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Sample records for language l1 writing

  1. Voice and Narrative in L1 Writing

    Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke

    This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing. Subsequ...... training of voice and narratives as a resource for academic writing, and that the Bildung potential of L1 writing may be tied to this issue.......This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing....... Subsequently, two empirical investigations of L1 writing in a Danish upper secondary school are presented. The first study is based on longitudinal interview data and analyses one student’s experience as an L1 writer in the transition from lower secondary to upper secondary school. A high-achieving student in...

  2. Voice and Narrative in L1 Writing

    Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke

    . Subsequently, two empirical investigations of L1 writing in a Danish upper secondary school are presented. The first study is based on longitudinal interview data and analyses one student’s experience as an L1 writer in the transition from lower secondary to upper secondary school. A high-achieving student in...... voice and identity. In the first paper, the student writer is provoked by the text material to attempt a private narrative. In the second paper, the student provides a personal narrative framework for his argumentation. In conclusion, this paper argues that empirical cases document a need for explicit...

  3. L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon

    van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2009-01-01

    This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…

  4. L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon

    van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2009-01-01

    This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…

  5. Foreign Language Writing and Translation

    Wuri Soedjatmiko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In L1 writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose L1 is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

  6. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  7. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  8. The Interlanguage Grammar of Information Management in L1 and L2 Developing Writing

    Kenkel, James; Yates, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In the tradition of work by Shaughnessy (1977) and Bartholomae (1980) applying concepts from second language acquisition research to developing writing, we explore the commonalities of L1 and L2 writers on the specific level of linguistic choices needed to order information within and across sentence boundaries. We propose that many of the kinds…

  9. Differences in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Yingli Wang

    2012-01-01

    Since the first contrastive rhetoric study by Kaplan in 1966, many studies have been produced, and over several decades of development, there have been many contributions gained from previous contrastive rhetoric studies. In this article, many kinds of differences existing in L1 and L2 academic writing have been discussed. I will categorize the differences in three major parts as following: differences in the level of lexicon, differences in the level of sentence, and differences in the level...

  10. Foreign Language Writing and Translation

    Wuri Soedjatmiko; Agnes Santi Widiati

    2003-01-01

    In L1 writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose L1 is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they ...

  11. Writing in first and second language: empirical studies on text quality and writing processes

    Tillema, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314571566

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about writing proficiency among students of secondary education. Due to globalization, the ability to express oneself in a language other than the first language (L1) is increasingly becoming a condition for educational success. In The Netherlands, this ‘other’ or second language (L2) is usually English. Although secondary school students are already quite able to express themselves in English, their L2 essays are often of lower quality than L1 essays, in terms of language use,...

  12. Foreign Language Writing and Translation

    Wuri Soedjatmiko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In LI writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose LI is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

  13. Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher

    Kalt, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

  14. Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher

    Kalt, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

  15. First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research

    Khaled Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.

  16. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  17. Task Response and Text Construction across L1 and L2 Writing

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study, undertaken from a socio-cognitive perspective, aims to investigate the effects of intensive preparatory high school training in L1 and/or L2 essay writing for university entrance exams. The analysis focuses on the task response and structural features in L1 (Japanese) and L2 (English) essays written by first-year Japanese…

  18. Task Response and Text Construction across L1 and L2 Writing

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study, undertaken from a socio-cognitive perspective, aims to investigate the effects of intensive preparatory high school training in L1 and/or L2 essay writing for university entrance exams. The analysis focuses on the task response and structural features in L1 (Japanese) and L2 (English) essays written by first-year Japanese…

  19. The Effect of Second Language Writing Ability on First Language Writing Ability

    Nastaran Mehrabi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of second language writing ability on first language writing ability. To do so, two different groups of university students, majoring in English and non-English (nursing), were chosen to write compositions on a topic of their interest. At first, students in both groups were asked to write about 200 words on a topic in their first language. Then, the students studying English passed a course in writing which was called Grammar and Writing C...

  20. L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

  1. TEACHING CREATIVE WRITING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    MARKU MONIS AND . M. V. RODRIQUES

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Writing, like all other aspects of language, is communicative. In our real life we write e-mails, notes, covering letters, reports, curriculums, assignments, essays and so on. Some of us write articles or work on forums and websites. A few write stories and poems. All of these writing tasks have a communicative purpose and a target audience. In the English language classroom, however, writing often lacks this. There are many reasons, as there are lots of ways to make the writing, we do with learners more communicative. There are many areas in which language learners can benefit from creative writing. Students express themselves and their own ideas. Most teachers would agree that what we want to say, what comes from the heart, we are happier to work on. Creative Writing (CW can be very stimulating and a lot of fun. Creative writing involves playful but rigorous work with language. A lot of people seem to associate creative writing with an "anything goes" mentality. However, in order to produce a good text, poem, short story or dramatic scene, the language needs to be correct and it needs to work. Creative Writing requires greater precision in expression. In order to say precisely what they mean, students have to be very careful in their use of vocabulary and idioms. In this article, an effort is made to discuss the characteristics and difficulties of CW and similarly, a few ideas for CW writing, benefits of CW and solutions to simplify and make it interesting is presented.

  2. An Exploration of L1, L2, and Bilingual Students' Writing Features on the SAT Essay

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2012-01-01

    It is well-documented that students' prior knowledge, cultural background, and language proficiency play a role in how they read, interpret, and respond to writing tasks (Barkaoui, 2007; Connor & Kramer, 1995; Hinkel, 2002). Essays written by students from different language backgrounds often differ in their linguistic, stylistic, and…

  3. Contributions of Word-Level and Verbal Skills to Written Expression: Comparison of Learners Who Speak English as a First (L1) and Second Language (L2)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the role of word-level and verbal skills in writing quality of learners who spoke English as a first (L1) and second (L2) language. One hundred and sixty-eight L1 and L2 learners (M = 115.38 months, SD = 3.57 months) participated in the study. All testing was conducted in English. There was a statistically significant L1…

  4. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  5. Self-reported problems of L1 and L2 college writers: what can writing instructors do?

    Bekar, Mira

    2011-01-01

    Understanding self-reported problems of L1 and L2 writers regarding the writing process holds important pedagogical implications for instructors to address their students’ specific writing needs. L2 writers were usually reported to have more difficulty setting goals and generating material, and to produce less accurate and effective texts (Leki, 1992; Silva 1993, 1997). This paper compares the self-reported writing difficulties of two groups: L1 (N=19) and L2 (N=19) freshman composition stude...

  6. Cerebral mechanisms for different second language writing systems.

    Koyama, Maki S; Stein, John F; Stoodley, Catherine J; Hansen, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of Japanese (of syllabic Kana only) whose L1 was English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). During English reading, the L2 readers of English (Japanese-L1/English-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the left superior parietal lobule/supramarginal gyrus, relative to the L1 readers of English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). This is a region considered to be involved in phonological processing. The increased activation in the Japanese-L1/English-L2 group likely reflects the increased cognitive load associated with L2 English reading, possibly because L1 readers of Kana, which has an extremely regular orthography, may need to adjust to the greater phonological demands of the irregular L2 English orthography. In contrast, during Kana reading, the L2 readers of Japanese Kana (English-L1/Japanese-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the lingual gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres compared to the L1 readers of Kana (Japaese-L1/English-L2). This additional activation is likely to reflect the lower level of visual familiarity to the L2 symbols in the English-L1/Japanese-L2 group; Kana symbols are uniquely used only in Japan, whereas Roman alphabetic symbols are seen nearly everywhere. These findings, bolstered by significant relationships between the activation of the identified regions and cognitive competence, suggest that the cerebral mechanisms for L2 reading in late learners depends both on which language is their L1 and which language is to be learnt as their L2. Educational implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23938321

  7. Thai EFL Students’ Writing Errors in Different Text Types: The Interference of the First Language

    Somchai Watcharapunyawong; Siriluck Usaha

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Thai language, regarded as the first language (L1), in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast. 120 English paragraphs written by 40 second year English major students were analyzed by using Error Analysis (EA).The results revealed that the first language interference errors fell into 16 categories: verb tense, word choice, sentence structure, article, preposition, modal/auxilia...

  8. The Effect of Stimulate Recall on 14-Year-Olds' L1 Swedish and EFL Writing and Revision.

    Lindgren, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the possible effects of stimulated recall when used as a tool for reflection on text progression in first language and English-as-a-Foreign-Language writing. Particular focus is on revisions induced by the stimulated recall session and whether they are affected by writing language or genre. (Author/VWL)

  9. Foreign Language Writing and Translation

    Wuri Soedjatmiko

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: In LI writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose LI is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or...

  10. Comparison of University Level EFL Learners' Linguistic and Rhetorical Patterns as Reflected in Their L1 and L2 Writing

    Abbas ZARE-EE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the linguistic and rhetorical patterns of L1 and L2 writing samples of Iranian EFL learners and aimed to determine possible quantitative differences. For this purpose, an intact EFL class including 30 Iranian EFL learners at an English department (F=21, M=9 was selected and the participants were asked to write English and Persian compositions on the same topic in an argumentative style in two separate sessions. These tasks were then holistically scored according to the ESL Composition Profile (Jacobs et. al. 1981 by two expert scorers. The number of words, number of words per sentences, number of spelling errors and number of T-units were also manually counted for both the English and the Persian tasks. The collected data were used to compare and contrast the linguistic and rhetorical patterns of the L1 and L2 writing samples. The results of the study showed that: a there was a moderate positive correlation (r=0.47 p<0.05 between L1 and L2 writing total scores, b texts written in L1 were significantly longer than those written in L2, c L1 writing texts were more complex than L2 writing ones in terms of T-units, d T-units in texts written in L1 were more than those written in L2, and e the number of spelling errors in L2 writing samples were higher than those of L1 writing samples. These results were compared to those of similar studies comparing L1 and L2 writing. Implications arising from these findings were also explained.

  11. The Impact of First and Second Languages on Azerbaijani EFL Learners’ Writing Ability

    Mansour Shabani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a debate whether or not the learners’ first language (L1 can facilitate the process of learning foreign language. Since foreign language writing (FL is a complicated process, it seems that the role of the learners’ L1 and its effect on FL writing is of great importance in this regard. The present study aimed at investigating the role of Azerbaijani EFL learners’ L1 and L2 (Persian on their FL writing. To meet the purposes of the study, 30 female EFL upper-intermediate students were selected (through running an OPT, who were native speakers of Azerbaijani, with Persian as their L2 and official language of Iranian context. The data were collected through running three writing sessions (in which the participants wrote three essays in each session using Azerbaijani as L1, Persian as L2, and direct writing using the think-aloud protocol, through which they were asked to report their thoughts loudly to record using a tape recorder. In addition, a survey was used to ask their perceptions towards each writing task. The analysis of the data obtained from the evaluation of learners’ writings indicated that the mere use of their L1 or L2 in foreign language writing was by no means helpful for them and they performed better on direct writing task in comparison with the two other ones. It was also found that the majority of the learners (70% had difficulty in generating their ideas using Azerbaijani as their L1. In addition, nearly 77% of them claimed that even in direct writing mode, they made use of their L2 (Persian on the occasions they could not find a proper word or phrase in English. As the implications of the study, it seems that the present study can bring helpful insights for both FL teachers and learners about the roles that Azerbaijani and Persian languages play as the students’ L1 and L2 in FL writing.Keywords: Writing ability, first language, second language, foreign language

  12. Writing Kurdish Alphabetics in Java Programming Language

    Rebwar Mala Nabi; Sardasht M-Raouf Mahmood; Mohammed Qadir Kheder; Shadman Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, Kurdish programmers usually suffer when they need to write Kurdish letter while they program in java. More to say, all the versions of Java Development Kits have not supported Kurdish letters. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop Java Kurdish Language Package (JKLP) for solving writing Kurdish alphabetic in Java programming language. So that Kurdish programmer and/or students they can converts the English-alphabetic to Kurdish-alphabetic. Furthermore, adding Kurdish langua...

  13. Writing in English as a Second Language

    Heinonen, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this essay was to extend my knowledge of teaching writing and children's attitudes towards writing in English. I chose to focus my study on grade six, as I had the opportunity to work with two different classes in Linköping and Södertälje. I assigned them a free writing task as well as a questinnaire. In the literture study I intended to extend my knowledge of the process of writing in a second language. Throught the course of my research I have come to understand how important it...

  14. Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom

    Mori, Miki

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

  15. Adult Learners' Perceptions of the Incorporation of Their L1 in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Brooks-Lewis, Kimberly Anne

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges the theory and practice of the exclusion of the adult learner's first language (L1) by reporting learners' overwhelmingly positive perceptions of its incorporation in foreign language teaching and learning. Classroom-based research was undertaken with university students in an English as a foreign language course which…

  16. Code-Switching: L1-Coded Mediation in a Kindergarten Foreign Language Classroom

    Lin, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a qualitative inquiry that investigated the role of teachers' mediation in three different modes of coding in a kindergarten foreign language classroom in China (i.e. L2-coded intralinguistic mediation, L1-coded cross-lingual mediation, and L2-and-L1-mixed mediation). Through an exploratory examination of the varying effects…

  17. Feedback on second language students' writing

    Hyland, K.; Hyland, F

    2006-01-01

    Feedback is widely seen as crucial for encouraging and consolidating learning, and this significance has also been recognised by those working in the field of second language (L2) writing. Its importance is acknowledged in process-based classrooms, where it forms a key element of the students' growing control over composing skills, and by genre-oriented teachers employing scaffolded learning techniques. In fact, over the past twenty years, changes in writing pedagogy and research have transfo...

  18. A Survey of Writing Instruction in Elementary Language Arts Classrooms.

    Laframboise, Kathryn L.; Klesius, Janell

    1993-01-01

    Investigates to what extent children were given opportunities to engage in process writing. Finds a textbook orientation to language instruction, small amounts of time spent in prewriting or writing activities, and a preference for teacher-controlled writing processes. (SR)

  19. Enhancing Foreign Language Learning through Listening Strategies Delivered in L1: An Experimental Study

    Bozorgian, Hossein; Pillay, Hitendra

    2013-01-01

    Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian) and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies:…

  20. Genre and Second-Language Academic Writing

    Paltridge, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…

  1. Using Wordles to Teach Foreign Language Writing

    Baralt, Melissa; Pennestri, Susan; Selvandin, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces readers to Wordle, a data visualization tool, and describes how word clouds, or wordles generated by Wordle, were used in an action research project designed to facilitate the teaching of foreign language (FL) writing within a dual coding theoretical framework. Over the course of one semester, students in a third-semester…

  2. Activation Patterns throughout the Word Processing Network of L1-dominant Bilinguals Reflect Language Similarity and Language Decisions.

    Oganian, Yulia; Conrad, Markus; Aryani, Arash; Spalek, Katharina; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2015-11-01

    A crucial aspect of bilingual communication is the ability to identify the language of an input. Yet, the neural and cognitive basis of this ability is largely unknown. Moreover, it cannot be easily incorporated into neuronal models of bilingualism, which posit that bilinguals rely on the same neural substrates for both languages and concurrently activate them even in monolingual settings. Here we hypothesized that bilinguals can employ language-specific sublexical (bigram frequency) and lexical (orthographic neighborhood size) statistics for language recognition. Moreover, we investigated the neural networks representing language-specific statistics and hypothesized that language identity is encoded in distributed activation patterns within these networks. To this end, German-English bilinguals made speeded language decisions on visually presented pseudowords during fMRI. Language attribution followed lexical neighborhood sizes both in first (L1) and second (L2) language. RTs revealed an overall tuning to L1 bigram statistics. Neuroimaging results demonstrated tuning to L1 statistics at sublexical (occipital lobe) and phonological (temporoparietal lobe) levels, whereas neural activation in the angular gyri reflected sensitivity to lexical similarity to both languages. Analysis of distributed activation patterns reflected language attribution as early as in the ventral stream of visual processing. We conclude that in language-ambiguous contexts visual word processing is dominated by L1 statistical structure at sublexical orthographic and phonological levels, whereas lexical search is determined by the structure of both languages. Moreover, our results demonstrate that language identity modulates distributed activation patterns throughout the reading network, providing a key to language identity representations within this shared network. PMID:26226076

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Use of the First Language (L1) in French Foreign Language (FL) Classes

    White, Erin; Storch, Neomy

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated teachers' use of the first language (L1) in two French foreign language (FL) intermediate level classes at two Australian universities. A native French-speaking teacher (NS) and a non-native French-speaking teacher (NNS) were observed and audio-recorded approximately every two weeks over a 12- week semester.…

  4. Tracing the Culture behind Writing: Rhetorical Patterns and Bidirectional Transfer in L1 and L2 Essays of Turkish Writers in Relation to Educational Context

    Uysal, Hacer Hande

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether writers from shared cultural backgrounds display common writing patterns in their texts and whether these patterns differ while writing in L1 versus L2. The study explored the presence and bidirectional transfer of rhetorical patterns in eighteen Turkish participants' writing in relation to previous writing instructional…

  5. The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency.

    Bergmann, Christopher; Sprenger, Simone A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-10-01

    Fluent speech depends on the availability of well-established linguistic knowledge and routines for speech planning and articulation. A lack of speech fluency in late second-language (L2) learners may point to a deficiency of these representations, due to incomplete acquisition. Experiments on bilingual language processing have shown, however, that there are strong reasons to believe that multilingual speakers experience co-activation of the languages they speak. We have studied to what degree language co-activation affects fluency in the speech of bilinguals, comparing a monolingual German control group with two bilingual groups: 1) first-language (L1) attriters, who have fully acquired German before emigrating to an L2 English environment, and 2) immersed L2 learners of German (L1: English). We have analysed the temporal fluency and the incidence of disfluency markers (pauses, repetitions and self-corrections) in spontaneous film retellings. Our findings show that learners to speak more slowly than controls and attriters. Also, on each count, the speech of at least one of the bilingual groups contains more disfluency markers than the retellings of the control group. Generally speaking, both bilingual groups-learners and attriters-are equally (dis)fluent and significantly more disfluent than the monolingual speakers. Given that the L1 attriters are unaffected by incomplete acquisition, we interpret these findings as evidence for language competition during speech production. PMID:26298087

  6. Beliefs and Practices about Writing in a Foreign Language among Economists Working in Two Languages

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    publishability. Simultaneously language-policy scholars have problematised the predominance of English in many academic fields. There is of course a great deal of individual variation in terms of language choice and publication success. We investigated the writing practices of some 75 Danish academics in various......Product-oriented analyses have shown that academic English (the predominant L2 in their environment: Phillipson and Skuttnab-Kongas 1995) written by Scandinavian writers differs from that of L1 English writers in ways that might work to the disadvantage of the writers in terms of recognition or...... fields of economics and business studies by means of a questionnaire, and then interviewed a proportion of the respondents to get a richer sense of their practices, the intertextuality that lies behind them, the factors that lead to differential language choice and success, and the academics´ attitude to...

  7. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  8. Enhancing Foreign Language Learning through Listening Strategies Delivered in L1: An Experimental Study

    Hitendra Pillay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female participants came from two EFL classrooms in an English language institute. The experimental class (n = 30 who listened to their classroom activities performed better (t value = 10.083 than the control class using a methodology that led learners through five listening strategies in Persian. The same teacher taught the students in the control class (n = 30, who listened to the same classroom listening activities without any of the above listening strategies. A pre and post listening test made by a group of experts in the language institute assessed the effect of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1. Results gathered on the post intervention listening test revealed that listening strategies delivered in L1 led to a statistically significant improvement in their discrete listening scores compared with the control group.

  9. Developing Speaking and Writing Skills of L1 Arabic EFL Learners through Teaching of IPA Phonetic Codes

    Hussam Rajab

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the development of speaking and writing skills of L1 Arabic EFL learners based on their level of perception and understanding of phonetic transcriptions through visualisation of letter-to-symbol representations using the International Phonetic Alphabet (henceforth IPA). The participants were 169 University-level Preparatory Year Program (PYP) male Saudi EFL students. The study was carried out as a pedagogical approach to improve university first year studen...

  10. Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?

    Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

  11. Promises and Obstacles of L1 Use in Language Classrooms: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Ghobadi, Mehdi; Ghasemi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Translation and language teaching techniques which take language learners' first language (L1) as point of reference for teaching the second language (L2) have been long discouraged on the ground that these teaching techniques would end in the fossilization of L2 structure forms in the learner's Interlanguage system. However, in recent years, the…

  12. Using Arabic (L1) in testing reading comprehension in English (L2) as a foreign language

    Al-Qudairy, Abdullah H. A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using Arabic (L1) as a language of questions and answers in testing reading comprehension in English (L2), and to explore student and teacher opinions about this. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. To collect the quantitative data, one hundred and forty-four students were given a reading comprehension test. Both multiple-choice and short-answer questions were used. The subjects were second-year English departm...

  13. Contextualizing Corrective Feedback in Second Language Writing Pedagogy

    Evans, Norman W.; Hartshorn, K. James; McCollum, Robb M.; Wolfersberger, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Although effective writing skills are vital to the success of university-level students, second language (L2) writers face unique challenges in developing these skills. This is particularly relevant to their ability to produce writing that is linguistically accurate. While many writing teachers feel a great commitment to these students, much of…

  14. FOR A DEFINITION OF THE TEACHING/LEARNING OF WRITING IN L1: RESEARCH AND ACTION

    LUÍSA ÁLVARES PEREIRA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available With this article we hope to contribute towards the definition of the field of the Didactics ofWriting in Portugal, an area which has been developing, essentially, since the mid 90s, in order to defineboth the problems surrounding research in this area, as well as the contents used in the teaching and learningof writing which result from the former. It is not our objective to go into detail concerning the state ofthe art in this field in Portugal; our purpose is to present the main perspectives which have emergedthroughout recent years, defining an area which is currently beginning to show signs of greater definition.Thus, we shall attempt to provide some answers to the following research questions: what context encouragedthe emergence of this area of study, how has the configuration of this field been perceived, whattheoretical references sustain the empirical research underlying this development? In order to answerthese research questions, three analysis axes were considered which, from our viewpoint, aggregate theresearch themes within the Didactics of Writing. In the first analysis axis, the objective is to present a setof findings centred on the processes underlying students’ activity of writing texts, focusing more specificallyon the development of textual revision competence. In the second analysis axis, the aim is to validatethe emergence of a research line which is pertinent to the Didactics of Writing, focusing on the relevanceof teachers and students’ relationship with writing. In the third analysis axis, we present an illustrativelayout of a research line which demonstrates the relevance of understanding the teacher’s actionwhen working with text genres. Subsequently, we shall demonstrate the way in which these three axescan configure a referential in the definition of a global teaching and learning model for writing, capable ofproviding guidelines for classroom action. Finally, we shall discuss some research directions which sustainthe validity of this model.

  15. ¿Duermes mucho Tony? Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom

    Higareda Sandra; López Georgina; Mugford Gerrard

    2009-01-01

    Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1) in English Language Teaching (elt ), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations o...

  16. ¿duermes mucho tony? interpersonal and transactional uses of l1 in the foreign-language classroom

    Higareda, Sandra; López, Georgina; Mugford, Gerrard

    2009-01-01

    Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1) in English Language Teaching (elt ), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of ...

  17. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  18. A Systemic-Functional Analysis of English Language Learners' Writing

    Luciana C Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a systemic-functional linguistic analysis of two writing samples of the University of California Analytical Writing Placement (AWP) Examination written by English language learners (ELLs). The analysis shows the linguistic features utilized in the two writing samples, one that received a passing score and one that received a failing score. The article describes some of the grammatical resources which are functional for expository writing, which are divided under three ma...

  19. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  20. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  1. CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC WRITING: A STUDY OF HUNGARIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS L1 ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAYS

    Ágnes M. Godó

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the findings and implications of a contrastive rhetorical study of Hungarian and North American college students’ L1 argumentative writing. With the help of the refined version of Mann &Thompson’s Rhetorical Structure Analysis, the investigation highlights potentially culture-bound differences in the positioning and function of nuclear or thesis statements, logical organisation in terms of rhetorical structure relations on different levels of text and the representation of alternative viewpoints. Differing argumentative schemata are related to different underlying intellectual traditions, and suggestions are made for the pedagogical integration of findings.

  2. Teachers’ and students’ amount and purpose of L1 use: English as foreign language (EFL) classrooms in Iran

    Hossein Bozorgian; Sediqe Fallahpour

    2015-01-01

    A surge of interest in using First Language (L1) in English as Second/Foreign Language (L2/EFL) learning has recently been developed. Despite this upsurge, the concern about using L1 by teachers and students in L2/EFL classrooms is still important for researchers to consider in the field. The focus of this study is to investigate the amount and purposes of L1 use in EFL classrooms by teachers and students in two English language institutes in Iran. Responding to the research questions on the ...

  3. Collaborative Writing: Fostering Foreign Language and Writing Conventions Development

    Elola Idoia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of social technologies, such as wikis and chats, has brought a renewed attention to L2 collaborative writing. Yet, a question that still remains to be answered is the extent to which learners’ writing is enhanced when using these tools. By analyzing learners’ individual and collaborative writing, this study (a explores L2 learners’ approaches to the writing task in the wikis, (b examines learners’ collaborative synchronous interactions when discussing content, structure and other aspects related to the elaboration of the writing task, and (c describes learners’ perceptions of individual and collaborative writing and their impressions of the use of social tools in the FL writing class. Analysis of the data showed that while statistically significant differences were not evident in terms of fluency, accuracy and complexity when comparing the individual and collaborative assignments, there were observable trends that inform us about how learners’ interactions with the text differ when working individually or collaboratively. Further, an analysis of learners’ approaches to collaborative writing through the use of social tools shows that wikis and chats allowed them to concentrate on writing components in a different, yet complementary, manner depending on whether they interacted in the wikis or in the chats.

  4. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  5. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  6. Personal Narratives: A Pedagogical Proposal to Stimulate Language Students’ Writing

    Fredy Orlando Salamanca González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a public university in Tunja (Colombia, undergraduate language students mentioned that writing was important and yet, they kept at a distance from it due to its requirements. The aim of this pedagogical intervention was to find a strategy to encourage students to write and, more importantly, to feel an identity with their texts. For this pedagogical intervention, students were required to write narratives that allowed them to portray their experiences using the target language and to look for the most accurate words and descriptions. From a pedagogical perspective, writing the narratives provided the teacher with the possibility of knowing his students better and to feel an affiliation towards them.

  7. Second Language Writing System Word Recognition (with a focus on Lao

    Christine Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning a second language (L2 with a script different from the learner’s first language (L1 presents unique challenges for both student and teacher. This paper looks at current theory and research examining issues of second language writing system (L2WS acquisition, particularly issues pertaining to decoding and word recognition1 by adult learners. I argue that the importance of word recognition and decoding in fluent L1 and L2 reading has been overshadowed for several decades by a focus on research looking at top-down reading processes. Although top-down reading processes and strategies are clearly components of successful L2 reading, I argue that more attention needs to be given to bottom-up processing skills, particularly for beginning learners of an L2 that uses a script that is different from their L1. I use the example of learning Lao as a second language writing system where possible and suggest preliminary pedagogical implications.

