WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Modeling the Development of L1 and EFL Writing Proficiency of Secondary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed several writing tasks in both languages in three…

Schoonen, Rob; van Gelderen, Amos; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Hulstijn, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

2011-01-01

2

L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…

van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

2009-01-01

3

Foreign Language Writing and Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In L1 writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose L1 is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

Wuri Soedjatmiko; Agnes Santi Widiati

2003-01-01

4

Early writing development in L1 English speaking children.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on the developmental and psychometric properties of an early writing task. The study was carried out over four years in Toronto, Canada with L1 English-speaking children. Two cohorts of children who began in Nursery School were followed to the end of their Grade 1 year. Children were administered the same writing task at four time points along with standardized measures of early reading. The early writing task required children to write words and number and word combinations; we examined how children move from understanding print as “objects” to understanding print as representation of sounds. We also examined how writing in Nursery School and Kindergarten related to later literacy skills. The methodology allowed us to examine the extent to which early writing in Nursery School (3 years old) and Junior Kindergarten (4 years old) predicted later literacy skills when children were in Grade 1 (6 years old) and were receiving formal reading instruction. Results show characteristic features of children’s early writing of number and word combinations at each of the four grade levels and show that performance on the writing task in Kindergarten predicted reading skills at the end of Grade 1.

Pelletier, J.; Lasenby, J.

2007-01-01

5

Writing in first and second language: empirical studies on text quality and writing processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is about writing proficiency among students of secondary education. Due to globalization, the ability to express oneself in a language other than the first language (L1) is increasingly becoming a condition for educational success. In The Netherlands, this ‘other’ or second language (L2)...

Tillema, M.

6

Foreign Language Writing and Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: In LI writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose LI is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

Wuri Soedjatmiko

2002-01-01

7

Good Language Learner: A Case Study of Writing Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The search for the common features of “good language learners” has obsessed scholars such as Naiman et al. (1978), Rubin (1975), and Stevick (1989). Regarding those with good writing skill in particular, some (Angelova, 1999; Beare, 2000; Victori, 1995) list some features such as language proficiency, L1 writing competence, use of cohesive devices, meta cognitive knowledge about the writing task. The purpose of this study was to find the cognitive and metacognitive strategies of a successful learner in writing skill (considering those suggested by Arndt, 1987; Wenden, 1991). Tina, a 27 year old language learner with a BS degree in architecture, was found the most suitable case based on the teacher`s observation of her good writing and the analysis of Oxford's (1990) strategy inventory for language learning (SILL) administered. The data collected from the observation of her writing, the think-aloud protocol and the interview showed that Tina made use of most of the cognitive and metacognitive strategies listed but there was no evidence of L1 reliance in her L2 writing. The data also revealed that she was highly good at using prefabricated phrases and sentences in her writing.

Parviz Maftoon; Seyyed Hassan Seyyedrezaei

2012-01-01

8

Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi) and L2 (English) writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "ess...

Gholam Reza Zarei

9

Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi) and L2 (English) writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of the framework provided by Johnson and Roen (1992), and Chafe and Danielwicz (1987). The results indicated that Iranian students (female and male) did not make significantly different uses of L1 and L2 complimenting in terms of form and strategies. Also, the gender of the addressees was not accommodated to by the addressors differently as regards the use of form and strategies of complimenting in L1 and L2. The results suggest that L1 and L2, if used under some formal class based conditions, tend to become maximally similar, showing no transfer of L1 potentiality into L2.

Gholam Reza Zarei

2011-01-01

10

Writing support for controlled natural languages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present interface techniques that support the writing process of machine-oriented controlled natural languages which are well-defined and tractable fragments of English that can be translated unambiguously into a formal target language. Since these languages have grammatical and lex...

Kuhn, T; Schwitter, R

11

Cerebral mechanisms for different second language writing systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of Japanese (of syllabic Kana only) whose L1 was English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). During English reading, the L2 readers of English (Japanese-L1/English-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the left superior parietal lobule/supramarginal gyrus, relative to the L1 readers of English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). This is a region considered to be involved in phonological processing. The increased activation in the Japanese-L1/English-L2 group likely reflects the increased cognitive load associated with L2 English reading, possibly because L1 readers of Kana, which has an extremely regular orthography, may need to adjust to the greater phonological demands of the irregular L2 English orthography. In contrast, during Kana reading, the L2 readers of Japanese Kana (English-L1/Japanese-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the lingual gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres compared to the L1 readers of Kana (Japaese-L1/English-L2). This additional activation is likely to reflect the lower level of visual familiarity to the L2 symbols in the English-L1/Japanese-L2 group; Kana symbols are uniquely used only in Japan, whereas Roman alphabetic symbols are seen nearly everywhere. These findings, bolstered by significant relationships between the activation of the identified regions and cognitive competence, suggest that the cerebral mechanisms for L2 reading in late learners depends both on which language is their L1 and which language is to be learnt as their L2. Educational implications of these results are discussed.

Koyama MS; Stein JF; Stoodley CJ; Hansen PC

2013-09-01

12

Feedback on second language students' writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feedback is widely seen as crucial for encouraging and consolidating learning, and this significance has also been recognised by those working in the field of second language (L2) writing. Its importance is acknowledged in process-based classrooms, where it forms a key element of the students' growi...

Hyland, K; Hyland, F

13

Enhancing ESL Writing Creativity via a Literature Based Language Instruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The notions of success in learning writing in English is associated with self-expressions, the flow of ideas, outsider expectations, growing confidence and enjoyment of L2 academic writing. The most common problem that confronts teachers of a writing class does not lie so much on what to ask the students to write about; the difficulty is more on motivating the students to write interesting and effective materials or in other words, creative pieces of essays. What constitutes and contributes to language creativity in writing? This paper discusses the results of a quasi-experiment in which a literature – based language instruction was incorporated in an ESL writing class to evaluate the language creativity of students’ essays. Descriptive and inferential statistics show that a literature based language instruction can help students develop creativity in classroom writing.Key words:  literature based language instruction; creativity and language creativity

Chittra Muthusamy; Faizah Mohamad; Siti Norliana Ghazali; Angelina Subrayan @ Michael

2010-01-01

14

Comparison of University Level EFL Learners' Linguistic and Rhetorical Patterns as Reflected in Their L1 and L2 Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focused on the linguistic and rhetorical patterns of L1 and L2 writing samples of Iranian EFL learners and aimed to determine possible quantitative differences. For this purpose, an intact EFL class including 30 Iranian EFL learners at an English department (F=21, M=9) was selected and the participants were asked to write English and Persian compositions on the same topic in an argumentative style in two separate sessions. These tasks were then holistically scored according to the ESL Composition Profile (Jacobs et. al. 1981) by two expert scorers. The number of words, number of words per sentences, number of spelling errors and number of T-units were also manually counted for both the English and the Persian tasks. The collected data were used to compare and contrast the linguistic and rhetorical patterns of the L1 and L2 writing samples. The results of the study showed that: a) there was a moderate positive correlation (r=0.47 p<0.05) between L1 and L2 writing total scores, b) texts written in L1 were significantly longer than those written in L2, c) L1 writing texts were more complex than L2 writing ones in terms of T-units, d) T-units in texts written in L1 were more than those written in L2, and e) the number of spelling errors in L2 writing samples were higher than those of L1 writing samples. These results were compared to those of similar studies comparing L1 and L2 writing. Implications arising from these findings were also explained.

Abbas ZARE-EE; Mohammad Taghi FARVARDIN

2009-01-01

15

Writing Between Languages How English Language Learners Make the Transition to Fluency, Grades 4-12  

CERN Document Server

With Writing Between Languages, Danling Fu shows that by beginning with the literacy students bring from their native language and putting writing at the center of the curriculum, we can help them transition to English and support academic literacy. You'll learn the crucial and helpful role native literacy plays in building written English fluency, assess where ELLs are in their development as writers, use movement between languages to scaffold writing—no matter whether you know a student's home language—and implement instructional strategies to support development in writing

Fu, Danling

2009-01-01

16

Journalists' language awareness: inferences from writing strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What journalists want to do is not always what they actually do as they sit at their computer workstations writing news based on source texts. This article focuses on journalists' writing behavior and their writing strategies in a sample of 17 case studies. Data was collected with progression analys...

Perrin, Daniel; Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen

17

Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

2012-01-01

18

RESEARCH STUDIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING AND IN CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major aim of this article is to review studies of second language writing. The first part deals mainly with the process of writing in the second and first languages. The second part concerns contrastive rhetoric. In this second part, the findings of research studies on the relationship of first and second language rhetoric will be presented. Included in the discussion are research studies on contrastive rhetoric in the Indonesian context. The last section of this article concludes the discussion and proposes the implementation of more research on the relationship between Indonesian rhetoric and English rhetoric in essays written by Indonesian learners of English.

Bambang Yudi Cahyono

2001-01-01

19

¿Duermes mucho Tony? Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1) in English Language Teaching (elt ), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students’ mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English. Key words: First language, critical pedagogy, phatic communion Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (l1) de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (ei), un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (l1) parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Palabras clave: Lengua materna, pedagogía crítica, comunión fática

Higareda Sandra; López Georgina; Mugford Gerrard

2009-01-01

20

Qualitative and Quantitative Measures of Second Language Writing: Potential Outcomes of Informal Target Language Learning Abroad  

Science.gov (United States)

|This research describes a method applied at a U.S. university in a third-year Russian language course designed to facilitate Advanced and Superior second language writing proficiency through the forum of argumentation and debate. Participants had extensive informal language experience living in a Russian-speaking country but comparatively little…

Brown, N. Anthony; Solovieva, Raissa V.; Eggett, Dennis L.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

2013-01-01

22

Developing the Writing Ability of Intermediate Language Learners by Blogging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the widespread use of blogs during recent years, the present study explored how blogging can affect the writing skill of Iranian language learners. Besides, the learners' perception of blogging was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to see whether learners showed enthusiasm to blogging and how it motivated them to write. Two intermediate English classes were selected as the Control and Experimental Groups. Six writing topics were selected and were assigned to both groups. The writing activities in the Control Group were done on paper-based method while the Blogging Group used a selected website to do so. To evaluate the writing activities, four criteria were taken into account: a) length of the writing activities, b) use of verb forms, c) use of articles, and d) use of prepositions. Based on the results of the chi-square tests, in terms of the frequency of missed articles and prepositions the performances of both groups were significantly different. Also the compositions in the Blogging Group were longer than those of the Control Group. However, the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the learners' perception towards blogging revealed that students believed blogging had encouraged them to write more accurately. They also considered that blogging had remarkably improved their writing ability as compared to the time they did not use blogging.

Mohsen Hajiannejad

2012-01-01

23

The Interactional Approach to the Teaching of Writing and Its Implications for Second Language Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing is a language skill which is relatively difficult to acquire. A number of efforts have been made to develop the students' writing skill, among others is by applying different approaches to the teaching of writing. This article discusses the interactional approach to the teaching of writing and its implications for second language acquisition.  

Lies Amin Lestari

2008-01-01

24

The Interactional Approach to The Teaching Of Writing and Its Implications for Second Language Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing is a language skill which is relatively difficult to acquire. A number of efforts have been made to develop the students’ writing skill, among others is by applying different approaches to the teaching of writing. This article discusses the interactional approach to the teaching of writing and its implications for second language acquisition.

Lies Amin Lestari

2006-01-01

25

Scientific writing training for academic physicians of diverse language backgrounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research articles are the coin of the realm for anyone working in academia, and success or failure to publish determines a biomedical researcher's career path. At the same time, the dramatic increase in foreign faculty and trainees in U.S. academia, as well as in international scientific collaboration, adds another dimension to this developmental vacuum: limited English-language skills. Paradoxically, few programs exist to develop and support the skills needed to accomplish the vital task of writing English-language research articles, which does not come naturally to most. To better prepare all trainees for research careers, editors in the Department of Scientific Publications at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center created an in-depth training program that would target the writing skills gap effectively. Instruction focused on structure, rhetorical organization, and the conventions of biomedical publishing. More than 300 trainees have participated in 22 workshops. Results of a survey of 46 participants at 6 months to 2.5 years after workshop completion indicated that participants from all language backgrounds believed the course to have improved their writing (97.8% strongly agreed or agreed), made it easier to begin a manuscript (80.4%), and helped them to get published (56.8%), with nonnative speakers of English reporting somewhat greater perceived benefit than native English speakers. On the basis of these results, the authors conclude that researchers of varied linguistic backgrounds appreciate the need for, and benefit from, instruction in the conventions of scientific writing.

Cameron C; Deming SP; Notzon B; Cantor SB; Broglio KR; Pagel W

2009-04-01

26

First language influence on second language writing and expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The case study has its source in the author's attempt to translate his novelette Alitshoni lingaphumi (Waiting for sunrise) into English. Current developments in the sociopolitical arena make it increasingly important for linguists to focus on the interchange between the indigenous languages and the two dominant languages, English and Afrikaans. This would break down the artificial baniers so enthusiastically maintained in the past. Secondly, such an exercise would also help to overcome prejudicial ignorance.Some of the issues highlighted include culturastructural, lexicsyntactic, and semantic differences between Xhosa and English, as exemplified in the text in question. Die vertrekpunt vir die gevallestudie is die skrywer se poging om sy novelle Alitshoni lingaphumi (Wagtend op sonsopkoms) in Engels te vertaal. In die lig van eietydse ontwikkelinge in die sosio-politiese arena, word dit vir linguiste toenemend belangrik om te fokus op die wisselwerking tussen die inheemse tale en die twee dominante tale, Engels en Afrikaans. Dit sou die kunsmatige skeiding wat in die verlede met soveel entoesiasme gehandhaaf is, ajbreek Dit sou ook die onkunde wat uit vooroordeel spruit, oorkom, Van die sake wat na aanleiding van die teks na vore gebring word, sluit die kulturele, strukturele, leksikale, sintaktiese en semantiese verskille tussen Xhosa en Engels in.

Peter Mtuze

2013-01-01

27

Do L1 Reading Achievement and L1 Print Exposure Contribute to the Prediction of L2 Proficiency?  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined whether individual differences in high school first language (L1) reading achievement and print exposure would account for unique variance in second language (L2) written (word decoding, spelling, writing, reading comprehension) and oral (listening/speaking) proficiency after adjusting for the effects of early L1 literacy and…

Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

2012-01-01

28

Developing Speaking and Writing Skills of L1 Arabic EFL Learners through Teaching of IPA Phonetic Codes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This exploratory study investigated the development of speaking and writing skills of L1 Arabic EFL learners based on their level of perception and understanding of phonetic transcriptions through visualisation of letter-to-symbol representations using the International Phonetic Alphabet (henceforth IPA). The participants were 169 University-level Preparatory Year Program (PYP) male Saudi EFL students. The study was carried out as a pedagogical approach to improve university first year students’ pronunciation, correct speech and writing skills. The students selected attended 6, 50-minute Integrated Pronunciation Teaching (IPT) lessons which included IPA transcription codes using both audio and visual teaching methods in addition to one ICT aided lesson.  Throughout those lessons, students were initially introduced to the IPA phonetic codes in gradual increase of difficulty and were encouraged to use the monolingual (English-English), Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDCE). Two written tests and one oral test were conducted using a number of carefully selected IPA transcription codes related questions and results were analysed and interpreted. Results obtained showed slight variations between higher and lower ability students in understanding the IPA transcription codes. As a whole, however, the results indicated that students reached a high level of understanding of letter-to-symbol representations – the IPA system - and oral test results proved that phonological awareness can help Saudi students at tertiary level education improve their writing and speaking skills. Above all, learning the phonetic transcription codes helped them develop a sense of autonomy and competence when using monolingual dictionaries. The study concluded with a brief discussion of the ramifications of the study and the potential for further research.

Hussam Rajab

2013-01-01

29

Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

Lu, Yanbin

2010-01-01

30

An L1-Script-Transfer-Effect Fallacy: A Rejoinder to Wang et al  

Science.gov (United States)

Do different L1 (first language) writing systems differentially affect word identification in English as a second language (ESL)? Wang, Koda, and Perfetti [Cognition 87 (2003) 129] answered yes by examining Chinese students with a logographic L1 background and Korean students with an alphabetic L1 background for their phonological and orthographic…

Yamada, Jun

2004-01-01

31

Reading Ability, Reading Fluency and Orthographic Skills: The Case of L1 Slovene English as a Foreign Language Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the difference between less-skilled and skilled L1Slovene English as foreign language (EFL) students in foreign language(L2) fluency and L2 orthographic skills; 93 less-skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students and 102 skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students participated in the study. The results showed that skilled readers performed better in all fluency and orthographic skills tasks, as the differences between groups were statistically significant. The correlations among all variables showed that L2 fluency and L2 orthographic skills are positively interrelated among both groups, suggesting that higher L2 fluency scores are associated with higher L2 orthography scores. This outcome implies that less-skilled readersneed to be greatly exposed to L2 language and be ensured necessaryopportunities in- or outside the classroom in L2 learning.

Florina Erbeli; Karmen Pižorn

2012-01-01

32

Comparing Factors Related to Reading Comprehension in Adolescents Who Speak English as a First (L1) or Second (L2) Language  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined factors related to reading comprehension in adolescents who spoke English as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Measures of decoding, vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension were administered to 31 L1 and 44 L2 speakers. English L2 adolescents scored significantly lower than their L1 peers on…

Pasquarella, Adrian; Gottardo, Alexandra; Grant, Amy

2012-01-01

33

Genetic and environmental influences on writing and their relations to language and reading.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Identical and fraternal twins (N=540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement-Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary), and three different reading skills (word recognition, spelling, and reading comprehension). Substantial genetic influence was found on two of the writing measures, writing samples and handwriting copy, and all of the language and reading measures. Shared environment influences were generally not significant, except for Vocabulary. Non-shared environment estimates, including measurement error, were significant for all variables. Genetic influences among the writing measures were significantly correlated (highest between the speeded measures writing fluency and handwriting copy), but there were also significant independent genetic influences between copy and samples and between fluency and samples. Genetic influences on writing were significantly correlated with genetic influences on all of the language and reading skills, but significant independent genetic influences were also found for copy and samples, whose genetic correlations were significantly less than 1.0 with the reading and language skills. The genetic correlations varied significantly in strength depending on the overlap between the writing, language, and reading task demands. We discuss implications of our results for education, limitations of the study, and new directions for research on writing and its relations to language and reading.

Olson RK; Hulslander J; Christopher M; Keenan JM; Wadsworth SJ; Willcutt EG; Pennington BF; DeFries JC

2013-04-01

34

Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom. Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field. The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.

