, Nozomu; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Lim, Sue Yee; Murakami, Masahiro; Sasaki, Noboru; Nakamura, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-10-01

    Inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRPs) in miniature dachshunds are recently recognized as a major cause of large bowel diarrhea in this dog breed in Japan. ICRPs are characterized by the formation of multiple small polyps and a space-occupying large polyp in the colorectal area, and are thought to be a novel form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In humans, specific cytokine patterns attributed to T helper (Th)1, Th17 and regulatory T cells have important roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the gene expression of cytokines of T cell subsets in the colorectal mucosa from dogs with ICRPs. Colorectal mucosal specimens from 10 dogs with ICRPs and 14 control dogs were used in this study. Interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17A and IL-10 mRNA expression was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. IL-17A mRNA expression was significantly increased in large polyps compared to small polyps and controls. IFN-? and IL-10 mRNA expression in large polyps were significantly higher than in controls. There was no significant difference in IL-4 mRNA expression among the three groups. IL-17A is thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of ICRPs. IL-10 up-regulation could oppose the proinflammatory function of IL-17A. PMID:23953369

  18. Technical developments in bowel MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance techniques for imaging the gastrointestinal (GI) tract continue to evolve as a result of rapid technical improvement. This review discusses the diagnostic and technical requirements for optimal bowel imaging and to what extent MR is capable of fulfilling these in comparison with established X-ray techniques. New approaches that have recently been demonstrated for the esophagus as well as small and large bowel are described. These developments indicate that MR imaging of the GI tract is likely to make the transition from research development to routine clinical application. (orig.)

  19. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Two of the major parts of the digestive system are the small and large intestines. Just like other organs in your body, the intestines can develop problems or diseases. IBD (which is not the same thing as irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS), can cause more serious ...

  20. Mucolytic bacteria with increased prevalence in IBD mucosa augment in vitro utilization of mucin by other bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Png, C.W.; Linden, S.K.; Gilshenan, K.S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; McSweeney, C S; Sly, L. I.; McGuckin, M A; Florin, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mucosa-associated bacteria are increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which suggests the possibility of an increased source of digestible endogenous mucus substrate. We hypothesized that mucolytic bacteria are increased in IBD, providing increased substrate to sustain nonmucolytic mucosa-associated bacteria. METHODS: Mucolytic bacteria were characterized by the ability to degrade human secretory mucin (MUC2) in pure and mixed anaerobic cultures. Real-time PCR was used t...

  1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Irritable Bowel Syndrome KidsHealth > For Kids > Irritable Bowel Syndrome Print ...

  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity and small business programs Research Programs & Contacts Research program and staff ... Link Disclaimer Digestive Diseases Irritable Bowel Syndrome Collapse Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms and ...

  3. Are Your Bowels Moving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have sensitive bowels — a common problem doctors call irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS is also called spastic colon, mucous colitis, or ... Tummy pain is the most common problem of IBS. Also, people with IBS can have diarrhea, constipation, ...

  4. Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting within a solitary anti-mesenteric dilated segment of ileum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey Rowland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtype. Clinical presentation is often insidious as a low-grade lesion and disease tends to remain localised for a long period of time. Ileal involvement is rare and presentation within an area of focal anti-mesenteric ileal wall dilation simulating a large diverticulum has not been reported. Case presentation A 59-year-old man of Caucasian origin presented to a general surgical outpatients clinic with an 18-month history of intermittent upper abdominal pain following meals. Following normal gastroscopy and abdominal ultrasound, a focally dilated segment of ileum was seen on computed tomography and further clarified by barium investigation. Histology of this segment demonstrated MALT lymphoma of the small bowel. Conclusion A solitary focally dilated segment of ileal wall may be neoplastic in nature and surgical resection needs to be considered.

  5. Detection of a fluorescent-labeled avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly by confocal laser endomicroscopy in the microvasculature of chronically inflamed intestinal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buda A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Buda,1,* Sonia Facchin,1,* Elisa Dassie,2 Elisabetta Casarin,3 Mark A Jepson,4 Helmut Neumann,5 Giorgia Hatem,1 Stefano Realdon,6 Renata D’Incà,1 Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo,1 Margherita Morpurgo3 1Department of Surgical, Oncological, and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padova, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 3Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 4School of Biochemistry and Wolfson Bioimaging Facility, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 5Ludwig Demlig Endoscopic Center of Excellence, ESGE Endoscopy Training Center, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany; 6Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padova, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal pathologies causing great discomfort in both children and adults. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases is not yet fully understood and their diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Nanoparticle-based strategies have been tested in local drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Here, we have investigated the use of the novel avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly (ANANAS platform as a potential diagnostic carrier in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Fluorescent-labeled ANANAS nanoparticles were administered to mice with chemically induced chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Localization of mucosal nanoparticles was assessed in vivo by dual-band confocal laser endomicroscopy. This technique enables characterization of the mucosal microvasculature and crypt architecture at subcellular resolution. Intravascular nanoparticle distribution was observed in the inflamed mucosa but not in healthy controls, demonstrating the utility of the combination of ANANAS and confocal laser endomicroscopy for highlighting intestinal inflammatory conditions. The specific localization of ANANAS in inflamed tissues supports the potential of this platform as a targeted carrier for bioactive moieties in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Keywords: confocal laser endomicroscopy, inflammatory bowel disease, diagnostics, dextran sodium sulfate, avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly, fluorescent nanoparticles, ulcerative colitis

  6. Role of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, Uri; Seidman, Ernest G

    2014-02-01

    Videocapsule endoscopy (VCE) has revolutionized our ability to visualize the small bowel mucosa. This modality is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure small bowel Crohn's disease (CD), and can also be used for monitoring of disease activity in patients with established small-bowel CD, detection of complications such as obscure bleeding and neoplasms, evaluation of response to anti-inflammatory treatment and postoperative recurrence following small bowel resection. VCE could also be an important tool in the management of patients with unclassified inflammatory bowel disease, potentially resulting in reclassification of these patients as having CD. Reports on postoperative monitoring and evaluation of patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis who have developed pouchitis have recenty been published. Monitoring of colonic inflammatory activity in patients with ulcerative colitis using the recently developed colonic capsule has also been reported. Capsule endoscopy is associated with an excellent safety profile. Although retention risk is increased in patients with small bowel CD, this risk can be significanty decreased by a routine utilization of a dissolvable patency capsule preceding the ingestion of the diagnostic capsule. This paper contains an overview of the current and future clinical applications of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24574792

  7. Why is damage limited to the mucosa in ulcerative colitis but transmural in Crohn’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofa Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been a big puzzle as why the inflammation of ulcerative colitis (UC is limited to the mucosa, while in Crohn’s disease (CD the inflammation is transmural and can be seen in all layers of the gut. Here, I give a tentative explanation extended from the unified hypothesis I proposed on the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. This hypothesis suggested that both UC and CD are caused by weakening of the gut barrier due to damage of the protective mucus layer and the underlying tissue by the poorly inactivated digestive proteases resulting from a reduction of gut bacteria by dietary chemicals like saccharin and sucralose. However, the large amounts of bacteria in the colon make the recruitment of neutrophils and formation of crypt abscess the main manifestation of UC, while the infiltration of antigens and dietary particles in the small and large intestine mainly cause the recruitment of macrophages and formation of granulomas as the main manifestations in CD. The fast reacting and short life span of neutrophils make the fight and damage limited to the surface of the mucosa. In contrast, the long life span and constant movement of macrophages may bring the harmful agents deep into the tissue. Therefore, the pathogenesis of UC may be more like bacterial pneumonia, while CD may be more like pneumoconiosis or tuberculosis of the lung.

  8. [Imaging diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, W; Steinbrich, W

    2003-03-01

    The term "chronic inflammatory bowel disease" represents a spectrum of diseases out of which ulcerous colitis and Crohn's disease are the far most common. Large bowel enemas have lost their relevance compared to colonoscopy over the past years and small bowel enteroclysis has also been widely replaced by CT- and especially MR-enteroclysis meanwhile. The diagnostic value of computed tomography and MR-tomography in chronic inflammatory bowel disease is based on the excellent visualization and documentation of extent and severity of bowel wall inflammation, estimation of inflammatory activity of the disease and of detection of potential extraintestinal complications and/or additional diagnoses by these two methods. Nevertheless, conventional radiological techniques as well as sonography may still be valuable under certain conditions. Furthermore, nowadays imaging of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases includes also White Blood Cell scintigraphy as well as Positrone Emission Tomography which provide informations about extent and especially activity of the disease. The presented article provides an overview of the possibilities and limitations of the available imaging modalities in inflammatory bowel diseases and helps the reader to decide under what conditions which one of the available examinations should be regarded as the most appropriate and promising one. PMID:12693316

  9. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Updates on treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerle, Christopher W; Surawicz, Christina M

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and discomfort in association with altered bowel habits. It is estimated to affect 10%-15% of the Western population, and has a large impact on quality of life and (in)direct healthcare costs. IBS is a multifactorial disorder involving dysregulation within the brain-gut axis, and it is frequently associated with gastrointestinal motor and sensory dysfunction, enteric and central nerv...

  11. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Induced Anaphylactic Reaction During Bowel Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Gachoka, David

    2015-01-01

    Barium enema is used to screen patients with gastrointestinal bleeding who do not want to undergo colonoscopy. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is usually the bowel preparation of choice. Few allergic reactions from this product have been reported; these include urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis. Reactions are thought to result from a small amount of PEG crossing the intestinal mucosa, which, in some patients, is sufficient to provoke an anaphylactic reaction.

  12. Ostomy Surgery of the Bowel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organizations?? (PDF, 341 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Ostomy Surgery of the Bowel Page Content On this page: ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is ostomy surgery of the bowel? Ostomy surgery of the bowel, ...

  13. Genetics of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Henström, Maria; D’Amato, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition with a complex and largely unknown etiology. There is no cure, and treatment options are mainly directed to the amelioration of symptoms. IBS causes reduced quality of life and poses considerable repercussions on health and socioeconomic systems. There is a heritable component in IBS, and genetic research is a valuable tool for the identification of causative pathways, which will provide important insight into the pathophysiology. However, ...

  14. CT findings of bowel injury following blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Yukino [St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic value of CT, the author retrospectively reviewed preoperative CT findings of 57 cases with surgically proven bowel injury following blunt trauma. The small bowel injuries were divided into two groups, i.e., those without mesenteric injury, group A, and those with mesenteric injury, group B. The incidence of CT findings including extraluminal air, bowel wall thickening, peritoneal fluid, mesenteric thickening, and high density hematoma, were determined. CT findings were also assessed by time intervals between injury and examination. CT scans of small bowel injury were compared with those of surgically proven 25 cases of mesenteric injury without bowel injury, group C. CT showed findings suggestive of bowel injury in 96.4% of the cases. There were 5 false negative CT scans, which consisted of 4 small bowel and one large bowel injuries, all performed within 2 hours from injury. The patients in group A small bowel injury had a higher incidence of pneumoperitoneum on CT scans performed over 4 hours after injury than on those performed within 4 hours. Bowel wall thickening was more frequent in group A than in group B or C. Peritoneal fluid collection within 4 hours from injury was less frequent in group A than in group B or C. High density hematoma was more frequent in group B and C than in group A. The analysis suggested that early diagnosis of isolated small bowel injury was difficult because of lack of signs indicating mesenteric injury. In these cases bowel wall thickening appeared earlier, then peritoneal fluid developed, with and without mesenteric thickening or extraluminal air. Thus in those with suspicion of bowel injury, bowel wall thickening on initial CT should be carefully followed up in regard to additional or progressive findings. Operative indication can be determined with careful clinical correlation before detection of extraluminal air. (K.H.)

  15. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatori, Francesca; Siciliano, Saverio; Maione, Francesco; Esposito, Dario; Masone, Stefania; Persico, Marcello; De Palma, Giovanni D.

    2012-01-01

    Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micronscale via endoscopes. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. Recently, the use of CLE was reported in the study of colonic mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and in particular in patients affected by ulcerative colitis. CLE has the potential to have an important role in...

  16. Bleeding peptic ulcer caused by ectopic gastric mucosa in a duplicated segment of jejunum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, H.; Ching, G.; Halls, J.; Levy, I.J.

    1981-02-01

    The authors present a case in which a patient suffered a bleeding jejunal ulcer caused by heterotopic gastric mucosa in a congenital duplication of a segment of jejunum. This is the first case diagnosed preoperatively by two different radiographic means. These lesions were shown by both pertechnetate flow and barium small bowel studies. The rarity of these entities and the modalities used for diagnosis are described.

  17. What People with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What People With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Need to Know About ... in all or part of the large intestine. People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often have diarrhea, ...

  18. Povidone-iodine bowel irrigation before resection of colorectal carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, M.C.; Ashby, E. C.; Nicholls, M. W.; Dowding, C H; Brookes, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Preoperative mechanical bowel preparation, peroperative topical antiseptic measures, and postoperative antibiotic therapy have all been shown to reduce infection after colorectal surgery. We report the results of a randomised trial of preoperative irrigation with a 10% aqueous solution of povidone-iodine (Betadine) versus water in patients undergoing major resection for large bowel carcinoma. All patients had mechanical bowel preparation, preoperative topical povidone-iodine and per and posto...

  19. Molecular evidence that the hepatitis C virus replicates in the oral mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Gandolfo, Sergio; PENTENERO, MONICA

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) often have extrahepatic manifestations, which significantly contribute to HCV-related morbidity, but whose pathogenesis is largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the HCV replication in oral mucosa of chronic hepatitis C patients. METHODS: We collected oral mucosa specimens from 17 anti-HCV-positive and four anti-HCV-negative patients. Fifteen had oral lichen (12 anti-HCV-positive). Total mucosa RNA was extracted and analyze...

  20. Oral manifestations of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Zervou

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crohn?s disease (CD is considered to be a disease involving the whole gastrointestinal tract, while ulcerative colitis (UC is a disease exclusively located in the large bowel. The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with either CD or UC are at increased risk for developing oral manifestations. Patients-Methods: A wide spectrum of oral lesions was carefully sought by the same oral dentist in a consecutive series of 30 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (15 with CD and 15 with UC. Forty-seven healthy individuals (matched for age and sex, attendants of our dental clinic served as controls. Results: 93% of UC and 87% of the CD group had at least one lesion compared to 55% of the control group (P<0.005. Significantly more patients with CD had mandibula lymphadenopathy (P<0.0001, ulcers (P=0.011, angular cheilitis (P<0.0001, hair tongue (P=0.011, periodontitis (P=0.011, gingival bleeding (P<0.0001, gingivitis (P=0.002, cobblestone appearance of the mucosa (P=0.002, polypoid tags (P=0.002, buccal trauma (P<0.0001 and lip swelling (P=0.002 as compared to healthy controls. Ulcerative colitis patients had in a significantly higher proportion of involvement of salivary glands (P<0.0001, as well as lymphadenopathy (P=0.002, buccal trauma (P<0.0001 and angular cheilitis (P<0.0001, compared to healthy controls. Significantly more patients with CD or UC had concurrently 3 or more oral manifestations as compared to normal controls (P<0.0001. On multivariate analysis, age and IBD were the only factors significantly related to the existence of oral lesions (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02 ? 1.13, P=0.009. No correlation between activity and duration of disease, sex and smoking habit, with the presence of oral manifestations, was noticed. No significant differences between patients and controls in the incidence of other lesions, including leukoplakia, and aphthouslike ulcers were found. No cases of pyostomatitis vegetans in either patients with IBD or controls were found. Conclusion: Although the number of patients included in the study is small we can conclude that oral manifestations in patients with IBD (especially in those with CD, is a frequent and underestimated event that needs further clinical validation. Key words: Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, Ulcerative colitis, Oral manifestations

  1. Neuroregulation of Human Nasal Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    James N. BARANIUK; Merck, Samantha J.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nerves innervate human nasal mucosa. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular, and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent identification of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of transient receptor potential sensory receptor ion channel proteins may account for the polymodal, chemo...

  2. Drug Reactions in Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Dervi?

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both immunologic and nonimmunologic drug reactions can be seen in oral mucosa. Since considerable number of these reactions heals spontaneously without being noticed by the patients, exact frequency of the lesions is unknown. Most common lesions are xerostomia, taste disorders, mucosal ulcerations and edema. In this article, oral lesions resulting from drug intake similar to those from oral lesions of local and systemic diseases, and diagnostic problems caused by these similarities, have been reviewed.

  3. Immunomodulatory effect of ghrelin in the intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, N; Ghia, J E

    2015-11-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body and it produces a wide array of hormones and neuropeptides. Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid hormone produced mainly by the X/A-like endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa, has widespread tissue distribution and diverse physiological functions such as hormonal, orexigenic, metabolic, cardiovascular, neurological and immunological activities. Recent research has implicated ghrelin in gastrointestinal pathological conditions and immune system regulation, but its contribution is controversial. Although ghrelin levels are elevated in clinical active inflammatory bowel diseases, confirmation of its exact role using experimental models remains unclear. This review discusses the conflicting effects of ghrelin on intestinal inflammation, through the different possible immune and intracellular mechanisms and highlights new findings. PMID:26503163

  4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods are linked to other digestive conditions like lactose intolerance or celiac disease , though, so it's important to ... While Eating Out Ulcers Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Lactose Intolerance Constipation Inflammatory Bowel Disease Contact Us Print Additional ...

  5. Prevalence of Bowel Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Are Contact Us Donate Prevalence of Bowel Incontinence What is Incontinence? “Incontinence” is the word used to describe loss ... to treat and manage the condition Prevelance of Incontinence Unless asked specifically about it, individuals often are ...

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Talley, N J

    2006-01-01

    Conceptually, the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been considered a brain-gut functional disorder, but this paradigm is under serious challenge. There is increasing evidence that organic disease of the gastrointestinal tract can be identified in subsets of patients who fulfil the Rome criteria for IBS. Evidence for subtle inflammatory bowel disease, serotonin dysregulation, bacterial overgrowth and central dysregulation continue to accumulate. The underlying causes of IBS remain to be adeq...

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Alexander Charles; Vandvik, Per Olav

    2012-01-01

    The key features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are chronic, recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort, associated with disturbed bowel habit, in the absence of any structural abnormality to account for these symptoms. The prevalence of IBS varies depending on the criteria used to diagnose it, but it ranges from about 5% to 20%.IBS is associated with abnormal GI motor function, enhanced visceral perception, abnormalities in central pain processing, and altered gut flora, as well as psychos...

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Alexander Charles; Vandvik, Per Olav

    2010-01-01

    The key features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are chronic, recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort, associated with disturbed bowel habit, in the absence of any structural abnormality to account for these symptoms. The prevalence of IBS varies depending on the criteria used to diagnose it, but it ranges from about 5% to 20%.IBS is associated with abnormal GI motor function, enhanced visceral perception, abnormalities in central pain processing, and altered gut flora, as well as psychos...

  9. Gut-homing CD4+ T cell receptor alpha beta+ T cells in the pathogenesis of murine inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolphi, A; Boll, G; Poulsen, S S; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Reimann, J

    1994-01-01

    +/+) mice. No antigen receptor-expressing lymphoid cells were found in GALT of congenic C.B-17 scid/scid (scid) mice. The heterotopic transplantation of a full-thickness gut wall graft from the ileum or colon of immunocompetent (C.B-17+/+, BALB/cdm2) donor mice onto immunodeficient scid mice selectively...... reconstituted a CD3+ T cell receptor alpha beta+ CD4+ T cell subset. CD4+ cells of this subset expressed the surface phenotype of mucosa-seeking, memory T cells. In the immunodeficient scid host, this gut-derived CD4+ T cell subset was found in spleen, peritoneal cavity, mesenteric lymph nodes (LN), epithelial...... layer and lamina propria of the small and large intestine, but not in peripheral LN. Scid mice heterotopically transplanted with gut from a congenic, immunocompetent donor developed clinical and histological signs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Hence, the selective repopulation of GALT...

  10. Bowel vaginoplasty in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Yogesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe our experience with bowel vaginoplasty done in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of eight children aged 10 months to 8 years, who underwent bowel vaginoplasty over a period of 5 years (2000-2005. The indications of bowel vaginoplasty included anorectovestibular fistula (ARVF associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome (n=6 and cloaca (n=2. The bowel segment used for vaginoplasty included colon (n=3, ileum (n=2 and duplicated rectum (n=1. In two patients of ARVF associated with uterovaginal agenesis, the distal- most part of ARVF was transected at the level of peritoneal reflection and left as neovagina, whereas the proximal bowel was pulled through at the proposed neo-anal site. All the patients were advised daily home dilatation of the neo vaginal orifice with Hegar?s dilators, for a period of six weeks. RESULTS: Bowel vaginoplasty was done in eight patients. None had any significant per-operative complication. Two patients had abdominal wound dehiscence, requiring secondary suturing. Two patients had mucosal prolapse of the neovagina, which required trimming. One patient died two months after discharge, because of meningitis. Out of the eight patients, seven are in regular follow-up. Six patients have neovagina, cosmetically acceptable to the parents; all have been radiologically proven to have adequate length. One patient had unacceptable perineal appearance with nipple-like vaginal orifice and scarred perineal wound, that merits a revision. None of the patients had vaginal stenosis and excessive mucus discharge, during follow-up visits. Although post surgical results are acceptable to the parents cosmetically, the sexual and psychological outcome is yet to be assessed. Conclusions: Bowel vaginoplasty is a safe and acceptable procedure to treat the pediatric patients of uterovaginal agenesis and cloaca.

  11. Colonoscopia como método diagnóstico e terapêutico das moléstias do instestino grosso: análise de 2.567 exames Colonoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic method of the large bowel diseases: analysis of 2,567 exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carlos Nahas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Com o surgimento das fibras ópticas na área médica, houve grande avanço tecnológico na observação do aparelho digestivo, com a introdução dos endoscópios flexíveis, usados anteriormente para o trato digestivo superior. OBJETIVO: Rever os resultados da aplicação da colonoscopia diagnóstica e terapêutica na Disciplina de Coloproctologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, respeitando as características de instituição de ensino e aprimoramento médico. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva dos dados referentes a 2.567 exames de fibrocolonoscopia realizados entre os anos de 1984 e 2002, seja em regime de internação hospitalar ou ambulatorial. As principais indicações de exame nesta casuística foram o sangramento retal/anemia em 571 (22,24% doentes, alteração do hábito intestinal em 379 (14,76%, moléstia inflamatória em 222 (8,65% e pós-operatório de neoplasia em 186 (7,25%. O preparo intestinal com manitol foi realizado na maioria dos doentes. A sedação, quando não contra-indicada, foi feita com meperidina e benzodiazepínico. Todos exames foram feitos com monitorização com oxímetro de pulso. RESULTADOS: O resultado do exame foi normal em 1.089 (42,42% casos. Pólipos foram diagnosticados em 397 (15,47% casos, doença diverticular em 330 (12,86%, doença inflamatória em 305 (11,88% e câncer colorretal em 262 (10,21%. Foram realizadas 819 polipectomias em 397 doentes, gerando a média de 2,21 polipectomias por doente com pólipo. A colonoscopia foi considerada incompleta (quando não atingiu o ceco em 181 (7,05% casos. Houve um caso de perfuração por fratura de tumor subestenosante de retossigmóide. Complicações relacionadas à sedação levaram à interrupção do exame em 0,42% das vezes, sem maiores prejuízos aos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: A colonoscopia foi método eficaz no diagnóstico e tratamento de afecções colorretais, sendo seguro e com baixo índice de morbidade em ambiente universitário.BACKGROUND: Since the sixties, when the optic fibers were reported, colonoscopy had emerged as the first line imaging investigation of the colon. AIM: To review the results of diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy at the Discipline of Coloproctology of the University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, respecting the characteristics of an institution of medical eduction. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of basis related to 2,567 fibro colonoscopies between 1984 and 2002. The procedure was performed in hospitalized and in outpatients. The most common indications for colonoscopy were investigation of rectal bleeding and anemia (22.4%, change of bowel habit (14.76%, inflammatory bowel disease (8.65% and carcinoma (7.25%. Bowel preparation with manitol was used by most of the patients. Sedation, when not contra-indicated, was administered. The most common combination was meperidine and benzodiazepine. All the exams were monitored with pulse oximeter. A normal colonoscopy to the point of maximum insertion was reported in 42.42% of procedures. The most common diagnosis was polyps (15.47%, followed by diverticular disease (12.86%. Inflammatory disease was recorded in 11.88% and carcinoma in 10.21%. Polypectomy was undertaken in 397 patients (2.21 polypectomy per patient with polyps. Colonoscopy was considered incomplete (when the colonoscope did not pass to the cecum or terminal ileum in 181 (7.05% cases. Perforation was reported in one patient who had a subestenosing retossigmoid tumor. In 0.42%, reasons for failing to complete the procedure included complication related to sedation, with no further prejudice for the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Colonoscopic examination of the entire colon remains the standard for visualization, biopsy and treatment of colonic affections. The incidence of complication of endoscopy of the large bowel is quite low, even in a school hospital.

  12. Bowel obstruction: Differential diagnosis and clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a practical guide to the diagnosis and management of obstruction, both mechanical and organic, of the large and small bowel. Obstruction is a common problem for surgeons, and this text emphasizes differential diagnosis and the use of all radiologic modalities. It presents the surgical and medical considerations involved with gallstones, bezoars, parasites, tumors, inflammation, trauma, intussusception, more

  13. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives?Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report?A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion?Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach. PMID:26491486

  14. Diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa using Tc99m-pertechnetate: spectrum of findings and utility of delayed imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The utility of Tc99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy in the diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa is well established, particularly in the case of Meckel's diverticulum. However, there is substantial variation in the reported sensitivity of Tc99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy for the diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa. None of these authors used delayed imaging. Aims and Objectives: We highlight spectrum of scintigraphic findings likely to be encountered in patients with ectopic gastric mucosa with illustrative cases for each such finding and the utility of delayed imaging as a part of Tc99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy in the diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa, when initial images are equivocal or negative. Materials and Methods: Six children (aged 4 months to 48 months, all males) underwent Tc99m-pertechnetate scintigraphic evaluation for ectopic gastric mucosa. Static images were obtained for 1 minute for every 5 minutes during the first 60 minutes and subsequently at 6 hours post injection. Results: Ectopic gastric mucosa was found in intrathoracic fore-gut duplication cysts in two, in small bowel duplications in two, in a gastric duplication in one and in a Meckel's diverticulum in one patient. In the two patients with intrathoracic duplication cysts, the ectopic gastric mucosa was evident only in delayed images. Conclusion: A variety of scintigraphic patterns may be found in patients with ectopic gastric mucosa undergoing Tc99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy depending upon the location and size of the ectopic tissue. Acquisition of delayed images may be useful when the initial images are negative, particularly in infants with intrathoracic ectopic gastric mucosa

  15. Functional bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with functional bowel disease were given fructose, sorbitol, fructose-sorbitol mixtures, and sucrose. The occurrence of malabsorption was evaluated by means of hydrogen breath tests and the gastrointestinal symptoms, if any, were recorded. One patient could not be evaluated...

  16. Small bowel transglutaminase 2-specific IgA deposits in dermatitis herpetiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Teea T; Hervonen, Kaisa; Laurila, Kaija; Collin, Pekka; Mäki, Markku; Koskinen, Outi; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Reunala, Timo

    2014-07-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an extraintestinal manifestation of coeliac disease. Untreated coeliac disease patients are known to have transglutaminase 2 (TG2)-targeted IgA deposits in the small bowel mucosa. To evaluate whether similar intestinal IgA deposits are also present in DH and whether the deposits disappear with gluten-free diet, 47 untreated and 27 treated DH patients were studied. Seventy-nine percent of untreated and 41% of the treated DH patients had TG2-specific IgA deposits in the small bowel, and the presence of the deposits showed a significant association with the degree of small bowel villous atrophy (p < 0.001). Other coeliac-disease related inflammatory markers were also investigated, and the density of small bowel mucosal intraepithelial ??(+) T cells was increased in 91% of untreated and 73% of treated DH patients. The results show that the majority of untreated DH patients have similar gluten-dependent TG2-specific IgA deposits the small bowel mucosa as coeliac disease patients. PMID:24352382

  17. A three-dimensional coculture of enterocytes, monocytes and dendritic cells to model inflamed intestinal mucosa in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Fransisca; Collnot, Eva-Maria; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2010-12-01

    While epithelial cell culture models (e.g., Caco-2 cell line) are widely used to assess the absorption of drug molecules across healthy intestinal mucosa, there are no suitable in vitro models of the intestinal barrier in the state of inflammation. Thus development of novel drugs and formulations for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is largely bound to animal models. We here report on the development of a complex in vitro model of the inflamed intestinal mucosa, starting with the selection of suitable enterocyte cell line and proinflammatory stimulus and progressing to the setup and characterization of a three-dimensional coculture of human intestinal epithelial cells and immunocompetent macrophages and dendritic cells. In the 3D setup, controlled inflammation can be induced allowing the mimicking of pathophysiological changes occurring in vivo in the inflamed intestine. Different combinations of proinflammatory stimuli (lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, interleukin-1?, interferon-?) and intestinal epithelial cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, T84) were evaluated, and only Caco-2 cells were responsive to stimulation, with interleukin-1? being the strongest stimulator. Caco-2 cells responded to the proinflammatory stimulus with a moderate upregulation of proinflammatory markers and a slight, but significant, decrease (20%) of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) indicating changes in the epithelial barrier properties. Setting up the coculture model, macrophages and dendritic cells derived from periphery blood monocytes were embedded in a collagen layer on a Transwell filter insert and Caco-2 cells were seeded atop. Even in the presence of immunocompetent cells Caco-2 cells formed a tight monolayer. Addition of IL-1? increased inflammatory cytokine response more strongly compared to Caco-2 single culture and stimulated immunocompetent cells proved to be highly active in sampling apically applied nanoparticles. Thus the 3D coculture provides additional complexity and information compared to the stimulated single cell model. The coculture system may serve as a valuable tool for developing drugs and formulations for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, as well as for studying the interaction of xenobiotics and nanoparticles with the intestinal epithelial barrier in the state of inflammation. PMID:20809575

  18. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Francesca; Siciliano, Saverio; Maione, Francesco; Esposito, Dario; Masone, Stefania; Persico, Marcello; De Palma, Giovanni D

    2012-01-01

    Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micronscale via endoscopes. CLE and related technologies are often termed "virtual biopsy" as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. Recently, the use of CLE was reported in the study of colonic mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and in particular in patients affected by ulcerative colitis. CLE has the potential to have an important role in management of IBD patients as it can be used to assess the grading of colitis and in detection of microscopic colitis in endoscopically silent segments. Moreover, CLE can be used in surveillance programs especially in high-risk patients. This report aims to evaluate the current data on the application of confocal endomicroscopy in clinical gastroenterology and particularly in the study of colonic mucosa in UC patients. PMID:22474440

  19. Enhancing the quality of colonoscopy through split-dose bowel preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegert, Monica; Nandwani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Colonoscopy is a primary method for colorectal cancer screening, yet its efficacy as a screening tool is largely dependent on the quality of bowel preparation. An estimated 25% of patients undergoing colonoscopy have poor bowel preparations at the time of their procedure. There is empirical evidence to support that split-dose bowel preparations yield better bowel cleansing than day-prior bowel preparation regimens. The aim of this quality improvement project was to enhance the quality of colonoscopy at a large urban academic center through the use of split-dose bowel preparation. A total of 74 patients participated, with about half undergoing the current practice of day-prior bowel preparation and half undergoing the intervention of split-dose bowel preparation. Several procedural and patient outcome measures were collected and used for comparison to determine which bowel preparation was optimal for use in the practice setting. The findings revealed that split-dose bowel preparation resulted in better bowel cleansing, reduced recall intervals for the time to the next recommended colonoscopy, and improved patient tolerance, supporting its use in the practice setting to enhance the quality of colonoscopy. PMID:24691085

  20. Bowel preparation prior to colonoscopy: A continual search for excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Bechtold

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bowel preparation prior to colonoscopy is essential to maximize the benefits of colonoscopy. Numerous bowel preparations have been studied, ranging from 4 L polyethylene glycol (PEG to split-dose regimens to 2 L PEG with an adjunct laxative (senna, bisacodyl, ascorbic acid. Due to the large volume of PEG required for adequate bowel preparation, many studies have focused on reducing this large volume to only 2 L PEG with the addition of an adjunct. Recently, a randomized controlled trial by Tajika et al showed that the addition of mosapride to only 1.5 L PEG was non-inferior to mosapride and 2 L PEG for bowel cleansing but did provide improvements in patient tolerance. This study offers yet another potential bowel preparation for patients undergoing colonoscopy and may trigger further studies with 1.5 L PEG with an adjunct. In this letter, we discuss the current state of bowel preparation prior to colonoscopy and offer information to guide clinicians on choosing the appropriate bowel preparation for their patients.

  1. Tc-99m sucralfate scanning for inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated 14 patients with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by administering Tc-99m sucralfate (TcS) orally and imaging the abdomen 4 and 24 hours after dose. All patients had either barium radiographic studies or colonoscopy before the scan. The scan identified seven of nine patients who had radiologically demonstrated small-bowel lesions and four of five patients with colonic disease. The authors' preliminary experience suggests that TcS maybe a useful procedure to document location and extent of active disease. It provides information about both small and large bowel in one procedure, is noninvasive, easy to perform, and has low radiation absorbed dose

  2. Computed Tomography Angiography of the Small Bowel and Mesentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Siva P; Fishman, Elliot K

    2016-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has largely supplanted other available radiologic modalities in the evaluation of a wide variety of different vascular and inflammatory abnormalities of the small bowel, with computed tomography angiography (CTA) playing a major role in the diagnostic efficacy of MDCT for these diseases. Improvements in CTA imaging have proved particularly valuable in the evaluation of small bowel vascular and inflammatory disorders, diagnoses in which arterial phase images might be able to offer greater information than standard venous phase imaging. This article details the MDCT imaging findings of several small bowel vascular and inflammatory disorders. PMID:26654393

  3. Inflammatory pathways of importance for management of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jannie; Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Their etiologies are unknown, but they are characterised by an imbalanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, e.g., tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, as well as increased recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Advantages in understanding the role of the inflammatory pathways in IBD and an inadequate response to conventional therapy in a large portion of patients, has over the last two decades lead to new therapies which includes the TNF inhibitors (TNFi), designed to target and neutralise the effect of TNF-?. TNFi have shown to be efficient in treating moderate to severe CD and UC. However, convenient alternative therapeutics targeting other immune pathways are needed for patients with IBD refractory to conventional therapy including TNFi. Indeed, several therapeutics are currently under development, and have shown success in clinical trials. These include antibodies targeting and neutralising interleukin-12/23, small pharmacologic Janus kinase inhibitors designed to block intracellular signaling of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibodies targeting integrins, and small anti-adhesion molecules that block adhesion between leukocytes and the intestinal vascular endothelium, reducing their infiltration into the inflamed mucosa. In this review we have elucidated the major signaling pathways of clinical importance for IBD therapy and highlighted the new promising therapies available. As stated in this paper several new treatment options are under development for the treatment of CD and UC, however, no drug fits all patients. Hence, optimisations of treatment regimens are warranted for the benefit of the patients either through biomarker establishment or other rationales to maximise the effect of the broad range of mode-of-actions of the present and future drugs in IBD.

  4. Urethral fistula following circumcision: salvaged by buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rahul Janak; Dalela, Divakar; Sankhwar, S. N.; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2009-01-01

    Fistula following circumcision and at times accompanied by disfigurement of the glans penis is a common problem in our country, where a large number of circumcision is performed by untrained professionals. These complications may have profound negative psychological impact on the growing child. Herein, we report the successful closure of such fistula using buccal mucosa, which occurred following circumcision (for phimosis) in a 15 year old boy. This resulted in the disfigurement of the glans ...

  5. Intestinal mucosa in nephropathic cystinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, T C; Lerner, A; Shiloh, H

    1987-01-01

    The major manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis are renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D-resistant rickets, and dwarfism. Cystine crystals are deposited in a variety of cells, mainly phagocytic, including macrophages of the intestinal lamina propria. Previously, ultrastructural changes were suggested to occur in the absorptive epithelium as well, possibly as a result of local cystine toxicity. We report here on the light- and electron-microscopic findings in the jejunal mucosa of two patients, aged 4 and 9 years with nephropathic cystinosis. Cystine crystals were easily identified in semithin sections of plastic-embedded specimens as brick- and hexagon-shaped spaces in macrophages. Electron microscopy showed that all crystals were in single-membrane-limited bodies (lysosomes), within phagocytic cells, and exclusively located in the lamina propria. In contrast to previous findings, the absorptive epithelium showed no abnormalities. We conclude that the growth failure in cystinosis is not a consequence of morphological toxic alterations in the intestinal epithelium, but is related to the known metabolic abnormalities of this condition. The use of rectal suction biopsy as a means of diagnosing cystinosis is also suggested as an alternative to other diagnostic methods. PMID:3430244

  6. Bowel disease after radiotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, P F; Holden, D.; Carr, N. D.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical presentation, operative findings and outcome in 40 patients who required surgery for bowel disease after radiotherapy are presented. The type of presentation varied according to the time after radiotherapy. In the first month, many patients had a proctitis but none required surgery. Five patients were operated on within one month, 2 for radiation-induced acute ileitis and 3 for exacerbations of pre-existing disease (diverticular disease 2, ulcerative colitis 1). The commonest tim...

  7. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Klaus; Christensen, Peter; Sabroe, S; Laurberg, S

    2005-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire study. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a symptom-based score for neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD): NBD score. SETTING: University Hospital of Aarhus, Denmark. METHODS: A questionnaire including questions about background parameters (n=8), faecal incontinence (n=10), constipation (n=10), obstructed defecation (n=8), and impact on quality of life (QOL) (n=3) was sent to 589 Danish spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. The reproducibility and validity...

  8. Short bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  9. Bowel disease after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical presentation, operative findings and outcome in 40 patients who required surgery for bowel disease after radiotherapy are presented. The type of presentation varied according to the time after radiotherapy. In the first month, many patients had a proctitis but none required surgery. Five patients were operated on within one month, 2 for radiation-induced acute ileitis and 3 for exacerbations of pre-existing disease (diverticular disease 2, ulcerative colitis 1). The commonest time of presentation was between 3 and 18 months after radiotherapy, when 20 patients needed surgery for bowel disease caused by radiation-induced local ischaemia. Twelve of these patients had chronic perforation, 6 had severe rectal bleeding and 2 had painful anorectal ulceration. Fifteen patients presented between 2 and 24 years after radiotherapy, usually with incomplete intestinal obstruction due to a fibrous stricture, but 2 patients had rectal carcinoma. Wide resection of the involved bowel was the principal method of treatment but any anastomosis was protected by a proximal defunctioning stoma. There was no operative mortality but 10 patients have died subsequently. The danger of dismissing these patients as having incurable malignancy is stressed because, although the condition is infrequent, it is usually amenable to adequate surgery. (author)

  10. Genetics of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henström, Maria; D'Amato, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition with a complex and largely unknown etiology. There is no cure, and treatment options are mainly directed to the amelioration of symptoms. IBS causes reduced quality of life and poses considerable repercussions on health and socioeconomic systems. There is a heritable component in IBS, and genetic research is a valuable tool for the identification of causative pathways, which will provide important insight into the pathophysiology. However, although some gene-hunting efforts have been conducted and a few risk genes proposed, IBS genetic research is lagging behind compared to other complex diseases. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize existing genetic studies, discuss the main challenges in IBS genetic research, and propose strategies to overcome these challenges for IBS gene discovery. PMID:26873717

  11. Untreated Celiac Disease in a Patient with Dermatitis Herpetiformis Leading to a Small Bowel Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Derikx, Monique H.M.; Bisseling, Tanya M

    2012-01-01

    Usually, celiac disease has a benign course, though the overall morbidity and mortality have increased. Treatment with a gluten-free diet restores the damaged intestinal mucosa. In rare cases a small bowel adenocarcinoma develops. Unfortunately, the clinical presentation is not always recognized and prognosis is bad. We present a 69-year-old man with a history of dermatitis herpetiformis who presented to our tertiary center for a second opinion for a suspected gastric motility disorder. This ...

  12. Human inflammatory bowel disease does not associate with Lawsonia intracellularis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Giese Thomas; Köninger Jörg S; Wendt Michael; Kümmel Klaus; Di Mola Fabio; Michalski Christoph W; Giese Nathalia A; Friess Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that bacterial infection of the intestinal mucosa may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In pigs, an obligate intracellular bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis (LI), was shown to cause proliferative enteropathy (PE) of which some forms display histological and clinical similarities to human IBD. Since LI-similar Desulfovibrio spp. may infect human cells, we hypothesized that LI might be associated with the deve...

  13. Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo

    OpenAIRE

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

    2011-01-01

    The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the ...

  14. Familial risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier Møller, Frederik; Andersen, Vibeke; Jess, Tine; Wohlfart, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) – ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) - are caused by complex gene-environment interactions. This study provides updated familial aggregation patterns in a large population-based Danish IBD cohort. Methods: Our cohort study was based on the entire Danish population during 1977-2011 (n=8,295,773). Through a unique personal identification number assigned to each Danish citizen, sex, date and location of birth, identity of parents, and i...

  15. Oral purgative and simethicone before small bowel capsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Joel Ferreira Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate small bowel cleansing quality, diagnostic yield and transit time, comparing three cleansing protocols prior to capsule endoscopy. METHODS: Sixty patients were prospectively enrolled and randomized to one of the following cleansing protocols: patients in Group A underwent a 24 h liquid diet and overnight fasting; patients in Group B followed protocol A and subsequently were administered 2 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG the evening before the procedure; patients in Group C followed protocol B and were additionally administered 100 mg of simethicone 30 min prior to capsule ingestion. Small bowel cleansing was independently assessed by two experienced endoscopists and classified as poor, fair, good or excellent according to the proportion of small bowel mucosa under perfect conditions for visualization. When there was no agreement between the two endoscopists, the images were reviewed and discussed until a consensus was reached. The preparation was considered acceptable if > 50% or adequate if > 75% of the mucosa was in perfect cleansing condition. The amount of bubbles was assessed independently and it was considered significant if it prevented a correct interpretation of the images. Positive endoscopic findings, gastric emptying time (GET and small bowel transit time (SBTT were recorded for each examination. RESULTS: There was a trend favoring Group B in achieving an acceptable (including fair, good or excellent level of cleansing (Group A: 65%; Group B: 83.3%; Group C: 68.4% [P = not significant (NS] and favoring Group C in attaining an excellent level of cleansing (Group A: 10%; Group B: 16.7%; Group C: 21.1% (P = NS. The number of patients with an adequate cleansing of the small bowel, corresponding to an excellent or good classification, was 5 (25% in Group A, 5 (27.8% in Group B and 4 (21.1% in Group C (P = 0.892. Conversely, 7 patients (35% in Group A, 3 patients (16.7% in Group B and 6 patients (31.6% in Group C were considered to have poor small bowel cleansing (P = 0.417, with significant fluid or debris such that the examination was unreliable. The proportion of patients with a significant amount of bubbles was 50% in Group A, 27.8% in Group B and 15.8% in Group C (P = 0.065. This was significantly lower in Group C when compared to Group A (P = 0.026. The mean GET was 27.8 min for Group A, 27.2 min for Group B and 40.7 min for Group C (P = 0.381. The mean SBTT was 256.4 min for Group A, 256.1 min for Group B and 258.1 min for Group C (P = 0.998. Regarding to the rate of complete examinations, the capsule reached the cecum in 20 patients (100% in Group A, 16 patients (88.9% in Group B and 17 patients (89.5% in Group C (P = 0.312. A definite diagnosis based on relevant small bowel endoscopic lesions was established in 60% of the patients in Group A (12 patients, 44.4% in Group B (8 patients and 57.8% in Group C (11 patients (P = 0.587. CONCLUSION: Preparation with 2 L of PEG before small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE may improve small bowel cleansing and the quality of visualization. Simethicone may further reduce intraluminal bubbles. No significant differences were found regarding GET, SBTT and the proportion of complete exploration or diagnostic yield among the three different cleansing protocols.

  16. Diseases of the small bowel in chronic diarrhea: diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Simadibrata, M.