  8. The Second Language Acquisition of Past Tense Marker in English by L1 Speakers of Chinese

    Sharon Sharmini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is considered the L2 acquisition and underlying of past tense marker, focusing on whether or not L2 learners of English are successful in associating the grammatical properties with Chinese language. Although the dataset is small, the results showed that Chinese speakers are able to acquire the past-tense marker although Chinese language has none of this feature. The L1 Chinese speakers are able to acquire the regular past-tense marker better co mpared to the irregular form.
    Keywords: Second language acquisition; Past tense marker; L1 Chinese speakers; Irregular form
    Résumé: Cet article étudie l'acquisition d’une deuxième langue, et en particulier l’apprentissage du passé, en se concentrant sur le fait si les apprenants de l'anglais pouvaient réussir à associer les propriétés grammaticales de la langue anglaise avec la langue chinoise. Bien que l'ensemble des données est faible, les résultats montrent que les locuteurs du chinois sont capable de maîtriser le passé, même si la langue chinoise n'a pas cette fonctionnalité. Les locuteurs du chinois maîtrise mieux le passé en forme régulière par rapport en forme irrégulière.
    Mots-Clés: acquisition d’une deuxième langue; temps passér; les locuteurs du chinois; forme irrégulière

  9. Writing between languages how English language learners make the transition to fluency, grades 4-12

    Fu, Danling

    2009-01-01

    With Writing Between Languages, Danling Fu shows that by beginning with the literacy students bring from their native language and putting writing at the center of the curriculum, we can help them transition to English and support academic literacy. You'll learn the crucial and helpful role native literacy plays in building written English fluency, assess where ELLs are in their development as writers, use movement between languages to scaffold writing-no matter whether you know a student's home language-and implement instructional strategies to support development in writing.

  10. Panel: Opportunities and Challenges of Writing in a Second Language

    Kupatadze, Ketevan; Chiu, Scott C.; Cozart, Stacey Marie; Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte

    in achieving their goals as second/foreign language writers, and transferring their academic writing skills from one language into another, or from one context to another? Method: Through surveys, questionnaires, students feedback and analysis of students writing, the panel participants will look at...... Doctoral Students’ Experiences with Writing in L2 English Abstract: The paper focuses on how Danish doctoral students experience and handle the processes and expectations associated with academic writing in L2 English and how they are addressed as a theme in supervision. It will consider how the various...... challenges faced by these graduate students not only influence the transfer of writing skills, but also contribute to complicating their perceptions of themselves as academic writers and apprentice members of their academic communities. Paper (2): (Im)possibilities of Transferring Writing Skills Through...

  11. Effects of sentence writing in second language lexical acquisition

    Barcroft, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the effects of writing new words in sentences with word picture repetition learning alone. Second language (L2) Spanish learners attempted to learn 24 new Spanish words in one of two conditions while viewing word picture pairs. In Experiment 1, in the no sentence writing condition, the participants viewed 4 repetitions of each word for 6 seconds each. In the sentence writing con...

  12. Drawing to Support Writing Development in English Language Learners

    Adoniou, Misty

    2013-01-01

    Writing is the dominant mode through which most learning and assessment is mediated in schools. It is through writing that learners are most often asked to demonstrate their understanding of learned concepts and share their understandings of these concepts. If English language learners are to succeed in English medium schools, they must become…

  13. Second language writing development in childhood: a case study

    Serrano, Raquel; Howard, Elizabeth R..

    2004-01-01

    Whereas most research on child second language acquisition has focused on the oral production of children, studies are needed to show their initial writing development in a second language. This paper aims to shed some light on this process, focusing on the English writing development of a native Spanish speaker enrolled in a two-way immersion program in the United States. Data for this presentation come from a longitudinal, national study which involves 484 students in 11 programs across the...

  14. Perceptions of Non-Native EFL Teachers' on L1 Use in L2 Classrooms: Implications for Language Program Development

    Debreli, Emre

    2016-01-01

    The study of L1 (first language) use in L2 (second language) classrooms has long received attention in the literature. Despite the considerable amount of research that has been conducted on the phenomenon, the focus has often been on the advantages and disadvantages. Considerably, less research has been conducted regarding the non-native L2…

  15. Do L1 Reading Achievement and L1 Print Exposure Contribute to the Prediction of L2 Proficiency?

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The study examined whether individual differences in high school first language (L1) reading achievement and print exposure would account for unique variance in second language (L2) written (word decoding, spelling, writing, reading comprehension) and oral (listening/speaking) proficiency after adjusting for the effects of early L1 literacy and…

  16. Do L1 Reading Achievement and L1 Print Exposure Contribute to the Prediction of L2 Proficiency?

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The study examined whether individual differences in high school first language (L1) reading achievement and print exposure would account for unique variance in second language (L2) written (word decoding, spelling, writing, reading comprehension) and oral (listening/speaking) proficiency after adjusting for the effects of early L1 literacy and…

  17. Preparing Language Teachers for Blended Teaching of Summary Writing

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Research on preparing language teachers for blended teaching of summary writing, a mix of on-site and online instruction for college students to grasp the gist of the texts, is scarce in higher education. This study examined the problems encountered and solutions proposed by six language teachers, who altogether instructed 214 college students on…

  18. Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

  19. Preparing Language Teachers for Blended Teaching of Summary Writing

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Research on preparing language teachers for blended teaching of summary writing, a mix of on-site and online instruction for college students to grasp the gist of the texts, is scarce in higher education. This study examined the problems encountered and solutions proposed by six language teachers, who altogether instructed 214 college students on…

  20. Teachers' attitudes towards (the alignment between) grammar in the L1 language curricula of primary and secondary education

    Devos, Filip; Van Vooren, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Dutch grammar education (L1) in Flemish primary (PE) as well as secondary education (SE) has been the subject of much debate. Research into the grammatical knowledge of students in SE (n=359) suggests that this expertise falls short of the final attainment targets. Additional research now tries to pinpoint the reasons underlying this trend, focusing on the attitude of teachers, which is an 'understudied' aspect of language teaching. This research, centring around L1 t...

  1. Writing Strategy Instruction: Its Impact on Writing in a Second Language for Academic Purposes

    De Silva, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Writing for academic purposes in a second/foreign language is a major challenge faced by many students at both secondary and tertiary levels. This suggests that displaying content knowledge and understanding of a subject through a second language is a very complex process. This article discusses the findings of a longitudinal intervention study…

  2. A Suggested Syllabus for Advanced Writing Skills at English Language Teaching Departments

    Altay, Ismail Firat

    2010-01-01

    As is known, writing is an indispensable part of language education. As far as English Language Teaching Departments are concerned, writing courses, especially Advanced Writing Skills, are taken as a course of higher importance. However, forming a syllabus for Advanced Writing Course for English Language Teaching Departments is not an easy matter.…

  3. A Suggested Syllabus for Advanced Writing Skills at English Language Teaching Departments

    Altay, Ismail Firat

    2010-01-01

    As is known, writing is an indispensable part of language education. As far as English Language Teaching Departments are concerned, writing courses, especially Advanced Writing Skills, are taken as a course of higher importance. However, forming a syllabus for Advanced Writing Course for English Language Teaching Departments is not an easy matter.…

  4. LEXICAL RETRIEVAL PROCESSES AND STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A SYNTHESIS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

    Rosa M. Manchon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lexical access and retrieval are essential processes in fluent and efficient second language (L2 oral and written productive uses of language. In the case of L2 writing, attention to vocabulary is of paramount importance, although the retrieval of relevant lexis while composing in an L2 frequently entails different degrees of problem-solving activity given the lack of (automatic access to the necessary linguistic resources characteristic of L2 communication. When engaged in this problem-solving behaviour, L2 writers have been reported to deploy a range of L1-based and L2-based lexical retrieval strategies. After situating lexical retrieval processes in cognitive views of written production, the main part of this paper is devoted to a review of the available empirical evidence on lexical retrieval processes and strategies in L2 writing. The paper finishes with some conclusions at the levels of theory and research.

  5. Teachers’ and students’ amount and purpose of L1 use: English as foreign language (EFL classrooms in Iran

    Hossein Bozorgian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A surge of interest in using First Language (L1 in English as Second/Foreign Language (L2/EFL learning has recently been developed. Despite this upsurge, the concern about using L1 by teachers and students in L2/EFL classrooms is still important for researchers to consider in the field. The focus of this study is to investigate the amount and purposes of L1 use in EFL classrooms by teachers and students in two English language institutes in Iran. Responding to the research questions on the amount and purpose of L1 use, the researchers collected the data for 12 sessions (a 90-minute class from six male and female EFL teachers aged from 25 to 30 and 155 students 19 to 25 years of age whose pre-intermediate classes were video recorded for two sessions. The findings revealed that the EFL teachers used a limited amount of L1 in the EFL classrooms though they still used it as an aid for a variety of purposes in order to improve their teaching purposes and the students’ learning. The findings also indicated that using L1 facilitates students’ learning in EFL classrooms, and it should not be excluded from the classroom syllabi or considered an evil in EFL classrooms.

  6. Comparing Factors Related to Reading Comprehension in Adolescents Who Speak English as a First (L1) or Second (L2) Language

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Gottardo, Alexandra; Grant, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors related to reading comprehension in adolescents who spoke English as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Measures of decoding, vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension were administered to 31 L1 and 44 L2 speakers. English L2 adolescents scored significantly lower than their L1 peers on…

  7. Cross-linguistic influence in multilingual language acquisition: The role of L1 and non-native languages in English and Catalan oral production

    Mireia Ortega

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2 status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1 in cross-linguistic influence (CLI. This paper presents a study of these factors, and of the influence that the L1 (Spanish has on L2 (English and L3 (Catalan oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.

  8. Impacts of Online Technology Use in Second Language Writing: A Review of the Literature

    Lin, Show Mei; Griffith, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on computer-supported collaborative learning in second language and foreign language writing. While research has been conducted on the effects of online technology in first language reading and writing, this article explores how online technology affects second and foreign language writing. The goal of this…

  9. An L1-script-transfer-effect fallacy: a rejoinder to Wang et al. (2003).

    Yamada, Jun

    2004-09-01

    Do different L1 (first language) writing systems differentially affect word identification in English as a second language (ESL)? Wang, Koda, and Perfetti [Cognition 87 (2003) 129] answered yes by examining Chinese students with a logographic L1 background and Korean students with an alphabetic L1 background for their phonological and orthographic processing skills on English word identification. Such a conclusion is premature, however. We propose that the L1 phonological system (rather than the L1 writing system) of the learner largely accounts for cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2). PMID:15147932

  10. Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Learners’ Argumentative Writing Performance in Private Language Institutes

    Vahid Nimehchisalem; Masoud Machinchi Abbasi; Amirtohid Ebrahimzadeh; Seyed Ali Rezvani Kalajahi

    2015-01-01

    Literature on Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ problems in their writing skills is lacking.The present study analyzes a group of Iranian EFL students' written samples to diagnose their main area(s) ofdifficulty in writing argumentative essays. For this purpose, a sample of 69 argumentative essays was collected.Two raters used an analytic argumentative writing scale to score the samples. Based on the scores assigned to theirwritten samples, majority of these students indic...

  11. The Interactional Approach to the Teaching of Writing and Its Implications for Second Language Acquisition

    Lies Amin Lestari

    2008-01-01

    Writing is a language skill which is relatively difficult to acquire. A number of efforts have been made to develop the students' writing skill, among others is by applying different approaches to the teaching of writing. This article discusses the interactional approach to the teaching of writing and its implications for second language acquisition.  

  12. Meaningful Literacy: Writing Poetry in the Language Classroom

    Hanauer, David I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of meaningful literacy and offers a classroom methodology--poetry writing--that manifests this approach to ESL/EFL literacy instruction. The paper is divided into three sections. The first deals with the concept of meaningful literacy learning in second and foreign language pedagogy; the second summarizes empirical…

  13. Language Simulations: The Blending Space for Writing and Critical Thinking

    Kovalik, Doina L.; Kovalik, Ludovic M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a language simulation involving six distinct phases: an in-class quick response, a card game, individual research, a classroom debate, a debriefing session, and an argumentative essay. An analysis of student artifacts--quick-response writings and final essays, respectively, both addressing the definition of liberty in a…

  14. Meaningful Literacy: Writing Poetry in the Language Classroom

    Hanauer, David I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of meaningful literacy and offers a classroom methodology--poetry writing--that manifests this approach to ESL/EFL literacy instruction. The paper is divided into three sections. The first deals with the concept of meaningful literacy learning in second and foreign language pedagogy; the second summarizes empirical…

  15. The Acquisition of Chinese as a third language by Japanese L1/English L2 speakers

    Di, Danqi

    2005-01-01

    The role of language transfer in second language acquisition has long been the focus in the study of cross-linguistic influence. Much has been written about how the learner’s existing linguistic knowledge influences the course of second language development. In the last decade, however, there have been a considerable number of books and journal articles dealing with a relatively under-explored field: the role of language transfer during third language acquisition. The question ...

  16. Mastering Academic Language: Organization and Stance in the Persuasive Writing of High School Students

    Uccelli, Paola; Dobbs, Christina L.; Scott, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Beyond mechanics and spelling conventions, academic writing requires progressive mastery of advanced language forms and functions. Pedagogically useful tools to assess such language features in adolescents' writing, however, are not yet available. This study examines language predictors of writing quality in 51 persuasive essays produced by high…

  17. Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals

    George M. Jacobs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on doing the actual writing. Here, it is suggested that we connect ideas, delve deeply into the ideas we present, strive to write the reader friendly manner, use visuals, and improve our writing by noticing how other journal authors write. The third section concerns relations with editors. The advice given is that we choose carefully the journal to which we submit our work, follow that journal's directions to contributors, include a cover letter, be prepared to wait patiently, welcome critical feedback from editors and reviewers, and view editors as colleagues.

  18. Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language

    Albrechtsen, Dorte; Haastrup, Kirsten; Henriksen, Birgit

    , they had to undertake the same tasks even though they were of very different experience, ranging from young children at school to university students. Three areas of learners' competencies and skills were explored: vocabulary knowledge, word guessing strategies and writing. The authors further explore......Book description: Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language is based on a large-scale empirical study. The innovative feature of the research was that the same students were asked to do the same tasks in both languages while reporting their thinking as they went along. Furthermore...... the relationship between the skills and describe the level of development for individual learners within the three areas. In all cases, statistical and qualitative analyses are offered, the latter being based on the learners' own 'think-aloud' reports. Both researchers and teachers of language will...

  19. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  20. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  1. Wikipedia Writing as Praxis: Computer-Mediated Socialization of Second-Language Writers

    King, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the writing of Wikipedia articles as a form of authentic writing for learners of English in Hong Kong. Adopting "Second Language Socialization and Language Learning & Identity" approaches to language learning inquiry, it responds to an identified shortage of research on computer-mediated language socialization.…

  2. Chinese University EFL Learners’ Foreign Language Writing Anxiety: Pattern, Effect and Causes

    Meihua Liu; Huiliuqian Ni

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners’ foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that 1) FLWAS had three principal components—low confidence in English writing (FLWAS1), dislike of English writing (FLW...

  3. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish:Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition (SLA). Where the first studies mostly focussed on the influence of the L1 on the L2, later studies showed that the opposite is also possible, making linguistic transfer a bi-directional phenomenon...

  4. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish: Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition (SLA). Where the first studies mostly focussed on the influence of the L1 on the L2, later studies showed that the opposite is also possible, making linguistic transfer a bi-directional phenomenon...

  5. How Much L1 Is Too Much? Teachers' Language Use in Response to Students' Abilities and Classroom Interaction in Content and Language Integrated Learning

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2015-01-01

    In Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms where students' L2 proficiency has not reached the threshold level, teachers have been observed to use L1 to assist students in grasping specific technical terms and abstract concepts. It is argued to be a 'realistic' approach to the learning problems caused by students' limited L2…

  6. Error Analysis and Second Language Writing

    Ali Akbar Khansir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare and examine types of written errors by EFL and ESL learners at under graduate level in English Language and suggest remedial measures to overcome the committing of errors. The data for the study were 200 students in the age range of 20 to24 at under graduate level in Mysore, India as ESL learners and Bushehr, Iran as EFL learners participated in this study. The results of the study indicate that the total number of errors committed by the Iranian student...

  7. Measuring and assessing the development of foreign language writing competence

    Haan, Pieter de,; Esch, Kees van

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of writing skills of Dutch students of English and Spanish as foreign languages. Essays written in three consecutive years were analyzed for essay length, word length, and type/token ratio ??? reflecting linguistic competence. A selection of essays was analyzed for argument structure and the use of cohesive devices. These same essays were ranked holistically by experienced lecturers. Students develop linguistic and discourse competences, but...

  8. The Relations between Word Reading, Oral Language, and Reading Comprehension in Children Who Speak English as a First (L1) and Second Language (L2): A Multigroup Structural Analysis

    Babayigit, Selma

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the reading and oral language skills of children who speak English as a first (L1) and second language (L2), and examined whether the strength of the relationship between word reading, oral language, and reading comprehension was invariant (equivalent) across the two groups. The participants included 183 L1 and L2 children…

  9. Using a Genre-Based Approach for Writing Instruction in a Less-Commonly-Taught Language

    Yigitoglu, Nur; Reichelt, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Although a great majority of the L2 writing literature focuses on teaching English-language writing, scholars have begun to explore the teaching of writing in other second and foreign languages (FLs), including French, Spanish, German, Arabic, Japanese, and Chinese. However, to our knowledge, no work exists exploring the exigencies of teaching…

  10. Success with ELLs: We Are All Writers! Building Second Language Writing Skills in the ELA Classroom

    DelliCarpini, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Writing effectively in a second language can be one of the most challenging tasks second language learners must undertake and master. English teachers are in a good position to implement the types of supports that can move ELLs toward success in academic writing by providing exposure to and practice with different genres of academic writing

  11. Chinese University EFL Learners' Foreign Language Writing Anxiety: Pattern, Effect and Causes

    Liu, Meihua; Ni, Huiliuqian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners' foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured…

  12. Creative Writing Assignments in a Second Language Course: A Way to Engage Less Motivated Students

    Arshavskaya, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for using creative writing in a second language course. Creative writing increases students' enthusiasm for writing skills development and supports students' creativity, which is a fundamental aspect of education. In order to engage less motivated students, a series of creative writing assignments was implemented in a…

  13. INVESTIGATING THE CASE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE USERS PRESERVING THEIR L1 ACCENT WITH REGARD TO GENDER

    Masood ESTEKI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A ubiquitous phenomenon observed in the oral performance of foreign learners of English throughout different settings is speaking the L2 with some sort of accentuated articulation. The importance of accent, the emphasis being here on speaking English with a standard accent, is often neglected by those teachers who deemphasize its role in the whole process of learning a foreign/second language. Thus, the present study concerns language learners’ perception of their own accent and the consequences of speaking with an exotic accent. In this vein, the two variables of gender and the proficiency level of the learners were taken into account. To this aim, data were collected from thirty language learners of both sexes studying at the advanced level of proficiency in a Language Institute of Khomeiny Shahr. The results of a data analysis done after conducting an interview with the subjects alongside assessing the results of a questionnaire indicate that the female subjects preoccupation due to the hampering effects of their foreign accent while speaking in L2 is more than their male counterparts. It was also found that when they were asked if they are being assessed differently by their peers or language learners in the institutes of Isfahan City, over two thirds answered yes.

  14. Rhetorical Meta-Language to Promote the Development of Students' Writing Skills and Subject Matter Understanding

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language--a meta-language--for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and…

  15. Second Language Acquisition of Reflexive Verbs in Russian by L1 Speakers of English

    Alexieva, Petia Dimitrova

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the process of acquisition of semantic classes of reflexive verbs (RVs) in Russian by L2 learners with a native language English. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between current linguistic knowledge and the pedagogical literature existing in English on reflexives in Russian. RVs are taught partially and…

  16. A Systemic-Functional Analysis of English Language Learners' Writing

    Luciana C. DE OLIVEIRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a systemic-functional linguistic analysis of two writing samples of the University of California Analytical Writing Placement (AWP Examination written by English language learners (ELLs. The analysis shows the linguistic features utilized in the two writing samples, one that received a passing score and one that received a failing score. The article describes some of the grammatical resources which are functional for expository writing, which are divided under three main categories: textual, interpersonal, and ideational resources. Following this brief description is the analysis of both essays in terms of these resources.. The configuration of grammatical features used in the essays make up the detached style of essay 1 and the more personal style of essay 2. These grammatical features include the textual resources of thematic choices and development, clause-combining strategies (connectors, and lexical cohesion; interpersonal resources of interpersonal metaphors of modality; and ideational resources of nominalization and abstractions as ideational metaphors. Implications for educational practice and recommendations for educators based on the analysis are provided.

  17. INTEGRATING THEORY AND PRACTICE Learning to teach L1 language and literature

    Klaas van Veen; Piet-Hein van de Ven

    2008-01-01

    Against the background of the central dilemma in teacher education of the relationship between theory and practice, this article presents a teacher education approach that strongly emphasizes the use of theory in learning to teach, on the assumption that teaching is also an intellectual activity, and not simply 'practice'. We take the subject pedagogy, in this case of Dutch language and literature, as a starting point for our approach to teacher education, in an effort to align it as closely ...

  18. EFL Learners’ L1 Conceptual Transfer and Its Relation to Their Language Proficiency and Age

    Abbas Bagherian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to scrutinize the possibility and extent of transfer at the level of concepts in parity and internal content based on Jarvis’ (2007 framework among Iranian EFL learners having the following in focus:  concepts in Persian that do not have counterparts in English, concepts that are broader than a corresponding concept in English or vice versa, and concepts in Persian and English that seem to be broadly equivalent but are still different. Also, it investigated to examine the role of the two learner-based variables of language proficiency and age in Iranian EFL learners’ possible conceptual transfer. To serve the purpose, the data were collected from 100 Iranian learners (70 females, 30 males studying English as a foreign language in an English Language School in Mobarakeh, Isfahan. With the data being submitted to statistical analyses, the findings revealed significant cases of conceptual transfer from Persian to English. It was also noticed that the participants’ level of English proficiency played a significant role in their transfer of concepts but their age did not.Keywords: cross linguistic influence, Conceptual Transfer Hypothesis (CTH, conceptual errors, concept transfer, conceptualization transfer

  19. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system. PMID:23055164

  20. Software Junctus: Joining Sign Language and Alphabetical Writing

    Valentini, Carla Beatris; Bisol, Cláudia A.; Dalla Santa, Cristiane

    The authors’ aim is to describe the workshops developed to test the use of an authorship program that allows the simultaneous use of sign language and alphabetical writing. The workshops were prepared and conducted by a Computer Science undergraduate, with the support of the Program of Students’ Integration and Mediation (Programa de Integração e Mediação do Acadêmico - PIMA) at the University of Caxias do Sul. Two sign language interpreters, two deaf students and one hearing student, who also teach at a special school for the deaf, participated in the workshops. The main characteristics of the software and the development of the workshops are presented with examples of educational projects created during their development. Possible improvements are also outlined.

  1. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to…

  2. Emergent Name-Writing Abilities of Preschool-Age Children with Language Impairment

    Cabell, Sonia Q.; Justice, Laura M.; Zucker, Tricia A.; McGinty, Anita S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The 2 studies reported in this manuscript collectively address 3 aims: (a) to characterize the name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment (LI), (b) to identify those emergent literacy skills that are concurrently associated with name-writing abilities, and (c) to compare the name-writing abilities of…

  3. How Can the Use of Blog Software Facilitate the Writing Process of English Language Learners?

    Arslan, Recep S.; Sahin-Kizil, Aysel

    2010-01-01

    Blog use may offer instructors a helpful tool for teaching writing at the tertiary level in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) classrooms. This article reports on a quasi-experimental study regarding the effect of blog-centered writing instruction on students' writing performance. Fifty intermediate English students at a Turkish…

  4. Longitudinal Relations between Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Language and Literacy Skills

    Skibbe, Lori E.; Bindman, Samantha W.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental writing support was examined over time and in relation to children's language and literacy skills. Seventy-seven parents and their preschoolers were videotaped writing an invitation together twice during one year. Parental writing support was coded at the level of the letter to document parents' graphophonemic support…

  5. An Automated Essay-Evaluation Corpus of English as a Foreign Language Writing

    Jiang, Yaoyi

    2015-01-01

    The Report of Chinese Students' English Writing Ability (2014) focuses on the Chinese students' English writing in the automated essay-evaluation context. The data and samples are primarily from a national-wide writing project involving 300,814 English as a Foreign Language participants from 452 schools in China during a period of April 10 to May…

  6. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Writing and Their Relations to Language and Reading

    Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement--Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and…

  7. Mediation Strategies in L2 Writing Processes: A Case Study of Two Korean Language Learners

    Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…

  8. Integrated Reading and Writing: A Case of Korean English Language Learners

    Cho, Hyonsuk; Brutt-Griffler, Janina

    2015-01-01

    This study reports Korean English language learners' perceived needs concerning their learning of reading and writing and how the integrated reading and writing instruction impacts their reading comprehension and summary-writing abilities. The study also delineates teacher's challenges faced during the instruction. A total of 93 students in a…

  9. An Automated Essay-Evaluation Corpus of English as a Foreign Language Writing

    Jiang, Yaoyi

    2015-01-01

    The Report of Chinese Students' English Writing Ability (2014) focuses on the Chinese students' English writing in the automated essay-evaluation context. The data and samples are primarily from a national-wide writing project involving 300,814 English as a Foreign Language participants from 452 schools in China during a period of April 10 to May…

  10. Second Language Learners' Performance and Strategies When Writing Direct and Translated Essays

    Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed; Alsheikh, Negmeldin Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL students' performance and strategies when writing direct and translated essays. The study also aimed at exploring students' strategies when writing in L2 (English) and L1 (Arabic). The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative procedures for data collection and analysis. Adapted strategy…

  11. Learning-by-Observation in English as a Second Language Writing Education

    Krooshof, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    The development of writing skills in the English language is important in English proficiency programmes at Dutch secondary schools. This thesis studies the didactic method known as learning-by-observation and its effectiveness in the teaching of writing at the beginners’ level of English as a second language.

  12. The Influence of Process Approach on English as Second Language Students' Performances in Essay Writing

    Akinwamide, Timothy Kolade

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students' performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control…

  13. 37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.

    2010-07-01

    ... affecting § 1.52, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language, paper, writing... Processing Provisions The Application § 1.52 Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc...

  14. An Investigation into Metaphor Use at Different Levels of Second Language Writing

    Littlemore, Jeannette; Krennmayr, Tina; Turner, James; Turner, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in linguistics have shown that metaphor is ubiquitous. This has important consequences for language learners who need to use it appropriately in their speech and writing. This study aims to provide a preliminary measure of the amount and distribution of metaphor used by language learners in their writing across Common European…

  15. Dynamic Development of Complexity and Accuracy: A Case Study in Second Language Academic Writing

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of complexity and accuracy in English as a Second Language (ESL) academic writing. Although research into complexity and accuracy development in second language (L2) writing has been well established, few studies have assumed the multidimensionality of these two constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2009) or…

  16. A Practice-Oriented Definition of Post-Process Second Language Writing Theory

    Kalan, Amir

    2014-01-01

    This article is a synthesis of the scholarly literature on the post-process approach to teaching second language (L2) writing, particularly college and university composition in English as an additional language. This synthesis aims to offer a definition of post-process L2 writing that can readily lend itself to practice and be more accessible to…

  17. The Quality of Writing Tasks and Students' Use of Academic Language in Spanish

    Crosson, Amy C.; Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Correnti, Richard; Arlotta-Guerrero, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of the writing tasks assigned to native Spanish speakers in bilingual (Spanish-English) contexts, and the relationship between task quality and students' use of an academic register in their native language. Fifty-six language arts tasks were collected from 26 grade 4 and 5 teachers, and four student writing…

  18. Academic Vocabulary, Writing and English for Academic Purposes: Perspectives from Second Language Learners

    Coxhead, Averil

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on vocabulary and writing at university level from the perspectives of 14 English as an additional language students studying at a New Zealand university. The students individually carried out an integrated reading and writing task and then participated in an interview which focused on their language learning background and…

  19. Developing Second Language Writing through Scaffolding in the ZPD: A Magazine Project for an Authentic Audience

    Schwieter, John W.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, Vygotsky's (1978, 1986) sociocultural framework of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) and scaffolding writing (Bodrova & Leong, 1995, 1996; Ross, 1976) are used as the theoretical basis to study the development of second language writing. A course project is presented in which advanced English language learners of Spanish…

  20. Reading, Writing, and Animation in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…

  1. An Investigation into Metaphor Use at Different Levels of Second Language Writing

    Littlemore, Jeannette; Krennmayr, Tina; Turner, James; Turner, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in linguistics have shown that metaphor is ubiquitous. This has important consequences for language learners who need to use it appropriately in their speech and writing. This study aims to provide a preliminary measure of the amount and distribution of metaphor used by language learners in their writing across Common European…

  2. Reading, Writing, and Animation in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…

  3. Second Language Learners’ Performance and Strategies When Writing Direct and Translated Essays

    Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail; Negmeldin Omer Alsheikh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL students’ performance and strategies when writing direct and translated essays. The study also aimed at exploring students’ strategies when writing in L2 (English) and L1 (Arabic). The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative procedures for data collection and analysis. Adapted strategy questionnaires, writing essay prompts and follow-up questions were utilized for data gathering. Thirty six university students participated in writi...