Madeleine Youmans

2008-01-01

35

WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2) leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

Jiang Li; Alister Cumming

2001-01-01

36

Blog writing integration for academic language learning purposes: towards an assessment framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006), then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming). The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expression, reflection and language acquisition in mandatory blog writings by students at a Third Level Institution. Previously in this research, students were asked, but not required, to keep a personal blog for up to five months; writing only about their language learning strategies and experiences with the declared aim of improving student language learning strategies through self-reflection and self-expression. Students are, this time, required to write and ‘complete’ their academic blog as it represents one compulsory element –with due weighting, given its importance– of a language module assessment. This compulsory blog writing task has raised a number of pedagogical questions which will be explored, such as: effective integration, assessing and rewarding student creative expression within the blog medium, self-reflection as a language learner and ultimately the role and value of academic blog writing in language acquisition.

Liam Murray; Tríona Hourigan; Catherine Jeanneau

2007-01-01

37

The Impact of Task Difficulty and Language Proficiency on Iranian EFL Learners? Code-switching in Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study sought to investigate code-switching in the writing of Iranian EFL learners. Code switching can occur both in spoken and written discourse. In order to measure this behavior in the writing of Iranian EFL learners, a total of 30 participants (15 intermediate and 15 advanced learners) were randomly selected. An Oxford Placement Test was administered to determine their level of second language (L2) proficiency. For gathering the relevant data from the learners, two writing tasks with different levels of difficulty were employed. The participants were required to think aloud as they were engaged in the act of writing. The data gathered from the think-aloud protocols were then analyzed and used for further analysis. Several independent T-test were conducted to analyze the data collected from the think-aloud protocols. The results showed that level of proficiency on the one hand and task level of difficulty were influential factors in writers’ rate of switching to their first language (L1).

Amir Sabzevar Qahfarokhi; Reza Biria

2012-01-01

38

Developing Literary Reading Skills through Creative Writing in German as a Second Language  

Science.gov (United States)

Literary reading skills in a second language (L2) are essential for student success at the advanced levels of collegiate language instruction. This article introduces an instructional approach that fosters the development of L2 literary reading skills through creative writing activities. First, the article identifies those skills that language

Urlaub, Per

2011-01-01

39

The interface of language proficiency and identity: a profile analysis of bilingual adolescents and their writing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore how adolescent English language learners' (ELLs') language and literacy experiences impacted their identities as bilingual writers. METHOD: Six students were randomly selected from a group of 20 Spanish-speaking ELLs, ages 11-14, who participated in a larger, mixed-methods study on bilingual writing (see Danzak, 2011). The participants produced 10 written journal entries in their language of choice (English, Spanish, or both) and were interviewed. Qualitative analyses were applied to the participants' writing and interviews, both individually and cross-case. Findings were integrated to some extent with the outcomes of quantitative measures applied to the students' writing. RESULTS: Three patterns emerged: ethnic differences, language discrimination, and language preference. Also, the students' self-identification as monolingual or bilingual was reflected in their attitudes toward language learning and their outcomes on writing measures. Three portraits of emerging bilingual writers are discussed: struggling emerging, dominant emerging, and balanced emerging. Language and literacy learning strategies are recommended for each. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative profiles of adolescent ELLs offer an understanding of students' experiences and identities that augments information provided by quantitative writing measures. Additionally, a mixed-methods profile analysis may aid in the identification of adolescent ELLs who may be struggling with undiagnosed language learning disabilities.

Danzak RL

2011-10-01

40

Second Language Writing Research and Written Corrective Feedback in SLA: Intersections and Practical Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

For more than a decade now, a great deal of research has been done on the topic of written corrective feedback (CF) in SLA and second language (L2) writing. Nonetheless, what those research efforts really have shown as well as the possible implications for practice remain in dispute. Although L2 writing and SLA researchers often examine similar…

Ferris, Dana R.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

SMS Language and College Writing :The languages of the College Texters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many students have become avid texters and are seriously reinventing language to accommodate the 160-character limit of short messages. They are more interested in getting their messages across and thus becoming less concerned about correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. Since texting has become a way of life of many students, it is feared that the SMS language can affect students’ written performance. This research examines the effects of frequent usage of text messaging (SMS) on undergraduates academic writing. For the purpose of the study, 264 Diploma students of UiTM Perlis were selected as participants. They were 94 male texters and 170 female texters aged between 18 – 22 years old who were taking three different English courses namely Preparatory English, Mainstream English 1 and Mainstream English 2. The data includes participants’ SMS messages, class assignments and examinations scripts which were analyzed in order to detect the existence of SMS language by using measuring instruments of Orthographic forms (Shortis, 2001). The findings reveal that there were few occurrences of SMS language in students’ examinations scripts among weak students.

Latisha Asmaak Shafie; Norizul Azida Darus; Nazira Osman

2010-01-01

42

English language writing centres in Japanese universities: What do students really need?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The installation of English language writing centres in Japanese universities is a relatively recent event—the first ones established with funding from the Ministry of Education in 2004. Because of the EFL writing context, setting up a writing centre requires consideration of students’ needs and cultural expectations of writing and writing centres. In general, writing centres that have been established in Japanese universities follow a structure similar to those in the US. This raises the question as to whether or not this is appropriate for the particular needs of EFL students and the obstacles they face. For this study, in order to explore students’ attitudes toward writing centres and the role they play in writing education, interview data was collected from students of English composition in two different departments at a university in Japan well known for its English language education: the English department, which does not have a writing centre, and the liberal arts department, which has one of the first writing centres established in Japan.

Jim McKinley

2010-01-01

43

Second Language Learners’ Performance and Strategies When Writing Direct and Translated Essays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL students’ performance and strategies when writing direct and translated essays. The study also aimed at exploring students’ strategies when writing in L2 (English) and L1 (Arabic). The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative procedures for data collection and analysis. Adapted strategy questionnaires, writing essay prompts and follow-up questions were utilized for data gathering. Thirty six university students participated in writing three different essays (direct L2 essay, L1essay, and translated essay). Furthermore, the participants responded to strategy questionnaires and answered follow-up questions. The results revealed statistically significant differences between direct and translated writing in favor of the first one. No significant differences between direct and translated writing in the use of strategies were found. The study’s findings may have pedagogical implications for the fields of writing instruction, writing assessment and teacher training. Based on the results, the study ended with some recommendations to assist and direct future research.

Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail; Negmeldin Omer Alsheikh

2012-01-01

44

A case study exploring oral language choice between the target language and the l1s in mainstream CLIL and EFL secondary education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This case study explores the purposes for which the target language (TL) and the L1s were used orally by students (N=60) and teachers (N=3) in a mainstream CLIL secondary education context compared to EFL instruction in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Data were gathered by means of questionnaires addressed to students and teachers, oral interviews to instructors and observations of class sessions. The findings show some differences in the languages chosen to speak according to pedagogical functions –i.e. planned subject-based discourse– and real functions –i.e. unplanned discourse such as disciplinary or organizational matters– (Chavez 2003), with the TL being much more spoken in the former and with much lesser presence of the TL in the latter, especially in the case of the pupils. Moreover, specialized subject-matter terminology was almost always used in the TL by both the students and the teachers, even when speaking in the L1.

Maria Gené Gil; Maria Juan Garau; Joana Salazar Noguera

2012-01-01

45

Linguistic, reading, and transcription influences on kindergarten writing in children with English as a second language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL) children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1) were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA) and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing fluency measure. Correlation and hierarchical regression results varied as a function of the writing tasks (procedural or generative) and language status. Across language groups, writing tasks that captured children's developing graphophonemic knowledge were associated with a breadth of cognitive, linguistic, and early literacy skills. PA, reading, and transcription skills, but not oral vocabulary and syntactic knowledge contributed the most variance to writing irrespective of language status. The results suggest that parallel component skills and processes underlie ESL and EL1 children's early writing when formal literacy instruction begins in kindergarten even though ESL children are developing English oral and literacy proficiency simultaneously.

Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty

2013-01-01

46

Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

Crossley, Scott A.

2013-01-01

47

INVESTIGATING THE CASE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE USERS PRESERVING THEIR L1 ACCENT WITH REGARD TO GENDER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A ubiquitous phenomenon observed in the oral performance of foreign learners of English throughout different settings is speaking the L2 with some sort of accentuated articulation. The importance of accent, the emphasis being here on speaking English with a standard accent, is often neglected by those teachers who deemphasize its role in the whole process of learning a foreign/second language. Thus, the present study concerns language learners’ perception of their own accent and the consequences of speaking with an exotic accent. In this vein, the two variables of gender and the proficiency level of the learners were taken into account. To this aim, data were collected from thirty language learners of both sexes studying at the advanced level of proficiency in a Language Institute of Khomeiny Shahr. The results of a data analysis done after conducting an interview with the subjects alongside assessing the results of a questionnaire indicate that the female subjects preoccupation due to the hampering effects of their foreign accent while speaking in L2 is more than their male counterparts. It was also found that when they were asked if they are being assessed differently by their peers or language learners in the institutes of Isfahan City, over two thirds answered yes.

Masood ESTEKI; Mohsen REZAZADEH

2009-01-01

48

Longitudinal Outcomes for Preschool Dual Language Learners Receiving Writing Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzed data from a randomized, longitudinal study (Matera & Gerber, 2008) to measure the effectiveness of a writing intervention that provided clearly defined opportunities for Spanish-speaking preschool children in a Head Start program to develop their writing abilities in English. Results from this study indicate that children…

Matera, Carola

2011-01-01

49

The Effect of Scaffolding Technique in Journal Writing among the Second Language Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was noted that one of the most distressing challenges faced by the L2 college students was the poor presentation of their journal writing skills. The researcher noticed a prevailing pattern in their journal writing, where most of them were unable to construct proper sentences, making too many grammatical errors and also lacking in vocabulary. These factors have eventually restricted them from expressing their ideas clearly and effectively in their journal writing. Therefore, this study is primarily designed to look at how second language learners have acquired the use of English language through journal writing and how they have improved within a short time frame. The researcher scaffold a number of 3 undergraduate university college students by using several interactive writing techniques and instructions in writing a journal which showed their progress, daily activities and new experiences. The writing errors from the samples of written journals during week 1 were as it was written before and during the scaffolding period. Data were collected and the results of the progression were obtained based on the observation and comparison of written journals on week 1 and 5. The scaffolding technique presented in this study has helped remedy the challenges faced by the target students by further developing their effectiveness in journal writing.

Veeramuthu A/L Veerappan; Wei Hui Suan; Tajularipin Sulaiman

2011-01-01

50

Aspects of Lexical Proficiency in Writing Summaries in a Foreign Language  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the impact of aspects of the lexical proficiency of EFL students on their summary writing in English (L2) by controlling for the impact of a range of linguistic abilities in English and Japanese (L1). Sixty-eight Japanese undergraduate students wrote two summaries of English texts in English. Their English lexical…

Baba, Kyoko

2009-01-01

51

The Influence of Process Approach on English as Second Language Students’ Performances in Essay Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students’ performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control quasi-experimental research design. The sample consisted of 80 senior secondary school final year students. The research material included the senior secondary school English Language recommended textbook, National Examination Council (NECO) and West Africa Examinations Council (WAEC) English Language Syllabi, Federal Ministry of Education English Language Curriculum, English-Language Teachers’ Lesson Notes and Students Essay Writing Exercise books. The West African Examinations Council’s (WAEC) English Language Essay Question as an adapted instrument was used to gather data.  The data generated were subjected to statistical analysis and the results of the analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the pre-test scores of both the Control and the Experimental group which indicated the homogenous state of both Control and Experimental groups. There was significant difference in the post-test scores of the Experimental and the Control groups. There was no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the students in Control group. As evident from the out-come of the research, the Process Approach (which presents writing in multiple drafts before the final writing) had significant effect on students’ overall performance in essay writing.

AKINWAMIDE Timothy Kolade

2012-01-01

52

Multiple goals, writing strategies, and written outcomes for college students learning English as a second language.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined relations of achievement goals of writers who are speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL), the frequency of their writing strategy use, and the quality of their writing from a multiple goals perspective. The goal profiles of 57 EFL college students with similar writing proficiency were based on rating items of an unpublished scale; Group 1 had strong mastery and strong performance-approach goals, and two groups included students with only one strong mastery (Group 2) or performance (Group 3) goal. Think-aloud protocols indicated that the participants adopted 21 strategies in an argumentative writing task, classified into five categories. Group 1 was found to use writing strategies of monitoring or evaluating, revising, and compensating significantly more often than the other two groups, and produced better essays. Strong mastery and performance-approach goals might be beneficial for EFL college writers.

He TH; Chang SM; Chen SH

2011-04-01

53

Literacy: reading and writing social practices in the teaching of additional languages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect on additional language teaching focusing on the development of literacy, i.e., on a pedagogical practice that beholds reading and writing as social actions. It is based on literacy studies that view literacy as a set of social-cultural practices involving the technology of writing (SCRIBNER; COLE, 1981; STREET, 1984; HEATH, 2001; GEE, 2004; BARTON, 2007) in their constitution. The article is divided in three sections: the first one discusses the concept of literacy; the second one advocates literacy as the educational aim of schools; finally, studies on literacy and additional language teaching are presented, and the concept of assessment is discussed.

Cláudia Helena Dutra da Silva

2012-01-01

54

Is Thinking Aloud Reactive when Writing in the Heritage Language?  

Science.gov (United States)

Critics argue that requiring subjects to verbalize their thoughts while completing certain language tasks increases the participants' cognitive load and impairs their final performance (e.g., Jourdenais, 2001). Despite the importance of this claim for language instructors, few studies have produced contradicting evidence after an empirical study…

Yanguas, Inigo; Lado, Beatriz

2012-01-01

55

INTEGRATING THEORY AND PRACTICE Learning to teach L1 language and literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Against the background of the central dilemma in teacher education of the relationship between theory and practice, this article presents a teacher education approach that strongly emphasizes the use of theory in learning to teach, on the assumption that teaching is also an intellectual activity, and not simply 'practice'. We take the subject pedagogy, in this case of Dutch language and literature, as a starting point for our approach to teacher education, in an effort to align it as closely as possible with key educational theories. Furthermore, we encourage our students to engage in reflection informed by the theories they have been reading: discourses concerning different aspects of teaching and learning, resulting in instrumental, academic, and critical reflection. Therefore, we present a theoretical framework that is used by our student teachers to understand and examine their teaching. This approach can be summarized in the final task asked of our student teachers: an analysis of their own teaching, using key incident analysis. To illustrate, we describe and illustrate the work of Jennifer, a student teacher.

Klaas van Veen; Piet-Hein van de Ven

2008-01-01

56

The Power of Language Experience for Cross-Cultural Reading and Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article describes two educational settings in Nigeria where teachers adapted a language experience approach for reading and writing instruction. The first setting is a professional development workshop for public school teachers of students in grades 1-6. The second setting includes two groups of students with special needs: a grade 6 class…

Landis, David; Umolu, Joanne; Mancha, Sunday

2010-01-01

57

The Effects of Planning on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy in Second Language Narrative Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Building on previous studies of the effects of planning on second language (L2) learners' oral narratives and drawing on Kellog's (1996) model of writing, this article reports a study of the effects of three types of planning conditions (pretask planning, unpressured on-line planning, and no planning) on 42 Chinese learners' written narratives…

Ellis, Rod; Yuan, Fangyuan

2004-01-01

58

«The Write Stuff»: The importance of language for medical writers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available «The Write Stuff (TWS)» is the journal of the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA). It is a vibrant, well-read journal that has been published continuously for over 17 years. The journal publishes a balance of feature articles, regular columns, items to entertain, and reports on the association's activities. This article describes the journal and explains its success in meeting the needs of its readers, in particular by publishing articles on English grammar and style and devoting a section of the journal to translation. The article further discusses why there should be a need among medical writers to learn more about English and about translation. ---------------------------------- «The Write Stuff»: la importancia del lenguaje para los redactores médicos. «The Write Stuff (TWS)», revista oficial de la European Medical Writers Association (EMWA), es una publicación muy vital que cuenta con numerosos lectores y se mantiene activa ininterrumpidamente desde hace más de 17 años. En ella se ofrece una equilibrada combinación de artículos de fondo, columnas habituales y elementos de carácter lúdico, y se informa de las actividades de la asociación. El presente artículo describe la revista y su capacidad para atender satisfactoriamente las necesidades de sus lectores, que radica en gran medida en la publicación de artículos sobre gramática y estilo del inglés y la existencia de una sección dedicada a la traducción. Asimismo, se comenta por qué los redactores médicos deberían sentir la necesidad de ampliar sus conocimientos de inglés y de traducción.

Elise Langdon-Neuner; Gabi Berghammer

2010-01-01

59

From Novice to Expert: Implications of Language Skills and Writing-Relevant Knowledge for Memory during the Development of Writing Skill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article outlines a theory of the development of writing expertise illustrated by a review of relevant research. An argument is made for two necessary (although not sufficient) components in the development of writing expertise: fluent language generation processes and extensive knowledge relevant to writing. Fluent language processes enable the developing writer (especially the young developing writer) to begin to manage the constraints imposed by working memory, whereas extensive knowledge allows the writer to move beyond the constraints of short-term working memory and take advantage of long-term memory resources by relying instead on long-term working memory.

McCutchen, D.

2011-01-01

60

The Use of L1 in the Foreign Language Classroom/ El uso de la lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El uso de la lengua materna es una ocurrencia común en los contextos de la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, a pesar de que a veces reciba críticas por su interferencia en la adquisición de la Lengua meta. Mientras que los docentes deben maximizar el uso de la Lengua meta, sin duda, hay espacios para que el profesor utilice la lengua materna de los estudiantes en su pedagogía. En este trabajo se presenta un argumento basado en las perspectivas teóricas y la investi (more) gación empírica dentro de la literatura existente, apoyando el uso apropiado de la Lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera. El argumento se centra en tres cuestiones fundamentales-racionales para el uso de la lengua materna: Los efectos positivos que la lengua materna tiene tanto en el aprendizaje y la instrucción de una lengua extranjera, como en las formas en las que la lengua materna ayuda a los docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Abstract in english L1 use is a common occurrence in foreign language teaching contexts despite the fact that it often receives criticism for its interference with target language (TL) acquisition. While foreign language teachers should maximize their use of the TL, there is indeed a place for the teacher to use the students' L1 in their pedagogy. In this paper, an argument derived from theoretical perspectives and empirical research within existing literature supporting the appropriate use (more) of L1 in foreign language classrooms is presented. The argument addresses three key issues-rationales for L1 use, positive effects L1 has on both foreign language learning and instruction, and ways that L1 assists instructors on foreign languages.