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of chronic diarrhea in Asia is between 0.8-1.0%. The diseases and abnormalities according to the location, which can cause chronic diarrhea, are divided into three locations: the small bowel, the large bowel and extraintestinal. The small bowel diseases include infectious and non-infectious diseases. The infectious diseases are bacterial infections, parasitic infections etc. The non-infectious diseases include of Crohn’s disease, Celiac sprue, NSAID enteropathy, lactose intolera...

  17. Breastfeeding and genetic factors in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Mikhailov, Sylvia E Furner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic, debilitating disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease has not been elucidated, but is thought to be multifactorial with both environ-mental and genetic influences. A large body of research has been conducted to elucidate the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. This article reviews this literature, emphasizing the studies of breastfeeding and the studies of genetic factors, particularly NOD2 polymorphisms.

  18. Role of emerging Campylobacter species in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M; Man, Si Ming

    2014-11-01

    The gut microbiota is a central player in the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases. As such, there is intense scientific interest in elucidating the specific group/s of bacteria responsible for driving barrier damage and perpetuating the chronic inflammation that results in disease. Because of their ability to colonize close to the surface of the host intestinal epithelium, mucosa-associated bacteria are considered key players in the initiation and development of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The leading bacterial candidates include adherent and invasive Escherichia coli, Helicobacter, Fusobacteria, Mycobacteria, and Campylobacter species. Of these, a member of the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter concisus, has recently emerged as a putative player in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Current research indicates that this bacterium possesses extraordinarily diverse pathogenic capacities as well as unique genetic and functional signatures that are defined by their ability to adhere to and invade host cells, secrete toxins, and the presence of a virulence-associated restriction-modification system. These characteristics enable the potential classification of C. concisus into distinct pathotypes, which we have named adherent and invasive C. concisus and adherent and toxinogenic C. concisus. In this review, we evaluate evidence for the role of emerging Campylobacter species in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:24874462

  19. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Joo; Moon, Jeong Seop; Shim, Ki-Nam

    2016-01-01

    During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation for small bowel VCE. Presently, polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) based regimens are given primary recommendation. Sodium picosulphate-based regimens are secondarily recommended, as their cleansing efficacy is less than that of PEG-based regimens. Sodium phosphate as well as complementary simethicone and prokinetics use are considered. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies regarding bowel preparation for small bowel VCE and suggested optimal bowel preparation of VCE. PMID:26880894

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages of the small bowel in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Gunnar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune activation have repeatedly been suggested as pathogentic factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The driving force for immune activation in IBS remains unknown. The aim of our study was to find out if the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methods We studied 65 patients (61 females with IBS and 42 (29 females healthy controls in which IBS had been excluded. Full thickness biopsies from the jejunum and mucosa biopsies from the duodenum and the jejunum were stained with a monoclonal antibody to Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS and species-specific monoclonal antibodies to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. We used polyclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, CD68, CD11c, and CD117 to identify enteroendocrine cells, macrophages, dendritic, and mast cells, respectively. Results Chlamydia LPS was present in 89% of patients with IBS, but in only 14% of healthy controls (p C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP. Staining for C. pneumoniae was negative in both patients and controls. Chlamydia LPS was detected in enteroendocrine cells of the mucosa in 90% of positive biopsies and in subepithelial macrophages in 69% of biopsies. Biopsies taken at different time points in 19 patients revealed persistence of Chlamydia LPS up to 11 years. The odds ratio for the association of Chlamydia LPS with presence of IBS (43.1; 95% CI: 13.2-140.7 is much higher than any previously described pathogenetic marker in IBS. Conclusions We found C. trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages in the small bowel mucosa of patients with IBS. Further studies are required to clarify if the presence of such antigens has a role in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  1. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Kehlet, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    preparation has significant adverse physiologic effects, which may be attributed to dehydration. The majority of these findings is small and may not be of clinical relevance in otherwise healthy patients undergoing bowel preparation and following recommendations for oral fluid intake.......PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...... healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...

  2. Alteraciones histológicas asociadas a la preparación mecánica en cirugía colorrectal electiva Bowel wall alterations associated with mechanical bowel cleansing before elective colonic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO BARRERA E

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La preparación mecánica anterograda de colon en cirugía electiva es una práctica común utilizada en distintas operaciones sobre el segmento distal del tubo digestivo. La limpieza intestinal ha demostrado provocar alteraciones fisiológicas significativas y algunos autores han relacionado su uso con una mayor incidencia de complicaciones sépticas, aunque sin demostrar un sustrato anatómico o histológico que avale estas afirmaciones. Objetivo: Demostrar la aparición de alteraciones histológicas asociadas al uso de preparación mecánica anterograda en cirugía colorrectal electiva. Material y método: Durante un periodo de 10 meses se incluyeron en este estudio todos los pacientes sometidos a cirugía electiva de colon. Se excluyeron los pacientes que recibieron radioterapia pre operatoria y quienes recibieron preparación mecánica la semana previa a la cirugía. Los pacientes fueron randomizados en dos grupos: con y sin preparación de colon. Un patólogo evaluó las alteraciones histológicas en mucosa sana en forma ciega. Los datos fueron analizados con el programa Stata 8.0. Resultados: Participaron 34 pacientes en este estudio, de los que se excluyeron 2 por no haber sido resecados, ambos en el grupo que recibi?? preparación mecánica. El estudio de siete parámetros no demostró alteración significativa en los pacientes que recibieron preparación mecánica anterograda (p > 0,05. Conclusión: En esta serie prospectiva y aleatoria no se encontraron alteraciones histológicas atribuibles al uso de la preparación mecánica anterogradaBackground: Anterograde mechanical bowel cleansing is a common practice in colorectal surgery. However it can produce physiological disturbances and can be associated to a higher frequency of septic complications. Aim: To evaluate the appearance of histological alterations in the colon wall, associated to anterograde bowel cleansing. Material and methods: All patients subjected to elective colon surgery were randomized to a group with and other group without anterograde mechanical bowel cleansing before surgery. Patients subjected to preoperative radiotherapy and those that were subjected to bowel cleansing the week previous to surgery, were excluded. A sample was obtained from normal colon mucosa, far from the lesion that motivated surgery, for pathological study. The pathologist was unaware of the group assignation of patients. Results: Thirty four patients were studied. Eighteen (nine women were randomized to receive mechanical bowel cleansing, 14 (eight women did not receive cleansing and two were excluded from the study. No significant pathological bowel wall alterations were detected in the group subjected to mechanical cleansing. Conclusions: No pathological alterations of the bowel wall, attributed to anterograde bowel cleansing, were detected in this group of patients

  3. Common polymorphisms in the microsomal epoxide hydrolase and N-acetyltransferase 2 genes in association with inflammatory bowel disease in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Anja; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Reactive molecules play a central role in altering the intestinal permeability, which may induce or sustain an immune response. Changes in detoxification of substances that causes epithelial damage may confer susceptibility to IBD. Hence, polymorphic enzymes involved in the detoxification processes may be risk factors of IBD.

  4. The Neuromodulation of the Intestinal Immune System and Its Relevance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Verheijden, Simon; Bosmans, Goele; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Matteoli, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    One of the main tasks of the immune system is to discriminate and appropriately react to “danger” or “non-danger” signals. This is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract, where the immune system is confronted with a myriad of food antigens and symbiotic microflora that are in constant contact with the mucosa, in addition to any potential pathogens. This large number of antigens and commensal microflora, which are essential for providing vital nutrients, must be tolerated by the intestinal immune system to prevent aberrant inflammation. Hence, the balance between immune activation versus tolerance should be tightly regulated to maintain intestinal homeostasis and to prevent immune activation indiscriminately against all luminal antigens. Loss of this delicate equilibrium can lead to chronic activation of the intestinal immune response resulting in intestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In order to maintain homeostasis, the immune system has evolved diverse regulatory strategies including additional non-immunological actors able to control the immune response. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates a bidirectional link between the two systems in which the brain modulates the immune response via the detection of circulating cytokines and via direct afferent input from sensory fibers and from enteric neurons. In the current review, we will highlight the most recent findings regarding the cross-talk between the nervous system and the mucosal immune system and will discuss the potential use of these neuronal circuits and neuromediators as novel therapeutic tools to reestablish immune tolerance and treat intestinal chronic inflammation. PMID:26635804

  5. Short-term oxycodone treatment does not affect electrogenic ion transport in isolated mucosa from the human rectosigmoid colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Matias; Brock, Christina; Lykke Poulsen, Jakob; Bindslev, Niels; Berner Hansen, Mark; Louring Christrup, Lona; Drewes, A M

    2016-05-01

    Objective Opioid therapy is associated with altered secretion and motility of the gut. The relative contribution of decreased secretion to the development of opioid-induced constipation remains unknown. Materials and methods Twenty-five healthy males were treated with oxycodone for 5 d in a placebo-controlled, randomised cross-over design. Gastrointestinal adverse effects were assessed with validated questionnaires (bowel function index and gastrointestinal symptom rating scale). Rectosigmoid mucosal biopsies were taken at baseline and on day 5 during both treatments and mounted in Ussing chambers. Electrogenic ion transport parameters (short circuit current (SCC) and slope conductance) were measured after addition of secretagogues (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (6??m), theophylline (400??m)), and an inhibitor (ouabain (200??m)). Additionally, morphine (50??m) was added to investigate the direct opioid effect on colonic mucosa. Results Questionnaires showed pronounced bowel symptoms, including constipation during oxycodone treatment (eight-fold increase in bowel function index score from day 1 to day 5 (p??0.05) and application with PGE2, theophylline, and ouabain yielded comparable results on all examinations (all p?>?0.05). Morphine application consistently did not evoke a change in ion transport. Conclusion Compared to placebo, epithelial electrogenic ion transport is not altered in mucosal biopsies from the rectosigmoid colon following 5-d oxycodone treatment. The secretory mechanisms in isolated mucosa appear to play a negligible role in the development of opioid-induced constipation. PMID:26610166

  6. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  7. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.)

  8. [Mastocytes in the human intestinal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumcheva, M; Todorov, D; Sto?nov, S; Nikolov, N; Boneva, M

    1986-01-01

    A method has been for counting the mastocytes on 0.1 mm2 of intestinal mucosa in patients with chronic enterocolitis, gluten enteropathy, ulcerous colitis in a stage of exacerbation and in controls. The comparison of the results obtained in the separate groups of patients reveal an increased number of mastocytes in gluten enteropathy--mean = 21.01 +/- 6 as compared with the chronic enterocolitis, where mean = 9.79 +/- 3.83 (p = 0.002). Higher values of mastocytes in rectal mucosa were observed in the patients with ulcerous mucosa--mean = 15.83 +/- 4.49 as compared with the control subjects with means = 3.67 +/- 0.99 (p = 0.001). those data admit the participation of mastocytes in the morbid process in patients with gluten enteropathy and with ulcerous colitis. PMID:3716371

  9. Up-regulation and Pre-activation of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen, Yu-qi Qiao, Zhi-hua Ran, Tian-rong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: TRAF3 and TRAF5 share a common ancestral gene, and interact as essential components of signaling pathways in immunity. TRAF3 and TRAF5 are overexpressed in the colon of rat/mouse models with colitis. However, the expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study is to explore the potential roles of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.Methods: Plasma levels of TRAF3 and TRAF5 proteins were detected by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Colonic expression of TRAF3 and TRAF5 proteins was detected by western blot analysis. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was applied for gene expression. Inflamed intestinal mucosa and non-inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal mucosa was analyzed from healthy controls.Results: The plasma levels of TRAF3 and TRAF5 were significantly higher both in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in healthy controls. Only soluble TRAF5 showed a weak correlation with endoscopic disease activity index (Baron score in patients with ulcerative colitis (spearman's r=0.358, P=0.022. Gene expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were significantly higher both in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in healthy controls (all P<0.0001. Gene and protein expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 were significantly higher in inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in non-inflamed colonic mucosa and normal mucosa of healthy controls (all P<0.0001. Furthermore, gene and protein expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 were also significantly higher in non-inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in normal mucosa of healthy controls.Conclusions: TRAF3 and TRAF5 are overexpressed in inflammatory bowel disease. Although the endoscopic appearance can be normal, TRAF3 and TRAF5 pre-activation can be detected in non-inflamed colonic segments.

  10. Clinical, endoscopical and morphological efficacy of mesalazine in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeyev AE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrey E Dorofeyev1, Elena A Kiriyan2, Inna V Vasilenko1, Olga A Rassokhina1, Andrey F Elin11National Medical University, Donetsk, Ukraine; 2Gastroenterological Center of Poltava Hospital Clinic, Poltava, UkraineObjectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical efficacy and cytomorphologic changes of colon mucosa following the treatment of patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS with mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA].Methods: In this controlled, randomized, blind clinical trial, a total of 360 patients with varying subtypes of IBS were randomly treated with 500 mg of mesalazine qid or by standard therapy without mesalazine for a period of 28 days. Pre- and post-treatment pain intensity, pain duration, meteorism, stool abnormalities and endoscopic parameters were monitored, and biopsies or brush biopsies were examined histologically.Results: Treatment of IBS patients with mesalazine significantly reduced intensity and duration of pain in all subtypes of IBS, except for duration of pain in the subtype “undifferentiated”, where the difference was not significant. In addition, in patients with diarrhea type and undifferentiated type of IBS, mesalazine also significantly reduced the abnormal stool pattern. In comparison to the control group, administration of mesalazine reduced the incidence of endoscopic and cytomorphologic changes of the bowel mucosa, including changes in colon mucus, mucus production, cytologic or histologic parameters, epithelial cell degeneration, appearance of leukocytes and macrophages and cell infiltrations.Conclusion: Mesalazine was effective in reducing several symptoms characteristic of IBS. It significantly reduced pain intensity and duration and improved cytohistologic parameters of the bowel mucosa.Keywords: 5-amino salicylic acid, 5-ASA, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome, IBS, meteorism, stool abnormalities

  11. CT assessment of anastomotic bowel leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, N. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Atri, M. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)]. E-mail: mostafa.atri@sw.ca; Ryan, S. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Haddad, R. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Smith, A. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To evaluate the predictors of clinically important gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Subjects and methods: Ninety-nine patients, 73 with clinical suspicion of anastomotic bowel leak and 26 non-bowel surgery controls underwent CT to investigate postoperative sepsis. Fifty patients had undergone large bowel and 23 small bowel anastomoses. The time interval from surgery was 3-30 days (mean 10 {+-} 5.9 SD) for the anastomotic group and 3-40 days (mean 14 {+-} 11 SD) for the control group (p = 0.3). Two radiologists blinded to the final results reviewed the CT examinations in consensus and recorded the presence of peri-anastomotic air, fluid or combination of the two; distant loculated fluid or combination of fluid and air; free air or fluid; and intestinal contrast leak. Final diagnosis of clinically important anastomotic leak (CIAL) was confirmed at surgery or by chart review of predetermined clinical and laboratory criteria. Results: The prevalence of CIAL in the group undergoing CT was 31.5% (23/73). The CT examinations with documented leak were performed 5-28 (mean; 11.4 {+-} 6 SD) days after surgery. Nine patients required repeat operation, 10 percutaneous abscess drainage, two percutaneous drainage followed by surgery, and two prolonged antibiotic treatment and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Of the CT features examined, only peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air was more frequently seen in the CIAL group as opposed to the no leak group (p = 0.04). There was no intestinal contrast leakage in this cohort. Free air was present up to 9 days and loculated air up to 26 days without CIAL. Conclusion: Most postoperative CT features overlap between patients with and without CIAL. The only feature seen statistically more frequently with CIAL is peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air.

  12. CT assessment of anastomotic bowel leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the predictors of clinically important gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Subjects and methods: Ninety-nine patients, 73 with clinical suspicion of anastomotic bowel leak and 26 non-bowel surgery controls underwent CT to investigate postoperative sepsis. Fifty patients had undergone large bowel and 23 small bowel anastomoses. The time interval from surgery was 3-30 days (mean 10 ± 5.9 SD) for the anastomotic group and 3-40 days (mean 14 ± 11 SD) for the control group (p = 0.3). Two radiologists blinded to the final results reviewed the CT examinations in consensus and recorded the presence of peri-anastomotic air, fluid or combination of the two; distant loculated fluid or combination of fluid and air; free air or fluid; and intestinal contrast leak. Final diagnosis of clinically important anastomotic leak (CIAL) was confirmed at surgery or by chart review of predetermined clinical and laboratory criteria. Results: The prevalence of CIAL in the group undergoing CT was 31.5% (23/73). The CT examinations with documented leak were performed 5-28 (mean; 11.4 ± 6 SD) days after surgery. Nine patients required repeat operation, 10 percutaneous abscess drainage, two percutaneous drainage followed by surgery, and two prolonged antibiotic treatment and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Of the CT features examined, only peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air was more frequently seen in the CIAL group as opposed to the no leak group (p = 0.04). There was no intestinal contrast leakage in this cohort. Free air was present up to 9 days and loculated air up to 26 days without CIAL. Conclusion: Most postoperative CT features overlap between patients with and without CIAL. The only feature seen statistically more frequently with CIAL is peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bowel. Today and tomorrow; Magnetresonanztomografie des Darms. Altbewaehrtes und Innovatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinner, S.; Hahnemann, M.L.; Forsting, M.; Lauenstein, T.C. [Univ. Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology

    2015-03-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel has been feasible for more than 15 years. This review is meant to give an overview of typical techniques, sequences and indications. Furthermore, newly evaluated promising techniques are presented, which have an impact on the advance of MR imaging of the small and large bowel.

  14. CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the role of CT in the diagnosis of bowel and mesenteric injury we studied the CT findings and its usefulness in patients of abdominal trauma. CT scans of 27 patients who were confirmed to have bowel and/or mesenteric injury due to abdominal trauma were analyzed retrospectively. Of these 27 patients 15 had bowel injury only and 12 had both bowel and mesenteric injury. CT findings analysed were bowel wall thickening, presence or absence of highly attenuated bowel wall, sentinel clot, mesenteric infiltration, peritoneal fluid collection and free intraabdominal air in cases with bowel injury only and with both bowel and mesenteric injury respectively. Ten patients had other accompanying abdominal injuries, such as liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, bladder injuries, intraperitoneal abscess or retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Findings observed were bowel wall thickening in 23 cases (85%), peritoneal fluid collection in 21 (78%), highly attenuated bowel wall in 19 (70%), mesenteric infiltration in 17 (63%), free intraperitoneal air in 10 (37%) and sentinel clot in 7 (26%). Pneumoperioneum were observed in 10 of 24 patients (41,7%) having bowel perforation. Two cases did not show any CT findings suggesting bowel and/or mesenteric injury. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the CT findings between the patient group with bowel injury only and the patient group with both bowel and meseneric injury. CT scan is a useful tool in evaluating the degree and extent of bowel and/or mesenteric injury as well as in planning the patient's management

  15. The Role of HSP70 Heat Shock Proteins in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborski, Pawe?; Grzymis?awski, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) represent an important element in the body's defense against various damaging factors. The probably also play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of several diseases, including autoimmune pathology and neoplasms. Recently, several investigators have focused their attention on the involvement of the HSP70 protein family in the morbid process of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The HSP70 family of is represented by two distinct forms of protein, the HSP72 protein (also known as the HSP70.1 protein), the expression of which is clearly increased in conditions of stress; and the HSP73 (or HSC73) protein, which manifests stable expression. HSP70 proteins are present in the colorectal epithelium. In patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, their expression in significantly increased during the active stage of the disease. In experimental studies, overexpression of HSP70 was found to prevent the development of inflammatory process in the large intestinal mucosa provoked by various damaging factors. In physiological conditions, various mechanisms are considered to be responsible for an increased expression of HSP70. One of them involves lymphocyte activity and the production of cytokines (mainly IL-2). Another suggested mechanism involves the presence of bacteria in the large intestine, including both physiological flora (Lactobacillus GG, Bacteroides fragilis) and pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella, Escherichia coli). HSP70 expression is probably also increased by physical activity. There is also a potential for pharmacological stimulation of HSP70 expression, linked (for example) to geranylgeranylacetone, polaprezinc and mesalazine. Thus, augmentation of HSP70 expression may become a new element in IBD therapy. PMID:26467144

  16. Living with Bowel Control Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you learn at home. Success with pelvic floor exercises depends on what is causing your bowel control problem, how severe the problem is, and your motivation and ability to follow your doctor’s recommendations. Surgery ...

  17. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity and small business programs Research Programs & Contacts Research program and staff ... and changes in bowel habits. To meet the definition of IBS, the pain or discomfort should be ...

  18. Short bowel syndrome in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matarese, Laura E; Jeppesen, Palle B; O'Keefe, Stephen J D

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a heterogeneous disorder with broad variation in disease severity arising from different types of intestinal resection. The spectrum of malabsorption ranges from intestinal insufficiency to intestinal failure. Individualized patient strategies involving modifications...

  19. Pregnancy and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who We Are Contact Us Donate Pregnancy and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Jump to Topic Living with IBS Relationships and ... strategies for pregnant women with IBS. Fertility and IBS First it is important to point out that ...

  20. Glycosphingolipids of guinea pig gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, K; Slomiany, A; Murty, V L; Galicki, N I; Slomiany, B L

    1980-08-11

    Glycosphingolipids have beenn isolated from guinea pig gastric mucosa and their composition and content determined. The neutral glycospingolipids were found to consist of mono-, di-, tri- and pentaglycosylceramide. The acidic glycosphingolipids wee represented by galactosyl and lactosyl sulfatides, and GM4, GM3 and GD3 gangliosides. None of the analyzed glycolipids contained N-acetylglucosamine and fucose. PMID:7407221

  1. Does stress induce bowel dysfunction?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yu-Ming; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; John Y. Kao

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress is known to induce somatic symptoms. Classically, many gut physiological responses to stress are mediated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. There is, however, a growing body of evidence of stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) release causing bowel dysfunction through multiple pathways, either through the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous systems, or directly on the bowel itself. In addition, recent findings of CRF influencing the composition of gut...

  2. Human intestinal lumen and mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiguang; Liu, Fanlong; Ling, Zongxin; Tong, Xiaojuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested the involvement of gut microbiota in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We utilized pyrosequencing based analysis of 16S rRNA genes to determine the overall structure of microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls; we investigated microbiota of the intestinal lumen, the cancerous tissue and matched noncancerous normal tissue. Moreover, we investigated the mucosa-adherent microbial composition using rectal swab samples because the structure of the tissue-adherent bacterial community is potentially altered following bowel cleansing. Our findings indicated that the microbial structure of the intestinal lumen and cancerous tissue differed significantly. Phylotypes that enhance energy harvest from diets or perform metabolic exchange with the host were more abundant in the lumen. There were more abundant Firmicutes and less abundant Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in lumen. The overall microbial structures of cancerous tissue and noncancerous tissue were similar; however the tumor microbiota exhibited lower diversity. The structures of the intestinal lumen microbiota and mucosa-adherent microbiota were different in CRC patients compared to matched microbiota in healthy individuals. Lactobacillales was enriched in cancerous tissue, whereas Faecalibacterium was reduced. In the mucosa-adherent microbiota, Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium, and Blautia were reduced in CRC patients, whereas Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Peptostreptococcus, and Mogibacterium were enriched. In the lumen, predominant phylotypes related to metabolic disorders or metabolic exchange with the host, Erysipelotrichaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae were increased in cancer patients. Coupled with previous reports, these results suggest that the intestinal microbiota is associated with CRC risk and that intestinal lumen microflora potentially influence CRC risk via cometabolism or metabolic exchange with the host. However, mucosa-associated microbiota potentially affects CRC risk primarily through direct interaction with the host. PMID:22761885

  3. Caracterização anatômica e citométrica em biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.]) / Anatomical and cytometric characterization in biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.])

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joyce Dória Rodrigues, Soares; Gabrielen de Maria Gomes, Dias; Filipe Almendagna, Rodrigues; Moacir, Pasqual; Edvan Alves, Chagas.

    Full Text Available O biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.]) é uma frutífera nativa da América Central e América do Sul que se destaca das demais espécies do gênero por apresentar frutos grandes e comestíveis. Tendo em vista que pouco se conhece a respeito da anatomia da planta, tipo de reserva da semente, como também s [...] obre o conteúdo de DNA de espécies da família anonáceas, este trabalho teve por objetivos caracterizar histoquimicamente as sementes e anatomicamente as plântulas, e determinar o conteúdo de DNA de biribazeiro. As plântulas foram obtidas de sementes coletadas na região Amazônica pela Embrapa Roraima e enviadas à Universidade Federal de Lavras. Os frutos foram despolpados, e suas sementes foram previamente lavadas e semeadas em bandejas de 48 células, contendo como substrato pó de serragem, permanecendo em câmara de germinação a 30ºC por 90 dias. Nas plantas obtidas, procedeu-se à análise histoquímica, à caracterização anatômica e à determinação do conteúdo de DNA. As principais conclusões deste trabalho foram que: (1) as sementes da Rollinia mucosa apresentam reserva principal lipídica; (2) as secções transversais da lâmina foliar indicam organização dorsiventral, do tipo hipoestomática com estômatos paracíticos e tricomas em ambas as faces da folha; (3) as folhas de biribazeiro apresentam, em média, 4,77 pg de DNA. Abstract in english The biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.]) is a native fruit of Central America and South America that stands out from the other species of the genus because it has large and edible fruits. Considering that little is known about the anatomy of the plant, the type of reserve of the seed, as well as li [...] ttle is known about the DNA content of species of Annonaceae family, this study aimed to characterize seeds histochemically and seedlings anatomically, and determine DNA content of biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.]). The seedlings were obtained from seeds collected in the Amazon region by Embrapa Roraima and then, sent to UFLA, Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State. The pulp of the fruits were extracted and the seeds were previously washed and sown in trays of 48 cells containing sawdust as substrate, remaining in a germination chamber at 30ºC for 90 days. A histochemical analysis, anatomical characterization and determination of DNA content of the plants obtained were made. The main conclusions of this research were: (1) the seeds of Biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa) present mainly lipid reserve, (2) The cross-sections of the leaf blade indicate dorsiventral organization, hypostomatic with paracitic stomata and trichomes on both sides of the sheet (3) the leaves of biribazeiro have on average 4.77 pg of DNA.

  4. Why is damage limited to the mucosa in ulcerative colitis but transmural in Crohn’s disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiaofa

    2013-01-01

    It has been a big puzzle as why the inflammation of ulcerative colitis (UC) is limited to the mucosa, while in Crohn’s disease (CD) the inflammation is transmural and can be seen in all layers of the gut. Here, I give a tentative explanation extended from the unified hypothesis I proposed on the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. This hypothesis suggested that both UC and CD are caused by weakening of the gut barrier due to damage of the protective mucus layer and the underlying tissue b...

  5. Why is damage limited to the mucosa in ulcerative colitis but transmural in Crohn’s disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaofa Qin

    2013-01-01

    It has been a big puzzle as why the inflammation of ulcerative colitis (UC) is limited to the mucosa, while in Crohn’s disease (CD) the inflammation is transmural and can be seen in all layers of the gut. Here, I give a tentative explanation extended from the unified hypothesis I proposed on the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. This hypothesis suggested that both UC and CD are caused by weakening of the gut barrier due to damage of the protective mucus layer and the underlying t...

  6. A retrospective study of 5-year outcomes of radiotherapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The favorable response rate of radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication has been demonstrated. However, there are limited data available on the long-term outcomes. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication. Thirty-four consecutive patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma that were refractory to eradication were treated with radiotherapy (a total dose of 30 Gy). The response and adverse events of radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed as short-term outcomes, and recurrence-free, overall and disease-specific survival rates were calculated as long-term outcomes. Thirty-three (97.1%) patients achieved complete remission and radiotherapy was well tolerated. One patient underwent emergency gastrectomy due to severe hematemesis. Of the 34 patients during the median follow-up period of 7.5 (1.2-13.0) years, one patient had local recurrence after 8.8 years, one patient underwent surgery for bowel obstruction secondary to small bowel metastasis after 5.1 years and one patient had pulmonary metastasis after 10.9 years. Pathologically, all three recurrences revealed mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma without any transformation to high-grade lymphoma. None died of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 97.0%. The 5-year overall survival rates and disease-specific survival rates were 97.0 and 100%, respectively. Radiotherapy in patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication can achieve excellent overall survival. However, long-term surveillance is necessary to identify late recurrences. (author)

  7. Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Associated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mack

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn’s disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials.

  8. Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vordenbäumen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are characterized by a chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. The etiology and pathogenesis of these disorders such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are incompletely understood. Recently, antimicrobial peptides, which are expressed by leukocytes and epithelia, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. Antimicrobial peptides are pivotal for intestinal defense, shaping the composition of the luminal flora and contributing thereby to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Apart from their antimicrobial activity affecting commensal bacteria, immunomodulatory properties of antimicrobial peptides have been identified, which link innate and adaptive immune response. There is increasing evidence that alterations in mucosal levels of these peptides contribute to IBD pathogenensis.

  9. Small bowel tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xynopoulos D.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Small intestinal neoplasms are uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. Small intestinal neoplasms may occur sporadically, or in association with genetic diseases such as familial adenomatous polyposis coli or Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, or in association with chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn’s disease or celiac sprue. Benign small intestinal tumors such as leiomyoma, lipoma, hamartoma or desmoid tumor, are usually asymptomatic but may present with intussception. Primary malignancies of the small intestine, including adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, carcinoid, and lymphoma, may present with intestinal obstruction, jaundice, bleeding, or pain. Extraintestinal neoplasms may involve the intestine via contiguous spread or peritoneal metastasis. Hematogenous metastases to the intestine from an extraintestinal primary are unusual and are most typical of melanoma. Because the small intestine is relatively inaccessible to routine endoscopy, diagnosis of small intestinal neoplasms is often delayed for months after onset of symptoms. When the diagnosis is suspected, enteroclysis is the most useful imaging study. Small bowel endoscopy (enteroscopy is increasingly widely available and may permit earlier, non-operative diagnosis.

  10. Distribution and Phenotype of Epstein-Barr Virus-Infected Cells in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Tilmann; Herbst, Hermann

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of colon mucosa, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are thought to differ in T-helper lymphocyte composition and cytokine secretion patterns. Some of the implicated cytokines are growth factors for EBV-infected cells. We examined colon mucosa for differences in the distribution and phenotype of EBV-infected cells. Colon tissues with Crohn’s disease (n = 31) or ulcerative colitis (n = 25) and controls (n = 60) were characterized by in situ hybridization and immunohistology for six EBV gene products as indicators of latent and replicative EBV infection. The cells were additionally phenotyped by combined detection of the EBV transcripts and B- or T-cell antigens. B lymphocytes predominated as the site of latent EBV infection in the colon and were most numerous in ulcerative colitis. In active ulcerative colitis, EBV-positive lymphocytes accumulated under and within the epithelium and displayed evidence for replicative infection. The patterns of mucosal EBV gene expression indicate local impairment of virus-specific T-cell responses in active ulcerative colitis. Detection of EBV may help to discriminate between active ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory bowel diseases. Colon mucosa is a potential site of EBV replication and may be relevant for EBV transmission. PMID:10880375

  11. Experience with an alternative contrast medium in oral small bowel imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The image quality of oral small bowel imaging is often poor on account of the small bowel enema. A new contrast medium should increase the image quality due to better compliance of patient because of the better taste of substance. The loading of patient with radiation or time should not increase. Methods and patients: We investigated prospectively 40 patients, randomized in two groups of 20 patients each. Two different substances were used as contrast medium: barium-methylcellulose and Barium-Mucofalk trademark, respectively. The quality of the double contrast, profile of the mucosa, duration of radiation, duration of examination, dose-area product, and taste of the substance were judged for significance. Results: The taste of the new contrast medium was judged to be better: twice as often as ''good'' and five times less often as ''bad'', the difference was not significant due to the small number of patients. There is no significant difference in the other criterias. Conclusion: Mucofalk trademark is an alternative contrast medium for oral small bowel radiology in cases of difficult placement of the tube for enema. The quality of double contrast and visualization of the profile of mucosa are the same while the taste is better. (orig.)

  12. Effects of stressful life events on bowel symptoms: subjects with irritable bowel syndrome compared with subjects without bowel dysfunction.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, W E; M D Crowell; Robinson, J. C.; Heller, B. R.; Schuster, M M

    1992-01-01

    A standardised inventory of stressful life events and a bowel symptom questionnaire were administered at three month intervals for one year to 383 women who were unselected with respect to bowel symptoms. A NEO Personality Inventory was given initially to assess neuroticism. Subjects who satisfied restrictive diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome were compared with those who complained of abdominal pain plus altered bowel habits but who did not meet restrictive diagnostic criteria ...

  13. Benign Papules and Nodules of Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Gürel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the more common benign oral papules and nodules of oral mucosa with emphasis on their etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathology, and treatment. These lesions include mucocele, traumatic fibroma, epulis, pyogenic granuloma, oral papilloma, oral warts, lymphangioma, hemangioma, lipoma, oral nevi and some soft tissue benign tumors. These benign lesions must be separated clinically and histologically from precancerous and malign neoplastic lesions. Accurate clinico-pathological diagnosis is mandatory to insure appropriate therapy.

  14. Brain gut microbiome interactions and functional bowel disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterations in the bidirectional interactions between the intestine and the nervous system have important roles in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A body of largely preclinical evidence suggests that the gut microbiota can modulate these interactions. A small and poorly defined r...

  15. Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions

  16. Kidney Risk Spurs Warning on Bowel Cleansers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RSS Feed Kidney Risk Spurs Warning on Bowel Cleansers Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer Updates ... products. These products are routinely used as bowel cleansers before colon examinations and other medical procedures. The ...

  17. Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bosani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Bosani, Sandro Ardizzone, Gabriele Bianchi PorroChair of Gastroenterology, “L. Sacco” University Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has not yet been clarified and immunosuppressive agents which nonspecifically reduce inflammation and immunity have been used in the conventional therapies for IBD. Evidence indicates that a dysregulation of mucosal immunity in the gut of IBD causes an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and trafficking of effector leukocytes into the bowel, thus leading to an uncontrolled intestinal inflammation. Under normal situations, the intestinal mucosa is in a state of “controlled” inflammation regulated by a delicate balance of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor [TNF-?], interferon-gamma [IFN-?], interleukin-1 [IL-1], IL-6, IL-12 and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-11. The mucosal immune system is the central effector of intestinal inflammation and injury, with cytokines playing a central role in modulating inflammation. Cytokines may therefore be a logical target for inflammatory bowel disease therapy using specific cytokine inhibitors. Biotechnology agents targeted against TNF, leukocyte adhesion, Th1 polarization, T cell activation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B, and other miscellaneous therapies are being evaluated as potential therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. In this context, infliximab and adalimumab are currently the only biologic agents approved in Europe for the treatment of inflammatory Crohn’s disease. Other anti-TNF biologic agents have emerged, including CDP571, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, onercept. However, ongoing research continues to generate new biologic agents targeted at specific pathogenic mechanism involved in the inflammatory process. Lymphocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by adhesion molecules are important in leukocyte migration and recruitment to sites of inflammation, and selective blockade of these adhesion molecules is a novel and promising strategy to treat Crohn’s disease. Therapeutics agents to inhibit leukocyte trafficking include natalizumab (approved for use in Crohn’s disease in USA, MLN-02, and ISIS 2302. Other agents being investigated for the treatment of Crohn’s disease include inhibitors of T cell activation, proinflammatory cytokine receptors, Th1 polarization, growth hormone, and growth factors. Agents being investigated for treatment of ulcerative colitis include many of those mentioned above. Controlled clinical trials are currently being conducted, exploring the safety and efficacy of old and new biologic agents, and the search certainly will open new and exciting perspective on the development of therapies for inflammatory bowel disease. A review is made of the main areas of research exploring the mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of IBD, providing advances in the agents currently in use, and identifying a host of new therapeutic biologic targets.Keywords: Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, biological therapy

  18. ESTUDO DA MUCOSA ENTERAL DE RESERVATÓRIOS EM "J" EM CÃES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SANDRA PEDROSO DE, MORAES; AMAURY JOSÉ TEIXEIRA, NIGRO; JOSÉ ALFREDO DOS, REIS NETO; FLÁVIO ANTONIO, QUILICI; MIRALVA APARECIDA DE JESUS, SILVA.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A proctocolectomia total com reservatório enteral é a principal técnica utilizada para o tratamento operatório de algumas doenças do intestino grosso. Com o objetivo de estudar as características da mucosa enteral de reservatórios em J, foram operados 36 cães. Após a ressecção de 5 cm do jejunum cau [...] dalis, para estudo-controle, os cães foram separados em dois grupos (GI e GII). No GI, foi realizada anastomose êntero-enteral término-terminal; no GII, foi feito um reservatório na forma de "J" no segmento cranialis, que foi anastomosado ao segmento caudalis da mesma forma que no GI. Aos 21, 42 e 63 dias de pós-operatório, foi realizada eutanásia de 6 cães de cada grupo para estudos macroscópico e microscópico, incluindo-se contagens celulares e medidas da lâmina própria da mucosa enteral. Os resultados revelaram, aos 21 dias, edema e enantema, à macroscopia, e necrose à microscopia, em freqüências semelhantes nos dois grupos. Aos 42 e 63 dias, essas alterações diminuiram ou desapareceram no GI e persistiram no GII. Somente neste último foram observadas úlceras à macroscopia aos 21 dias (2 cães) e 42 dias (1 cão). Não houve diferença significante à presença de abscesso, à microscopia, nos dois grupos. Na contagem celular, já aos 21 dias houve aumento da densidade volumétrica de neutrófilos, macrófagos, eosinófilos, plasmócitos e linfócitos nos dois grupos. Todas as células, exceto eosinófilos, apresentavam-se com densidade volumétrica significantemente maior no GII, aos 63 dias. O diâmetro transversal da lâmina própria, excluindo a altura dos vilos, apresentou-se significantemente maior no GII aos 63 dias de pós-operatório. Concluiu-se que a mucosa enteral de reservatórios em J, em cães, apresenta modificações do padrão de normalidade macroscópica e microscópica, entre as quais o aumento da densidade volumétrica de células inflamatórias. Abstract in english Total proctocolectomy with enteral reservoir is, at present, the best technique used for the surgical treatment of some large intestine diseases involving the whole colon. In order to study the characteristics of the "J" reservoir enteral mucosa, thirty-six dogs underwent surgery. After resection of [...] 5cm of the jejunum caudalis the animals were divided into two equal groups (GI and GII) for study-control. In GI, an entero-enteral end-to-end anastomosis was performed; in GII, a "J" reservoir was performed in the cranialis segment of the jejunum and this pouch was anastomosed end-to-end to the jejunun caudalis (similar to GI). On the 21st, 42nd and 63rd postoperative days, six animals of each group were sacrificed for macro and microscopic studies, including cellular counting and the measuring of the enteral mucosa lamina propria. On the 21st day, both groups showed oedema and erythema on macroscopic examination, and necrosis under microscopy in similar numbers. On the 42nd and 63rd days, these alterations decreased or disappeared in GI and persisted in GII. Only in the latter group, on macroscopy, ulcers were observed on the 21st day (2 dogs) and on the 42nd day (1 dog). In both groups there was no significant difference as to the incidence of abscess under microscopy. On the 21st day there was an increase of the volumetric density of neutrophils polymorph, macrophages, eosinophils, plasma cells and lymphocites in both groups. All the cells, except the eosinophils, showed a significant enlargement of the volumetric density in GII on the 63rd day. The transversal diameter of lamina propria, except for the villi height, was significantly larger in GII on the 63rd postoperative day. It was concluded that the enteral mucosa of the "J" reservoir in dogs shows alterations of the normal pattern of macroscopy and microscopy, including the volumetric density enlargement of the inflammatory cells.

  19. Differential patterns of histone acetylation in inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adcock Ian M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifications of histones, particularly acetylation, are associated with the regulation of inflammatory gene expression. We used two animal models of inflammation of the bowel and biopsy samples from patients with Crohn's disease (CD to study the expression of acetylated histones (H 3 and 4 in inflamed mucosa. Acetylation of histone H4 was significantly elevated in the inflamed mucosa in the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of colitis particularly on lysine residues (K 8 and 12 in contrast to non-inflamed tissue. In addition, acetylated H4 was localised to inflamed tissue and to Peyer's patches (PP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-treated rat models. Within the PP, H3 acetylation was detected in the mantle zone whereas H4 acetylation was seen in both the periphery and the germinal centre. Finally, acetylation of H4 was significantly upregulated in inflamed biopsies and PP from patients with CD. Enhanced acetylation of H4K5 and K16 was seen in the PP. These results demonstrate that histone acetylation is associated with inflammation and may provide a novel therapeutic target for mucosal inflammation.

  20. Intestinal anisakiasis as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Gotaro; Usuki, Shinichiro; Mizokami, Ken; Tanabe, Marianne; Machi, Junji

    2013-09-01

    Anisakiasis, a parasitic infection by larvae of the nematode Anisakis found in raw or undercooked saltwater fish, mostly involves stomach but rarely small intestine. We report a rare case of a 61-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and developed small bowel obstruction caused by intestinal anisakiasis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed segmental edema of the intestinal wall with proximal dilatation. The patient underwent urgent laparotomy because strangulated small bowel obstruction was suspected. A localized portion of the intestine around jejunoileal junction was found to be erythematous, edematous, and hardened, which was resected. The resected specimen showed a linear whitish worm, Anisakis simplex, penetrating into the intestinal mucosa. It is often clinically challenging to consider intestinal anisakiasis in the differential diagnosis because of its nonspecific abdominal symptoms and findings. Although gastrointestinal anisakiasis is still rare in the United States, the incidence is expected to rise given the growing popularity of Japanese cuisine such as sushi or sashimi. Anisakiasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients with nonspecific abdominal symptoms after consumption of raw or undercooked fish. PMID:23786678

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Bijkerk, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with a change in bowel habit, or with features of disordered defecation. Patients and doctors in primary care generally agree on IBS symptomatology and consider pain and bloating as its main features. Consultation behaviour is mainly driven by the severity of IBS symptomatology, rather than by its impact on quality of life or psychological distress. Irritable bowel syndrome is ass...