  4. Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom. Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom.

    Madeleine Youmans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field. The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.

  5. CIA-CIA LANGUAGE: FROM THE ERA OF ORAL TO THE ERA OF WRITING

    Cho, Tae-Young

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe the background of Cia-Cia language society's adoption and use of Hangeul (Korean alphabet as its writing system that was begun in July 2009. The issue has caused Indonesian society and neighborhood countries curious, since Latin alphabet is world widely used as the most common writing system at present time. On the other side, the historical background of writing system's development which has been implemented sustainably through borrowing and adapting process proves that any writing system can also be used in other language society in the 21st century. Similar to that of the most of minority language societies, Cia-Cia language has not had its own writing system. The transcription of Hangeul in Cia-Cia language was begun to support the preservation of minority language. Concern to this issue, if the spoken language of Cia-Cia is stabilly continued, Hangeul will be known as one of the writing systems which has preserved Cia-Cia language in world's development of writing system history.

  6. Blog writing integration for academic language learning purposes: towards an assessment framework

    Liam Murray

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006, then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming. The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expression, reflection and language acquisition in mandatory blog writings by students at a Third Level Institution. Previously in this research, students were asked, but not required, to keep a personal blog for up to five months; writing only about their language learning strategies and experiences with the declared aim of improving student language learning strategies through self-reflection and self-expression. Students are, this time, required to write and ‘complete’ their academic blog as it represents one compulsory element –with due weighting, given its importance– of a language module assessment. This compulsory blog writing task has raised a number of pedagogical questions which will be explored, such as: effective integration, assessing and rewarding student creative expression within the blog medium, self-reflection as a language learner and ultimately the role and value of academic blog writing in language acquisition.

  7. A case study exploring oral language choice between the target language and the l1s in mainstream CLIL and EFL secondary education

    Maria Gené Gil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study explores the purposes for which the target language (TL and the L1s were used orally by students (N=60 and teachers (N=3 in a mainstream CLIL secondary education context compared to EFL instruction in the Balearic Islands (Spain. Data were gathered by means of questionnaires addressed to students and teachers, oral interviews to instructors and observations of class sessions. The findings show some differences in the languages chosen to speak according to pedagogical functions –i.e. planned subject-based discourse– and real functions –i.e. unplanned discourse such as disciplinary or organizational matters– (Chavez 2003, with the TL being much more spoken in the former and with much lesser presence of the TL in the latter, especially in the case of the pupils. Moreover, specialized subject-matter terminology was almost always used in the TL by both the students and the teachers, even when speaking in the L1.

  8. English Language Writing Anxiety among Final Year Engineering Undergraduates in University Putra Malaysia

    Lau Sing Min; Nurhazlini Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Second Language Writing Anxiety (SLWA) is considered one of the most crucial factors affecting all second language learning. This study focused on a group of final year Engineering students’ English Language writing anxiety (N=93) in relation to their gender, race and MUET results. The findings showed that the the male gender, Chinese and MUET band 4 participants faced higher levels of anxiety as compared to the other groups respectively. Somatic anxiety was recorded to be the highest subscal...

  9. The Role of Motivation and Learner Variables in L1 and L2 Vocabulary Development in Japanese Heritage Language Speakers in the United States

    Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of motivation and learner variables in bilingual vocabulary development among first language (L1) Japanese students attending hoshuukoo (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. One hundred sixteen high school students ages 15-18 from eight hoshuukoo completed…

  10. Predicting Language Learners' Grades in the L1, L2, L3 and L4: The Effect of Some Psychological and Sociocognitive Variables

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    This study of 89 Flemish high-school students' grades for L1 (Dutch), L2 (French), L3 (English) and L4 (German) investigates the effects of three higher-level personality dimensions (psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism), one lower-level personality dimension (foreign language anxiety) and sociobiographical variables (gender, social class) on…

  11. Effects of a Language-Minority Family's Activities in Early Second Language Writing Development

    Wei, Michael; Zhou, Yalun

    2012-01-01

    The impact of social dimensions (e.g., parental involvement) on second language literacy acquisition is not well studied in the field (August & Shanahan, 2008). Although quite a few studies report immigrant parents' belief and perspectives of their children's second language reading and writing, it remains unknown for school teachers…

  12. Rhetorical and Lexico-Grammatical Features of Argumentative Writing in Spanish as a Heritage Language and as a Second Language

    Paredes, Sofia M.

    2011-01-01

    Student academic writing in higher education is a central component of language programs whose purpose is to promote advanced literacy in the target language. At this level, students are required to produce texts that are analytical-argumentative in nature. This type of genre requires writers to formulate an interpretative statement or thesis and…

  13. An integrated approach to enhancing prospective English language teachers' writing skills

    Recep Sahin Arslan

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the experience of a group of pre-service teachers of English in a compulsory writing course in the preparatory program of an English language teaching department in the Turkish context. This study specifically attempts to investigate to what extent the writing course contributes to the acquisition of basic conventions of written discourse in English when prospective teachers of English are involved in an extensive writing practice which is based upon integration of produ...

  14. Linguistic, reading, and transcription influences on kindergarten writing in children with English as a second language

    Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL) children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1) were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA) and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing f...

  15. Smart Teaching and Learning Strategies in Pre-writing Activities in Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language)

    Baba, Suria; Aziz, Zahara Abdul

    2009-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of four smart schools’ teachers using purposive sampling. The study unveils the implementation of smart teaching and learning strategies in pre-writing activities in Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language). Pre-writing activities include reading, free writing, brainstorming, mind mapping, and listening. These activities revolve around student centered learning, thoughtful learning, group work, and also media in the implementation of teaching and learning. There is Int...

  16. Study on Effects of Chinese Thought and Culture on Japanese Writing:Research on the Second Language Writing by Think Aloud

    Qiu-juan ZHU; Shu-feng WU

    2009-01-01

    Think Aloud is one of the main research methods in psychological linguistic study. It plays an important role in foreign language teaching study. This thesis researches into the second language writing process of Japanese learners whose native language are Chinese and draws the conclusion that their writing process include the characteristics of two languages. It is the characteristics that cause Japanese learners are influenced by Chinese and culture, especially in sentence structure and voc...

  17. Writing for Publication in Reading and Language Arts.

    Baumann, James F., Ed.; Johnson, Dale D., Ed.

    Providing detailed information about the contexts, processes, and products of publishing, this book is divided into three major sections: writing for journals and other periodicals, writing for children and other adolescents, and writing instructional materials. Chapters in the book are: "Publishing Requirements for Research-Oriented Journals" (S.…

  18. How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1. PMID:26673115

  19. Effective Strategies for Improving Writing Skills of Elementary English Language Learners

    Cole, Jenny; Feng, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Reaching proficient levels of literacy is a universal goal for all children in the elementary classroom. This objective is especially challenging for English language learners particularly in the domain of writing. Writing has been identified as one of the most essential skills because the world has become so text-oriented. Due to this change,…

  20. Extending the Flipped Classroom Model: Developing Second Language Writing Skills through Student-Created Digital Videos

    Engin, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a project that aimed to leverage the students' interest and experience of technology and multimodal environments to develop their academic writing skills and second language learning. Students were expected to follow a model, research a topic, and craft a digital video tutorial on an aspect of academic writing which would…

  1. The Psycholinguistic Dimension in Second Language Writing: Opportunities for Research and Pedagogy Using Computer Keystroke Logging

    Miller, Kristyan Spelman; Lindgren, Eva; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the use of computer logging as a means of investigating aspects of the second language (L2) writing process as writers are engaged in producing text at the keyboard. The observation of writing by means of this method provides researchers with detailed information concerning aspects of the planning, formulation, and revision…

  2. The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

  3. The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

  4. Blog writing integration for academic language learning purposes: towards an assessment framework

    Liam Murray; Tríona Hourigan; Catherine Jeanneau

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006), then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming). The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expressi...

  5. The Influence of Process Approach on English as Second Language Students’ Performances in Essay Writing

    AKINWAMIDE Timothy Kolade

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students’ performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control quasi-experimental research design. The sample consisted of 80 senior secondary school final year students. The research material included the senior s...

  6. Improving EFL Writing Through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language

    Andrew D. Schenck; Wonkyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to evaluate the influence of Asian EFL contexts on writing. Thus, formulaic language within academic texts from Korean university students was compared to...

  7. Theoretical and Practical Linguistic Shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and Recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in Teaching Writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners

    Anwar Mourssi

    2013-01-01

    Writing is a complex cognitive activity in which foreign language learners are required to pay attention simultaneously to content, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that an effective teaching method in one context would result in effective student learning in another. It is proved that Product/Guided Writing resulting in poor writers, and Process Writing dos not provide much care for metalinguistic feedback or eno...

  8. English language writing centres in Japanese universities: What do students really need?

    Jim McKinley

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The installation of English language writing centres in Japanese universities is a relatively recent event—the first ones established with funding from the Ministry of Education in 2004. Because of the EFL writing context, setting up a writing centre requires consideration of students’ needs and cultural expectations of writing and writing centres. In general, writing centres that have been established in Japanese universities follow a structure similar to those in the US. This raises the question as to whether or not this is appropriate for the particular needs of EFL students and the obstacles they face. For this study, in order to explore students’ attitudes toward writing centres and the role they play in writing education, interview data was collected from students of English composition in two different departments at a university in Japan well known for its English language education: the English department, which does not have a writing centre, and the liberal arts department, which has one of the first writing centres established in Japan.

  9. Theoretical and Practical Linguistic Shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and Recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in Teaching Writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners

    Anwar Mourssi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a complex cognitive activity in which foreign language learners are required to pay attention simultaneously to content, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that an effective teaching method in one context would result in effective student learning in another. It is proved that Product/Guided Writing resulting in poor writers, and Process Writing dos not provide much care for metalinguistic feedback or enough time for negotiation as well. Following the stages of Innovated Writing Process (IWP, the instructor may be able to teach students many skills that may improve the quality of their writing as well as speaking. This paper presents the theoretical and practical linguistic shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in teaching writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners. It is indicated that metalinguistic feedback, error/contrastive analysis and the communicative interaction negotiating of meaning and form provided by the teacher lead to remarkable improve in second/foreign language learners’ written accuracy and fluency as well.

  10. Linguistic, reading, and transcription influences on kindergarten writing in children with English as a second language

    Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1 were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing fluency measure. Correlation and hierarchical regression results varied as a function of the writing tasks (procedural or generative and language status. Across language groups, writing tasks that captured children's developing graphophonemic knowledge were associated with a breadth of cognitive, linguistic, and early literacy skills. PA, reading, and transcription skills, but not oral vocabulary and syntactic knowledge contributed the most variance to writing irrespective of language status. The results suggest that parallel component skills and processes underlie ESL and EL1 children's early writing when formal literacy instruction begins in kindergarten even though ESL children are developing English oral and literacy proficiency simultaneously.

  11. Multilingual Dyslexia in University Students: Reading and Writing Patterns in Three Languages

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional…

  12. Relations between Early Reading and Writing Skills among Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Children

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on the development of reading skills of Spanish-speaking language minority children, little research has focused on the development of writing skills in this population. This study evaluated whether children's Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language)…

  13. Multilingual Dyslexia in University Students: Reading and Writing Patterns in Three Languages

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional…

  14. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  15. Teaching Young Dual Language Learners to Be Writers: Rethinking Writing Instruction through the Lens of Identity

    Wagner, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Although young dual language students (DLLs) learn to write and use language expressively in ways that differ from monolingual English speakers, these differences are rarely addressed in curricula and instruction. In particular, despite a recent shift in attention to how identities shape literacy practices and motivations, common frameworks for…

  16. The Impact of Dictation Practice on Turkish as a Foreign Language Learners' Writing Skills

    Büyükikiz, K. Kaan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to learn about the impact of dictation practice on B1 level Turkish as a foreign language learners' writing skills. In this study, a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with control group was used. The study was carried out with 24 B1 level students enrolled in Gaziantep University Turkish and Foreign Languages…

  17. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  18. L1/L2 Differences in the Acquisition of Form-Meaning Pairings in a Second Language

    McManus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of L1/L2 form-meaning differences in the domain of aspect to investigate whether L2 learners are able to acquire properties of the L2 that are different from the L1. Oral data were collected from English- and German-speaking university learners of French L2 (n = 75) at two different levels of proficiency. The results…

  19. Notation systems for reading and writing sign language

    McCarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for developing written forms. These issues are considered from a behavioral perspective, and two sign language notation systems, Stokoe Notation and Sutton Si...

  20. Teachers’ Opinions on the Teaching Methodology for Standard School Scripts in Initial Reading and Writing in the Croatian Language

    Kolar Billege, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Standard school scripts are intended for teaching initial reading and writing in the Croatian language. They come as a result of the scientific-research project Language-Art Standards in Initial Reading and Writing in the Croatian Language and are included into the Croatian orthography (Hrvatski pravopis, 2013). They have been implemented in the first grade of primary school in the 2014/2015 academic year. The paper presents the content of initial reading and writing within the framework of t...

  1. Anxiety over EFL speaking and writing: A view from language classrooms

    Gkonou, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom spe...

  2. Speed in cognitive tasks as an indicator of second/foreign language reading and writing skills

    Sanna Olkkonen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional study 823 Finnish school children were tested to examine the relation between speed of performance in cognitive and linguistic tasks and second/foreign language reading and writing. Participants were Finnish-speakers with English as foreign language and Russian-speakers with Finnish as second language which made it possible to compare the results across these two language groups. The Finnish group was furthermore divided into three groups by age to see how speed develops with age and education. Groups were tested with a number of cognitive instruments that included measures of speed of performance. Overall, performance on the speed measures improved with age; often, the second language learners outperformed their foreign language peers of the same age. Regression analyses indicated that speed measures could predict from 20% to over 40% of performance in second/foreign language reading and writing tasks. Prediction was somewhat stronger for writing than reading. The best predictors were also somewhat different for the foreign and second language learners, as well as for the different age groups.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.13

  3. ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera

    Sandra Higareda; Georgina López; Gerrard Mugford

    2009-01-01

    Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of ...

  4. Researching Aptitude in a Process-based Approach to Foreign Language Writing Instruction

    Abbas Zare-ee; Fatemeh Mahdavi

    2014-01-01

    In the study reported here, we explored writing processes employed by 70 undergraduate learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) through questionnaires and think-aloud protocols. Then we looked for possible differences in the writing processes employed by high- and low-aptitude learners. We observed that learners with higher aptitude scores devoted more attention to clausal complexity than those with lower levels of aptitude. Moreover, they resorted less frequently to their mother tongu...

  5. Writing in second language : the application of regulatory focus in Hong Kong classroom

    Chik, Ying-ying; 戚盈盈

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an instructional programme designed to improve the regulatory fit of, and lessen the working memory demand upon, students in the process of second language (L2) writing. Drawing on the theoretical understanding of regulatory focus theory (RFT) and cognitive process of writing, a quasi-experiment with control group was designed and testified on 138 secondary school students in Hong Kong over a period of 16 weeks. The findings suggest that the aforement...

  6. Similar and/or Different Writing Processes? A Study of Spanish Foreign Language and Heritage Language Learners

    Elola, Idoia; Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2016-01-01

    Following a cognitively-oriented framework, this study builds upon the authors' previous work (Elola and Mikulski 2013; Mikulski and Elola 2011), which analyzed writing processes (planning time, execution time, revision time), fluency, and accuracy of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners when composing in English and in Spanish. By analyzing…

  7. Principles and practices for response in second language writing developing self-regulated learners

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2012-01-01

    Based on the assumptions that students expect feedback and want to improve, and that improvement is possible, this book introduces a framework that applies the theory of self-regulated learning to guide second language writing teachers' response to learners at all stages of the writing process. This approach provides teachers with principles and activities for helping students to take more responsibility for their own learning. By using self-regulated learning strategies, students can increase their independence from the teacher, improve their writing skills, and continue to make progress o

  8. "How Did You Learn to Write in English When You Haven't Been Taught in English?": The Language Experience Approach in a Dual Language Program.

    Riojas Clark, Ellen

    1995-01-01

    Case study reports on the use of language experience and a natural approach to learning languages in a dual-language (Spanish-English) kindergarten class. Descriptions of student writing activities in the classroom illustrate the process of literacy development in the first and second languages. The importance of trained bilingual teachers and…

  9. T(w)o and fro: using the L1 as a language teaching tool in the CLIL classroom

    Gallagher, Fiona; Colohan, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a small in-class study which sought to explore the effectiveness (or not) of using the emerging bilingual skills of the students as a teaching and learning tool in a Geography through English CLIL classroom in Northern Italy. In particular, the study sought to examine whether and to what extent the use of codeswitching / translanguaging between the native language and the language of instruction during content-related tasks might prove a useful technique for highlighti...

  10. Characteristics, Assessment, and Treatment of Writing Difficulties in College Students with Language Disorders and/or Learning Disabilities

    Richards, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Many students currently are enrolled in colleges and universities across the country with language disorders and/or learning disabilities (LLD). The majority of these students struggle with writing, creating a need to identify and provide them with writing intervention services. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may provide this intervention;…

  11. Modular Sequence: English as a Second Language, Methods and Techniques. TTP 001.11 Writing. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    Hernandez, Alberto; Melnick, Susan L.

    This learning module is designed to provide the prospective teacher of English as a second language with suggestions for practical applications of sound linguistic theory for teaching writing to second-language learners. After completing the module, the student is expected to be able to: (a) define the role of writing in foreign and…

  12. ZPD-Activated Languaging and Collaborative L2 Writing

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Eslami, Zohreh R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent second/foreign language (L2) research has witnessed the application of sociocultural tenets to L2 classrooms. This study aimed to probe whether Iranian L2 learners' engagement in ZPD-activated collaborative dialogue, or "languaging", mediates their learning process and, specifically, their appropriate use of metadiscourse to…

  13. English as a World Language in Academic Writing

    Genc, Bilal; Bada, Erdogan

    2010-01-01

    Language is a phenomenon which can hardly be viewed separate from its very inherent component, culture. This component does by all means play a significant role in enabling the language to gain a global status. No doubt, some prominent issues do contribute to this process: political, economic, and military supremacy, to name but a few. This study…

  14. English-Language Creative Writing in Hong Kong: Colonial Stereotype and Process

    Lim, SGL

    2001-01-01

    Describes the effort of Hong Kong University in Hong Kong, China to move away from colonial education policies toward a vision of higher education as a global creative and knowledge industry. Diversity of the English language; Stereotypes of the Hong Kong students' relationship to English; Poems made by Chinese students that have appeared in the English-language literary magazine 'Yuan Yang: A Journal of Hong Kong and International Writing.'

  15. Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?

    Lorna Bourke; Anne-Marie Adams

    2012-01-01

    Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females) (M age 57.30 months) participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP). Quantitative measures of writing: number of w...

  16. Researching Aptitude in a Process-based Approach to Foreign Language Writing Instruction

    Abbas Zare-ee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the study reported here, we explored writing processes employed by 70 undergraduate learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL through questionnaires and think-aloud protocols. Then we looked for possible differences in the writing processes employed by high- and low-aptitude learners. We observed that learners with higher aptitude scores devoted more attention to clausal complexity than those with lower levels of aptitude. Moreover, they resorted less frequently to their mother tongue while writing texts in English. High-aptitude EFL learners also used more global planning strategies than their low-aptitude peers and edited while writing much more frequently. Our review showed that even though aptitude has been extensively researched in second language acquisition and shown to correlate with the level of success in different skills, it has rarely been considered in relation to writing processes. We suggest that, as classroom teachers, EFL writing instructors accumulate and incorporate knowledge of their students’ aptitude in deploying their teaching strategies. 

  17. The Impact of Dictation Practice on Turkish as a Foreign Language Learners' Writing Skills

    Büyükikiz, K. Kaan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to learn about the impact of dictation practice on B1 level Turkish as a foreign language learners' writing skills. In this study, a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with control group was used. The study was carried out with 24 B1 level students enrolled in Gaziantep University Turkish and Foreign Languages…

  18. Using Portfolio to Assess Rural Young Learners' Writing Skills in English Language Classroom

    Aziz, Muhammad Noor Abdul; Yusoff, Nurahimah Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at discussing the benefits of portfolio assessment in assessing students' writing skills. The study explores the use of authentic assessment in the classroom. Eleven primary school children from Year 4 in a rural school in Sabah participated in this study. Data were collected by observing them during the English Language lessons…

  19. Fostering Reflective Writing and Interactive Exchange through Blogging in an Advanced Language Course

    Lee, Lina

    2010-01-01

    Blog technology is a potential medium for encouraging reflective writing through self-expression and interactive exchange through social networking. This paper reports on a study using blogs as out-of-class assignments for the development of learners' language competence. The study involved seventeen university students at advanced level who kept…

  20. Improving EFL Writing through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language

    Schenck, Andrew D.; Choi, Wonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to…

  1. Self-Assessment in Autonomous Computer-Aided Second Language Writing.

    Sullivan, Kirk; Lindgren, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Presents the results of a study carried out in Sweden to investigate the promotion of self assessment and reflection in the adult second language classroom. Proposes a method in which the computer is used to record a writing session and later to replay the entire text production in retrospective peer sessions. After using the method, all writers…

  2. Predictors of Spelling and Writing Skills in First- and Second-Language Learners

    Harrison, Gina L.; Goegan, Lauren D.; Jalbert, Rachel; McManus, Kelly; Sinclair, Kristin; Spurling, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and linguistic components related to spelling and writing in English as a second language (ESL) and native-English speaking (EL1) third graders were examined. ESL and EL1 children performed similarly on rapid naming, phonological awareness (PA), verbal short-term and working memory, reading fluency, single-word spelling, text spelling,…

  3. Concentrated Language Encounter Instruction Model III in Reading and Creative Writing Abilities

    Promnont, Piyapong; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2015-01-01

    The research is aimed to study the development of eleventh grade students' reading, creative writing abilities, satisfaction taught through the concentrated language encounter instruction method, CLE model III. One experimental group time series design was used, and the data was analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures, t-test for one-group…

  4. Predictors of Spelling and Writing Skills in First- and Second-Language Learners

    Harrison, Gina L.; Goegan, Lauren D.; Jalbert, Rachel; McManus, Kelly; Sinclair, Kristin; Spurling, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and linguistic components related to spelling and writing in English as a second language (ESL) and native-English speaking (EL1) third graders were examined. ESL and EL1 children performed similarly on rapid naming, phonological awareness (PA), verbal short-term and working memory, reading fluency, single-word spelling, text spelling,…

  5. Language policy, 'Asia's world city' and anglophone Hong Kong writing

    Ho, EYL

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong's official language policy of 'biliteracy' (Chinese and English) and 'trilingualism' (Cantonese, Putonghua, English), announced after the reversion to China in 1997, claims to address actualities of language use in the territory, remove inequities between English and Chinese, and consolidate the linguistic platform to launch Hong Kong as 'Asia's World City'. Public discussion of and controversy over this policy immediately followed, and have continued in the past decade. But they ha...

  6. An integrated approach to enhancing prospective English language teachers' writing skills

    Recep Sahin Arslan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the experience of a group of pre-service teachers of English in a compulsory writing coursein the preparatory program of an English language teaching department in the Turkish context. This studyspecifically attempts to investigate to what extent the writing course contributes to the acquisition of basicconventions of written discourse in English when prospective teachers of English are involved in an extensivewriting practice which is based upon integration of product, process and genre based approaches to writing. Thestudy lasted for a period of 28 weeks with fifty-nine pre-service teachers of English who participated in thestudy. The participants studied the basic genre types which included expository writing such as classification,process, argumentation, opinion, cause and effect, compare and contrast, and narrative paragraphs and essays.The participants specifically received instruction as to the basic constituents of paragraph and essays writing;namely, organization, process, unity, coherence, word choice, language use, grammar, and mechanics whichwere further put into 49 observable competencies. Data were collected through an analytic assessment rubricapplied to participants’ pre-study and post-study essays. In addition, participants were distributed a pre-study anda post-study self-perception questionnaire in order to evaluate any possible improvements in their writingcompetence. The results of the study suggest that exposing pre-service teachers of English to various genres byinvolving them in an extensive writing practice adds to their writing competency positively in learning theprocess of writing practice, organizing the text, including relevant content in the text, using languageappropriately, producing correct grammar, coming up with relevant vocabulary, and following correctmechanical conventions.

  7. English Language Writing Anxiety among Final Year Engineering Undergraduates in University Putra Malaysia

    Lau Sing Min

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Second Language Writing Anxiety (SLWA is considered one of the most crucial factors affecting all second language learning. This study focused on a group of final year Engineering students’ English Language writing anxiety (N=93 in relation to their gender, race and MUET results. The findings showed that the the male gender, Chinese and MUET band 4 participants faced higher levels of anxiety as compared to the other groups respectively. Somatic anxiety was recorded to be the highest subscale of anxiety faced by most of the participants. The findings of this study can help in making suitable amendments in the engineering programme course structure, especially in determining the suitable English papers to be offered to the students.

  8. "If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity

    Lichon, Kathryn A.

    The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if-then statements in which ELLs in the writing frames group included the most if-then statements. Implications of these results and future research possibilities are addressed.

  9. Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits

    Nathaniel Roberts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

  10. Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits [review essay

    Roberts, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

  11. Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits

    Nathaniel Roberts

    2010-01-01

    With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

  12. Argumentation Text Construction by Japanese as a Foreign Language Writers: A Dynamic View of Transfer

    Rinnert, Carol; Kobauashi, Hiroe; Katayama, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a dynamic view of transfer as reusing and reshaping previous knowledge in new writing contexts to investigate how novice Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) writers draw on knowledge across languages to construct L1 and L2 texts. We analyzed L1 English and L2 Japanese argumentation essays by the same JFL writers (N = 19) and L1…

  13. Phonemics: A Technique for Reducing Languages to Writing.

    Pike, Kenneth L.