Pan, Yi-chun; Pan, Yi-ching

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Machine Translation-Assisted Language Learning: Writing for Beginners  

Science.gov (United States)

The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…

Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel

2011-01-01

62

The Art of Persuasion: Logic and Language in Proposal Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggestions for preparing an effective proposal concern the following areas: selecting the granting agency; ascertaining the originality, clarity, and worth of the proposed activity on the basis of a bibliographic search; the central thesis, title, outline, and abstract; proposal drafting and revision; and choice of language, syntax, and grammar.…

DeBakey, Lois; DeBakey, Selma

1978-01-01

63

Recognizing Syntactic Errors in the Writing of Second Language Learners  

CERN Multimedia

This paper reports on the recognition component of an intelligent tutoring system that is designed to help foreign language speakers learn standard English. The system models the grammar of the learner, with this instantiation of the system tailored to signers of American Sign Language (ASL). We discuss the theoretical motivations for the system, various difficulties that have been encountered in the implementation, as well as the methods we have used to overcome these problems. Our method of capturing ungrammaticalities involves using mal-rules (also called 'error productions'). However, the straightforward addition of some mal-rules causes significant performance problems with the parser. For instance, the ASL population has a strong tendency to drop pronouns and the auxiliary verb `to be'. Being able to account for these as sentences results in an explosion in the number of possible parses for each sentence. This explosion, left unchecked, greatly hampers the performance of the system. We discuss how this ...

Schneider, D A; Schneider, David A.; Coy, Kathleen F. Mc

1998-01-01

64

Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females) (M age 57.30 months) participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP). Quantitative measures of writing: number of words, diversity of words, number of phrases/sentences and grammatical complexity of the phrases/sentences were also analysed. The children were also assessed on tasks measuring their language production and comprehension skills and the visuo-spatial, phonological, and central executive components of working memory. The results indicated that the boys were more likely to perform significantly less well than the girls on all measures of writing except the grammatical complexity of sentences. Initially, no significant differences were found on any of the measures of language ability. Further, no significant differences were found between the genders on the capacity and efficiency of their working memory functioning. However, hierarchical regressions revealed that the individual differences in gender and language ability, more specifically spoken language comprehension, predicted performance on the EYFSP writing scale. This finding accords well with the literature that suggests that language skills can mediate the variance in boys’ and girls’ writing ability.

Lorna Bourke; Anne-Marie Adams

2012-01-01

65

Between freedom and self-subjection: the dilemma of writing in an African language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the dilemmas that confront an author who chooses to write in an African language. (Language choice remains a particularly vexing issue in African literature.) On the one hand a language that he is a master of gives him the freedom to assert himself and oppose the imperial way of thinking, which is liberating. On the other hand choice of language confines his work to a specific audience and a particular set of literary canons. Sometimes certain influential gatekeepers overtly prescribe boundaries and limit the possibilities of transcending them. On the other hand, as a case study of Sesotho literature shows, the literature itself manifests generic and thematic propensities that limit the freedom of literary expression. From the subjective and privileged position of being a writer in Sesotho himself the author in the end makes a number of suggestions on how to overcome this stifling status quo.

N. Maake

2006-01-01

66

Online Interactional Feedback in Second Language Writing: Through Peer or Tutor?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the implementation of e-collaboration and e-tutoring will have any effect on students’ writing proficiency. It is argued that interactional feedback (peer or tutor) including negotiation and recasts can facilitate writing skill development in L2 (Lynch, 2002). 83 male and female EFL students, taking English courses in a language school in Bojnourd-Iran, formed the participants of this quasi-experimental intact-group study. The participants were assigned into experimental and control groups. A couple of instruments were employed to collect data: the TOEFL Writing Test, researchers-made pre and post tests, and an Information Technology Questionnaire (2009). Data analysis through one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between e-partnering and e-tutoring groups (p<0.05). The results also showed that though both e-partnering and e-tutoring enhanced writing proficiency, learners in e-partnering group outperformed those in e-tutoring group. The study findings indicate that e-collaboration/e-partnering can improve learners writing skill if integrated into the EFL curriculum designed for pre-intermediate level.

Khalil Motallebzadeh; Somaye Amirabadi

2011-01-01

67

The Effect of Using Portfolio-based Writing Assessment on Language Learning: The Case of Young Iranian EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of portfolio-based writing assessment in EFL situations. Participants were 40 pre-intermediate young Iranian English learners. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 20 each. The experimental group wrote on five pre-established topics from their coursebook. Their writings were checked in terms of ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions of writing by two raters. They were given another opportunity to revise their writings to be corrected again. In contrast, the control group wrote only once and their writings were corrected only by their own teacher.  The participants were also required to complete a questionnaire to assess their reflection and self-assessment. Results of the study indicate that portfolio-based writing assessment has a positive effect on language learning and writing ability. It also shows that it helps students’ self-assessment and almost all students are satisfied with this method of assessment.

Saeed Taki; Maryam Heidari

2011-01-01

68

Language style matching in writing: synchrony in essays, correspondence, and poetry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Each relationship has its own personality. Almost immediately after a social interaction begins, verbal and nonverbal behaviors become synchronized. Even in asocial contexts, individuals tend to produce utterances that match the grammatical structure of sentences they have recently heard or read. Three projects explore language style matching (LSM) in everyday writing tasks and professional writing. LSM is the relative use of 9 function word categories (e.g., articles, personal pronouns) between any 2 texts. In the first project, 2 samples totaling 1,744 college students answered 4 essay questions written in very different styles. Students automatically matched the language style of the target questions. Overall, the LSM metric was internally consistent and reliable across writing tasks. Women, participants of higher socioeconomic status, and students who earned higher test grades matched with targets more than others did. In the second project, 74 participants completed cliffhanger excerpts from popular fiction. Judges' ratings of excerpt-response similarity were related to content matching but not function word matching, as indexed by LSM. Further, participants were not able to intentionally increase style or content matching. In the final project, an archival study tracked the professional writing and personal correspondence of 3 pairs of famous writers across their relationships. Language matching in poetry and letters reflected fluctuations in the relationships of 3 couples: Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning, and Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes. Implications for using LSM as an implicit marker of social engagement and influence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

Ireland ME; Pennebaker JW

2010-09-01

69

Cross-linguistic influence in multilingual language acquisition: The role of L1 and non-native languages in English and Catalan oral production/ La influencia entre lenguas en su adquisición multilingüe: el papel de L1 y de lenguas no nativas en la producción oral en inglés y en catalán  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Gran parte de la investigación en la adquisición de terceras lenguas se ha centrado en los efectos que tienen factores como la distancia entre lenguas, la competencia, el uso reciente, o el estatus de la segunda lengua (L2) en la elección de la lengua origen (L1) desde el punto de vista de la influencia interlingüística. Se presenta aquí un análisis de dichos factores, así como la influencia que tiene la L1 (español) en la producción oral en L2 (inglés) y L3 (c (more) atalán). Se analiza la transferencia léxica y sintáctica en la producción en catalán e inglés de dos hablantes plurilingües con conocimiento similar de lenguas extranjeras. Fueron entrevistados dos veces en un ambiente informal. Los resultados muestran que la L1 es la principal fuente de transferencia, tanto en la producción oral en L2, como en L3; pero su influencia disminuye a medida que la competencia en la lengua meta incrementa. La distancia entre lenguas también tiene un papel importante en la influencia interlingüística, especialmente si la competencia en la lengua de origen es buena, y si ha habido un contacto reciente con ella. Los resultados también sugieren que mientras que la transferencia sintáctica se basa exclusivamente en la L1, la transferencia léxica se puede basar en la lengua no nativa. Abstract in english Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2) status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1) in cross-linguistic influence (CLI). This paper presents a study of these factors, and of the influence that the L1 (Spanish) has on L2 (English) and L3 (Catalan) oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English o (more) f two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.

Ortega, Mireia

2008-06-01

70

"Brilliant, Bright, Boiling Words": Literary Disability, Language and the Writing Body in the Work of Christopher Nolan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article uses theory on disability, embodiment and language to explore the production, context and presentation of two pieces of life-writing by Christopher Nolan. It examines Nolan's unusual use of language and form in his presentations of an experience of disability, and considers its literary and political significance. Consideration is…

Coogan, Tom

2012-01-01

71

Revitalising and preserving endangered indigenous languages in South Africa through writing and publishing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Libraries and librarians play a central role in organising and communicating knowledge. They are an important part of theknowledge production and use chain. The development and sustenance of a knowledge-based economy hinges on theirability to facilitate the accessibility, retrievability and usability of the knowledge and information that permeates theinformation society. Writers and publishers as part and parcel of the knowledge chain are central to the production anddistribution of ideas. Language is fundamental to their ability to communicate and get their literal messages, expressionsand ideas through. Their preferred language of writing and publishing may mean a difference between the growth anddemise of a language of a society and its culture and civilisation. Many indigenous languages around the globe arestruggling to survive because of various reasons including neglect by writers and publishers. Publishers and writers as majorrole players in the knowledge production and reproduction chain may assist in promoting and preserving indigenouslanguages in general and in South Africa in particular. This may ensure that South Africa’s knowledge economy developswithout sidelining or discriminating against any culture or language. There are challenges and opportunities that writersand publishers are likely to face in attempting to revitalise and empower indigenous languages in South Africa, but theyare not insurmountable. Using a theoretical approach, the purpose of this article is to highlight the role that writers andpublishers may play in revitalising and preserving endangered indigenous languages in South Africa. Recommendations aremade on how the role players may deal with the challenges that have culminated in the neglect of the endangeredindigenous languages.

Patrick Ngulube

2012-01-01

72

"I was born full deaf." Written language outcomes after 1 year of strategic and interactive writing instruction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nonstandard grammatical forms are often present in the writing of deaf students that are rarely, if ever, seen in the writing of hearing students. With the implementation of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) in previous studies, students have demonstrated significant gains in high-level writing skills (e.g., text structure) but have also made gains with English grammar skills. This 1-year study expands on prior research by longitudinally examining the written language growth (i.e., writing length, sentence complexity, sentence awareness, and function words) of 29 deaf middle-school students. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with a between-subjects variable for literacy achievement level was used to examine gains over time and the intervention's efficacy when used with students of various literacy levels. Students, whether high or low achieving, demonstrated statistically significant gains with writing length, sentence complexity, and sentence awareness. Subordinate clauses were found to be an area of difficulty, and follow up strategies are suggested. An analysis of function word data, specifically prepositions and articles, revealed different patterns of written language growth by language group (e.g., American Sign Language users, oral students, users of English-based sign).

Wolbers KA; Dostal HM; Bowers LM

2012-01-01

73

Cultural Transfer as an Obstacle for Writing Well in English: The Case of Arabic Speakers Writing in English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews and strengthens the data on cultural transfer by Arab Muslim students writing in English and adds the significant element of the cultural impact of Islam on such writing. This qualitative study examines the writing of 18 teacher trainees at an Arab language teacher training college in Israel. Results point to a strong cultural influence appearing in the students' writing. It is suggested that greater consideration should be given to the first and the target culture when designing the curricula for writing classes for Arab L1 students in English writing instruction.

Ruwaida Abu Rass

2011-01-01

74

The Effect of Student Receptivity to Instructional Feedback on Writing Proficiency among Chinese Speaking English Language Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research study is to discover the degree to which student acceptance of instructor feedback influences developing writing proficiency among Chinese speaking English Language Learners enrolled in an American middle school. This study was designed as a qualitative case study—an approach using in-depth inductive processes to observe and evaluate the receptivity of eighth-grade students to instructor feedback during an extended unit of instruction covering the five-paragraph essay model. The principal results in this study show that students who receive timely feedback and are receptive to this feedback become proficient writers, able to pass a Writing Multiple Measurement Assessment (WMMA), contrary to those who are not receptive to feedback. The author reviews research regarding the importance of structured writing instruction for English Language Learners and tactics writing instructors should consider to strategically provide heeded feedback. This study also recommends practical applications for future research direction.

Julie Tzu-Ling Huang

2012-01-01

75

Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.

Hung-Cheng TAI

2013-01-01

76

Assessing conventionalized language in English learner essays by applying a method of "warming up" in Swedish L1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract   The aim of this study is to look at the use of formulaic language, i.e. memorized and conventionalized combinations of words, in essays written by Swedish intermediate level students of English. Drawing on previous research (Cohen and Brooks -Carson 2001) this study will apply a method of...

Heisholdt Risberg, Karianne

77

Hemingway’s Language Style and Writing Techniques in The Old Man and the Sea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among many great American writers, Hemingway is famous for his objective and terse prose style. As all the novels Hemingway published in his life, The Old Man and the Sea typically reflects his unique writing style. The language is simple and natural on the surface, but actually deliberate and artificial. Hemingway’s style is related to his experience as a journalist. The influence of his style is great all over the world. The Old Man and the Sea is full of facts, most of which comes from Hemingway own experience. In the forepart of the novel, they are used to show the quality of Santiago’s life, and are narrated simply and naturally; while in the latter part of the novel, they are used from inside Santiago’s own consciousness and form part of a whole scheme of the novel.

Yaochen Xie

2008-01-01

78

A Study of Students’ Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40) Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampling. A sample consisting of 440 students (11students from each school) was randomly selected using a table of random numbers. An achievement test consisting of different items was developed to assess the students’ competency and capability in sub-skills of writing such as word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/grammar and handwriting. Mean score and standard deviation were used to analyze the students’ proficiency in each sub-skill. The t-test was applied to make the comparison on the bases of gender, density and public and private sector. The overall performance of all the students was better in comprehension as compared to other sub-skills namely word completion, sentence making/syntax, tenses/grammar and handwriting. The analysis, based on t-value, revealed no significant difference between the performance of male and female students and the students of public and private schools, whereas there was a significant difference between the performance of urban and rural students.

Muhammad Javed; Wu Xiao Juan; Saima Nazli

2013-01-01

79

The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Meta Cognitive Learning Strategies on Promoting Iranian Intermediate Language Learners' Writing Skill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was an attempted to investigate the effect of explicit instruction of meta-cognitive learning strategies on promoting intermediate language learners' writing skill. To achieve this purpose, an Oxford Placement test (Allen, 2004) was administered to language learners in English language institution and ultimately 24 intermediate language learners were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups worked on the same writing tasks and activities. The subjects in the experimental group were also instructed in the use of meta-cognitive language learning strategies following O'Malley (1985) while the subjects in the control group received some placebo treatment for a whole term. The results of the posttest showed that explicit instruction of meta-cognitive learning strategies for intermediate language learners proved effective. One reason may be that language learners at the intermediate level draw on these strategies in a conscious fashion and they need to develop a conscious awareness of the meta-cognitive learning strategies.

Keramat Ahmadi; Saeed Ketabi; Mitra Rabiee

2012-01-01

80

"It is certain that it can be argued a million times over" - expressions of epistemic modality in L1 and L2 writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This corpus-based study analyzes different types of epistemic markers used in argumentative essays by University students. More specifically it compares Swedish L2 writers and English L1 writers. The scope of the analysis covers epistemic modal verbs, lexical verbs and adverbs. A number of markers a...

Ericsson, Tina

 
 
 
 
81

On the development of a colloquial writing style: Examining the language of Indonesian teen literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The last few years have seen a boom in the publication of teen fiction in Indonesia. Particularly since the publication of the highly successful novel Eiffel ... I’m in love (Arunita 2001), numerous fiction works targeted at a youthful readership have appeared. This genre of popular literature has been so successful in attracting its audience that it currently constitutes the largest growing market in the Indonesian publishing industry (Simamora 2005). One of its striking characteristics is the predominant use of colloquial Indonesian, an informal variety of Indonesian that is closely identified with speakers from the capital Jakarta, particularly young people. Over a decade ago, scholars noted the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature (see for example Adelaar and Prentice 1996:678). The implication is that this language variety has spread into domains previously dominated by standard Indonesian, the formal variety used in government administration, formal education, and most printed mass media. Indeed, contemporary Indonesian written literature is largely associated with standard Indonesian, such that the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature has invited much criticism from language gatekeepers. Despite such criticism, however, teen fiction continues to flourish. The increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in teen fiction, though noted by scholars, has not been subject to any detailed linguistic study. Linguistic studies of colloquial Indonesian – at least those published in English – have focused so far on its use in speech, or in written texts intended to resemble speech, such as internet chatting and advice columns for young people. Prior to the recent surge in teen fiction, use of colloquial Indonesian in contemporary written literature was largely limited to dialogues. Writers such as Putu Wijaya, for example, are known to incorporate colloquialism to render dialogues more natural (Rafferty 1990:107). Teen fiction writers have extended the use of colloquialism into other parts of fiction such as the description of characters, settings, and inner thoughts. This development makes it interesting to look for a way to describe the increase of colloquialism. A useful approach is to examine the usage patterns of a term or a selection of terms in a number of teen fiction works published over time, with the purpose of observing changes in the patterns, and whether such changes can be shown to represent greater colloquialism. This study is a preliminary attempt in that direction. My purpose here is to demonstrate that in the last two decades during which colloquial Indonesian has been employed in teen fiction, there has been a shift in writing style from one that bears greater resemblance to standard Indonesian towards a style that is more colloquial. The term ‘style’ is commonly employed in sociolinguistics to refer to ways of speaking, which Bell (2001:139) defines in terms of the question ‘Why did the speaker say it this way on this occasion?’ (italics in original). Adapting this definition for teen fiction writing, I use ‘writing style’ here to refer to the characteristic manner in which an author writes fiction. This style is observed here by examining the use of the preposition pada ‘to, towards, on, in, at’ as compared to the use of three other prepositions, namely kepada ‘to, towards’, ke ‘to, towards’, and sama ‘to, towards, by, with’. The development towards increased colloquialism is shown through two indicators: a reduction in the range of prepositional meanings of pada along with the assignment of particular discourse functions to kepada, and an increased use of ke and sama. The data are drawn from ten works of fiction published between 1998 and 2005. Eight of these are written by the same author, Hilman. In four of them, Hilman collaborates with fellow writer Boim Lebon. The other two works are by Laire Siwi Mentari and Marthino Andries. This selection is motivated by the following considerations. Hilman’s wo

Dwi Noverini Djenar

2008-01-01

82

Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Bilingual Arabic-English Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were administered to the…

Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda

2013-01-01

83

Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Bilingual Arabic-English Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were administered to the…

Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda

2013-01-01

84

Lexical spelling in children and adolescents with specific language impairment: Variations with the writing situation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The goal of this study was to compare the lexical spelling performance of children and adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) in two contrasting writing situations: a dictation of isolated words (a classic evaluative situation) and a narrative of a personal event (a communicative situation). Twenty-four children with SLI and 48 typically developing children participated in the study, split into two age groups: 7-11 and 12-18 years of age. Although participants with SLI made more spelling errors per word than typically developing participants of the same chronological age, there was a smaller difference between the two groups in the narratives than in the dictations. Two of the findings are particularly noteworthy: (1) Between 12 and 18 years of age, in communicative narration, the number of spelling errors of the SLI group was not different from that of the typically developing group. (2) In communicative narration, the participants with SLI did not make specific spelling errors (phonologically unacceptable), contrary to what was shown in the dictation. From an educational perspective or that of a remediation program, it must be stressed that the communicative narration provides children-and especially adolescents-with SLI an opportunity to demonstrate their improved lexical spelling abilities. Furthermore, the results encourage long-term lexical spelling education, as adolescents with SLI continue to show improvement between 12 and 18 years of age.