  2. Weight loss and morphometric study of intestinal mucosa in rats after massive intestinal resection: influence of a glutamine-enriched diet Perda de peso e estudo morfométrico da mucosa intestinal de ratos submetidos à ressecção subtotal de intestino delgado: influência do uso de dieta com glutamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Resende Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-bowel syndrome is responsible for significant metabolic alterations that compromise nutritional status. Glutamine is considered an essential nutrient for enterocytes, so beneficial effects from supplementation of the diet with glutamine are hypothesized. PURPOSE: In this study, the effect of a diet enriched with glutamine was evaluated in rats undergoing extensive small bowel resection, with analysis of postoperative weight loss and intestinal morphometrics of villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the duodenal and remnant jejunal mucosa. METHODS: Three groups of male Wistar rats were established receiving the following diets: with glutamine, without glutamine, and the standard diet of laboratory ration. All animals underwent an extensive small bowel resection, including the ileocecal valve, leaving a remnant jejunum of only 25 cm from the pylorus that was anastomosed lateral-laterally to the ascendant colon. The animals were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment (20th postoperative day. Then they were killed and the remnant intestine was removed. Fragments of duodenal and jejunal mucosa were collected from the remnant intestine and submitted to histopathologic exam. The morphometric study of the intestinal mucosa was accomplished using a digital system (KS 300 connected to an optic microscope. Morphometrics included villi height, crypt depth, and the total thickness of intestinal mucosa. RESULTS: The weight loss comparison among the 3 groups showed no significant loss difference. The morphometric studies showed significantly taller duodenal villi in the glutamine group in comparison to the without glutamine group, but not different from the standard diet group. The measurements obtained comparing the 3 groups for villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the remnant jejunum mucosa were greater in the glutamine-enriched diet group than for the without-glutamine diet group, though not significantly different from with standard-diet group. CONCLUSIONS: In rats with experimentally produced short-bowel syndrome, glutamine-enrichment of an isonitrogenous test diet was associated with an improved adaptation response by the intestinal mucosa but not reduced weight loss. However, the adaptation response in the group receiving the glutamine-enriched diet was not improved over that for the group fed regular chow.A síndrome do intestino curto é responsável por alterações metabólicas que comprometem o estado nutricional do paciente. A glutamina é nutriente essencial para os enterócitos. OBJETIVOS: Estudou-se o efeito da administração de dieta com glutamina, em ratos submetidos à ressecção subtotal do intestino delgado, avaliando a perda de peso pós-operatória e a morfometria da mucosa intestinal. MÉTODOS: Foram constituídos três grupos de ratos Wistar machos recebendo as seguintes dietas: com glutamina (grupo EG, sem glutamina (grupo EsG, e a dieta padrão do laboratório (grupo ER. A ressecção intestinal foi realizada em todos os animais incluindo-se a válvula íleo-cecal, com remanescente jejunal de apenas 25cm a partir do piloro, anastomosado látero-lateralmente ao cólon ascendente. A diferença entre o peso inicial real e ao final do experimento no 20º dia pós-operatório foi registrada antes do sacrifício. Fragmentos de mucosa do duodeno e jejuno foram colhidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Realizou-se o estudo morfométrico da mucosa intestinal, por meio de sistema digital associado ao microscópio ótico. Mediu-se a altura das vilosidades, a profundidade das criptas e a extensão total da mucosa intestinal. RESULTADOS: A perda de peso entre os três grupos não diferiu estatisticamente. A análise da morfometria da mucosa intestinal mostrou diferença significativa: 1 animais do grupo Enterectomia com Glutamina (EG apresentaram vilosidade duodenal significativamente maior que o grupo EsG (p< 0,05, mas não diferiram do grupo que recebeu dieta padrão do laboratório (ER; 2 nas medidas da vilosidade jejunal, cripta jejunal e mucosa jejunal, o grup

  3. Genetics of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Dermot P B; Kugathasan, Subra; Cho, Judy H

    2015-10-01

    In this review, we provide an update on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, we summarize progress in defining the functional consequences of associated alleles for coding and noncoding genetic variation. In the small minority of loci where major association signals correspond to nonsynonymous variation, we summarize studies defining their functional effects and implications for therapeutic targeting. Importantly, the large majority of GWAS-associated loci involve noncoding variation, many of which modulate levels of gene expression. Recent expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have established that the expression of most human genes is regulated by noncoding genetic variations. Significant advances in defining the epigenetic landscape have demonstrated that IBD GWAS signals are highly enriched within cell-specific active enhancer marks. Studies in European ancestry populations have dominated the landscape of IBD genetics studies, but increasingly, studies in Asian and African-American populations are being reported. Common variation accounts for only a modest fraction of the predicted heritability and the role of rare genetic variation of higher effects (ie, odds ratios markedly deviating from 1) is increasingly being identified through sequencing efforts. These sequencing studies have been particularly productive in more severe very early onset cases. A major challenge in IBD genetics will be harnessing the vast array of genetic discovery for clinical utility through emerging precision medical initiatives. In this article, we discuss the rapidly evolving area of direct-to-consumer genetic testing and the current utility of clinical exome sequencing, especially in very early onset, severe IBD cases. We summarize recent progress in the pharmacogenetics of IBD with respect to partitioning patient responses to anti-TNF and thiopurine therapies. Highly collaborative studies across research centers and across subspecialties and disciplines will be required to fully realize the promise of genetic discovery in IBD. PMID:26255561

  4. Epithelial restitution and wound healing in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sturm, Axel U Dignass

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. The mucosal epithelium of the alimentary tract constitutes a key element of the mucosal barrier to a broad spectrum of deleterious substances present within the intestinal lumen including bacterial microorganisms, various dietary factors, gastrointestinal secretory products and drugs. In addition, this mucosal barrier can be disturbed in the course of various intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. Fortunately, the integrity of the gastrointestinal surface epithelium is rapidly reestablished even after extensive destruction. Rapid resealing of the epithelial barrier following injuries is accomplished by a process termed epithelial restitution, followed by more delayed mechanisms of epithelial wound healing including increased epithelial cell proliferation and epithelial cell differentiation. Restitution of the intestinal surface epithelium is modulated by a range of highly divergent factors among them a broad spectrum of structurally distinct regulatory peptides, variously described as growth factors or cytokines. Several regulatory peptide factors act from the basolateral site of the epithelial surface and enhance epithelial cell restitution through TGF-?-dependent pathways. In contrast, members of the trefoil factor family (TFF peptides appear to stimulate epithelial restitution in conjunction with mucin glycoproteins through a TGF-?-independent mechanism from the apical site of the intestinal epithelium. In addition, a number of other peptide molecules like extracellular matrix factors and blood clotting factors and also non-peptide molecules including phospholipids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, adenine nucleotides, trace elements and pharmacological agents modulate intestinal epithelial repair mechanisms. Repeated damage and injury of the intestinal surface are key features of various intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases and require constant repair of the epithelium. Enhancement of intestinal repair mechanisms by regulatory peptides or other modulatory factors may provide future approaches for the treatment of diseases that are characterized by injuries of the epithelial surface.

  5. Scintigraphic diagnosis of small-bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide studies have an established place in the evaluation of small bowel disease; in particular they allow the demonstration of active bowel bleeding with the aid of labeled erythrocytes and the diagnosis of an inflammatory bowel process or formation of an abscess with the aid of labeled leukocytes. (orig.)

  6. Grading the Quality of Bowel Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn J.B. Van Weyenberg

    2014-01-01

    The optimal grading scale uses objective terminology, is validated, and informs both on segmental as overall bowel preparation quality. The Boston bowel preparation scale fulfils all these criteria, making it the most uses bowel preparation scale in colorectal cancer screening programs.

  7. Scintigraphic diagnosis of inflammatory small bowel stenoses in Crohn's disease using 111In-labelled leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    17 patients with known small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease (clinically active, n=14; clinically inactive, n=3) were examined within 8 days via barium enemas of the small bowel (Pansdorf's method or enteroclysma) and by 111In-oxin labelled leucocytes. From 19 radiologically diagnosed small bowel stenoses 14 were classified as inflammatory and 5 as non-inflammatory. The leucocyte scan also showed 14 inflammatory stenoses. The not inflamed stenoses could not be diagnosed scintigraphically. The barium enemas of the small bowel and the leukocyte scans both correctly diagnosed the acute inflamed segments. The inability to show non-inflamed segments (n=5) and to localise small bowel stenoses exactly is disadvantageous in the scan. The advantage of the leucocyte scan is a non invasive examination without specific bowel preparation and the possibility to diagnose additionally inflamed large bowel segments (n=4), fistulas and abscesses (n=2). The leucocyte scan offers a useful expansion of the diagnostic tools in small bowel diseases, especially in radiological problems in patients with Crohn's disease. (orig.)

  8. Efeitos da injeção de solução bicarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico em mucosa colorretal de coelhos, com vistas a aplicação no preparo pré-operatório do cólon / Local effects of rectal washout with acetylsalicylic acid solution on the colonic mucosa of rabbits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrico Salomão, Ioriatti; Maria A. M., Rodrigues; Juliana Menezes, Siqueira; Rogério Saad, Hossne.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A recidiva local no câncer colorretal tem como principal causa o implante de células tumorais nas anastomoses. 11-15 Dessa maneira, lavagem química do lúmen intestinal é preconizada para evitar tanto o implante quanto à recidiva local. 11-28 Em estudos prévios constatamos que a solução b [...] icarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico tem efeitos citolíticos e anti-tumorais in-vitro.31 OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a toxicidade da solução de aspirina na mucosa colônica de coelhos com o objetivo de usá-la no preparo intestinal de portadores de câncer colorretal. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 coelhos. Um clampe vascular foi colocado acima do cólon sigmóide. Os animais foram submetidos a um enema com 50 ml da solução de aspirina ou soro fisiológico de acordo com o grupo. Os animais foram sacrificados ao término do procedimento ou tardiamente de acordo com o grupo. RESULTADOS: A solução de aspirina não altera a mucosa colônica de coelhos. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da solução bicarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico no preparo intestinal de portadores de câncer colorretal é clinicamente possível. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The implantation of viable exfoliated intraluminal tumour cells is the major cause of local recurrence in colorectal cancer. 11-28 Therefore, the bowel lumen wash with a tumoricidal agent has been recommended. 11-28 In previous study we observe that acetylsalicylic acid solution cause ne [...] oplastic cell death in vitro.31 PURPOSE: Assess the local effect of acetylsalicylic acid solution on the colonic mucosa of rabbits, in order to use this agent in the bowel lumen wash. METHODS: 20 rabbits were used. A vascular clamp was placed on the distal colon, followed by the instillation per rectum of 50 ml of acetylsalicylic acid solution or saline solution, according to the group. The euthanasia was performed immediately or later according to the group. RESULTS: The acetylsalicylic acid solution doesn't cause any injury on the colonic mucosa of rabbits. Conclusion: The use of acetylsalicylic acid solution in the bowel lumen wash seems clinically feasible.

  9. Untreated celiac disease in a patient with dermatitis herpetiformis leading to a small bowel carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikx, Monique H M; Bisseling, Tanya M

    2012-01-01

    Usually, celiac disease has a benign course, though the overall morbidity and mortality have increased. Treatment with a gluten-free diet restores the damaged intestinal mucosa. In rare cases a small bowel adenocarcinoma develops. Unfortunately, the clinical presentation is not always recognized and prognosis is bad. We present a 69-year-old man with a history of dermatitis herpetiformis who presented to our tertiary center for a second opinion for a suspected gastric motility disorder. This diagnosis was based on the combination of upper abdominal pain for over 2 years and repetitive episodes of vomiting. Immediately after referral, celiac disease was diagnosed and a gluten-free diet was started. In the next half year of follow-up, additional anemia and weight loss developed and eventually a small bowel adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Revision of a small bowel follow-through, which had been performed 2 years earlier, showed that the tube had been positioned just distal from the process. Therefore, this diagnosis had not been made at that time. Unfortunately, curative therapy was not possible and the patient died a few months later. In conclusion, all patients with dermatitis herpetiformis have a gluten-sensitive enteropathy and should be treated with a gluten-free diet. Next to this it is important to notice that patients with celiac disease have an increased risk of developing a small bowel malignancy. Unexplained upper abdominal pain, weight loss and anemia should lead to additional investigations to exclude a small bowel malignancy in these patients. At last, the diagnosis of a small bowel carcinoma is difficult. Together with the radiologist, the optimal techniques for visualization of this malignancy should be considered. PMID:22379467

  10. Pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on intestinal mucosa: Not just trefoil peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios F Assimakopoulos, Chrisoula D Scopa, Vassiliki N Nikolopoulou, Constantine E Vagianos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bombesin and neurotensin are neuropeptides which exert a wide spectrum of biological actions on gastrointestinal tissues influencing intestinal growth and adaptation, intestinal motility, blood flow, secretion, nutrient absorption and immune response. Based mainly on their well-established potent enterotrophic effect, numerous experimental studies investigated their potential positive effect on the atrophic or injured intestinal mucosa. These peptides proved to be effective mucosa-healing factors, but the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms for this action remained unresolved. In a recently published study (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14(8: 1222-1230, it was shown that their protective effect on the intestine in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease was related to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions. These results are in close agreement with our previous studies on jaundiced and hepatectomized rats that showed a regulatory effect of bombesin and neurotensin on critical cellular processes such as enterocyte’ proliferation and death, oxidative stress and redox equilibrium, tight junctions’ formation and function, and inflammatory response. The pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on diverse types of intestinal injury may justify their consideration for clinical trials.

  11. CT enteroclysis in small bowel Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease has changed dramatically over the last decade. The introduction of wireless capsule endoscopy, double balloon endoscopy and the introduction of newer therapeutic agents have changed the role of imaging in the small bowel. Additionally, advances in multidetector CT technology have further changed how radiologic investigations are utilized in the diagnosis and management of small bowel Crohn's disease. This article describes how we perform CT enteroclysis in the investigation of small bowel Crohn's disease and discusses the role of CT enteroclysis in the current management of small bowel Crohn's disease.

  12. Short Bowel Syndrome: clinical management

    OpenAIRE

    Loris Pironi; Mariacristina Guidetti; Elisabetta Lanzoni; Caterina Pazzeschi; Catia Corsini

    2013-01-01

    The management of a case of intestinal failure due to Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) is described. Patients’ care needs an expert multidisciplinary approach. Published data have demonstrated that the lack of a specialist staff is a risk factor for patients’ death. The creation of networks linking non-specialist doctors with dedicated centers is recommended.

  13. Investigation of bowels adjacent to the uterus using MRI. For relief of bowel complications following intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracavitary brachytherapy occasionally causes bowel injuries other than rectum. To relieve these adverse events, we investigated the relationships between uterine bodies and surrounding bowels using MRI. A hundred and ten of serial 252 pelvic MRI of women, excluding the following, were reviewed. The excluded items were large intrapelvic extrauterine masses over 3.5 cm in greater diameter, large uterine corpus masses over 2 cm, three or more uterine corpus masses, past history of hysterectomy or rectocolonic resection, and massive ascites. We investigated the fundus-bowel distance (FBD), site of the nearest bowel to the uterine body, flexion type and deviation of uterus, uterine wall thickness, subcutaneous fat thickness and age. FBD ranged from 8 to 42 mm (20.2±8.2 mm). In 66 cases (60%), FBD was 20 mm or less. The sites of the nearest bowel were 67 sigmoid colons, 27 rectums, 8 small intestines, and 7 descending colons. Eighty-three uteri (75.5%) were anteflexion and 27 uteri (24.5%) were retroflexion. Of the anteflexion group, 78.3% were adjacent to the sigmoid colon, and 92.6% of the retroflexion group were adjacent to rectum. Right-deviation uteri represented 33 cases (30%); mid-position 33, (30%); and left-deviation uteri, 44 (40%). Uterine wall thickness was 5 to 33 mm (17.8±5.2). Subcutaneous fat thickness was 10 to 47 mm (20.2±9.3). The age of patients ranged from 21 to 83 years (39.9±14.4). FBD showed statistical good correlation to uterine wall thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness. In anteflexion group, correlation of uterine wall thickness with FBD was significant. In retroflexion group, however, it was not significant. The site of bowels, flexion type, and deviation type did not correlate with FBD. FBD, uterine wall thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness showed regression of quadric curves with age; these peaked at ages 50.4, 46.0 and 46.2, respectively. It is presumed that predictive factors of bowel complication are thin uterine wall, young and aged, thin patients and retroflexion uterus. Uterine deviation does not shorten FBD. To relieve a radiation injury to bowels adjacent to the uterine fundus, the isodose curve must be decrease the irradiation dose of the tandem tip. At this time we conformed so as to recommend refering to MRI, CT and ultrasonography to detect the uterine wall thickness and the involved area of primary carcinoma. Retroflexion uterus as should be reformed to anteflexion by hard tandem applicator. Laterally-deviated uteruses should be adjusted such that they lie within the central shielding zone of the external beam. (author)

  14. Fetal bowel anomalies - US and MR assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubesova, Erika [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The technical quality of prenatal US and fetal MRI has significantly improved during the last decade and allows an accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology prenatally. Accurate diagnosis of bowel pathology in utero is important for parental counseling and postnatal management. It is essential to recognize the US presentation of bowel pathology in the fetus in order to refer the patient for further evaluation or follow-up. Fetal MRI has been shown to offer some advantages over US for specific bowel abnormalities. In this paper, we review the normal appearance of the fetal bowel on US and MRI as well as the typical presentations of bowel pathologies. We discuss more specifically the importance of recognizing on fetal MRI the abnormalities of size and T1-weighted signal of the meconium-filled distal bowel. (orig.)

  15. Weight loss and morphometric study of intestinal mucosa in rats after massive intestinal resection: influence of a glutamine-enriched diet / Perda de peso e estudo morfométrico da mucosa intestinal de ratos submetidos à ressecção subtotal de intestino delgado: influência do uso de dieta com glutamina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sidney Resende, Ribeiro; Paulo Engler, Pinto Júnior; Ariney Costa de, Miranda; Sansom Henrique, Bromberg; Fábio Pinatel, Lopasso; Kiyoshi, Irya.

    Full Text Available A síndrome do intestino curto é responsável por alterações metabólicas que comprometem o estado nutricional do paciente. A glutamina é nutriente essencial para os enterócitos. OBJETIVOS: Estudou-se o efeito da administração de dieta com glutamina, em ratos submetidos à ressecção subtotal do intestin [...] o delgado, avaliando a perda de peso pós-operatória e a morfometria da mucosa intestinal. MÉTODOS: Foram constituídos três grupos de ratos Wistar machos recebendo as seguintes dietas: com glutamina (grupo EG), sem glutamina (grupo EsG), e a dieta padrão do laboratório (grupo ER). A ressecção intestinal foi realizada em todos os animais incluindo-se a válvula íleo-cecal, com remanescente jejunal de apenas 25cm a partir do piloro, anastomosado látero-lateralmente ao cólon ascendente. A diferença entre o peso inicial real e ao final do experimento no 20º dia pós-operatório foi registrada antes do sacrifício. Fragmentos de mucosa do duodeno e jejuno foram colhidos e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Realizou-se o estudo morfométrico da mucosa intestinal, por meio de sistema digital associado ao microscópio ótico. Mediu-se a altura das vilosidades, a profundidade das criptas e a extensão total da mucosa intestinal. RESULTADOS: A perda de peso entre os três grupos não diferiu estatisticamente. A análise da morfometria da mucosa intestinal mostrou diferença significativa: 1) animais do grupo Enterectomia com Glutamina (EG) apresentaram vilosidade duodenal significativamente maior que o grupo EsG (p Abstract in english Short-bowel syndrome is responsible for significant metabolic alterations that compromise nutritional status. Glutamine is considered an essential nutrient for enterocytes, so beneficial effects from supplementation of the diet with glutamine are hypothesized. PURPOSE: In this study, the effect of a [...] diet enriched with glutamine was evaluated in rats undergoing extensive small bowel resection, with analysis of postoperative weight loss and intestinal morphometrics of villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the duodenal and remnant jejunal mucosa. METHODS: Three groups of male Wistar rats were established receiving the following diets: with glutamine, without glutamine, and the standard diet of laboratory ration. All animals underwent an extensive small bowel resection, including the ileocecal valve, leaving a remnant jejunum of only 25 cm from the pylorus that was anastomosed lateral-laterally to the ascendant colon. The animals were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment (20th postoperative day). Then they were killed and the remnant intestine was removed. Fragments of duodenal and jejunal mucosa were collected from the remnant intestine and submitted to histopathologic exam. The morphometric study of the intestinal mucosa was accomplished using a digital system (KS 300) connected to an optic microscope. Morphometrics included villi height, crypt depth, and the total thickness of intestinal mucosa. RESULTS: The weight loss comparison among the 3 groups showed no significant loss difference. The morphometric studies showed significantly taller duodenal villi in the glutamine group in comparison to the without glutamine group, but not different from the standard diet group. The measurements obtained comparing the 3 groups for villi height, crypt depth, and thickness of the remnant jejunum mucosa were greater in the glutamine-enriched diet group than for the without-glutamine diet group, though not significantly different from with standard-diet group. CONCLUSIONS: In rats with experimentally produced short-bowel syndrome, glutamine-enrichment of an isonitrogenous test diet was associated with an improved adaptation response by the intestinal mucosa but not reduced weight loss. However, the adaptation response in the group receiving the glutamine-enriched diet was not improved over that for the group fed regular chow.

  16. Bowel resection in Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur-Rahman L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Although bowel resections are commonly done for congenital malformations in children in developed countries, they usually follow neglected and preventable acquired diseases of the intestine in developing countries. Objectives : To determine the indications and outcome of bowel resections in children of a developing country in a university teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Data of the patients operated (from birth to 15 years was retrospectively collected over eight years (January 1999 to December 2006. The biodata of children included the following: Indications for operation, type of operations, duration of admission, and outcome of treatment including complications. Patients with Hirschsprung?s disease were excluded from the study because bowel resection forms part of their definitive surgical management. Results : There were 70 patients (38 boys and 32 girls. The age ranged between four hours to 15 years (median, five months. There were 16 (22.9% neonates, 26 (37.1% infants, and 28 (40% grown children. The indications were congenital anomalies in the 16 neonates. Also, 23 (88.5% infants had intussusception, 2 (7.7% had midgut vovulusm and 1 (3.8% had congenital small intestine band. Among the grown children, typhoid ileal perforation (TIP was seen in 14 (50.0%, intussusception in 5 (17.9%, and other causes in nine patients. Overall, intussusception was the most common indication for bowel resection, followed by TIP. A total of 24 patients developed 33 complications. Complications included wound infection in 47.8% and anastomotic leak in 42.8%. The duration of admission ranged between 4-35 days (median, 15 days. The overall mortality was 17.1% -; which was highest among neonates (56.3%, followed by the infants (26.9% -. Conclusion : Bowel resections are mainly done for intussusception and complications of TIP at our centre. Late presentation, preexisting malnutrition, and nonavailability of parenteral nutrition contributed to unacceptable morbidity and mortality.

  17. Divalent metal-ion transporter 1 is decreased in intestinal epithelial cells and contributes to the anemia in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wu; Yang Song; Chong He; Changqin Liu; Ruijin Wu; Leilei Fang; Yingzi Cong; Yinglei Miao; Zhanju Liu

    2015-01-01

    Divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) has been found to play an important role in the iron metabolism and hemogenesis. However, little is known about the potential role of DMT1 in the pathogenesis of anemia from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Herein, we investigated expression of DMT1 in the intestinal mucosa by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, and found that DMT1 was significantly decreased in the inflamed mucosa of activ...

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease: clinical aspects and treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhoury M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marc Fakhoury,1 Rebecca Negrulj,2 Armin Mooranian,2 Hani Al-Salami2 1Biomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Artificial Cells and Organs Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, School of Pharmacy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is defined as a chronic intestinal inflammation that results from host-microbial interactions in a genetically susceptible individual. IBDs are a group of autoimmune diseases that are characterized by inflammation of both the small and large intestine, in which elements of the digestive system are attacked by the body's own immune system. This inflammatory condition encompasses two major forms, known as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Patients affected by these diseases experience abdominal symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloody stools, and vomiting. Moreover, defects in intestinal epithelial barrier function have been observed in a number of patients affected by IBD. In this review, we first describe the types and symptoms of IBD and investigate the role that the epithelial barrier plays in the pathophysiology of IBD as well as the major cytokines involved. We then discuss steps used to diagnose this disease and the treatment options available, and finally provide an overview of the recent research that aims to develop new therapies for such chronic disorders. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, cytokines

  19. Bacteria, genetics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla F

    2010-06-01

    EVALUATION OF: Villani AC, Lemire M, Thabane M et al. Genetic risk factors for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome following a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 138, 1502-1513 (2010). While the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains to be fully defined, two clinical observations - the occurrence, de novo, of IBS following bacterial gastroenteritis and the history, commonly obtained from IBS patients, of other instances of the syndrome within their families - have instigated investigations, in IBS, of the potential roles, on the one hand, of the gut microbiota and the host response and, on the other hand, of genetic factors. The study reviewed here relates to both of these factors by studying genetic predisposition to postinfective IBS in a large population of individuals who were exposed to a multimicrobial enteric infection, which resulted in a severe outbreak of gastroenteritis and was followed by the development of IBS in over a third. In this detailed study, the investigators identified a number of genes that were linked significantly to the development of postinfectious-IBS in the Toll-like receptor 9, IL-6 and cadherin 1 regions. These genes play important roles in bacterial recognition, the inflammatory response and epithelial integrity, respectively, and provide considerable support for the hypothesis that links IBS onset to disturbances in the microbiota and the host response.

  20. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... soda, especially those that contain artificial sweeteners (like sorbitol) or high-fructose corn syrup Alcohol Some fruits ... helps IBS symptoms, but it can help treat dehydration that sometimes happens with diarrhea. Avoiding large meals, ...

  1. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Sanjay Balwant; Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Joshi, Pankaj Mangalkumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to ...

  2. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred totwo hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire(FFQ and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve tofind the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis.Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024.Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honeyamount - 0.533(honey amount2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount7.Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis ingastric mucosa.

  3. Inactivation of corticosteroids in intestinal mucosa by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid: NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146) in human intestinal mucosa was determined by incubating scraped mucosa with 3H-cortisone and 14C-cortisol; these steroids were then extracted, separated chromatographically, and the radioactivity assayed to determine simultaneously both reductase and dehydrogenase activities. This was the only significant metabolic alteration which the substrate underwent. Only two cases had slight (5 and 13%) reductase activity. In 35 patients, 16 male and 19 female, including seven cases of Crohn's disease, three ulcerative colitis, five diverticulitis, two undergoing surgery for repair of injuries and 18 for carcinoma of colon or rectum, cortisol was converted to cortisone in 15 min with a wide range of values distributed uniformly up to 85% dehydrogenation, with a mean of 42%. When tissue homogenates were fortified with coenzymes, excess NADPH lowered dehydrogenase activity 81%; excess NADP increased dehydrogenase activity 2-fold in three cases. It is possible that a value is characteristic of an individual but perhaps more likely enzyme activity varies with metabolic events involving changes in the coenzyme levels in mucosa, and a random sampling might be expected to yield such a distribution of values. In any event, where activity is high most of the cortisol is inactivated within minutes. It is suggested that synthetic corticoids which escape such metabolic alteration might, except during pregnancy, prove superior in the treatment of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease

  4. Inactivation of corticosteroids in intestinal mucosa by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid: NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1. 1. 1. 146)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, A.F.; Anderson, F.H.

    1983-10-01

    Activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146) in human intestinal mucosa was determined by incubating scraped mucosa with /sup 3/H-cortisone and /sup 14/C-cortisol; these steroids were then extracted, separated chromatographically, and the radioactivity assayed to determine simultaneously both reductase and dehydrogenase activities. This was the only significant metabolic alteration which the substrate underwent. Only two cases had slight (5 and 13%) reductase activity. In 35 patients, 16 male and 19 female, including seven cases of Crohn's disease, three ulcerative colitis, five diverticulitis, two undergoing surgery for repair of injuries and 18 for carcinoma of colon or rectum, cortisol was converted to cortisone in 15 min with a wide range of values distributed uniformly up to 85% dehydrogenation, with a mean of 42%. When tissue homogenates were fortified with coenzymes, excess NADPH lowered dehydrogenase activity 81%; excess NADP increased dehydrogenase activity 2-fold in three cases. It is possible that a value is characteristic of an individual but perhaps more likely enzyme activity varies with metabolic events involving changes in the coenzyme levels in mucosa, and a random sampling might be expected to yield such a distribution of values. In any event, where activity is high most of the cortisol is inactivated within minutes. It is suggested that synthetic corticoids which escape such metabolic alteration might, except during pregnancy, prove superior in the treatment of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. Innate mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serriari, N-E; Eoche, M; Lamotte, L; Lion, J; Fumery, M; Marcelo, P; Chatelain, D; Barre, A; Nguyen-Khac, E; Lantz, O; Dupas, J-L; Treiner, E

    2014-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by a deregulated immune response targeting the gut bacterial flora. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib-restricted innate-like lymphocytes with anti-bacterial functions. They display an effector/memory phenotype and are found in large numbers in the blood, mucosae and liver. They have also been implicated in inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Therefore, we aimed to analyse the possible involvement of MAIT cells in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). To this end, a phenotypical and functional analysis of MAIT cells isolated from the blood of healthy subjects, CD and UC patients was undertaken. MAIT cells were also quantified in ileal biopsies of CD patients. The frequency of blood MAIT cells was specifically reduced in IBD patients compared with healthy donors, whereas it was dramatically greater in the inflamed versus healthy tissue. MAIT cells were activated as they expressed significantly more the Ki67 antigen, and this was accompanied by phenotypical changes such as increased expression of natural killer (NK)G2D and B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA). Finally, in-vitro-activated MAIT cells from CD and UC patients secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-17, together with a decreased interferon (IFN)-? in CD but an increased IL-22 in UC. These data show that MAIT cells are activated in IBD, which results in an increased recruitment towards the inflamed tissues, an altered phenotype and a switch in the pattern of cytokine secretion. This is the first demonstration that MAIT cells are immune players in IBD, whose precise functions in this context need to be addressed. PMID:24450998

  6. Differences of microbiota in small bowel and faeces between irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Chang, Pi-Feng; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Lee, Tzong-Hsi; Chen, Yun; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Ni, Yen-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Objective Several studies suggested that colonic microbiota have impacts on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. However, the knowledge about the association of small intestine (SI) microbiota with IBS is limited. We aimed to investigate the gut microbiota composition of SI and stool in IBS patients. Materials and methods Biopsies of jejunum mucosa by balloon-assisted enteroscopy and faecal samples from 28 IBS patients and 19 healthy controls were analysed by next-generation sequencing method. Results The three major phyla in SI microbiota of case/control groups were Proteobacteria (32.8/47.7%), Bacteroidetes (25.2/15.3%), and Firmicutes (19.8/11.2%), and those of stool were Bacteroidetes (41.3/45.8%), Firmicutes (40.7/38.2%), and Proteobacteria (15.4/7.1%). Analysis based on the family level, IBS patients had a higher proportion of Veillonellaceae (mean proportion 6.49% versus 2.68%, p = 0.046) in stool than controls. Prevotellaceae was more abundant in IBS patients than in control group (14.27% versus 6.13%, p = 0.023), while Mycobacteriaceae (0.06% versus 0.17%, p = 0.024) and Neisseriaceae (6.40% versus 8.94%, p = 0.038) was less abundant in IBS patients' jejunal mucosa than those in controls. This less abundant jejunal Neisseriaceae was associated with more severe IBS (p = 0.03). The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in the stool of IBS-diarrhoea type patients was approximately three-fold higher, and the ratio of Firmicutes to Actinobacter in SI of IBS-mixed type patients was about nine-fold higher than healthy subjects. Conclusion Higher abundance of colonic Veillonellaceae and SI Prevotellaceae, and lower amount of oral cavity normal flora in proximal SI were found in IBS patients. We may manipulate these bacteria in IBS patients in future studies (ClinicalTrial.gov Number NCT01679730). PMID:26595305

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgell, R E; Asthana, A K; Gibson, P R

    2015-12-01

    Ongoing troublesome bowel symptoms despite quiescent inflammatory disease are a frequent management challenge when caring for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Even when active disease has been excluded the prevalence of residual gastrointestinal symptoms is surprisingly high and the cause often obscure. The presence of a concurrent functional disorder such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with worse quality of life, worse physical functioning, higher prevalence of anxiety and greater health care utilization. Potential etiological mechanisms leading to the development of IBS like symptoms include the development of visceral hypersensitivity following the original inflammatory insult, alteration in cortical processing, dysbiosis and residual subacute inflammation. Therapeutic options for managing IBS in patients with IBD include dietary modification, interventions targeted at correction of visceral sensory dysfunction or cortical processing and modulation of the gut microbiota. As there are few studies specifically examining the treatment of IBS in patients with IBD, the majority of therapeutic interventions are extrapolated from the IBS literature. Given the frequency of residual functional symptoms in IBS, significantly more research is warranted in this field. PMID:26426460

  8. Photodynamic therapy of the rabbit bowel and bladder after installation and injection of delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA): uptake of protoporphyrin IX and depth of necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merguerian, Paul A.; Pugach, Jeff L.; Park, Jane; Sepers, Marja; Lilge, Lothar D.

    1999-06-01

    Management of neurogenic bladders with high pressures and poor compliance often requires surgical enlargement of the bladder utilizing small or large bowel or stomach. The bowel segments usually retain their absorptive and secretory properties causing several complications which include hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis for small and large bowel segments, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis for stomach segments, increased risk of bacteriuria, stone formation, altered hepatic metabolism and altered drug metabolism. There is also the potential risk of developing cancer at the anastomotic site.

  9. Comparing measures of acute bowel toxicity in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose This study strives to compare early measures of bowel toxicity in patients with prostate cancer receiving definitive or adjuvant 3D conformal external beam radiation therapy and concurrent daily endorectal application of amifostine. Methods Eighteen patients were enrolled in the clinical study with a median follow-up of 12 months. Prescription doses ranged from 66 Gy to 76 Gy with a daily fractionation of 2 Gy. Acute bowel toxicity was measured at baseline, at Weeks 5 and 7 of radiotherapy, and at 1 and 3 months after the completion of therapy. Measures of acute bowel toxicity included the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria, Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) self-assessment questionnaires, and proctoscopic examinations. Results The mean EPIC bowel scores changed significantly through the course of therapy and follow-up (p < 0.0001), with a progressive decrease in scores at Weeks 5 and 7 of treatment, a partial recovery at 3 months, and a correlation to the gold standard RTOG grade (p = 0.004). Proctoscopic toxicity scores were low, did not vary over time, and did not correlate with either EPIC or RTOG scores. Conclusion The EPIC questionnaire measurements are most sensitive to changes in acute bowel toxicity through a course of radiotherapy and correlate with RTOG acute toxicity scores. Endoscopic examination of the rectal mucosa at the end and immediate follow-up of a course of therapy does not seem to be informative or reproducible between observers in the acute setting

  10. MR findings of bowel ischemia with mesenteric vascular occlusion : comparison with pathologic findings in a cat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the characteristic MR findings for the early diagnosis of bowel ischemia, we analysed the dynamic enhanced MR images of ischemic bowel induced by mesenteric vascular occlusion in a cat model, and compared the T1-and T2-weighted images (W1) of extracted bowel with the pathologic findings. According to the ischemic period, twelve cats were assigned to either the normal control group (no ischemic period, N=3D2), the acute ischemic group (ligation of mesenteric vessels for 3 hours, n=3D6) or the subacute ischemic group (ligation of mesenteric vessels for 10 hours, n=3D4). Under general anesthesia, laparotomy was performed. The ileal artery and vein were ligated, and a columnar surface coil was applied to the expected bowel ischemia. Using a 4.7 T MR scanner, contrast-enhanced T1W1 were obtained, after bolus injection of contrast media, at 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 minutes. After formalin fixation of the extracted bowel, T1- and T2W1 were obtained, and the specimens were pathologically examined. MR signal intensity at each layer of the bowel wall was measured and compared with the histopathologic findings. On contrast enhanced MR images, the submucosal layer showed most intensive enhancement, followed-in decreasing order of signal intensity- by muscle and mucosa. Time to peak enhancement of bowel wall was 10-minutes in the normal control group, and 20 and 60 minutes in the acute and subacute bowel ischemia groups, respectively. On T1W1, no significant differences in signal intensity were observed between the ischemic group and the normal control group. On T2W1, the signal intensity of the submucosal layer of the acute ischemic group was significantly higher than that of the normal control or subacute ischemic group, and the signal intensity of the muscular layer of the ischemic group was significantly higher than that of the normal control group. Time to peak enhancement of bowel wall was a helpful criterion for assessment of the ischemic period. Analysis of the signal intensity of the bowel wall layer was useful for the early detection of bowel ischemia. (author)

  11. From bowel to kidneys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Nielsen, Rikke; Birn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Cubilin is a large endocytic receptor serving such diverse functions as the intestinal absorption of the intrinsic factor-B(12) complex and the renal proximal tubule reabsorption of filtered proteins including albumin, transferrin, vitamin D-binding protein and other important plasma carriers...

  12. Studies of the immunoglobulin-producing cells of the human intestine: the defunctioned bowel.

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesinha, S S; Steer, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase method was used to visualise immunoglobulin-containing cells in the large intestinal mucosa of 10 children who had defunctioning colostomies. Intestine deprived of its usual exposure to intraluminal antigens contained less immunocytes per unit area than intestinal mucosa subjected to normal stimulation by dietary and microbial antigens. These findings substantiate in man the conclusion based on observations made on animals that continued mucosal exposure to antige...

  13. Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol versus normal saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal surgeries frequently require bowel preparation. In children, (is this standard of care?: this method is mostly followed this is usually performed using normal saline, which is very cumbersome and causes unnecessary discomfort. This study compared polyethylene glycol (PEG with normal saline for preoperative bowel preparation in children. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients, admitted in the Department of Paediatric Surgery, Rajindra Hospital, Patiala, for colonic and colorectal surgical procedures, were divided into two groups, I (PEG and II (NS, randomly for bowel preparation with PEG and normal saline, respectively. Results: It was found that there was no significant difference in the quality of preparation (P > 0.05, but PEG use was found to be easier, more comfortable and acceptable for the patients, their relatives and the hospital staff. Overall, complications are significantly lesser for PEG preparation (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in the overall cost. Conclusion: Thus, it can be inferred that PEG may be a safe, cost-effective and acceptable option for large bowel preparation.

  14. Biomarkers of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Fengming; Wu Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease mostly involved with intestine with unknown etiology. Diagnosis, evaluation of severity, and prognosis are still present as challenges for physicians. An ideal biomarker with the characters such as simple, easy to perform, noninvasive or microinvasive, cheap, rapid, and reproducible is helpful for patients and clinicians. Currently biomarkers applied in clinic include CRP, ESR, pANCA, ASCA, and fecal calprotectin. However, they are far fro...

  15. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, A?P; Ouyang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    Enteric microflora profiles vary considerably between active inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and healthy conditions. Intestinal microflora may partake in the pathogenesis of IBD by one or some ways: specific pathogenic infection induces abnormal intestinal mucosal inflammation; aberrant microflora components trigger the onset of IBD; abnormal host immune response loses normal immune tolerance to luminal components; luminal antigens permeate through the defective mucosal barrier into mucosal...

  16. Short bowel syndrome in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matarese, Laura E; Jeppesen, Palle B; O'Keefe, Stephen J D

    2014-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a heterogeneous disorder with broad variation in disease severity arising from different types of intestinal resection. The spectrum of malabsorption ranges from intestinal insufficiency to intestinal failure. Individualized patient strategies involving modifications of dietary macro- and micronutrients, fluid, and pharmacologic options are required to maximize health and quality-of-life outcomes and to minimize complications and SBS-associated mortality. Intestinal...

  17. Counselling in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Graeme Drummond

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION; The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), affect well over 100,000 people in the United Kingdom Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is influenced by many factors in IBD including; the nature and severity of the disease, socio-economic factors, age, psychological well-being as well as· the efficacy and complications of treatment. PILOT STUDIES; Quality of life was assessed in 140 IBD patients (70 CD/70 UC). Diarrhoea was, not sur...

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease and osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Hans Steen; Rungby, J; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Mosekilde, L

    1997-01-01

    The relation between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and osteoporosis has received increasing attention during the past decade. The prevalence of low bone mass in patients with IBD has been reported to be more than 50%. The development of a quick non-invasive method to diagnose osteoporosis (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) provides a practical tool to identify the patient who needs special attention. The aetiology of the bone disease in patients with IBD has still not been elucidated, but cor...

  19. Immunopathology of inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Kori L; Zheng, Li-Bo; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Shih, David Q

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment, and the immune system. The host microbiome, as well as viruses and fungi, play important roles in the development of IBD either by causing inflammation directly or indirectly through an altered immune system. New technologies have allowed researchers to be able to quantify the various components of the microbiome, which will allow for future developments in the etiolog...

  20. Adhesive bowel obstruction? Not always

    OpenAIRE

    Mittapalli D; Sebastian B; Leung E; Barnes N; Senapati P S P

    2011-01-01

    A 58-year-old man presented acutely with features of post-surgical adhesive small bowel obstruction. Following an unsuccessful trial of conservative management, computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed. This revealed a mass in the ileocaecal region, for which he underwent a subsequent right hemicolectomy. Histology revealed diffuse B-cell Non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma of the terminal ileum. Confounding obstructive lesion of the intestine in patients with a history of previous lap...

  1. Neurostimulation for neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    WorsØe, J; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2013-01-01

    Background. Loss of normal bowel function caused by nerve injury, neurological disease or congenital defects of the nervous system is termed neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). It usually includes combinations of fecal incontinence, constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. When standard treatment of NBD fails surgical procedures are often needed. Neurostimulation has also been investigated, but no consensus exists about efficacy or clinical use. Methods. A systematic literature search of NBD treated by sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS), sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), peripheral nerve stimulation, magnetic stimulation, and nerve re-routing was made in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Results. SARS improves bowel function in some patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve re-routing is claimed to facilitate defecation through mechanical stimulation of dermatomes in patients with complete or incomplete SCI or myelomeningocele. SNS can reduce NBD in selected patients with a variety of incomplete neurological lesions. Peripheral stimulation using electrical stimulation or magnetic stimulation may represent non-invasive alternatives. Conclusion. Numerous methods of neurostimulation to treat NBD have been investigated in pilot studies or retrospective studies. Therefore, larger controlled trials with well-defined inclusion criteria and endpoints are recommended before widespread clinical use of neurostimulation against NBD.

  2. An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel. PMID:11043720

  3. From bowel to kidneys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Nielsen, Rikke; Birn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Cubilin is a large endocytic receptor serving such diverse functions as the intestinal absorption of the intrinsic factor-B(12) complex and the renal proximal tubule reabsorption of filtered proteins including albumin, transferrin, vitamin D-binding protein and other important plasma carriers. Cubilin is a structurally unique, peripheral membrane protein, which depends on the membrane protein amnionless (AMN) for correct apical translocation. In addition, AMN appears important for efficient inte...

  4. Nutritive support in short Bowel syndrome (sbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simi? Dušica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome most commonly result after bowel resection for necrosis of the bowel. It may be caused by arterial or venous thrombosis, volvolus and in children, necrotizing enterocolitis. The other causes are Crohn,s disease intestinal atresia. The factors influencing the risk on short bowel syndrome are the remaining length of the small bowel, the age of onset, the length of the colon, the presence or absence of the ileo-coecal valve and the time after resection. Besides nutritional deficiencies there some other consequences of extensive resections of the small intestine (gastric acid hypersecretion, d-lactic acidosis, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, which must be diagnosed, treated, and if possible, prevented. With current therapy most patients with short bowel have normal body mass index and good quality of life.

  5. Poor bowel preparation in patients undergoing colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, A; Ismail, S; Azmi, A; Murugan, P; Husin, M

    2000-06-01

    A prospective analysis of 500 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy at the endoscopy unit of Hospital UKM under the care of the surgical unit was analysed. All colonoscopies were supervised by one of two consultant surgeons. The bowel preparation was graded from grade 1 to 4 according to established criteria. All patients had 3 litres of colonic lavage solution as bowel preparation. One hundred and two patients (20.4%) were considered to have poor bowel preparation, while 398 patients (79.6%) had good bowel preparation. Statistically significant factors that resulted in poor bowel preparation included age 60 years (p<0.0001), and inpatients (p<0.0193). There was no significant difference in respect to sex, ethnic groups and the indication for colonoscopy. We conclude that young adults and the elderly as well as inpatients are more likely to have a poor bowel preparation using the standard regime. PMID:19839154

  6. Internal hernia and small bowel obstruction following open ileoanal pouch formation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Nair

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The case presented highlights the difficulty in making the diagnosis, and the pictures clearly indicate an unusual hernia passing directly behind the stomach and involving a large section of the small bowel. The lead up history of several admissions with sub acute small bowel obstruction suggested the underlying problem was adhesional but quite clearly there was a well defined internal hernia. Without timely surgery she would have been at high risk of losing her pouch.

  7. Systems Biology Approaches for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moco, Sofia; Candela, Marco; Chuang, Emil; Draper, Colleen; Cominetti, Ornella; Montoliu, Ivan; Barron, Denis; Kussmann, Martin; Brigidi, Patrizia; Gionchetti, Paolo; Martin, Francois-Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Although the prevalence of main idiopathic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has risen considerably over the last decades, their clinical features do not allow accurate prediction of prognosis, likelihood of disease progression, or response to specific therapy. Through a better...... understanding of the molecular pathways involved in IBD and the promise of more targeted therapies, the personalized approach to the management of IBD shows potential. To achieve this, there remains a significant need to better understand the disease process at cellular and molecular levels for any given...... have just started to contribute here by generating gene, protein expression, metabolite data at global level and large scale, and more recently by offering new opportunities to explore gut functional ecology. In particular, there is much expectation regarding the putative role of the gut microbiome in...