    The purpose of this textbook is to establish a satisfactory technique for discovering the pertinent units of sound in any language and organizing them into an alphabet system. The first part of the book deals with the analysis and production of phonetic units. The second and major part of the book is devoted to the analysis and description of…

  14. College Teaching: Syllabus Writing for the Japanese Language Course.

    Inoue, Yukiko

    This paper discusses the development of a syllabus for elementary-level college courses in the Japanese language, with a focus on course purpose, objectives, learning materials and resources, setting, learning activities, testing, and other considerations. It examines the characteristics of students who take elementary Japanese courses and reviews…

  15. Machine Translation-Assisted Language Learning: Writing for Beginners

    Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…

  16. Evaluating the English language scientific writing skills of Saudi dental students at entry level.

    El Tantawi, M; Al-Ansari, A; Sadaf, S; AlHumaid, J

    2016-02-01

    Better knowledge is needed about the effectiveness of preparatory English language courses for the health professions. This study evaluated the scientific writing skills of students finishing their preparatory year of a bachelor of dentistry programme in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014-15 among first-year dental students at the University of Dammam. Students were asked to write a 150-word English language assignment that was analysed for writing statistics and problems using Microsoft Word and plagiarism detection software. Of the 89 respondents, female students used a significantly greater number of words than did male students and their assignments had significantly lower Flesch reading ease scores. Male students had significantly lower odds of using references (OR 0.04) and higher odds of making punctuation and grammar mistakes (OR 2.63 and 3.91 respectively). One course of scientific writing in the preparatory year may not be enough to develop adequate writing skills among undergraduate dental students. PMID:27180743

  17. Recognizing Syntactic Errors in the Writing of Second Language Learners

    Schneider, D A; Schneider, David A.; Coy, Kathleen F. Mc

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the recognition component of an intelligent tutoring system that is designed to help foreign language speakers learn standard English. The system models the grammar of the learner, with this instantiation of the system tailored to signers of American Sign Language (ASL). We discuss the theoretical motivations for the system, various difficulties that have been encountered in the implementation, as well as the methods we have used to overcome these problems. Our method of capturing ungrammaticalities involves using mal-rules (also called 'error productions'). However, the straightforward addition of some mal-rules causes significant performance problems with the parser. For instance, the ASL population has a strong tendency to drop pronouns and the auxiliary verb `to be'. Being able to account for these as sentences results in an explosion in the number of possible parses for each sentence. This explosion, left unchecked, greatly hampers the performance of the system. We discuss how this ...

  18. Spanish Interference in EFL Writing Skills: A Case of Ecuadorian Senior High Schools

    Cabrera Solano, Paola Alexandra; Gonzalez Torres, Paul Fernando; Ochoa Cueva, Cesar Augusto; Quinonez Beltran, Ana Lucia; Castillo Cuesta, Luz Mercedes; Solano Jaramillo, Lida Mercedes; Espinosa Jaramillo, Franklin Oswaldo; Arias Cordova, Maria Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Extensive studies have been conducted regarding mother tongue (L1) interference and developing English writing skills. This study, however, aims to investigate the influence of the Spanish language on second language (L2) writing skills at several Ecuadorian senior high schools in Loja. To achieve this, 351 students and 42 teachers from second…

  19. Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?

    Lorna Bourke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females (M age 57.30 months participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP. Quantitative measures of writing: number of words, diversity of words, number of phrases/sentences and grammatical complexity of the phrases/sentences were also analysed. The children were also assessed on tasks measuring their language production and comprehension skills and the visuo-spatial, phonological, and central executive components of working memory. The results indicated that the boys were more likely to perform significantly less well than the girls on all measures of writing except the grammatical complexity of sentences. Initially, no significant differences were found on any of the measures of language ability. Further, no significant differences were found between the genders on the capacity and efficiency of their working memory functioning. However, hierarchical regressions revealed that the individual differences in gender and language ability, more specifically spoken language comprehension, predicted performance on the EYFSP writing scale. This finding accords well with the literature that suggests that language skills can mediate the variance in boys’ and girls’ writing ability.

  20. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  1. The Relations among L1 (Spanish) Literacy Skills, L2 (English) Language, L2 Text Reading Fluency, and L2 Reading Comprehension for Spanish-Speaking ELL First Grade Students

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relations of L2 (i.e., English) oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, word reading automaticity, oral language skills, and L1 literacy skills (i.e., Spanish) to L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking English language learners in the first grade (N = 150). An analysis was conducted for the entire sample as well as…

  2. English Language, Linguistics and Literature. : Selected Readings of Classical Writings for Linguistic Theory, Literature History, and Applications of the English Language.

    Haase, Fee

    2009-01-01

    This collection contains selected readings of Ccassical writings for linguistic theory, literature history, and applications of the English language in documents from the early beginnings to the 20th century.

  3. Levels of aggregation: Identification of sociolinguistic determinants of L1 proficiency in higher education

    Tummers, José; Deveneyns, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    We will investigate sociolinguistic determinants of written L1 proficiency of students in higher education in Flanders. Firstly, higher education institutions set up various support initiatives to improve the academic writing skills of incoming students (Peters & Van Houtven 2010). Secondly, research identified a correlation between first year students’ language proficiency and their study progress (De Wacher et al. 2013). To support evidence-based language policy, the following research ...

  4. Between freedom and self-subjection: the dilemma of writing in an African language

    N. Maake

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the dilemmas that confront an author who chooses to write in an African language. (Language choice remains a particularly vexing issue in African literature. On the one hand a language that he is a master of gives him the freedom to assert himself and oppose the imperial way of thinking, which is liberating. On the other hand choice of language confines his work to a specific audience and a particular set of literary canons. Sometimes certain influential gatekeepers overtly prescribe boundaries and limit the possibilities of transcending them. On the other hand, as a case study of Sesotho literature shows, the literature itself manifests generic and thematic propensities that limit the freedom of literary expression. From the subjective and privileged position of being a writer in Sesotho himself the author in the end makes a number of suggestions on how to overcome this stifling status quo.

  5. Il fattore "eta'" nell'acquisizione linguistica (L1 e L2): dimensioni di un "meta-problema" (The "Age" Factor in Language Acquisition [L1 and L2]: The Dimensions of a "Meta-Problem").

    Titone, Renzo

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes and comments on two recent books, one by Birgit Harley and the other by David Singleton, that review the language research carried out to determine the importance of age in learning a second language. (CFM)

  6. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment

    Dracopoulos, Effie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...

  7. The Effect of Virtual Language Learning Method on Writing Ability of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Hooshang Khoshsima; Fatemeh Sayadi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of virtual language learning method on Iranian intermediate EFL learners writing ability. The study was conducted with 20 English Translation students at Chabahar Maritime University who were assigned into two groups, control and experimental, after ensuring of their homogeneity by administering a TOEFL proficiency. The participants of the experimental group received virtual learning i.e. sending PowerPoint through their e-mails. The participants o...

  8. High School Teacher Perspectives and Practices: Second Language Writing and Language Development

    Gilliland, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' understandings of second language learning influence their practices in the classroom. This paper analyzes interview and classroom data collected during a year-long ethnographic study of two high school English language development classes to identify (1) what the teachers understood about second language (L2) development and L2 academic…

  9. Strategic Codeswitching, Interliteracy, and Other Phenomena of Emergent Bilingual Writing: Lessons from First Grade Dual Language Classrooms

    Gort, Mileidis

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the writing processes of eight emergent bilingual children as they composed stories in two languages in a Writing Workshop (WW) context. The research was situated in two grade 1 classrooms in a Spanish/English Two-Way Bilingual Education program in the north-eastern USA. For six months, researchers observed…

  10. Peer Response with Process-Oriented, Standards-Based Writing for Beginning-Level, Second Language Learners of Spanish

    O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to increase second language (L2) learners' understanding of the benefits associated with the process approach to writing and, more specifically, to gain their appreciation of how their peers might contribute to the quality of their writing, in this study peer revision was modified between two groups of lower-level proficiency L2…

  11. Learner Characteristics and Writing Performance in a Community College English as a Second Language Course: Some Unexpected Findings

    Lambert, Olga D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between individual learner characteristics and gain in writing performance as measured by a standardized writing assessment in a sample of community college academic English as a Second Language (ESL) students in the United States. The ethnically and linguistically diverse convenience sample included 76…

  12. The Acting in Group of Teachers as Possibility of Resignification of the Interpretation about the Writing Language

    Claudia Regina Mosca Giroto; Rosane Michelli de Castro; Fabiana Cristina Frigieri de Vitta; Joice Emanuele Munhoz Cicilino

    2014-01-01

    Front of the possibility of acting with the teachers who teach in schools of Early Childhood Education for children aged six years, about the re-siginification of the understanding of writing language and of the importance of the child in this age group establish a positive relationship with this mode of language, was developed in 2011, a project linked to the Teaching of UNESP titled “Depathologization learning of the writing and inclusive education: reflections and actions of the teacher of...

  13. Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing. Second Language Acquisition

    del Pilar Agustin Llach, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Lexical errors are a determinant in gaining insight into vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary use and writing quality assessment. Lexical errors are very frequent in the written production of young EFL learners, but they decrease as learners gain proficiency. Misspellings are the most common category, but formal errors give way to semantic-based…

  14. Air Writing as a Technique for the Acquisition of Sino-japanese Characters by Second Language Learners

    Thomas, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This article calls attention to a facet of the expertise of second language (L2) learners of Japanese at the intersection of language, memory, gesture, and the psycholinguistics of a logographic writing system. Previous research has shown that adult L2 learners of Japanese living in Japan (similarly to native speakers of Japanese) often…

  15. Alphabetic and nonalphabetic L1 effects in English word identification: a comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners.

    Wang, Min; Koda, Keiko; Perfetti, Charles A

    2003-03-01

    Different writing systems in the world select different units of spoken language for mapping. Do these writing system differences influence how first language (L1) literacy experiences affect cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2)? Two groups of college students who were learning to read English as a second language (ESL) were examined for their relative reliance on phonological and orthographic processing in English word identification: Korean students with an alphabetic L1 literacy background, and Chinese students with a nonalphabetic L1 literacy background. In a semantic category judgment task, Korean ESL learners made more false positive errors in judging stimuli that were homophones to category exemplars than they did in judging spelling controls. However, there were no significant differences in responses to stimuli in these two conditions for Chinese ESL learners. Chinese ESL learners, on the other hand, made more accurate responses to stimuli that were less similar in spelling to category exemplars than those that were more similar. Chinese ESL learners may rely less on phonological information and more on orthographic information in identifying English words than their Korean counterparts. Further evidence supporting this argument came from a phoneme deletion task in which Chinese subjects performed more poorly overall than their Korean counterparts and made more errors that were phonologically incorrect but orthographically acceptable. We suggest that cross-writing system differences in L1s and L1 reading skills transfer could be responsible for these ESL performance differences. PMID:12590041

  16. Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

  17. Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study

    Hung-Cheng TAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.

  18. Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Bilingual Arabic-English Readers

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were administered to the…

  19. Modeling the Relationship between Lexico-Grammatical and Discourse Organization Skills in Middle Grade Writers: Insights into Later Productive Language Skills That Support Academic Writing

    Galloway, Emily Phillips; Uccelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Learning to write in middle school requires the expansion of sentence-level and discourse-level language skills. In this study, we investigated later language development in the writing of a cross-sectional sample of 235 upper elementary and middle school students (grades 4-8) by examining the use of (1) lexico-grammatical forms that support…

  20. Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Persian and English Writing Skills among Adult EFL Learners in Iran

    Azim Javadi-Safa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at investigating the relationship between writing skill and sub-skills of first language (Persian and foreign language (English. Therefore, 50 upper-intermediate EFL learners in Iran who were majoring in the English language were asked to write on two different topics in Persian and English. Then, the compositions were evaluated based on ESL Composition Profile. Subsequently, using Pearson product-moment correlation, the correlation between the compositions overall scores in L1 and L2, as well as the correlations between each of five major components of writing, including content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics in the two languages were examined. The results displayed large correlations between the compositions overall scores as well as between the four writing sub-skills in L1 and L2. The highest correlations were observed between writing sub-skills of vocabulary, mechanics, language use, and content respectively. These findings entail some pedagogical implications for effective language learning in both L1 and L2, utilizing the enhancing effect of cross-linguistic transfer of writing.Key words: L1-L2 Relationship, Cross-linguistic Transfer, Writing, Adult EFL Learners, Persian

  2. First Language Grapheme-Phoneme Transparency Effects in Adult Second Language Learning

    Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…

  3. First Language Grapheme-Phoneme Transparency Effects in Adult Second Language Learning

    Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…

  4. The Effectiveness of Using the Cooperative Language Learning Approach to Enhance EFL Writing Skills among Saudi University Students

    Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative language learning (CLL) approach was used to encourage second-year university students at the college of languages and translation, at Al-Imam University to learn from their peers so that they could develop their writing skills. Students in CLL-based groups were trained to be more responsible for their learning through developing their personal interaction as well as their linguistic competence in a more relaxed social context. This treatment included sophomore students enrolled i...

  5. The Development of Language and Reading Skills in the Second and Third Languages of Multilingual Children in French Immersion

    Berube, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between first language (L1) typology, defined as the classification of languages according to their structural characteristics (e.g. phonological systems and writing systems), and the development of second (L2) and third (L3) language skills and literacy proficiency in multilingual children was investigated in this study. The…

  6. ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera

    Sandra Higareda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1 in English Language Teaching (ELT, critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI , un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.

  7. Influence of Spoken Language on the Initial Acquisition of Reading/Writing: Critical Analysis of Verbal Deficit Theory

    Ramos-Sanchez, Jose Luis; Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a quasi-experimental study of whether there exists a causal relationship between spoken language and the initial learning of reading/writing. The subjects were two matched samples each of 24 preschool pupils (boys and girls), controlling for certain relevant external variables. It was found that there was no…

  8. The Impact of Executive Functions on the Written Language Process: Some Evidence from Children with Writing Disabilities

    Alevriadou, Anastasia; Giaouri, Stergiani

    2015-01-01

    Written language is a difficult endeavour as the demands of transcription require self-regulatory skills from a motor, cognitive and attention perspective. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between the Test of Writing Difficulties (Porpodas et al., 2007) and the Test of Detection and Investigation of Executive…

  9. Making Sense of Power Relations in a Malaysian English-as-a-Second-Language Academic Writing Classroom

    Abraham, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The role of power in an English-as-a-second-language classroom has yet to be fully explored by an action research practitioner, especially in a Malaysian higher education setting. This study aims to contribute to this gap by working within an academic literacies perspective to teaching academic writing, which propagates the understanding of…

  10. Helping Taiwanese Graduate Students Help Themselves: Applying Corpora to Industrial Management English as a Foreign Language Academic Reading and Writing

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2015-01-01

    Lack of knowledge in the conventional use of vocabulary and multiword patterns in one's respective field of expertise causes Taiwanese students to produce academic writing that is markedly "non-nativelike." This is because Taiwanese students are first and foremost second language readers and often have difficulty "picking up…

  11. Adopting Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as Interactive Communities among English Foreign Language (EFL) Learners in Writing: Opportunities and Challenges

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Saeed, Murad; Ahmad, Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    As most traditional classroom environments in English as Foreign Language (EFL) still restrict learners' collaboration and interaction in college writing classes, today, the majority of EFL learners are accessing Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as online communities of practice (CoPs) for adopting informal collaborative learning as a way of…

  12. Helping Taiwanese Graduate Students Help Themselves: Applying Corpora to Industrial Management English as a Foreign Language Academic Reading and Writing

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2015-01-01

    Lack of knowledge in the conventional use of vocabulary and multiword patterns in one's respective field of expertise causes Taiwanese students to produce academic writing that is markedly "non-nativelike." This is because Taiwanese students are first and foremost second language readers and often have difficulty "picking up…

  13. Using micro-contexts to describe a writing process in Estonian as a second language across proficiency levels

    Olga Pastuhhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the writing process of native Russian‑speaking students in Estonian as a second language. 34 participants were given the assignment of writing a text in the L2. The written texts were then rated as being at levels from A2 to C1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. The data were collected by computer keystroke logging and analysed based on the concept of a ‘micro-context’. Micro-contexts were analysed according to their frequency and duration and were compared across proficiency levels. The results show that writing in the L2 is not a smooth process. The longest transitions in micro-contexts reveal that the most cognitive effort is made between paragraphs and sentences and when deletions are involved. The growing number of consecutive deletions demonstrates that even with developing proficiency, the linear production text is subject to constant revision, correction and modification.

  14. Academic writing

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  15. A Study of Students’ Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language

    Muhammad Javed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40 Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampling. A sample consisting of 440 students (11students from each school was randomly selected using a table of random numbers. An achievement test consisting of different items was developed to assess the students’ competency and capability in sub-skills of writing such as word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/grammar and handwriting. Mean score and standard deviation were used to analyze the students’ proficiency in each sub-skill. The t-test was applied to make the comparison on the bases of gender, density and public and private sector. The overall performance of all the students was better in comprehension as compared to other sub-skills namely word completion, sentence making/syntax, tenses/grammar and handwriting. The analysis, based on t-value, revealed no significant difference between the performance of male and female students and the students of public and private schools, whereas there was a significant difference between the performance of urban and rural students.

  16. ACQUISITION OF EFFECTIVE WRITING SKILL – ISSUES AND CHALLENGESFOR THE SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNER OF THE ENGLISH – AN EXPLORATIVE STUDY.

    Bishnu Paramguru Mahapatra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Writing a short or long piece of text effectively flawlessly, precisely, concisely, up to the point with out any ambiguity has been a major concern for the L2 learners of English in the professional world. Professional like engineers need to write business letters, reports, proposals etc as their desk as a part of their routine work. On most of these cases it has been observed that they fail to write the content of the task precisely an effectively, therefore they end up with long of piece of writing without any precision of the text and fail to communicate the core information through that to their boss or to their office.At this point of time it is highly essential for the professionals to equip themselves with excellent writing skills with out which they might not survive in their pursuits,because there is hardly any professional activity which does not require writing skills. This paper will look into the various causes of ineffective writing skills of the second language learners of English and suggests possible remedial measures to overcome it.

  17. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages in Croatia: an analysis of writing competence at level C1

    Marija Spajić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present the results of a research conducted with advanced (C1 level learners of French as a foreign language in Croatia, in which their writing competence was studied according to the CEFR descriptors. Our hypothesis was that reaching level C1 demanded that a considerable amount of effort be invested in the development of learners’ writing and pragmatic skills.  In the evaluation of these skills, characteristics of culture-specific learning contexts are to be taken into account. To test our hypothesis, we used a structured questionnaire and interviews with teachers. The results of our research are presented in the conclusion.

  18. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages in Croatia: an analysis of writing competence at level C1

    Marija Spajić; Yvonne Vrhovac

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present the results of a research conducted with advanced (C1 level) learners of French as a foreign language in Croatia, in which their writing competence was studied according to the CEFR descriptors. Our hypothesis was that reaching level C1 demanded that a considerable amount of effort be invested in the development of learners’ writing and pragmatic skills.  In the evaluation of these skills, characteristics of culture-specific learning contexts are to be tak...

  19. Responding to L2 Students in College Writing Classes: Teacher Perspectives

    Ferris, Dana; Brown, Jeffrey; Liu, Hsiang Sean; Stine, Maria Eugenia Arnaudo

    2011-01-01

    Response to student writing has been a research concern for composition specialists for the past several decades. However, most research to date has utilized student opinions or researcher judgments about teacher feedback, with researchers rarely consulting teachers themselves as informants. Also, first language (L1) and second language (L2)…

  20. Reading Native and Foreign Language Texts and Tests: The Case of Arabic and Hebrew Native Speakers Reading L1 and English FL Texts and Tests.

    Elinor, Siaegh-Haddad

    A study investigated the effect of test item type (multiple-choice or open-ended) on performance reading comprehension tests given in both the student's native language and a second language. Subjects were 24 native Arabic-speaking and 38 native Hebrew-speaking students at Haifa University (Israel), all enrolled in a course in English as a second…

  1. Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language (L2)…

  2. Signalling L2 Centrality, Maintaining L1 Dominance: Teacher Language Choice in an Ethnic Minority Primary Classroom in the Lao PDR

    Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose

    2011-01-01

    Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic has speakers of up to 230 different languages belonging to four ethnolinguistic families, the Lao Government's policy as stated in its Education Law is that Lao is the official language of education at all levels. This creates a challenging situation for teachers in ethnic minority villages throughout…

  3. Writing in science: Exploring teachers' and students' views of the nature of science in language enriched environments

    Decoito, Isha

    Writing in science can be used to address some of the issues relevant to contemporary scientific literacy, such as the nature of science, which describes the scientific enterprise for science education. This has implications for the kinds of writing tasks students should attempt in the classroom, and for how students should understand the rationale and claims of these tasks. While scientific writing may train the mind to think scientifically in a disciplined and structured way thus encouraging students to gain access to the public domain of scientific knowledge, the counter-argument is that students need to be able to express their thoughts freely in their own language. Writing activities must aim to promote philosophical and epistemological views of science that accurately portray contemporary science. This mixed-methods case study explored language-enriched environments, in this case, secondary science classrooms with a focus on teacher-developed activities, involving diversified writing styles, that were directly linked to the science curriculum. The research foci included: teachers' implementation of these activities in their classrooms; how the activities reflected the teachers' nature of science views; common attributes between students' views of science and how they represented science in their writings; and if, and how the activities influenced students' nature of science views. Teachers' and students' views of writing and the nature of science are illustrated through pre-and post-questionnaire responses; interviews; student work; and classroom observations. Results indicated that diversified writing activities have the potential to accurately portray science to students, personalize learning in science, improve students' overall attitude towards science, and enhance scientific literacy through learning science, learning about science, and doing science. Further research is necessary to develop an understanding of whether the choice of genre has an influence on meaning construction and understanding in science. Finally, this study concluded that the relationship between students' views of the nature of science and writing in science is complex and is dependent on several factors including the teachers' influence and attitude towards student writing in science.

  4. The Impact of Text Genre on Iranian Intermediate EFL Students’ Writing Errors: An Error Analysis Perspective

    Kourosh Moqimipour; Mohsen Shahrokhi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Persian language, regarded as the first language (L1), in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast by Iranian EFL students. 65 English paragraphs written by the participants, who were at the intermediate level based on their performance on a quick placement test, were analyzed by using Error Analysis (EA). The ideas of 15 teachers with more than six years of teaching in th...

  5. Spanish Interference in EFL Writing Skills: A Case of Ecuadorian Senior High Schools

    Paola Alexandra Cabrera Solano; Paul Fernando Gonzalez Torres; Cesar Augusto Ochoa Cueva; Ana Lucia Quinonez Beltran; Luz Mercedes Castillo Cuesta; Lida Mercedes Solano Jaramillo; Franklin Oswaldo Espinosa Jaramillo; Maria Olivia Arias Cordova

    2014-01-01

    Extensive studies have been conducted regarding mother tongue (L1) interference and developing English writing skills. This study, however, aims to investigate the influence of the Spanish language on second language (L2) writing skills at several Ecuadorian senior high schools in Loja. To achieve this, 351 students and 42 teachers from second year senior high schools (public and private) were asked to participate in this study. The instruments for data collection were student and teacher que...

  6. Enhancing Content Knowledge in Essay Writing Classes: A Multimedia Package for Iranian EFL Learners

    Marziyeh Tahmouresi Majelan

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate empirically if promoting a multimedia package enhances content knowledge in essay writing of 80 junior English translation students at a University in Karaj, Iran; plus, whether the learners’ writing content improve due to the presence of the multimedia package or not. The multimedia was considered to be a CD, containing recordings both in first language (L1=Farsi) and in second language (L2=English) along with manipulative and task-based ac...

  7. Technology in L1

    Elf, Nikolaj Frydensbjerg; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Skaar, Håvard; Erixon, Per-Olof

    , which suggests four metaphors for un-derstanding technology within L1: as a tool, as media, as socialization, and as literacy practices. These are found useful for analyzing and comparing both theoretical perspectives and empirical research on L1. A key finding of the study is that, although the...

  8. The Effect of Student Receptivity to Instructional Feedback on Writing Proficiency among Chinese Speaking English Language Learners

    Julie Tzu-Ling Huang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to discover the degree to which student acceptance of instructor feedback influences developing writing proficiency among Chinese speaking English Language Learners enrolled in an American middle school. This study was designed as a qualitative case study—an approach using in-depth inductive processes to observe and evaluate the receptivity of eighth-grade students to instructor feedback during an extended unit of instruction covering the five-paragraph e...

  9. Executive functions, oral language and writing in preschool children: Development and correlations

    Talita de Cassia Batista Pazeto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF and oral language (OL are important for learning reading and writing (RW and for the development of other skills in preschool. The study investigated the progression and the relationships between the performances in these competences in pre-schoolers. Participants were 90 children, mean age 4.91 years, students from Kindergarten years I and II of a private school in SP, assessed, individually, with a battery with nine instruments for EF, OL, and RW. There was increase of the performances as a result of educational level for all OL and RW measures, but only for attention in the field of EF. Significant correlations were found between the measurements assessing the same cognitive domain, as well as inter-domain, although portraying a different pattern. The results indicate that OL and RW seem to develop rapidly in the course of preschool, while the EF have slower development. The fields of OL and RW, EF and RW are more interdependent, and EF and OL are relatively independent.

  10. Lexical spelling in children and adolescents with specific language impairment: variations with the writing situation.

    Broc, Lucie; Bernicot, Josie; Olive, Thierry; Favart, Monik; Reilly, Judy; Quémart, Pauline; Uzé, Joël

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the lexical spelling performance of children and adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) in two contrasting writing situations: a dictation of isolated words (a classic evaluative situation) and a narrative of a personal event (a communicative situation). Twenty-four children with SLI and 48 typically developing children participated in the study, split into two age groups: 7-11 and 12-18 years of age. Although participants with SLI made more spelling errors per word than typically developing participants of the same chronological age, there was a smaller difference between the two groups in the narratives than in the dictations. Two of the findings are particularly noteworthy: (1) Between 12 and 18 years of age, in communicative narration, the number of spelling errors of the SLI group was not different from that of the typically developing group. (2) In communicative narration, the participants with SLI did not make specific spelling errors (phonologically unacceptable), contrary to what was shown in the dictation. From an educational perspective or that of a remediation program, it must be stressed that the communicative narration provides children-and especially adolescents-with SLI an opportunity to demonstrate their improved lexical spelling abilities. Furthermore, the results encourage long-term lexical spelling education, as adolescents with SLI continue to show improvement between 12 and 18 years of age. PMID:23891725

  11. The Effects of Blog-Mediated Peer Feedback on Learners' Motivation, Collaboration, and Course Satisfaction in a Second Language Writing Course

    Zhang, Haisen; Song, Wei; Shen, Suping; Huang, Ronghuai

    2014-01-01

    This paper reported on a study of using blogs as out-of-class assignments for the development of learners' writing competence. There were 36 students of English majors from an intact second language (L2) writing class participating in this study. A mixed method design was employed to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. The results…

  12. The Teaching of Reading, Writing and Language in a Clinical Speech and Language Setting: A Blended Therapy Intervention Approach

    Ammons, Kerrie Allen

    2013-01-01

    With a growing body of research that supports a link between language and literacy, governing bodies in the field of speech and language pathology have recognized the need to reconsider the role of speech-language pathologists in addressing the emergent literacy needs of preschoolers who struggle with literacy and language concepts. This study…

  13. The Teaching of Reading, Writing and Language in a Clinical Speech and Language Setting: A Blended Therapy Intervention Approach

    Ammons, Kerrie Allen

    2013-01-01

    With a growing body of research that supports a link between language and literacy, governing bodies in the field of speech and language pathology have recognized the need to reconsider the role of speech-language pathologists in addressing the emergent literacy needs of preschoolers who struggle with literacy and language concepts. This study…

  14. The Role of Grammar Teaching in Writing in Second Language Acquisition

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    "Grammar is the sound, structure, and meaning system of language. All languages have grammar, and each language has its own grammar" (Beverly, 2007, p.1). People who speak the same language are able to communicate with each other because they all know the grammar system and structure of that language, that is, the meaningful rules of grammar.…

  15. The Effect of Strategic and Online Planning on Accuracy of L1 Learners' Written Production

    Asghar Salimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the application of writing tasks has effectively shed lights on promoting learners' written production. Research on SLA stresses the importance of tasks in the case of complexity, fluency and accuracy (Foster, 1997, 2001; Givon, 1985; Robinson, 2001; Skehan, 1998, since they have had fluctuating impact on L2 learning. However, what is neglected in the literature is the impact of writing task on learners' first language written production that in most cases has paved the way for transmitting ideas in L2. Therefore, the essential aim in the present study is to investigate the effect of strategic planning time and on – line planning time on accuracy of first language learners' written production.  To attain the goal, two classes of 6th grade school students (n = 32, n = 24 were selected. The students did the writing task in the first session which was considered as a pretest in the study. Following a weekly "time out", in the class A (n = 32 strategic planning time was presented to the students and in the class B (n = 24, on – line planning time was conducted for ten minutes proceeding writing task. Time limit to complete the writing production was 30 minutes in both classes. The collected written data was quantified in terms of accuracy measure. Paired sample T-tests and independent sample T-test were conducted to statistically analyze data. The obtained results revealed that strategic planning led to much accuracy in post task in terms of L1 written production compared to pre task. However, the result of statistical analysis in on – line planning time was not significant, since it didn't result in students' L1 writing progress. Keywords: strategic planning time, online planning time, written production, accuracy 

  16. Language Mixing and Code-Switching in Writing: Approaches to Mixed-Language Written Discourse. Routledge Critical Studies in Multilingualism

    Sebba, Mark, Ed.; Mahootian, Shahrzad, Ed.; Jonsson, Carla, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Code-switching," or the alternation of languages by bilinguals, has attracted an enormous amount of attention from researchers. However, most research has focused on spoken language, and the resultant theoretical frameworks have been based on spoken code-switching. This volume presents a collection of new work on the alternation of languages in…

  17. The Effect of Arabism of Romanic Alphabets on the Development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language Students' Writing Skills at Secondary School Level

    Zuhair, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the effect of Arabization of Romanic Alphabets on the development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language students' composition writing skills at secondary school level. This experimental study includes 25 secondary school students in their 9th Grade in which English is taught as a foreign language at…

  18. ATG16L1

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1...... (autophagy-related 16-like 1 [S. cerevisiae]), a key component in the autophagic response to invading pathogens, have been associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn disease. The most common and well-studied genetic variant of ATG16L1 (rs2241880; leading to a T300A conversion) exhibits a strong...... importance of ATG16L1 and its genetic variant (T300A) within the elementary biological processes linked to Crohndisease....