Broc L; Bernicot J; Olive T; Favart M; Reilly J; Quémart P; Uzé J

2013-10-01

85

Adopting Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as Interactive Communities among English Foreign Language (EFL) Learners in Writing: Opportunities and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As most traditional classroom environments in English as Foreign Language (EFL) still restrict learners’ collaboration and interaction in college writing classes, today, the majority of EFL learners are accessing Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as online communities of practice (CoPs) for adopting informal collaborative learning as a way of practicing English beyond the classroom. This study aimed to investigate the opportunities and challenges of SNSs as learning environment in writing in English. The study was conducted among 24 active and regular EFL learners joining the Only for English Learning Facebook (FB) CoP – a group developed and maintained by a few instructors in English – for EFL learners coming from different EFL Arab countries. The data was collected from the learners’ interactional exchanges in the weekly posted writing activities as well as their responses to online open questions posted by the instructor. Based on the mixed analysis of the data, the quantity of the EFL learners’ participation in the writing activities highly increased in the second session. Moreover, the learners were motivated to generate ideas, write their paragraphs and scaffold each other in paragraph writing. The findings also revealed that the EFL participants perceived this CoP as an interactive learning environment that contributed to enhancing their writing by engaging in learner-learner and learner-instructor interaction, information sharing, communicating and socializing with friends and developing a sense of belonging. However, a few challenges faced by the participants in such an online CoP were identified by the participants, and therefore, some valuable assistive features are suggested to be involved in the FB CoP for achieving further EFL development in the future.

Norizan Abdul Razak; Murad Saeed; Zulkifli Ahmad

2013-01-01

86

Writing World-Wide Web CGI scripts in the REXX language  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This talk is aimed at people who have experience with REXX and are interested in using it to write WWW CGI scripts. As part of this, the author describes several functions that are available in a library of REXX functions that simplify writing WWW CGI scripts. This library is freely available at //www.slac.standard.edu/slac/www/tool/cgi-rexx/.

Cottrell, R.L.A.

1996-03-01

87

Future directions in feedback on second language writing: Overview and research agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn and Allen, it discusses how these papers situate written corrective feedback research in the wider area of second language acquisition research and contribute to the debate in feedback research on research design issues. This is followed by an examination of the major findings of the four situated empirical studies by Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary and Windeatt, and Martinez and Roca, which make up the second section. Echoing the authors of these papers, this article argues that we need more longitudinal naturalistic studies, adopting both cognitive and socio-cultural SLA frameworks to investigate the role of feedback and its impact on individual learners in more depth. Finally some pedagogic implications are discussed, including the need for feedback practices which facilitate students’ abilities to self regulate and evaluate their performance, and the need to raise teachers’ awareness of the different feedback sources and modes of delivery available to them.Este artículo ofrece una revisión de las siete aportaciones incluidas en este número especial sobre feedback, constatando cómo reflejan tanto el creciente interés por el tema en las distintas áreas de investigación como la continua búsqueda de técnicas más efectivas por parte del profesorado. Centrándose en primer lugar en las contribuciones de Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn y Allen, analiza cómo estos artículos sitúan la investigación sobre feedback en la corrección de trabajos escritos dentro del área más amplia de adquisición de segundas lenguas, contribuyendo al debate, dentro de la investigación sobre feedback, en torno a aspectos de diseño de la investigación. A continuación se examinan los resultados principales de los cuatro estudios empíricos realizados por Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary & Windeatt, y Martinez & Roca de Larios, que conforman la segunda sección. Siguiendo a estos autores, el artículo aboga por la realización de más estudios longitudinales de corte naturalista, que utilicen enfoques dentro del campo de la Adquisición de Segundas Lenguas tanto de carácter cognitivo como sociocultural, para investigar con más profundidad el papel del feedback y su impacto en perfiles concretos de aprendices. Finalmente, se tratan algunas implicaciones pedagógicas, incluyendo la necesidad de que las prácticas de feedback faciliten el desarrollo de habilidades de autocorrección y de evaluación del propio rendimiento por parte de los estudiantes, y la necesidad de incrementar el conocimiento que los docentes tienen acerca de las distintas fuentes y modos de implementación de feedback.

Fiona Hyland

2010-01-01

88

Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA) very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learners’ written production after a year of intensive language instruction in the controlled conditions of a classroom. The objective of the study presented here is: 1. to determine the types of error produced in a short translation task at different levels of language (morphosyntactic, lexical) 2. to observe manifestations of crosslinguistic influences between languages the subjects know (interlingual transfer) as well as those related to the language learnt itself (intralingual transfer).The small sample of texts produced does not allow for any generalized observations and conclusions, however, at the level of elementary competence in any foreign language, as other research shows, the amount of individual variation is not the most significant factor. Thus the incorrect forms produced may testify to some more universally error-prone areas of language. The value of this kind of analysis lies in this direct application to the teaching of Polish as a synthetic language. The study also demonstrates the fact that communicative teaching has a limited contribution to make in the case of this family of languages. It suggests that overt and explicit teaching of a synthetic language will give a sounder basis for further development of language competence in its communicative dimension

Danuta Gabrys-Barker

2007-01-01

89

Analysis of factors that influence the learning of a foreign language writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of motivational variables, learning styles and learning strategies in the development of writing skills in English of students from first to second years at the University of Ciego de Avila. To achieve that objective was used the following questionnaires: R _SPQ_ 2 F to assess the level of motivation of the students towards the English, (CHAEA) to determine the learning styles of the sample, the Assessment Questionnaire Learning Strategies for determine the strategies used in learning English, and a writing test where students wrote a letter to a foreign friend telling them about your country, to assess the level of writing skills. Our results confirm the hypothesis proposed earlier: when the deep motivation level is higher than the motivation level surface is achieved further development of writing skills, students with a balanced profile between four learning styles get a higher level of development in writing and, when all students develop learning strategies or more of them get further development in writing.

Mabel Anastasia Acosta García; Daniel González González

2012-01-01

90

¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom/ ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1) de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI ), un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1) parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje (more) de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Abstract in english Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining ho (more) w new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.

Higareda, Sandra; López, Georgina; Mugford, Gerrard

2009-10-01

91

¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1) de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI ), un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1) parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.

Sandra Higareda; Georgina López; Gerrard Mugford

2009-01-01

92

Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressignificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da Rede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem.BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by using the written language and how this process can constitute an opportunity to recreate their meanings. The data for this clinical study was collected in a group therapy involving 9 teenager students from public schools of Curitiba, with the complaint of reading and writing disorders. The group therapy was realized during one year inside the Speech language therapy clinic in Tuiuti University of Paraná. The meetings occurred every week during two hours totalizing 48 meetings. All data were video recorded and also written in a session diary. Six episodes considered very expressive were selected in order to analyze this theme. RESULTS: the research indicated that these individuals had a suffering relation with the written language and that they assumed incapacity positions towards it. It could be possible to observe that the clinical practices inside the group helped to recreate these relations, so that the individuals began to feel capable and assume responsibility positions in reading and writing practices. CONCLUSION: the speech language therapy group was built as a place where the individuals could set up a significant relation with reading and writing, providing key conditions for the re-significance of the symptoms and for interacting with different written texts, promoting thus changes between the individual and his own language.

Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida Machado; Ana Paula Berberian; Ana Paula Santana

2009-01-01

93

Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal/ Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressignificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da R (more) ede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by using the written language and how this process can constitute an opportunity to recreate their meanings. The data for this clinical study was collected in a group therapy involving 9 teenager students from public schools of Curitiba, with the complaint of read (more) ing and writing disorders. The group therapy was realized during one year inside the Speech language therapy clinic in Tuiuti University of Paraná. The meetings occurred every week during two hours totalizing 48 meetings. All data were video recorded and also written in a session diary. Six episodes considered very expressive were selected in order to analyze this theme. RESULTS: the research indicated that these individuals had a suffering relation with the written language and that they assumed incapacity positions towards it. It could be possible to observe that the clinical practices inside the group helped to recreate these relations, so that the individuals began to feel capable and assume responsibility positions in reading and writing practices. CONCLUSION: the speech language therapy group was built as a place where the individuals could set up a significant relation with reading and writing, providing key conditions for the re-significance of the symptoms and for interacting with different written texts, promoting thus changes between the individual and his own language.

Machado, Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida; Berberian, Ana Paula; Santana, Ana Paula

2009-12-01

94

Reading and Writing the World Using Beautiful Books: Language Experience Re-Envisioned  

Science.gov (United States)

|Through this article, we describe an instructional strategy termed "Beautiful Books." This strategy involves the creation of images and texts to be used in the development of oral and literacy skills. We explore the historical roots of the strategy in Language Experience Approach (LEA) and Whole language and consider how dictation and early…

Hoffman, James V.; Roser, Nancy

2012-01-01

95

Verb-Noun Collocations in Second Language Writing: A Corpus Analysis of Learners' English  

Science.gov (United States)

|The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…

Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina

2011-01-01

96

Perceived Views of Language Teachers on the Use of Needs Analysis in ESP Materials Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Needs analysis is generally believed to be important in ESP/EAP context because it enables practitioners and materials writers to find out about their real learners' needs. Therefore, this study is set out to investigate EFL teachers' beliefs and views about need analysis use and practices, specifically in the ESP/EAP tertiary context of the Sultanate of Oman. A group of (55) EFL teachers in 4 colleges participated in the study by responding to a questionnaire designed for the study’s purpose. The questionnaire was analyzed and percentages and frequencies were taken. The study concluded that needs analysis has to be encouraged and leaners' needs are of utmost importance ESP/EAP materials writing. The findings of this study showed that the vast majority of EFL teachers are in favour of using needs analysis as a basis for ESP/EAP materials writing and they believe that it is a significant factor in successful ESP materials development.

Holi Ibrahim Holi Ali; Abdel Rahman Abdalla Salih

2013-01-01

97

Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language (L2)…

Chan, Alice Y. W.

2012-01-01

98

Alienation, language and freedom. A note on Bildung in Hegel's writings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of Bildung occupies a central place in the work of Hegel. In the Phenomenology of Spirit from 1807 it is clear that Bildung has a general meaning, which transcends educational contexts. Soon after the publication of the Phenomenology, however, Hegel became the rector of the humanistic Gymnasium in Nürnberg, and this position he kept until 1816. From this period we have some less well known writings, which explicitly discuss Bildung and relate it to educational use. These texts were written at the hight of his philosophical maturity from, when he was working on The Science of Logic and the Encyclopedia, and they therefore deserve being taken seriously. When all these sources are brought together, however, an idea of Bildung often associated with Hegel, namely that Bildung is the result of productive work, seems to be mistaken. I first give a brief account of the general argument, secondly add some details from the Phenomenology to support the argument, and finally conclude with a few general remarks.

Asger Sørensen

2012-01-01

99

e-Text Watermarking: Utilizing 'Kashida' Extensions in Arabic Language Electronic Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital signal. This work targets web applications that need to have hidden secure data within their Arabic e-text files. Many related watermarking techniques have been proposed as for text watermarking. However, most of them are suitable for English and cannot be generalized for different other languages such as Arabic. Arabic e-text watermarking is found having unique characteristics features that can be considered interestingly. In this paper, we are utilizing the extension Arabic character ‘Kashida’ to propose an improved method for Arabic e-text watermarking. We utilize all the extendable characters possibly fitted in words to represent some watermark bits. We embed bits within 'Kashida' characters in the cover text based on a secret key similar to classical cryptography. Our study showed that this watermarking scheme made the task of an attack much harder compared to previous similar and related methods. It also showed possibility to hide more secret data bits without degrading the security, which is believed to be attractive for web e-text data application such as preserving intellectual properties or copyright features.

Adnan Abdul-Aziz Gutub; Fahd Al-Haidari; Khalid M. Al-Kahsah; Jamil Hamodi

2010-01-01

100

Phraseology and Frequency of Occurrence on the Web: Native Speakers' Perceptions of Google-Informed Second Language Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Usage-based theories of language learning suggest that native speakers of a language are acutely aware of formulaic language due in large part to frequency effects. Corpora and data-driven learning can offer useful insights into frequent patterns of naturally occurring language to second/foreign language learners who, unlike native speakers, are…

Geluso, Joe

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension), not output (production) (Krashen, 1982). My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension), not output (production) (Krashen, 1982).

Stephen Krashen

2008-01-01

102

Teaching the New Writing: Technology, Change, and Assessment in the 21st-Century Classroom. Language & Literacy Series  

Science.gov (United States)

How has the teaching of writing changed in the 21st century? In this innovative guide, real teachers share their stories, successful practices, and vivid examples of their students' creative and expository writing from online and multimedia projects, such as blogs, wikis, podcasts, electronic poetry, and more. The book also addresses assessment:…

Herrington, Anne; Hodgson, Kevin; Moran, Charles

2009-01-01

103

The Impact of Task Difficulty and Language Proficiency on Iranian EFL Learners? Code-switching in Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study sought to investigate code-switching in the writing of Iranian EFL learners. Code switching can occur both in spoken and written discourse. In order to measure this behavior in the writing of Iranian EFL learners, a total of 30 participants (15 intermediate and 15 advanced learners) were ...

Amir Sabzevar Qahfarokhi; Reza Biria

104

MATERIAL, EDUCATIONAL, AND IDEOLOGICAL CHALLENGES OF TEACHING EFL WRITING AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A great deal of literature on teaching English writing focuses primarily on English dominant contexts. The particular situation of writing instruction in non-English dominant countries has received insufficient attention, especially in light of some of the claims for the role of writing coming from the "center" countries. English language teachers, particularly those teaching in non-English dominant countries, who give substantial attention in their courses to teaching writing in English face a number of challenges. This article discusses two main categories of challenges. In the first group are challenges writing teachers face daily, such as class size, time constraints, accommodating local needs, and coping with problems connected to lack of both teacher experience in teaching L2 writing and student training in L1 writing. In the second group are challenges of a more ideological nature that are perhaps less obvious but more powerful and far-reaching, including the need to justify the large investment required on the part of institutions and individuals in order to teach L2 writing, the right to resist center imposed materials and methods, the need for dialogue with students about the role of writing in their lives, and the need to make L2 writing enhance learner options rather than limit them so that for learners, writing in L2 becomes not a pointless additional burden but a powerful means of accomplishing personal goals.

Ilona Leki

2001-01-01

105

Incidental Vocabulary Learning and Recall by Intermediate Foreign Language Students: The Influence of Marginal Glosses, Dictionary Use, and Summary Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is an attempt to compare the effect of four reading conditions on incidental vocabulary learning and recall of intermediate EFL learners. A sample population of 120 Iranian intermediate students read two short passages in one of four reading conditions: 1) L1 Marginal Glosses (MG1--provision of L1 translations of unknown words), 2) L2…

Ghabanchi, Zargham; Ayoubi, Elham Sadat

2012-01-01

106

Self-expressions, Socialization and Learning in Dialogue Journals: Features of Beginner Writers in Second Language Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Collaborative learning involves learners working together as a group in maximizing their learning experience and in developing the learners’ sense of belonging to the group. This paper discusses the features of a collaborative writing activity, the dialogue journal, that exist during a writing activity. The features were discussed based on literature and a case study on a group of second-year ESL learners of Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis, Malaysia. The selections of the students’ dialogue journal writing were found to display features of the learners’ self-expressions, learning and interactions among their classmates and teacher.

Mahani Mansor; Latisha Asmaak Shafie; Anis Maesin; Surina Nayan; Nazira Osman

2011-01-01

107

We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension), not output (production) (Krashen, 1982). Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper. My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension), not output (production) (Krashen, 1982). Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper.

Stephen Krashen

2008-01-01

108

The L1=L2 Hypotheses: A Reconsideration  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the L1=L2 hypothesis which states that, all other things except knowledge of language being equal, first language acquisition is the same as second language acquisition. Reviews the evidence for and against the hypothesis, looks at current research and considers the general distinction between formal and informal learning. (SED)

Ellis, Rod

1985-01-01

109

Putting Humpty Dumpty Together Again: Integrating the Language Arts. The Talking and Writing Series, K-12: Successful Classroom Practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prepared as part of a series applying recent research in oral and written communication instruction to classroom practice, this booklet deals with the integrated language arts curriculum. Noting the disparity between what is advocated for and what is practiced in language arts teaching, the first section of the booklet describes an integrated…

Allen, R. R.; Kellner, Robert W.

110

The Effect of Using Portfolio-based Writing Assessment on Language Learning: The Case of Young Iranian EFL Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the effectiveness of portfolio-based writing assessment in EFL situations. Participants were 40 pre-intermediate young Iranian English learners. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 20 each. The experimental group wrote on five pre-established to...

Saeed Taki; Maryam Heidari

111

Translator Writing Tools (TWT).  

Science.gov (United States)

Translator Writing Tools (TWT) is a complex system, composed of two languages, EOL-4 and MOL, and of certain theoretical concepts, which tie these two languages together. TWT is intended to be applied to educational purposes and to actual translator writi...

L. Lukaszewicz

1971-01-01

112

Períodos históricos de la enseñanza de la expresión escrita en lenguas extranjeras/ Historical periods of the teaching of writing in foreign languages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish A partir del uso del método histórico-lógico para el análisis científico, se propone una nueva reperiodización de la historia de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la expresión escrita en lenguas extranjeras. También, se realiza un breve recorrido por los métodos y enfoques de esta disciplina y las incidencias de éstos en los modos de enseñar-aprender a como escribir. Abstract in english Making use of the historical and logical methods of scientific analysis, the authors propose a new reperiodization of the teaching-learning history of the written expression in foreign languages. A brief account of the methods and approaches of this discipline and their impact on the way to teach and learn how to write is also made.

Forteza Fernández, Rafael; Faedo Borges, Amable

2005-12-01

113

The Facilitating Role of L1 in ESL Classes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.

Ça?r? Tu?rul Mart

2013-01-01

114

Tracing Cultures behind the Struggling Experience of a Chinese High School Student Writing Application Letters in English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By examining the affect, behavior and cognition (the ABCs) involved in the writing process of a Chinese high school student composing application essays in English (a foreign language) as a case study by means of ethnographic approach and under the notion of small culture, this study aims to illustrate how different cultural forces interact with one another and how they come to play in the shaping of rhetorical differences between learner's native language (L1/NL )and second or foreign language (L2/FL ) writing. Data were collected and analyzed from various sources --essay drafts, interviews, personal reflections, and email exchanges. The findings show that multiple cultural forces ranging from national culture (Chinese culture, for example) to small cultures such as L1/NL and L2 /EFL writing instruction and family education and the like, interact with one another and co-influence L2/EFL learner's writing practice. And the intensity of struggle in L2/EFL writing somewhat relates to the interaction between the mentioned cultures.