  8. Efecto del Tisuacryl sobre la mucosa oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón García-Simons

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los ensayos estipulados para el registro de los equipos médico, biomateriales y materiales implantables están regidos por un conjunto de normas que regulan cuáles deben efectuarse. En dependencia del tipo de aplicaci ón que se pretende dar al material en estudio o el tiempo del contacto con el organismo, así será el rigor que se exija para la evaluación. Con el objetivo de ampliar a la zona de la boca las aplicaciones del adhesivo tisular compuesto por cianoacrilato de n-butilo, de fabricación nacional, Tisuacryl, se efectuó la evaluaci ón de la irritación que provoca el producto a la mucosa oral. Estos productos están constituidos entre otras cosas por monómeros de cianoacrilato de nbutilo, que polimerizan con facilidad por contacto con sustratos orgánicos e inorgánicos por lo que exigen un tratamiento especial para aplicar la metodología seleccionada sin invalidar el resultado de las evaluaciones. En los experimentos que se desarrollaron se pudo aplicar directamente la norma internacional vigente con la utilización de un circulo plástico para delimitar la zona de aplicación del adhesivo. En la evaluación macroscópica se encontró una irritación ligera según la puntuación obtenida y en la histológica se observó una irritación promedio de 3,4, lo que le confiere al producto una irritación mínima, aceptable para el uso en mucosa. No obstante los resultados, es recomendable ampliar el estudio incorporando ensayos que no recoge la norma vigente, tales como la evaluación del comportamiento del adhesivo frente a las enzimas bucales antes de su aplicación oral, pues se conoce que tales productos son degradados por dichas enzimas en un corto período. Esto permitiría obtener una informaci ón más completa acerca de la toxicidad del adhesivo.

  9. Mucosal bacterial microflora and mucus layer thickness in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Fyderek, Magdalena Strus, Kinga Kowalska-Duplaga, Tomasz Gosiewski, Andrzej Wędrychowicz, Urszula Jedynak-Wąsowicz, Małgorzata Sładek, Stanisław Pieczarkowski, Paweł Adamski, Piotr Kochan, Piotr B Heczko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the mucosa-associated bacterial microflora and mucus layer in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD.METHODS: Sixty-one adolescents (mean age 15 years, SD ± 4.13 were included in the study. Intestinal biopsies from inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa of IBD patients and from controls with functional abdominal pain were cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The number of microbes belonging to the same group was calculated per weight of collected tissue. The mucus thickness in frozen samples was measured under a fluorescent microscope.RESULTS: The ratios of different bacterial groups in inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa of IBD patients and controls were specific for particular diseases. Streptococcus spp. were predominant in the inflamed mucosa of Crohn’s disease (CD patients (80% of all bacteria, and Lactobacillus spp. were predominant in ulcerative colitis patients (90%. The differences were statistically significant (P = 0.01-0.001. Lower number of bifidobacteria was observed in the whole IBD group. A relation was also found between clinical and endoscopic severity and decreased numbers of Lactobacillus and, to a lesser extent, of Streptococcus in biopsies from CD patients. The mucus layer in the inflamed sites was significantly thinner as compared to controls (P = 0.0033 and to non-inflamed areas in IBD patients (P = 0.031.CONCLUSION: The significantly thinner mucosa of IBD patients showed a predominance of some aerobes specific for particular diseases, their numbers decreased in relation to higher clinical and endoscopic activity of the disease.

  10. Anorexia nervosa complicating inflammatory bowel disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Mallett, P; Murch, S

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of inflammatory bowel disease, occurring in adolescence and complicated by anorexia nervosa, are presented. The management of the bowel disease with corticosteroids appeared to precipitate the eating disorder in one case whereas covert withdrawal of steroid treatment led to life threatening complications of inflammatory bowel disease in the other. The difficulties of managing two serious conditions, each ideally treated in a specialist centre, are discussed and the dangers of treati...

  11. Updates on treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Hammerle, Christina M Surawicz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and discomfort in association with altered bowel habits. It is estimated to affect 10%-15% of the Western population, and has a large impact on quality of life and (indirect healthcare costs. IBS is a multifactorial disorder involving dysregulation within the brain-gut axis, and it is frequently associated with gastrointestinal motor and sensory dysfunction, enteric and central nervous system irregularities, neuroimmune dysregulation, and post-infectious inflammation. As with other functional medical disorders, the treatment for IBS can be challenging. Conventional therapy for those with moderate to severe symptoms is largely unsatisfactory, and the development of new and effective drugs is made difficult by the complex pathogenesis, variety of symptoms, and lack of objective clinical findings that are the hallmark of this disorder. Fortunately, research advances over the past several decades have provided insight into potential mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of IBS, and have led to the development of several promising pharmaceutical agents. In recent years there has been much publicity over several of these new IBS medications (alosetron and tegaserod because of their reported association with ischemic colitis and cardiovascular disease. While these agents remain available for use under restricted prescribing programs, this highlights the need for continued development of safe and effective medication for IBS. This article provides a physiologically-based overview of recently developed and frequently employed pharmaceutical agents used to treat IBS, and discusses some non-pharmaceutical options that may be beneficial in this disorder.

  12. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestin......OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small...

  13. CT findings in acute small bowel diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel diverticulitis is a rare cause of an acute abdomen. Originating from acquired diverticula of the jejunum, less often of the ileum, or Meckel diverticulum, the symptoms are non-specific, simulating other acute inflammatory disorders, such as appendicitis, cholecystitis or colonic diverticulitis. The diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis is solely based on radiologic findings, with computed tomography (CT) regarded as the method of choice. In recent years, a number of case reports have described the spectrum of the CT features in acute small bowel diverticulitis and its dependence on the severity of the inflammatory process. Typical findings are an inflamed diverticulum, inflammatory mesenteric infiltration, extraluminal gas collection and mural edema of adjacent small bowel loops with resultant separation of bowel loops. An enterolith is rarely found in an inflamed diverticulum. Complications include abscesses, fistulae, small bowel obstruction and free perforation with peritonitis. Small bowel diverticulitis can be a diagnostic problem if it involves the terminal ileum or Meckel's diverticulum. For preoperative confirmation of the presumed diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis on CT, an enteroclysis for acquired diverticula or a technetium scan for Meckel's diverticulum should be performed. We present the CT findings in three patients of acute small bowel diverticulitis, two affecting the jejunum and one a Meckel's diverticulum. (orig.)

  14. Inmunología de la mucosa oral: Revisión Immunology of oral mucosa: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema J. Casariego

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos 50 años numerosas publicaciones han tratado de explicar los cambios inmunológicos en relación con exclusivas o determinadas enfermedades. El objetivo de esta presentación es realizar una revisión sobre lo publicado hasta el momento sobre la respuesta del sistema inmune innato y adaptativo en relación con la mucosa oral, un panorama sobre el rol o roles de las células inmunes, citoquinas, receptores, factores de crecimiento y otros productos secretorios y el los distintos elementos inmunológicos que actúan sobre la mucosa oral asociados con los estados de salud, inflamación, stress crónico, desregulación inmune, longevidad tolerancia inmune e inmunosenescencia.During the last 50 years several papers have been put forward to explain induce immunological changes in relationship with exclusive or determinated oral diseases. The objective of this presentation is to make a rewie about what is published at the moment about of innated and adaptative immune response, in relationship with oral mucosa, and an overwie of the role (s of immune cells, cytoquines, receptors, grow factors, and other secretory products associated with health, inflammation, chronic stress, Immune dysregulation aging, inmuno tolerance and inmunosenescence.

  15. Diclofenac sodium and Imipenem action on rat intestinal mucosa: a biomechanical and histological study Ação do Diclofenaco de sódio e Imipenem na mucosa intestinal do rato: estudo biomecânico e histológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irio Gonçalves Junior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study diclofenac sodium induced histological and mechanical alterations and their prevention with Imipenem in rat intestine. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n=240 were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: GI: n=60 treated with 0.9% saline IM; GII: n=60 treated with 6mg/kg body weight diclofenac sodium IM for four days; GIII: n=60 treated with 30mg/kg body weight Imipenem IM for four days, and GIV n=60 treated with diclofenac sodium plus Imipenem at the above doses IM for 4 days. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups of 15 rats each and sacrificed at 4, 7, 14, and 21 days of follow-up, respectively. Abdominal cavity macroscopy and histology, and small bowel breaking strength were analyzed at each sacrifice moment. RESULTS: There were no histological or mechanical alterations in normal control rats throughout the study. Ulcerated lesions in intestinal mucosa were observed and breaking strength decreased in all diclofenac sodium treated rats. Ulcerated lesions in intestinal mucosa were prevented by Imipenem in all rats. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium induced ulcerated lesions in rat intestinal mucosa can be prevented by Imipenem treatment.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas e biomecânicas do diclofenaco de sódio na mucosa intestinal do rato e a associação com o uso de Imipenem. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 240 ratos Wistar distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais: GI: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de soro fisiológico 0,9%; GII: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de diclofenaco de sódio na dose de 6mg/kg de peso por 4 dias; GIII: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de Imipenem na dose de 30 mg/kg de peso por 4 dias; GIV: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de soro fisiológico e diclofenaco de sódio nas doses acima. Em cada grupo os animais foram posteriormente divididos em 4 momentos de 15 animais em cada um para sacrifício, respectivamente, no 4º, 7º, 14º e 21º dias após o início do tratamento. As alterações da cavidade abdominal, assim como as características histológicas e de força de ruptura do intestino delgado foram analisadas em cada momento, em cada grupo. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas alterações histológicas e biomecânicas nos animais do Grupo I nesse estudo. Lesões ulceradas na mucosa do intestino delgado foram observadas nos animais tratados com diclofenaco de sódio, assim como diminuição da força de ruptura. As lesões ulceradas encontradas foram prevenidas pelo uso de Imipenem. CONCLUSÃO: O diclofenaco de sódio induz lesões ulceradas na mucosa intestinal do rato que podem ser prevenidas pelo uso de Imipenem.

  16. Diclofenac sodium and Imipenem action on rat intestinal mucosa: a biomechanical and histological study / Ação do Diclofenaco de sódio e Imipenem na mucosa intestinal do rato: estudo biomecânico e histológico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Irio, Gonçalves Junior; Luiz Eduardo, Naresse; Maria Aparecida Marchesan, Rodrigues; Shoiti, Kobayasi.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histológicas e biomecânicas do diclofenaco de sódio na mucosa intestinal do rato e a associação com o uso de Imipenem. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 240 ratos Wistar distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais: GI: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de soro fi [...] siológico 0,9%; GII: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de diclofenaco de sódio na dose de 6mg/kg de peso por 4 dias; GIII: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de Imipenem na dose de 30 mg/kg de peso por 4 dias; GIV: 60 ratos tratados com injeção IM de soro fisiológico e diclofenaco de sódio nas doses acima. Em cada grupo os animais foram posteriormente divididos em 4 momentos de 15 animais em cada um para sacrifício, respectivamente, no 4º, 7º, 14º e 21º dias após o início do tratamento. As alterações da cavidade abdominal, assim como as características histológicas e de força de ruptura do intestino delgado foram analisadas em cada momento, em cada grupo. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas alterações histológicas e biomecânicas nos animais do Grupo I nesse estudo. Lesões ulceradas na mucosa do intestino delgado foram observadas nos animais tratados com diclofenaco de sódio, assim como diminuição da força de ruptura. As lesões ulceradas encontradas foram prevenidas pelo uso de Imipenem. CONCLUSÃO: O diclofenaco de sódio induz lesões ulceradas na mucosa intestinal do rato que podem ser prevenidas pelo uso de Imipenem. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To study diclofenac sodium induced histological and mechanical alterations and their prevention with Imipenem in rat intestine. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n=240) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: GI: n=60 treated with 0.9% saline IM; GII: n=60 treated with 6mg/kg body weig [...] ht diclofenac sodium IM for four days; GIII: n=60 treated with 30mg/kg body weight Imipenem IM for four days, and GIV n=60 treated with diclofenac sodium plus Imipenem at the above doses IM for 4 days. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups of 15 rats each and sacrificed at 4, 7, 14, and 21 days of follow-up, respectively. Abdominal cavity macroscopy and histology, and small bowel breaking strength were analyzed at each sacrifice moment. RESULTS: There were no histological or mechanical alterations in normal control rats throughout the study. Ulcerated lesions in intestinal mucosa were observed and breaking strength decreased in all diclofenac sodium treated rats. Ulcerated lesions in intestinal mucosa were prevented by Imipenem in all rats. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium induced ulcerated lesions in rat intestinal mucosa can be prevented by Imipenem treatment.

  17. Intestinal protease-activated receptor-2 and fecal serine protease activity are increased in canine inflammatory bowel disease and may contribute to intestinal cytokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shingo; Ohno, Koichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Hirotaka; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2014-08-01

    Serine proteases elicit cellular responses via protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) which is known to regulate inflammation and the immune response. Although the gastrointestinal tract is exposed to large amounts of proteolytic enzymes, the role of PAR-2 in canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PAR-2 activation on inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in canine intestine and the expression of intestinal PAR-2 and fecal serine protease activity in dogs with IBD. Duodenal biopsies from healthy dogs were cultured and treated ex vivo with trypsin or PAR-2 agonist peptide, and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in the tissues was then quantified by real-time PCR. PAR-2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the duodenal mucosa were examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Fecal serine protease activity was determined by azocasein assay. In ex vivo-cultured duodenum, trypsin and PAR-2 agonist peptide induced significant up-regulation of mRNA expression levels of interleukin-1 ? (IL-1?), IL-8, mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC) and fractalkine, and this up-regulation was inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor. Duodenal PAR-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were higher in dogs with IBD than in healthy control dogs. Fecal serine protease activity was significantly elevated in dogs with IBD, and the level of activity correlated positively with the clinical severity score. These results suggest that PAR-2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of canine IBD by inducing expression of inflammatory mediators in response to luminal serine proteases. PMID:24829081

  18. Effects of water-soluble contrast media on luminal distension and blood flow in closed loops of small bowel in minipigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordahl, A.; Laerum, F.; Lunde, O.C.; Aase, S.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of iohexol, sodium diatrizoate and physiologic saline on intestinal distension and circulation were observed for 8 h in nine minipigs with closed-loop obstruction of the small bowel. The two contrast media led to an elevation of intraluminal pressures when initially instilled at pressures above 35 mm Hg. These elevated pressures were not high enough to cause rupture of the bowel wall. Both contrast media caused severe mucosal ischaemia as judged from histologic sections, loops containing sodium diatrizoate more so than iohexol. The blood circulation of the bowel wall, examined by laser Doppler flowmetry, was after 6 to 8 h reduced to about 10% of the values of non-obstructed bowel at intraluminal pressures of about 70 mm Hg in the loops with iohexol and sodium diatrizoate. The correlation to osmolality was obvious when compared with concurrent observations in the loops with physiologic saline. In the bowel loops filled with physiologic saline, the pressure fell to 5 mm Hg after 8 h, regaining approximately one-third of pre-instillation levels of blood flow. On microscopy these bowel loops had a nearly normal mucosa.

  19. Small bowel motility in functional chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, H; Gundling, F; Pehl, C; Pfeiffer, A; Schepp, W; Schmidt, T

    2009-12-01

    In functional constipation, three pathophysiological subgroups have been identified: slow-transit constipation (STC); normal-transit constipation (NTC) and outlet delay (OD). Extracolonic manifestations, especially disturbed small bowel motility, are well known to occur in STC, but have rarely been studied in NTC and OD. To perform 24-h-ambulatory jejunal manometry in a large prospective series of clinical patients with chronic constipation of all subtypes. A total of 61 consecutive patients, referred to our tertiary gastroenterologic centre for chronic constipation (48 female, 13 male; mean age 57 (range 20-87) years), underwent jejunal 24-h-ambulatory manometry (standardized meal) after a transit-time study (radio-opaque markers), anorectal manometry, defecography and colonoscopy. Computerized and visual analysis by two independent observers was compared with the normal range of manometric variables, defined by data previously obtained in 50 healthy subjects (Gut 1996;38:859). Five patients were excluded from the study because of coexistence of OD and STC. No patient with OD (n = 8), but all patients with STC (n = 32) and 94% of patients with NTC (n = 16) showed small bowel motor abnormalities; both in postprandial response and fasting motility. The abnormal findings ranged from severe disturbances with complete loss of MMC to subtle changes of contraction parameters that could only be assessed by computerized analysis. No significant differences between STC- and NTC-patients were found. Most findings pointed to an underlying enteric neuropathy. Intestinal prolonged-ambulatory manometry adds valuable information to the pathophysiologic understanding of functional chronic constipation of STC- and NTC-type, however there are no distinct manometric features to differentiate between both. PMID:19614887

  20. Epidemiology and inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmoud El-Tawil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol in causing or aggravating the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease is unclear. For finding a conclusive answer for this valuable question we conducted this review. Only two studies were identified that successfully fulfilled our inclusive criteria. Usual consumption of alcohol reduced the risk compared with less frequent use (odds ratio = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.37-0.86. Light alcoholic drinking has protective effects against development of ulcerative colitis. But this inverse association disappeared when smoking was included.

  1. Adhesive bowel obstruction? Not always

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittapalli, D; Sebastian, B J; Leung, E; Barnes, N; Senapati, P S P

    2011-01-01

    A 58-year-old man presented acutely with features of post-surgical adhesive small bowel obstruction. Following an unsuccessful trial of conservative management, computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed. This revealed a mass in the ileocaecal region, for which he underwent a subsequent right hemicolectomy. Histology revealed diffuse B-cell Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the terminal ileum. Confounding obstructive lesion of the intestine in patients with a history of previous laparotomy is extremely uncommon. Early high resolution imaging may predict diagnosis and consolidate clinical management plans. PMID:21633584

  2. Adhesive bowel obstruction? Not always

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittapalli D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old man presented acutely with features of post-surgical adhesive small bowel obstruction. Following an unsuccessful trial of conservative management, computed tomography (CT of the abdomen was performed. This revealed a mass in the ileocaecal region, for which he underwent a subsequent right hemicolectomy. Histology revealed diffuse B-cell Non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma of the terminal ileum. Confounding obstructive lesion of the intestine in patients with a history of previous laparotomy is extremely uncommon. Early high resolution imaging may predict diagnosis and consolidate clinical management plans.

  3. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Christina; Olesen, Søren Schou; Olesen, Anne; Frøkjaer, Jens Brondum; Andresen, Trine; Drewes, Asbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Opioids are the most commonly prescribed medications to treat severe pain in the Western world. It has been estimated that up to 90% of American patients presenting to specialized pain centres are treated with opioids. Along with their analgesic properties, opioids have the potential to produce...... leads to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD). In the clinic, this is reported as nausea, vomiting, gastro-oesophageal reflux-related symptoms, constipation, etc. One of the most severe symptoms is constipation, which can be assessed using different scales for subjective assessment. Objective methods...

  4. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tezel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD is a group of chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal system. In these cases, findings are detected in extraintestinal systems also. There is a tendency for thrombotic events in IBD, as in the other inflammatory processes. The pathogenesis of this thrombotic tendency is multidimensional, including lack of natural anticoagulants, prothrombotic media induced via the inflammatory process, long-term sedentary life style, steroid use, surgery, and catheter placement. The aim of this review was to highlight the positive relationship between IBD and thrombotic events, and the proper treatment of at-risk patients.

  5. Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Sally; Hong, Khiem

    2015-01-01

    •Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen can be caused by food bezoar such as rehydrated fruits.•Dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h.•The most common site of small bowel obstruction is proximal to ileocecal valve.

  6. The Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Brian E.; Weiser, Kirsten; Lee, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional bowel disorder routinely encountered by healthcare providers. Although not life-threatening, this chronic disorder reduces patients’ quality of life and imposes a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. IBS is no longer considered a diagnosis of exclusion that can only be made after performing a battery...

  7. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies...

  8. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before the r...

  9. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before the r...

  10. Halophilic archaea in the human intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Andrew P A; Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Würdemann, Dieco; Ott, Stephan; Schreiber, Stefan; McGenity, Terry J; Timmis, Kenneth N; Nogales, Balbina

    2010-09-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract microbiota, despite its key roles in health and disease, remains a diverse, variable and poorly understood entity. Current surveys reveal a multitude of undefined bacterial taxa and a low diversity of methanogenic archaea. In an analysis of the microbiota in colonic mucosal biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease we found 16S rDNA sequences representing a phylogenetically rich diversity of halophilic archaea from the Halobacteriaceae (haloarchaea), including novel phylotypes. As the human colon is not considered a salty environment and haloarchaea are described as extreme halophiles, we evaluated and further discarded the possibility that these sequences originated from pre-colonoscopy saline lavage solutions. Furthermore, aerobic enrichment cultures prepared from a patient biopsy at low salinity (2.5% NaCl) yielded haloarchaeal sequence types. Microscopic observation after fluorescence in situ hybridization provided evidence of the presence of viable archaeal cells in these cultures. These results prove the survival of haloarchaea in the digestive system and suggest that they may be members of the mucosal microbiota, even if present in low numbers in comparison with methanogenic archaea. Investigation of a potential physiological basis of this association may lead to new insights into gastrointestinal health and disease. PMID:20438582

  11. Histamine, mast cells, and the enteric nervous system in the irritable bowel syndrome, enteritis, and food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    J.D. Wood

    2006-01-01

    There is altered expression of histamine H1 and H2 receptor subtypes in mucosal biopsies from the terminal ileum and large intestine of patients with symptoms of food allergy and/or irritable bowel syndrome

  12. Effect of paclitaxel (TAXOL) alone and in combination with radiation on the gastrointestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paclitaxel is a potentially useful drug for augmenting the cytotoxic action of radiotherapy because it has independent cytotoxic activity against certain cancers and blocks cells in the radiosensitive mitotic phase of the cell cycle. However, all rapidly proliferating tissues, both normal and neoplastic, may be affected by this therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to define the in vivo response of rapidly dividing cells of the small bowel mucosa in mice to paclitaxel given alone and in combination with radiation. Paclitaxel blocked jejunal crypt cells in mitosis and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Fractionating the paclitaxel dose over 1-4 days did not result in any greater accumulation of mitotically blocked cells than did a single dose. Mitosis peaked 2-4 h after paclitaxel and returned to near normal by 24 h. Apoptosis lagged several hours behind mitosis and peaked about 6 h later than mitosis. Despite these kinetic perturbations, there was little or no enhancement of radiation effect when single doses were delivered 2-4 h after paclitaxel administration. The maximum sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.07 observed after a single paclitaxel dose of 40 mg/kg is consistent with independent crypt cell killing. Conversely, when radiation was given 24 h after paclitaxel, a significant protective effect of the drug (SER 0.89-0.92), most probably due to a regenerative overshoot induced by paclitaxel, was observed. Stem cells of the jejunal mucosa determining radiation response were not radiosensitized by paclitaxel with the drug concentrations and dose deliver schedules used, although additive cytotoxicity was observed with the highest drug dose. A radioprotective effect was observed when radiation was given 24 h after paclitaxel administration. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Computed tomography of the whole bowel in patients suspected of Crohn's disease. Preliminary report - assessment of examination technique and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the usefulness of new technique - computed tomography (CT) of the whole bowel in patients with Crohn's disease and correlation of obtained images with other modalities (MR of the bowel, enteroclysis, barium enema, colonoscopy) and operation results. CT examination was performed in 20 patients suspected of having Crohn's disease, which was confirmed in 16 cases. CT was performed after filling small bowel with fluid administered by catheter placed in duodenum (in 10 patients) or orally (in 10 patients), distension of large bowel with air and intravenous injection of contrast material. Distension of small bowel was assessed in both groups by two radiologists. In 7 patients immediately after CT examination MR of the bowel was performed with contrast enhanced T1-weighted images. Distension of small bowel was better in patients examined after administration of fluid directly to duodenum, although the difference was not statistically significant. In 16 CT studies performed in patients with confirmed Crohn's disease all narrowed bowel segments (n = 25) were diagnosed and extraintestinal abnormalities were visualized (thickening of the mesenteries, enlarged lymph nodes, perirectal changes, abscess, fistula). In 7 patients examined by MR 2 of 10 narrowing (20%) were not diagnosed. CT of the whole bowel is promising method in diagnosis of patients with Crohn's disease. The best views of the small bowel were obtained with the use of CT enteroclysis. (author)

  14. Correlation between functional gastrointestinal disorders and gastric mucosa histopathology findings, including Helicobacter pylori infection, in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine McDonald

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the relationship between functional gastrointestinal disorders and histopathology characteristics, including H. pylori infection, of gastric mucosa, at Cayetano Heredia National Hospital, Lima-Peru, in 2013. Materials and methods: 112 patients were interviewed prospectively between June and July 2013 in the gastroenterology service. Dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and postprandial distress syndrome were characterized using the Rome III Survey. Results: Pathology results were determined by gastric biopsies obtained by endoscopy. Of the patients interviewed, biopsy results were obtained for 101. 22.8% had atrophy, 24.8% had intestinal metaplasia, 57.4% presented with H pylori. Conclusions: Using chi-square analysis, no statistically significant relationship could be identified between clinical presentation and biopsy results.

  15. Significance of interleukin-6 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuyama, K; Sata, M; Tanikawa, K

    1991-02-01

    The significance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was studied by measuring the IL-6 level in serum and colonic tissue by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and by examining its localization using an immunohistochemical method. The serum IL-6 level reflected the degree of disease activity, and the extent of affected area, and was also correlated with the serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level. In the colonic mucosa of active IBD, the tissue IL-6 level was markedly elevated, and immunoreactive products of anti-IL-6 antibody were present in infiltrative mononuclear cells in the lamina propria. This indicates that IL-6 production in these cells is enhanced at the site of affected intestine. These results, together with its biological activity and the type of cell producing it, suggest that IL-6 is an available marker to assess disease conditions of IBD and that it might be also involved in the pathophysiology of IBD. PMID:2007457

  16. Role of the intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike G Laukoetter, Porfirio Nava, Asma Nusrat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical function of the intestinal mucosa is to form a barrier that separates luminal contents from the interstitium. The single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs serves as a dynamic interface between the host and its environment. Cell polarity and structural properties of the epithelium is complex and is important in the development of epithelial barrier function. Epithelial cells associate with each other via a series of intercellular junctions. The apical most intercellular junctional complex referred to as the Apical Junction Complex (AJC is important in not only cell-cell recognition, but also in the regulation of paracellular movement of fluid and solutes. Defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier function have been observed in a number of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. It is now becoming evident that an aberrant epithelial barrier function plays a central role in the pathophysiology of IBD. Thus, a better understanding of the intestinal epithelial barrier structure and function in healthy and disease states such as IBD will foster new ideas for the development of therapies for such chronic disorders.

  17. Clostridium difficile Carriage Rate in Outpatients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosain Salari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Closteridium difficile is a gram positive, anaerobic and spore-forming bacillus. Inflammatory bowel disease or IBD includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Inflammation of the intestinal mucosa in these patients can be as a risk factor for colonization of Clostridium difficile. The purpose of this study was to analysis of Clostridium difficile carriage in the IBD outpatients. Materials and methods: Stool specimens were obtained from 50 outpatients with IBD. Stools were cultured on selective media under anaerobic conditions. Filtered extract of bacteria was exposed to HeLa cell culture for analysis of toxin production after identification of Clostridium difficile isolates. Results: The results showed that 3 IBD patients (6% had stool cultures positive for Clostridium difficile. Stool cultures were negative in all patients with Crohn's disease. All 3 patients had ulcerative colitis. Only one isolate was positive for toxin production. Conclusion: The ulcerated colitis than Crohn's patients had higher carriage. In general IBD outpatients carriage rates for Clostridium difficile was low.

  18. New strategies for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), of which ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are the two most prevailing entities, is unknown. However, IBD is characterized by an imbalanced synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators of the inflamed intestine, and for more than a decade tumor necrosis factor-(TNF) ? has been a major target for monoclonal antibody therapy. However, TNF inhibitors are not useful for one third of all patients (i.e. "primary failures"), and further one third lose effect over time ("secondary failures"). Therefore, other strategies have in later years been developed including monoclonal antibodies targeting the interleukin (IL)-6 family of receptors (the p40 subunit of IL-12/IL-23) as well as monoclonal antibodies inhibiting adhesion molecules (the ?4?7 heterodimers), which direct leukocytes to the intestinal mucosa. Recently, small molecules, which are inhibitors of Janus kinases (JAKs), hold promise with a tolerable safety profile and efficacy in UC, and the field of nanomedicine is emerging with siRNAs loaded into polyactide nanoparticles that may silence gene transcripts at sites of intestinal inflammation. Thus, drug development for IBD holds great promise, and patients as well as their treating physicians can be hopeful for the future.

  19. New treatment strategies for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole HaagenNielsen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, of which ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD are the two most prevailing entities, is unknown. However, IBD is characterized by an imbalanced synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators of the inflamed intestine, and for more than a decade tumour necrosis factor- (TNF ? has been a major target for monoclonal antibody therapy. However, TNF inhibitors are not useful for one third of all patients (i.e. “primary failures”, and further one third lose effect over time (“secondary failures”. Therefore other strategies have in later years been developed including monoclonal antibodies targeting the interleukin (IL-6 family of receptors (the p40 subunit of IL-12/IL-23 as well as monoclonal antibodies inhibiting adhesion molecules (the ?4?7 heterodimers, which direct leukocytes to the intestinal mucosa. Recently small molecules, which are inhibitors of Janus kinases (JAKs, hold promise with a tolerable safety profile and efficacy in UC, and the field of nanomedicine is emerging with siRNAs loaded into polyactide nanoparticles that may silence gene transcripts at sites of intestinal inflammation.Thus, drug development for IBD holds great promise, and patients as well as their treating physicians can be hopeful for the future.

  20. MOLECULAR MARKERS OF MUCOSA HARBORING GASTRIC ADENOMAS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Vaz, SAFATLE-RIBEIRO; Kátia Adriana Tessima, FRANCO; Carlos Eduardo Pereira, CORBETT; Kiyoshi, IRIYA; Bruno, ZILBERSTEIN; Ulysses, RIBEIRO Jr..

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Contexto Adenoma gástrico é uma lesão precursora do adenocarcinoma. Objetivo Melhor caracterizar os adenomas de acordo com a imunoexpressão de mucinas e avaliar a imunoexpressão de p53, p16ink4a, BCL-2, cyclin D, Ki-67, nos adenomas e na mucosa gástrica adjacente. Métodos Quarenta espécimes gás [...] tricos provenientes de 20 pacientes portadores de adenomas foram classificados como do tipo intestinal (MUC2 – mucina presente nas células caliciformes) ou gástrico (MUC5AC – mucinas de padrão foveolar). Realizou-se imunoistoquímica para p53, p16ink4a, BCL-2, cyclin D e Ki-67 pelo método do complexo da estreptavidina-biotina. Resultados Doze (60%) pacientes eram homens e a média de idade foi de 67,9 ± 12,9 anos. Os adenomas foram classificados como do tipo intestinal em 13 (65%) pacientes e do tipo gástrico em 7 (35%). Displasia (neoplasia intraepitelial) de baixo grau estava presente em 13 (65%), displasia de alto grau em 3 (15%), e adenocarcinoma no pólipo adenomatoso em 4 (20%) pacientes. Observou-se immunoexpressão do p53 em 6/20 (30%) adenomas, e em 2/6 (33,3%) dos tumores sincrônicos. Houve associação entre imunoexpressão do p53 e adenoma/tumor tipo intestinal, P = 0.04. Não houve associação entre imunoexpressão do p16ink4a, Bcl-2, ciclina D e Ki-67 e as características clinicopatológicas dos adenomas. Conclusão Imunoistoquímica pode ser utilizada para caracterizar os subtipos de adenoma e talvez indicar o caminho de carcinogênese. Abstract in english Context Gastric adenoma is a precursor lesion of the adenocarcinoma. Objective To characterize gastric adenomas according to the mucin immunoexpression and to evaluate the immunoexpression of p53, p16ink4a, BCL-2, cyclin D, Ki-67, in the adenoma and in the gastric mucosa harboring adenoma. Meth [...] ods Forty gastric specimens from 20 patients were classified as intestinal (MUC2 - goblet cell mucin) or foveolar (MUC5AC - gastric-foveolar mucin) adenomas. Immunohistochemistry was performed using streptavidin-biotin-complex method. Results Twelve (60%) patients were men. The mean age was 67.9 ± 12.9 years-old. Intestinal adenomas were detected in 13 (65%) patients and gastric type in 7 (35%). Low-grade dysplasia was present in 13 (65%) of the adenomas, high-grade in 3 (15%), and adenocarcinoma within the polyp in 4 (20%). Six (30%) patients had synchronous adenocarcinoma. p53 immunoexpression was observed in 6/20 (30%) of adenomas, and in 2/6 (33.3%) of synchronous tumors. There was an association between p53 immunoexpression and intestinal type of adenoma/tumor, P = 0.04. There was no association between p16ink4a, Bcl-2, cyclin D and Ki-67 and adenoma clinicopathological characteristics. Conclusion Immunohistochemistry may be useful to classify the adenomas subtypes and may define the pathway of adenoma to carcinoma sequence.

  1. Physiological basis for novel drug therapies used to treat the inflammatory bowel diseases I. Pathophysiological basis and prospects for probiotic therapy in inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2012-02-03

    Mechanisms underlying the conditioning influence of the intestinal flora on mucosal homeostasis, including development and function of immune responses, are attracting increasing scientific scrutiny. The intestinal flora is a positive asset to host defense, but some of its components may, in genetically susceptible hosts, become a risk factor for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It follows that strategies to enhance assets or offset microbial liabilities represent a therapeutic option; therein lies the rationale for manipulation of the flora in IBD. In addition, the diversity of regulatory signalling among the flora and host epithelum, lymphoid tissue, and neuromuscular apparatus is an untapped reservoir from which novel therapeutics may be mined. Moreover, the capacity to engineer food-grade or commensal bacteria to deliver therapeutic molecules to the intestinal mucosa promises to extend the scope of microbial manipulation for the benefit of mankind.

  2. Quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph combined with computer image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish a method for quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph and computer graphics. Methods: Plain abdominal radiographs in supine position from 25 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 20 health controls were studied. A gastroenterologist and a radiologist independently conducted the following procedure on each radiograph. After the outline of bowel gas was traced by axe pen, the radiograph was digitized by a digital camera and transmitted to the computer with Histogram software. The total gas area was determined as the pixel value on images. The ratio of the bowel gas quantity to the pixel value in the region surrounded by a horizontal line tangential to the superior pubic symphysis margin, a horizontal line tangential to the tenth dorsal vertebra inferior margin, and the lateral line tangential to the right and left anteriosuperior iliac crest, was defined as the gas volume score (GVS). To examine the sequential reproducibility, a second plain abdominal radiograph was performed in 5 normal controls 1 week later, and the GVS were compared. Results: Bowel gas was easily identified on the plain abdominal radiograph. Both large and small intestine located in the selected region. Both observers could finish one radiographic measurement in less than 10 mins. The correlation coefficient between the two observers was 0.986. There was no statistical difference on GVS between the two sequential radiographs in 5 health controls. Conclusion: Quantification of bowel gas based on plain abdominal radiograph and computer is simple, rapid, and reliable

  3. Lymphoepithelial Cyst in Jugal Mucosa / Quiste Linfoepitelial en la Mucosa Yugal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marceli Moço, Silva; Alvimar Lima de, Castro; Ana Maria Pires, Soubhia; Marcelo Macedo, Crivelini.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Un quiste linfoepitelial bucal es raro, con pocos casos reportados en la literatura. El objetivo de este artículo es describir un caso clínico, centrándose en los aspectos clínicos y diagnósticos, tratamiento y pronóstico. La lesión tuvo un año de evolución, y se había desarrollado como un nódulo fi [...] broso en la mucosa yugal de un paciente de 71 años de edad con leucoderma. Teniendo en cuenta la hiperplasia fibrosa inflamatoria, fibroma y mucocele como diagnósticos diferenciales, se llevó a cabo una biopsia por escisión. Una cavidad quística limitada por epitelio pseudoestratificado sin proyecciones en el tejido conjuntivo, con tejido linfoide en el interior fue identificado microscópicamente. No se observaron eventos adversos postoperatorios, y el seguimiento clínico al año confirmó el pronóstico favorable de este tipo de lesión. Abstract in english Mouth lymphoepithelial cyst is rare, with few cases reported in literature. The aim of this article is to describe a clinical case, focusing on clinical and diagnostic aspects, treatment and prognosis. The lesion was one year old and had developed as a fibrous nodule in the jugal mucosa of a 71-year [...] -old leucoderma patient. Considering focal inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, fibroma and mucocele as differential diagnosis, excisional biopsy was carried out. A cystic cavity limited by pseudostratified epithelium without projections into the conjunctive tissue, with lymphoid tissue within, was microscopically identified. Without postoperative adverse events, the one-year clinical followup confirmed the favorable prognosis of this kind of lesion.

  4. Habitual biting of oral mucosa: A conservative treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.

  5. Duodenal mucosa and extracellular cyclic nucleotide pattern in coeliac disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Peracchi, M; Bamonti-Catena, F; Faggioli, P; Molteni, N; Bardella, M.T.; Bareggi, B; Bianchi, P A

    1993-01-01

    This study measured the values of cyclic nucleotides and adenylate and guanylate cyclase activities in duodenal mucosa homogenates to verify if they played a part in coeliac disease. Nine controls, 13 patients who did not receive treatment and nine patients who received treatment were studied. Cyclase activity assays were performed under basal conditions and in the presence of gliadin derived peptides. Duodenal mucosa cyclic nucleotide values and adenylate cyclase activity were significantly ...

  6. Oral mucosa lesions in hypereosinophilic syndrome - an update.

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu, Marius,; Murata, Hideyuki; Janin, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disorder characterized by persistent and marked eosinophilia. Some HES forms have a poor prognosis, either because of end-organ damage (particularly endomyocardial fibrosis), or because of associated myeloid leukemia or malignant T-cell lymphoma. Oral mucosa ulcerations can be early clinical signs in severe forms. They are discrete, round or oval, sometimes confluent ulcers or erosions, located on non-keratinized, unattached oral mucosa. In the last ...

  7. The value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease. Methods: Sixteen patients with suspected small bowel disease, but without acute inflammatory disease or bowel obstruction, received MR enteroclysis with air infusion. There were 12 males and 4 females, and their age ranged from 17 to 75 years. 10 patients had abdominal pain, 4 with melena or blood stool, and 2 with diarrhea. The longest course was 7 years, and the shortest 1 week. Before MR imaging, a nasoenteric catheter was inserted into the distal part of duodenum, and about 1000 ml of air was infused through the tube to distend the small bowel. 20 mg of IV anisodamine was given to reduce small-bowel peristalsis. All patients were imaged with fat-saturated Gd-DTPA enhanced coronal and axial T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequence and fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence. Comparison between the diagnosis of MRI and the results of surgery, pathology or clinic was performed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of MRI. Results: 5 cases were normal, 6 with Crohn disease, 2 with gastric intestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and 1 each of lymphoma, tuberculosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The lumen of normal small bowel in MR enteroclysis was no signal, the wall was outlined as middle signal by intraluminal air and surrounding air-distended bowel and was between 1-3 mm thick, and the diameter of the lumen was between 17-28 mm. Crohn disease showed segmental mural thickening, increased enhancement, luminal stricture, and even extraluminal inflammatory mass or fistula. Intestinal tuberculosis invaded the distal section of ileum, cecum, and the proximal ascending colon, the wall thickened and enhanced apparently, and cecum and proximal ascending colon shortened. GIST showed a mass that was iso-signal on T1WI, high signal on T2WI, and enhanced significantly after IV Gd-DTPA. 1 recurrent lymphoma of ileum showed mural thickening and increased enhancement but no stenosis. 1 irritable bowel syndrome is disfunction, so its shape and signal is normal. Except 1 Crohn disease, which showed a large mass, was misdiagnosed as lymphoma and no abnormality was found in 1 irritable bowel syndrome, the other diagnosis of MRI was correct. The sensitivity in diagnosing small intestinal disease was 100%, and the specificity was 83%. Conclusion: MR enteroclysis with air infusion is a sensitive method in diagnosing the small bowel disease, especially in Crohn disease and tumor. It can clearly display the mural thickening and the extraluminal inflammatory mass

  8. Intestino Corto / Short bowel syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Matilde, Socarrás Suárez; Miriam, Bolet Astoviza; Martha, Larrea Fabra.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El intestino corto está asociado a pérdida o disfunción del intestino delgado por resección del mismo, que causa diarreas, tránsito intestinal acelerado, malabsorción intestinal, y eventualmente la pérdida de peso y el desgaste muscular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar el conocimiento ace [...] rca de este síndrome. Se realiza una revisión del tema de intestino corto donde se refiere a su definición, causas fundamentales frecuentes e infrecuentes en el niño y en el adulto, cómo se adapta el intestino a la resección de diferentes extensiones, las funciones del íleon terminal. Se hacen una valoración clínica inicial, con el interrogatorio médico, revisión minuciosa de la historia clínica para cuantificar la capacidad de absorción. Se habla de los síntomas y signos de deficiencia nutricional. Se explican las estrategias del tratamiento, que tienen 3 etapas de evolución clínica. Se concluye que se indica la dietoterapia adecuada según el estado nutricional del paciente y la resección intestinal realizada, evitando las complicaciones para lograr una calidad máxima de vida Abstract in english Short bowel is associated with loss or dysfunction of the small bowel due to its resection, which causes diarrheas, accelerated intestinal transit, intestinal malabsorption and, eventually, weight loss ansd muscular waste. The objective of this paper was to update knowledge about this syndrome. A re [...] view of the short intestine topic is made, making reference to its definition, common and uncommon main cuases in the child and adult, how the bowel adapts itslef to resection of different extensions, and the functions of the terminal ileum. An initial clinical assessment is made with the medical questionnaire and a detailed review of the medical history to quantify the absorption capacity. The symptoms and signs of nutritional deficiency are dealt with. The strategies of the treatment consisting of 3 stages of clinical evolution are explained. It is concluded that the adequate diet therapy is indicated according to the nutritional state of the patient and the performed intestinal resections, preventing complications to achieve a maximum quality of life

  9. Treatment of melanoma in head and neck mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral cavity and mucosa melanomas are extremely rare and appearing in the palate and gums. Their prognostic is bad due to its aggressiveness and the absence of standardized treatment protocols. The most accepted treatment is surgical resection with wide margins, although in few cases it is able to control the disease, it is suitable cervical nodal dissection based on protocols that are standardizing with WHO. Adjuvant interferon therapy is not established; and chemotherapy is in study phase. Immuno chemotherapy has very poor results, and it is very controversial. Now there are vaccines that are being used like adjuvant, they are given by studies of phase III. We present the case of a male, 50 years old, smoker, that presents a purple lesion (3 cm), in the palate, 6 months of evolution with progressive growth, and by incisional biopsy determined malignant melanoma. The treatment was surgical, with placement of prosthesis in the superior maxillar in the same surgical time. The second case is a male, 55 years old with a large dark tumor to 5x3 cm in diameter hanging from a palpebral conjunctiva with a 2 cm base covering the ocular globe and another tumor 1 cm which depends from the inner palpebral conjunctiva. Local control is performed by means of orbital exenteration. (The author)

  10. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (abdominal cocoon) associated with liver cirrhosis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: autopsy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Tanimoto, Akihide; Matsuki, Yasumasa; Hisada, Yuji; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2009-09-01

    A case of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) associated with liver cirrhosis (LC) and complicated by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is reported herein. A 49-year-old Japanese man had undergone peritoneo-venous shunt against refractory ascites due to hepatitis C virus-positive uncompensated LC for 2 years. After he received a diagnosis of DLBCL of the left neck lymph node 3 months before his death, palliative care was given because of his poor general condition. He developed severe abdominal distention and pain over 1 week and was found to have marked ascites and whole bowel lumped together on abdominal CT. At autopsy, the peritoneum was covered with a thick white membrane and the bowel could not be distinguished, which was macroscopically characterized by a cocoon-like appearance. Histology indicated a proliferation of diffusely thickened or hyalinized fibrocollagenous tissue in the entire peritoneum with a slight chronic inflammatory infiltrate and without remarkable change of mucosa. A diagnosis of SEP, also known as abdominal cocoon, was established based on these features. Additionally, in the abdominal cavity, a large amount of serous ascites and multiple peritoneal nodules or masses involved by DLBCL were recognized. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report of SEP associated with LC and complicated by the invasion of DLBCL in the abdominal cavity. PMID:19712139

  11. Reação liquenoide à carbamazepina em mucosa bucal: relato de caso / Lichenoid reaction to carbamazepine in the oral mucosa: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela, Artico; Ingrid S, Bruno; Juliana, Seo; Silvio K, Hirota; Renata, Acay; Dante A, Migliari.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As reações liquenoides por drogas são mais comuns na pele, mas também podem ocorrer na mucosa bucal. Estas lesões são de difícil diagnóstico por causa de sua semelhança clínica com às do líquen plano oral idiopático. O presente artigo relata um caso de reação liquenoide em mucosa bucal, associado ao [...] uso de carbamazepina, no qual o processo de diagnóstico é enfatizado Abstract in english Lichenoid drug reactions are more commom in skin, but they may also occur in the oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose these lesions due to their clinical similarity to the idiopathic oral lichen planus lesions. The present article reports a case of lichenoid reaction in oral mucosa associated to [...] the use of carbamazepine, emphasizing the diagnostic process

  12. A Strange Case of Left Bowel Ischemia after Right Hernioplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Girolamo; Pisello, Franco; Modica, Giuseppe; Li Volsi, Francesco; Cajozzo, Massimo; Sciumè, Carmelo

    2010-01-01

    We report the first observed case of a young man who suffered of large and unsuspected left bowel ischemia following an elective right open hernioplasty. A 54-year-old man had a 2-year history of right inguinal reducible mass and was admitted to hospital for an elective day case open inguinal hernioplasty for a direct right inguinal hernia. Apart from mild hypertension controlled with ACE inhibitor, he was medically fit and well. The patient was submitted to open tension-free mesh repair with polypropylene preshaped mesh with local infiltration anesthesia and additive sedation with midazolam. The local anesthesia and surgery were uneventful and he was discharged home on the same day as per day case protocol. He was readmitted about 12 h after discharge with a history of central and left lower abdominal pain with palpable mass, and distension and fever (38°C). After imaging and laboratory studies the patient was submitted to explorative surgery with the suspicion of left colonic ischemia. After intraoperative confirmation we performed standard left hemicolectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful; the patient was discharged in good general condition on the 7th postoperative day. Actually, the patient is in follow-up, with normal coagulation and hemochromocytometric pattern, asymptomatic for hypercholesterolemia and atrial flutter/fibrillation. Complications relating to bowel during open techniques of hernia repair are limited to two situations: the freeing of an incarcerated or strangulated segment of bowel and inadvertent laceration of large bowel in the presence of a sliding hernia. Following this strange case of colonic ischemia, a boolean Medline search (terms: hernia, complication, repair, groin, herniorrhaphy, hernioplasty, all major MESH subjects without language restriction) revealed no previous similar cases reported. However, to our knowledge, there is another trouble hypothesis: not causality but casualty. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of large left bowel ischemia following right open hernioplasty. We can conclude that the presence of a dolichocolon is an added risk factor for this rare and uneventful complication, but further investigations and case reports are necessary to estabilish the real causality. PMID:21103221

  13. Advances in bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence B

    2015-04-01

    Precolonoscopy bowel preparation is adequate to identify lesions larger than 5 mm about 70% to 75% of the time, but the opportunity for further improvement exists. The use of high-quality formulations with established efficacy rates of 90% or greater, identification of patients who are at increased risk of an inadequate preparation, as well as patient education and motivation to be invested in the process further improves the success of cleansing. Endoscopists should strive to achieve an adequate bowel preparation in 85% or more of patients. High-quality colonoscopy requires high-quality bowel cleansing. PMID:25839681

  14. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal permeability.