  19. The Grammar Workshop: Systematic Language Study in Reading and Writing Contexts

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2012-01-01

    In this "prosumer" era in which people seem always to be producing and consuming texts, words matter as much as--or more than--they ever have. Learning how grammar works in the texts they read and write is essential to students' literacy. It is time to reframe English teachers' view to include both writing "and" reading as contexts for grammar…

  20. Public Internet Forums: Can They Enhance Argumentative Writing Skills of Second Language Learners?

    Ritchie, Mathy; Black, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Improving university students' writing skills is always a challenge. In a third-year French composition course, the researchers introduced the use of public Internet discussion forums to see if that would help achieve the argumentative writing skills goals that were set for this study. The results show that participation in the forums had a…

  1. Dear Principal, Please Let My Special Education Child Read and Write (Leadership in the Language Arts).

    O'Neal, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Describes school situations in which special needs children have very few opportunities to learn about reading and writing. Calls upon school leaders to assure that special needs children have ample opportunities to engage in legitimate reading and writing in the school context. (MG)

  2. Writing World-Wide Web CGI scripts in the REXX language

    Cottrell, R.L.A.

    1996-03-01

    This talk is aimed at people who have experience with REXX and are interested in using it to write WWW CGI scripts. As part of this, the author describes several functions that are available in a library of REXX functions that simplify writing WWW CGI scripts. This library is freely available at //www.slac.standard.edu/slac/www/tool/cgi-rexx/.

  3. Public Internet Forums: Can They Enhance Argumentative Writing Skills of Second Language Learners?

    Ritchie, Mathy; Black, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Improving university students' writing skills is always a challenge. In a third-year French composition course, the researchers introduced the use of public Internet discussion forums to see if that would help achieve the argumentative writing skills goals that were set for this study. The results show that participation in the forums had a…

  4. ATG16L1

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1...... (autophagy-related 16-like 1 [S. cerevisiae]), a key component in the autophagic response to invading pathogens, have been associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn disease. The most common and well-studied genetic variant of ATG16L1 (rs2241880; leading to a T300A conversion) exhibits a strong...

  5. The Use Of First Language In Limited English Proficiency Classes: Good, Bad Or Ugly?

    Siti Hamin Stapa; Abdul Hameed Abdul Majid

    2006-01-01

    There has been an ongoing debate among language teachers on whether to use students’ first language (L1) in second language (L2) teaching. Nevertheless, the use of L1 in L2 teaching has been advocated with grounded theory as far as it merits the situation. This research article aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of L1 to generate ideas for second language writing among low proficiency ESL learners. The study employed the experimental research design where students in the experim...

  6. Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing

    Danuta Gabrys-Barker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learners’ written production after a year of intensive language instruction in the controlled conditions of a classroom. The objective of the study presented here is: 1. to determine the types of error produced in a short translation task at different levels of language (morphosyntactic, lexical 2. to observe manifestations of crosslinguistic influences between languages the subjects know (interlingual transfer as well as those related to the language learnt itself (intralingual transfer.The small sample of texts produced does not allow for any generalized observations and conclusions, however, at the level of elementary competence in any foreign language, as other research shows, the amount of individual variation is not the most significant factor. Thus the incorrect forms produced may testify to some more universally error-prone areas of language. The value of this kind of analysis lies in this direct application to the teaching of Polish as a synthetic language. The study also demonstrates the fact that communicative teaching has a limited contribution to make in the case of this family of languages. It suggests that overt and explicit teaching of a synthetic language will give a sounder basis for further development of language competence in its communicative dimension

  7. The Development of Writing in English and Spanish as Foreign Languages

    de Haan, Pieter; van Esch, Kees

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the first results of the study of argumentative essays in English as a foreign language and in Spanish as a foreign language and as a native language, carried out at Radboud University Nijmegen (formerly the University of Nijmegen) between 2002 and 2008. The aim of the project is to compare teachers' holistic assessments with…

  8. ESL Students’ Perceptions of the use of Higher Order Thinking Skills in English Language Writing

    Malini Ganapathy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the education curriculum in the Malaysia Education Development Plan (PPPM 2013-2025 focuses on the Higher Order Thinking (HOT concept which aims to produce knowledgeable students who are critical and creative in their thinking and can compete at the international level. HOT skills encourage students to apply, analyse, evaluate and think creatively in and outside the classroom. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the impact of using HOT skills in a secondary ESL writing classroom. A total of 120 Form Two ESL students from three intact classes participated in this study. The students experienced project and group-based work both independently and collaboratively in groups during their writing lessons. The findings from the focus group interviews revealed the following student perceptions: felt engaged in active learning, experienced learner autonomy, developed their writing, researching and personal skills. The implications of this study suggest that using HOT skills in ESL writing lessons facilitate students’ writing ability and interest and it is recommended that HOT skills be explicitly infused in the teaching and learning of writing activities in ESL classrooms. 

  9. The impact of science notebook writing on ELL and low-SES students' science language development and conceptual understanding

    Huerta, Margarita

    This quantitative study explored the impact of literacy integration in a science inquiry classroom involving the use of science notebooks on the academic language development and conceptual understanding of students from diverse (i.e., English Language Learners, or ELLs) and low socio-economic status (low-SES) backgrounds. The study derived from a randomized, longitudinal, field-based NSF funded research project (NSF Award No. DRL - 0822343) targeting ELL and non-ELL students from low-SES backgrounds in a large urban school district in Southeast Texas. The study used a scoring rubric (modified and tested for validity and reliability) to analyze fifth-grade school students' science notebook entries. Scores for academic language quality (or, for brevity, language ) were used to compare language growth over time across three time points (i.e., beginning, middle, and end of the school year) and to compare students across categories (ELL, former ELL, non-ELL, and gender) using descriptive statistics and mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA). Scores for conceptual understanding (or, for brevity, concept) were used to compare students across categories (ELL, former ELL, non-ELL, and gender) in three domains using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. A correlational analysis was conducted to explore the relationship, if any, between language scores and concept scores for each group. Students demonstrated statistically significant growth over time in their academic language as reflected by science notebook scores. While ELL students scored lower than former ELL and non-ELL students at the first two time points, they caught up to their peers by the third time point. Similarly, females outperformed males in language scores in the first two time points, but males caught up to females in the third time point. In analyzing conceptual scores, ELLs had statistically significant lower scores than former-ELL and non-ELL students, and females outperformed males in the first two domains. These differences, however, were not statistically significant in the last domain. Last, correlations between language and concept scores were overall, positive, large, and significant across domains and groups. The study presents a rubric useful for quantifying diverse students' science notebook entries, and findings add to the sparse research on the impact of writing in diverse students' language development and conceptual understanding in science.

  10. Investigation of Writing Strategies, Writing Apprehension, and Writing Achievement among Saudi EFL-Major Students

    AbdulRahman Al Asmari

    2013-01-01

    The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students` writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the relationship between writing strategies that EFL university students employ and writing apprehension, relationship between writing strategies use and stud...

  11. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch

    Schepens, Job J.; der Slik, Frans; Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    Many people speak more than two languages. How do languages acquired earlier affect the learnability of additional languages? We show that linguistic distances between speakers' first (L1) and second (L2) languages and their third (L3) language play a role. Larger distances from the L1 to the L3 and from the L2 to the L3 correlate with lower…

  12. Your Language or Mine? Or English as a Lingua Franca? Comparing Effectiveness in English as a Lingua Franca and L1-L2 Interactions: Implications for Corporate Language Policies

    van Mulken, Margot; Hendriks, Berna

    2015-01-01

    For multinational corporations, the need for efficiency and control has motivated the choice for a corporate language. However, increasing internationalisation has forced corporations to rethink their language policies to cater to the changing demands of the multicultural and multilingual workplace. This paper explores two related issues. First,…

  13. Exploring the impact of different task-based language teaching scaffolding approaches in Wikispaces collaborative writing

    Huang, Shu-Ling; 黃淑玲

    2012-01-01

    Task-based Language Teaching is the process of experiential learning. Learners’ active involvement is central to this approach, i.e. Learning by Doing (Nunan, 2004). Technology is able to provide individual remedial/tutorial assistance, allow differentiation, offer enriched content, enhance motivation and encourage involvement (Branden, 2006). With technology, students can enjoy more self-learning chances for improving language skills. The implementation of Task-based Language Teaching an...

  14. Future directions in feedback on second language writing: Overview and research agenda

    Fiona Hyland

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn and Allen, it discusses how these papers situate written corrective feedback research in the wider area of second language acquisition research and contribute to the debate in feedback research on research design issues. This is followed by an examination of the major findings of the four situated empirical studies by Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary and Windeatt, and Martinez and Roca, which make up the second section. Echoing the authors of these papers, this article argues that we need more longitudinal naturalistic studies, adopting both cognitive and socio-cultural SLA frameworks to investigate the role of feedback and its impact on individual learners in more depth. Finally some pedagogic implications are discussed, including the need for feedback practices which facilitate students’ abilities to self regulate and evaluate their performance, and the need to raise teachers’ awareness of the different feedback sources and modes of delivery available to them.Este artículo ofrece una revisión de las siete aportaciones incluidas en este número especial sobre feedback, constatando cómo reflejan tanto el creciente interés por el tema en las distintas áreas de investigación como la continua búsqueda de técnicas más efectivas por parte del profesorado. Centrándose en primer lugar en las contribuciones de Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn y Allen, analiza cómo estos artículos sitúan la investigación sobre feedback en la corrección de trabajos escritos dentro del área más amplia de adquisición de segundas lenguas, contribuyendo al debate, dentro de la investigación sobre feedback, en torno a aspectos de diseño de la investigación. A continuación se examinan los resultados principales de los cuatro estudios empíricos realizados por Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary & Windeatt, y Martinez & Roca de Larios, que conforman la segunda sección. Siguiendo a estos autores, el artículo aboga por la realización de más estudios longitudinales de corte naturalista, que utilicen enfoques dentro del campo de la Adquisición de Segundas Lenguas tanto de carácter cognitivo como sociocultural, para investigar con más profundidad el papel del feedback y su impacto en perfiles concretos de aprendices. Finalmente, se tratan algunas implicaciones pedagógicas, incluyendo la necesidad de que las prácticas de feedback faciliten el desarrollo de habilidades de autocorrección y de evaluación del propio rendimiento por parte de los estudiantes, y la necesidad de incrementar el conocimiento que los docentes tienen acerca de las distintas fuentes y modos de implementación de feedback.

  15. Evaluating the Role of Writing in the First and Second Year University Foreign Language Curriculum

    Hubert, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to foreign language (FL) instruction have changed a great deal in the past fifty years, the most fundamental change being the shift from a focus solely on language form to a focus on communicative competence (CC). Although most FL instructors now appear to focus on CC in the teaching of speaking, they do not necessarily apply CC to…

  16. Developing Language and Writing Skills of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students: A Simultaneous Approach

    Dostal, Hannah M.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    In school, deaf and hard of hearing students (d/hh) are often exposed to American Sign Language (ASL) while also developing literacy skills in English. ASL does not have a written form, but is a fully accessible language to the d/hh through which it is possible to mediate understanding, draw on prior experiences, and engage critical thinking and…

  17. Effect of Developing Pragmatic Competence through Telecollaboration on Improving English as Foreign Language Learners' Writing Proficiency

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Rafieyan, Ali; Rafieyan, Navid; Rafieyan, Saeid; Rafieyan, Parvaneh; Rafieyan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    The very information structure of written communication depends not just on the writer's meaning and purpose but rather on the extent to which writer and reader share knowledge of pragmatic features of the language. To assess the actual effect of developing target language pragmatic competence through telecollaboration on improving English as…

  18. Facebook, Writing and Language Learner Variables at a Large Metropolitan Community College

    Dixon, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    This study gathered information on student engagement with Facebook, and described non-native English speakers' (NNS) expectations and experience. This also assessed the relationship this technology has with writing efficacy and compared NNS and native English speakers (NS) groups. Demographic data were collected and means were compared to…

  19. Verb-Noun Collocations in Second Language Writing: A Corpus Analysis of Learners' English

    Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…

  20. Writing Superheroes: Contemporary Childhood, Popular Culture, and Classroom Literacy. Language and Literacy Series.

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    Based on an ethnographic study in an urban classroom of 7- to 9-year olds, this book examines how young school children use popular culture, especially superhero stories, in the unofficial peer social world and in the official school literary curriculum. In one sense, the book is about children "writing superheroes"--about children appropriating…

  1. Teaching Reading and Writing in Local Language Using the Child-Centred Pedagogy in Uganda

    Akello, Dora Lucy; Timmerman, Greetje; Namusisi, Speranza

    2016-01-01

    Uganda introduced the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction in primary schools in 2007. This was meant to promote interaction and participation in the learning process and improve children's proficiency in reading and writing. Drawing elements of interaction and participation from the socio-cultural theory, the child-centred pedagogy was…

  2. Raising Learners' Awareness through L1-L2 Teacher Collaboration

    Gunning, Pamela; White, Joanna; Busque, Christine

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in teacher collaboration across mother tongue and second language curricula. However, cross-curricular collaboration in reading strategy instruction has seldom been investigated. We report a two-year study involving collaboration between the French first language (L1) and English second language (L2) teachers in an…

  3. Relationship among Iranian EFL Learners’ Self-efficacy in Writing, Attitude towards Writing, Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance

    Hoda Sarkhoush

    2013-01-01

    The main trust of the present study was to investigate whether writing performance in students of English as a foreign language (EFL) was related to self-efficacy in writing, writing apprehension,  and attitude towards writing. Fifty IELTS students (30 females and 20 males) studying IELTS Writing participated in this study. In order to collect data, three instruments were used which were a writing apprehension test (WAT), a self-efficacy in writing scale (SWS), and a questionnaire on att...

  4. The Impact of a Training Program Based on Pedagogical Knowledge on Improving the Speaking and Writing Skills Teaching Practices of Female English Language Teachers

    Weshah, Hani A.; Tomok, Tamara N.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a training program based on pedagogical knowledge on improving the speaking and writing skills teaching practices of female English language teachers. The participants consisted of 30 teachers: 10 as an experimental group and 20 as a control group. To answer the study questions, the researchers developed a…

  5. Paper Partners: A Peer-Led Talk-Aloud Academic Writing Program for Students Whose First Language of Academic Study Is Not English

    Vechter, Andrea; Brierley, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the Paper Partners program at Ryerson University, Toronto. This peer-mentoring program was developed to support the academic writing skills of students whose first language of academic study was not English. The program integrated a team of student-facilitators, a talk-aloud co-editing process, and a reflective feedback…

  6. Cultural Contexts and Situated Possibilities in the Teaching of Second Language Writing

    Tsui, ABM; Ng, MMY

    2010-01-01

    Premised on the conception of teacher knowledge as situated and the agency of the teacher in perceiving and exploiting "situated possibilities" in the classroom, this article argues that it is important for teachers to construct local understanding of their work embedded in the local cultural traditions and to explore possibilities for student learning in the context of constraints. The authors report on an investigation of the pedagogical strategies developed by two L2 writing teachers in Ho...

  7. Alienation, language and freedom : a note on Bildung in Hegel's writings

    Asger Sørensen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Bildung occupies a central place in the work of Hegel. In the Phenomenology of Spirit from 1807 it is clear that Bildung has a general meaning, which transcends educational contexts. Soon after the publication of the Phenomenology, however, Hegel became the rector of the humanistic Gymnasium in Nürnberg, and this position he kept until 1816. From this period we have some less well known writings, which explicitly discuss Bildung and relate it to educational use. These texts wer...

  8. Investigation of Writing Strategies, Writing Apprehension, and Writing Achievement among Saudi EFL-Major Students

    Al Asmari, AbdulRahman

    2013-01-01

    The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students' writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the…

  9. Supporting the Development of Autonomous Learning Skills in Reading and Writing in an Independent Language Learning Centre

    Hazel L. W. Chiu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development. These learner-centred support sessions aim to develop awareness of different types of learning strategies to suit individual learning needs, and cultivate interest and ability for continuous self-learning. The benefits of a semi-structured scaffolding format with attention to individual learning differences and supported by technology will be highlighted.

  10. Atribuição de significado à escrita, por crianças surdas usuárias de língua de sinais / Meaning assignment to writing by deaf children who are users of sign language

    Tânia dos Santos Alvarez da, Silva; Maria Augusta, Bolsanello.

    Full Text Available O artigo identifica orientações distintas presentes nas proposições metodológicas de ensino da escrita para surdos usuários de língua de sinais, assumidas na educação bilíngue. Assim, apresenta duas formas de interpretação e encaminhamento de proposições metodológicas de orientação bilíngue, em rela [...] ção ao ensino da escrita pelo surdo. O primeiro grupo de autores defende que o surdo deve aprender o português escrito tendo a língua de sinais como língua base. O segundo grupo, fundamentado em pesquisas da neuropsicologia cognitiva, defende que a escrita dos sinais, que deve ser a primeira língua escrita de aprendizes surdos sinalizadores. Conclui-se que as duas orientações sobre as possíveis relações entre o surdo e a escrita não devem ser tomadas como posições excludentes. Pelo contrário, sugere-se que a escrita dos sinais, enquanto um sistema simbólico repleto de significados, constitui-se como ferramenta eficiente para maximizar o desenvolvimento das funções psicológicas superiores dos aprendizes surdos, bem como para fornecer meios de aproximação com o sistema de escrita alfabética. Abstract in english This article identifies distinct guidelines on methodological propositions of the writing teaching for deaf users of sign language, which are assumed in bilingual education. So, it presents two forms of interpretation and routing of methodological propositions of bilingual orientation, in relation t [...] o the writing teaching by the deaf. The first group of authors defends that the deaf must learn written Portuguese having sign language as the base language. The second group, based on researches about cognitive neuropsychology, defends that SignWriting must be the first written language of deaf sign apprentices. We concluded that both orientations about the possible relations between the deaf and writing mustn't be taken as excluding positions. On the contrary, it is suggested that SignWriting, as a symbolic system full of meanings, is an efficient tool to maximize the development of higher psychological functions of the deaf apprentices, as well as to provide means of approximation with the system of alphabetic writing.

  11. The Use Of First Language In Limited English Proficiency Classes: Good, Bad Or Ugly?

    Siti Hamin Stapa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an ongoing debate among language teachers on whether to use students’ first language (L1 in second language (L2 teaching. Nevertheless, the use of L1 in L2 teaching has been advocated with grounded theory as far as it merits the situation. This research article aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of L1 to generate ideas for second language writing among low proficiency ESL learners. The study employed the experimental research design where students in the experimental group used Bahasa Melayu in generating ideas before they resumed writing their essays in English. Students in the control group used English. Two independent raters graded the essays and the scores were analysed using the paired t-test. The findings showed a marked improvement in the writing performance of students who used their first language to generate ideas before using their second language for writing. Based on the findings, we recommend that teachers encourage the use of first language before writing or composing in English especially among low-level proficiency ESL learners.

  12. Phonological Awareness and Oral Language Proficiency in Learning to Read English among Chinese Kindergarten Children in Hong Kong

    Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…

  13. «The Write Stuff»: The importance of language for medical writers

    Elise Langdon-Neuner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available «The Write Stuff (TWS» is the journal of the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA. It is a vibrant, well-read journal that has been published continuously for over 17 years. The journal publishes a balance of feature articles, regular columns, items to entertain, and reports on the association's activities. This article describes the journal and explains its success in meeting the needs of its readers, in particular by publishing articles on English grammar and style and devoting a section of the journal to translation. The article further discusses why there should be a need among medical writers to learn more about English and about translation. ---------------------------------- «The Write Stuff»: la importancia del lenguaje para los redactores médicos. «The Write Stuff (TWS», revista oficial de la European Medical Writers Association (EMWA, es una publicación muy vital que cuenta con numerosos lectores y se mantiene activa ininterrumpidamente desde hace más de 17 años. En ella se ofrece una equilibrada combinación de artículos de fondo, columnas habituales y elementos de carácter lúdico, y se informa de las actividades de la asociación. El presente artículo describe la revista y su capacidad para atender satisfactoriamente las necesidades de sus lectores, que radica en gran medida en la publicación de artículos sobre gramática y estilo del inglés y la existencia de una sección dedicada a la traducción. Asimismo, se comenta por qué los redactores médicos deberían sentir la necesidad de ampliar sus conocimientos de inglés y de traducción.

  14. Integrating Technologically - Enhanced Self - Regulated Strategies into Writing English as a Foreign Language Classes

    Abdullah Coşkun; Hamed Ghaemi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of technologically-enhanced (i.e., NetSupport School) self-regulated strategies (i.e., wrapper activity, think aloud and reciprocal teaching) on learners' achievement in the writing section of the TOEFL iBT (TOEFL Internet-based Test) and to explore the change in learners' self-regulated learning skill levels as a result of the technologically-enhanced self-regulated strategies training. Thirty-nine TOEFL iBT candidates who were studying TOEFL iBT ...

  15. Contribution of L1 in EFL Teaching

    Wahjuningsih Usadiati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted in a classroom action research to improve the students’ achievement in writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense in Structure 1 lessons. The subject consisted of 20 Semester II students who took Structure I lessons in English Education Department of Palangka Raya University, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The data were taken from the results of pre test and post test after the action was done. The results show that in cycle 1, in which the explanations were fully in English, only 40% of the students got a good achievement; 5-7 out of 20 test items were correct. After cycle 2 was done using L1 interchangeably with English in the explanations, the students’ achievement of writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense increased to 75%, in which 15-18 out 20 test items were correct.

  16. The Facilitating Role of L1 in ESL Classes

    Çağrı Tuğrul Mart

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.

  17. The Facilitating Role of L1 in ESL Classes

    Çağrı Tuğrul Mart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.

  18. "I Was Born Full Deaf." Written Language Outcomes after 1 Year of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction

    Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Dostal, Hannah M.; Bowers, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Nonstandard grammatical forms are often present in the writing of deaf students that are rarely, if ever, seen in the writing of hearing students. With the implementation of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) in previous studies, students have demonstrated significant gains in high-level writing skills (e.g., text structure) but…

  19. Developing the Second Language Writing Process through Social Media-Based Interaction Tasks

    Gómez, Julian Esteban Zapata

    2015-01-01

    This paper depicts the results from a qualitative research study focused on finding out the effect of interaction through social media on the development of second language learners' written production from a private school in Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia. The study was framed within concepts such as "social interaction," "digital…

  20. A Function-First Approach to Identifying Formulaic Language in Academic Writing

    Durrant, Philip; Mathews-Aydinli, Julie

    2011-01-01

    There is currently much interest in creating pedagogically-oriented descriptions of formulaic language. Research in this area has typically taken what we call a "form-first" approach, in which formulas are identified as the most frequent recurrent forms in a relevant corpus. While this research continues to yield valuable results, the present…

  1. Language Development for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Using "Step Up to Writing"

    Russell, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    Deaf and Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students often do not graduate with their same age peers, continue on to college, have satisfying social and emotional relationships, or achieve gainful employment as adults due to their delays in language and communication skills (Antia, Stinson, & Gaustad, 2002; Siegel, 2002a). The purpose of this study is to…

  2. Rocking Your Writing Program: Integration of Visual Art, Language Arts, & Science

    Poldberg, Monique M.,; Trainin, Guy; Andrzejczak, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the integration of art, literacy and science in a second grade classroom, showing how an integrative approach has a positive and lasting influence on student achievement in art, literacy, and science. Ways in which art, science, language arts, and cognition intersect are reviewed. Sample artifacts are presented along with their…

  3. Enhancing Writing Skills through Blogging in an Advanced English as a Foreign Language Class in Spain

    Vurdien, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Today Web 2.0 technologies, including blogs, are presenting both teachers and learners with new horizons in the field of language teaching and learning. A blog is an online journal which can be continuously updated by its users [Matheson, D. (2004). Weblogs and the epistemology of the news: Some trends in online journalism. "New Media & Society,…

  4. Understanding the Conceptual and Language Challenges Encountered by Grade 4 Students When Writing Scientific Explanations

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2015-03-01

    This study is an attempt to examine the use of linguistic resources by primary science students so as to understand the conceptual and language demands encountered by them when constructing written explanations. The students' written explanations and the instructional language (whole-class discussion and textbook) employed over the topic, the life cycle of plants, in four grade 4 classrooms (age 10) taught by three teachers constitute the data for this study. Students' written explanations were subjected to a combination of content and linguistic analysis. The linguistic analysis was conducted using selected analytical tools from the systemic functional linguistics framework. A diversity of linguistic resources and meanings were identified from the students' explanations, which reveal the extent to which the students were able to employ linguistic resources to construct written scientific explanations and the challenges involved. Both content and linguistic analyses also illuminate patterns of language use that are significant for realising scientific meanings. Finally, a comparison is made in the use of linguistic resources between the students' explanations and the instructional language to highlight possible links. This comparison reveals that the teachers' expectations of the students' written explanations were seldom reflected in their oral questioning or made explicit during the instruction. The findings of this study suggest that a focus on conceptual development is not sufficient in itself to foster students' ability to construct explanations. Pedagogical implications involving the support needed by primary students to construct scientific explanations are discussed.