Liqiu Wei; Ji Liu

2012-01-01

115

DISCOURSE MARKERS IN WRITING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing writing skills is an important and complex part of language learning. Literatureon writing specifies in general terms that discourse markers constitute an indispensablecomponent of writing quality. This study aimed at identifying the discourse marker usage ofTurkish EFL learners. The study was conducted on 76 second grade students of Konya SelçukUniversity, Education Faculty, English Language Teaching Department. Data were collectedfrom the students’ papers, and the papers were evaluated in terms of number of sentences used,the number of discourse markers used, and the variety of the discourse markers preferred in awrite five-paragraph essay. Analysis of the papers suggests guiding results for further research ondeveloping writing quality.

Osman DÜLGER

2007-01-01

116

Exploring a New Technique for Comparing Bilinguals' L1 and L2 Reading Speed  

Science.gov (United States)

Is it possible to tell whether bilinguals are able to read simple text in their two languages equally fluently? Is it thus possible to distinguish balanced bilinguals from unbalanced bilinguals with respect to reading fluency in their first language (L1) and second language (L2)? In this study, we avoided making direct comparisons between L1 and…

Gauvin, Hanna S.; Hulstijn, Jan H.

2010-01-01

117

Model, Engage, Write, and Evaluate: A Model for Informative Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing is regarded as a particularly demanding process involving complex higher level thinking processes combined with the demands of certain meta-cognitive skills. Since academic success may be predicted by the student’s level of reading comprehension and writing skills and with the recent adoption of the Common Core State Standards, it is an ideal time for conceptualizing how to improve writing instruction for elementary students.  This mixed-methods study investigated the effects of process writing instruction on the development of second and third grade students’ writing abilities focusing on wide reading and inquiry, writing frames, technology netbooks, and grammar/mechanics.  Results indicate that all students involved advanced at least two stages on Gunning’s scale of writing proficiency, increased in number of words written, addressed problems in writing mechanics, and improved selective language use.  Findings are relevant to classroom teachers, specialists, and administrators alike.

Juanita Moller; Earl H Cheek; Evan T Ortlieb; Frances Steward

2011-01-01

118

Book Review: Stop, Write!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978). How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

Hans Thulesius

2013-01-01

119

DESCRIPTIVE VERSUS DIALOGIC REFLECTION AND POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE STANCE IN THE REFLECTIVE WRITING OF TURKISH PROSPECTIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in their teacher education could be beneficial in helping them to develop their critical thinking skills and to make the most of their future teaching experiences. Thus, the current study was conducted to describe the individual reflective profiles emerging from the analysis of the written reflections of 28 Turkish prospective English Language teachers on a video-recorded microteaching experience carried out as part of a methodology course. A mixed method approach was adopted to this aim. First, qualitative analysis of the written reflections revealed reflective categories showing how the participants reflected on their teaching experience. Second, frequency analysis was used to reveal the distribution of these reflective categories for each participant. The data analysis showed that the individual participants displayed different patterns of reflection in terms of descriptive and dialogic reflection, and positive and negative stance.

Amanda YE??LBURSA

2011-01-01

120

Linguagem escrita e relações estéticas: algumas considerações Lenguaje escrito y relaciones estéticas: algunas consideraciones Considerations on language writing and aesthetic relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O processo de constituição do sujeito ocorre a partir de relações sociais, semioticamente mediadas. Assim, é via produção de sentidos que o ser humano produz cultura e, simultaneamente, constitui-se enquanto singularidade, o que caracteriza esse processo como criador. Ao reconhecer a linguagem como constitutiva do sujeito e entender o processo de criação como característico do ser humano, o presente trabalho apresenta reflexões, à luz da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural, sobre os processos de criação na/com a linguagem escrita. Situações de uma pesquisa anteriormente desenvolvida são apresentadas para ilustrar as dicotomias existentes no processo de produção escrita, mais especificamente no que se refere às relações forma/conteúdo e técnica/sentido. Para a superação dessas dicotomias, necessário se faz estabelecer relações estéticas com a realidade, por cujo intermédio a pessoa pode distanciar-se e aproximar-se da produção escrita, seja esta produto de sua objetivação ou não. É este movimento que possibilita a organização de novos sentidos para a produção própria ou alheia e, por conseguinte, novas escritas.El proceso de constitución del sujeto ocurre a partir de relaciones sociales, semióticamente mediadas. Así, es vía producción de sentidos que el ser humano produce cultura y, simultáneamente, se constituye con singularidad, lo que caracteriza ese proceso como creador. Al reconocer el lenguaje como constitutivo del sujeto y entender el de creación como característico del ser humano, el presente trabajo presenta reflexiones, a la luz de la Psicología Histórico-cultural, sobre los procesos de creación en el/con el lenguaje escrito. Situaciones de una encuesta anteriormente desarrollada son presentadas para ilustrar las dicotomías existentes en el proceso de producción escrita, más específicamente en lo que se refiere a las relaciones forma/contenido y técnica/sentido. Para la superación de esas dicotomías, se hace necesario establecer relaciones estéticas con la realidad, por cuyo intermedio la persona puede distanciarse y aproximarse de la producción escrita, sea ésta producto de su objetivación o no. Es este movimiento que posibilita la organización de nuevos sentidos para la producción propia o ajena y, por consiguiente nuevas escritas.The process of the constitution of the subject occurs through semiotically mediated social relationships. Through the production of meanings the human being produces culture and, simultaneously, constitutes its singularity, which characterizes the process as creative. While acknowledging language as constitutive of the subject and the comprehension of the creative process as unique to humans, current analysis presents some considerations, based on historical-cultural psychology, on the creative processes with language writing. Situations from a previous research are shown to illustrate the dichotomies during the process of writing production, more specifically the relations between shape/content and technique/meaning. So that these dichotomies may be overcome, it is necessary to establish aesthetic relations with reality. Through reality the subject may distance him/herself from or approach the writing production whether or not it is his/her production. Such shifting permits the organization of new meanings for one’s own or for others’ production, or rather, for new writings.

Silmara Carina Dornelas Munhoz; Andréa Vieira Zanella

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Writing Music Therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry. Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many characteristics. It makes sense that we use poetry to write about music therapy. Writing is a crucial skill for music therapy professionals who must produce various notes, proposals, and reports. Writing poetically is a diminished stance compared to discursive prose writing. It is understandable that representing music therapy in experimental, tentative, and creative texts is risky. I invite music therapists to aspire towards poetry when writing music therapy to better address nonverbal, embodied, music therapy essence. I address this invitation to all writers of music therapy: undergraduate and graduate students, clinicians, and researchers.

Mary Helena Rykov

2011-01-01

122

Out of a Writing Conference: Speaking Writing Connection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value only `the product' but also `the process'. When translated into the classroom, one of the features of this new paradigm, the writing process approach, is `the conference', which occurs between teacher and students as well as between students. As Mol (1992) states, writing conference provides students with immediate, meaningful responses to their writing, developing students' ability to reflect upon their own writing and the writing of others in a critical and constructive way. Looking back at our own experience in teaching writing, the conference does not only scaffold the students in the process of meaning-making but also creates an atmosphere where they are actively engaged in a `more focused' talk. This is of paramount importance since our students tend to speak in their native language even in the classroom.

Utami Widiati

1997-01-01

123

Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

2013-01-01

124

Handling L2 Input in Phonological STM: The Effect of Non-L1 Phonetic Segments and Non-L1 Phonotactics on Nonword Repetition  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article reports on an experiment comparing the effects of three discrete types of deviance from native language (L1) phonetics and phonology on verbal short-term memory performance. A nonword repetition task was used to measure the recall of four stimulus types: (a) high-probability L1-sounding nonwords, (b) low-probability L1-sounding…

Kovacs, Gabor; Racsmany, Mihaly

2008-01-01

125

The magic of writing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The work of our daily lives leaves little time for the "accomplishment and recreation" of writing. Yet, writing accomplishes a vital service by connecting people with the world around them. It is possible to experience the joy of writing by developing some mastery of it. All writing begins with an idea; always consider that the problems you tackle today may be worth writing about tomorrow. You must collect research if you are to flesh out your ideas and get them onto paper. You will also need writing implements, a tape recorder and language references. When building an article, it helps to have an outline. You need to block off time devoted only to writing and set a deadline. A first draft is for getting ideas down on paper, and revisions are done to refine the presentation. Work on properly organizing and editing your material. Good word and sentence rhythm, carefully drawn word pictures, the use of pronouns to develop reader identification and buy-in and compelling leads and conclusions are some ways to make your writing more interesting.

Ferdinand M

1993-11-01

126

Thinking on the Write Path  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper underscores the importance of the cognitive orientation of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in their success in writing courses. A few suggestions are made as to how EFL teachers can put their students on the right cognitive path in their writings.

Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2007-01-01

127

Writing Excel Macros with VBA  

CERN Document Server

To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

Roman, Steven

2008-01-01

128

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This document presents writing samples that have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing--argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative--in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for…

Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

2010-01-01

129

Curriculum: Foreign language learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents an overview of various issues related to curriculum in foreign language learning, and in particular focuses on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Foreign language learning is taken to mean the learning of a language other than the learner’s first language (L1), and t...

Lin, AMY

130

Emergence in second language writing: a methodological inroad/ Emergência na escrita em segunda língua: uma incursão metodológica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A Teoria de Sistemas Complexos (TSC) tem sido acionada em diversos campos, como forma de examinar os fenômenos de uma maneira que faz com que a interconectividade e emergência sejam centrais para pesquisa. Para a linguística aplicada, TSC oferece a possibilidade de englobar tanto a linguagm quanto a aprendizagem. Ao fazer isso, a orientação teórica tem de ser totalmente integrada ao processo de pesquisa por meio da metodologia de pesquisa. Este artigo descreve um m? (more) ?todo qualitativo microetnográfico, Análise de Traços Lexicais, que se baseia no conceito de emergência. É um método analítico que nos permite ver o desenvolvimento longitudinal de palavras e de seus padrões. Ele é aplicado aqui em um estudo de caso sobre o desenvolvimento de padrões léxico-gramaticais (sequências formulaicas, colocações, expressões idiomáticas etc.) de uma usuária de uma segunda língua. Seus padrões de palavras são rastreados enquanto ela se prepara para o vestibular para a universidade e, posteriormente, assim que ela entra na universidade. Seu uso de padrões envolve imitação adaptativa, um processo complexo de percepção de padrões, imitação e adaptação para atender aos novos objetivos comunicativos. Abstract in english Complex Systems Theory (CST) has been called upon in many different fields as a means of examining phenomena in a way that makes interconnectivity and emergence central to research. For applied linguistics, CST offers the possibility of encompassing both language and learning. In doing so, the theoretical orientation needs to be fully integrated into the research process through research methodology. This paper describes a qualitative microethnographic method, Lexical Tra (more) il Analysis, which draws on the concept of emergence. It is an analytic method that enables us to see the longitudinal development of words and their patterns. It is applied here in a case study of the development of one second language user's lexicogrammatical patterns (formulaic sequences, collocations, idioms, etc.). Her word patterns are traced as she prepares for a university entrance test and later, once she enters the university. Her use of patterns involves adaptive imitation, a complex process of perceiving, imitating and adapting patterns to suit new communicative goals.

Macqueen, Susy

2013-06-01

131

Linguajamentos e contra-hegemonias epistêmicas sobre linguagem em produções escritas indígenas/ Languaging and epistemic counter-hegemony on language in writings by Brazilian Indians/ Modos de hablar y contrahegemonías epistémicas sobre lenguaje en producciones escritas indígenas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo, resultado de uma pesquisa qualitativa documental, discute práticas epistêmicas sobre linguagem de autoras e autores indígenas residentes no Brasil. Com base em autoras e autores indígenas e não indígenas - decolonialistas e pós-estruturalistas - confrontamos suas concepções de linguagem, considerando a construção das sociedades indígenas como o outro/objeto, que está presente na produção hegemônica de saber sobre linguagem. Consideramos o proc (more) esso de silenciamento a que as etnias indígenas foram sujeitadas, e também o processo de resistência e apropriação de práticas e conceitos dos não indígenas, assim como coexistência de conceitos como língua, escrita e identidade. Como conclusão, apontamos a necessidade de ampliar o olhar epistemológico para dar conta de práticas discursivas coexistentes às do não indígena. Abstract in spanish Este artículo, resultado de una investigación cualitativa documental, discute prácticas epistémicas sobre lenguaje de autoras y autores indígenas residentes en Brasil. Con base en autoras y autores indígenas y no indígenas - de colonialistas y posestructuralistas - confrontamos sus concepciones de leenguaje, considerando la construcción de las sociedades indígenas como el otro/objeto, que está presente en la producción hegemónica de saber sobre lenguaje. Consi (more) deramos el proceso de silenciamiento a que las etnias indígenas fueron sujetadas, y también el proceso de resistencia y apropriación de prácticas y conceptos de los no indígenas, así como coexistencia de conceptos como lengua, escritura e identidad. Como conclusión, apuntamos la necesidad de ampliar la observación epistemológica para dar cuenta de prácticas discursivas coexistentes a las de la no indígena. Abstract in english This paper presents the results of a qualitative documentary research which discusses epistemic practices on language by indigenous authors inhabiting Brazil. Based on indigenous authors, as well as on poststructuralist and decolonialist ones, this paper confronts theirs language concepts, considering the construction of indigenous societies as the other/object, which is part of the hegemonic production of knowledge about language. We make considerations on the process of (more) silencing of the indigenous groups, and also the process of resistance and appropriation of concepts and practices by non-indigenous, as well as the coexistence of concepts such as language, writing and identity. As a conclusion, we point to the urgent need to expand epistemological perspectives in order to deal with the co-existing discursive practices of the indigenous and the non-indigenous.

Oliveira, Elismênnia Aparecida; Pinto, Joana Plaza

2011-08-01

132

Development of phonological awareness in English-Mandarin bilinguals: a comparison of English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 kindergarten children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1 (first language) and L2 (second language) syllable and phoneme awareness longitudinally in English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 prereaders (n=70, 4- and 5-year-olds) across three 6-month intervals. In English, the English-L1 children's performance was better in phoneme awareness at all three time points, but the Mandarin-L1 children's syllable awareness was equivalent to the English-L1 children's syllable awareness by Time 3. In Mandarin, the English-L1 children's phoneme awareness, but not their syllable awareness, was also significantly better than that of the Mandarin-L1 children at all three time points. Cross-lagged correlations revealed that only the English-L1 children applied their L1 syllable and phoneme awareness to their L2 (Mandarin) processing by Time 2 and that the Mandarin-L1 children seemed to require exposure to English (L2) before they developed phoneme awareness in either language. The data provide further evidence that phonological awareness is a language-general ability but that cross-language application depends on the similarity between the phonological structures of a child's L1 and L2. Implications for classroom teaching are briefly discussed.

Yeong SH; Rickard Liow SJ

2012-06-01

133

Long-Term Crosslinguistic Transfer of Skills from L1 to L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) skills in elementary school and second language (L2) learning in high school. Students classified as high-, average-, and low-proficiency L2 learners were compared on L1 achievement measures of reading, spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and listening comprehension…

Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

2009-01-01

134

Writing Short Stories for the BBC World Service.  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing for the BBC World Service "Short Story" Program provides English as a second language students with the necessary conditions for "authentic writing," namely authentic and communicative writing practice, encouragement of language acquisition, and improvement of the teacher student relationship. (CB)

Crookall, David

1986-01-01

135

Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing  

Science.gov (United States)

Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

2011-01-01

136

RAFT Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This web page provides an overview of the RAFT writing strategy, a strategy that helps students understand their role as a writer, the audience they will address, the varied formats for writing, and the topic they'll be writing about. Sample RAFT prompts and references are provided.

2012-01-01

137

Learning about Language in Classrooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on communication in classrooms is reviewed to provide implications for the writing process. Studies address language, social identity, and teacher expectation. The importance of meaning as the focus of writing is stressed. (CL)

Florio-Ruane, Susan

1985-01-01

138

Business Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Georgia State University's website on Business Writing was designed as a tool for teachers creating new business writing courses. Included in the samples are class projects, student assignments, teaching philosophies, and multi-media suggestions for teaching writing to large groups. In addition to the syllabi provided, there are schedule breakdowns for classes held three times a week or two times per week, and assessment tips. This website could be valuable to any instructor of writing, but especially helpful for those designing business writing courses.

2007-03-24

139

Teorías personales de docentes de lengua sobre la enseñanza de la escritura en sistema de educación pública chilena/ Language teacher personal theories about teaching writing in the Chilean public educational system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Es sabido que las ideas que los docentes sostienen acerca de los procesos de enseñanza -aprendizaje de lenguas inciden en su quehacer pedagógico. Son escasos los estudios que explican las teorías personales de profesores de lenguas en torno a las habilidades lingüísticas de sus estudiantes. Por esta razón, el objetivo de este trabajo es determinar cuáles son las teorías personales sobre escritura y su enseñanza en la educación media de seis profesores de inglés (more) y de seis de Lenguaje y Comunicación que se desempeñan en establecimientos educacionales municipalizados de dos regiones de Chile. Para acceder a las teorías personales, los docentes fueron entrevistados con la finalidad de conocer sus ideas sobre diferentes aspectos de la enseñanza de la escritura. La metodología de análisis fue cualitativa y el procesamiento de los datos se realizó con el software NVivo. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los docentes asignan una alta importancia al desarrollo de la escritura, realizan actividades secuenciadas, se apoyan en textos modelos, favorecen el trabajo individual y promueven la escritura de textos breves. Abstract in english It is well known that the teachers' ideas about any area related to language teaching and learning processes impact on their pedagogical practice. There are not many studies, however, that explain language teachers' personal theories about linguistics abilities. The aim of this article is to present the personal theories about writing of 6 English teachers and 6 Spanish teachers, who work in public schools in two regions of Chile. In order to find out the personal theorie (more) s, we interviewed the teachers to deal with different aspects of the process of teaching writing. The methodology was qualitative and the data analysis was carried out with the support of NVivo software. The results indicate that the teachers assign great importance to the development of writing, carry out sequenced activities, support the process with model texts, foster individual work and promote the writing of brief texts.