  15. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Dai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  16. Disturbances in small bowel motility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.

  17. Electrochemical measurements of serotonin (5-HT) release from the guinea pig mucosa using continuous amperometry with a boron-doped diamond microelectrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Bian, Xiaochun; Galligan, James J.; Swain, Greg M.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by chronic abdominal discomfort, including pain, bloating and changes in bowel habits. The exact cause of IBS is not entirely understood. Recent studies have shown that IBS may be associated with altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels within the GI tract. About 90% of 5-HT in the human body is produced and stored in enterochromaffin (EC) cells that reside in the mucosal layer of the intestine. Measurements of serotonin availability locally in the mucosa can provide insight on the functionality of these cells and potentially the pathophysiology of the disease. In this study, we used continuous amperometry with a diamond microelectrode to record serotonin levels in vitro in the ileum mucosa as an oxidation current. The boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode is quite practical for these measurements because if its low background signal, low sensitivity to solution pH changes, and excellent resistance to fouling by adsorbed serotonin oxidation reaction products. In fact, the measurements are only possible because of the unique properties of diamond. We present electrochemical data that demonstrate the diamond microelectrode’s utility for assessment of enterochromaffin cell function. Confirmation that the oxidation current was associated with indogenous serotonin release came from pharmacological studies. We are hopeful that these types of in vitro electrochemical measurements will lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of IBS. PMID:20209031

  18. Bowel injuries secondary to induced abortion: a dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the pattern of bowel injuries incurred by induced abortion, and the morbidity and mortality associated with them. All patients with bowel injuries due to induced abortion. Detailed data of all the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 22 patients, mostly young with an average age of 26.86 years, presented with bowel injuries following induced abortion. Severe hemorrhage occurred in 8(36.4%) patients while 11(50%) had ileal perforation; 9(40.9%) underwent primary repair and 2(9.1%) ileostomy formation. Two (9.1%) patients with jejunal perforation had primary repair, whereas two with both jejunal and ileal perforations underwent resections with anastomosis in one and ileostomy in another. Seven (31.8%) with large gut involvement had colostomy formation. Septicemia and wound infection occurred in 7(31.8%) patients each, faecal fistula and abdominal wound dehiscence in 3(13.6%), and pelvic abscess in 1(4.6%) patient. The total mortality in this series was 6(27.3%) patients. Iatrogenic injuries during induced abortion, most commonly caused by quacks, can be minimized substantially if the procedure is performed by qualified medical personnel in proper health care facilities. There is a need for radical overhauling of the mind set in our society together with legislation. (author)

  19. Morphogenesis of a Tunica Mucosa of Oviduct of the Hens Morfogénesis de la Túnica Mucosa del Oviducto de Gallinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. YU. Khokhlov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have used non-laying and laying hens (Lohmann Brown, in order to study morphological aspects development of tunica mucosa of the oviduct. The results showed that the oviduct of the hen is well-developed at the left side, atrophied at the right side and consists of five different regions: infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell-gland and excretory section (vagina. During 1-120 days in oviduct is the most advanced caudal part, where height and width folds of a tunica mucosa is more than in cranial part, that probably, is caused with the future function of these departments. In the period oviposition (150-540 days, the tunica mucosa is most advanced in such departments, as: magnum, isthmus, shell-glandSe utilizaron gallinas no ponedoras y ponedoras (Lohmann Brown, para estudiar aspectos morfológicos del desarrollo de la túnica mucosa del oviducto. Los resultados mostraron que el oviducto de gallina está bien desarrollado en el lado izquierdo, atrofiado en el lado derecho y consiste de cinco diversas regiones: infúndíbulo, magnum, istmo, glándula cascara y sección excretoria (vagina. Durante 1-120 días en el oviducto la parte caudal está más avanzada, donde la altura y ancho de la túnica mucosa es el doble que en la parte cranial, probablemente, causado por la futura función de ese compartimiento. En el periodo de ovoposición (150-540 días, la túnica mucosa esta más avanzada en los compartimientos: magnum, istmo, y glándula cascara

  20. Histological and histochemical changes of the intestinal mucosa at the urothelial-enteric anastomotic site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Castro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The incorporation of bowel segments for urinary tract reconstruction may induce intestinal mucosal changes with the development of metabolic, nutritional, gastrointestinal and carcinogenic complications. The early histological and histochemical changes of the intestinal mucosa in contact with the feces-urine mixture, are evaluated in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve rats (operated group were submitted to a vesico-colonic anastomosis, and 10 rats (control group underwent a sham operation (the colon was opened and immediately sutured. On the operated group, the left colon was divided into 3 equal portions and the middle segment was used for the bladder-colonic anastomosis. After 20 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the entire left colon in each group, as well as the bladder and the vesico-colonic anastomosis in the operated group, was removed. The proximal, middle (anastomotic site in the operated group and sutured portion in the control group and distal colon were used for histological and histochemical studies. RESULTS: Metaplasia, chronic inflammatory process and fibrosis were significantly greater at the anastomotic site compared to the middle segment of the control group. There were no differences in both groups in terms of dysplasia, atrophy and hypertrophy either on the proximal, middle or anastomotic area and distal portion of the left colon. All animals in the operated group showed a reduced presence of sulfomucin and an increase in the sialomucin content. CONCLUSION: The histological changes observed in this study may suggest a precancerous phenomenon.

  1. A comparison of linaclotide and lubiprostone dosing regimens on ion transport responses in human colonic mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang Bum; Marchelletta, Ronald R; Penrose, Harrison; Docherty, Michael J; McCole, Declan F

    2015-03-01

    Linaclotide, a synthetic guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) agonist, and the prostone analog, Lubiprostone, are approved to manage chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Lubiprostone also protects intestinal mucosal barrier function in ischemia. GC-C signaling regulates local fluid balance and other components of intestinal mucosal homeostasis including epithelial barrier function. The aim of this study was to compare if select dosing regimens differentially affect linaclotide and lubiprostone modulation of ion transport and barrier properties of normal human colonic mucosa. Normal sigmoid colon biopsies from healthy subjects were mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were treated with linaclotide, lubiprostone, or vehicle to determine effects on short-circuit current (I sc). Subsequent I sc responses to the cAMP agonist, forskolin, and the calcium agonist, carbachol, were also measured to assess if either drug caused desensitization. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance. I sc responses to linaclotide and lubiprostone were significantly higher than vehicle control when administered bilaterally or to the mucosal side only. Single versus cumulative concentrations of linaclotide showed differences in efficacy while cumulative but not single dosing caused desensitization to forskolin. Lubiprostone reduced forskolin responses under all conditions. Linaclotide and lubiprostone exerted a positive effect on TER that was dependent on the dosing regimen. Linaclotide and lubiprostone increase ion transport responses across normal human colon but linaclotide displays increased sensitivity to the dosing regimen used. These findings may have implications for dosing protocols of these agents in patients with constipation. PMID:26038704

  2. Changes of smooth muscle contractile filaments in small bowel atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Rolle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate morphological changes of intestinal smooth muscle contractile fibres in small bowel atresia patients. METHODS: Resected small bowel specimens from small bowel atresia patients (n = 12 were divided into three sections (proximal, atretic and distal. Standard histology hematoxylin-eosin staining and enzyme immunohistochemistry was performed to visualize smooth muscle contractile markers ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA and desmin using conventional paraffin sections of the proximal and distal bowel. Small bowel from age-matched patients (n = 2 undergoing Meckel’s diverticulum resection served as controls. RESULTS: The smooth muscle coat in the proximal bowel of small bowel atresia patients was thickened compared with control tissue, but the distal bowel was unchanged. Expression of smooth muscle contractile fibres SMA and desmin within the proximal bowel was slightly reduced compared with the distal bowel and control tissue. There were no major differences in the architecture of the smooth muscle within the proximal bowel and the distal bowel. The proximal and distal bowel in small bowel atresia patients revealed only minimal differences regarding smooth muscle morphology and the presence of smooth muscle contractile filament markers. CONCLUSION: Changes in smooth muscle contractile filaments do not appear to play a major role in postoperative motility disorders in small bowel atresia.

  3. Adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to the ileal and colonic mucosa: an in vitro study utilizing the scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacy Alves Braga de Andrade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains have been associated with persistent diarrhea in several developing countries. In vivo procedures with animal models, in vitro assays with cellular lines and in vitro organ culture with intestinal fragments have been utilized to study these bacteria and their pathogenicity. OBJECTIVE: The present experimental research assessed the pathogenic interactions of three enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains, using the in vitro organ culture, in order to show the adherence to different regions of both, the ileal and the colonic mucosa and demonstrate possible mechanisms that could have the participation in the prolongation of diarrheiogenic process. METHODS: This study used intestinal fragments from terminal ileum and colon that were excised from pediatric patients undergoing intestinal surgeries and from adult patients that underwent to colonoscopic procedures. Each strain was tested with three intestinal fragments for each region. Tissue was fixed for scanning electron microscopic analysis. RESULTS: These bacteria colonized ileal and colonic mucosa in the typical stacked-brick configuration in the ileum and colon. In both regions, the strains were seen over a great amount of mucus and sometimes over the intact epithelium. In some regions, there is a probable evidence of effacement of the microvilli. It was possible to see adhered to the intestinal surface, bacteria fimbrial structures that could be responsible for the adherence process. CONCLUSION: In order to cause diarrhea, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains adhere to the intestinal mucosa, create a mucoid biofilm on the small bowel surface that could justify the digestive-absorptive abnormalities and consequently, prolonging the diarrhea.

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome: new and emerging treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halland, Magnus; Saito, Yuri A

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in developed nations. It is characterized by abdominal pain, altered bowel habits, and bloating. Several non-pharmacological and pharmacological agents, which target the peripheral gastrointestinal system and central nervous system, are used to treat the syndrome. The individual and societal impact of investigating and managing the syndrome is substantial, and despite newer treatments, many patients have unmet needs. Intense research at many international sites has improved the understanding of pathophysiology of the syndrome, but developing treatments that are effective, safe, and that have tolerable side effects remains a challenge. This review briefly summarizes the currently available treatments for irritable bowel syndrome then focuses on newer non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies and recent evidence for older treatments. Recent guidelines on the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome are also discussed. PMID:26088265

  5. Bowel dysfunction after rectal cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Tina Yen-Ting; Emmertsen, Katrine J; Laurberg, Søren

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how bowel dysfunction after sphincter-preserving rectal cancer treatment, known as low anterior resection syndrome (LARS), is perceived by rectal cancer specialists, in relation to the patient's experience.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Small Bowel (MR Enterography, or MRE) is becoming increasingly popular as the first imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of small bowel diseases. The inherent advantages of MRI, including excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability and lack of ionising radiation are well known. In addition, the use of luminal contrast agents in MRE has the added advantage of demonstrating the lumen and the wall directly, something not possible to achieve with conventional small bowel barium follow-through imaging. This review will highlight recent technical advances to this low cost, simple technique which is easily achievable in all hospitals. It will also review normal and abnormal radiological findings and highlight the value of this technique to both the clinician and patient alike in the investigation of small bowel disease.

  7. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenaga, Katia K F G; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of bowel contents during surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only. OBJECTIVES: To determine the security and effectiveness of MBP on morbidity and mortality in colorectal surgery. SEARCH STRATEGY: Publications describing trials of MBP before elective colorectal surgery were sought through...

  8. Biopsychosocial Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Yukari; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Fukudo, Shin; Drossman, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder seen in gastroenterology and primary care practice. It is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with disturbed bowel function. It is a heterogeneous disorder with varying treatments, and in this regard physicians sometimes struggle with finding the optimal approach to management of patients with IBS. This disorder induces high health care costs and variably reduces health-related quality of life. IBS is i...

  9. The Immune System in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara, Giovanni; Cremon, Cesare; Carini, Giovanni; Bellacosa, Lara; Zecchi, Lisa; De Giorgio, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The potential relevance of systemic and gastrointestinal immune activation in the pathophysiology and symptom generation in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is supported by a number of observations. Infectious gastroenteritis is the strongest risk factor for the development of IBS and increased rates of IBS-like symptoms have been detected in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission or in celiac disease patients on a gluten free diet. The number of T cells and mast cells in the...

  10. Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Gut Microbiota and Probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Beom Jae; Bak, Young-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors in...

  11. Psychosocial determinants of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Surdea-Blaga; Adriana B?ban; Dumitrascu, Dan L

    2012-01-01

    From a pure motor disorder of the bowel, in the past few years, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has become a multifactorial disease that implies visceral hypersensitivity, alterations at the level of nervous and humoral communications between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system, alteration of the gut microflora, an increased intestinal permeability and minimum intestinal inflammation. Psychological and social factors can interfere with the communication between the centra...

  12. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Phytobezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bar?? Morkavuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bezoars are foreign bodies impacted in the digestive tract resulting of their ingestion and accumulation, involving mainly the stomach,small bowel. Phytobezoars are a rare cause of acute small bowel obstruction. It should be suspected in patients with an increased risk of bezoar formation, such as in the presence of previous gastric surgery and a history suggestive of increased fiber intake. The aim of this work was to identify the diagnostic difficulties and treatment of this rare entity.

  13. Cutaneous manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Roujayee Abdulaziz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has many extraintestinal manifestations, and skin lesions are one of the most frequently described extraintestinal findings. Reports indicate an incidence of cutaneous manifestations ranging from 2 to 34%, Cutaneous manifestations are usually related to the activity of the bowel disease but may have an independent course. In this review we aim to address the various cutaneous manifestations associated with IBD, their impact on the disease course, and the treatment options available.

  14. Genetic epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Makker, Jasbir; Chilimuri, Sridhar; Bella, Jonathan N.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by presence of abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits. It has three main subtypes - constipation predominant IBS (C-IBS), diarrhea predominant IBS (D-IBS) and IBS with mixed features of both diarrhea as well as constipation (M-IBS). Its pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. It is traditionally believed that IBS is a result of multiple factors incl...

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome: Emerging paradigm in pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Kyung Sik

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. These symptoms cannot be explained by structural abnormalities and there is no specific laboratory test or biomarker for IBS. Therefore, IBS is classified as a functional disorder with diagnosis dependent on the history taking about manifested symptoms and careful physical examination. Although a great deal of research has been carried ou...

  16. Neurogenic mechanisms in bladder and bowel ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Ranson, Richard; Saffrey, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of both urinary and faecal incontinence, and also chronic constipation, increases with ageing and these conditions have a major impact on the quality of life of the elderly. Management of bladder and bowel dysfunction in the elderly is currently far from ideal and also carries a significant financial burden. Understanding how these changes occur is thus a major priority in biogerontology. The functions of the bladder and terminal bowel are regulated by complex neuronal networks...

  17. Aumento de gengiva queratinizada em mucosa peri-implantar / Increased keratinized gigiva in peri-implant mucosa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Milanezi de, Almeida; Vivian Noronha, Novaes; Paula Lazilha, Faleiros; Valmir Campos, Macarimi; Álvaro Francisco, Bosco; Letícia Helena, Theodoro; Valdir Gouveia, Garcia.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos recentes são direcionados a explorar a relação da faixa da mucosa queratinizada com a saúde dos tecidos peri-implantares. Quando esta faixa não é suficiente, uma cirurgia para o aumento de mucosa queratinizada pode ser indicada, pois tem sido relatado que a presença ou a reconstr [...] ução de tecido queratinizado ao redor de implantes pode facilitar os procedimentos restauradores, promover a estética e ainda permitir a manutenção de uma higienização oral rotineira sem irritação ou desconforto ao paciente. Dentre os procedimentos cirúrgicos disponíveis, a técnica do enxerto gengival livre é consagrada na literatura periodontal para aumento da faixa de mucosa queratinizada. OBJETIVO: Este estudo relata um caso clínico em que foi realizada cirurgia de enxerto gengival livre com objetivo de aumentar a faixa da mucosa queratinizada na região de implantes previamente instalados na maxila, para suporte de prótese tipo protocolo. RELATO DO CASO: Foi realizada a cirurgia de enxerto gengival livre na região anterior da maxila, obtido do palato, na qual haviam sido instalados implantes osseointegrados para suporte de prótese tipo protocolo e a mucosa peri-implantar apresentava-se sem tecido queratinizado e inflamada. Após dois meses de reparação da cirurgia mucogengival, foi possível observar que o enxerto gengival livre favoreceu a saúde peri-implantar e os procedimentos protéticos de moldagem. CONCLUSÃO: Diante dos resultados clínicos, pode-se concluir que o enxerto gengival livre é uma técnica previsível e de fácil realização para aumento da faixa de mucosa queratinizada em mucosa peri-implantar de prótese protocolo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have evaluated the relationship between the width of keratinized mucosa and peri-implant tissue health. Insufficiently wide keratinized tissue can be increased surgically, for example by free gingival grafting. The presence or reconstruction of keratinized tissue around [...] the implant can facilitate restorative procedures, promote aesthetics and allow the maintenance of an oral hygiene routine without irritation or discomfort to the patient. OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who underwent free gingival graft surgery to increase the width of keratinized tissue in the region of previously implants to support a type of prosthetic protocol. CASE REPORT: A patient who had received dental implants to support a type of prosthetic protocol presented with inflamed peri?implant mucosa, but with no keratinized tissue. Free gingival tissue was obtained from the palate and grafted into the anterior maxilla. Sixty days after muco-gingival surgery, we observed that the free gingival graft favored peri-implant health and prosthetic casting. CONCLUSION: The free gingival graft technique is both easy to perform and effective in increasing the width of keratinized mucosa following implantation.

  18. Bowel cleansing before colonoscopy: Balancing efficacy, safety, cost and patient tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nicole M; Hjelkrem, Michael C

    2016-01-10

    Effective colorectal cancer screening relies on reliable colonoscopy findings which are themselves dependent on adequate bowel cleansing. Research has consistently demonstrated that inadequate bowel preparation adversely affects the adenoma detection rate and leads gastroenterologists to recommend earlier follow up than is consistent with published guidelines. Poor preparation affects as many as 30% of colonoscopies and contributes to an increased cost of colonoscopies. Patient tolerability is strongly affected by the preparation chosen and manner in which it is administered. Poor tolerability is, in turn, associated with lower quality bowel preparations. Recently, several new developments in both agents being used for bowel preparation and in the timing of administration have brought endoscopists closer to achieving the goal of effective, reliable, safe, and tolerable regimens. Historically, large volume preparations given in a single dose were administered to patients in order to achieve adequate bowel cleansing. These were poorly tolerated, and the unpleasant taste of and significant side effects produced by these large volume regimens contributed significantly to patients' inability to reliably complete the preparation and to a reluctance to repeat the procedure. Smaller volumes, including preparations that are administered as tablets to be consumed with water, given as split doses have significantly improved both the patient experience and efficacy, and an appreciation of the importance of the preparation to colonoscopy interval have produced additional cleansing. PMID:26788258

  19. Overlapping irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease: less to this than meets the eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Eamonn M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Though distinct in terms of pathology, natural history and therapeutic approach, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have some features in common. These include shared symptomatology and largely similar demographics. However, in most instances, clinical presentation, together with laboratory, imaging and endoscopic findings will readily permit the differentiation of active IBD from IBS. More problematic is the situation where a subject with IBD, in apparent remission, continues to complain of symptoms which, in aggregate, satisfy commonly employed criteria for the diagnosis of IBS. Access to methodologies, such the assay for levels of calprotectin in feces, now allows identification of ongoing inflammation in some such individuals and prompts appropriate therapy. More challenging is the IBD patient with persisting symptoms and no detectable evidence of inflammation; is this coincident IBS, IBS triggered by IBD or an even more subtle level of IBD activity unrecognized by available laboratory or imaging methods? Arguments can be advanced for each of these proposals; lacking definitive data, this issue remains unresolved. The occurrence of IBS-type symptoms in the IBD patient, together with some data suggesting a very subtle level of ‘inflammation‘ or ‘immune activation‘ in IBS, raises other questions: is IBS a prodromal form of IBD; and are IBS and IBD part of the spectrum of the same disease? All of the available evidence indicates that the answer to both these questions should be a resounding ‘no’. Indeed, the whole issue of overlap between IBS and IBD should be declared moot given their differing pathophysiologies, contrasting natural histories and divergent treatment paths. The limited symptom repertoire of the gastrointestinal tract may well be fundamental to the apparent confusion that has, of late, bedeviled this area. PMID:26929782

  20. Toll-like receptors -2, -4 and CD14 in human intestinal mucosa from patients with inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolová, Lenka; Drastich, P.; Klimešová, Klára; Rossmann, Pavel; Tlaskalová, Helena

    Prague : Verlag, 2006, s. 80-80. [Meeting of the European Mucosal Immunology Group /5./. Prague (CZ), 05.10.2006-07.10.2006] R&D Projects: GA ?R GD310/03/H147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : crohns disease * ulcerative colitis * toll-like receptors Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  1. Acute small bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Ceglie, Claudio Bilardi, Sabrina Blanchi, Massimo Picasso, Marcello Di Muzio, Alberto Trimarchi, Massimo Conio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement of endometriosis has been found in 3%-37% of menstruating women and exclusive localization on the ileum is very rare (1%-7%. Endometriosis of the distal ileum is an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction, ranging from 7% to 23% of all cases with intestinal involvement. We report a case in which endometrial infiltration of the small bowel caused acute obstruction requiring emergency surgery, in a woman whose symptoms were not related to menses. Histology of the resected specimen showed that endometriosis was mainly prevalent in the muscularis propria and submucosa and that the mucosa was not ulcerated but had inflammation and glandular alteration. Endometrial lymph node involvement, with a cystic glandular pattern was also detected.

  2. Small bowel cleansing does not improve quality of wireless capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Rune; Langholz, Ebbe; Glerup, Henning

    increasing demand of early diagnosis, WCE becomes more important. However, a drawback is the limited visualization of the mucosa in patients with poor cleansing quality. The aim of our study was to determine the benefit of preparation with Picoprep prior to examination with WCE and evaluate two different...... methods for cleansing quality. Methods This prospective cluster trial examined all patients from two Danish centres, who underwent WCE with PillCam SB based on either known or suspected small bowel CD or obscure bleeding from August 2013 to July 2014. Our local ethics committee waived the necessity of......, instructed patients to ingest one sachet of Picoprep powder, at 9 pm the day before examination, followed by 1.5 litres of liquid diet, as per standard of care at Site A. Patients were matched between centres based on indication, sex and age. Cleansing quality was assessed by two different methods described...

  3. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  4. Comparative microscopical study of the gall bladder mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, I; Nawar, N N

    1975-01-01

    The gall bladder from 6 Psammophis sibilans, 10 Bufo regularis and 10 Albino mice were extracted and prepared for microscopic examination. It was found that the mucosa of Psammophis sibilans consisted of ovoid and polygonal cells which were occasionally binucleated cells with darkly stained nuclei and occasionally pear-shaped cells with vesicular nuclei and fine processes. These cells were arranged in three layers. Apossible explanation for the different types of cells encountered and their arrangement was given. The gall bladder mucosa of Bufo regularis and Albino mouse were thrown into folds covered with simple columnar epithelium. However, the epithelium of the frog was higher than that of the mouse, with the nuclei situated midway between basement membrane and the lumen. Vacuolated cells were detected in the gall bladder mucosa of the mouse. The significance of the mucosal folds was discussed. PMID:1136701

  5. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sanjay Balwant; Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Joshi, Pankaj Mangalkumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue. PMID:24497698

  6. Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Oscar M.; Daneman, Alan; Miller, Stephen F. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-12-01

    About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery. (orig.)

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn B Beaulieu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis affect women in their child-bearing years. Family planning has come to be a common discussion between the gastroenterologist and the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patient. Disease control prior to desired conception and throughout pregnancy is the most important thing to keep in mind when caring for the IBD patient. Continued medical management during pregnancy is crucial in optimizing outcomes. Studies indicate that quiescent disease prior to conception infer the best pregnancy outcomes, similar to those in the general population. Active disease prior to and during pregnancy, can lead to complications such as pre-term labor, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. Although there are no definitive long term effects of pregnancy on IBD, there are some limited studies that suggest that it may alter the disease course. Understanding the literature and its limitations is important in the modern era of IBD care. Educating the patient and taking a team approach with the obstetrician will help achieve successful outcomes for mother and baby.

  8. A Strange Case of Left Bowel Ischemia after Right Hernioplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Geraci, Girolamo; Pisello, Franco; Modica, Giuseppe; Li Volsi, Francesco; Cajozzo, Massimo; Sciumè, Carmelo

    2010-01-01

    We report the first observed case of a young man who suffered of large and unsuspected left bowel ischemia following an elective right open hernioplasty. A 54-year-old man had a 2-year history of right inguinal reducible mass and was admitted to hospital for an elective day case open inguinal hernioplasty for a direct right inguinal hernia. Apart from mild hypertension controlled with ACE inhibitor, he was medically fit and well. The patient was submitted to open tension-free mesh repair with...

  9. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms in childhood irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects a large number of children throughout the world. The symptom expression of IBS is heterogeneous, and several factors which may be interrelated within the IBS biopsychosocial model play a role. These factors include visceral hyperalgesia, intestinal permeability, gut microbiota, psychosocial distress, gut inflammation, bile acids, food intolerance, colonic bacterial fermentation, and genetics. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of these factors are being actively investigated. In this mini-review, we present updates of these mechanisms and, where possible, relate the findings to childhood IBS. Mechanistic elucidation may lead to the identification of biomarkers as well as personalized childhood IBS therapies. PMID:26883355

  10. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  11. Accuracy of trained nurses in finding small bowel lesions at video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Alessandra; De Marinis, Francesca; Hassan, Cesare; Spada, Cristiano; Bruzzese, Vincenzo; Zullo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The video capsule endoscopy is an accurate tool to investigate the entire small bowel. Currently, the nurse actively participates in the procedure from patient preparation to the video download, whereas a gastroenterologist interprets the endoscopic findings. However, few studies recently showed high accuracy of nurses in detecting lesions in the small bowel on video capsule endoscopy recordings. This prospective study aimed to assess the ability of experienced and trained nurses in detecting small bowel lesions as compared with gastroenterologists. Forty-six consecutive video capsule endoscopy procedures were analyzed. Overall, the nurse evaluation was highly (95.6%) accurate in detecting small bowel lesions, with a 100% concordance with the gastroenterologist for the relevant findings. In addition, the absence of lesions was confirmed by the endoscopist in all cases classified as negative by the nurse. Data of this study found that trained nurses, with a large experience in endoscopic features, correctly identified small bowel lesions on video capsule endoscopy recordings. Therefore, a trained nurse may accurately select the thumbnails of all mucosal irregularities that may be faster reviewed by the endoscopist for a final diagnosis. PMID:25831247

  12. Renal Involvement in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corica, Domenico; Romano, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of extraintestinal manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases varies from 6% to 46%. The aetiology of extraintestinal manifestations remains unclear. There are theories based on an immunological response influenced by genetic factors. Extraintestinal manifestations can involve almost every organ system. They may originate from the same pathophysiological mechanism of intestinal disease, or as secondary complications of inflammatory bowel diseases, or autoimmune diseases susceptibility. The most frequently involved organs are the joints, skin, eyes, liver and biliary tract. Renal involvement has been considered as an extraintestinal manifestation and has been described in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The most frequent renal involvements in patients with inflammatory bowel disease are nephrolithiasis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis. The aim of this review is to evaluate and report the most important data in the literature on renal involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Bibliographical searches were performed of the MEDLINE electronic database from January 1998 to January 2015 with the following key words (all fields): (inflammatory bowel disease OR Crohn's disease OR ulcerative colitis) AND (kidney OR renal OR nephrotoxicity OR renal function OR kidney disease OR renal disease OR glomerulonephritis OR interstitial nephritis OR amyloidosis OR kidney failure OR renal failure) AND (5-aminosalicylic acid OR aminosalicylate OR mesalazine OR TNF-? inhibitors OR cyclosporine OR azathioprine OR drugs OR pediatric). PMID:26223844

  13. Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Olsen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of the environmental factors leading to inflammatory bowel disease should help to prevent occurrence of the disease and its relapses. Aim: To review current knowledge on dietary risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: The PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Library were searched for studies on diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Results: Established non-diet risk factors include family predisposition, smoking, appendectomy, and antibiotics. Retrospective case–control studies are encumbered with methodological problems. Prospective studies on European cohorts, mainly including middle-aged adults, suggest that a diet high in protein from meat and fish is associated with a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid may confer risk of ulcerative colitis, whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be protective. No effect was found of intake of dietary fibres, sugar, macronutrients, total energy, vitamin C, D, E, Carotene, or Retinol (vitamin A) on risk of ulcerative colitis. No prospective data was found on risk related to intake of fruits, vegetables or food microparticles (titanium dioxide and aluminium silicate). Conclusions: A diet high in protein, particular animal protein, may be associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease and relapses. N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may predispose to ulcerative colitis whilst n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid may protect. These results should be confirmed in other countries and in younger subjects before dietary counselling is recommended in high risk subjects.

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal management of chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease requires determination of disease localization and intensity. Scintigraphy with the use of 99mTc - HMPAO- White Bloods Cells (99mTc - HMPAO-WBC) is a relatively new noninvasive nuclear medicine procedure. They have evaluated more than 230 children and have found a high correspondence between the disease distribution shown by the 99mTc - HMPAO- WBC scan and that shown by endoscopic, radiologic, or surgical methods. Additionally the 99mTc - HMPAO-WBC scan has the ability of identifying extra intestinal site of inflammation, such as appendicitis and others. The 99mTc - HMPAO-WBC scan is reliable in differentiating Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis. Some patients because of unequivocal demonstrable small bowel uptake are reclassified from ulcerative colitis to Crohn's disease. The medication regimen is frequently altered because of the intensity of uptake displayed by the 99mTc - HMPAO-WBC scan. It is a practical and safe study even in an acutely ill patient who may not tolerate endoscopic or radiological study. At their institution, the 99mTc - HMPAO-WBC scan is now part of the initial evaluation, and follow-up of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In conclusion the 99mTc - HMPAO-WBC is excellent for the detection, localization and characterization of inflammatory bowel disease in children. Compared with the other methods of investigation this study requires no bowel preparation, is noninvasive and has excellent diagnostic accuracy

  15. X-ray studies of arteriovenous malformation of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential diagnosis of intestinal bleeding includes arteriovenous malformation. A patient with chronic anemia due to intestinal blood loss had negative studies of the small and large bowel. Angiography demonstrated arteriovenous malformation. Histologic examination of the resected intestine verified the diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Volvulus and bowel obstruction in ATR-X syndrome-clinical report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Nir; Pery, Ron; Amiel, Imri; Shwaartz, Chaya; Speter, Chen; Guranda, Larisa; Gutman, Mordechai; Hoffman, Aviad

    2015-11-01

    Alpha thalassemia-mental retardation, X-linked (ATR-X) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with a variety of clinical manifestations. Gastrointestinal symptoms described in this syndrome include difficulties in feeding, regurgitation and vomiting which may lead to aspiration pneumonia, abdominal pain, distention, and constipation. We present a 19-year-old male diagnosed with ATR-X syndrome, who suffered from recurrent colonic volvulus that ultimately led to bowel necrosis with severe septic shock requiring emergent surgical intervention. During 1 year, the patient was readmitted four times due to poor oral intake, dehydration and abdominal distention. Investigation revealed partial small bowel volvulus which resolved with non-operative treatment. Small and large bowel volvulus are uncommon and life-threatening gastrointestinal manifestations of ATR-X patients, which may contribute to the common phenomenon of prolonged food refusal in these patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26174613

  17. Detection of acute inflammatory bowel disease with Tc-99m-HSA-sucralfate scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucralfate binds to mucosal ulcerations. Twelve studies were performed in 11 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Technetium-sucralfate was prepared in vitro and given orally. Images were obtained at 4-6, 24, and 48 hours. Persistent focal abnormalities or activity in the large bowel beyond 48 hours was interpreted as positive. Patients' charts were reviewed. Technetium-sucralfate was positive in ten of ten studies in nine patients with active disease, one with equivocal activity, and negative in one patient with inactive disease. Nine of 19 abnormal sites were detected with technetium-sucralfate and radiology or endoscopy; six of ten were detected with technetium-sucralfate only. Technetium-sucralfate is very sensitive in detecting active inflammatory bowel disease in individual patients

  18. Small bowel obstruction secondary to migration of a fragment of lithobezoar: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Medani, Mekki

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Small bowel obstruction is a common world-wide condition that has a range of etiological factors. The management is largely dependent on the cause of the obstruction. Small bowel obstruction caused by foreign body ingestion is rare; many items have been reported as responsible, but there are no reports implicating polyurethane foam. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 44-year-old Irish male who presented following ingestion of polyurethane foam. He was asymptomatic on presentation but developed a small bowel obstruction shortly thereafter. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting following ingestion of polyurethane foam should be scheduled for elective laparotomy, gastrotomy, and retrieval of the cast on the next available theatre list - given that they are suitable for surgery.

  19. Biofeedback & Bowel Disorders: Teaching Yourself to Live without the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Biofeedback Bowel Retraining Dietary Fiber Fruit Juice Hirschsprung's Disease Laxatives Stool Form Guide Tips on Finding a ... Overview Biofeedback Bowel Retraining Dietary Fiber Fruit Juice Hirschsprung's Disease Laxatives Stool Form Guide Tips on Finding a ...

  20. Managing Inflammatory Bowel Diseases as a Young Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Diseases as a Young Adult Go Back Managing Inflammatory Bowel Diseases as a Young Adult Email ... and experiences, which may help you validate your emotions and realize you are far from alone. Special ...

  1. Mucosal healing effect of mesalazine granules in naproxen-induced small bowel enteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Rácz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of mesalazine granules on small intestinal injury induced by naproxen using capsule endoscopy (CE. METHODS: This was a single center, non-randomized, open-label, uncontrolled pilot study, using the PillCam SB CE system with RAPID 5 software. The Lewis Index Score (LIS for small bowel injury was investigated to evaluate the severity of mucosal injury. Arthropathy patients with at least one month history of daily naproxen use of 1000 mg and proton pump inhibitor co-therapy were screened. Patients with a minimum LIS of 135 were eligible to enter the 4-wk treatment phase of the study. During this treatment period, 3 × 1000 mg/d mesalazine granules were added to ongoing therapies of 1000 mg/d naproxen and 20 mg/d omeprazole. At the end of the 4-wk combined treatment period, a second small bowel CE was performed to re-evaluate the enteropathy according to the LIS results. The primary objective of this study was to assess the mucosal changes after 4 wk of mesalazine treatment. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients (16 females, ranging in age from 46 to 78 years (mean age 60.3 years were screened, all had been taking 1000 mg/d naproxen for at least one month. Eight patients were excluded from the mesalazine therapeutic phase of the study for the following reasons: the screening CE showed normal small bowel mucosa or only insignificant damages (LIS < 135 in five patients, the screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric ulcer in one patient, capsule technical failure and incomplete CE due to poor small bowel cleanliness in two patients. Ten patients (9 female, mean age 56.2 years whose initial LIS reached mild and moderate-to-severe enteropathy grades (between 135 and 790 and ? 790 entered the 4-wk therapeutic phase and a repeat CE was performed. When comparing the change in LIS from baseline to end of treatment in all patients, a marked decrease was seen (mean LIS: 1236.4 ± 821.9 vs 925.2 ± 543.4, P = 0.271. Moreover, a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment mean total LIS was detected in 7 patients who had moderate-to-severe enteropathy gradings at the inclusion CE (mean LIS: 1615 ± 672 vs 1064 ± 424, P = 0.033. CONCLUSION: According to the small bowel CE evaluation mesalazine granules significantly attenuated mucosal injuries in patients with moderate-to-severe enteropathies induced by naproxen.

  2. Manifestaciones reumatológicas de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal Rheumatologic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Germán Muñoz Maya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII se caracteriza por la activación inapropiada del sistema inmune de la mucosa intestinal y sus dos formas de presentación son: la colitis ulcerativa y la enfermedad de Crohn. Las manifestaciones extraintestinales se presentan hasta en el 36% de los pacientes y pueden comprometer cualquier órgano o sistema. La disfunción inmune se caracteriza por el desequilibrio entre los mediadores proinflamatorios y los antinflamatorios y se expresa como una enfermedad sistémica. Las manifestaciones reumatológicas asociadas a la EII son de tres tipos: la artritis periférica, la espondiloartropatía y una tercera categoría que incluye lesiones dérmicas, oftálmicas y del metabolismo óseo, entre otras. El manejo de estas manifestaciones se basa en la terapia sistémica para el control de la actividad inflamatoria local utilizando esteroides, derivados de la 5-ASA, inmunomoduladores y, en los últimos años, terapia anti-TNF. The main feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is the continuous activation of the mucosa-associated immune system; the disease has two major forms of presentation: ulcerative colitis and Crohn´s disease. The extraintestinal manifestations are present in 36% of patients, and any organ can be affected. There is an imbalance between proinflammatory and antinflammatory cytokines leading to a systemic disease. The rheumatologic manifestations of the IBD are: Peripheral arthritis, spondyloarthropathy and a third category that includes dermic and ocular lesions as well as metabolic bone disease. Control of the extraintestinal manifestations is based on systemic therapy with steroids, 5-ASA derivatives and biological anti-TNF therapy.

  3. Clinical significance of cytomegalovirus infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Garrido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is common in humans. The virus then enters a “latency phase” and can reactivate to different stimuli such as immunosuppression. The clinical significance of CMV infection in inflammatory bowel disease is different in Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. CMV does not interfere in the clinical course of CD. However, CMV reactivation is frequent in severe or steroid-resistant UC. It is not known whether the virus exacerbates the disease or simply appears as a bystander of a severe disease. Different methods are used to diagnose CMV colitis. Diagnosis is classically based on histopathological identification of viral-infected cells or CMV antigens in biopsied tissues using haematoxylin-eosin or immunohistochemistry, other tests on blood or tissue samples are currently being investigated. Polymerase chain reaction performed in colonic mucosa has a high sensitivity and a positive result could be associated with a worse prognosis disease; further studies are needed to determine the most appropriate strategy with positive CMV-DNA in colonic mucosa. Specific endoscopic features have not been described in active UC and CMV infection. CMV colitis is usually treated with ganciclovir for several weeks, there are different opinions about whether or not to stop immunosuppressive therapy. Other antiviral drugs may be used. Multicenter controlled studies would needed to determine which subgroup of UC patients would benefit from early antiviral treatment.

  4. Colonoscopy surveillance for dysplasia and colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalykke, Claus; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2015-01-01

    The risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been highly debated as risk estimates from different studies vary greatly. The present national Danish guideline on colonoscopy surveillance for dysplasia and colorectal cancer in patients with IBD is based on a thorough review of existing literature with particular focus on recent studies from Denmark revealing a lower risk of CRC than previously assumed. The overall risk of CRC in the Danish IBD population does not appear to be different from that of the background population; however, in some subgroups of patients the risk is increased. These subgroups of patients, who should be offered colonoscopy surveillance, include patients with ulcerative colitis having extensive disease and a long disease duration (10-13 years); early age at onset (less than 19 years of age) of ulcerative colitis; and patients with ulcerative colitis as well as Crohn's disease with a concomitant diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. A colonoscopy surveillance program is recommended in these subgroups with intervals ranging from every 3-6 months to every 5 years, using chromoendoscopy with targeted biopsies of the lesion and adjacent mucosa, instead of conventional colonoscopy with random biopsies. Preferably, the colonoscopy should be performed during clinical remission. If a lesion is detected the endoscopical resectability together with the pathology of the lesion and the adjacent mucosa determine how the lesion should be treated.