  5. A Pedagogical Perspective on Promoting English as a Foreign Language Writing through Online Forum Discussions

    Jayaron, Jose; Abidin, Mohammed Jafre Zainol

    2016-01-01

    Use of educational technologies has become increasingly significant in the field of English Language Learning. Both the teachers and students are dependent on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its different tools for teaching and learning in particular, and socialization in general. The scope and significance of the study on the…

  6. Towards a Learner Need-Oriented Second Language Collocation Writing Assistant

    Ramos, Margarita Alonso; Carlini, Roberto; Codina-Filbà, Joan; Orol, Ana; Vincze, Orsolya; Wanner, Leo

    2015-01-01

    The importance of collocations, i.e. idiosyncratic binary word co-occurrences in the context of second language learning has been repeatedly emphasized by scholars working in the field. Some went even so far as to argue that "vocabulary learning is collocation learning" (Hausmann, 1984, p. 395). Empirical studies confirm this…

  7. The development of a CEFR-based scale for assessing young foreign language learners’ writing skills

    Karmen Pižorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR was designed with adults in mind, which is clearly reflected in the six levels encompassing a range of proficiency that represents lifelong learning. Therefore, any use of the CEFR levels as a basis for describing the ability of young learners requires adapting the content of each level, as well as identifying which levels on the scale are appropriate for children. The present article examines the contribution that feedback, in the form of an assessment scale, can make to valid classroom assessment of the writing of young learners, in the age group of 9–13 years. It shows that a scale of descriptors adapted from the CEFR can play a central role in this assessment. The article presents the AYLLIT (Assessment of Young Learner Literacy research project, which developed a CEFR-based writing scale and guidelines for teachers, enabling them to provide their students with feedback, and to gain a clearer insight into their students’ progress. After describing the procedures followed in the project, the article examines the extent to which its outcomes may enable teachers to give feedback that could contribute to valid classroom assessment.

  8. Writing: Function and Form

    McGrath, Ian

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to answer these questions: (1) whether writing practice has a place in foreign language instruction; and (2) if so, what kinds of writing pupils should learn. Suggestions are proposed as to content and procedure of a continuing course in writing skills for Dutch secondary schools. (AM)

  9. On Writing and Handwriting

    Kucera, Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Writing is often considered secondary to the spoken language, as it is only coded sound-by-sound. But other scholars have demonstrated that writing is similar to "arithmetic": a cognitive structuring, a shift to the meta-level ("for the eye"). "Handwriting" (referred to here as the cursive writing in the sense of…

  10. Rocking your Writing Program: Integration of Visual Art, Language Arts, & Science

    Poldberg, Monique M.; Trainin, Guy; Andrzejczak, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the integration of art, literacy and science in a second grade classroom, showing how an integrative approach has a positive and lasting influence on student achievement in art, literacy, and science. Ways in which art, science, language arts, and cognition intersect are reviewed. Sample artifacts are presented along with their analysis to show how students learn in an integrated unit that incorporates visual art as a key component. While we recognize the importance of ar...

  11. Alienation, language and freedom. A note on Bildung in Hegel's writings

    Asger Sørensen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Bildung occupies a central place in the work of Hegel. In the Phenomenology of Spirit from 1807 it is clear that Bildung has a general meaning, which transcends educational contexts. Soon after the publication of the Phenomenology, however, Hegel became the rector of the humanistic Gymnasium in Nürnberg, and this position he kept until 1816. From this period we have some less well known writings, which explicitly discuss Bildung and relate it to educational use. These texts were written at the hight of his philosophical maturity from, when he was working on The Science of Logic and the Encyclopedia, and they therefore deserve being taken seriously. When all these sources are brought together, however, an idea of Bildung often associated with Hegel, namely that Bildung is the result of productive work, seems to be mistaken. I first give a brief account of the general argument, secondly add some details from the Phenomenology to support the argument, and finally conclude with a few general remarks.

  12. Toward a Theory of Adaptive Transfer: Expanding Disciplinary Discussions of "Transfer" in Second-Language Writing and Composition Studies

    DePalma, Michael-John; Ringer, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition studies have focused primarily on the reuse of past learning and thus have not adequately accounted for the adaptation of learned writing knowledge in unfamiliar situations. In an effort to expand disciplinary discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition…

  13. Toward a Theory of Adaptive Transfer: Expanding Disciplinary Discussions of "Transfer" in Second-Language Writing and Composition Studies

    DePalma, Michael-John; Ringer, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition studies have focused primarily on the reuse of past learning and thus have not adequately accounted for the adaptation of learned writing knowledge in unfamiliar situations. In an effort to expand disciplinary discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition…

  14. From Response to Responsibility: A Study of the Other and Language in the Ethical Structure of Responsibility in the Writings of Bonhoetrer and Levinas

    Liu, Yinya

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the emergence of the concept of ethical responsibility in the writings of Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945) and Emmanuel Levinas (1906-1995). It argues that 'the other' and 'language' are both indispensable and correlative elements in the analysis of ethical responsibility presented by these two authors. Chapter one outlines the main theories of responsibility that have unfolded down in the history of philosophy to the twentieth century, noting the need to re...

  15. Exploring a New Technique for Comparing Bilinguals' L1 and L2 Reading Speed

    Gauvin, Hanna S.; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Is it possible to tell whether bilinguals are able to read simple text in their two languages equally fluently? Is it thus possible to distinguish balanced bilinguals from unbalanced bilinguals with respect to reading fluency in their first language (L1) and second language (L2)? In this study, we avoided making direct comparisons between L1 and…

  16. Learning a Second Language Naturally the Voice Movement Icon Approach

    Manuela Macedonia

    2013-01-01

    Second language (L2) instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1) acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI) approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI i...

  17. Editorial. Crossing cultural boundaries. A window into diverse issues and contexts in L1-Education.

    Kooy, M.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue of L1 – Educational Studies in Language and Literature is the largest single issue we have produced since our introduction in 2000. Containing seven articles, it covers a range of L1 issues: reform movements, the role of literature, culture and multiculturalism in L1, literacy, technology, reading comprehension and the role of oral and written language in L1 Teacher Education.

  18. MATERIAL, EDUCATIONAL, AND IDEOLOGICAL CHALLENGES OF TEACHING EFL WRITING AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

    Ilona Leki

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of literature on teaching English writing focuses primarily on English dominant contexts. The particular situation of writing instruction in non-English dominant countries has received insufficient attention, especially in light of some of the claims for the role of writing coming from the "center" countries. English language teachers, particularly those teaching in non-English dominant countries, who give substantial attention in their courses to teaching writing in English face a number of challenges. This article discusses two main categories of challenges. In the first group are challenges writing teachers face daily, such as class size, time constraints, accommodating local needs, and coping with problems connected to lack of both teacher experience in teaching L2 writing and student training in L1 writing. In the second group are challenges of a more ideological nature that are perhaps less obvious but more powerful and far-reaching, including the need to justify the large investment required on the part of institutions and individuals in order to teach L2 writing, the right to resist center imposed materials and methods, the need for dialogue with students about the role of writing in their lives, and the need to make L2 writing enhance learner options rather than limit them so that for learners, writing in L2 becomes not a pointless additional burden but a powerful means of accomplishing personal goals.

  19. A description of ASL features in writing

    KIMBERLY A. WOLBERS; Shannon C. Graham; Hannah M. Dostal; Bowers, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Similar to second language students who embed features of their primary languages in the writing of their second languages, deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh) writers utilize features of American Sign Language (ASL) in their writing of English. The purpose of this study is to identify categories of language transfer, provide the prevalence of these transfer tendencies in the writings of 29 d/hh adolescents and describe whether language features are equally or differently responsive to instructio...

  20. e-Text Watermarking: Utilizing 'Kashida' Extensions in Arabic Language Electronic Writing

    Adnan Abdul-Aziz Gutub

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital signal. This work targets web applications that need to have hidden secure data within their Arabic e-text files. Many related watermarking techniques have been proposed as for text watermarking. However, most of them are suitable for English and cannot be generalized for different other languages such as Arabic. Arabic e-text watermarking is found having unique characteristics features that can be considered interestingly. In this paper, we are utilizing the extension Arabic character ‘Kashida’ to propose an improved method for Arabic e-text watermarking. We utilize all the extendable characters possibly fitted in words to represent some watermark bits. We embed bits within 'Kashida' characters in the cover text based on a secret key similar to classical cryptography. Our study showed that this watermarking scheme made the task of an attack much harder compared to previous similar and related methods. It also showed possibility to hide more secret data bits without degrading the security, which is believed to be attractive for web e-text data application such as preserving intellectual properties or copyright features.

  1. Exploring Academic Writing and Voice in ESL Writing

    Doris Correa

    2009-01-01

    This literature review explores two basic questions: First, why have English as a Second Language (ESL)/English as a Foreign Language (EFL) academic writing courses not been able to significantly help ESL/EFL students meet the academic writing demands of their university courses? Second, how can ESL/EFL writing instructors better help these students succeed in their undergraduate courses? To respond to these questions, the author reviews how notions of academic writing, text, and voice have ch...

  2. HOW DO WE LEARN ANOTHER LANGUAGE?

    Arun Behera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used by a social group. It may be either spoken or written. Every human being uses a language to communicate to other members of the society (she is a part of. While we acquire our mother tongues (L1, we learn the other language(s. Linguists talk of several approaches to language learning process, more prominent approaches being grammar-translation, direct, audio-lingual and contrastive analysis. Similarly, four of the major skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing (LSRW are also involved in language learning process. Our learning an additional language enriches and helps us build a communication rapport with a larger society or social group.

  3. The L^1 Ehrenpreis Conjecture

    Gendron, T. M.

    2005-01-01

    Let \\hat{S} be the algebraic universal cover of a closed surface of genus >1, T(\\hat{S}) its Teichmuller space, M(\\hat{S}) the group of mapping classes stabilizing a fixed leaf l. The L^1 Ehrenpreis conjecture asserts that M(\\hat{S}) on T(\\hat{S}) with dense orbits with respect to the L^1 topology (the topology induced by the L^1 norm on quadratic differentials). We give a proof of this weaker form of the Ehrenpreis conjecture.

  4. Phraseology and Frequency of Occurrence on the Web: Native Speakers' Perceptions of Google-Informed Second Language Writing

    Geluso, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based theories of language learning suggest that native speakers of a language are acutely aware of formulaic language due in large part to frequency effects. Corpora and data-driven learning can offer useful insights into frequent patterns of naturally occurring language to second/foreign language learners who, unlike native speakers, are…

  5. The L2 Acquisition of Spanish Rhotics by L1 English Speakers: The Effect of L1 Articulatory Routines and Phonetic Context for Allophonic Variation

    Olsen, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a fine-grained investigation of how first-language (L1) phonetics involving English rhotics affect Spanish rhotic production by second-language (L2) learners. Specifically, this study investigates how different L1 English rhotic articulatory routines (retroflex-like and bunched-like) and the phonetic context that produces…

  6. Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays

    Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2013-01-01

    It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

  7. The L2 Acquisition of Spanish Rhotics by L1 English Speakers: The Effect of L1 Articulatory Routines and Phonetic Context for Allophonic Variation

    Olsen, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a fine-grained investigation of how first-language (L1) phonetics involving English rhotics affect Spanish rhotic production by second-language (L2) learners. Specifically, this study investigates how different L1 English rhotic articulatory routines (retroflex-like and bunched-like) and the phonetic context that produces…

  8. Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays

    Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2013-01-01

    It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

  9. The L1 transportation node

    Lemke, Norbert M. K.

    1992-08-01

    A concept of a transportation node positioned at L1 Lagrange point of the earth-moon system is proposed. The L1 equally gravitates towards the earth and the moon and is definitely fixed between them. Topics discussed include the transporation mode elements; the preliminary design; a mass model; an operational model that takes into account the development, construction, and operation of a spaceport; and estimated costs.

  10. The Effect of Using Portfolio-based Writing Assessment on Language Learning: The Case of Young Iranian EFL Learners

    Saeed Taki; Maryam Heidari

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of portfolio-based writing assessment in EFL situations. Participants were 40 pre-intermediate young Iranian English learners. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 20 each. The experimental group wrote on five pre-established topics from their coursebook. Their writings were checked in terms of ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions of writing by two raters. They were given another oppo...

  11. Immediate Web-Based Essay Critiquing System Feedback and Teacher Follow-Up Feedback on Young Second Language Learners' Writings: An Experimental Study in a Hong Kong Secondary School

    Lee, Cynthia; Cheung, William Kwok Wai; Wong, Kelvin Chi Kuen; Lee, Fion Sau Ling

    2013-01-01

    This article is an effort to add to computer-assisted language learning by extending a study on an essay critiquing system (ECS) feedback to secondary school language learners' writing. The study compared two groups of participants' performance, namely the treatment group which received both the system feedback and teacher feedback (i.e., blended…

  12. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  13. The Effects of Language of Instruction on the Reading and Writing Achievement of First-Grade Hispanic Children.

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Beeman, Margaret M.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that (1) children taught in Spanish did not differ from those taught in English on English reading and writing but were significantly stronger on Spanish reading and writing; (2) being taught literacy in Spanish contributed to performance in Spanish reading comprehension; but (3) being taught in English did not have the same positive effect…

  14. The Effect of Using Portfolio-Based Writing Assessment on Language Learning: The Case of Young Iranian EFL Learners

    Taki, Saeed; Heidari, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of portfolio-based writing assessment in EFL situations. Participants were 40 pre-intermediate young Iranian English learners. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 20 each. The experimental group wrote on five pre-established topics from their coursebook. Their writings were…

  15. Word Reduction Editing in Second-Language Scientific Writing by East Asian and South Asian Chemistry Graduate Students

    Churchill, David G.

    2006-01-01

    A recursive scientific writing project was undertaken in a second-year, graduate-level course to teach students who were non-native English speakers to write scientific communications clearly and concisely in English. The instructor returned students' brief texts with editorial revisions marked to show how increased clarity may be achieved through…

  16. L1₀ FePtCu bit patterned media.

    Brombacher, C; Grobis, M; Lee, J; Fidler, J; Eriksson, T; Werner, T; Hellwig, O; Albrecht, M

    2012-01-20

    Chemically ordered 5 nm-thick L1₀ FePtCu films with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were post-patterned by nanoimprint lithography into a dot array over a 3 mm-wide circumferential band on a 3 inch Si wafer. The dots with a diameter of 30 nm and a center-to-center pitch of 60 nm appear as single domain and reveal an enhanced switching field as compared to the continuous film. We demonstrate successful recording on a single track using shingled writing with a conventional hard disk drive write/read head. PMID:22166619

  17. Writing Music Therapy

    Mary Helena Rykov

    2011-01-01

    Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.

    Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many ...

  18. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Joel Scott

    2010-01-01

    This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, transla...

  19. Long-Term Crosslinguistic Transfer of Skills from L1 to L2

    Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) skills in elementary school and second language (L2) learning in high school. Students classified as high-, average-, and low-proficiency L2 learners were compared on L1 achievement measures of reading, spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and listening comprehension…

  20. Possibility of Crosslingual Transfer: A Comparative Study of Chinese (L1) and English (L2) Lessons

    He, An E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a comparative study of first language (L1) Chinese and second language (L2) English lessons in Hong Kong secondary schools. Aiming to explore how to take advantage of L1 academic proficiency for the benefit of L2 development, the study asked how Chinese and English lessons compare in terms of the content knowledge covered and…

  1. The Relationship between L1 Fluency and L2 Fluency Development

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ronald I.; Rossiter, Marian J.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in the study of second language (L2) fluency is the extent to which temporal characteristics of speakers' first language (L1) productions predict the same characteristics in the L2. A close relationship between a speaker's L1 and L2 temporal characteristics would suggest that fluency is governed by an underlying trait. This…

  2. L2 Acquisition of Prosodic Properties of Speech Rhythm: Evidence from L1 Mandarin and German Learners of English

    Li, Aike; Post, Brechtje

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) learners of typologically different first languages (L1s) at different levels of proficiency. An empirical investigation of durational variation in L2 English productions by L1 Mandarin learners and L1 German learners compared to native control values in English and the…

  3. L2 Acquisition of Prosodic Properties of Speech Rhythm: Evidence from L1 Mandarin and German Learners of English

    Li, Aike; Post, Brechtje

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) learners of typologically different first languages (L1s) at different levels of proficiency. An empirical investigation of durational variation in L2 English productions by L1 Mandarin learners and L1 German learners compared to native control values in English and the…

  4. Sidestepping Our "Scare Words": Genre as a Possible Bridge between L1 and L2 Compositionists

    Costino, Kimberly A.; Hyon, Sunny

    2011-01-01

    In light of the increasing student diversity in U.S. university composition classrooms, there is a strong need for collaboration between L1 and L2 writing specialists. Differences in the lexicons of our two fields, however, as well as the philosophical differences embedded in our word choices, can hinder productive L1-L2 communication. The purpose…

  5. Learning the language of school history: the role of linguistics in mapping the writing demands of the secondary school curriculum

    Coffin, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study which used the tools of functional linguistics to illuminate the writing requirements of the history curriculum in the context of Australian secondary schools. It shows how the resulting linguistic description was integrated into a sequence of teaching and learning activities through collaboration between linguist specialists and content/pedagogic specialists. These activities were designed to facilitate students’ writing skills whilst simultaneously dev...

  6. Self-expressions, Socialization and Learning in Dialogue Journals: Features of Beginner Writers in Second Language Writing

    Mahani Mansor; Latisha Asmaak Shafie; Anis Maesin; Surina Nayan; Nazira Osman

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative learning involves learners working together as a group in maximizing their learning experience and in developing the learners’ sense of belonging to the group. This paper discusses the features of a collaborative writing activity, the dialogue journal, that exist during a writing activity. The features were discussed based on literature and a case study on a group of second-year ESL learners of Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis, Malaysia. The selections of the students’ dialogue ...

  7. Uniqueness and Overlap: Characteristics and Longitudinal Correlates of Native Chinese Children’s Writing in English as a Foreign Language

    Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wagner, Richard K.; Chan, Shingfong

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal predictors of writing composition in Chinese and English written by the same 153 Hong Kong nine-year-old children were tested, and their production errors within the English essays across ten categories, focusing on punctuation, spelling, and grammar, were compared to errors made by ninety American nine-year-olds writing on the same topic. The correlation between quality of the compositions in Chinese and English was .53. In stepwise regression analyses examining early predictors...

  8. Writing Quality Predicts Chinese Learning

    Guan, Connie Qun; Perfetti, Charles A.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of…

  9. Using L1 in Teaching English to Advanced Students

    Khalid Al Hariri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using L1 in the English classroom has long been considered as an unforgivable wrongdoing. Many English teachers who use L1 in the classroom feel guilty about it and in many cases do not admit it. Recent researchers started to question the validity of this claim suggesting contexts and situations in which using L1 can be very helpful in ELT and refuting, on the other hand, the claims upon which the idea of using L2 solely were built.  My paper will examine the attitudes of advanced English language learners toward using L1 in the class of English where the students and the teacher speak the same first language and will also examine the attitudes of a group of EFL and ESL teachers toward the same practice. The same questionnaire given to the students will be redesigned and given to a number of teachers so that the study will look at the viewpoints from both perspectives.Keywords:  L1, Code Switching, Interference of L1, ELT, TESOL

  10. Learners’ L1 Use in a Task-based Classroom

    Bao, Rui; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, strong theoretical and pedagogical arguments have been made advocating for task-based activities in the language-learning context. However, many teachers have been reluctant to in- corporate task-based activities into their teaching practices due to concerns about learners......’ extensive L1 use and off-task talk. Informed by sociocultural theory, this study explored the extent to which L1s and their func- tions were used when performing tasks. The subjects were beginner-level lower-secondary school learners of Chinese. The data shows that learners have a high amount of L1 use, but...... with only a very small amount oc- curring for off-task talk across tasks. L1 use mainly occurred in learners’ efforts to mediate completion of the tasks. The findings highlight the role of L1 in foreign language learning and suggest that L1 use is associated with a number of factors, such as task types...

  11. Using Writing Activities to Reinforce Mathematics Instruction.

    Davison, David M.; Pearce, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Presents writing activities appropriate in the mathematics classroom in the five categories of direct use of language, linguistic translation, summarizing, applied use of language, and creative use of language. (PK)

  12. Conceptualising the Potential Role of L1 in CLIL

    Lin, Angel M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a rapidly growing area of both research and practice in all parts of the world, especially in Europe and Asia. As a young discipline, CLIL has a good potential of distinguishing itself from monolingual L2 immersion education models by becoming more flexible and balanced about the role of L1 in…

  13. Conceptualising the Potential Role of L1 in CLIL

    Lin, Angel M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a rapidly growing area of both research and practice in all parts of the world, especially in Europe and Asia. As a young discipline, CLIL has a good potential of distinguishing itself from monolingual L2 immersion education models by becoming more flexible and balanced about the role of L1 in…

  14. A Systemic-Functional Analysis of English Language Learners' Writing / Uma Análise Sistêmico-Funcional de Redações de Aprendizes da Língua Inglesa

    Luciana C. DE, OLIVEIRA.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma análise sistêmico-funcional de duas redações originadas do Exame de Redação Analítica da Universidade da Califórnia, escritas por aprendizes da lingua inglesa. A análise mostra as escolhas linguísticas utilizadas nessas duas redações, uma que recebeu uma nota alta e uma q [...] ue recebeu uma nota baixa no exame. O artigo descreve algumas das escolhas gramaticais que são funcionais para a redação expositiva, divididas em três categorias principais: escolhas textuais, interpessoais e ideacionais. Depois dessa breve descrição é apresentada a análise das duas redações em termos desses recursos. O artigo mostra as diferenças entre as redações em termos das escolhas linguísticas usadas pelos dois autores. Algumas conclusões para a prática educacional e recomendações para educadores baseados na análise serão incluídas. Abstract in english This article presents a systemic-functional linguistic analysis of two writing samples of the University of California Analytical Writing Placement (AWP) Examination written by English language learners (ELLs). The analysis shows the linguistic features utilized in the two writing samples, one that [...] received a passing score and one that received a failing score. The article describes some of the grammatical resources which are functional for expository writing, which are divided under three main categories: textual, interpersonal, and ideational resources. Following this brief description is the analysis of both essays in terms of these resources.. The configuration of grammatical features used in the essays make up the detached style of essay 1 and the more personal style of essay 2. These grammatical features include the textual resources of thematic choices and development, clause-combining strategies (connectors), and lexical cohesion; interpersonal resources of interpersonal metaphors of modality; and ideational resources of nominalization and abstractions as ideational metaphors. Implications for educational practice and recommendations for educators based on the analysis are provided.

  15. Don't be afraid of writing

    This book deals with requirements of good writings, comprehension toward characters of language, understanding of subjects and materials, grasp of structure of writings, and reality of writing. It contains theoretical requirements of good writing such as creativity, clearness, probity, how to understand the right meanings of language by showing standard languages, dialects, foreign languages, loan words, newly coined words, in-words, slangs, jargon. It also introduces subjects, topics, materials, sentences, meaning, structure, type, requirement, length of paragraphs, diaries, letter writings, travel essays, descriptions, and essays.

  16. Reading Skills and Strategies: Assessing Primary School Students’ Awareness in L1 and EFL Strategy Use

    Evdokimos Aivazoglou; Eleni Griva

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed and conducted with the purpose to assess primary school students’ awareness in GL1 (Greek as first language) and EFL (English as a foreign language) strategy use and investigate the relations between the reported reading strategies use in first (L1) and foreign language (FL).  The sample (455 students attending the fifth and sixth grades of primary schools in Northern Greece) was first categorized into skilled and less skilled L1 and EFL readers through screenin...

  17. The Use of Narrative Analysis as a Research and Evaluation Method of Atypical Language: The Case of Deaf Writing

    Koutsoubou, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper argues the use of "narratives" as the most appropriate evaluation method in cases of atypical language production. Narrative as a genre has an ecological validity that other genres used in language research and evaluation do not have. Narratives develop naturally from very early, they are independent of education and academic…

  18. Teaching and Assessing Academic Writing via the Portfolio: Benefits for Learners of English as an Additional Language

    Romova, Zina; Andrew, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the use of portfolios as pedagogical tools for developing academic writing. In particular, it considers the value of multi-drafting, where learners reflect on the learning of a text type as well as focusing on micro and macro aspects. The paper outlines a situated pedagogical approach, where students come to understand their…

  19. Out of a Writing Conference: Speaking Writing Connection

    Utami Widiati

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value onl...

  20. A Closer Look at Interactive Writing

    Patterson, Elizabeth; Schaller, Megan; Clemens, Jeannine

    2008-01-01

    Interactive writing is a powerful tool to help students of all ages master writing skills in a purposeful way. During this process, students deepen their understanding of language, conventions of print, and how words work. Interactive writing helps teachers and students collaborate in the construction of text, and meaningful writing is created in…

  1. WRITING ANXIETIES OF PEOPLE WHO LEARN TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE/TÜRKÇEYİ YABANCI DİL OLARAK ÖĞRENENLERİN YAZMA KAYGILARI

    Sedat MADEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Latin proverb “verba volant scripta manent” meaning “spoken words fly away, written words remain” best shows the importance of writing skill which is one of the basic language skills. When it comes to writing skills of foreign students, making plans in target language in regards to this skill and develop a habit of writing are more difficult and exhausting compared to those for native speakers of a language. The aim of the study is to investigate writing anxieties of foreign students in Turkish universities according to such variables; “their gender, nationality, academic department, other foreign language they speak, their aim of learning Turkish, their level of Turkish and their reading habits and to explore whether there are any significant differences between the students’ writing anxieties with respect to these variables. For the study, 172 foreign students who study in different departments of Giresun University in 2014-2015 education year participated. The study is a survey type research study. The data was gathered through “Writing Anxiety Scale” which was created by the researchers in order to determine writing anxieties of foreign students. It was found that foreign students usually felt anxiety about writing in Turkish and their level of anxiety differentiated according to such variables; nationality, alphabet of their native language and their reading habits. Temel dil becerilerinden birisi olan yazma becerisinin önemini “Söz uçar, yazı kalır.” atasözü en güzel şekilde ifade etmektedir. Yabancı uyruklu öğrencilere yazma becerisi kazandırma söz konusu olduğunda, bu becerinin hedef dilde planlanması ve alışkanlık hâline dönüştürülmesi zahmetli ve zor olmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ülkemizde öğrenim gören yabancı uyruklu üniversite öğrencilerinin yazma kaygılarını cinsiyet, uyruk, öğrenim gördüğü fakülte/yüksekokul, bildiği diğer yabancı diller, Türkçeyi öğrenme amacı, Türkçe düzeyi, okuma alışkanlığı gibi değişkenler ışığında ele almak ve bu değişkenler açısından öğrencilerin yazma kaygıları arasında anlamlı fark olup olmadığını tespit etmektir. Araştırma, 2014-2015 eğitim-öğretim yılında Giresun Üniversitesinin değişik bölümlerinde öğrenim gören 172 yabancı uyruklu öğrenci üzerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışma, tarama modeliyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Verilerin elde edilmesinde araştırmacılar tarafından yabancı uyruklu öğrencilerin yazma kaygılarının tespitine yönelik geliştirilen “Yazma Kaygısı Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Yabancı uyruklu öğrencilerin Türkçe yazarken çoğunlukla kaygılandıkları, kaygı düzeylerinin uyruk, alfabe farkı, okuma alışkanlığı gibi etkenlere bağlı olarak farklılaştığı tespit edilmiştir.

  2. Revisiting Plain Language.

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  3. "Visual Learning Is the Best Learning--It Lets You Be Creative while Learning": Exploring Ways to Begin Guided Writing in Second Language Learning through the Use of Comics

    Rossetto, Marietta; Chiera-Macchia, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of comics (Cary, 2004) in a guided writing experience in secondary school Italian language learning. The main focus of the peer group interaction task included the exploration of visual sequencing and visual integration (Bailey, O'Grady-Jones, & McGown, 1995) using image and text to create a comic strip narrative in…

  4. DESCRIPTIVE VERSUS DIALOGIC REFLECTION AND POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE STANCE IN THE REFLECTIVE WRITING OF TURKISH PROSPECTIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS

    Amanda YEŞİLBURSA

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in thei...