Pérez, Roxanna Carolina Correa; Ladino, Mónica Tapia; Martinez, Angie Neira; Navarrete, Mabel Ortiz

2013-06-01

140

Coesão textual na escrita de um grupo de adultos surdos usuários da língua de sinais Brasileira/ Text cohesion in writing of a group of deaf adults users of Brazilian sign language  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: investigar a coesão textual em produções escritas por quatro adultos surdos usuários da Língua de Sinais Brasileira alfabetizados, integrantes de um grupo de discussão nessa língua, sobre o tema violência, coordenado por uma intérprete fluente. Verificar a possível interferência da Libras na escrita em português. MÉTODOS: após terem participado de sessões de discussão sobre o tema violência, cada participante produziu um texto relacionado a alg (more) um tipo de violência. Seus textos foram analisados qualitativamente em termos de sua coesão. RESULTADOS: os textos produzidos faziam referência a situações de violência simbólica. O estudo dos textos evidenciou presença de coesão textual sequencial e referencial em todos os textos, embora comprometida. Houve interferência da Libras nas redações. Observou-se que os textos, por si sós, são difíceis de serem compreendidos sem a interação direta com o participante. Apesar da dificuldade na compreensão da língua escrita, que é diferente da estrutura da língua de sinais, o estudo evidenciou que esses surdos podem construir textos com sentido e coesão. CONCLUSÃO: a produção escrita dos surdos pesquisados apresenta coesão, porém com interferência da Libras, o que prejudica, em alguns casos, a compreensão por parte do leitor. Quanto menor a coesão textual, maior a necessidade de explicações do autor sobre o que quis dizer com seu texto. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to investigate text cohesion in written productions of four deaf male adults using Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) and write in Portuguese. Participants integrate a discussion group on violence using that language coordinated by a fluent interpreter. The study also verifies possible interference of Libras on writing in Portuguese. METHODS: after a few sessions, a discussing the theme violence, each deaf participant wrote a text on a violence situation. These tex (more) ts were analyzed qualitatively as for their cohesion. RESULTS: the study pointed out the existence of sequential and referential text cohesion in all the analyzed texts, although compromised. There was interference of Libras in their writing. The produced texts related in some way to symbolic violence. The texts per se were difficult to understand without direct interaction with the participant. Despite difficulties in comprehension of writing language whose structure is very different from the sign language, it became clear that these deaf persons could construct texts with sense and cohesion. CONCLUSION: the texts produced by the studied deafs have cohesion, although the interference of Libras was harmful in some cases as for the reader's comprehension. As text cohesion diminishes, there is more need for explanations by the author about the meaning of the said text.

Almeida, Elizabeth Oliveira Crepaldi de; Filasi, Carolina Ronqui; Almeida, Luiza Crepaldi de

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Coesão textual na escrita de um grupo de adultos surdos usuários da língua de sinais Brasileira Text cohesion in writing of a group of deaf adults users of Brazilian sign language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar a coesão textual em produções escritas por quatro adultos surdos usuários da Língua de Sinais Brasileira alfabetizados, integrantes de um grupo de discussão nessa língua, sobre o tema violência, coordenado por uma intérprete fluente. Verificar a possível interferência da Libras na escrita em português. MÉTODOS: após terem participado de sessões de discussão sobre o tema violência, cada participante produziu um texto relacionado a algum tipo de violência. Seus textos foram analisados qualitativamente em termos de sua coesão. RESULTADOS: os textos produzidos faziam referência a situações de violência simbólica. O estudo dos textos evidenciou presença de coesão textual sequencial e referencial em todos os textos, embora comprometida. Houve interferência da Libras nas redações. Observou-se que os textos, por si sós, são difíceis de serem compreendidos sem a interação direta com o participante. Apesar da dificuldade na compreensão da língua escrita, que é diferente da estrutura da língua de sinais, o estudo evidenciou que esses surdos podem construir textos com sentido e coesão. CONCLUSÃO: a produção escrita dos surdos pesquisados apresenta coesão, porém com interferência da Libras, o que prejudica, em alguns casos, a compreensão por parte do leitor. Quanto menor a coesão textual, maior a necessidade de explicações do autor sobre o que quis dizer com seu texto.PURPOSE: to investigate text cohesion in written productions of four deaf male adults using Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) and write in Portuguese. Participants integrate a discussion group on violence using that language coordinated by a fluent interpreter. The study also verifies possible interference of Libras on writing in Portuguese. METHODS: after a few sessions, a discussing the theme violence, each deaf participant wrote a text on a violence situation. These texts were analyzed qualitatively as for their cohesion. RESULTS: the study pointed out the existence of sequential and referential text cohesion in all the analyzed texts, although compromised. There was interference of Libras in their writing. The produced texts related in some way to symbolic violence. The texts per se were difficult to understand without direct interaction with the participant. Despite difficulties in comprehension of writing language whose structure is very different from the sign language, it became clear that these deaf persons could construct texts with sense and cohesion. CONCLUSION: the texts produced by the studied deafs have cohesion, although the interference of Libras was harmful in some cases as for the reader's comprehension. As text cohesion diminishes, there is more need for explanations by the author about the meaning of the said text.

Elizabeth Oliveira Crepaldi de Almeida; Carolina Ronqui Filasi; Luiza Crepaldi de Almeida

2010-01-01

142

Arabic:Language and writing ???????: ??? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? "????? ??????" ???? ?????. ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ???. ??? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ????: ???? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ????: ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? -???? ??? ??????- ????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????. ????? ????? "??????? ??????" ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? "?????? ???????". ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? (?.?).

Mohamed Mehfel

2010-01-01

143

Reading, Writing and Speaking Shakespeare  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. Task One What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Task Two Use these site to answer the following questions: Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. ...

Mcguire, Mr.

2010-04-25

144

Aphasia and text writing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Good writing skills are needed in almost every aspect of life today, and there is a growing interest in research into acquired writing difficulties. Most of the findings reported so far, however, are based on words produced in isolation. The present study deals with the production of entire texts. AIMS: The aim was to characterize written narratives produced by a group of participants with aphasia. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Eight persons aged 28-63 years with aphasia took part in the study. They were compared with a reference group consisting of ten participants aged 21-30 years. All participants were asked to write a personal narrative titled 'I have never been so afraid' and to perform a picture-based story-generation task called the 'Frog Story'. The texts were written on a computer. OUTCOME & RESULTS: The group could be divided into participants with low, moderate, and high general performance, respectively. The texts written by the participants in the group with moderate and high writing performance had comparatively good narrative structure despite indications of difficulties on other linguistic levels. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: Aphasia appeared to influence text writing on different linguistic levels. The impact on overall structure and coherence was in line with earlier findings from the analysis of spoken and written discourse and the implication of this is that the written modality should also be included in language rehabilitation.

Behrns I; Ahlsén E; Wengelin A

2010-03-01

145

Aphasia and text writing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Good writing skills are needed in almost every aspect of life today, and there is a growing interest in research into acquired writing difficulties. Most of the findings reported so far, however, are based on words produced in isolation. The present study deals with the production of entire texts. Aims: The aim was to characterize written narratives produced by a group of participants with aphasia. Methods & Procedures: Eight persons aged 28-63 years with aphasia took part in the study. They were compared with a reference group consisting of ten participants aged 21-30 years. All participants were asked to write a personal narrative titled 'I have never been so afraid' and to perform a picture-based story-generation task called the 'Frog Story'. The texts were written on a computer. Outcome & Results: The group could be divided into participants with low, moderate, and high general performance, respectively. The texts written by the participants in the group with moderate and high writing performance had comparatively good narrative structure despite indications of difficulties on other linguistic levels. Conclusions & Implications: Aphasia appeared to influence text writing on different linguistic levels. The impact on overall structure and coherence was in line with earlier findings from the analysis of spoken and written discourse and the implication of this is that the written modality should also be included in language rehabilitation.

Behrns I; Ahlsen E; Wengelin S

2009-06-01

146

The writing approaches of secondary students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Research with college students has supported a model of writing approaches that defines the relationship between a writer and writing task along a deep and surface process continuum (Biggs, 1988). Based on that model, Lavelle (1993) developed the Inventory of Processes in College Composition which reflects students' motives and strategies as related to writing outcomes. It is also important to define the approaches of secondary students to better understand writing processes at that level, and development in written composition. AIMS: This study was designed to define the writing approaches of secondary students by factor analysing students' responses to items regarding writing beliefs and writing strategies, and to compare the secondary approaches to those of college students. A related goal was to explore the relationships of the secondary writing approaches to perceived self-regulatory efficacy for writing (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994), writing preferences, and writing outcomes. SAMPLES: The initial, factor analytic phase involved 398 junior level high school students (11th grade) enrolled in a mandatory language arts class at each of three large Midwestern high schools (USA). Then, 49 junior level students enrolled in two language arts classes participated as subjects in the second phase. METHOD: Classroom teachers administered the Inventory of Processes in College Composition (Lavelle, 1993), which contained 72 true-or-false items regarding writing beliefs and strategies, during regular class periods. Data were factor analysed and the structure compared to that of college students. In the second phase, the new inventory, Inventory of Processes in Secondary Composition, was administered in conjunction with the Perceived Self-Regulatory Efficacy for Writing Inventory (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994), and a writing preferences survey. A writing sample and grade in Language Arts classes were obtained and served as outcome variables. RESULTS: The factor structure of secondary writing reflected three process dimensions. The first factor, Elaborative-Expressive, describes a writing strategy based on personal investment and audience concern. The second factor, Planful-Procedural, denotes sticking to a plan, following the rules, and 'preparing' for writing. Achieving-Competitive, the third factor, reflects a 'teacher pleasing' strategy or doing only what needs to be done to get a good grade. Two factors from the college model, Elaborative and Procedural, were replicated, and two were not, Reflective-Revision and Low Self-Efficacy. Regression analyses supported that the processes in writing under a timed condition are different from those used when writing over time, and that students' perceptions of writing self-regulatory efficacy were predictive of writing success under both conditions.

Lavelle E; Smith J; O'Ryan L

2002-09-01

147

Clarity in writing and editing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Writing is for reading. If you write or edit in such a way that the message is understood the first time it is read, you have succeeded where many people fail. Two ways to achieve such clarity are: 1) use commonly understood language whenever you can; 2) when you have to use special terms, define them effectively. The first way involves choice of vocabulary, appropriate technical level, and good mechanics. Definitions need to be clear, concise, and unobtrusive statements of what the terms defined mean in the context of your writing.

Nelson, O.A.

1983-01-01

148

Best Practices in Writing Instruction  

CERN Document Server

Highly practical and accessible, this indispensable book provides clear-cut strategies for improving K-12 writing instruction. The contributors are leading authorities who demonstrate proven ways to teach different aspects of writing, with chapters on planning, revision, sentence construction, handwriting, spelling, and motivation. The use of the Internet in instruction is addressed, and exemplary approaches to teaching English-language learners and students with special needs are discussed. The book also offers best-practice guidelines for designing an effective writing program. Focusing on e

Graham, Steve

2007-01-01

149

La comprensión oral del lenguaje no literal y su relación con la producción escrita en escolares/ Co-relation between oral comprehension of non-literal language and writing in elementary school students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Un grupo considerable de niños y jóvenes chilenos escolarizados presenta problemas para producir textos escritos en forma autónoma. Las explicaciones de este fenómeno son diversas, pero este trabajo se focalizará en el desarrollo de la lengua oral que ocurre durante la edad escolar, a partir de los seis años. Concretamente, se referirá aquí a la interpretación de ciertas formas orales de lo no literal: los actos de habla indirectos y las ironías. Teóricamente, (more) la conexión escritura/comprensión oral de lo no literal se fundamenta en que ambas parecieran estar relacionadas con el desarrollo de la conciencia metalingüística y de la teoría de la mente. Empíricamente, se lleva a cabo un estudio con 141 estudiantes de 13 y 14 años cuya comprensión oral fue medida con el Instrumento de Medición de Inferencias Pragmáticas (IMIP) y su habilidad de escritura, con una Pauta de Evaluación Analítica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una correlación canónica y los resultados muestran, por una parte, un grado moderado de asociación entre las variables observables orales y escritas entre sí y, por otra parte, un grado de correlación canónica bajo pero significativo entre las dimensiones latentes comprensión oral y producción escrita (Rc = 0,26, p Abstract in english A substantial number of school children and youngsters encounters problems with the production of written texts in an autonomous fashion. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are various, it will hereby be focused on the development of the oral language occurring during the school age; that is, from six years of age on. In particular, this study will refer to certain forms of non-literal language: indirect speech acts and ironies. Theoretically, the writing/oral compr (more) ehension of non-literal language connection is based on their seeming relationship with the development of a metalinguistic conscience and a theory of the mind. Empirically, this study involves the participation of 141 13-14-year-old students whose oral comprehension was measured by the Instrument for the Measurement of Pragmatic Inferences (IMIP, according to the Spanish acronym), and writing, by an Analytic Assessment Guide. Data were analyzed with the aid of canonical co-relation and the results reveal, on the one hand, a moderate degree of association in the observable oral and writing variables among themselves and, on the other, a low but significant degree of canonical co-relation between the latent oral and writing variables (Rc = 0,26, p

Crespo, Nina; Benítez, Ricardo; Cáceres, Pablo

2007-01-01

150

A atenção fonoaudiólogica e a linguagem escrita de pessoas com baixa visão: estudo exploratório/ Speech and language pathology therapy and the reading and writing of a person with visual disabilitie: exploratory study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: conhecer como as pessoas com baixa visão (visão subnormal) adquirida utilizavam a linguagem escrita no cotidiano e recomendar a atenção fonoaudiológica nesse processo. Foi realizado estudo descritivo exploratório para a construção do instrumento de coleta de dados. A amostra foi constituída por pessoas com baixa visão que freqüentaram o Programa de Reabilitação de Adolescentes e Adultos do Cepre/FCM/Unicamp em 2008. Aplicou- (more) se questionário por entrevista, onde foram investigadas as variáveis: características pessoais, uso de recursos de tecnologia assistiva na leitura e escrita, razões das atividades de leitura e escrita e frequência do uso após a perda visual. A amostra foi composta por 08 pessoas com baixa visão com média de idade de 47 anos e predominância do sexo masculino (75,0%). Os resultados indicaram que a maioria (62,5%) relatou utilizar auxílios ópticos nas atividades de leitura. Todos informaram utilizar auxílios não ópticos na leitura. Os sujeitos declararam utilizar a leitura para obter informações sobre assuntos que os interessavam e a escrita para se comunicarem com as outras pessoas. Verificou-se que a maioria (75,0%), relatou não utilizar a leitura e nem a escrita com a mesma freqüência que usava antes da perda visual e os motivos alegados foram a dificuldade para enxergar e o cansaço visual. A redução do uso da linguagem escrita no cotidiano por sujeitos com baixa visão adquirida compromete a autonomia e independência, fato este que demonstra necessidade de ênfase no trabalho com a linguagem escrita que poderá ser maximizado por meio da atenção fonoaudiológica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to: understand how people with acquired low vision (subnormal vision) used written language in daily living and to recommend speech and language pathology therapy during the process. A descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in order to build a data collection instrument. The sample was composed of subjects with low vision who attended Cepre / FCM / Unicamp in 2008. A questionnaire was applied during an interview, during which time the follow (more) ing variables were investigated: personal characteristics, use of assistive technology in reading and writing, reasons for performing reading and writing activities and the frequency of reading and writing after having acquired the visual loss. The sample was made up of 8 subjects with acquired low vision. The mean age was 47 years, of which 75,0% were males. Most of the subjects (62,5%) declared they used optical aids to read. All reported they used non-optical aids to read. The results showed that the subjects reported that they used to read to get information on topics of interest and they write to communicate with other people. The majority (75,0%) reported they didn't read and write with the same frequency as before the emergence of the ophthalmic problem and the reason given was difficulty in seeing and eyestrain. The reduction of reading and writing for individuals with low vision justifies the need for greater emphasis on working with reading and writing during rehabilitation, and this can be enhanced by speech and language pathology therapy.

Monteiro, Mayla Myrina Bianchim; Montilha, Rita de Cássia Ietto; Gasparetto, Maria Elisabete Rodrigues Freire

2011-04-01

151

OCL: Modularising the Language  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Object Constraint Language (OCL) was originally designed as an add-on' to the Unified Modelling Language (UML) in order to facilitate writing textual constraints complementing the graphical specifications. Since its original standardisation many extensions have been added to the language and man...

Akehurst, David H.; Zschaler, Steffen; Howells, Gareth

152

COMPLEXITY AND INTERACTION: COMPARING THE DEVELOPMENT OF L1 AND L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In research into first and second language development,the focus has mainly been either on the formal features of learner language alone (both L1 and L2) or on the interaction between learners and their caretakers (L1) or native speaker peers (L2). These research traditions have been kept apart even though it has been widely acknowledged that both first and second languages are appropriated essentially in social interaction. This paper aims to strengthen the connection between social and formal approaches by combining interactional views with those focusing on the structural complexity of learner language.Some excerpts from L1 and L2 interaction data (in the Finnish language) are discussed. It is suggested that segmentation of linguistic material occurs in everyday situations and serves as a link between interaction and the growth of structural complexity in learner language. To situate this argument into a broader theoretical framework, various socially oriented research paradigms are briefly discussed.

Minna Suni; Lea Nieminen

2011-01-01

153

Quels changements linguistiques dans l'attrition de la L1 chez le bilingue tardif (What Linguistic Changes in the Attrition of the L1 in Late Bilinguals)?  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article reports on a psycholinguistic study of first language attrition in German first generation immigrants. On the basis of the individual variation in performance evidenced by the data, the study claims that first language (L1) attrition in late bilinguals is not only the consequence of a lack of use. A comparison of the performance of…

Kopke, Barbara

2001-01-01

154

A Study on Strategy Instruction and EFL Learners’ Writing Skill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing in a second or foreign language seems to be the most difficult language skill for language learners to acquire in academic contexts. While explicit instruction of strategies is not a usual practice in foreign language classrooms, it could be beneficial for language learners. The present study aims at investigating the effect of concept mapping strategy on EFL learners' writing performance. To this end, sixty Iranian students at the intermediate level of language proficiency participated in the study. Their language proficiency was determined by Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency. The results of the Analysis of Covariance revealed that the instruction of concept mapping strategy had a positive effect on EFL learners’ writing achievements. The findings have some pedagogical implications for teaching language skills and designing strategy-based syllabus leading to successful language performance.

Giti Mousapour Negari

2011-01-01

155

Writing Through: Practising Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of a methodology.