  5. Targeting T-cell migration in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsal, J; Agace, W W

    2012-11-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and are collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a major cause of lifetime morbidity, has a severe impact on quality of life of patients (equivalent to that of rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, migraine or diabetes) and constitutes a substantial economic burden to the healthcare system. The introduction of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies has dramatically improved the treatment of IBD, but approximately one-third of patients are nonresponders and another 30-50% will eventually lose the therapeutic effect or become intolerant to these antibodies. Thus, there is an urgent and unmet need for new therapies. The aetiologies of the different forms of IBD have not been fully elucidated but there is strong evidence implicating T cells and T-cell migration to the gut in initiating and perpetuating the intestinal inflammatory process and tissue destruction. In recent years, progress in basic science has shed light on the mechanisms regulating T-cell migration to the gut and new therapeutics targeting these pathways have been developed. It is interesting that some of the factors directing the localization of T cells to the gut have been shown to be relatively organ specific, potentially enabling new T-cell-targeted treatments to demonstrate improved safety whilst preserving therapeutic efficacy. Here, fundamental aspects of the gut immune system, the generation of tissue-tropic effector T cells and the mechanisms of T-cell trafficking to the gut mucosa will be reviewed. In addition, the role of these processes in IBD and how they have been exploited for the development of novel therapies for IBD will be discussed. PMID:22946654

  6. Irradiation injuries of the large intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of 15 patients suffering from irradiation injuries to the large bowel is reviewed. Ten patients required surgical intervention; intestinal continuity was re-established in three patients. As only three of the patients developed recurrent carcinoma, the initial operation for irradiation injury to the large bowel should be carefully planned so that the patient is not ultimately cured of carcinoma but left with a permanent stoma

  7. Endothelial Fas-Ligand in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and in Acute Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tuomo S; Karttunen, Tuomo J

    2015-12-01

    Fas-mediated induction of apoptosis is a major factor in the selection of lymphocytes and downregulation of immunological processes. In the present study, we have assessed endothelial Fas-ligand (FasL) expression in normal human ileum, appendix, and colon, and compared the expression levels with that in inflammatory bowel disease and in acute appendicitis. In a normal appendix, endothelial FasL levels were constant in almost half of the mucosal vessels; but, in the normal ileum and colon, endothelial FasL was practically restricted to areas in close proximity to lymphatic follicles, and was expressed mainly in the submucosal aspect of the follicles in the vessels with high endothelium. In samples from subjects with either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, the extent of endothelial FasL expression was elevated in the submucosa and associated with an elevated number of lymphoid follicles. In inflammatory bowel disease, ulcers and areas with a high density of mononuclear cells expressing FasL also showed an elevated density of blood vessels with endothelial FasL expression. Although the function of endothelial FasL remains unclear, such a specific expression pattern suggests that endothelial FasL expression has a role in the regulation of lymphocyte access to the peripheral lymphoid tissues, including the intestinal mucosa. PMID:26374830

  8. A case of Polyarteritis Nodosa Mimicking Pyelonephritis and was Misdiagnosed as Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubekir ?ENATE?

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN is characterized by necrotizing inflammation of small- or medium-sized muscular arteries. Atypic clinical presentation leads to delay in diagnosis. For this reason, it can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Here, we described a case which presented first with fever and left costovertebral angle tenderness, and was misdiagnosed as pyelonephritis. The patient did not benefit from intravenous antibiotherapy that was prescribed in the outpatient clinic and then hospitalized for left lower abdominal pain. No source of fever was found despite detailed physical examination and laboratory investigation. An abdominal ultrasonography showed hyperechogenity of the left kidney. An abdominal computed tomography was performed for left lower abdominal pain suggesting inflammatory bowel disease findings. Colonoscopy showed an ulcero-vegetating and nodular mass surrounding the whole sigmoid colon mucosa and suggesting a malignant tumour. A conventional angiography of the mesenteric artery showed total occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery. He developed acute abdominal pain and, left hemicolectomy was performed for colonic perforation. Histopathological findings consistent with PAN were detected in the pathological examination of the resected bowel, and the patient was diagnosed with PAN. After initiation of corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide therapy, the clinical status of the patient was improved dramatically with disappearence of fever and relief of abdominal pain. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2013;59:79-82.

  9. Microbial Sensing by the Intestinal Epithelium in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Rogler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have raised evidence that the intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowels diseases. This evidence comes from several observations. First, animals raised under germ-free conditions do not develop intestinal inflammation in several different model systems. Second, antibiotics are able to modulate the course of experimental colitis. Third, genetic polymorphisms in a variety of genes of the innate immune system have been associated with chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases. Dysfunction of these molecules results in an inappropriate response to bacterial and antigenic stimulation of the innate immune system in the gastrointestinal tract. Variants of pattern recognition receptors such as NOD2 or TLRs by which commensal and pathogenic bacteria can be detected have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. But not only pathways of microbial detection but also intracellular ways of bacterial processing such as autophagosome function are associated with the risk to develop Crohn's disease. Thus, the “environment concept” and the “genetic concept” of inflammatory bowel disease pathophysiology are converging via the intestinal microbiota and the recognition mechanisms for an invasion of members of the microbiota into the mucosa.

  10. Efeito genotóxico do etanol em células da mucosa bucal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Silvia Regina de Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O etanol é um dos agentes químicos relacionados ao desenvolvimento de neoplasias malignas bucais. Os micronúcleos são porções de cromatina que permanecem próximas ao núcleo, resultantes de mitoses aberrantes após a ação de agentes genotóxicos. Dessa forma, sua ocorrência reflete o grau de exposição celular a carcinógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a freqüência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da língua e da mucosa jugal de indivíduos dependentes químicos de etanol. A amostra constou de células esfoliadas da língua e da mucosa jugal de 40 indivíduos alcoólatras não fumantes e de 20 abstêmios de álcool e fumo. As células obtidas foram coradas pelo método de Feulgen e contracoradas pelo "Fast Green". Observou-se um aumento estatisticamente significativo da freqüência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da língua no grupo de indivíduos expostos ao etanol em relação ao grupo controle (p 0,05. Conclui-se, portanto, que o consumo excessivo de etanol promove alterações efetivas em células da mucosa bucal, mesmo na ausência de exposição ao fumo. Tais alterações apresentam-se mais expressivas no bordo lateral de língua, um sítio mais exposto à ação de carcinógenos quando comparado à mucosa jugal.

  11. Cell therapy in experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease / Terapia celular em modelo experimental de doença inflamatória intestinal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mônica Yonashiro, Marcelino; Natália Langenfeld, Fuoco; Ana Elise Valencise, Quaglio; Renata Aparecida de Camargo, Bittencourt; Bruna Cambraia, Garms; Thaís Helena da Motta, Conceição; Luiz Claudio Di, Stasi; João Tadeu, Ribeiro-Paes.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Doença Inflamatória Intestinal (DII), consistindo principalmente da doença de Crohn e retocolite ulcerativa, é uma condição inflamatória da mucosa que pode acometer qualquer segmento do trato gastrointestinal. Apesar das terapias existentes resultarem na melhora dos sintomas e da qualidade de vida [...] dos pacientes, não há nenhum tratamento curativo. O tratamento cirúrgico envolve procedimentos complexos associados a altas taxas de morbimortalidade. Neste contexto, a terapia celular com células-tronco desponta como opção de tratamento potencialmente promissora. Em função destes aspectos, pretendeu-se, no presente estudo, verificar a eficácia do transplante de células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo (ASC) em ratos com inflamação intestinal induzida por ácido trinitrobenzenosulfonico (TNBS). As ASCs foram obtidas por dissociação mecânica do tecido adiposo da região inguinal de ratos e processadas para cultivo. Os animais foram avaliados, considerando-se os aspectos clínicos e bioquímicos, além de análises macroscópica, microscópica e histológica. No modelo de inflamação intestinal induzida por TNBS, a infusão de ASCs reduziu significativamente a presença de aderências entre o cólon e órgãos adjacentes, bem como diminuiu a atividade da mieloperoxidase (MPO), um marcador da infiltração de neutrófilos na mucosa lesada. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que a terapia celular com ASCs pode promover e/ou acelerar o processo de regeneração da mucosa intestinal inflamada. Abstract in english Inflammatory bowel disease, which mainly involves Crohn's disease and ulcerative rectocolitis, is an inflammatory condition of the mucosa that can afflict any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the fact that the existing therapies result in improvement in patient's symptomatology and qua [...] lity of life, there is no curative treatment. Surgical treatment involves complex procedures associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this context, cell therapy with stem cells has emerged as a treatment with broad potential applicability. In this study, we intended to verify the efficacy of transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in rats with intestinal inflammation induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. The cell population was isolated from the adipose tissue of inguinal region of rats and processed for culture by mechanical dissociation. The animals were evaluated with respect to clinical and biochemical aspects, as well as by macroscopic, microscopic and histological analyses. In the experimental model of bowel inflammation by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, the infusion of adipose tissue significantly reduced the presence of adhesions in the colon and adjacent organs and decreased the activity of myeloperoxidase, a marker of neutrophil infiltration in the injured mucosa. The results suggest that cell therapy with adipose tissue can promote and/or accelerate the regeneration of damaged intestinal mucosa. It is concluded that the presence of adhesions and the determination of myeloperoxidase activity provide indications that adipose tissue can promote and/or accelerate the regeneration of inflammatory bowel mucosa.

  12. Effect of Paclitaxel (Taxol) alone and in combination with radiation on the gastrointestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Paclitaxel is a potentially useful drug for augmenting the cytotoxic action of radiotherapy because it has independent cytotoxic activity against certain cancers and blocks cells in the radiosensitive mitotic phase of the cell cycle. However, all rapidly proliferating tissues, both normal and neoplastic, may be affected by this therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to define the in vivo response of rapidly dividing cells of the small bowel mucosa to paclitaxel given alone and in combination with radiation. Methods and Materials: Mice were given single IV doses of 10 or 40 mg/kg paclitaxel or four doses of 10 mg/kg paclitaxel at 6, 12, or 24 h intervals. The kinetics of mitotic arrest and apoptosis in jejunal crypts of mice at 1-24 h after treatment were defined histologically. An in vivo stem cell microcolony assay was used to assess the radiosensitizing potential of paclitaxel when radiation was delivered at the peak of mitosis and at 24 h after drug treatment. Results: Paclitaxel blocked jejunal crypt cells in mitosis and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Fractionating the paclitaxel dose over 1-4 days did not result in any greater accumulation of mitotically blocked cells than did a single dose. Mitosis peaked 2-4 h after paclitaxel and returned to near normal by 24 h. Apoptosis lagged several hours behind mitosis and peaked about 6 h later than mitosis. Despite these kinetic perturbations, there was little or no enhancement of radiation effect when single doses were delivered 2-4 h after paclitaxel administration. The maximum sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.07 observed after a single paclitaxel dose of 40 mg/kg is consistent with independent crypt cell killing. Conversely, when radiation was given 24 h after paclitaxel, a significant protective effect of the drug (SER 0.89-0.92), most probably due to a regenerative overshoot induced by paclitaxel, was observed. Conclusion: Stem cells of the jejunal mucosa determining radiation response were not radiosensitized by paclitaxel with the drug concentrations and dose delivery schedules used, although additive cytotoxicity was observed with the highest drug dose. A radioprotective effect was observed when radiation was given 24 h after paclitaxel administration

  13. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Herrera, L. E.; Arias, F.; Rodríguez-Urrego, P. A.; Palau-Lázaro, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:26167322

  14. Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Olsen, Anja; Carbonnel, Franck; Tjønneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Library were searched for studies on diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. RESULTS: Established non-diet risk factors include family predisposition, smoking, appendectomy, and antibiotics. Retrospective case-control studies are encumbered with methodological problems. Prospective studies on...... European cohorts, mainly including middle-aged adults, suggest that a diet high in protein from meat and fish is associated with a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid may confer risk of ulcerative colitis, whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty...... dioxide and aluminium silicate). CONCLUSIONS: A diet high in protein, particular animal protein, may be associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease and relapses. N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may predispose to ulcerative colitis whilst n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid may protect. These...

  15. Bladder smooth muscle dysfunction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Whorwell, P. J.; Lupton, E W; Erduran, D; Wilson, K.

    1986-01-01

    Urodynamic studies were carried out on 30 patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 30 matched controls. Fifty per cent of the irritable bowel patients compared with only 13% of the control group had evidence of bladder dysfunction (p = 0.006). In the irritable bowel group detrusor instability was observed in 10 patients compared with only one control subject (p = 0.008). A steep cystometrogram occurred in five irritable bowel patients and three controls (NS). Detrusor instability was most c...

  16. Relationship of small bowel motility to ileoanal reservoir function.

    OpenAIRE

    Groom, J S; Kamm, M A; Nicholls, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Some patients with an ileoanal reservoir have a high defecation frequency, despite a good anatomical result and the absence of pouchitis. This study aimed to determine whether variation in function is related to a difference in small bowel motility proximal to the reservoir and if small bowel motility is propagated into the reservoir. Ambulatory small bowel and reservoir motility was studied for 24 hours in five patients with good function (median bowel frequency 4 per day, range 3-6) and sev...

  17. Spontaneous perforation of rectum with evisceration of small bowel small bowel simulating intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bhat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Spontaneous perforation of rectum is a rare event; however evisceration of the small bowel through the perforated site without predisposing factors is extremely rare, complex and worth reporting. Case report: A 14 years old presented to us apparently as a case of intussception. The operative findings revealed it to be a case of spontaneous perforation of rectum with evisceration of the small bowel through the perforation. Conclusion: Sudden increase in the intra-abdominal pressure leads to the perforation in the chronically deranged rectal wall and pushes the small bowel loops into the pelvis and through the perforated rectum to appear transanally.

  18. Studies of the small bowel surface by scanning electron microscopy in infants with persistent diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Fagundes-Neto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the ultrastructural abnormalities of the small bowel surface in 16 infants with persistent diarrhea. The age range of the patients was 2 to 10 months, mean 4.8 months. All patients had diarrhea lasting 14 or more days. Bacterial overgrowth of the colonic microflora in the jejunal secretion, at concentrations above 10(4 colonies/ml, was present in 11 (68.7% patients. The stool culture was positive for an enteropathogenic agent in 8 (50.0% patients: for EPEC O111 in 2, EPEC O119 in 1, EAEC in 1, and Shigella flexneri in 1; mixed infections due to EPEC O111 and EAEC in 1 patient, EPEC O119 and EAEC in 1 and EPEC O55, EPEC O111, EAEC and Shigella sonnei in 1. Morphological abnormalities in the small bowel mucosa were observed in all 16 patients, varying in intensity from moderate 9 (56.3% to severe 7 (43.7%. The scanning electron microscopic study of small bowel biopsies from these subjects showed several surface abnormalities. At low magnification (100X most of the villi showed mild to moderate stunting, but on several occasions there was subtotal villus atrophy. At higher magnification (7,500X photomicrographs showed derangement of the enterocytes; on several occasions the cell borders were not clearly defined and very often microvilli were decreased in number and height; in some areas there was a total disappearance of the microvilli. In half of the patients a mucus-fibrinoid pseudomembrane was seen partially coating the enterocytes, a finding that provides additional information on the pathophysiology of persistent diarrhea.

  19. Multidetector CT findings of bowel Transection in blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Suk; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Park, Mee Hyun; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young; Hwang, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hong Il [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity.

  20. Multidetector CT findings of bowel Transection in blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity.

  1. Selecting Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (STRIDE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Sandborn, W; Sands, B E; Reinisch, W; Bemelman, W; Bryant, R V; D'Haens, G; Dotan, I; Dubinsky, M; Feagan, B; Fiorino, G; Gearry, R; Krishnareddy, S; Lakatos, P L; Loftus, E V; Marteau, P; Munkholm, P; Murdoch, T B; Ordás, I; Panaccione, R; Riddell, R H; Ruel, J; Rubin, David; Samaan, M; Siegel, C A; Silverberg, M S; Stoker, J; Schreiber, S; Travis, S; Van Assche, G; Danese, S; Panes, J; Bouguen, G; O'Donnell, S; Pariente, B; Winer, S; Hanauer, S; Colombel, J-F

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Selecting Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (STRIDE) program was initiated by the International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IOIBD). It examined potential treatment targets for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to be used for a "treat-t...

  2. Small Bowel Ischemia in a Sickle Cell Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Abadin, Shabirhusain S.; Salazar, Mario R.; Zhu, Richard Y.; Mark M. Connolly; Francis J. Podbielski

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of small bowel ischemia secondary to sickle cell disease. Acute bowel ischemia is an uncommon presentation of patients with sickle cell disease. Historically, only a handful of cases have been reported. We also provide a summary of the literature relevant to sickle cell patients with acute bowel ischemia.

  3. Case report: Congenital short bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palle Lalitha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital short bowel syndrome (SBS is a relatively rare condition as compared to acquired SBS. It is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Infants usually present with failure to thrive, recurrent vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to suspect and diagnose this condition promptly, as early initiation of parenteral nutrition or surgery, if necessary, may result in a favorable outcome. We discuss a case of an infant aged 26 days, who presented with failure to thrive, recurrent vomiting, and weight loss. A contrast study of the gastrointestinal tract revealed a short small bowel, with malrotation. The infant was started on parenteral nutrition, but succumbed shortly thereafter to severe disseminated sepsis.

  4. Achieving the best bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Blanco, Adolfo; Ruiz, Alex; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Amorós, Ana; Gana, Juan Cristóbal; Ibáñez, Patricio; Ono, Akiko; Fujii, Takahiro

    2014-12-21

    Bowel preparation is a core issue in colonoscopy, as it is closely related to the quality of the procedure. Patients often find that bowel preparation is the most unpleasant part of the examination. It is widely accepted that the quality of cleansing must be excellent to facilitate detecting neoplastic lesions. In spite of its importance and potential implications, until recently, bowel preparation has not been the subject of much study. The most commonly used agents are high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) electrolyte solution and sodium phosphate. There has been some confusion, even in published meta-analyses, regarding which of the two agents provides better cleansing. It is clear now that both PEG and sodium phosphate are effective when administered with proper timing. Consequently, the timing of administration is recognized as one of the central factors to the quality of cleansing. The bowel preparation agent should be administered, at least in part, a few hours in advance of the colonoscopy. Several low volume agents are available, and either new or modified schedules with PEG that usually improve tolerance. Certain adjuvants can also be used to reduce the volume of PEG, or to improve the efficacy of other agents. Other factors apart from the choice of agent can improve the quality of bowel cleansing. For instance, the effect of diet before colonoscopy has not been completely clarified, but an exclusively liquid diet is probably not required, and a low-fiber diet may be preferable because it improves patient satisfaction and the quality of the procedure. Some patients, such as diabetics and persons with heart or kidney disease, require modified procedures and certain precautions. Bowel preparation for pediatric patients is also reviewed here. In such cases, PEG remains the most commonly used agent. As detecting neoplasia is not the main objective with these patients, less intensive preparation may suffice. Special considerations must be made for patients with inflammatory bowel disease, including safety and diagnostic issues, so that the most adequate agent is chosen. Identifying neoplasia is one of the main objectives of colonoscopy with these patients, and the target lesions are often almost invisible with white light endoscopy. Therefore excellent quality preparation is required to find these lesions and to apply advanced methods such as chromoendoscopy. Bowel preparation for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding represents a challenge, and the strategies available are also reviewed here. PMID:25548470

  5. Enfermedad de la mucosa oral: Penfigoide de las membranas mucosas Oral mucosal disease: Mucouse membrane pemphigoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Discepoli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos vesículobullosos subepiteliales representan desordenes autoinmunitarios que cogen origen de reacciones dirigidas hacia componentes de los hemidesmosomas o bien de las Zonas de la Membrana Basal (ZMB de los epitelios escamosos estratificados. A estos trastornos ha sido conferidoel término de enfermedades ampollosa subepiteliales inmunomediadas (EASIM y el penfigoide de las membranas mucosas (PMM es el más frecuente. Todas las enfermedades subepiteliales vesiculobullosas se presentan como lesiones ampollosas y descamativas, y el diagnostico debe de ser confirmado por una biopsia junta a tinción inmunológica. No hay un único tratamiento capaz de controlar todas las enfermedades subepiteliales vesiculoampollosas; las diferencias inmunológicas entre las EASIM proporciona diferencias en las respuestas al tratamiento. Hoy en día el tratamiento inmunorregulador es usado para controlar la lesión oral de PMM.Subepithelial vesiculobullous conditions are chronic autoimmune disorders that arise from reactions directed against components of the hemidesmosomes or basement membrane zones (BMZ of stratified squamous epithelium to which the term immune-mediated subepithelial blistering diseases (IMSEBD has been given. Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP is the most common, but variants do exist. All subepithelial vesiculobullous disorders present as blisters and erosions, and diagnosis must be confirmed by biopsy examination with immunostaining, sometimes supplemented by other investigations. No single treatment reliably controls all subepithelial vesiculobullous disorders; the immunological differences within IMSEBD may account for differences in responses to treatment. Currently, as well as improving oral hygiene, immunomodulatory treatment is used to control the oral lesions of MMP, but it is not known if its specific subsets reliably respond to different agents.

  6. Omphalocele minor associated with complete absence of the large bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferede, Atakelet

    2012-02-01

    Colonic atresia, unlike small intestine atresia, is a rare congenital malformation. Congenital absence of the entire colon is exceptionally rare. Moreover, an association of omphalocele and complete absence of the colon has not yet been reported in the literature. We present an infant born with such combination of congenital anomalies.

  7. Post-kidney transplant large bowel lymphoproliferative disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj; Samavedi, Singh; Rajab, Amer

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of organ transplantation. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common site involved, but non-specific signs and symptoms often delay the diagnosis. We report a case of EBV-associated GI-PTLD in a 68-year-old kidney transplant patient who received the kidney ten months earlier. He presented with chronic diarrhea and developed massive pneumo-peritoneum secondary to multiple colonic perforations. PMID:24821162

  8. Cholecystectomy and adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas, K J; Torlach, L G; Ward, M.; Bain, C

    1986-01-01

    Seventy two patients (39 women) with colonic adenomas were compared with 72 adenoma free controls (39 women) to investigate the possible association between previous cholecystectomy and the subsequent development of adenomas. Data were gathered retrospectively from medical records. Overall there was no significant association between colonic adenomas and previous cholecystectomy. When women are considered separately, however, eight cases and no controls had undergone cholecystectomy (odds rat...

  9. Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of dead children Helicobacter pylori en la mucosa gástrica de cadáveres de niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Duque Alzate

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available 23 children under the age of 12 years who died violently without receiving any treatment, had their gastric mucosa studied by means of he Warthin-Starry stain and immunohistochemistry in search for Helicobacter pylori. It was found that 60.9% (14 cases were positive; of them 64,3% belonged to a low social class and 35,7% to the middle one. Of the positive cases, 9 had acute gastritis, 1 had chronic gastritis and only 4 had normal gastric mucosa. A clear association between Helicobacter pylory and changes in gastritis was observed. En 23 niños menores de 12 años que murieron en forma violenta sin haber recibido tratamiento, se estudiaron para Helicobacter pylori las mucosas gástricas con las coloraciones de hematoxilina eosina, Warthin Starry e inmunohistoquímica. Se encontró que 14 casos (60,9% fueron positivos para esta bacteria, de los cuales 9 (64,3% pertenecían a un estrato social bajo y 5 (35,7% a uno medio. De los casos positivos para H. pylori, 9 tenían gastritis aguda, 1 gastritis crónica y sólo en 4 la mucosa gástrica era normal. Se observó una clara asociación entre H. pylori y cambios de gastritis.

  10. The adhesiometer: a simple device to measure adherence of barium sulfate to intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonowitz, E; Frick, M P; Cragg, A H; Lund, G

    1984-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive device assessing barium sulfate adherence to alimentary tract mucosa was tested in an animal study using pigs and dogs. Interaction of gastric, intestinal, and colonic mucosal lining with three different barium preparations was studied. In both pigs and dogs, barium adherence to gastric mucosa was significantly stronger when compared with colonic mucosa. PMID:6608230

  11. Neuro-immune interactions in inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome: Future therapeutic targets

    OpenAIRE

    Kraneveld, A D; Rijnierse, A.; F. P. Nijkamp; Garssen, J.

    2008-01-01

    The gastro-intestinal tract is well known for its largest neural network outside the central nervous system and for the most extensive immune system in the body. Research in neurogastroenterology implicates the involvement of both enteric nervous system and immune system in symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Since both disorders are associated with increased immune cell numbers, nerve growth and activation of both immune cells and nerves, we focus in this rev...

  12. State-of-the-art of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease research in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    McFarland, Lynne V.

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are two of the leading causes of chronic intestinal conditions in the world. This issue of World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG) presents a series of papers from world experts who discuss the current knowledge and opinions on these important conditions. Although great strides have been made in the diagnosis, treatment and pathology of IBS and IBD; much has yet to be explained. The etiologies and risk factors of these multif...

  13. Are Probiotics or Prebiotics useful in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease?

    OpenAIRE

    StefanoGuandalini

    2014-01-01

    Treatment options for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are notoriously either inadequate (IBS) or loaded with potentially serious side effects and risks (IBD). In recent years a growing interest for effective and safer alternatives has focused on the potential role of probiotics and their metabolic substrates, prebiotics. It is in fact conceivable that the microbiome might be targeted by providing the metabolic fuel needed for the growth and expansion of ben...

  14. Are Probiotics or Prebiotics Useful in Pediatric Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Guandalini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Treatment options for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are notoriously either inadequate (IBS) or loaded with potentially serious side effects and risks (IBD). In recent years, a growing interest in effective and safer alternatives has focused on the potential role of probiotics and their metabolic substrates, prebiotics. It is in fact conceivable that the microbiome might be targeted by providing the metabolic fuel needed for the growth and expansion of ben...

  15. The kidneys in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsanos K.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Extraintestinal manifestations and complications are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and may involve almost any organ or system. Renal or urinary complications occur in 4-23% of patients often in those with severe long-standing disease. The most common manifestations are kidney stones, enterovesical fistulas and ureteral obstruction. Genital involvement is uncommon in IBD. Patients with IBD have a risk of nephrolithiasis 10-100 times greater than that for the general hospital population. Glomerulonephritis (GN in IBD has been reported in at least 27 patients; of these 7 had CD, 17 had UC and 3 were indeterminate.Histology changes range from minimal change nephropathy to rapidly progressive crescentic GN which may be accompanied by active tubulointerstitial nephritis. Tubulointerstitial abnormalities are not uncommon in autopsy studies of IBD patients. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis, interstitial nephritis with hyperoxalouria and renal tubular acidosis have also been reported. Inflammatory bowel disease is an uncommon cause of secondary amyloidosis. Complications from medical therapy are relatively rare in the majority of drugs used to treat IBD. There is little or no nephrotoxicity with many drugs used including corticosteroids, azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine, metronidazole and low dose methotrexate. The drugs with significant potential renal toxicity are the aminosalicylates (sulfasalazine, mesalamine, 5-ASA, olsalazine and cyclosporine. Surgical complications following bowel surgery include ureteral injury, urinary vetention and sexual dysfunction. Key words: renal, urinary, genital, drugs, therapy, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn?s, ulcerative colitis, glomerular, tubular, interstitial, kidneys.

  16. Analysis of bowel perforation in necrotizing enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, E.E.; Smith, W.; Franken, E.A. Jr.; Wintermeyer, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    The most severe complication of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is bowel perforation. Identification of neonates at high risk for perforation and optimization of radiologic imaging to identify bowel perforation are necessary to reduce the high mortality rate associated with this catastrophic event. One hundred 55 cases of NEC were seen at our institution during a 5.5 year period. Nineteen (12%) progressed to perforation. A review of surgical findings, autopsy results and radiographs from these patients shows only 63% had radiographic evidence of free air in the peritoneal cavity at the time of perforation. Twenty-one percent had radiographic evidence of ascites but no pneumoperitoneum, and 16 percent had neither free air nor ascites. Thus purely radiographic criteria for bowel perforation in NEC are imprecise, and paracentesis is mandatory in NEC patients with ascites or clinical findings indicative of peritonitis. Timing of radiographic studies and site of bowel involvement are also important. Seventy-nine percent of perforations occurred by 30 h from confirmation of diagnosis (by clinical or radiographic criteria). Surgery or autopsy revealed involvement of the ileo-cecal region in 89% of cases with the actual site of perforation occurring in this area in 58% of patients.

  17. Genetic epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Jasbir; Chilimuri, Sridhar; Bella, Jonathan N

    2015-10-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by presence of abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits. It has three main subtypes - constipation predominant IBS (C-IBS), diarrhea predominant IBS (D-IBS) and IBS with mixed features of both diarrhea as well as constipation (M-IBS). Its pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. It is traditionally believed that IBS is a result of multiple factors including hypersensitivity of the bowel, altered bowel motility, inflammation and stress. Initial studies have shown familial aggregation of IBS suggesting shared genetic or environmental factors. Twin studies of IBS from different parts of world have shown higher concordance rates among monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, and thus suggesting a genetic component to this disorder. Multiple studies have tried to link single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to IBS but there is little evidence that these SNPs are functional. Various molecules have been studied and investigated by the researchers. Serotonin, a known neurotransmitter and a local hormone in the enteric nervous system, has been most extensively explored. At this time, the underlying gene pathways, genes and functional variants linked with IBS remain unknown and the promise of genetically-determined risk prediction and personalize medicine remain unfulfilled. However, molecular biological technologies continue to evolve rapidly and genetic investigations offer much promise in the intervention, treatment and prevention of IBS. PMID:26525775

  18. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenaga, Katia K F G; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    statistically significant evidence that patients benefit from MBP. The belief that MBP is necessary before elective colorectal surgery should be reconsidered. Further research on patients submitted for elective colorectal surgery in whom bowel continuity is restored, with stratification for colonic and rectal...

  19. Inflammatory bowel diseases: principles of nutritional therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Fábio Guilherme; Waitzberg Dan L.; Teixeira Magaly Gemio; Mucerino Donato Roberto; Habr-Gama Angelita; Kiss Desidério R.

    2002-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease- are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases of unknown etiology. Decreased oral intake, malabsorption, accelerated nutrient losses, increased requirements, and drug-nutrient interactions cause nutritional and functional deficiencies that require proper correction by nutritional therapy. The goals of the different forms of nutritional therapy are to correct nutritional disturbances and to modulate inflammatory respons...

  20. Analysis of bowel perforation in necrotizing enterocolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most severe complication of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is bowel perforation. Identification of neonates at high risk for perforation and optimization of radiologic imaging to identify bowel perforation are necessary to reduce the high mortality rate associated with this catastrophic event. One hundred 55 cases of NEC were seen at our institution during a 5.5 year period. Nineteen (12%) progressed to perforation. A review of surgical findings, autopsy results and radiographs from these patients shows only 63% had radiographic evidence of free air in the peritoneal cavity at the time of perforation. Twenty-one percent had radiographic evidence of ascites but no pneumoperitoneum, and 16 percent had neither free air nor ascites. Thus purely radiographic criteria for bowel perforation in NEC are imprecise, and paracentesis is mandatory in NEC patients with ascites or clinical findings indicative of peritonitis. Timing of radiographic studies and site of bowel involvement are also important. Seventy-nine percent of perforations occurred by 30 h from confirmation of diagnosis (by clinical or radiographic criteria). Surgery or autopsy revealed involvement of the ileo-cecal region in 89% of cases with the actual site of perforation occurring in this area in 58% of patients. (orig.)

  1. New pharmaceuticals in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?odyga, Micha?; Eder, Piotr; Bartnik, Witold; Gonciarz, Maciej; K?opocka, Maria; Linke, Krzysztof; Ma?ecka-Panas, Ewa; Radwan, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper complements the previously published Guidelines of the Working Group of the Polish Society of Gastroenterology and former National Consultant in Gastroenterology regarding the management of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Attention was focused on the new pharmaceutical recently registered for inflammatory bowel disease treatment. PMID:26557934

  2. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadir M.R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Probiotics; Parasmpatholytics; Laxatives.

  3. Microbiota biodiversity in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Comito, Donatella; Cascio, Antonio; Romano, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a significant role in human health and energy balance, and provides protection against disease states. An altered balance between microbiota and its host (dysbiosis) would appear to contribute to the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). CD and UC are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tes.

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease: potential therapeutic strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Bregenholt, S; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Bishop, P D; Kirman, I

    1997-01-01

    This review deals with potential and possibly primary therapeutics that, through insight into the inflammatory cascade, result in more rational treatment principles replacing the classical therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These new...

  5. Bowel wall visualisation at CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, M.H.; Hellstroem, M. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Svensson, E. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Statistics

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the quality of bowel wall visualisation at CT colonography and the impact of examination in the supine and prone positions. Material and Methods: After bowel preparation, 111 patients underwent CT colonography. Air distension, degree of fluid redistribution with change in body position (supine and prone), influence of residual stool on bowel wall assessability, and quality of overall colon visualisation were evaluated using scales. Results: Thirty of 110 patients (27%) had complete overall visualisation of the colon wall and 52 (47%) had subtotal visualisation of a limited part of the colon. The entire colon was more often air-filled in the prone position (46%) than in the supine position (18%). Joint review of supine and prone data showed that for all colon segments, except the sigmoid (86%), 95% of the patients had complete air filling. All patients had residual fluid. In 75% to 99%, depending on segment, fluid did not interfere with the bowel wall visualisation in the combined evaluation of supine and prone data sets. Thirty-one patients had residual stool with potential negative influence on polyp detection. Conclusions: The colon wall was completely, or almost completely, visualised in 75% of the patients, and examination in the supine and prone positions was necessary for complete visualisation.

  6. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. (orig.)

  7. Effective in vivo and ex vivo gene transfer to intestinal mucosa by VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasahara Noriyuki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene transfer to the gastrointestinal (GI mucosa is a therapeutic strategy which could prove particularly advantageous for treatment of various hereditary and acquired intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, GI infections, and cancer. Methods We evaluated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein envelope (VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (LV for efficacy of gene transfer to both murine rectosigmoid colon in vivo and human colon explants ex vivo. LV encoding beta-galactosidase (LV-β-Gal or firefly-luciferase (LV-fLuc reporter genes were administered by intrarectal instillation in mice, or applied topically for ex vivo transduction of human colorectal explant tissues from normal individuals. Macroscopic and histological evaluations were performed to assess any tissue damage or inflammation. Transduction efficiency and systemic biodistribution were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. LV-fLuc expression was evaluated by ex vivo bioluminescence imaging. LV-β-Gal expression and identity of transduced cell types were examined by histochemical and immunofluorescence staining. Results Imaging studies showed positive fLuc signals in murine distal colon; β-Gal-positive cells were found in both murine and human intestinal tissue. In the murine model, β-Gal-positive epithelial and lamina propria cells were found to express cytokeratin, CD45, and CD4. LV-transduced β-Gal-positive cells were also seen in human colorectal explants, consisting mainly of CD45, CD4, and CD11c-positive cells confined to the LP. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of LV-mediated gene transfer into colonic mucosa. We also identified differential patterns of mucosal gene transfer dependent on whether murine or human tissue was used. Within the limitations of the study, the LV did not appear to induce mucosal damage and were not distributed beyond the distal colon.

  8. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy-assisted bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Barclay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the quality and tolerance of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD-assisted and conventional split-dose polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution for inpatient colonoscopy. METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled trial in hospitalized patients. Hospitalized patients undergoing colonoscopy the day following EGD for evaluation of gastrointestinal (GI bleeding or other symptoms. Patients randomized to either EGD-assisted bowel prep [2 L polyethylene glycol (PEG administered endoscopically into distal duodenum at time of EGD, plus 1 L PEG orally the following day] or conventional-PEG (2 L PEG orally the evening prior and 1 L PEG orally the following day. The main outcome measurements are bowel preparation quality and patient tolerance of bowel prep. RESULTS: Forty-two patients randomized to EGD-assisted bowel prep and 40 patients to conventional-PEG. Overall mean ± SD preparation quality was superior for EGD-PEG (4.1 ± 2.8 vs conventional-PEG (6.5 ± 3.1; P = 0.0005. Seventy-four percent of patients rated EGD-PEG as easy or slightly difficult to tolerate compared to 46% for standard-PEG (P = 0.0133. Mean EGD-procedural time was greater for EGD-assisted subject (24 ± 10 min compared to conventional-PEG prep subjects (15 ± 7 min; P < 0.0001. Conscious sedation requirements did not differ between groups. There were no significant prep-related adverse events in either group. CONCLUSION: In selected hospitalized patients, compared to a conventional split-dose regimen, use of EGD to administer the majority of PEG solution improves patient tolerance and quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, M. [Children`s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1997-12-01

    Optimal management of chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease requires determination of disease localization and intensity. Scintigraphy with the use of {sup 99m}Tc - HMPAO- White Bloods Cells ({sup 99m}Tc - HMPAO-WBC) is a relatively new noninvasive nuclear medicine procedure. They have evaluated more than 230 children and have found a high correspondence between the disease distribution shown by the {sup 99m}Tc - HMPAO- WBC scan and that shown by endoscopic, radiologic, or surgical methods. Additionally the {sup 99m}Tc - HMPAO-WBC scan has the ability of identifying extra intestinal site of inflammation, such as appendicitis and others. The {sup 99m}Tc - HMPAO-WBC scan is reliable in differentiating Crohn`s disease from ulcerative colitis. Some patients because of unequivocal demonstrable small bowel uptake are reclassified from ulcerative colitis to Crohn`s disease. The medication regimen is frequently altered because of the intensity of uptake displayed by the {sup 99m}Tc - HMPAO-WBC scan. It is a practical and safe study even in an acutely ill patient who may not tolerate endoscopic or radiological study. At their institution, the {sup 99m}Tc - HMPAO-WBC scan is now part of the initial evaluation, and follow-up of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In conclusion the {sup 99m}Tc - HMPAO-WBC is excellent for the detection, localization and characterization of inflammatory bowel disease in children. Compared with the other methods of investigation this study requires no bowel preparation, is noninvasive and has excellent diagnostic accuracy.

  10. [Irritable Bowel Syndrome treatment: a multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani-Zur, Dana; Wolkomir, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome affects 9-23% of the general population. This diagnosis contributes to more frequent doctor visits and multiple consultations by patients. The current approach to treating IBS is symptomatic and consists of a regimen of first line pharmacological treatment options; the use of anti-depressant drugs is also common. The efficiency of complementary medicine in the treatment of IBS has been studied in the last few years. Qualitative multidisciplinary approach studies, using personalized medicines with complementary therapies are needed. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman with a diagnosis of IBS since 2009, who complained about gastrointestinal symptoms since the age of 13 and severe episodes of spasmodic stomach aches in the last year self-ranked as 10, on a 0-10 scale; 3-4 episodes a month, which last for 5 days, accompanied by severe flatulence and bloating. In addition, she has constipation (one bowel movement every 10 days), alternating with multiple diarrheic bowel movements (6 times a day). Using a multidisciplinary approach, including medicinal care, Chinese medicine, reflexology and naturopathy resulted in significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life, as well as gradual reduction of drugs, approved by her physician. Stomach ache self-ranked now as 1, on a 0-10 scale; and flatulence and bloating self-ranked as mild. Bowel movement frequency increased and is now every other day. She no longer has diarrheic and/or multiple bowel movements. This case report emphasizes the importance of integrative treatment in IBS and its benefit in improving patients' quality of life. PMID:25796677

  11. Immune biomarkers in irritable bowel syndrome: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gras-Miralles B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Gras-Miralles, Efi KokkotouGastroenterology Department, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects about 9%–13% of the general population. IBS is one of the main reasons to consult a primary care physician, and nearly 30% of visits to a gastroenterologist are for IBS. The diagnosis of IBS relies on subjective, patient-reported symptoms, thus making urgent the need for IBS-specific biomarkers. The same biomarkers, or perhaps different ones, can also be used to monitor disease evolution and response to treatment. A significant number of studies have looked in the immune system for establishing IBS biomarkers, based on the concept that IBS might represent a condition of immune dysregulation somewhere in the spectrum between health and inflammatory bowel disease. Such biomarkers can be detected in blood, intestinal biopsies, or luminal contents. Overall, results are rarely consistent between studies; small sample size, patient and disease heterogeneity, presence of comorbidities, and variation in sampling might contribute to these discrepancies. So far, studies have failed to provide a diagnostic immune biomarker for IBS, but they have considerably advanced our understanding of the disease pathophysiology, including the role of the individual's genetic make-up, and of the host–microbial interactions. High throughput analysis of a large number of well characterized patients holds promise for developing appropriate biomarkers for IBS.Keywords: neuroimmune interactions, mast cells, genetic polymorphisms, cytokines, toll-like receptors

  12. Microbiome Heterogeneity Characterizing Intestinal Tissue and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Andrea D; Kirsch, Richard; Milgrom, Raquel; Stempak, Joanne M; Kabakchiev, Boyko; Silverberg, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with differential abundance of numerous organisms when compared to healthy controls (HCs); however, few studies have investigated variability in the microbiome across intestinal locations and how this variability might be related to disease location and phenotype. In this study, we have analyzed the microbiome of a large cohort of individuals recruited at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Biopsies were taken from subjects with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and HC, and also individuals having undergone ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for treatment of ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis. Microbial 16S rRNA was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We observed a great deal of variability in the microbiome characterizing different sampling locations. Samples from pouch and afferent limb were comparable in microbial composition. When comparing sigmoid and terminal ileum samples, more differences were observed. The greatest number of differentially abundant microbes was observed when comparing either pouch or afferent limb samples to sigmoid or terminal ileum. Despite these differences, we were able to observe modest microbial variability between inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes and HCs, even when controlling for sampling location and additional experimental factors. Most detected associations were observed between HCs and Crohn's disease, with decreases in specific genera in the families Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae characterizing tissue samples from individuals with Crohn's disease. This study highlights important considerations when analyzing the composition of the microbiome and also provides useful insight into differences in the microbiome characterizing these seemingly related phenotypes. PMID:26954709

  13. Early or pre-coeliac mucosa: development of gluten enteropathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Egan-Mitchell, B.; Fottrell, P F; McNicholl, B

    1981-01-01

    Duodenal mucosa showed normal morphology, interepithelial lymphocytes, alkaline phosphatase, and sucrase in a girl with growth retardation and iron deficiency, but normal absorption of lactose and xylose after two years of abnormal stools. Mucosal lactase was low. Fourteen months later mucosal damage consistent with coeliac disease was evident, and gluten intolerance was subsequently confirmed by gluten challenge. It is probable that, in some children, the mucosal lesion occurs very gradually...

  14. Paraneoplastic disorders of hair, nails, oral mucosa and pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ay?e Kavak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this section, paraneoplastic entites of hair, nail, oral mucosa and pigmentation changes have been discussed. Some skin findings are “strong” indicator of a malignancy whereas others are not. Readers will encounter some “coincidental” or “common” entities as well as more “severe” changes for a paraneoplastic sign. In addition, it is crucial that some paraneoplastic lesions may predict for a recurrence of malignancy.

  15. Nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde: a pilot study.

    OpenAIRE

    Boysen, M.; Zadig, E; Digernes, V; Abeler, V; Reith, A.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluates the histological changes, especially the presence of possible precancerous lesions, in the nasal mucosa of workers exposed to formaldehyde. Nasal biopsies of 37 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for more than five years and 37 age matched referents showed a higher degree of metaplastic alterations in the former group. In addition, three cases of epithelial dysplasia were observed among the exposed. These results indicate that formaldehyde may be potentially c...

  16. Isolation of Lymphocytes from Mouse Genital Tract Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Janina; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces, including in the gastrointestinal, urogenital, and respiratory tracts, provide portals of entry for pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria 1. Mucosae are also inductive sites in the host to generate immunity against pathogens, such as the Peyers patches in the intestinal tract and the nasal-associated lymphoreticular tissue in the respiratory tract. This unique feature brings mucosal immunity as a crucial player of the host defense system. Many studies have been focused on ...

  17. NEW CONCEPTS OF NEURAL REGULATION IN HUMAN NASAL MUCOSA

    OpenAIRE

    James N. BARANIUK; Merck, Samantha J.

    2009-01-01

    Nasal mucosa is innervated by multiple subsets of nociceptive, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. These play carefully coordinated roles in regulating glandular, vascular and other processes. These functions are vital for cleaning and humidifying ambient air before it is inhaled into the lungs. The recent recognition of distinct classes of nociceptive nerves with unique patterns of sensory receptors that include seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors, new families of transient r...