  5. "Why Do You Write Your Name Long Like That?" Language and Literacy in a San Francisco Kindergarten

    Helgesen, Espen

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate the role of language awareness in early literacy, and argue that skills acquired when becoming literate can provide resources for manipulating social as well as textual relations. Based on ethnographic research among a group of 5- and 6-year old kindergartners in a San Francisco public school, I describe how the kids' personal names provided them with stable landmarks with which to explore both oral and written language. The capacity of names to facilitate communi...

  6. Curriculum: Foreign language learning

    Lin, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various issues related to curriculum in foreign language learning, and in particular focuses on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Foreign language learning is taken to mean the learning of a language other than the learner’s first language (L1), and this language is not ordinarily used in the learner’s everyday life. Thus, foreign language learning contexts are very different from second language learning contexts, for in second language learni...

  7. Comparing Hypertext Reading in L1 and L2: The Case of Filipino Adults

    Gruspe, Michael Angelo M.; Marinas, Christian Joshua L.; Villasin, Marren Nicole F.; Villanueva, Ariel Josephe Therese R.; Vizconde, Camilla J.

    2015-01-01

    This research probed into the reading experiences of adult readers in their first language (L1) and second language (L2). Qualitative in nature, the investigation focused on twelve (12) adult readers , six (6) males and six (6) females, whose first language is Filipino. Data were gathered through interviews and focus-group discussions. Based on…

  8. Comparing Hypertext Reading in L1 and L2: The Case of Filipino Adults

    Gruspe, Michael Angelo M.; Marinas, Christian Joshua L.; Villasin, Marren Nicole F.; Villanueva, Ariel Josephe Therese R.; Vizconde, Camilla J.

    2015-01-01

    This research probed into the reading experiences of adult readers in their first language (L1) and second language (L2). Qualitative in nature, the investigation focused on twelve (12) adult readers , six (6) males and six (6) females, whose first language is Filipino. Data were gathered through interviews and focus-group discussions. Based on…

  9. The L1 vs. L2 Acquisition of English Interrogation. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 15.

    Wode, Henning

    Several recent reports on the untutored second language acquisition of English have suggested that the same developmental sequence holds for the acquisition of the interrogative structures irrespective of whether English is acquired as a first language (L1) or a second language (L2). These studies have been conducted within the Klima & Bellugi…

  10. The influence of instructional support and teaching practices on first raders reading and writing. A comparative study in whole language and phonics classes.

    Pasa., L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares first graders’ acquisition of literacy in two different instructional settings. One teacher used a traditional skill-based approach while the other one was identified as a whole language teacher using literature and writing experiences with incidental attention to phonics. During the school year, documentation collection about the pedagogy included questionnaires, field notes of monthly observations of reading and writing lessons, systematic collections of the activities, and analysis of the linguistic structures contained in the texts used for reading lessons in both classrooms. Data collection was conducted longitudinally and involved three tasks: invented spelling, oral reading and reading content recall. Various analyses indicate that both groups of children learnt the graphophonic system and were able to use it for encoding and decoding. Differences between the two groups were in the difficulties encountered in the three tasks. The influence of the way the teacher leads the reading lessons, the activities proposed and the reading supports used on first graders’ difficulties and the strategies used are discussed.

  11. Academic writing in a corpus of 4th grade science notebooks: An analysis of student language use and adult expectations of the genres of school science

    Esquinca, Alberto

    This is a study of language use in the context of an inquiry-based science curriculum in which conceptual understanding ratings are used split texts into groups of "successful" and "unsuccessful" texts. "Successful" texts could include known features of science language. 420 texts generated by students in 14 classrooms from three school districts, culled from a prior study on the effectiveness of science notebooks to assess understanding, in addition to the aforementioned ratings are the data sources. In science notebooks, students write in the process of learning (here, a unit on electricity). The analytical framework is systemic functional linguistics (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004), specifically the concepts of genre, register and nominalization. Genre classification involves an analysis of the purpose and register features in the text (Schleppegrell, 2004). The use of features of the scientific academic register, namely the use relational processes and nominalization (Halliday and Martin, 1993), requires transitivity analysis and noun analysis. Transitivity analysis, consisting of the identification of the process type, is conducted on 4737 ranking clauses. A manual count of each noun used in the corpus allows for a typology of nouns. Four school science genres, procedures, procedural recounts reports and explanations, are found. Most texts (85.4%) are factual, and 14.1% are classified as explanations, the analytical genre. Logistic regression analysis indicates that there is no significant probability that the texts classified as explanation are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, material process clauses predominate in the corpus, followed by relational process clauses. Results of a logistic regression analysis indicate that there is a significant probability (Chi square = 15.23, p physical materials, followed by references to abstract concepts (35.54%). Only two of the concept nouns were found to be nominalized referents in definition model sentences. In sum, the corpus has recognizable genres and features science language, and relational processes are more prevalent in "successful" texts. However, the pervasive feature of science language, nominalization, is scarce.

  12. Teaching Multicultural Awareness and Understanding through the Language Arts--Creative Writing: Suggested Topics for Creative and Expository Writing Based on the Roots of the Cuban Culture for Use with Cuban Children and Others Who are Interested in Understanding Their Culture.

    Sullivan, Zola Jiles

    Intended to help teachers in developing language arts curriculum materials for use with recent Cuban refugees to the United States, this paper contains 300 topics for creative and expository writing based on the roots of the Cuban culture. The topics cover a variety of subjects, including food preparation, memories of Cuba, experiences in a new…

  13. L1 and L2 Reading: the Orthographic Effects of Japanese on Reading in English.

    Akamatsu, Nobuhiko

    1998-01-01

    Provides background information on Japanese writing system and how most Japanese learn to read Japanese at school, discusses history and practice of typical English-language education in Japan, presents review of recent research on word recognition and the effects of first-language reading on English-as-a-Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL), and…

  14. Improving the Ability of Writing Argumentative Essays of Iranian EFL Learners by Raising Awareness of Rhetoric Transfer

    SADEGHI, Bahador; Maleki, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of raising awareness about rhetoric transfer on the ability of writing argumentative essays of Iranian EFL learners. One of the most important issues in EFL mainstream has been the effect of L1 on L2. In discussion of Error analysis, one of the errors with high frequency in the EFL classroom is caused by the interference of first language. It seems that making comparison between L1 and L2 rhetoric can reveal the patterns of nega...

  15. Extrap L-1 experimental stability

    In the Extrap scheme a Z-pinch is stabilized by imposing a strongly inhomogeneous octupole magnetic field. This field is generated by four conductor rods, each carrying equal currents Iv antiparallel to the plasma current Ip itself. Theoretically, interchange stability is improved by the magnetic field, as well as long-wavelength kinks due to induced currents in the plasma and in the rods. Short wavelength kinks are, as in the 1-D pinch, stabilized by FLR and viscous-resistive effects. We have performed a set of experiments in the linear Extrap L-1 device (length 40 cm, plasma radius a 2 cm, rod distance 3 cm) in order to determine optimal performance in terms of confined current (5-20 kA) and stability during the discharge length (80 μs; of the order 100 Alfven times). In this paper we summarize our results from two types of experiments; with and without external axial magnetic field. The results are compared with theory in the final paragraph. (author) 5 figs

  16. The Effect of Process Writing Practice on the Writing Quality of Form One Students: A Case Study

    Majid Pour-Mohammadi; Mohamad Jafre Zainol Abidin; Cheong Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Teachers who teach English as a second language are committed to develop an understanding and improvement of second language writing as learning to write in the second language is a complicated process. Despite the numerous research on second language writing, the phenomenon of writing is constantly under investigation as teachers want to share the findings of each study which provides knowledge that resonates with their teaching experience. This case study is a report about the effect of pro...

  17. Teaching Writing

    Tomas, Z.; Kostka, I.; Mott-Smith, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of "Teaching Writing" draw on their years of teaching and their knowledge of theory and research to present major concepts in teaching L2 writing. These concepts encompass how cultural differences affect the writing class, planning instruction, text-based writing, writing strategies, modeling, and responding to student…

  18. Language as capital in international university education

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    academic discourse skills are transferable from L1 to L2 and best acquired in L1, but it is not clear to what extent these skills represent usable capital in professional life. Graduates often report having to write in a very different style from the one they have been taught at university. There may be a......As Bourdieu and Passeron noted, academic discourse is never anyone’s ‘mother tongue’. Acquisition of this discourse in one’s first language is a prime aim of undergraduate education, but there is evidence that a substantial minority of students fail to acquire it. There is strong evidence that...... strikingly across disciplines. This paper uses Bourdieu’s framework to assess the types of linguistic capital – academic discourse, foreign-language fluency, and more – to be acquired in the internationalized university, their utility in the personal advancement of graduates in various societies, and the...

  19. Pedagogical Implications to Teaching English Writing

    Fushan Sun

    2010-01-01

    English, as an international language, takes such a position in foreign language teaching and learning in China. As we all know that the ultimate purpose of language teaching is to cultivate students’ communicative ability including not only the oral ability, but also the writing ability. However, teaching of English writing is far from satisfactory, and many students still have a great difficulty in writing English composition. They find it hard to express their ideas and feeling freely and ...

  20. Applying Quality Function Deployment Approach to Design an English as a Foreign Language Writing Course for Engineering Students

    S. Abdollahi-Negar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to incorporate the Quality Function Deployment (QFD to be integrated strategically in designing and managing a writing course within an English learning system. Understanding the user`s needs in these communities has become the first priority of learning systems for designing, running and managing effective learning services to meet the increasing expectations of the users. To achieve this, the learning system strives to improve their quality of service by applying a wide range of such quality management approaches as QFD. QFD initially stresses on driving continuous improvement of the user-oriented services towards end-user satisfaction.

  1. Some issues for the teaching of writing

    Lombana Claudia Helena

    2009-01-01

    In this article the definition of writing as a means and as an end is analyzed in order to raise some concerns about the teaching of writing at different schools in general. From this definition I question other important issues that ultimately affect our students¿ writing production. These have to deal with the use of writing in the mother language, writing activities in the textbooks, the realistic nature of the writing tasks, the other language skills input, and the production of texts. Th...

  2. Reference: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE

    Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 Abe M, Takahashi T, Komeda Y Identification of a cis-regulatory element for L1 la...yer-specific gene expression, which is targeted by an L1-specific homeodomain protein Plant J 26: 487-494 (2001) PubMed: 11439135; ...

  3. Main: L1DCPAL1 [PLACE

    Full Text Available L1DCPAL1 S000504 15-September-2006 (last modified) kehi L1 element, found in PAL1 promoter in ca ... rrot (Daucus ... carota), is a protoplastization (dilution) respons ... ACCC); see also S000492 (BOXL CORE of DC PAL1); L1 Daucus ... carota (carrot) ATTCACCTACCC ...

  4. Lenguas extranjeras, escritura y desarrollo: un reto para el profesional de las ciencias médicas Foreign languages, writing and development: a challenge for health professionals

    Rafael Forteza Fernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El notable incremento de la colaboración médica cubana en la arena internacional y la revolución en las ciencias informáticas ha generado la necesidad de una reconceptualización de del aprendizaje de la escritura en el estudio de las lenguas extranjeras, el inglés en particular, en la educación médica superior. Se exploran los beneficios que aporta este tipo de competencia al estudiante de lenguas extranjeras y se particulariza cuán necesario es esta habilidad para el profesional de la salud.The growing Cuban health sector collaboration with other countries as well as the revolution in information sciences has brought about the need to reconceptualize the role of learning how to write in foreign languages, English in particular, in Higher Medical Education. The present work explores the general contribution of this type of competence to the learner of foreign languages and gives particular attention to the usefulness of this skill to the health professional.

  5. L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency

    Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

  6. Quels changements linguistiques dans l'attrition de la L1 chez le bilingue tardif (What Linguistic Changes in the Attrition of the L1 in Late Bilinguals)?

    Kopke, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    This article reports on a psycholinguistic study of first language attrition in German first generation immigrants. On the basis of the individual variation in performance evidenced by the data, the study claims that first language (L1) attrition in late bilinguals is not only the consequence of a lack of use. A comparison of the performance of…

  7. L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency

    Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

  8. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  9. Educating Chinese Scientists to Write for International Journals: Addressing the Divide between Science and Technology Education and English Language Teaching

    Cargill, Margaret; O'Connor, Patrick; Li, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    As is the worldwide trend, scientists in China face strong and increasing pressure to publish their research in international peer-reviewed journals written in English. There is an acute need for graduate students to develop the required language skills alongside their scientific expertise, in spite of the distinct division currently existing…

  10. Educating Chinese Scientists to Write for International Journals: Addressing the Divide between Science and Technology Education and English Language Teaching

    Cargill, Margaret; O'Connor, Patrick; Li, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    As is the worldwide trend, scientists in China face strong and increasing pressure to publish their research in international peer-reviewed journals written in English. There is an acute need for graduate students to develop the required language skills alongside their scientific expertise, in spite of the distinct division currently existing…

  11. Linguistic aspects of writing for professional purposes

    Greta Përgjegji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing for Professional Purposes is considered as a means of communication between professionals who belong to two communities that have different languages, but share the same knowledge or expertise. The article gives a hint on how writing for specific purposes evolved to give rise to the creation of Writing for Professional Purposes. The social, cultural and cognitive aspects are an essential part of Writing for Professional Purposes since the physical act of writing cannot be considered only a result or product of the knowledge the individual possesses but also a social and cultural act. Therefore, the social and cultural aspects of writing explains the specificities and the intricacies of the effects these aspects have on writing for it is considered as an inseparable part of social and cultural groups. On the other hand, the cognitive aspect of writing explains and emphasizes the mental activities of the individual during the decision-making process while he/she is writing planning and editing their material having in mind the audience. On the same line of reasoning, writing for professional purposes in a second language means that the writer has to consider the audience twice; first, there is an audience who shares the same knowledge or expertise and second, the audience does not have the same language. Consequently, writing in another language that is not the first language with a specific jargon as well as a specific grammatical structure brings about a lot of difficulties. Hence, writing in professional contexts in the mother tongue implies only writing in a specialized version of a language already known to the writer, but writing in a target language means that the writer has to learn the target language and the specialized version of that language.

  12. The Effect of Writer’s Workshop Approach to Develop Functional Writing Skills of Primary Stage Pre-Service English Language Teachers in Egypt

    Ashraf Atta M. S. Salem

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effects of using a program based on the writing workshop approach on developing functional writing skills of pre-service teachers of English in Hurgada faculty of Education. For that purpose, the researcher constructed and validated a teaching program based on the writing workshop approach, checklist of the skills and subskills of functional writing skills, and pre-posttest of functional writing skills. The sample of the study was forty students in...

  13. PD-L1-specific T cells

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Borch, Troels Holz; Hansen, Morten; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2016-01-01

    for targeting the tumor microenvironment and for boosting the clinical effects of additional anticancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes present information about PD-L1 as a T cell antigen, depicts the initial findings about the function of PD-L1-specific T cells in the adjustment of immune......-specific T cells that recognize both PD-L1-expressing immune cells and malignant cells. Thus, PD-L1-specific T cells have the ability to modulate adaptive immune reactions by reacting to regulatory cells. Thus, utilization of PD-L1-derived T cell epitopes may represent an attractive vaccination strategy...

  14. Writing for the web

    Ross, Susannah

    2007-01-01

    Enables you to organize the information on your site to create maximum impactLanguage-centred approach helps you to communicate effectively with usersClear and straightforward explanationsHandy checklists at the end of each section summarize the information Writing for the Web offers simple and effective advice for anyone who has to write copy for a website. It shows you how language works and how to select the right words and arrange them effectively to create a site that users can navigate easily and will visit again.

  15. An Investigation of L2 Learners' Writing Self-Efficacy, Writing Anxiety and Its Causes at Higher Education in Turkey

    Kirmizi, Özkan; Kirmizi, Gülin Dagdeviren

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating higher education L2 learners in a Turkish context in terms of writing self-efficacy, writing anxiety, and the causes of writing anxiety. The data have been collected through the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI), developed by Cheng, (2004), and Causes of Writing Anxiety Inventory (CWAI), and…

  16. English L1 and L2 Speakers' Knowledge of Lexical Bundles

    Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the use of lexical bundles by first (L1) and second language (L2) speakers of English. The study consists of two experiments that examined whether L1 and L2 English speakers displayed any knowledge of lexical bundles as holistic units and whether their knowledge was…

  17. English L1 and L2 Speakers' Knowledge of Lexical Bundles

    Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the use of lexical bundles by first (L1) and second language (L2) speakers of English. The study consists of two experiments that examined whether L1 and L2 English speakers displayed any knowledge of lexical bundles as holistic units and whether their knowledge was…

  18. L1 and L2 Strategy Use in Reading Comprehension of Chinese EFL Readers

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ernst, Cheryl; Talley, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This study revealed the relationship between L1 (Mandarin Chinese) and L2 (English) strategy use in L2 reading comprehension by focusing on the correlation of L1 reading ability, L2 proficiency and employed reading strategies. The participants, 222 undergraduates learning English as a foreign language (EFL), were classified into skilled and…

  19. Perception of Mandarin Tones: The Effect of L1 Background and Training

    Wang, Xinchun

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether native Hmong speakers' first language (L1) lexical tone experience facilitates or interferes with their perception of Mandarin tones and whether training is effective for perceptual learning of second (L2) tones. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of beginning level learners of Mandarin with different L1 prosodic background…

  20. L1CAM in human cancer.

    Altevogt, Peter; Doberstein, Kai; Fogel, Mina

    2016-04-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is one of the first neural adhesion molecules described with important functions in the development of the nervous system. Subsequent work discovered that L1CAM is expressed in many human cancers and is often associated with bad prognosis. This is most likely due to the motility and invasion promoting function of L1CAM. Here, we describe the path L1CAM has taken from a neural adhesion molecule to a recognized tumor antigen. We summarize the literature on L1CAM expression in cancers and pre-cancerous lesions. We focus on the genetic elements required for its re-expression and highlight preclinical studies for targeted therapy. The data suggest that L1CAM is a valuable diagnostic/prognostic marker and an attractive target for the therapy of several human cancers. PMID:26111503

  1. Ubiquitous L1 Mosaicism in Hippocampal Neurons

    Upton, Kyle R.; Gerhardt, Daniel J.; Jesuadian, J. Samuel; Richardson, Sandra R.; Sánchez-Luque, Francisco J.; Bodea, Gabriela O.; Ewing, Adam D.; Salvador-Palomeque, Carmen; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Brennan, Paul M.; Vanderver, Adeline; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Somatic LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition during neurogenesis is a potential source of genotypic variation among neurons. As a neurogenic niche, the hippocampus supports pronounced L1 activity. However, the basal parameters and biological impact of L1-driven mosaicism remain unclear. Here, we performed single-cell retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) on individual human hippocampal neurons and glia, as well as cortical neurons. An estimated 13.7 somatic L1 insertions occurred per hippocampal neuron and carried the sequence hallmarks of target-primed reverse transcription. Notably, hippocampal neuron L1 insertions were specifically enriched in transcribed neuronal stem cell enhancers and hippocampus genes, increasing their probability of functional relevance. In addition, bias against intronic L1 insertions sense oriented relative to their host gene was observed, perhaps indicating moderate selection against this configuration in vivo. These experiments demonstrate pervasive L1 mosaicism at genomic loci expressed in hippocampal neurons. PMID:25860606

  2. L1 in the EFL classroom: more a help than a hindrance?

    Rodr??guez Ju??rez, Carolina; Oxbrow, Gina

    2008-01-01

    The use of the L1 in monolingual contexts has been somewhat frowned upon in EFL classrooms over the years, with teaching activities usually conducted exclusively in the target language. However, if used judiciously, the mother tongue may in fact become a teaching and learning resource which can greatly enhance the acquisition process and encourage learners to focus on similarities and differences between their L1 and the language under study. In the present study, we shall expl...

  3. Language

    Everett, Dan; Gross, Philip; Yueh, Linda; Mollett, Amy; Brumley, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Professor Dan Everett, linguistic anthropologist and author of Language: The Cultural Tool, tells us how a language spoken by a tribe living deep in the Amazon jungle poses a direct challenge to the widely-held view that language is inherent. Prize-winning poet Philip Gross talks to us about his father’s loss of language and reads from his collections Deep Field and The Water Table. As part of our academic inspiration series we speak to LSE economist and Bloomberg TV broadcaster Linda Yueh ab...

  4. DESCRIPTIVE VERSUS DIALOGIC REFLECTION AND POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE STANCE IN THE REFLECTIVE WRITING OF TURKISH PROSPECTIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS

    Amanda YEŞİLBURSA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in their teacher education could be beneficial in helping them to develop their critical thinking skills and to make the most of their future teaching experiences. Thus, the current study was conducted to describe the individual reflective profiles emerging from the analysis of the written reflections of 28 Turkish prospective English Language teachers on a video-recorded microteaching experience carried out as part of a methodology course. A mixed method approach was adopted to this aim. First, qualitative analysis of the written reflections revealed reflective categories showing how the participants reflected on their teaching experience. Second, frequency analysis was used to reveal the distribution of these reflective categories for each participant. The data analysis showed that the individual participants displayed different patterns of reflection in terms of descriptive and dialogic reflection, and positive and negative stance.

  5. Out of a Writing Conference: Speaking Writing Connection

    Utami Widiati

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value only `the product' but also `the process'. When translated into the classroom, one of the features of this new paradigm, the writing process approach, is `the conference', which occurs between teacher and students as well as between students. As Mol (1992 states, writing conference provides students with immediate, meaningful responses to their writing, developing students' ability to reflect upon their own writing and the writing of others in a critical and constructive way. Looking back at our own experience in teaching writing, the conference does not only scaffold the students in the process of meaning-making but also creates an atmosphere where they are actively engaged in a `more focused' talk. This is of paramount importance since our students tend to speak in their native language even in the classroom.

  6. Exploring Utterance and Cognitive Fluency of L1 and L2 English Speakers: Temporal Measures and Stimulated Recall

    Kahng, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    Although fluency constitutes an essential component of second language (L2) proficiency, there are mixed results and gaps in the literature on how L2 speakers' fluency differs from fluent speech production in a first language (L1). The research reported in this article investigated utterance fluency and cognitive fluency of L1 English…

  7. The Effect of Dictogloss Technique on Learners’ Writing Improvement in Terms of Writing Coherent Texts

    Masoome Kooshafar; Manijeh Youhanaee; Zahra Amirian

    2012-01-01

    Considering the communicative framework of language teaching, writing has an advantage- a person can give a variety of information to a close or distant, known or unknown reader or readers. Such way of communicating is highly important in the modern world, whether the communication is in the form of paper-and-pencil writing or advanced electronic writing. Therefore, this skill should be encouraged and nurtured during the language teaching course. Writing consists of different aspects like out...

  8. Writing Excel Macros with VBA

    Roman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

  9. Developing & improving EFL writing skills

    Tuero, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Learning a foreign language is a process that entails the development of four basic skills: Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing. According to the Common European Framework, such skills can be grouped into productive and receptive. Reading and Listening are categorized as receptive skills, while speaking and writing are productive skills. Experience and research findings suggest that most learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) find productive skills more difficult to develop tha...

  10. Sports Writing.

    Grubaugh, Karl

    2003-01-01

    Lists the following 10 tips for improved sports writing in high school publications: reporting comes before writing; do not try to do too much; show, do not tell; do not do game stories; avoid cliches; avoid "jock-talk"; use the drama of sports; do not write the obvious story; sports is also news; and read great sports writing. (PM)

  11. Writing Inspired

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  12. Enhancing Sparsity by Reweighted L1 Minimization

    Candes, Emmanuel J.; Wakin, Michael B.; Boyd, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    It is now well understood that (1) it is possible to reconstruct sparse signals exactly from what appear to be highly incomplete sets of linear measurements and (2) that this can be done by constrained L1 minimization. In this paper, we study a novel method for sparse signal recovery that in many situations outperforms L1 minimization in the sense that substantially fewer measurements are needed for exact recovery. The algorithm consists of solving a sequence of weighted L1-minimization probl...

  13. l1-norm Penalized Orthogonal Forward Regression

    Hong, Xia; Chen, Sheng; Guo, Yi; Gao, Junbin

    2015-01-01

    A l1-norm penalized orthogonal forward regression (l1-POFR) algorithm is proposed based on the concept of leaveone- out mean square error (LOOMSE). Firstly, a new l1-norm penalized cost function is defined in the constructed orthogonal space, and each orthogonal basis is associated with an individually tunable regularization parameter. Secondly, due to orthogonal computation, the LOOMSE can be analytically computed without actually splitting the data set, and moreover a closed form of the opt...

  14. University writing

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  15. Componential skills of beginning writing: An exploratory study

    Kim, Young-suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Wagner, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the components of end of kindergarten writing, using data from 242 kindergartners. Specifically of interest was the importance of spelling, letter writing fluency, reading, and word- and syntax-level oral language skills in writing. The results from structural equation modeling revealed that oral language, spelling, and letter writing fluency were positively and uniquely related to writing skill after accounting for reading skills. Reading skill was not uniquely rel...

  16. Robert Frost on Writing.

    Barry, Elaine

    This book is a collection of Frost's letters, reviews, introductions, lectures, and interviews on writing dating back to 1913. It provides Frost's view of literature, and its relation to language and social order. Part one, "Frost as a Literary Critic," discusses the scope of Frost's criticism and Frost as both critical theorist and practical…

  17. Robert Frost on Writing.

    Barry, Elaine

    This book is a collection of Frost's letters, reviews, introductions, lectures, and interviews on writing dating back to 1913. It provides Frost's view of literature, and its relation to language and social order. Part one, "Frost as a Literary Critic," discusses the scope of Frost's criticism and Frost as both critical theorist and practical…

  18. Looking, Writing, Creating.

    Katzive, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a middle school language arts teacher makes analyzing and creating visual art a partner to reading and writing in her classroom. Describes a project on art and Vietnam which shows how background information can add to and influence interpretation. Describes a unit on Greek mythology and Greek vases which leads to a related visual…

  19. WEB-BASED WRITING INSTRUCTION AND ENHANCING EFL LEARNERS' WRITING QUALITY

    KARGOZARI, Hamid R.; Ghaemi, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine whether Web-based Writing Instruction (WBWI) has any influence on the writing quality of Iranian EFL learners. Two groups of EFL learners who were studying English in an English Language Institute participated in the experiment. They were enrolled in an advanced writing course. Before instruction, both groups were pre-tested through writing essays. T-test results illustrated significant differences between two groups in writing ability. The ex...

  20. NOTE FOR EDITOR: Web-Based Writing Instruction And Enhancing Efl Learners' Writing Quality

    KARGOZARI, Hamid R.; Ghaemi, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine whether Web-based Writing Instruction (WBWI) has any influence on the writing quality of Iranian EFL learners. Two groups of EFL learners who were studying English in an English Language Institute participated in the experiment. They were enrolled in an advanced writing course. Before instruction, both groups were pre-tested through writing essays. T-test results illustrated significant differences between two groups in writing ability. The...