Joel Scott

2010-01-01

156

La comprensión oral del lenguaje no literal y su relación con la producción escrita en escolares Co-relation between oral comprehension of non-literal language and writing in elementary school students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Un grupo considerable de niños y jóvenes chilenos escolarizados presenta problemas para producir textos escritos en forma autónoma. Las explicaciones de este fenómeno son diversas, pero este trabajo se focalizará en el desarrollo de la lengua oral que ocurre durante la edad escolar, a partir de los seis años. Concretamente, se referirá aquí a la interpretación de ciertas formas orales de lo no literal: los actos de habla indirectos y las ironías. Teóricamente, la conexión escritura/comprensión oral de lo no literal se fundamenta en que ambas parecieran estar relacionadas con el desarrollo de la conciencia metalingüística y de la teoría de la mente. Empíricamente, se lleva a cabo un estudio con 141 estudiantes de 13 y 14 años cuya comprensión oral fue medida con el Instrumento de Medición de Inferencias Pragmáticas (IMIP) y su habilidad de escritura, con una Pauta de Evaluación Analítica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una correlación canónica y los resultados muestran, por una parte, un grado moderado de asociación entre las variables observables orales y escritas entre sí y, por otra parte, un grado de correlación canónica bajo pero significativo entre las dimensiones latentes comprensión oral y producción escrita (Rc = 0,26, p A substantial number of school children and youngsters encounters problems with the production of written texts in an autonomous fashion. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are various, it will hereby be focused on the development of the oral language occurring during the school age; that is, from six years of age on. In particular, this study will refer to certain forms of non-literal language: indirect speech acts and ironies. Theoretically, the writing/oral comprehension of non-literal language connection is based on their seeming relationship with the development of a metalinguistic conscience and a theory of the mind. Empirically, this study involves the participation of 141 13-14-year-old students whose oral comprehension was measured by the Instrument for the Measurement of Pragmatic Inferences (IMIP, according to the Spanish acronym), and writing, by an Analytic Assessment Guide. Data were analyzed with the aid of canonical co-relation and the results reveal, on the one hand, a moderate degree of association in the observable oral and writing variables among themselves and, on the other, a low but significant degree of canonical co-relation between the latent oral and writing variables (Rc = 0,26, p < 0.05), where the former would seem a factor variable and the latter, a criterion variable. The conclusion is that, even though the development of oral comprehension of non-literal language seems to influence writing abilities, such a co-relation is not strong enough to look at it as having practical significance.

Nina Crespo; Ricardo Benítez; Pablo Cáceres

2007-01-01

157

The implications of reading en writing language preference with regard to internet access for users in South Africa Die implikasies van lees- en skryfvoorkeurtaal met betrekking tot internettoegang vir Suid- Afrikaanse gebruikers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Om historiese redes is Engels die taal van die internet. Tans trek e-handel kliënte van oral oor die wêreld. Om goeie besigheid te kan doen moet webruimtes bruikbaar wees vir kliënte van verskeie kulture en tale. Om bruikbaarheid vir ’n globale gehoor te verseker, moet webruimtes beide geïnternasionaliseer en gelokaliseer word. Gegewe die verskeidenheid van kulture en idiosinkrasieë van kulture, is beide hierdie take uiters kompleks en bykans onmoontlik om gelyktydig te vermag. Dit kan baie help as nie alle kulture verkies dat die taal van die internet dieselfde as hulle moedertaal moet wees nie. In hierdie studie is die voorkeurtaal vir lees en skryf van verskeie groeperinge van Afrikagebruikers bepaal. Daar is bevind dat die meeste Afrikaanssprekende gebruikers verkies om geskrewe materiaal in hulle moedertaal te sien, maar dat Afrikataalsprekers Engels verkies. Dit het enorme implikasies vir web-ontwikkeling, aangesien ontwikkelaars op die bruikbaarheid en funksionaliteit van ’n webwerf kan fokus en nie tyd hoef te bestee om die inhoud in ’n verskeidenheid van tale te vertaal nie.For historical reasons, English is the language of the internet. Currently, e-commerce attracts customers from all over the world. In order to do good business, websites must be accessible to clients from a variety of cultures and languages. To achieve usability for a global audience, websites must be internationalized as well as localized. Given the many cultures and idiosyncrasies of those cultures, both of these tasks are extremely complex and it is virtually impossible to do both at the same time. It could be helpful if some cultures do not object to the fact that the language of the internet is not the same as their home language. In this study the preferred language of reading and writing of various groupings of African users was determined. It was found that, whereas the Afrikaans-speaking subjects preferred to have written material in their home language, speakers of other African languages preferred English. This has enormous implications for website development as developers can focus on the usability and functionality of a site without having to spend time translating the content into a variety of languages.

Pieter Blignaut; Theo Mcdonald

2006-01-01

158

Generous Reading: Seeing Students through Their Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the writing of one third-grade English-language learner (ELL) to illustrate how generous reading can provide a bridge for ELLs when their writing is not yet ready for a more judgmental reading. It presents a formalized approach that builds upon students' linguistic strengths and traces their written words to sources in the…

Spence, Lucy K.

2010-01-01

159

Learning about science through writing.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using socio-historical theory as a frame, the authors analyse the use of written practice in the classroom as a powerful tool for building scientific concepts. The teacher’s use of oral language in the classroom introduces students to controversial issues on different topics – the example chosen is about the relationship between a pregnant woman and her foetus – and makes the students (10 –11 years old) react to her proposals as well as involving them in a scientific activity. Writing on the topic for different contexts and different audiences enhances the process of knowledge-building and helps to establish a correlation between being involved in a scientific activity and using specific language practices. Two examples of writing practice on the topic are discussed, a collective one and an individual one: collectively deciding on the title of a scientific text on the topic, and different stages in the process of individually writing the text.

Jaubert, M.; Rebiere, M.

2005-01-01

160

Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.

Tèmít??p?? Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Representações de escrita de alunos de Mestrado em Letras/ Social representations in the writing of students of Masters in Languages/ Representaciones de escritura de alumnos de maestría en Letras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Verificamos as representações sociais de escrita de alunos de Mestrado em Letras. Procuramos usar a Teoria das Representações Sociais para investigarmos as representações da escrita de 10 alunos do Mestrado em Letras de uma Universidade Federal do interior de Minas Gerais. Associamos essas representações aos discursos sobre a escrita difundidos na esfera acadêmica. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, baseado em narrativas elaboradas por esses alunos. Concluímos q (more) ue, durante o maior período de escolarização desses alunos, as representações da escrita foram negativas, mas se transformaram em positivas com o passar do tempo. Isso demonstra que as representações são plásticas, flexíveis, pois antigas representações dão lugar a novas representações em função das experiências humanas, influenciadas por novos contextos. As narrativas sobre a história da escrita podem ser um caminho para professores conhecerem os percursos da escrita desenvolvidos por seus alunos, assim como permitem a identificação das representações sociais desses alunos. Abstract in spanish Verificamos las representaciones sociales de escritura de alumnos de Maestría en Letras. Procuramos usar la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales para investigar las representaciones de la escritura de 10 alumnos de la Maestría en Letras de una Universidad Federal del interior de Minas Gerais. Asociamos esas representaciones a los discursos sobre la escritura difundidos en la esfera académica. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, basado en narrativas elaboradas por e (more) sos alumnos. Concluimos que, durante el mayor período de escolaridad de esos alumnos, las representaciones de la escritura fueron negativas, pero se transformaron en positivas con el paso del tiempo. Eso demuestra que las representaciones son plásticas, flexibles, pues antiguas representaciones dan lugar a nuevas representaciones en función de las experiencias humanas, influenciadas por nuevos contextos. Las narrativas sobre la historia de la escritura pueden ser un camino para que profesores conozcan los recorridos de la escritura desarrollados por sus alumnos, así como permiten la identificación de las representaciones sociales de esos alumnos. Abstract in english Here we examine the social representations in the writing of students of Masters in Languages. We used the Social Representation Theory to investigate the representations in the writings of 10 students of the Masters in Languages at a Federal University in upstate Minas Gerais. We associated these representations to the discourses spread in the academic sphere. The results obtained from the reading of the narratives written by the students will be presented. We concluded (more) that throughout most of the period of these students' schooling the representations in their writing were negative, but became positive through the time. This demonstrates that the representations are plastic and flexible because old representations give place to new ones in function of human experiences influenced by new contexts. The narratives about the writing history may be a path for teachers to learn the routes of the writing developed by their students, as well as allowing an identification of the social representations and discourses of writing internalized by these students.

Silva, Adriana da

2013-08-01

162

Language as capital in international university education  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As Bourdieu and Passeron noted, academic discourse is never anyone’s ‘mother tongue’. Acquisition of this discourse in one’s first language is a prime aim of undergraduate education, but there is evidence that a substantial minority of students fail to acquire it. There is strong evidence that academic discourse skills are transferable from L1 to L2 and best acquired in L1, but it is not clear to what extent these skills represent usable capital in professional life. Graduates often report having to write in a very different style from the one they have been taught at university. There may be a trade-off between the fluency in a second language provided by its use as sole or parallel medium in education and educational depth in the discipline studied. This fluency may in some circumstances constitute greater capital than the disciplinary insights partially sacrificed. But this varies strikingly across disciplines. This paper uses Bourdieu’s framework to assess the types of linguistic capital – academic discourse, foreign-language fluency, and more – to be acquired in the internationalized university, their utility in the personal advancement of graduates in various societies, and the variation of these factors across disciplines.

Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

163

CULTURAL TRANSFER IN EFL WRITING: A LOOK AT CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC ON ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies in contrastive rhetoric since Kaplan's (1966) article have indicated the need of looking at L2 writing from different perspective by considering factors such as L2 learners' historical background in L1 writing, the development in their writing process, and the genres before we come to analyze the texts. By following such approaches, this study wants to see if there has been any cultural transfer in L2 writing of Indonesian writers. However, this has led to the probing of Indonesian L1 writing as well. This study again suggests the complexity of rhetoric in writing.

Esther Kuntjara

2004-01-01

164

Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands.

Titone D; Libben M; Mercier J; Whitford V; Pivneva I

2011-11-01

165

Écrire la langue berbère au royaume de Mohamed VI Writing the Berber language in the Kingdom of Mohamed VI: the stakes involved in the use of Tifinagh in Morocco.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Never recognized as official languages, the Berber languages have borrowed their written scripts according to the various political systems and cultures they came in contact with. This paper explores the different scripts that have been used to write the Berber languages and tries to search for their underlying intellectual and political filiations. The appropriation of the Latin script, the acquisition or abandonment of the Arabic script stand out as landmarks in the history of these languages, often perceived as one language. Today in Morocco, the Berber identity claim - known as amazigh - tends to cut itself from the Muslim heritage by adopting a specific Berber script conceptualized as indigenous and pre-Islamic. By doing so, this movement refuses the ethnicization of Islam, i.e. its monopolization by one culture and one language: Arabic. This cultural choice is primarily a political stand : the opposition toward the presence of Islam through state policies and instiututions and the wish to restore cultural diversity denied by the post-colonial national construction. This new set-up allows the inscription of amazigh in the Libyc and African areas as well as in the Tamazgha territories (i.e. the whole Berber-speaking areas).Non instituées politiquement, les langues berbères ont emprunté leur système d’écriture au gré des régimes politiques et des différentes cultures qu’elles ont rencontrées. L’article tente de reconstituer les filiations politiques et intellectuelles qui ont sous-tendu le choix des différentes écritures utilisées pour transcrire les langues berbères. L’appropriation des signes latins, l’investissement ou l’éloignement de l’alphabet arabe jalonnent l’histoire de ces langues, souvent représentées comme une seule langue. Aujourd’hui, la revendication identitaire berbère - ou amazighe - au Maroc tend à se départir d’un héritage lié à l’Islam en adoptant une graphie qu’elle envisage autochtone et anté-islamique. Par là, elle opère un refus de l’ethnicisation de l’Islam, c’est-à-dire d’une religion monopolisée par une culture et une langue, l’arabe. Ce choix « culturel » traduit un positionnement qui se veut avant tout politique : celui d’une opposition à la présence étatique de l’Islam et celui de la restauration de la « diversité culturelle », envisagée bafouée par la construction nationale post-coloniale. Ce réajustement permet la réinscription dans l’aire libyque, africaine et sur le territoire de Tamazgha (ensemble des régions berbérophones).

Stéphanie Pouessel

2011-01-01

166

Using tracking software for writing instruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

is what is often evaluated in the context of language teaching, the process of giving thought to linguistic form is fascinating. For almost forty years, language teachers have found it more effective to help learners in the writing process than in the written product; it is there that they could fin...

Yagi, Sane M.; Al-Salman, Saleh

167

THE EFFECT OF A FIGURE WHERE SYMMETRY USED IN TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IS APPLIED ON WRITING SKILLS OF TURKISH LANGUAGE AND PRIMARY MATHEMATICS TEACHING 1ST GRADE STUDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With this study, it is aimed to afford an artistic development for science of mathematics with using literary language and learn with associating visual themes and imaginariness in essays. In the study, different written expression works, which are composed about same symmetric figure, of first grade preservice teachers of Turkish Language and Mathematics Teaching are compared.This study will put forth the grasp of communication skill of preservice students who are implementers of new program of Turkish and Mathematics lesson used from 2005 and in which the importance of this skill is emphasized. Also this study will contribute education of preservice students henceforwards.

Özlem BAYRAK CÖMERT; Mine AKTA?

2011-01-01

168

Is literary Arabic a second language for native Arab speakers?: Evidence from semantic priming study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mother tongue of the absolute majority of native Arabic speakers is Spoken Arabic (SA), which is a local dialect that does not have a written form. For reading and writing, as well as for formal communication Literary Arabic (LA) is used For the literate Arabs, these two languages are extensively inter-twined in every day life. Consequently, it is possible that, despite the difference between them, LA is not processed like a regular second language by the cognitive system of the native Arabic speakers but rather as an enhancement of the spoken lexicon. In the present study we examined this possibility comparing semantic priming effects in auditory lexical decision within SA (L1), with the effects found across languages with LA or in Hebrew (L2). Hebrew is doubtlessly a second language for native Arabic speakers. In this study we have manipulated semantic priming In Experiment 1 the targets were in Spoken Arabic and the primes in any of the three languages. The semantic priming effect was twice as large within L1 as between languages and there was no difference between Hebrew and LA. In Experiment 2, all primes were in SA whereas the targets were in any of the three languages. The priming effects in that experiment were doubled relative to the previous experiment, but the inter-language relationships were the same. For both language pairings, the semantic priming was larger when the primes were presented in SA (and the targets in either Hebrew or LA) than when the primes were presented in one of the second languages and the targets in SA. The conclusion is that, despite the intensive daily use adult native Arabic speakers make of SA and LA, and despite their shared origin, the two languages retain their status as first and second languages in the cognitive system. PMID:15968920

Ibrahim, Raphiq; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

2005-01-01

169

Is literary Arabic a second language for native Arab speakers?: Evidence from semantic priming study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mother tongue of the absolute majority of native Arabic speakers is Spoken Arabic (SA), which is a local dialect that does not have a written form. For reading and writing, as well as for formal communication Literary Arabic (LA) is used For the literate Arabs, these two languages are extensively inter-twined in every day life. Consequently, it is possible that, despite the difference between them, LA is not processed like a regular second language by the cognitive system of the native Arabic speakers but rather as an enhancement of the spoken lexicon. In the present study we examined this possibility comparing semantic priming effects in auditory lexical decision within SA (L1), with the effects found across languages with LA or in Hebrew (L2). Hebrew is doubtlessly a second language for native Arabic speakers. In this study we have manipulated semantic priming In Experiment 1 the targets were in Spoken Arabic and the primes in any of the three languages. The semantic priming effect was twice as large within L1 as between languages and there was no difference between Hebrew and LA. In Experiment 2, all primes were in SA whereas the targets were in any of the three languages. The priming effects in that experiment were doubled relative to the previous experiment, but the inter-language relationships were the same. For both language pairings, the semantic priming was larger when the primes were presented in SA (and the targets in either Hebrew or LA) than when the primes were presented in one of the second languages and the targets in SA. The conclusion is that, despite the intensive daily use adult native Arabic speakers make of SA and LA, and despite their shared origin, the two languages retain their status as first and second languages in the cognitive system.

Ibrahim R; Aharon-Peretz J

2005-01-01

170

Traductor Writing System Web  

CERN Multimedia

A compilator is a program which is development in a programming language that read a file known as source. After this file have to translate and have to convert in other program known as object or to generate a exit. The best way for to know any programming language is analizing a compilation process which is same in all programming paradigm existents. To like to generate a tool that permit a learning in university course. This course could explain in any plataform such as Linux o Windows. This goal is posible through development a Web aplication which is unite with a compilator, it is Traductor Writing System (Sistema de Escritura de Traductores). This system is complete and permit extend and modify the compilator. The system is a module in Moodle which is a Course Management System (CMS) that help teachers for to create comunities of learning in line. This software is in free software license (GPL).

Texier, Jose

2012-01-01

171

TARGETING L2 WRITING PROFICIENCIES: INSTRUCTION AND AREAS OF CHANGE IN STUDENTS' WRITING OVER TIME  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Writing in a second language is a complex activity requiring proficiency in a number of different areas. l Writing programmes often focus on particular areas of skill and knowledge that are seen as important to the overall process. This study looks at the effects of the focus of teaching on student ...

Alasdair Archibald

172

Invisible Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Adults seem to have lots of secrets. Why should they have all the fun? You can write secret messages to friends by using common household items to make invisible inks. And the neat part of it is, each one of these inks demonstrates that chemicals can interact with paper, with one another, and sometimes with heat.

173

Writing In Math Class  

Science.gov (United States)

This webpage provides many ideas for teachers to help their students write in the elementary mathematics classroom. Sections include writing prompts, creative math writing, solution writing, and other pedagogical strategies.

2009-01-01

174

Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a teacher of EFL at UFSC since 1975, I have observed semester after semester the difficulties that students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature have in reading and especially inwriting not only at the beginning but at more advanced stages when they are close to graduating. I have also observed that these students have little interest in reading and writing in a foreign language either inside or outside the classroom. Conversations with my fellow teachers confirmed that they had observed the same weaknesses in their students and that they shared my concerns about this problem. Students who are preparing to be teachers of a foreign language should have a reasonable command of the four language skills—speaking, understanding, reading, writing—by the time they graduate. For those who wish to continue their training in English by doing graduate work, competence seems even more important as good reading and writing skills are the sine qua non for engaging in graduate work. As a teacher of EFL at UFSC since 1975, I have observed semester after semester the difficulties that students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature have in reading and especially inwriting not only at the beginning but at more advanced stages when they are close to graduating. I have also observed that these students have little interest in reading and writing in a foreign language either inside or outside the classroom. Conversations with my fellow teachers confirmed that they had observed the same weaknesses in their students and that they shared my concerns about this problem. Students who are preparing to be teachers of a foreign language should have a reasonable command of the four language skills—speaking, understanding, reading, writing—by the time they graduate. For those who wish to continue their training in English by doing graduate work, competence seems even more important as good reading and writing skills are the sine qua non for engaging in graduate work.