  18. Morphological changes of gastric mucosa depending on functional dyspepsia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svintsitskyy A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic gastritis process of cell renewal in the mucosa is disturbed, leading to rapid movement of the generative cell zone without full differentiation into mature specialized area accommodation epithelial cells. The result of this process is the inability to fully function gastric glands. Crucial in the diagnosis of gastritis given the nature of the morphological changes of the gastric mucosa and preferential localization of these changes. Objective. To assess histological changes of gastric mucosa in patients with clinically different types of functional dyspepsia. Methods. Adult patients (18-65 years with confirmed diagnosis of functional dyspepsia were eligible to participate. Biopsy specimens were taken from stomach due to the Houston-updated gastric biopsy sampling protocol for the next histological examination. One expert gastrointestinal pathologist assessed all tissue samples. Atrophy was assessed due to Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA staging system. Results. 75 patients were recruited, 42 of which had epigastric pain (I group and 33 – postprandial distress syndrome (II group due to Rome III criteria (2006. Antral and corpus atrophy were detected at the same frequency in both groups (p>0.05, however the stage of atrophy didn’t exceed I in all cases. Complete antral metaplasia was revealed in 11 (26.2% patients of the I group and 11 (33.3% patients of the II one. Incomplete antral metaplasia was seen in 2 (4.7% patients of the I group and 2 (6.1% patients of the II one. No cases of corpus metaplasia or dysplasia were found. Conclusion. Our study didn’t reveal statistically significant correlation between stage of gastritis, atrophic or metaplastic changes and clinical symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Citation: Svintsitskyy A, Korendovych I, Kuryk O, Solovyova G. [Morphological changes of gastric mucosa depending on functional dyspepsia syndrome]. Morphologia. 2014;8(2:50-5. Ukrainian.

  19. Intestinal mucosa development in broiler chickens fed natural growth promoters

    OpenAIRE

    ERL Pelicano; PA Souza; HBA de Souza; DF Figueiredo; MM Boiago; SR Carvalho; VF Bordon

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of probiotics and prebiotics on the histological and morphological indexes of the intestinal mucosa of broilers at 21 days of age. Thirty-six birds were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and prebiotics sources in the diet. There were 9 treatments with 4 repetitions. Diet treatments were: 1 - Control (without growth promoters); 2 - Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic (Pro 1); 3 - Probiotic (Pool) based on Lactobacillus ac...

  20. Bacteroides fragilis toxin 2 damages human colonic mucosa in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    M. Riegler(Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8–10/136, A-1040 Vienna, Austria); Lotz, M.; Sears, C; Pothoulakis, C; Castagliuolo, I.; Wang, C; Sedivy, R.; Sogukoglu, T; Cosentini, E; Bischof, G; Feil, W; Teleky, B; Hamilton, G.; Lamont, J; Wenzl, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Strains of Bacteroides fragilis producing a 20 kDa protein toxin (B fragilis toxin (BFT) or fragilysin) are associated with diarrhoea in animals and humans. Although in vitro results indicate that BFT damages intestinal epithelial cells in culture, the effects of BFT on native human colon are not known. ?AIMS—To examine the electrophysiological and morphological effects of purified BFT-2 on human colonic mucosa in vitro. ?METHODS—For resistance (R) measur...

  1. Viewpoints on Acid-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Esophageal Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Harnett, Karen M; Rieder, Florian; Behar, Jose; Biancani, Piero

    2010-01-01

    We have focused on understanding the onset of gastroesophageal reflux disease by examining the mucosal response to the presence of acid in the esophageal lumen. Upon exposure to HCl, inflammation of the esophagus begins with activation of the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1) in the mucosa, and production of IL-8, substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and platelet activating factor (PAF). Production of SP and CGRP, but not PAF, is abo...

  2. Zur Struktur der Solenocyten (Cyrtocyten) von Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, K.

    1981-12-01

    Based on electron microscopic observations, the structure of the solenocytes of A. mucosa is described. The tube of the solenocyte is made up of 14 15 rods. These rods, which are filled with regularly packed filaments, are interconnected by an amorphous to filamentous substance. A single flagellum, lying in the tube, is surrounded by a sheet of amorphous material. The functional organization of the solenocytes is discussed.

  3. Untersuchungen zur Regeneration des Hinterendes bei Anaitides mucosa (Polychaeta, Phyllodocidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrkasten, A.

    1983-06-01

    Caudal regeneration was investigated in decerebrate Anaitides mucosa and in brain-intact individuals. Both groups show an identical capacity to regenerate lost caudal segments. Furthermore there is no difference in males and females. Low temperature (5 °C) inhibits the regeneration of caudal segments, but it is necessary for normal oogenesis. Under conditions of high temperature (15 °C), caudal regeneration is very extensive. At the same time degeneration of most oocytes occurs.

  4. Glass embedded in labial mucosa for 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanth K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies may be deposited in the oral cavity either by traumatic injury or iatrogenically. Among the commonly encountered iatrogenic foreign bodies are restorative materials like amalgam, obturation materials, broken instruments, needles, etc. Few reports of glass pieces embedded in the soft tissues of the mouth have been published. We report a case where glass pieces had been lodged in the lower labial mucosa for 20 years, with consequent peripheral reactive bone formation.

  5. Efeito genotóxico do etanol em células da mucosa bucal

    OpenAIRE

    Reis Silvia Regina de Almeida; Sadigursky Moysés; Andrade Miguel Gustavo Setúbal; Soares Lívia Prates; Espírito Santo Alexandre Ribeiro do; Vilas Bôas Deise Souza

    2002-01-01

    O etanol é um dos agentes químicos relacionados ao desenvolvimento de neoplasias malignas bucais. Os micronúcleos são porções de cromatina que permanecem próximas ao núcleo, resultantes de mitoses aberrantes após a ação de agentes genotóxicos. Dessa forma, sua ocorrência reflete o grau de exposição celular a carcinógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a freqüência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da língua e da mucosa jugal de indivíduos dependentes químicos de etanol. A amostra ...

  6. Method of expression of certain bacterial microflora mucosa olfactory area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrunin, Oleg G.; Nosova, Yana V.; Shushlyapina, Natalia O.; Surtel, Wojciech; Burlibay, Aron; Zhassandykyzy, Maral

    2015-12-01

    The article is devoted to the actual problem - the development of new express diagnostic methods, based on which a doctor-otolaryngologist can quickly and efficiently determine a violation of smell. The work is based on the methods of processing and analysis of medical images and signals. We have also identified informative indicators of endoscopic image of the olfactory region of the nasal mucosa of the upper course.

  7. Mechanisms of histamine stimulated secretion in rabbit ileal mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Linaker, B. D.; McKay, J S; Higgs, N B; Turnberg, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Histamine is present in high concentrations in the intestine and we investigated the possibility that it might have a role here in intestinal transport. When added to the basal side of rabbit ileal mucosa in vitro histamine (10(-4)M) induced a short-lived increase in electrical potential difference and short circuit current. It inhibited net chloride absorption but did not influence sodium transport. Alkali secretion, measured by a pH stat technique, was inhibited, suggesting that bicarbonate...

  8. Seguimiento multidisciplinario en el control del penfigoide de membranas mucosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Jeremias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El término penfigoide de membranas mucosas designa un grupo de enfermedades vesículo-bulosas autoinmunes crónicas, que afectan predominantemente mucosas. El presente artículo describe dos casos clínicos de penfigoide de membranas mucosas con compromiso gingival y tuvo como objetivo resaltar la importancia de un correcto diagnóstico de la lesión y discutir la conducta terapéutica. Fueron realizados diversos exámenes complementares como, examen de Nikolsky, biopsia incisional, investigación de células LE y de anticuerpos antinucleares, además de la evaluación de médicos especializados en dermatología y oftalmología. Fue fundamental la substitución de dentífricos, la orientación nutricional y psicológica, el cuidado con la higiene, además del uso de corticoides tópicos. Hubo periodos de remisión y exacerbación del cuadro clínico durante el seguimiento, fue necesario el ajuste en la terapéutica y refuerzo en los cuidados con la higiene bucal. Es muy importante la interacción multidisciplinaria en la atención de estos casos para el control del tratamiento y seguimiento, además de reforzar todas las orientaciones y cuidados en lo que se refiere a la salud bucal y cautela en el uso de corticoides.

  9. Small bowel cleansing does not improve quality of wireless capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Rune; Langholz, Ebbe

    ABSTRACT: Background Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is the most important tool for investigating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in the small bowel and is superior to cross sectional imaging in detecting early and subtle inflammation of the small intestine in Crohn's Disease (CD). [1] With increasing demand of early diagnosis, WCE becomes more important. However, a drawback is the limited visualization of the mucosa in patients with poor cleansing quality. The aim of our study was to determine the benefit of preparation with Picoprep prior to examination with WCE and evaluate two different methods for cleansing quality. Methods This prospective cluster trial examined all patients from two Danish centres, who underwent WCE with PillCam SB based on either known or suspected small bowel CD or obscure bleeding from August 2013 to July 2014. Our local ethics committee waived the necessity of informed consent. Both Centres used the same instructions for preparation; the day before examination, normal breakfast and lunch was allowed until 2 pm, hereafter patients were instructed to go on a liquid diet. Only water was allowed the last two hours before the procedure. Site A, in addition to Site B, instructed patients to ingest one sachet of Picoprep powder, at 9 pm the day before examination, followed by 1.5 litres of liquid diet, as per standard of care at Site A. Patients were matched between centres based on indication, sex and age. Cleansing quality was assessed by two different methods described by Park et al. 2010 [2] with a 3 grade subjective assessment every 5 minutes and Weyenberg et al. 2011 [3] with a computer assessment of cleansing using the colour bar in the capsule reading software. Mean overall score between groups were compared using students ttest. Results We enrolled 135 consecutive patients allowing matching of 92 patients with a mean age of 45 years (16-83), 67 % women. CD was the indication in 69.6 %. Both scoring systems correlated well (rho = 0.80). Using both scoring systems, cleansing qualitydecreased significantly throughout the small bowel when comparing each third individually, p < 0.01. There were no overall difference in quality between groups. Conclusions Small bowel cleansing prior to WCE does not improve mucosal visualization of the small bowel in patients with suspected CD or obscure bleeding. References: [1] Mustafa BF, Samaan M, Langmead L, Khasraw M, (2013), Small bowel video capsule endoscopy: an overview, Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology, 323-329 [2] Park SC, Keum B, Hyun JJ et al., (2010), A novel cleansing score system for capsule endoscopy, World Journal of Gastroenterology, 875-880 [3] Van Weynberg SJB, De Leest HTJI, Mulder CJJ, (2011), Description of a novel grading system to assess the quality of bowel preparation in video capsule endoscopy., Endoscopy, 406-411

  10. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome.

  11. Leishmaniose mucosa: considerações epidemiológicas e de tratamento Mucosal leishmaniasis: epidemiological and treatment considerations Leishmaniasis mucosa: consideraciones epidemiológicas y de tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Ziggiotti de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Na região Sul do Brasil, a leishmaniose tegumentar americana predomina no Estado do Paraná, especialmente ao Norte e Oeste, onde um dos circuitos de produção da doença é localizado. Estima-se que 3 a 5% dos casos de leishmaniose cutânea desenvolvam lesão mucosa, e que cerca de 1% destas podem evoluir para óbito. De longa data, as drogas de escolha para tratamento da doença são os compostos antimoniais sob a forma de sais pentavalentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever características epidemiológicas e de tratamento dos pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa, diagnosticados no período de 2001 a 2007, em municípios localizados na área de abrangência da 13ª Regional de Saúde, com sede no município de Cianorte, no Paraná. As informações foram coletadas do prontuário ambulatorial e das fichas de investigação epidemiológicas do Sistema de Notificação e Informação de Agravos. No período estudado, foram notificados 505 casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, 30 deles (6% na forma mucosa. Foram incluídos no estudo pacientes com diagnóstico de leishmaniose mucosa, que apresentavam exames complementares realizados antes e durante o tratamento. Os resultados evidenciaram a necessidade de acompanhamento cuidadoso dos doentes nas equipes de saúde, dado a possível evolução e presença de efeitos medicamentosos indesejáveis nos pacientes afetados pela condição. In South Brazil, American tegumentary leishmaniasis is predominant at Paraná, specially on the North and West areas, where it is localized one of the disease’s production circuits. It is believed that 3 to 5% of the cases evolve to the mucosal form, and that 1% of these can evolve to death. There is a long time that first choice drugs to treat this disease are the antimony compounds as pentavalent salts. The purpose of this study was to describe epidemiological and treatment characteristics of patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, who were diagnosed during the period from 2001 to 2007 in cities located on the coverage area of the 13 Heath Regional, which is situated in Cianorte, Paraná. The data were collected at the outpatient medical records and the System of Notifications and Information of Diseases epidemiological investigation records. During the mentioned period, 505 cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis were notified, 30 of them (6% as the mucosal form. In this study, the patients included were those with diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis that had complementary exams performed before and during the treatment. The results showed the need of patients’ careful monitoring by health teams, due to the possible evolution of the disease and the presence of unwanted drug effects. En la región Sur de Brasil, la leishmaniasis tegumentaria americana predomina en el estado de Paraná, principalmente al Norte y Oeste del país, donde está localizado uno de los circuitos de producción de la enfermedad. Se estima que de 3 a 5% de los casos de leishmaniasis cutánea desenvuelvan lesión mucosa, y que cerca de 1% de ellas puedan acabar en muerte. Por mucho tiempo, las drogas escogidas para tratar la enfermedad son los compuestos antimoniales bajo la forma de sales pentavalentes. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir características epidemiológicas y de tratamiento de los pacientes con leishmaniasis mucosa, diagnosticados en el periodo de 2001 a 2007, en municipios localizados en el área de estudio de la 13ª Regional de la Salud, localizada en el municipio de Cianorte, Paraná. Las informaciones fueron colectadas del registro médico y de los papeles de investigación epidemiológicos del SINAN (Sistema de Notificación e Información de Agravios. En el periodo estudiado, fueron notificados 505 casos de leishmaniasis tegumentaria americana, 30 de los cuales (6% en forma mucosa. Fueron incluidos en el estudio pacientes diagnosticados con leishmaniasis mucosa, que poseían exámenes complementares realizados antes y durante el tratamiento. Los resultados evidenciaron la necesidad de cuidadosamente acompaña

  12. Combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis to identify dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Andreas; Wandrey, Timo; Simon, Philipp; Wewer, Agatha; Grob, Tobias; Reichelt, Uta; Minner, Sarah; Simon, Ronald; Spehlmann, Martina; Tigges, Wolfgang; Soehendra, Nib; Seitz, Uwe; Seewald, Stefan; Izbicki, Jakob R; Yekebas, Emre; Kaifi, Jussuf T; Mirlacher, Martina; Terracciano, Luigi; Fleischmann, Achim; Raedler, Andreas; Sauter, Guido

    2009-02-01

    Identification of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease represents a major challenge for both clinicians and pathologists. Clear diagnosis of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease is sometimes not possible with biopsies remaining "indefinite for dysplasia." Recent studies have identified molecular alterations in colitis-associated cancers, including increased protein levels of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, p53, p16 and bcl-2. In order to analyze the potential diagnostic use of these parameters in biopsies from inflammatory bowel disease, a tissue microarray was manufactured from colons of 54 patients with inflammatory bowel disease composed of 622 samples with normal mucosa, 78 samples with inflammatory activity, 6 samples with low-grade dysplasia, 12 samples with high-grade dysplasia, and 66 samples with carcinoma. In addition, 69 colonoscopic biopsies from 36 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (28 low-grade dysplasia, 8 high-grade dysplasia, and 33 indefinite for dysplasia) were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry for alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, p53, p16 and bcl-2 was performed on both tissue microarray and biopsies. p53 and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase showed the most discriminating results, being positive in most cancers (77.3% and 80.3%) and dysplasias (94.4% and 94.4%) but only rarely in nonneoplastic epithelium (1.6% and 9.4%; P < .001). Through combining the best discriminators, p53 and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, a stronger distinction between neoplastic tissues was possible. Of all neoplastic lesions, 75.8% showed a coexpression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase and p53, whereas this was found in only 4 of 700 nonneoplastic samples (0.6%). alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 coexpression was also found in 10 of 33 indefinite for dysplasia biopsies (30.3 %), suggesting a possible neoplastic transformation in these cases. Progression to dysplasia or carcinoma was observed in 3 of 10 p53/alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase-positive, indefinite-for-dysplasia cases, including 1 of 7 cases without and 2 of 3 cases with p53 mutation. It is concluded that combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis may represent a helpful tool to confirm dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:18835622

  13. Tatuagem extensa por amálgama em mucosa gêngivo-alveolar Extensive amalgam tattoo on the alveolar-gingival mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian C Galletta; Gabriela Artico; Aluana M. C Dal Vechio; Celso A Lemos Jr; Dante A Migliari

    2011-01-01

    Tatuagens por amálgama são lesões pigmentadas, exógenas, de frequente ocorrência na mucosa bucal, que resultam da introdução acidental de partículas de amálgama nos tecidos moles. O diagnóstico da tatuagem por amálgama é simples, geralmente, baseado em achados clínicos, complementado pela história recente ou pregressa de remoção de restauração por amálgama. Radiografias intraorais podem ser úteis na detecção de radiopacidade, associadas à partícula de amálgama. Nos casos em que as tatuagens p...

  14. Processo inflamatório em mucosa de reservatórios ileais de doentes assintomáticos / Inflammatory activity of pelvic ileal pouches mucosa in asymptomatic patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel Franco, Leal; Maria de Lourdes Setsuko, Ayrizono; Marciane, Milanski; João José, Fagundes; Andressa, Coope; Sandro Nunes, Ângelo; Lício Augusto, Velloso; Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues, Coy.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A inflamação inespecífica do reservatório ileal (RI) após retocolectomia total é a complicação pós-operatória mais comum nos doentes operados por retocolite ulcerativa inespecífica (RCUI). Os mecanismos imunológicos envolvidos na etiologia não são totalmente conhecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ativação [...] de STAT-1 e a expressão da citocina INF-? em mucosa de RI endoscópica e histologicamente normal, de doentes operados por RCUI e PAF, assintomáticos. CASUISTICA E MÉTODOS: Estudou-se 18 doentes submetidos à retocolectomia total com RI em "J", sendo nove com RCUI e nove com polipose adenomatosa familiar (PAF). Realizou-se biópsias da mucosa dos RI e de íleo terminal. As expressões de INF-? e a ativação de STAT-1 foram avaliadas por meio de imunoblot de extrato protéico total. RESULTADOS: A ativação de STAT-1 foi maior em mucosa de RI de doentes operados por RCUI, quando comparada aos grupos PAF e Controle (p0.05). CONCLUSÃO: Estes achados podem justificar a maior susceptibilidade dos doentes com RCUI à inflamação inespecífica do RI quando comparados aos portadores de PAF, sendo a principal via inflamatória similar à verificada na RCUI. Abstract in english Pouchitis after total retocolectomy is the most common complication in ulcerative colitis (UC). The immunological mechanisms involved in the genesis of pouchitis are unclear. PURPOSE: To evaluate STAT-1 activation and IFN-ã expression in normal ileal pouch mucosa. METHODS: Eighteen asymptomatic pati [...] ents submitted to total retocolectomy and J pouch, were evaluated, being nine with UC and nine with FAP. The activation of STAT-1 and expressions of the cytokine were determined by immunoblot of total protein extracts from pouch mucosal biopsies. RESULTS: STAT-1 activation was increased in UC, when compared to FAP and controls. Higher levels of IFN-? expression were observed in UC when compared to control group, but was similar to FAP. CONCLUSIONS: These findings could explain a higher susceptibility to this inflammatory complication in UC when compared to FAP, which may be similar to UC disease.

  15. Presence of highly oncogenic human papillomavirus in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic men

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Paula, Machado; Flávia Gatto de, Almeida; Camila Mareti, Bonin; Thiago Theodoro Martins, Prata; Leandro Sobrinho, Ávilla; Cacilda Tezelli Junqueira, Padovani; Alda Maria Teixeira, Ferreira; Carlos Eurico dos Santos, Fernandes; Inês Aparecida, Tozetti.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify highly oncogenic forms of human papillomavirus in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic men. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed samples of exfoliated cells from the oral cavity of 559 asymptomatic men. DNA-human papillomavirus was detected using the [...] consensus primers PGMY09/11; viral genotyping was performed using type-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: DNA-human papillomavirus was detected in 1.3% of the study participants and of those 42.8% were infected by more than one type of virus. Viral types included HPV6, 11, 89 (low oncogenic risk), and HPV52, 53 (high oncogenic risk). Increased vulnerability to human papillomavirus infection was observed in individuals aged over 26 years, among those who reported oral sex practices, and in those who have had more than 16 sexual partners since first engaging in sexual intercourse. CONCLUSIONS: There was a low prevalence of human papillomavirus detection in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic men. Highly oncogenic human papillomavirus types and infection by more than one viral type was observed. Oral sex practices and a large number of sexual partners may increase the risk of acquiring human papillomavirus infection.

  16. Comparative study of pathological findings and trace elements profiles of gastric mucosa in benign gastric disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, N.; Ito, M.; Sakurai, S.; Yukawa, M [Digestive Disease Center, Nippon Medical Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify how trace elements in gastric mucosa, reflex bile acid and inflammation of gastric mucosa relate to environment of Helicobacter Pylori. Subjects were 33 patients who had colonic endoscopic examination. 11 gastric ulcer and 14 duodenal ulcer patients were chosen as subjects of the study. The control group had 8 members who had no localized lesions. Trace elements were measured by PIXE analysis which use Pd as internal standard. Cu and Zn, especially Zn, were found in large amount in gastric body and antrum. Zn value for the antrum was higher than that for the gastric body. Especially, the values of Zn for antrum showed significant differences between grade I, II and III of inflammatory cell infiltration. In gastric ulcer group, the value of Cu indicated high at gastric body and low at antrum. On the other hand, the values of Zn were low at both gastric body and antrum. Particularly, development of atrophy in antrum requires less than one in gastric body; therefore, trace elements decreased in gastric ulcer group. (author)

  17. Optimization of radiotherapeutic methods for cancer of the tongue, oral mucosa and stomatopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 2 stages of the studies on the optimization of radiotherapy for patients with cancer of the tongue, oral mucosa and stomatopharynx are summed up. The first stage was to develop optimum variants of combined radiotherapy in 110 patients with cancer of the tongue basing on the improvement of spatial dose distribution in external irradiation by the method of classic dose fractionation. The study has demonstratively shown that the improvement of spatial dose distribution in ? therapy makes it possible to achieve better results of combined radiotherapy. The five- and ten-year survival rates were respectively 9.2 and 40.7%. The secons stage was to use an original scheme of dose fractionation in ? therapy in combination with radiosensitizers: hyperbaric oxygenation and metronidazole-for 93 patients with cancer of the tongue, oral mucosa and stomatopharynx. A preliminary analysis has shown that the use of radiosensitizers increases to a large degree the therapeutic efficacy. A complete tumor resorption was achieved in 44.1% of the patients using . ? therapy alone. This rate was 24.3% in radiotherapy under usual conditions, during HBO 51.8 %, in combination with metronidazole 78.7%, HBO and metronidazole 46.2%

  18. Trasplante de mucosa oral en la reconstrucción de las vías lagrimales Oral mucosa transplants in restoration of lacrimal canaliculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Canto Vidal

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron 143 intervenciones de las vías lagrimales, mediante la técnica quirúrgica de trasplante de mucosa oral con 55 injertos libres y 88 tubulares, a partir del año 1995. Para ello se tuvo en cuenta el examen clínico y radiológico y el tipo de afectación. Con la utilización de las técnicas de injerto libre o tubular de la mucosa se puede restablecer la fisiología lagrimal en los pacientes con mutilaciones por traumatismos o presencia de tumores con disminución del riesgo quirúrgico; además se recomienda por novedosa, práctica y por los buenos resultados obtenidos.143 interventions of lacrimal canaliculi were carried out, throgh surgical technique of oral mucosa transplant (55 free grafts and 88 tutular ones since 1995, bearing in min radiological and clinical examination and type of invelvement. Using technique of free or tubular graft, it is possible restore lacrimal physiology in patients with mutilations from trauma or prevence of tumors thus decreasing surgical risk; this tachnique is recommended by its novelty, usefulness . and by good results obtained.

  19. Mecanoreceptores da mucosa palatina de avestruz (Struthio camelus): estudo ao microscópio de luz / Mechanoreceptors of the palatine mucosa of ostrich (Struthio camelus): light microscope study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana P., Guimarães; Renata B., Mari; Maria Angélica, Miglino; Francisco J., Hernandez-Blasquez; Ii-sei, Watanabe.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compacta [...] s. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios terminais estavam situados ao longo do eixo, terminando em um bulbo terminal. As fibras da cápsula externa, coradas por Picrosirius e examinadas no microscópio óptico sob luz polarizada, revelou a presença de fibras colágenas do tipo I em verde e na região periférica observou-se grande quantidade de fibras colágenas do tipo III. Os corpúsculos apresentaram-se envoltos por células planas e envoltos por fibras colágenas. Abstract in english Herbst corpuscles of the palatine mucosa of ostrich were studied by light microscopy. The corpuscles are composed of an outer core, inner core and central nerve terminal. The outer core presents numerous lamellae, while the inner core shows compact structure of cytoplasm sheets. The corpuscles are e [...] longate or oval in shape and are surrounded by bundles of collagen fibers. Each lamella is composed of a dense network of thick fibrils. The terminal axons are located along the axis and form a bulb terminal. The fibers of external core stained by Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed to be green in color like type I collagen fibers, and at the periphery is a large amount of collagen type III. The corpuscles are surrounded by flat cells and dense collagen fibers at the periphery.

  20. Mecanoreceptores da mucosa palatina de avestruz (Struthio camelus: estudo ao microscópio de luz Mechanoreceptors of the palatine mucosa of ostrich (Struthio camelus: light microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. Guimarães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compactas. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios terminais estavam situados ao longo do eixo, terminando em um bulbo terminal. As fibras da cápsula externa, coradas por Picrosirius e examinadas no microscópio óptico sob luz polarizada, revelou a presença de fibras colágenas do tipo I em verde e na região periférica observou-se grande quantidade de fibras colágenas do tipo III. Os corpúsculos apresentaram-se envoltos por células planas e envoltos por fibras colágenas.Herbst corpuscles of the palatine mucosa of ostrich were studied by light microscopy. The corpuscles are composed of an outer core, inner core and central nerve terminal. The outer core presents numerous lamellae, while the inner core shows compact structure of cytoplasm sheets. The corpuscles are elongate or oval in shape and are surrounded by bundles of collagen fibers. Each lamella is composed of a dense network of thick fibrils. The terminal axons are located along the axis and form a bulb terminal. The fibers of external core stained by Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed to be green in color like type I collagen fibers, and at the periphery is a large amount of collagen type III. The corpuscles are surrounded by flat cells and dense collagen fibers at the periphery.

  1. What is the best strategy for successful bowel preparation under special conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yun Jeong; Hong, Su Jin

    2014-03-21

    Adequate bowel preparation is important for successful colonoscopic examination. Several effective colonic cleansing agents are available and routinely prescribed, but each carries its own limitations and benefits from particular dosing regimens. The most frequently prescribed colonic cleansing agent, the polyethylene glycol (PEG) cathartic solution, suffers from low patient compliance in general, due to its unpalatable taste and smell coupled with the large ingested volumes required. However, PEG is preferred over other cathartics for use in individuals of advanced age, sufferers of chronic kidney disease, heart failure and inflammatory bowel disease, and women who are pregnant or lactating. The laxative agents sodium phosphate (NaP) and sodium picosulfate plus magnesium citrate have been applied and have improved patient compliance and tolerance. NaP, however, should be avoided in individuals with impaired renal function or plasma clearance, such as those with chronic kidney disease, who are taking drugs that affect renal function, or who suffer from heart failure. Other special conditions that may affect an individual's tolerance of the cathartic agent or ability to complete the administration routine include stroke, severe constipation, hematochezia, suspicious lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and mental disorders such as dementia. All ingestible bowel preparation solutions can be instilled into the stomach and duodenum through nasogastric tube or esophagogastroduodenoscope with the aid of a water irrigation pump for patients with difficulties swallowing or ingesting the large volumes of fluid required. In addition, dietary regimens based on clear liquids and low-residue foods for 1-4 d prior to the colonoscopy may be supplemental bowel preparation strategies. Achieving an effective and safe cleansing of the bowel is important for successful colonoscopy in all patients, so full knowledge of the individual's condition and capabilities is necessary to select the most appropriate colonic cleansing agent and delivery regimen. PMID:24659865

  2. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. The magnitude of the risk was found to differ, even in population-based studies. Recent figures suggest that the risk of colon cancer for people with IBD increases by 0.5-1.0% yearly, 8-10 years after diagnosis. The magnitude of CRC risk increases with early age at IBD diagnosis, longer duration of symptoms, and extent of the disease, with pancolitis having a more severe inflammation burden and risk of the dysplasia-carcinoma cascade. Considering the chronic nature of the disease, it is remarkable that there is such a low incidence of CRC in some of the population-based studies, and possible explanations have to be investigated. One possible cancer-protective factor could be treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations (5-ASAs). Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel is extremely rare, compared with adenocarcinoma of the large bowel. Although only few small bowel cancers have been reported in Crohn's disease, the number was significantly increased in relation to the expected number.

  3. Diseases of the small bowel in chronic diarrhea: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simadibrata

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic diarrhea in Asia is between 0.8-1.0%. The diseases and abnormalities according to the location, which can cause chronic diarrhea, are divided into three locations: the small bowel, the large bowel and extraintestinal. The small bowel diseases include infectious and non-infectious diseases. The infectious diseases are bacterial infections, parasitic infections etc. The non-infectious diseases include of Crohn’s disease, Celiac sprue, NSAID enteropathy, lactose intolerance, benign tumor, carcinoid tumor, carcinoma, post surgery complications, laxative etc. The approaches to diagnosis include good anamnesis, careful physical examination, supporting laboratory tests, more specialized supporting examinations including X-ray of the colon, esophagogastroduodenum follow-through, enteroclysis, ileo-colonoscopy and endoscopy on the upper portion of the digestive tract including the small intestine with biopsy for histopathology examinations. The treatment for chronic diarrhea is divided into supportive and causal therapy. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 179-89 Keywords: small bowel, chronic diarrhea, approaches to diagnosis, treatment

  4. Estudo epidemiológico do HPV na mucosa oral por meio de PCR / Epidemiological study of HPV in oral mucosa through PCR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Willys, Tristão; Rodrigo Metzker Pereira, Ribeiro; Camila Andrea de, Oliveira; Julio Cesar, Betiol; Jussara de Sousa Ribeiro, Bettini.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pertencente à família Papillomaviridae, o papilomavírus humano (HPV) é formado por um capsídeo e uma única fita dupla de DNA. Sua infecção ocorre principalmente por forma sexual, apresentando grande tropismo por células cutâneas e mucosas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença do HPV em mucosa oral de pacien [...] tes assintomáticos e em paralelo correlacionar os hábitos sociais comportamentais com a presença viral. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo de coorte contemporânea com corte transversal. O diagnóstico da presença viral foi realizado por PCR, utilizando os primers gerais MY09/11 em 125 amostras de mucosa oral, submetidas à extração de DNA e PCR para a pesquisa do gene da beta-globina para avaliação da qualidade do DNA extraído. Em paralelo, foi realizado um estudo de questões comportamentais dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Todas as amostras apresentaram o diagnóstico positivo para o gene da betaglobina. O HPV foi diagnosticado em 23,2% das amostras analisadas. CONCLUSÃO: O vírus esteve presente em 29 dos 125 pacientes, sem que estes apresentassem qualquer manifestação clinicopatológica relacionada com o HPV. Quanto ao comportamento social dos pacientes, concluiu-se que a prática de sexo oral está correlacionada de forma estatisticamente significante com a presença viral, além de o HPV ter sido estatisticamente mais prevalente em pacientes do sexo feminino. Abstract in english The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) belongs to the Papillomaviridae family and has a capsid and a single DNA strand. Its infection occurs mainly through sexual intercourse, having an important tropism for skin and mucosal cells. AIM: To evaluate the HPV presence in normal oral mucosa of asymptomatic subj [...] ects and; in parallel, to correlate social behavioral habits with the virus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contemporary cohort cross-sectional study. The HPV was found by PCR, using general primers MY09/11 in 125 oral mucosa samples submitted to DNA extraction and PCR to search for the beta-globin gene in order to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. In parallel, we carried out a study of behavioral issues associated with the patients. RESULTS: All the samples had a positive diagnosis of the beta-hemoglobin gene. HPV was diagnosed in 23.2% of the samples analyzed. CONCLUSION: The virus was present in 29 of the 125 patients, without them having any clinical-pathological manifestation associated with the HPV. As to the social behavior of the patients, we concluded that oral sex is statistically correlated to the virus, and besides the HPV has been statistically more present in female patients.

  5. Neurogenic mechanisms in bladder and bowel ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Richard N; Saffrey, M Jill

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of both urinary and faecal incontinence, and also chronic constipation, increases with ageing and these conditions have a major impact on the quality of life of the elderly. Management of bladder and bowel dysfunction in the elderly is currently far from ideal and also carries a significant financial burden. Understanding how these changes occur is thus a major priority in biogerontology. The functions of the bladder and terminal bowel are regulated by complex neuronal networks. In particular neurons of the spinal cord and peripheral ganglia play a key role in regulating micturition and defaecation reflexes as well as promoting continence. In this review we discuss the evidence for ageing-induced neuronal dysfunction that might predispose to neurogenic forms of incontinence in the elderly. PMID:25666896

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome: alternative therapeutic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Forbes .

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Irritable bowel syndrome is common, ill-understood and often difficult to treat. Conventional pharmacological approaches have not yet provided adequate solutions, and understandably patients have looked outside orthodox medicine to find relief. There is a paucity of verifiable data in respect of the alternative and complementary therapies that have been embarked upon, but worthwhile studies have been performed, and it is possible to draw some conclusions based on scientific grounds. Dietary manipulation and exclusion diets can help but value from any dietary addition has yet to be confirmed. Hypnotherapy and psychotherapy (whether individual or group are valuable in selected patients. Relaxation therapy and biofeedback techniques are probably helpful but reliable data are still awaited. Cognitive behavioural therapy is useful for some patients, but acupuncture does not seem to be effective. Key Words: Irritable bowel syndrome, Acupuncture, Hypnotherapy, Alternative therapy, Complementary therapy

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome: alternative therapeutic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Forbes .

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Irritable bowel syndrome is common, ill-understood and often difficult to treat. Conventional pharmacological approaches have not yet provided adequate solutions, and understandably, patients have looked outside orthodox medicine to find relief. There is a paucity of verifable data in respect to the alternative and complementary therapies that have been embarked upon, but worthwhile studies have been performed, and it is possible to draw some conclusions based on scientific grounds. Dietary manipulation and exclusion diets can help but value from any dietary addition has yet to be confirmed. Hypnotherapy and psychotherapy (whether individual or group are valuable in selected patients. Relaxation therapy and biofeedback techniques are probably helpful but reliable data is still awaited. Cognitive behavioural therapy is useful for some patients, but acupuncture does not seem to be effective. Key words: Irritable bowel syndrome, acupuncture, hypnotherapy, alternative therapy complementary therapy

  8. NATURAL AGENTS FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darji Vinay Chhanalal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory disease of gastrointestinal tract. It comprises the two conditions, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, characterized by chronic recurrent ulceration of the bowel. Conventional drugs for colitis treatment include aminosalicylate, corticosteroids,antibiotics & immunomodulators. 5- Amino salicylic acid having side effects in 30% of the patients. Systemic corticosteroids producing incidence of complication is 4.3%. Antibiotic therapy is beneficial in 70% of the patients & Immunomodulators having 50 to 70% beneficial effects. This report shows that there is no any appropriate treatment available to treat IBD without side effects. A natural agent with reduced or no toxicity is therefore essential. In nature there are so many types of natural agents which are used as protective agents in IBD. This article emphasizes many natural products obtained from plant & other sources, which possess potent activity against experimentally induced IBD.

  9. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  10. The fundamental basis of inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Strober, Warren; Fuss, Ivan; Mannon, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Two broad hypotheses have arisen regarding the fundamental nature of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs, which include ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease). The first contends that primary dysregulation of the mucosal immune system leads to excessive immunologic responses to normal microflora. The second suggests that changes in the composition of gut microflora and/or deranged epithelial barrier function elicits pathologic responses from the normal mucosal immune system. ...

  11. Quality Improvement in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Melmed, Gil Y; SIEGEL, COREY A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic illnesses such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) present a unique opportunity to define and improve the quality of care. Processes of care can be complex, and outcomes of care may vary across different healthcare delivery settings. Patients with IBD are managed over long periods of time and often by the same physician within a single care delivery system. Both patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis have variable courses of disease progression that require changes in th...

  12. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and t...

  13. Gut Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Jung Ok

    2013-01-01

    The gut mucosal barrier plays an important role in maintaining a delicate immune homeostasis. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is considered to involve a defective mucosal immunity along with a genetic predisposition. Recent views have suggested an excessive response to components of the gut microbiota in IBD. A condition of "dysbiosis", with alterations of the gut microbial composition, has been observed in patients with IBD. In this article, the author review recent stud...

  14. Familial risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier Møller, Frederik; Andersen, Vibeke; Wohlfarht, Jan; Jess, Tine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Estimates of familial risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC) are needed for counseling of patients and could be used to target future prevention. We aimed to provide comprehensive population-based estimates of familial risk of IBD. METHODS: The study encompassed the entire Danish population during 1977-2011 (N=8,295,773; 200 million person-years). From national registries, we obtained information on diagnosis date of IBD (N=45,78...

  15. Serotonin and neuroprotection in functional bowel disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gershon, M. D.; Liu, M.-T.

    2007-01-01

    The 5-HT4 partial agonist tegaserod is effective in the treatment of chronic constipation and constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome. 5-HT4 receptors are located on presynaptic terminals in the enteric nervous system. Stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors enhances the release of acetylcholine and calcitonin gene related peptide from stimulated nerve terminals. This action strengthens neurotransmission in prokinetic pathways, enhancing gastrointestinal motility. The knockout of 5-HT4 recep...

  16. Changing face of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley E

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is evident that this is a truly global disease associated with significant symptoms and impairments in personal and social functioning for afflicted individuals. Advances in our understanding of gut flora-mucosal interactions, the enteric nervous system and the brain-gut axis have led to substantial progress in the pathogenesis of symptoms in IBS and have provided some hints towards the ...

  17. Case report: Congenital short bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Palle, Lalitha; Reddy, Balaji

    2010-01-01

    Congenital short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a relatively rare condition as compared to acquired SBS. It is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Infants usually present with failure to thrive, recurrent vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to suspect and diagnose this condition promptly, as early initiation of parenteral nutrition or surgery, if necessary, may result in a favorable outcome. We discuss a case of an infant aged 26 days, who presented with failure to thrive, recur...

  18. Transplante de intestino delgado / Small bowel transplantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Antonio Arruda, Pécora; André Ibrahim, David; André Dong, Lee; Flávio Henrique, Galvão; Ruy Jorge, Cruz-Junior; Luiz Augusto Carneiro, D' Albuquerque.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado, em razão de sua complexidade, apresentou evolução mais lenta que os demais órgãos sólidos. Diversos avanços permitiram sua aplicação clínica. OBJETIVO: Revisão da evolução do transplante de intestino delgado e seu estado atual. MÉTODO: levantamento bib [...] liográfico nas bases de dados MEDLINE e ScIELO. Os termos usados como descritores foram: intestinal failure, intestinal transplant, small bowel transplant, multivisceral transplant. Foram analisados dados sobre evolução histórica, centros, indicações, tipos de enxertos, seleção e captação de órgãos, manejo pós-operatório, complicações e resultados. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de desenvolvimento mais lento, o transplante intestinal é hoje a terapia para pacientes portadores de falência intestinal irreversível que apresentam complicações da nutrição parenteral. Envolve algumas modalidades: intestino delgado isolado, fígado-intestino, multivisceral e multivisceral modificado. Atualmente a sobrevida é semelhante aos demais órgãos sólidos. A maioria dos pacientes fica livre da nutrição parenteral. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Small bowel transplantation evolution, because of its complexity, was slower than other solid organs. Several advances have enabled its clinical application. AIM: To review intestinal transplantation evolution and its current status. METHOD: Search in MEDLINE and ScIELO literature. The t [...] erms used as descriptors were: intestinal failure, intestinal transplantation, small bowel transplantation, multivisceral transplantation. Were analyzed data on historical evolution, centers experience, indications, types of grafts, selection and organ procurement, postoperative management, complications and results. CONCLUSION: Despite a slower evolution, intestinal transplantation is currently the standard therapy for patients with intestinal failure and life-threatening parenteral nutrition complications. It involves some modalities: small bowel transplantation, liver-intestinal transplantation, multivisceral transplantation and modified multivisceral transplantation. Currently, survival rate is similar to other solid organs. Most of the patients become free of parenteral nutrition.

  19. Denovo Post Renal Transplantation Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Halim M; Al-Otaibi T; Elsisi A; El-Sayed A; Nair P; Said T; Balaha M; Nampoory MRN

    2008-01-01

    Post-renal transplant de-novo inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may develop despite the presence of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a drug used for treatment of IBD, in the immunosuppressive regimen. A 39-year-old man received live unrelated renal transplant, and was started postoperatively on prednisolone, MMF, and tacrolimus, which was changed to sirolimus when he developed diabetes mellitus two months post-transplant. Nine months post-transplant, the patient developed recurrent attacks of bloo...

  20. Diagnostics in inflammatory bowel disease: Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Deike Strobel; Ruediger S Goertz; Thomas Bernatik

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and imaging data. Imaging of the morphological characteristics of IBD includes the assessment of mucosal alterations, transmural involvement and extraintestinal manifestations. No single imaging technique serves as a diagnostic gold standard to encompass all disease manifestations. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow cross-sectional...

  1. Bowel injury associated with pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, Agnes [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave-Roussy, UPRES EA 2710, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et des Tissus Sains, PR1, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94 800 Villejuif Cedex (France)]. E-mail: Francois@igr.fr; Milliat, Fabien [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave-Roussy, UPRES EA 2710, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et des Tissus Sains, PR1, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94 800 Villejuif Cedex (France); Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave-Roussy, UPRES EA 2710, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et des Tissus Sains, PR1, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94 800 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2005-02-01

    Radiation therapists have to deal with the difficulty to give an efficient radiation dose to the tumor without generating unacceptable normal tissue injury. Acute reactions are experienced in most of the patients and are characterized by diarrhea resulting from intestinal mucosal injury. In some cases, intestinal wall fibrosis may develop, with hazard of occlusion syndrome. The only therapeutic recourse consists of surgical resection of the injured bowel.

  2. Irritable bowel syndrome: alternative therapeutic management

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, A

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Irritable bowel syndrome is common, ill-understood and often difficult to treat. Conventional pharmacological approaches have not yet provided adequate solutions, and understandably patients have looked outside orthodox medicine to find relief. There is a paucity of verifiable data in respect of the alternative and complementary therapies that have been embarked upon, but worthwhile studies have been performed, and it is possible to draw some conclusions based on scientific grounds. D...

  3. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy-assisted bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare the quality and tolerance of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)-assisted and conventional split-dose polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution for inpatient colonoscopy. METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled trial in hospitalized patients. Hospitalized patients undergoing colonoscopy the day following EGD for evaluation of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding or other symptoms. Patients randomized to either EGD-assisted bowel prep [2 L polyethylene glycol (PEG) administered en...

  4. Gas Embolic Stroke Secondary to Bowel Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Dhruv; Leyon, Joe Joseph; Chavda, Swarupsinh

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old gentleman with metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma presented with acute abdominal pain to the emergency medicine department and subsequently developed an acute left hemiplegia while in the resuscitation unit. An unenhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the head showed right frontal cerebral gas emboli while an unenhanced CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed extensive portal venous gas and pneumatosis intestinalis, presumed secondary to bowel infarction. PMID:26599977

  5. Understanding inflammatory bowel disease via immunogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Katrina M; Barrett, Jeffrey C

    2015-11-01

    The major inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are both debilitating disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by a dysregulated immune response to unknown environmental triggers. Both disorders have an important and overlapping genetic component, and much progress has been made in the last 20 years at elucidating some of the specific factors contributing to disease pathogenesis. Here we review our growing understanding of the immunogenetics of inflammatory bowel disease, from the twin studies that first implicated a role for the genome in disease susceptibility to the latest genome-wide association studies that have identified hundreds of associated loci. We consider the insight this offers into the biological mechanisms of the inflammatory bowel diseases, such as autophagy, barrier defence and T-cell differentiation signalling. We reflect on these findings in the context of other immune-related disorders, both common and rare. These observations include links both obvious, such as to pediatric colitis, and more surprising, such as to leprosy. As a changing picture of the underlying genetic architecture emerges, we turn to future directions for the study of complex human diseases such as these, including the use of next generation sequencing technologies for the identification of rarer risk alleles, and potential approaches for narrowing down associated loci to casual variants. We consider the implications of this work for translation into clinical practice, for example via early therapeutic hypotheses arising from our improved understanding of the biology of inflammatory bowel disease. Finally, we present potential opportunities to better understand environmental risk factors, such as the human microbiota in the context of immunogenetics. PMID:26257098

  6. Intravenous iron in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Muñoz, Susana Gómez-Ramírez, José Antonio García-Erce

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of anemia across studies on patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is high (30%). Both iron deficiency (ID) and anemia of chronic disease contribute most to the development of anemia in IBD. The prevalence of ID is even higher (45%). Anemia and ID negatively impact the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, together with an adequate control of disease activity, iron replacement therapy should start as soon as anemia or ID is detected to attain a normal hemoglobin (Hb) an...