  1. The Effect of Journal Writing on Students' Cognitive Critical Thinking Skills: "A Quasi-Experimental Research on an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Undergraduate Classroom in Egypt"

    Shaarawy, Hanaa Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Based on writing weekly academic journals and on Bloom's (1984) taxonomy of cognitive critical thinking skills, this article reports on a quasi-experiment where journal writing was an additional task to an academic writing course. The experiment was carried out with first year university students (semester two) in one of the Egyptian private…

  2. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document presents writing samples that have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing--argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative--in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for…

  3. Writing successful UX proposals

    Hass, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Bringing new project funding and business opportunities to your organization is a vital part of UX professionals' growth and success. Writing Successful UX Proposals teaches the proven techniques for assessing proposal requests, writing successful commercial and government funding proposals, and enhancing your business development skills. This book will teach UX practitioners how to succeed in UX business development by mastering the following goals: * Understand how to assess a request for proposals* Understand the "anatomy" of a proposal response * Speak the business language of those who will be evaluating the proposed approach* Recognize the successes of others and build upon their advice Complete with case studies, tricks and tips, and real-world examples throughout, this is a must-have resource for UX professionals interested in honing their proposal writing skills and setting themselves up for success. * Provides unique sales and proposal writing insights tailored to the UX arena (including both resear...

  4. Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis

    Park, Gi-Pyo

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2) reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1) reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females) Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after…

  5. Reading Rate in L1 Mandarin Chinese and L2 English across Five Reading Tasks

    Fraser, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared first and second language (L1/L2) reading rate and task performance on five tasks (scanning, skimming, normal reading, learning, memorizing) in two groups of Mandarin speakers (Canada group, China group). A repeated measures ANOVA design was used with one between-subject factor (Group), two within-subject factors (Language,…

  6. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  7. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  8. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  9. Using L1 to Enhance the Grammar Learning and Having Only English Policy in EFL Classes

    Uyar, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the differences of grammar learning, if any, between the EFL classes in which native language (L1) is sometimes used and only target language (L2) is used. Participants were 42 prep year students from one of the universities in Turkey. They have been studying English for 9 months, and now they are in level…

  10. Using Wikis to Promote Collaborative EFL Writing

    Aydin, Zelilha; Yildiz, Senem

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the use of wikis in collaborative writing projects in foreign language learning classrooms. A total of 34 intermediate level university students learning English as a foreign language (EFL) were asked to accomplish three different wiki-based collaborative writing tasks, (argumentative, informative and decision-making) working…

  11. DNA Damage and L1 Retrotransposition

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Barbara McClintock was the first to suggest that transposons are a source of genome instability and that genotoxic stress assisted in their mobilization. The generation of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs is a severe form of genotoxic stress that threatens the integrity of the genome, activates cell cycle checkpoints, and, in some cases, causes cell death. Applying McClintock's stress hypothesis to humans, are L1 retrotransposons, the most active autonomous mobile elements in the modern day human genome, mobilized by DSBs? Here, evidence that transposable elements, particularly retrotransposons, are mobilized by genotoxic stress is reviewed. In the setting of DSB formation, L1 mobility may be affected by changes in the substrate for L1 integration, the DNA repair machinery, or the L1 element itself. The review concludes with a discussion of the potential consequences of L1 mobilization in the setting of genotoxic stress.

  12. L1 Retrotransposons in Human Cancers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons like L1 are silenced in somatic cells by a variety of mechanisms acting at different levels. Protective mechanisms include DNA methylation and packaging into inactive chromatin to suppress transcription and prevent recombination, potentially supported by cytidine deaminase editing of RNA. Furthermore, DNA strand breaks arising during attempted retrotranspositions ought to activate cellular checkpoints, and L1 activation outside immunoprivileged sites may elicit immune responses. A number of observations indicate that L1 sequences nevertheless become reactivated in human cancer. Prominently, methylation of L1 sequences is diminished in many cancer types and full-length L1 RNAs become detectable, although strong expression is restricted to germ cell cancers. L1 elements have been found to be enriched at sites of illegitimate recombination in many cancers. In theory, lack of L1 repression in cancer might cause transcriptional deregulation, insertional mutations, DNA breaks, and an increased frequency of recombinations, contributing to genome disorganization, expression changes, and chromosomal instability. There is however little evidence that such effects occur at a gross scale in human cancers. Rather, as a rule, L1 repression is only partly alleviated. Unfortunately, many techniques commonly used to investigate genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer cells are not well suited to detect subtle effects elicited by partial reactivation of retroelements like L1 which are present as abundant, but heterogeneous copies. Therefore, effects of L1 sequences exerted on the local chromatin structure, on the transcriptional regulation of individual genes, and on chromosome fragility need to be more closely investigated in normal and cancer cells.

  13. Emergence in second language writing: a methodological inroad / Emergência na escrita em segunda língua: uma incursão metodológica

    Susy, Macqueen.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A Teoria de Sistemas Complexos (TSC) tem sido acionada em diversos campos, como forma de examinar os fenômenos de uma maneira que faz com que a interconectividade e emergência sejam centrais para pesquisa. Para a linguística aplicada, TSC oferece a possibilidade de englobar tanto a linguagm quanto a [...] aprendizagem. Ao fazer isso, a orientação teórica tem de ser totalmente integrada ao processo de pesquisa por meio da metodologia de pesquisa. Este artigo descreve um método qualitativo microetnográfico, Análise de Traços Lexicais, que se baseia no conceito de emergência. É um método analítico que nos permite ver o desenvolvimento longitudinal de palavras e de seus padrões. Ele é aplicado aqui em um estudo de caso sobre o desenvolvimento de padrões léxico-gramaticais (sequências formulaicas, colocações, expressões idiomáticas etc.) de uma usuária de uma segunda língua. Seus padrões de palavras são rastreados enquanto ela se prepara para o vestibular para a universidade e, posteriormente, assim que ela entra na universidade. Seu uso de padrões envolve imitação adaptativa, um processo complexo de percepção de padrões, imitação e adaptação para atender aos novos objetivos comunicativos. Abstract in english Complex Systems Theory (CST) has been called upon in many different fields as a means of examining phenomena in a way that makes interconnectivity and emergence central to research. For applied linguistics, CST offers the possibility of encompassing both language and learning. In doing so, the theor [...] etical orientation needs to be fully integrated into the research process through research methodology. This paper describes a qualitative microethnographic method, Lexical Trail Analysis, which draws on the concept of emergence. It is an analytic method that enables us to see the longitudinal development of words and their patterns. It is applied here in a case study of the development of one second language user's lexicogrammatical patterns (formulaic sequences, collocations, idioms, etc.). Her word patterns are traced as she prepares for a university entrance test and later, once she enters the university. Her use of patterns involves adaptive imitation, a complex process of perceiving, imitating and adapting patterns to suit new communicative goals.

  14. ESL Training for Writing Center Tutors

    Kennell, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    The changing demographics of universities have resulted in changing demographics among writing center clientele; however, tutors are often underprepared to meet the language needs of students writing in a second language. Although many agree that ESL-specific training for tutors is needed, little has been written to describe that training. This paper explores the issues related to ESL training and details the intensive ESL-specific training for tutors conducted in the Purdue Writing Lab durin...

  15. Enhancing Content Knowledge in Essay Writing Classes: A Multimedia Package for Iranian EFL Learners

    Marziyeh Tahmouresi Majelan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate empirically if promoting a multimedia package enhances content knowledge in essay writing of 80 junior English translation students at a University in Karaj, Iran; plus, whether the learners’ writing content improve due to the presence of the multimedia package or not. The multimedia was considered to be a CD, containing recordings both in first language (L1=Farsi and in second language (L2=English along with manipulative and task-based activities. A homogenizing test, the pre-posttests, and the material in a form of a CD (treatment including forty of the most common TOEFL essays both in L1 and L2 plus manipulative tasks to fulfill provided by the researcher, were the instruments in the study.  After 14 weeks, both the experimental and control groups sat for the posttest with exactly the same characteristics of pretest except for the topics. When the collected data was analyzed, a mean difference of t-test along with a paired t-test showed a significant difference between the performance of the control and the experimental groups, regarding the content. Consequently, the statistics proved that enhancing content knowledge by means of a multimedia package containing recordings plus manipulative and task-based activities would improve students’ writing ability while the control group in which a current traditional rhetoric approach was used, the placebo, did not show any statistically significant improvement regarding content.

  16. Responding to Literature Texts through Films in English and the L1 within a Multiliteracies Pedagogy

    Shakina Rajendram; Mallika V Govindarajoo

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study exploring the aesthetic and critical responses of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners when engaging in the multimodal design of literature texts through films in English and their first language (L1). Participants consisted of 25 culturally and linguistically heterogeneous first-year undergraduate students in a Literature in English Language Teaching program in a Malaysian public university. The participants engaged in a multi-modal design ...

  17. Best L1-approximation with splines

    Kharakuleva, Oleksandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to develop an algorithm for solving the best approximation problem in the L1 - norm with splines. Our study is based on the theory of L1-approximation with polynomials as well as theory that explain how this can be extended to splines. We will consider both the continuous and the discrete cases. Later we will also consider two practical algorithms for polynomial L1-approximation, based on Lagrange interpolation and linear programming. We will give an algorithm for co...

  18. Thesis Writing Challenges for Non-Native MA Students

    Sadeghi, Karim; Shirzad Khajepasha, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Writing in a second (L2)/foreign language is generally a challenging activity, and writing an MA thesis, as an example of academic enterprise, can be daunting when done in a language in which the writer is not fully competent. The challenge such a genre of writing poses for L2 writers has not been properly addressed. To fill in the gap in this…

  19. Thesis Writing Challenges for Non-Native MA Students

    Sadeghi, Karim; Shirzad Khajepasha, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Writing in a second (L2)/foreign language is generally a challenging activity, and writing an MA thesis, as an example of academic enterprise, can be daunting when done in a language in which the writer is not fully competent. The challenge such a genre of writing poses for L2 writers has not been properly addressed. To fill in the gap in this…

  20. Children's Graphical Representations and Emergent Writing: Evidence from Children's Drawings

    Wu, Li-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on children's drawing and writing focused on children's drawing and symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding young children's symbolization in drawing with a logo language. This study investigated children's emergent writing by examining qualitatively how children's writing takes place as…

  1. Writing Matters.

    Freedman, Sarah Warshauer; Hechinger, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes research being conducted by project directors under the auspices of the National Center for the Study of Writing and Literacy. Considers assessment of writing issues, the professionalization of teaching, and the teaching of nonnative speakers. (HB)

  2. Habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares / Oral and written language skills for reading and writing in preschool children Habilidades / Linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares

    Esperanza, Guarneros Reyes; Lizbeth, Vega Pérez.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As crianças pré-escolares já possuem noções de leitura e escritura porque têm desenvolvido habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas que se relacionam entre si, e por sua vez, com a aquisição da leitura e a escritura convencionais. Este artigo de revisão tem por objetivos: (a) Descrever as relações [...] existentes entre linguagem oral e escrita nos anos pré-escolares, e (b) Identificar as habilidades concretas da linguagem da criança pré-escolar que possibilitam a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais. Fez-se uma busca nas bases de dados ERIC e OVID de emergent literacy,phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, que contribuiu com os componentes da linguajem oral (habilidades fonológicas e semânticas) que se relacionam com a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais, assim como uma proposta de análise na que se enfatiza o processo das habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares. Abstract in spanish Los niños preescolares ya poseen nociones de lectura y escritura porque han desarrollado habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas que se relacionan entre sí y, a su vez, con la adquisición de la lectura y la escritura convencionales. Este artículo de revisión tiene como objetivos (a) Describir las [...] relaciones existentes entre lenguaje oral y escrito en los años preescolares, e (b) Identificar las habilidades concretas del lenguaje del niño preescolar que posibilitan la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales. Se hizo una búsqueda en las bases de datos ERIC y OVID de emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, la cual aportó los componentes del lenguaje oral -habilidades fonológicas y semánticas- que se relacionan con la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales, así como una propuesta de análisis en la que se enfatiza el proceso de las habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares. Abstract in english Preschool children already have notions of reading and writing because they have developed oral and written language skills that relate to each other, and in turn, with the acquisition of conventional reading and writing. This review article aims to: (a) identify the relationship between oral and wr [...] itten language in the preschool years, and (b) Identify the specific skills of the preschool child language enabling the acquisition of conventional literacy. A search in the databases ERIC and OVID for emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, and language skills preschoolers. This provided the oral-language components and semanti-cphonological skills that relate to the acquisition of conventional reading and writing, as well as a proposal for analysis that emphasizes the process of oral and written language skills for literacy in preschool children.

  3. EX1304L1 Dive Operations Summary

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L1: Northeast U.S. Canyons Exploration between 20130708 and...

  4. Teaching Writing to Middle School Students: A National Survey

    Graham, Steve; Capizzi, Andrea; Harris, Karen R.; Hebert, Michael; Morphy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A random sample of language arts, social studies, and science middle school teachers from the United States were surveyed about their preparation to teach writing, beliefs about responsibilities for teaching writing, use of evidence-based writing practices, assessment of writing, use of technology, and adaptations for struggling writers. The…

  5. Designing an Online Writing System: Learning with Support

    Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2008-01-01

    The potential of online language learning has received much attention recently. This paper reports the design of an online writing system featuring learning support for non-native students during their writing process. The central premise is that in the online writing situation, students are in great need of writing aids. The proposed system…

  6. Writing Strategies Used by ESL Upper Secondary School Students

    Maarof, Nooreiny; Murat, Mazlin

    2013-01-01

    Writing is a great challenge whether performed in the mother tongue or in a second or foreign language (L2/FL). Studies in L2 writing show that writing is a complex cognitive activity comprising a number of processes which includes the use of various strategies. This study aimed to examine strategies used in essay writing among 50…

  7. L1 Control Theoretic Smoothing Splines

    Nagahara, Masaaki; Martin, Clyde F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose control theoretic smoothing splines with L1 optimality for reducing the number of parameters that describes the fitted curve as well as removing outlier data. A control theoretic spline is a smoothing spline that is generated as an output of a given linear dynamical system. Conventional design requires exactly the same number of base functions as given data, and the result is not robust against outliers. To solve these problems, we propose to use L1 optimality, that ...

  8. L1-norm minimization for quaternion signals

    Wu, Jiasong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong

    2012-01-01

    The l1-norm minimization problem plays an important role in the compressed sensing (CS) theory. We present in this letter an algorithm for solving the problem of l1-norm minimization for quaternion signals by converting it to second-order cone programming. An application example of the proposed algorithm is also given for practical guidelines of perfect recovery of quaternion signals. The proposed algorithm may find its potential application when CS theory meets the quaternion signal processing.

  9. Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

  10. The Role of L1 Conceptual and Linguistic Knowledge and Frequency in the Acquisition of L2 Metaphorical Expressions

    Türker, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how figurative language is processed by learners of a second language (L2). With an experiment testing L2 comprehension of figurative expressions in three categories, each combining shared and unshared first language (L1) and L2 lexical representations and conceptual representations in a different way, the study…

  11. Processing Modifier-Head Agreement in L1 and L2 Finnish: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Vainio, Seppo; Pajunen, Anneli; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of first language (L1) on the reading of modifier-head case agreement in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Russian is similar to Finnish in that both languages use case endings to mark grammatical roles, whereas such markings are absent in Chinese. The critical nouns were…

  12. The Role of L1 Conceptual and Linguistic Knowledge and Frequency in the Acquisition of L2 Metaphorical Expressions

    Türker, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how figurative language is processed by learners of a second language (L2). With an experiment testing L2 comprehension of figurative expressions in three categories, each combining shared and unshared first language (L1) and L2 lexical representations and conceptual representations in a different way, the study…

  13. Effects of Web-Based Collaborative Writing on Individual L2 Writing Development

    Bikowski, Dawn; Vithanage, Ramyadarshanie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated in-class web-based collaborative writing tasks on second language writers' (L2) individual writing scores. A pre-test post-test research model was used in addition to participant surveys, class observations, and teacher interviews. Participants included 59 L2 writers in a writing class at a large U.S.…

  14. The Effects of Collaborative Writing Activity Using Google Docs on Students' Writing Abilities

    Suwantarathip, Ornprapat; Wichadee, Saovapa

    2014-01-01

    Google Docs, a free web-based version of Microsoft Word, offers collaborative features which can be used to facilitate collaborative writing in a foreign language classroom. The current study compared writing abilities of students who collaborated on writing assignments using Google Docs with those working in groups in a face-to-face classroom.…

  15. Acquisition of Japanese contracted sounds in L1 phonology

    Tsurutani, Chiharu

    2002-05-01

    Japanese possesses a group of palatalized consonants, known to Japanese scholars as the contracted sounds, [CjV]. English learners of Japanese appear to treat them initially as consonant + glide clusters, where there is an equivalent [Cj] cluster in English, or otherwise tend to insert an epenthetic vowel [CVjV]. The acquisition of the Japanese contracted sounds by first language (L1) learners has not been widely studied compared with the consonant clusters in English with which they bear a close phonetic resemblance but have quite a different phonological status. This is a study to investigate the L1 acquisition process of the Japanese contracted sounds (a) in order to observe how the palatalization gesture is acquired in Japanese and (b) to investigate differences in the sound acquisition processes of first and second language (L2) learners: Japanese children compared with English learners. To do this, the productions of Japanese children ranging in age from 2.5 to 3.5 years were transcribed and the pattern of misproduction was observed.

  16. L2 Writing Practice: Game Enjoyment as a Key to Engagement

    Allen, Laura K.; Crossley, Scott A.; Snow, Erica L.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    The Writing Pal (W-Pal) is an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) designed to provide students with explicit writing strategy instruction and practice. W-Pal includes a suite of educational games developed to increase writing engagement and provide opportunities to practice writing strategies. In this study, first (L1) (n = 26) and second (L2)…

  17. L2 Writing Practice: Game Enjoyment as a Key to Engagement

    Allen, Laura K.; Crossley, Scott A.; Snow, Erica L.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    The Writing Pal (W-Pal) is an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) designed to provide students with explicit writing strategy instruction and practice. W-Pal includes a suite of educational games developed to increase writing engagement and provide opportunities to practice writing strategies. In this study, first (L1) (n = 26) and second (L2)…

  18. A description of ASL features in writing

    Kimberly A. Wolbers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to second language students who embed features of their primary languages in the writing of their second languages, deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh writers utilize features of American Sign Language (ASL in their writing of English. The purpose of this study is to identify categories of language transfer, provide the prevalence of these transfer tendencies in the writings of 29 d/hh adolescents and describe whether language features are equally or differently responsive to instruction. Findings indicate six categories of language transfer in order of prevalence: unique glossing & substitution, adjectives, plurality & adverbs, topicalization, and conjunctions. ASL features, of both lexical and syntactical nature, appear to respond similarly to instruction.

  19. Genre approach to teaching formal letter writing

    Klimczak, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Writing in a foreign language is both complex and fascinating, whether viewed from the perspective of a teacher or a student. My teacher-interest in the writing skill stems from the fact that in my experience it is the most difficult skill to develop successfully. As a non-native user of English and a foreign-language student, on the other hand, I often feel that especially when writing in order to accomplish a specific goal, we have insufficient tools to write successfully. Transmitting info...

  20. The Role of L1 in L2 Acquisition: Attitudes of Iranian University Students

    Mustafa NAZARY

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning a second language in an EFL context requires both students and teachers to cooperate efficiently and resourcefully. By referring to the current theories of second language acquisition and reviewing the recent literature, it can be seen that the first language of learners (L1 has a necessary and facilitating role in all aspects of language instruction. This indicates that the ‘bilingual approach’ is gaining more support by incorporating the students’ L1 as a learning tool and also as a facilitator for an efficient communication. At the same time, advocacy for an English-only policy has been declining. Inspired by these views, this paper aims to explore the Iranian university students' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of L1. A well-known survey – Prodromou (2002 was employed and, surprisingly, the results were contradictory to the all previous similar studies. Iranian university students reported reluctance to use their L1. Finally, some pedagogical suggestions for a judicious use of L1 will be presented.

  1. L1 Compactness of Bounded BV Sets

    Fleischer, Isidore

    2002-01-01

    Functions, uniformly bounded in $BV$ norm in some bounded open set $U$ in $R^n$, are compact in $L_1(U)$. This result is known when $U$ has Lipschitz boundary [EG Th. 4 p. 176], [G 1.19 Th. p. 17], [Z 5.34 Cor. p. 227]; the proof for general $U$ here, after identifying the operator theoretic definition of bounded $BV$ norm with that of the Tonelli variation, appeals to the standard compactness criterion in $L_1$ [DS 21 TH. p. 301] [Y, p. 275] (For completeness, these two auxiliary results are...

  2. Learning More, Perceiving More? A Comparison of L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French Speakers and L1 Cantonese--L2 English Speakers in Hong Kong

    Tsang, Wai Lan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study examining the relationship between language learning and perceived language differences. Two groups of native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong, L1 Cantonese--L2 English (CE) and L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French (CEF), were asked to complete two tasks: a placement test in English (as well as in French for the CEF…

  3. THE EFFECT OF TEACHER TALK IN EFL CLASSROOMS: THE NONUSE OR USE OF LEARNERS' L1 BY AN INSTRUCTOR

    Chiyo Myojin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of the variation of teacher talk on EFL learners' performance, especially the one related to listening comprehension skills, by chronologically observing a Japanese first language (L1 instructor's classrooms at a university.

  4. How Might Pragmatic Language Skills Affect the Written Expression of Students with Language Learning Disabilities?

    Troia, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes ways in which pragmatic language abilities may play a role in the writing performance of children and adolescents with language learning disabilities. First, a brief overview is presented of how pragmatic language difficulties might negatively influence writing performance. Next, research on the writing performance of…

  5. The Effect of Syntactic Complexity on Fluency: Comparing Actives and Passives in L1 and L2 Speech

    Sadri Mirdamadi, Farhad; De Jong, Nivja H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how syntactic complexity affects speaking performance in first (L1) and second language (L2) in terms of speaking fluency. Participants (30 Dutch native speakers with an average to advanced level of English) performed two speaking experiments, one in Dutch (L1) and one in English (L2). Syntactic complexity was…

  6. Morphologically Complex Words in L1 and L2 Processing: Evidence from Masked Priming Experiments in English

    Silva, Renita; Clahsen, Harald

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from masked priming experiments investigating regular past-tense forms and deadjectival nominalizations with -ness and -ity in adult native (L1) speakers of English and in different groups of advanced adult second language (L2) learners of English. While the L1 group showed efficient priming for both inflected and…

  7. The Effect of Syntactic Complexity on Fluency: Comparing Actives and Passives in L1 and L2 Speech

    Sadri Mirdamadi, Farhad; De Jong, Nivja H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how syntactic complexity affects speaking performance in first (L1) and second language (L2) in terms of speaking fluency. Participants (30 Dutch native speakers with an average to advanced level of English) performed two speaking experiments, one in Dutch (L1) and one in English (L2). Syntactic complexity was…

  8. A Profile of an Effective EFL Writing Teacher (A Technology-Based Approach)

    Seifoori, Zohreh; Mozaheb, Mohammad Amin; Beigi, Amir Biglar

    2012-01-01

    Teaching writing has always been a controversial issue in the field of Foreign Language Teaching. And while there are a number of approaches and techniques for teaching writing in an English as a Second Language or English as a Foreign Language (SL/EFL) setting, very few comprehensive frameworks exist for an ESL/EFL writing teacher. The present…

  9. Writing & Language Arts. Pilot Copy.

    Boloz, Sigmund A., Comp.

    This guide provides an evaluation system by which a teacher or parent can follow a child's progress in sentence structure, usage, punctuation, capitalization, penmanship, and composition from kindergarten through grade eight. Each page lists an objective that is coded so that it is possible to correlate related materials, such as test items,…

  10. Lower Bounds for $L_1$ Discrepancy

    Vagharshakyan, Armen

    2012-01-01

    We find the best asymptotic lower bounds for the coefficient of the leading term of the $L_1$ norm of the two-dimensional (axis-parallel) discrepancy that can be obtained by K.Roth's orthogonal function method among a large class of test functions. We use methods of combinatorics, probability, complex and harmonic analysis.

  11. Efficient L1/Lq Norm Regularization

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Sparse learning has recently received increasing attention in many areas including machine learning, statistics, and applied mathematics. The mixed-norm regularization based on the L1/Lq norm with q > 1 is attractive in many applications of regression and classification in that it facilitates group sparsity in the model. The resulting optimization problem is, however, challenging to solve due to the structure of the L1/Lq -regularization. Existing work deals with special cases including q = 2,infinity, and they cannot be easily extended to the general case. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm based on the accelerated gradient method for solving the L1/Lq -regularized problem, which is applicable for all values of q larger than 1, thus significantly extending existing work. One key building block of the proposed algorithm is the L1/Lq -regularized Euclidean projection (EP1q). Our theoretical analysis reveals the key properties of EP1q and illustrates why EP1q for the general q is significantly mor...

  12. Reference: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE

    Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 He nriksson E , Olsson AS, Johanne sson H, Johansson H, Hanson J, E ngstrom P, Sode rman ... E . Home odomain le ucine ... zippe r class I ge ne s in Arabidopsis ... . E xpre ssion patte rns and phyloge ne tic re ... Plant Physio ... l. 139: 509-518. (2005) PubMe d: 16055682 ...

  13. Writing for Science Literacy

    Chamberlin, Shannon Marie

    Scientific literacy is the foundation on which both California's currently adopted science standards and the recommended new standards for science are based (CDE, 2000; NRC, 2011). The Writing for Science Literacy (WSL) curriculum focuses on a series of writing and discussion tasks aimed at increasing students' scientific literacy. These tasks are based on three teaching and learning constructs: thought and language, scaffolding, and meta-cognition. To this end, WSL is focused on incorporating several strategies from the Rhetorical Approach to Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking to engage students in activities designed to increase their scientific literacy; their ability to both identify an author's claim and evidence and to develop their own arguments based on a claim and evidence. Students participated in scaffolded activities designed to strengthen their written and oral discourse, hone their rhetorical skills and improve their meta-cognition. These activities required students to participate in both writing and discussion tasks to create meaning and build their science content knowledge. Students who participated in the WSL curriculum increased their written and oral fluency and were able to accurately write an evidence-based conclusion all while increasing their conceptual knowledge. This finding implies that a discourse rich curriculum can lead to an increase in scientific knowledge.

  14. MOTHER TONGUE (L1 Vis-A-Vis OTHER TONGUE (L2?

    Arun Behera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2 for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b learning another language. Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process, similar to that used by a child to pick up the first language (L1; and the second is conscious learning, in which a learner is aware of his/her own learning process.

  15. Academic Writing Pedagogies: Adopting Best Practices for Mastering Research Genres in English

    Helán Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the main approaches to teaching academic writing to university students of English as a foreign language. The investigation takes as its points of departure the text (the end product of writing), the process (the stages of writing), and practice (the social dimension of writing). Several recommendations are offered for the effective implementation of these approaches in learning to write research genres.

  16. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  17. Brain Bases for First Language Lexical Attrition in Bengali-English Speakers

    Datta, Hia

    2010-01-01

    Change of first language (L1) status from the most stable language to a less accessible language over the life-span of a bilingual individual is termed "language attrition". Such a shift in ease of L1 access has been reported to affect the lexicon (Pelc, 2001) more than other aspects of language. However, whether L1 attrition is affected by…

  18. Write Soon!

    Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of using natural writing opportunities that occur in family life to nurture children's literacy development. From notes to lists to journals to parodies, families can use writing to nurture personal relationships and simultaneously improve literacy. Specific tips for teachers to share with parents in making…

  19. The Effect of Concept Mapping on L2 Writing Performance: Examining Possible Effects of Trait-Level Writing Anxiety

    Naoko Machida; David J. Dalsky

    2014-01-01

    Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students’ learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students’ writing anxiety. Participants completed writing anxiety scales and were randomly assigned to three groups before completing a writing task: concept mapping, idea listi...

  20. Writing Nature

    Kristin Asdal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.