  7. Systems Biology Approaches for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moco, Sofia; Candela, Marco; Chuang, Emil; Draper, Colleen; Cominetti, Ornella; Montoliu, Ivan; Barron, Denis; Kussmann, Martin; Brigidi, Patrizia; Gionchetti, Paolo; Martin, Francois-Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Although the prevalence of main idiopathic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has risen considerably over the last decades, their clinical features do not allow accurate prediction of prognosis, likelihood of disease progression, or response to specific therapy. Through a better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in IBD and the promise of more targeted therapies, the personalized approach to the management of IBD shows potential. To achieve this, there remains a significant ...

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome and its psychological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikesh Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a chronic and disabling gastrointestinal problem that affects psychosocial functioning as well as the quality of life. This case study reports the utility of cognitive behavior therapy as a psychological intervention procedure in a chronic case of IBS. The use of psychological intervention was found to result in a reduction of anxiety; amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBS and improved functioning.

  9. Molecular basis of the irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Vaiopoulou, Anna; Karamanolis, Georgios; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Karatzias, George; Gazouli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder characterized by abdominal pain, discomfort and bloating. The pathophysiology of IBS is poorly understood, but the presence of psychosocial basis is now known. There is an increasing number of publications supporting the role of genetics in IBS. Most of the variations are found in genes associated with the brain-gut axis, revealing the strong correlation of brain-gut axis and IBS. miRNAs, which play critical roles in physiological proces...

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome: Diagnosis and pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Magdy El-Salhy

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder that considerably reduces the quality of life. It further represents an economic burden on society due to the high consumption of healthcare resources and the non-productivity of IBS patients. The diagnosis of IBS is based on symptom assessment and the Rome III criteria. A combination of the Rome III criteria, a physical examination, blood tests, gastroscopy and colonoscopy with biopsies is believed to be necessary for ...

  11. Neurological Manifestations In Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    youssef HNACH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe purpose of this retrospective study was to report neurological manifestations noted in patients who were monitored for inflammatory bowel disease, in order to document the pathophysiological, clinical, progressive, and therapeutic characteristics of this entity.Material and methodsWe conducted a retrospective study on patients monitored -in the gastroenterology service in Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat, Morocco- for inflammatory bowel disease from 1992 till 2013 and who developed neurological manifestations during its course. Patients with iatrogenic complications were excluded, as well as patients with cerebrovascular risk factors.ResultsThere were 6 patients, 4 of whom have developed peripheral manifestations. Electromyography enabled the diagnosis to be made and the outcome was favorable with disappearance of clinical manifestations and normalization of the electromyography.The other 2 patients, monitored for Crohn’s disease, developed ischemic stroke. Cerebral computed tomography angiography provided positive and topographic diagnosis. Two patients were admitted to specialized facilities.ConclusionNeurological manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease are rarely reported.  Peripheral neuropathies and stroke remain the most common manifestations. The mechanisms of these manifestations are not clearly defined yet. Currently, we hypothesize the interaction of immune mediators.

  12. DIOSPYROBEZOAR INDUCED SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytobezoars are an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction (S BO . We report 14 patients presenting with episodes of small bowel obstruction from phytobezoars. 14 patients were admitted with SBO due to diospyrobezoar. 21.4% patients were females and majority belonged to rural areas. Majority were admitted to the hospital in November and December, when the fruit is highly consumed. Ileum was the commonest site for the location for phytobezoars (50% follo wed by jejunum (28.6%. All patients underwent surgery including manual fragmentation and milking into cecum in 50% patients, enterotomy in 21.4% patients, resection anastomosis in 14.3% patients and resection with exteriorization of gut in 14.3% patients. Phytobezoars including diospyrobezoar should be considered as a rare but important cause of small bowel obstruction in children and in adults with known risk factors hailing from rural areas. Surgical treatment with manual fragmentation and milking of bez oar into cecum is effective in most cases.

  13. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Ghadir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

  14. The radiolesions of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of the pelvic abdominal cancers extends beyond the centre of the tumour and may induce actinic digestive lesions. The bowel and more rarely the small bowel -which is the subject-matter of our study- are concerned by those radiolesions that are favoured by therapeutic overdose, post-operative adhesions fastening the bows, radio-surgical or chemicostatic associations, and lastly by vascular or nutritive deficiencies. One may distinguish between two kinds of lesions, depending on the lapse of time before their coming out and on the symptoms. The early or acute types are characterized by a radio-mucitis and give an exsudative enteropathy with anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of weight, of which the diagnosis is easy because it occurs during the irradiation and lessens at the end of the treatment. The late radiolesions of the small bowel are characterized by sclerosis and chronic endarteritis and, after a longlasting period of latency, give varied symptoms: disordered intestinal transit which sometimes is irreversible, perforation, fistula, syndrome of malabsorption, giving often rise to be mistaken for a recurrence of the cancer. The treatment varies whether the lesion is segmental or diffuse. In the first case, the failure of the medical means accounts for the surgical cutting away or the internal derivation; in the second case, the digestive mutilation which would result from an enlargement of the lesion commands to be more cautious and to call for the methods of parenteral feeding and digestive setting to rest

  15. A clinical series of strangulated bowel obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated 40 patients with strangulated bowel obstructions who underwent surgery at our hospital between September 2000 and August 2005. Here, the patients' background characteristics, cause of strangulation, clinical symptoms, laboratory and imaging results, preoperative diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed. The sex ratio was 1:1, the average age was 71.2 years, and 31 cases (77.5%) had past histories of abdominal surgery, mainly in the lower abdominal region. As for the causes of the constrictions, adhesions and funiculi accounted for half of the cases. We recognized 23 cases (57.5%) because of peritoneal irritation signs and 8 cases (20.0%) because of a state of shock; both groups underwent emergency operations. Regarding imaging findings, abdominal computed tomography revealed ascites in 28 cases (77.8%) and limited bowel dilation in 25 cases (69.4%) the correct preoperative diagnosis rate was 85.0%. Bowel resections were performed in 29 cases (72.5%). Five patients (12.5%) died, three because of multiple organ failure and two because of respiratory insufficiency (i.e., pneumonia). Patients with a poor general condition or severe complications must be adequately cared for, although the diagnosis of this disease is comparatively easy. (author)

  16. Can Probiotics Cure Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korada, Siva Kumar; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Aruna Lakshmi, K; Arunasree, M K; Dananajaya, B L; Mishra, Vijendra

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, especially microbial dysbiosis play role in several GI ailments such as irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Role of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial as it involves loss of maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier integrity, increased release of pro-inflammatory molecules, and microbial dysbiosis in gut microflora. Some specific pathogens also play a key role in the IBD development. The origin and causation are still in unfathomable condition and the exact root cause is unknown. Recently probiotic studies have been gaining importance because of their positive responses in their IBD experimental results. According to joint Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation working group, probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer health benefit on the host. These live beneficial microorganisms are considered helpful in improving gut colonization and perseverance thereby improves prophylactic effect. In the direction of IBD research, a number of studies are needed to standardize its methodology and its applicability on human usage. The particular review presents an overview of gut microflora and its impact on host health, types of IBD and existing therapies to treat this disorder, mechanism of several probiotic actions, role of probiotics in IBD prevention with their supporting evidences. PMID:26648465

  17. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canavan C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Canavan, Joe West, Timothy Card Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional condition of the bowel that is diagnosed using clinical criteria. This paper discusses the nature of the diagnostic process for IBS and how this impacts epidemiological measurements. Depending on the diagnostic criteria employed, IBS affects around 11% of the population globally. Around 30% of people who experience the symptoms of IBS will consult physicians for their IBS symptoms. These people do not have significantly different abdominal symptoms to those who do not consult, but they do have greater levels of anxiety and lower quality of life. Internationally, there is a female predominance in the prevalence of IBS. There is 25% less IBS diagnosed in those over 50 years and there is no association with socioeconomic status. IBS aggregates within families and the genetic and sociological factors potentially underlying this are reviewed. Patients diagnosed with IBS are highly likely to have other functional disease and have more surgery than the general population. There is no evidence that IBS is associated with an increased mortality risk. The epidemiological evidence surrounding these aspects of the natural history is discussed. Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, epidemiology, prevalence, mortality, natural history

  18. The prevention of radiation-induced small bowel complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moderate dose pelvic radiotherapy is associated with a 5% severe complication risk related to the small bowel. Strictures and/or fistulation can occur many years after treatment. These complications are difficult to treat, and surgical treatment (excision, bypass) bears a significant morbidity risk. The risk of chronic diarrhoea or malabsorption may increase to 40%, depending on the irradiated small bowel volume. Late small bowel complications are generally irreversible due to vascular aetiology. Prevention of these complications can be achieved by limiting the volume of small bowel treated. Consequence for radiotherapeutic techniques in treatment for rectal cancer are multiple beam set-up, customised blocking based on visualisation of the small bowel in the treatment position, and the use of a special open table-top device that results in a small bowel shift from the treatment field. (author)

  19. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible cau...

  20. Bowel damage after radiation therapy of carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation damage to bowel is increasing in frequency in patients treated for invasive carcinoma of the cervix (as is the cure rate). Symptoms of bowel damage can occur many years after the therapy and may be confused with recurrent cancer or development of a primary bowel cancer. The care of patients presents a difficult challenge to physicians, but every effort must be made to provide proper care for these women who many times have been cured of their cervical cancer. (U.S.)

  1. Capsule Endoscopy in the Small Bowel Crohn’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Argüelles-Arias; Juan Rodríguez-Oballe; Calixto Duarte-Chang; Luisa Castro-Laria; Josefa María García-Montes; Ángel Caunedo-Álvarez; Juan Manuel Herrerías-Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    CD is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated to mucosal and transmural inflammation of the bowel wall. It is well known that CD can affect the entire gastrointestinal. Therefore, ileocolonoscopy and biopsies of the terminal ileum as well as of each colonic segment to look for microscopic evidence of CD are the first-line procedures to establish the diagnosis. However, it has been observed that up to 30% of the patients have only small bowel involvement. Evaluation of the small bowel has b...

  2. Small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar: CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel phytobezoars are rare and are almost always obstructive. The literature contains few reports on the radiological findings for primary small bowel bezoars. There is also very little published on CT results with this lesion, but the features of the scan are characteristic. We present the CT findings in a patient with an obstructive small bowel phytobezoar, and emphasize the diagnostic value of CT. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of bowel preparation methods for gallium scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorandes, T.; Ryan, J.; Logan, Y.; Loberg, M.D.

    1978-09-01

    Gallium-67, when injected into the body, is an important diagnostic aid for a variety of diseases. Because it is excreted by the liver into the bowel where accumulation of it can interfere with interpretation of abdominal and pelvic areas, adequate bowel cleansing is necessary. A study comparing three methods of bowel preparation showed the Evac-Q-Kit method to be the most satisfactory and cost effective.

  4. Evaluation of bowel preparation methods for gallium scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium-67, when injected into the body, is an important diagnostic aid for a variety of diseases. Because it is excreted by the liver into the bowel where accumulation of it can interfere with interpretation of abdominal and pelvic areas, adequate bowel cleansing is necessary. A study comparing three methods of bowel preparation showed the Evac-Q-Kit method to be the most satisfactory and cost effective

  5. Intussusception of the bowel in adults: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Marinis, Anneza Yiallourou, Lazaros Samanides, Nikolaos Dafnios, Georgios Anastasopoulos, Ioannis Vassiliou, Theodosios Theodosopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Intussusception of the bowel is defined as the telescoping of a proximal segment of the gastrointestinal tract within the lumen of the adjacent segment. This condition is frequent in children and presents with the classic triad of cramping abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and a palpable tender mass. However, bowel intussusception in adults is considered a rare condition, accounting for 5% of all cases of intussusceptions and almost 1%-5% of bowel obstruction. Eight to twenty percent of cases a...

  6. Mechanical bowel preparation in elective open colon surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fa-Si-Oen, Patrick Regnier

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical bowel preparation is a long standing practice in elective open colon surgery dating from the 1970's. It has always been believed to reduce the rate of postoperative complications in the form of anastomotic leakage and wound infection. In this thesis we broadly and thoroughly examine the various aspects and the value of mechanical bowel preparation in elective open colon surgery. - Mechanical bowel preparation in elective open colon surgery does not reduce the rate of anastomo...

  7. Distinct inflammatory and cytopathic characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from inflammatory bowel disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Brynskov, Jørn; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Brix, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    other in their ability to promote intestinal inflammation. Herein we compared the inflammation-inducing properties of non-diarrheagenic LF82, 691-04A, E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) and eleven new intestinal isolates from different locations in five IBD patients and one healthy control. Viable E. coli were......Escherichia coli (E. coli) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as implied from a higher prevalence of mucosa-associated E. coli in the gut of IBD-affected individuals. However, it is unclear whether different non-diarrheagenic E. coli spp. segregate from each...... cultured with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), followed by analysis of secreted cytokines, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and cellular death. The IBD-associated E. coli LF82 induced the same dose-dependent inflammatory...

  8. Small bowel obstruction caused by secondary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Efraim; Kashtan, Hanoch; Mavor, Eli; Brenner, Baruch

    2006-07-01

    Small bowel obstruction in an oncology patient is a common and serious medical problem which is associated with diagnostic as well as therapeutic dilemmas. While the condition is most commonly caused by postoperative adhesions and peritoneal carcinomatosis, other causes have been reported [Cormier WJ, Gaffey TA, Welch JM, et al. Linitis plastica caused by metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast. Mayo Clinical Proceedings 1980;55:747-53; Clavien P-A, Laffer U, Torhos J, et al. Gastrointestinal metastases as first clinical manifestation of the dissemination of a breast cancer. European Journal of Surgical Oncology 1990;16:121-6; Bender GN, Maglinte DD, McLarney JH, et al. Malignant melanoma: patterns of metastasis to the small bowel, reliability of imaging studies, and clinical relevance. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2001;96:2392-400; Gatsoulis N, Roukounakis N, Kafetzis I, et al. Small bowel intussusception due to metastatic malignant melanoma. A case report. Technical Coloproctology 2004;8:141-3; Hung GY, Chiou T, Hsieh YL, et al. Intestinal metastasis causing intussusception in a patient treated for osteosarcoma with history of multiple metastases: a case report. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 2001;31(4):165-7; Chen TF, Eardley I, Doyle PT, Bullock KN. Rectal obstruction secondary to carcinoma of the prostate treated by transanal resection of the prostate. British Journal of Urology 1992;70(6):643-7; Kamal HS, Farah RE, Hamzi HA, et al. Unusual presentation of rectal adenocarcinoma. Roman Journal of Gastroenterology 2003;12(1):47-50; Hofflander R, Beckes D, Kapre S, et al. A case of jejunal intussusception with gastrointestinal bleeding caused by metastatic testicular germ cell cancer. Digestive Surgery 1999;16(5):439-40]. One of these, reported thus far in only very few patients, is obstruction caused by secondary tumors, i.e. metastases from other organs to the small bowel wall. As cancer patients live longer with improved therapy, physicians are more likely to cope with rare phenomena of neoplasms, such as small bowel obstruction caused by secondary tumors. We hereby present a review of the relevant medical literature. The goal of this article is to define current knowledge on this phenomenon, with emphasis on its epidemiology and clinical characteristics, and to increase the awareness of the clinician treating cancer patients of such possibility. PMID:16905310

  9. Nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, M; Zadig, E; Digernes, V; Abeler, V; Reith, A

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluates the histological changes, especially the presence of possible precancerous lesions, in the nasal mucosa of workers exposed to formaldehyde. Nasal biopsies of 37 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde for more than five years and 37 age matched referents showed a higher degree of metaplastic alterations in the former group. In addition, three cases of epithelial dysplasia were observed among the exposed. These results indicate that formaldehyde may be potentially carcinogenic to man. Combination of this finding with the inconclusive epidemiological studies suggests that formaldehyde is a weak carcinogen and that occupational exposure to formaldehyde alone is insufficient to induce nasal cancer. Images PMID:2310715

  10. Cytoprotective effects of disodium cromoglycate on rat stomach mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, J.; Van Reempts, J.; Van Wauwe, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The cytoprotective effects of the anti-asthmatic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), on gastric mucosal necrosis induced by ethanol in rats were studied. Subcutaneous, but not oral, DSCG prevented the formation of gastric lesions and this effect was dose-dependent between 1.25 and 40 mg kg-1, with an ED50 value of 6.8 mg kg-1. Maximal cytoprotection occurred 15-30 min after DSCG treatment. Histological examination revealed that DSCG effectively protected the gastric mucosa against ethanol-ind...

  11. Collagenase inhibition in colonic mucosa by proteinase inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewin, M. R.; Chowcat, N. L.; Jayaraj, A P; Boulos, P. B.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of proteinase inhibitors on collagenase activity in rabbit colonic mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, has been measured by a tissue culture method. Aprotinin, when applied to colonic explants at doses of 20 and 40 KIU, significantly reduced the lytic activity by 97.3% and 99.1% respectively (P less than 0.001). At doses of 100, 200 and 400 KIUs, lysis was completely abolished. Rectal biopsies taken from rabbits at 4, 24, 48 and 72 h following either intramuscular, oral or rectal ad...

  12. [Megas and cancer. Cancer of the large intestine in chagasic patients with megacolon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A C; Lopes, M A; Rocha, A; Fatureto, M C; Lopes, G P; Lopes, E R; Chapadeiro, E

    1989-01-01

    This is a review of 4.690 necropsies and 24.209 surgical pathology specimens describing the association between megacolon chagasic and malignant tumors of the large bowel. The prevalence of malignant tumors of the large bowel was not higher in megacolon. PMID:2513795

  13. Pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is just at the resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they can be seen radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor, inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  14. The pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is at the limit of resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they appear radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor,inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  15. Multi-detector CT (MDCT in bowel and mesenteric injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajjalla Ravikumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate multi-detector CT (MDCT findings in bowel and mesenteric injury due to blunt abdominal trauma.Method: Retrospective evaluation of MDCT scan reports of patients admitted in Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar with bowel and mesenteric injury during the period of January 2005 to April 2008.Results: MDCT, without using oral contrast, clearly demonstrated various specific and less specific findings of bowel and mesenteric injury.Conclusion: Multi-detector CT is an excellent diagnostic modality in bowel and mesenteric injury. Routine administration of oral contrast agent is not mandatory for initial evaluation of these patients.

  16. Nonocclusive ischaemic bowel disease in patients on chronic haemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, A.; Adler, O.B.; Loberant, N.; Rosenberger, A.; Weissman, I.

    1989-06-01

    Six patients with chronic renal failure on longstanding haemodialysis are presented, in whom nonocclusive bowel ischaemia occurred as a rare complication of their underlying disorder. Factors implicated in the development of bowel ischaemia in these patients are chronic constipation resulting in increased intraluminal pressure on the bowel wall, premature and progressive arterial disease and bouts of hypotension accompanying the haemodialysis procedure. Contrast studies of the bowel and computed tomography examination can suggest the diagnosis, but angiography alone provides the exact answer in demonstrating nonocclusive mesenteric ischaemia. In patients with chronic renal failure and longstanding dialysis presenting with abdominal symptoms this diagnosis should be considered. (orig.).

  17. Nonocclusive ischaemic bowel disease in patients on chronic haemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients with chronic renal failure on longstanding haemodialysis are presented, in whom nonocclusive bowel ischaemia occurred as a rare complication of their underlying disorder. Factors implicated in the development of bowel ischaemia in these patients are chronic constipation resulting in increased intraluminal pressure on the bowel wall, premature and progressive arterial disease and bouts of hypotension accompanying the haemodialysis procedure. Contrast studies of the bowel and computed tomography examination can suggest the diagnosis, but angiography alone provides the exact answer in demonstrating nonocclusive mesenteric ischaemia. In patients with chronic renal failure and longstanding dialysis presenting with abdominal symptoms this diagnosis should be considered. (orig.)

  18. Recording forces exerted on the bowel wall during colonoscopy: in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramadzi, S; Virk, G S; Bell, G D; Rowland, R S; Hancock, J

    2005-12-01

    A novel system for distributed force measurement between the bowel wall and the shaft of a colonoscope is presented. The system, based on the piezoresistive method, involves the integration of soft miniature transducers to a colonoscope to enable a wide range of forces to be sensed. The attached sensing sheath does not restrict the propulsion of the colonoscope nor notably alter its flexibility. The addition of the sensor sheath increases the colonoscope diameter by 15-20% depending on the type of the colonoscope (adult or paediatric). The transducer's accuracy is +/-20 grammes if it is not subjected to extensive static forces. Under large static force conditions the errors may increase to +/-50 grammes. The tactile force measuring sensors have provided preliminary results from experiments on a model of the large bowel. The force measurements confirm the predictions on the location and magnitude of the forces and that most of the forces are exerted whilst the instrument is looping. PMID:17518409

  19. Estrategias quirúrgicas en el intestino corto / Surgical strategies in short bowel syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Bueno.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento del síndrome de intestino corto ha de ser realizado por un equipo multidisciplinar que incluye entre otras especialidades a gastroenterólogos, cirujanos y nutricionistas. El objetivo final del tratamiento quirúrgico es posibilitar que el intestino alcance el fenómeno de adaptación y a [...] sí destetar al paciente de la nutrición parenteral. Los factores anatómicos que influyen en la adaptación son muy importantes a la hora de elegir la mejor opción quirúrgica. El tipo de intervención vendrá definido entre otros por la edad, la longitud y funcionalidad del intestino remanente, la existencia de dilatación intestinal, la presencia de sobrecrecimiento bacteriano, y la presencia o ausencia de complicaciones relacionadas con la nutrición parenteral. Entre los principios básicos del manejo quirúrgico están el cierre precoz de estomas si están presentes, así como la corrección de estenosis; a ser posible con estricturoplastias y si es necesario remodelaje o plicatura intestinal. Las intervenciones para disminuir el tiempo de tránsito como la creación de válvulas, interposición de segmentos antiperistálticos o interposición de colon tienen poca aceptación. Las técnicas más aceptadas son las técnicas de alargamiento intestinal, las cuales solo se pueden aplicar sobre intestinos dilatados. Aunque se tiene más experiencia con la técnica de Bianchi, los resultados a corto plazo de la enteroplastia transversal seriada (STEP) son prometedores. El STEP es más sencillo, e incluso se puede aplicar en intestinos previamente alargados con la técnica de Bianchi. Abstract in english Management of short bowel syndrome has to be undertaken by a multidisciplinary team including gastroenterology, surgery, and nutrition, among other specialties. The final therapeutic goal is favoring intestinal adaptation by the bowel so that the patient may be weaned from parenteral nutrition. Anat [...] omical factors influencing on adaptation are very important for deciding the best surgical option. The type of procedure will defined by age, length and functionality of the remnant bowel, the existence of intestinal dilation, the presence of bacterial overgrowth, and the presence or absence of parenteral nutrition-related complications, among others. Early closure of the stomas, if present, and correction of stenoses, if possible with stricturoplasties and with remodeling or intestinal plicature if needed, are among the basic principles of surgical management. Interventions aimed at decreasing the transit time such as the creation of valves, interposition of anti-peristaltic segments or large bowel are poorly accepted. The most accepted techniques are those elongating the bowel that may be applied only on dilated bowels. Although experience is greater with Bianchi's technique, short-term outcomes of serial transversal enteroplasty (STEP) are promising. STEP is simpler and may be applied even to previously elongated bowels by the Bianchi's technique.

  20. Estrategias quirúrgicas en el intestino corto Surgical strategies in short bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bueno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento del síndrome de intestino corto ha de ser realizado por un equipo multidisciplinar que incluye entre otras especialidades a gastroenterólogos, cirujanos y nutricionistas. El objetivo final del tratamiento quirúrgico es posibilitar que el intestino alcance el fenómeno de adaptación y así destetar al paciente de la nutrición parenteral. Los factores anatómicos que influyen en la adaptación son muy importantes a la hora de elegir la mejor opción quirúrgica. El tipo de intervención vendrá definido entre otros por la edad, la longitud y funcionalidad del intestino remanente, la existencia de dilatación intestinal, la presencia de sobrecrecimiento bacteriano, y la presencia o ausencia de complicaciones relacionadas con la nutrición parenteral. Entre los principios básicos del manejo quirúrgico están el cierre precoz de estomas si están presentes, así como la corrección de estenosis; a ser posible con estricturoplastias y si es necesario remodelaje o plicatura intestinal. Las intervenciones para disminuir el tiempo de tránsito como la creación de válvulas, interposición de segmentos antiperistálticos o interposición de colon tienen poca aceptación. Las técnicas más aceptadas son las técnicas de alargamiento intestinal, las cuales solo se pueden aplicar sobre intestinos dilatados. Aunque se tiene más experiencia con la técnica de Bianchi, los resultados a corto plazo de la enteroplastia transversal seriada (STEP son prometedores. El STEP es más sencillo, e incluso se puede aplicar en intestinos previamente alargados con la técnica de Bianchi.Management of short bowel syndrome has to be undertaken by a multidisciplinary team including gastroenterology, surgery, and nutrition, among other specialties. The final therapeutic goal is favoring intestinal adaptation by the bowel so that the patient may be weaned from parenteral nutrition. Anatomical factors influencing on adaptation are very important for deciding the best surgical option. The type of procedure will defined by age, length and functionality of the remnant bowel, the existence of intestinal dilation, the presence of bacterial overgrowth, and the presence or absence of parenteral nutrition-related complications, among others. Early closure of the stomas, if present, and correction of stenoses, if possible with stricturoplasties and with remodeling or intestinal plicature if needed, are among the basic principles of surgical management. Interventions aimed at decreasing the transit time such as the creation of valves, interposition of anti-peristaltic segments or large bowel are poorly accepted. The most accepted techniques are those elongating the bowel that may be applied only on dilated bowels. Although experience is greater with Bianchi's technique, short-term outcomes of serial transversal enteroplasty (STEP are promising. STEP is simpler and may be applied even to previously elongated bowels by the Bianchi's technique.

  1. Solitary fibrous tumor of small bowel mesentery with postoperative bowel obstruction: a case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Jing; Li, Ruo-Tong; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Fei; Zhao, Zhi-Cheng; Li, Wei-Dong; Fu, Wei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) which is an extremely rare clinical entity has been reported infrequently. Most commonly it is distinguished into pleural and extrapleural forms, with same morphological resemblance. There has been many literatures reported regarding extrapleural form of SFT but few cases of SFT originating from small bowel mesentery have been reported till now. We here report one case of SFT of small bowel mesentery with some eventful postoperative bowel obstruction and literature review. PMID:26617912

  2. An immunoglobulin G-4 related sclerosing disease of the small bowel: CT and small bowel series findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Young Hwan; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Min, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ji Young; Kim, Jeong Won; Hong, Hye Sook; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul [Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease is rare and is known to involve various organs. We present a case of histologically proven IgG4-related sclerosing disease of the small bowel with imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and small bowel series. CT showed irregular wall thickening, loss of mural stratification and aneurysmal dilatation of the distal ileum. Small bowel series showed aneurysmal dilatations, interloop adhesion with traction and abrupt angulation.

  3. Drug Development for the Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    FabrizioDe Ponti

    2013-01-01

    Medications are frequently used for the treatment of patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although their actual benefit is often debated. In fact, the recent progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of IBS, accompanied by a large number of preclinical and clinical studies of new drugs, has not been matched by a significant improvement of the armamentarium of medications available to treat IBS. The aim of this review is to outline the current challenges in drug develop...

  4. Effect of smoking on inflammatory bowel disease: Is it disease or organ specific?

    OpenAIRE

    Karban, A.; Eliakim, R.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is an important environmental factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with differing effects in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Never smoking and formerly smoking increase the risk of UC, whereas smoking exacerbates the course of CD. The potential mechanisms involved in this dual relationship are yet unknown. A reasonable assumption is that smoking has different effects on the small and large intestine. This assumption is based on animal and human studies that sho...

  5. Association between tumor necrosis factor-? antagonists and risk of cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe Andersen, Nynne; Pasternak, Björn; Basit, Saima; Andersson, Mikael; Svanström, Henrik; Caspersen, Sarah; Munkholm, Pia; Hviid, Anders; Jess, Tine

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: A Cochrane review and network meta-analysis concluded that there is need for more research on adverse effects, including cancer, after treatment with tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) antagonists and that national registries and large databases would provide relevant sources of data to evaluate these effects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exposed to TNF-? antagonists were at increased risk of developing cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PAR...

  6. Effectiveness of anti-tumour necrosis factor-? therapy in Danish patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Steffen; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Burisch, Johan; Pedersen, Natalia; Roug, Stine; Galsgaard, Julie; Turino, Stine Ydegaard; Brodersen, Jacob Broder; Rashid, Shaista; Avlund, Sara; Olesen, Thomas; Green, Anders; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Thomsen, Marianne Kragh; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Nexø, Bjørn Andersen; Vogel, Ulla; Andersen, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of anti-tumour necrosis factor-? (anti-TNF) treatment in a large cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in clinical practice and to establish a cohort for future studies of genetic markers associated with treatment response. METHODS: A national, clinically based cohort of previously naïve anti-TNF treated patients from 18 medical departments was est...

  7. Hospital Admissions, Biological Therapy, and Surgery in Familial and Sporadic Cases of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier Moller, Frederik; Andersen, Vibeke; Andersson, Mikael; Jess, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Easily accessible predictors of disease course in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are scarce, and it remains largely unknown whether a family history of IBD predicts the course of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to compare the course of disease in familial and sporadic cases of IBD in a nationwide cohort study. METHODS: From national registries, covering a population of 8,295,773 individuals, we obtained information on date and year of diagnosis of IBD cas...

  8. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in Japan: Internet survey using Rome III criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Miwa, Hiroto

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a large-scale Internet survey of 10,000 subjects across Japan to determine irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) prevalence. (J-ROAD: Japanese research of abdominal symptoms for IBS) Methods An equal number of male and female subjects, aged at least 20 years, were surveyed by questionnaire. The prevalence of IBS and its subtypes were determined using Rome III criteria, and the results were analyzed for gender- and age-related differences. IBS prevalence was also determined us...

  9. Effects of personality traits on the manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tayama Jun; Nakaya Naoki; Hamaguchi Toyohiro; Tomiie Tadaaki; Shinozaki Masae; Saigo Tatsuo; Shirabe Susumu; Fukudo Shin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Previous studies have reported that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show high neuroticism. However, the precise association between the IBS subtypes and the degree of neuroticism in younger populations is largely unknown. We tested our hypothesis that subjects with diarrhea-predominant IBS may have a higher degree of neuroticism than subjects without IBS or those with other subtypes of IBS. We also verified the additional hypothesis that the severity of neuroti...

  10. Propolis aqueous extract preserves functional integrity of murine intestinal mucosa after exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyal, Mohamed T; El-Hazek, Rania M; El-Ghazaly, Mona A

    2015-11-01

    The ability of a specially prepared water propolis extract (PWE) to preserve the functional activity of the intestinal mucosa after radiation exposure was studied. PWE was given orally (650mg/kg) to rats five days prior to irradiation by 6Gy and continued for further two days. Rats were sacrificed 24h later, intestinal segments were examined histologically and homogenates were used to assess relevant biochemical parameters reflecting intestinal injury. Irradiation led to a rise in the histological damage score, a rise in tissue TNF-? and TBARS, and a decrease in sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, GSH and cholecystokinin as well as a decrease in plasma citrulline. The findings reflect a decrease in intestinal functional activity. PWE preserved the intestinal integrity and largely protected against the changes induced in the histology damage score and all parameters measured, possibly as a result of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action of its caffeic acid content. PMID:26498266

  11. A Biologia molecular das doenças inflamatórias intestinais Molecular biology of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pinho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Com elevada prevalência, a Doença de Crohn e a retocolite ulcerativa apresentam mecanismos fisiopatológicos os quais permanecem como um grande desafio apesar de muitas décadas de pesados investimentos em pesquisa. Entretanto, o desenvolvimento de técnicas de análise da biologia molecular tem proporcionado a identificação de um grande número de moléculas relacionadas a estas doenças as quais poderão representar um importante auxílio na compreensão de seus complexos aspectos. Existem fortes evidências hoje, de que as doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII são o resultado de um desequilíbrio entre a flora bacteriana comensal e o aparato imunológico da mucosa intestinal. Um dos achados mais consistentes neste sentido refere-se à elevada incidencia de mutações do gene NOD2/CARD15 em pacientes portadores de Doença de Crohn, além da comprovação de sua correlação fenotípica com esta doença. Além desta proteína, diversas outras moléculas apresentam-se alteradas nas DIIs, envolvendo diversos aspectos como imunidade inata, resposta inflamatória e função de barreira mucosa. A observação das variações de expressão destas moléculas correlacionadas à evolução clínica e respostas terapêuticas irá contribuir para que possamos em um futuro obter resposta a históricos questionamentos sobre estas complexas doenças.Despite its high prevalence and many years of basic and clinical research, pathophysiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis remains a great challenge. The recent advances in molecular biology techniques have provided identification of a great number of molecules related to these diseases that may help in a near future to understand its still obscure aspects. Many evidences have recently demonstrated that inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD result from an imbalance between bowel commensal bacterial flora and the immunological mucosal apparatus. The very consistent finding that mutations in NOD2/CARD15 gene occur in a high percentage of Crohn's disease patients and its phenotype correlation have boosted further research to identify other IBD-related molecules. Indeed, many other variations in gene expression have been demonstrated to be related to pathophysiology of IBD including different aspects such as inate immunity, inflammatory response and mucosal barrier disfunction. The observation of the correlation between these gene expression variation, disease behaviour and response to therapeutics may contribute in a near future to understand most questions regarding these complex diseases.

  12. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with probiotics. An etiopathogenic approach at last?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixquert Jiménez, M

    2009-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional digestive disorder, and may affect 11-20% of the adult population in industrialized countries. In accordance with Rome III criteria (2006) IBS involves abdominal pain and bowel habit disturbance, which are not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. Several hypotheses attempt to account for the pathophysiology of IBS, but the etiology still remains uncertain or obscure, perhaps multifactorial. Abnormalities in colonic microflora have recently been suggested in such patients, as has abnormal small-intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), or in particular a significant reduction in the amount of intraluminal Bifidobacteria or Lactobacilli, with consequences like the production of colonic gas, and motility or sensitivity disturbances of the intestinal tract. The disorder is difficult to treat, and the wide spectrum of non-drug and drug treatments shows our ignorance about the cause of the condition. Newer drugs, both pro- and anti-serotonin, have failed to show long-term efficacy or have been withdrawn due to concerns about harmful effects. Recent research has provided increasing support for the idea that disturbances of intestinal microbiota occur in patients with IBS, and that such abnormalities may contribute to IBS symptoms. Studies in Scandinavian countries in the last ten years emphasize the role of probiotics in the modulation of intestinal microbiota, and as a consequence in the regulation of the motility and hypersensitivity of the digestive tract. Although results between studies are difficult to compare because of differences in study design, probiotic dose, strain, and duration of therapy, some studies show symptom improvement. Lactobacilli are found among the normal bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tract, and Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) is one of the species frequently isolated from the human mucosa, which is capable of surviving the low pH of the stomach and duodenum, resisting the effect of bile acids in the upper small intestine when ingested, and temporarily colonizing the gastrointestinal tract by binding to the intestinal and colonic mucosa. Concurrent with colonization by Lp there is a decrease in bacterial groups with gas-producing ability, such as Veillonella spp. and Clostridia spp. Evidence has now accumulated to suggest the efficacy of certain probiotics like Lp299v, which may be capable of bringing about a significant reduction in pain, abdominal distension and flatulence, while increasing health-related quality of life in IBS. PMID:19785495

  13. Volume-based Feature Analysis of Mucosa for Automatic Initial Polyp Detection in Virtual Colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Su; Zhu, Hongbin; Lu, Hongbing; LIANG, ZHENGRONG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a volume-based mucosa-based polyp candidate determination scheme for automatic polyp detection in computed colonography. Different from most of the existing computer-aided detection (CAD) methods where mucosa layer is a one-layer surface, a thick mucosa of 3-5 voxels wide fully reflecting partial volume effect is intentionally extracted, which excludes the direct applications of the traditional geometrical features. In order to address this dilemma, fast marching-bas...

  14. Leishmaniose mucosa fatal em criança Fatal mucosal leishmaniasis in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Velozo; Andréa Cabral; Maria Custódia Machado Ribeiro; Jorgeth de Oliveira Carneiro da Motta; Izelda Maria Carvalho Costa; Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio

    2006-01-01

    A leishmaniose tegumentar americana, doença endêmica e crescente no Brasil, pode manifestar-se por úlceras na pele e lesões nas mucosas nasal, oral e faringiana. O antimônio pentavalente é a droga de primeira escolha no tratamento, com resposta menos favorável nas formas mucosas. Destaca-se a dificuldade para diagnosticar e tratar um caso de leishmaniose mucosa em criança de cinco anos que teve exames parasitológicos, imunológicos e reação em cadeia da polimerase negativos. Somente após vária...

  15. Penfigoide de membranas mucosas com estenose esofágica grave Mucous membrane pemphigoid with severe esophageal stricture

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia do Nascimento Barbosa; Roberto Souto da Silva; Gustavo Costa Verardino; Alexandre Carlos Gripp; Maria de Fátima Guimarães Scotelaro Alves

    2011-01-01

    O penfigoide de membranas mucosas é entidade nosológica encarada como um fenótipo, que engloba várias dermatoses autoimunes com lesões bolhosas subepidérmicas, ocorrendo predominantemente nas membranas mucosas, com êxito cicatricial. O acometimento esofágico no penfigoide de membranas mucosas é raro e observado em pacientes com lesão disseminada. As alterações mais comuns são múltiplas membranas ou constrições esofagianas. No presente relato, os autores apresentam paciente com PMM sem lesões ...

  16. [The morphologic changes of gastric mucosa before and after the surgical operations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustamov, E A

    2012-01-01

    The article outlines the morphologic evaluation of the gastric mucosa in 159 patients with different types of pyloroduodenal ulcers. The comparative characteristics of the gastric mucosa of 80 patients before and after the gastric resection. The complete restoration of the mucosa within the year after the selective proximal vagotomy was registered. The gastric resection leads to the chronic gastritis with dystrophic changes and intestinal or pseudopyloric metaplasia. PMID:22810340

  17. Tomographic mapping of the hard palate and overlying mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquezan, Mariana; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Freitas, Amanda Osorio Ayres de; Baratieri, Carolina; Alves Junior, Matheus; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Goncalves; Araujo, Monica Tirre de Souza, E-mail: marianamarquezan@gmail.com [Department of Pedodontics and Orthodontics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the thickness of the hard palate and its overlying mucosa using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), for purposes of miniscrew placement. The sample comprised 36 CBCT scans of patients aged 12 to 52 years from a database of the Orthodontics Department of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Paracoronal views of the palatal region were reconstructed at 4, 8, 16 and 24 mm posterior to the incisive foramen. In each reconstruction measurements were taken at the suture, 3 mm and 6 mm bilaterally to it. Wilcoxon's test verified the differences between the selected regions. Total bone height decreased from the anterior to the posterior region. In cross sections 4, 16 and 24, bone height decreased from the suture laterally to the 3 mm region and then increased in the 6 mm region. The cortical thickness does not seem to be a concern because it presented a mean thickness of at least 1 mm at all sites evaluated. The measurements of the mucosa thickness decreased from lateral to median and from anterior to posterior regions. The most suitable areas for miniscrew placement in the palate are located 4 mm posterior to the incisive foramen, in the median or paramedian regions 3 mm adjacent to the suture. (author)

  18. Tomographic mapping of the hard palate and overlying mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marquezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the thickness of the hard palate and its overlying mucosa using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, for purposes of miniscrew placement. The sample comprised 36 CBCT scans of patients aged 12 to 52 years from a database of the Orthodontics Department of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Paracoronal views of the palatal region were reconstructed at 4, 8, 16 and 24 mm posterior to the incisive foramen. In each reconstruction measurements were taken at the suture, 3 mm and 6 mm bilaterally to it. Wilcoxon's test verified the differences between the selected regions. Total bone height decreased from the anterior to the posterior region. In cross sections 4, 16 and 24, bone height decreased from the suture laterally to the 3 mm region and then increased in the 6 mm region. The cortical thickness does not seem to be a concern because it presented a mean thickness of at least 1 mm at all sites evaluated. The measurements of the mucosa thickness decreased from lateral to median and from anterior to posterior regions. The most suitable areas for miniscrew placement in the palate are located 4 mm posterior to the incisive foramen, in the median or paramedian regions 3 mm adjacent to the suture.

  19. A prospective randomized controlled trial of AJG522 versus standard PEG+E as bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Toshihiko; Sato, Ken; Tomizawa, Taku; Mizuide, Masafumi; Yasuoka, Hidetoshi; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Kakizaki, Satoru; Kawamura, Osamu; Kusano, Motoyasu; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) based bowel preparations for colonoscopies are often poorly tolerated due to the large volumes of fluid intake required. We compared low-volume "modified" PEG + ascorbic acid (AJG522) with standard PEG with electrolytes (PEG+E) in addition to a stimulant laxative and an agent to improve bowel function for the bowel cleansing before colonoscopy to evaluate its efficacy, safety, and acceptability. Outpatients scheduled to undergo colonoscopy were randomized to receive either AJG522 or PEG+E. Bowel cleansing conditions were assessed via macroscopic fecal findings by blinded and independent investigators. A survey of the patients' feedback regarding the preparation was conducted by questionnaire. Successful cleansing was achieved in all cases, except for 4 cases in the PEG+E group, at 3 hours after taking the preparation. The fecal properties were significantly clearer in the AJG522 group than in the PEG+E group at 2 hours after taking each preparation (P=0.013). Although the total liquid volume of the bowel preparation was not reduced, the AJG522 preparation could significantly reduce the required volume of the preparation (P<0.0001). Moreover, the patients in the AJG522 group had better acceptability (P=0.010). There were no significant differences in the safety profiles between groups (UMIN000013892). PMID:25688357

  20. The frequency of microscopic and focal active colitis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akyuz Umit

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic functional bowel disorder. The frequency of microscopic colitis and focal active colitis in the colonic mucosa has been investigated in IBS patients. Methods Between June 2007 and September 2010, 378 patients (between 16 and 84 years were recruited prospectively. Of these 378 patients, 226 patients were diagnosed with IBS using the Rome III criteria. 152 control patients were also enrolled who were undergoing colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening or investigation of anemia. Histopathological abnormalities identified during colonoscopy were compared between the IBS and control groups. Results The average age of the IBS group was 46.13 ± 14.16 years and and the average age of the control group was 57.01 ± 13.07 years. The prevalence of microscopic colitis (MC in the diarrhea predominant and the mixed subgroup of IBS patients was 4.32% (7/162 whereas in all IBS patients, the prevalence was 3.09% (7/226. MC was not found in the 152 control cases, (p = 0.045. Lymphocytic colitis was seen in 7 IBS patients, with 1 case in the mixed group and 6 cases in the diarrhea group and there was a significant difference in the frequency of lymphocytic colitis between the IBS subgroups (p Conclusion Microscopic colitis was more often found in the diarrhea predominant/mixed subgroups of IBS patients and in patients who were older women. In patients who are older woman with non-constipated IBS, it may be reasonable to perform a biopsy to screen for microscopic colitis. Focal active colitis was significantly increased in patients with IBS compared to controls.