Loni Kreis Taglieber

2008-01-01

175

L1 Influence on the Acquisition of L2 Collocations: Japanese ESL Users and EFL Learners Acquiring English Collocations  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study investigated first language (L1) influence on the acquisition of second language (L2) collocations using a framework based on Kroll and Stewart (1994) and Jiang (2000), by comparing the performance on a phrase-acceptability judgment task among native speakers of English, Japanese English as a second language (ESL) users, and Japanese…

Yamashita, Junko; Jiang, Nan

2010-01-01

176

Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

2011-01-01

177

Damage to the left ventral, arcuate fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus-related pathways induces deficits in object naming, phonological language function and writing, respectively.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The anatomic localization of brain functions can be characterized via diffusion tensor imaging in patients with brain tumors and neurological symptoms. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the function of the ventral, arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)-related language pathways using these techniques by analyzing 9 patients treated in our hospital between 2007 and 2011. In cases 1-3, the left ventral pathways, namely, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus or inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, were mainly damaged, and the common dysfunction experienced by these patients was a deficit in object naming. In cases 4-6, the left SLF was mainly damaged, and the common deficit was dysgraphia. In cases 7-9, the left AF was mainly damaged, and almost all language functions related to phonology were abnormal. These results suggest that the left ventral, AF and SLF-related pathways are closely related to visual, auditory and hand-related language function, respectively.

Shinoura N; Midorikawa A; Onodera T; Tsukada M; Yamada R; Tabei Y; Itoi C; Saito S; Yagi K

2013-07-01

178

Translation in Teaching a Foreign (Second) Language: A Methodological Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the act of translating between mother tongue and second/foreign language as a potentially effective way to improve learners’ second/foreign language. The author first examines the history of ‘translation’ as a methodology in second/foreign language teaching. The author then provides arguments in favour of including the methodology in SL/FL teaching in the current post-cognitive paradigm. The paper limits its theoretical perspective of the methodology to advanced level learners, and emphasises that the act of translating can create ideal learning opportunities with positive L1 use in SL/FL learning. The act of translating is a holistic activity, which immediately compels the learners to pay more attention to the SL/FL text, which encourages their awareness of form and meaning in context and improves their reading and writing skills in SL/FL. The methodology further enhances learners’ general skills of noticing and observing details of the linguistic systems, cultures, and societies of L1 and SL/FL, in order to deliver the messages between the two languages. This can expand the SL/FL learning to beyond the classroom.

Sayuki Machida

2011-01-01

179

Theoretical Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theoretical sorting has brought the analyst to the point of pent-up pressure to write: to see the months of work actualized in a “piece.” But this is only a personal pressure. The goal of grounded theory methodology, above all is to offer the results to the public, usually through one or more publications. We will focus on writing for publication, which is the most frequent way that the analyst can tell how people are “buying” what really matters in sociology, or in other fields.Both feedback on and use of publications will be the best evaluation of the analyst’s grounded theory. It will be his main source or criticism, constructive critique, and frequently of career rewards. In any case, he has to write to expand his audience beyond the limited number of close colleagues and students. Unless there is a publication, his work will be relegated to limited discussion, classroom presentation, or even private fantasy. The rigor and value of grounded theory work deserves publication. And many analysts have a stake in effecting wider publics, which makes their substantive grounded theory count.

Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

2009-01-01

180

CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE.  

Science.gov (United States)

IDEAS FOR THE CREATIVE USE OF ORAL LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM ARE PRESENTED IN THIS SYMPOSIUM. PART 1, "THE NEED FOR CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE" BY M.W. HENRY, IS CONCERNED WITH THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES AND THE ACQUISITION OF READING AND WRITING SKILLS. PART 2, "CHORIC INTERPRETATION" BY…

HENRY, MABEL WRIGHT, ED.

 
 
 
 
181

Teaching language arts to English language learners  

CERN Multimedia

This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w

Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C

2013-01-01

182

Group Workshops: Saving Our Writing Center in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing centers in universities across Japan are on the rise. These centers are commonly understood to be for remedial language help, deterring students confident with their language ability from attending. Over the past few years the number of student appointments at our writing center had been decreasing. Students were expressing no need for the center since, in their understanding, it was meant only for correcting grammar. To increase awareness of the writing center, we decided to conduct workshops to provide basic frameworks for learning aspects of writing outside of grammar. Since running the workshops, reservations for tutorials have been increasing, suggesting the workshops to be successful.

Jim McKinley

2011-01-01

183

Noções de coesão textual na produção escrita de formandos do curso de Letras Textual cohesion notions in writing production of undergraduate Language students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar como se manifesta o conceito de coesão textual na produção escrita de formandos do curso de Letras. O corpus sob análise é constituído de 210 textos de alunos de universidades públicas e particulares do Brasil ao responderem à questão de Linguística e Língua Portuguesa da prova do Exame Nacional de Cursos de 2001. Apoia-se, para tanto, no conceito de interacionismo dialógico de Bakhtin e no conceito de heterogeneidade(s) enunciativa(s) de Authier-Revuz, partindo do pressuposto de que o discurso desses acadêmicos se realiza por sujeitos constituídos social e historicamente. De acordo com os resultados, as formas de manifestação de noções de coesão textual ocorrem por meio de marcas relacionadas com o conceito de heterogeneidade mostrada marcada e não marcada com ancoragem em uma concepção tradicional de linguagem.This work aims to verify how the concept of textual cohesion is manifested in the written production of undergraduate Language students. The corpus under analysis is constituted of 210 texts written by students from public and private Brazilian universities when answering the question of Linguistics and Portuguese test from the National Courses Examination in 2001. It is theoretically supported by Bakhtinian’s concept of dialogic interactionism and by Authier-Revuz concept of enunciative heterogeneity, based on the idea that the students’ discourse is historically and socially constructed. The results reveal that the forms of manifestation of textual cohesion notions occur by means of marks related to the marked and unmarked heterogeneity concept based on a traditional view of language.

Orlando de Paula

2012-01-01

184

Writing requirements across nursing programs in Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected.

Andre JA; Graves R

2013-02-01

185

A Study on the Relationship between University Students’ Chinese Writing Proficiency and Their English Writing Proficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Up to now, most researchers have been paying attention to the negative transfer of mother tongue to second language writing. Few studies, if any, have touched upon the positive transfer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the positive transfer of Chinese to 26 first-year university students’ English writing holistically and segmentally in the use of words, grammar, coherence, and content and organization. The result of the Pearson correlation coefficient turned out to be 0.43 at the 5% significance level, indicating a positive relationship between the Chinese writing and the English writing. The questionnaires have also confirmed the result of the correlation analysis. In particular, the positive transfer of Chinese seems to be more apparent in the content and organization of the English writing, followed by coherence and use of words. Thus, it can be concluded that the positive transfer of mother tongue can facilitate English writing.

Xiaoyu Huang; Xueying Liang; Effie Dracopoulos

2011-01-01

186

TARGETING L2 WRITING PROFICIENCIES: INSTRUCTION AND AREAS OF CHANGE IN STUDENTS' WRITING OVER TIME  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing in a second language is a complex activity requiring proficiency in a number of different areas. l Writing programmes often focus on particular areas of skill and knowledge that are seen as important to the overall process. This study looks at the effects of the focus of teaching on student writing. Fifty students on an eight-week pre-sessional programme were asked to write a 250-word assignment at the start and the end of their courses. These were graded on a nineband scale using a seven-trait multiple-trait scoring system. The results show that discourse organisation and argumentation, which were the primary focus of classroom study, improved more than other areas. This suggests that tutors should look at writing proficiency in terms of an overall balance of proficiencies and that targeting aspects of student writing can affect this overall balance.

Alasdair Archibald

2001-01-01

187

L1 Retrotransposons in Human Cancers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retrotransposons like L1 are silenced in somatic cells by a variety of mechanisms acting at different levels. Protective mechanisms include DNA methylation and packaging into inactive chromatin to suppress transcription and prevent recombination, potentially supported by cytidine deaminase editing of RNA. Furthermore, DNA strand breaks arising during attempted retrotranspositions ought to activate cellular checkpoints, and L1 activation outside immunoprivileged sites may elicit immune responses. A number of observations indicate that L1 sequences nevertheless become reactivated in human cancer. Prominently, methylation of L1 sequences is diminished in many cancer types and full-length L1 RNAs become detectable, although strong expression is restricted to germ cell cancers. L1 elements have been found to be enriched at sites of illegitimate recombination in many cancers. In theory, lack of L1 repression in cancer might cause transcriptional deregulation, insertional mutations, DNA breaks, and an increased frequency of recombinations, contributing to genome disorganization, expression changes, and chromosomal instability. There is however little evidence that such effects occur at a gross scale in human cancers. Rather, as a rule, L1 repression is only partly alleviated. Unfortunately, many techniques commonly used to investigate genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer cells are not well suited to detect subtle effects elicited by partial reactivation of retroelements like L1 which are present as abundant, but heterogeneous copies. Therefore, effects of L1 sequences exerted on the local chromatin structure, on the transcriptional regulation of individual genes, and on chromosome fragility need to be more closely investigated in normal and cancer cells.

2006-01-01

188

L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak

2009-01-01

189

THE EFFECT OF TEACHER TALK IN EFL CLASSROOMS: THE NONUSE OR USE OF LEARNERS' L1 BY AN INSTRUCTOR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the effect of the variation of teacher talk on EFL learners' performance, especially the one related to listening comprehension skills, by chronologically observing a Japanese first language (L1) instructor's classrooms at a university.

Chiyo Myojin

190

GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

Rosaria Solarino

2011-01-01

191

Selected writings  

CERN Multimedia

'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

Galilei, Galileo

2012-01-01

192

Writing Teachers: What We Say about What We Do. Fifteen Essays for Teachers of Writing at the Secondary and College Levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Prepared by college teachers of writing who are also teachers who write, the papers in this collection appear in a sequence that begins with theoretical issues and problems, moves through the stages of the writing process, and ends with a discussion of revision and evaluation. Specific topics covered in the papers include (1) language theory and…

Tchudi, Stephen, Comp.; McNabb, Scott, Ed.

193

The Unified Phonetic Transcription for Teaching and Learning Chinese Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to preserve distinctive cultures, people anxiously figure out writing systems of their languages as recording tools. Mandarin, Taiwanese and Hakka languages are three major and the most popular dialects of Han languages spoken in Chinese society. Their writing systems are all in Han characters. Various and independent phonetic…

Shieh, Jiann-Cherng

2011-01-01

194

Predictors of English Reading Comprehension: Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S.  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…

Uchikoshi, Yuuko

2013-01-01

195

Predictors of English Reading Comprehension: Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…

Uchikoshi, Yuuko

2013-01-01

196

The Impact of Teachers? Belief on EFL Writing Instruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines Iranian EFL teachers’ beliefs about writing instruction. A sample of 122 EFL teachers teaching at private language institutes were randomly selected, consisting of EFL teachers with different degrees of educational qualification, years of experience, and genders. Questionna...

Bita Khanalizadeh; Hamid Allami

197

L1-norm minimization for quaternion signals  

CERN Multimedia

The l1-norm minimization problem plays an important role in the compressed sensing (CS) theory. We present in this letter an algorithm for solving the problem of l1-norm minimization for quaternion signals by converting it to second-order cone programming. An application example of the proposed algorithm is also given for practical guidelines of perfect recovery of quaternion signals. The proposed algorithm may find its potential application when CS theory meets the quaternion signal processing.

Wu, Jiasong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong

2012-01-01

198

Singaporean Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness and English Writing Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

199

Bridges to Understanding: Writings by OCC International Students. Spring 1994.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet contains the writings of international students enrolled in the English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) at Onondaga Community College (New York). The contributed writings were viewed as bridges to understanding among the world's peoples. The collection of essays, poems and short stories includes: (1) "Our Lives in the USA"…

McKague, Thomas, Ed.; Waelder, Patricia K., Ed.

200

Writing Their Words: Strategies for Supporting Young Authors  

Science.gov (United States)

Young children benefit from having their stories written down and shared with others. The authors highlight two strategies for supporting young writers: taking dictation and translating "kid writing." They explain why both are important in introducing the purpose of writing and the functions of printed language. The article offers tips to teachers…

Tunks, Karyn W.; Giles, Rebecca M.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Singaporean Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness and English Writing Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

202

Transforming Literacy Changing Lives Through Reading and Writing  

CERN Multimedia

The book is interdisciplinary in focus and centers on enlarging teachers' understanding of how reading and writing can change lives and how the language arts can contribute significantly to and change educational processes in the twenty-first century. Implicit in its argument is that although the emphasis on science and math is crucial to education in the digital edge, it remains vitally important to keep reading and writing, language and story, at the heart of the educational process

Waxler, Robert P

2011-01-01

203

The C++ language in physical science  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have designed C++ classes that are used to solve optimization problemsinvolving linear operators. The use of C++ enables us to write code to solvethese problems at a much higher level than when writing in Fortran. The abilityto design classes that abstract the concepts of operators and spaces enables us toseparate the task of writing new operators from the task of writing routines tosolve the optimization problem.INTRODUCTIONEvery few years brings a new computer language. Yet most scientific and engineeringcomputing continues to be done in Fortran, a language that has hardly changed since1977. Here we explore the hypothesis that a new language, C++, is a worthwhilealternative to Fortran.C++ is based on the C language. The C language has made remarkable stridesin the last several years. Formerly, Fortran was the language that was availableon most machines and it had the fewest variations from one machine to another.Today, C replaces Fortran in both universality ...

Dave Nichols; Geoff Dunbar; Jon Claerbout

204

Language Training  

CERN Document Server

General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 8 May to 30 June (or 7 July) 2006. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 10 April to 19 June 2006. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 24 hours Price: 528 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2006-01-01

205

Teaching English Medical Writing in a Blended Setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical writing activities which may have a context and seem to be engaging may be perceived as demotivating by the students of medicine. This opinion was confirmed by the learners' responses to the open-ended question given to them prior to this study. In their responses students evaluated the writing section of English course negatively. The negative views about the writing course posed a problem to the class teacher. The computer technology and the Internet can easily be integrated into language classroom if activities are designed carefully, and carried out systematically. These attempts brought about a new understanding to teaching and learning: blended learning (BL). The purpose of this research was to investigate students of medicine attitude to blended writing classes. It was conducted with second year learners in the Faculty of Medicine at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. The first reflection aimed at finding out medical students' attitude toward blended writing lessons. Although learners' attitude to writing lessons was negative in the first reflections, they changed into positive in the latter ones. The findings indicated that blended writing class had changed students' perception of writing lessons positively. Therefore, this kind of classes may help students develop a positive attitude towards writing by providing meaningful writing opportunities. Like the student portfolio before it, the weblog faces challenges with practicality and security, but ultimately provides an alternative way to teach and assess authentic writing and reading skills. Blog Assisted Language Learning not only provides teachers with an exciting new way to approach communicative language learning, it also gives the students a new reason to enjoy writing! The paper concludes that Internet tools have the potential to be a transformational technology for teaching and learning writing, and teachers ought to give strong consideration to the setting up their facilities within their learning management system.

Jafar Asgari Arani

2012-01-01

206

Culture, cognition and language in the constitution of reading and writing practices in an adult literacy classroom Cultura, cognição e linguagem na constituição de práticas de leitura e escrita de adultos em processo de alfabetização  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we analyze a discursive interaction between a researcher and an Youth and Adult Education student intending to show the meanings and uses of reading and writing taken by him. We take as our basis for discussion the theoretical-methodological contributions from Historical-Cultural Psychology and Paulo Freire's theories, which are combined with Bakhtin's concept of dialogue. This procedure allowed us, on one hand, getting into the other's perspective and, on the other hand, to make relations between cognition, language and culture to understand the adult students' metacognitive strategies, in the appropriation process of literacy practices of school culture. Thus, we could discuss the intimate relationship between doing and knowing and the importance of school in the transition from concrete thinking to the abstract thinking and vice-versa.Neste artigo analisamos uma interação discursiva entre uma pesquisadora e um estudante da Educação de Jovens e Adultos objetivando mostrar sentidos e usos da leitura e da escrita por ele mobilizados. Tomamos como base para nossa discussão os aportes teórico-metodológicos da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural e das teorizações de Paulo Freire, que conjugamos com a concepção de diálogo de Bakhtin. Tal procedimento nos possibilitou, por um lado, entrar na perspectiva do outro, e por outro, fazer relações entre cognição, linguagem e cultura para compreendermos as estratégias metacognitivas de alunos da EJA ao se apropriarem da cultura escolar. Pudemos também evidenciar a íntima relação entre fazer e saber e a importância da escola na transição do pensamento concreto para o abstrato e vice-versa.

Maria de Fátima Cardoso Gomes; Maria da Conceição Ferreira Reis Fonseca; Maira Tomayno de Melo Dias; Patricia Guimarães Vargas

2011-01-01

207

Language nonselective lexical access in bilingual toddlers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined how words from bilingual toddlers' second language (L2) primed recognition of related target words in their first language (L1). On critical trials, prime-target word pairs were either (a) phonologically related, with L2 primes overlapped phonologically with L1 target words [e.g., slide (L2 prime)-Kleid (L1 target, "dress")], or (b) phonologically related through translation, with L1 translations of L2 primes rhymed with the L1 target words [e.g., leg (L2 prime, L1 translation, "Bein")-Stein (L1 target, "stone"). Evidence of facilitated target recognition in the phonological priming condition suggests language nonselective access but not necessarily lexical access. However, a late interference effect on target recognition in the phonological priming through translation condition provides evidence for language nonselective lexical access: The L2 prime (leg) could influence L1 target recognition (Stein) in this condition only if both the L2 prime (leg) and its L1 translation ("Bein") were concurrently activated. In addition, age- and gender-matched monolingual toddler controls showed no difference between conditions, providing further evidence that the results with bilingual toddlers were driven by cross-language activation. The current study, therefore, presents the first-ever evidence of cross-talk between the two languages of bilinguals even as they begin to acquire fluency in their second language.

Von Holzen K; Mani N

2012-12-01

208

Description of the L1C signal  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed design of the modernized LI civil signal (L1C) signal has been completed, and the resulting draft Interface Specification IS-GPS-800 was released in Spring 2006. The novel characteristics of the optimized L1C signal design provide advanced capabilities while offering to receiver designers considerable flexibility in how to use these capabilities. L1C provides a number of advanced features, including: 75% of power in a pilot component for enhanced signal tracking, advanced Weilbased spreading codes, an overlay code on the pilot that provides data message synchronization, support for improved reading of clock and ephemeris by combining message symbols across messages, advanced forward error control coding, and data symbol interleaving to combat fading. The resulting design offers receiver designers the opportunity to obtain unmatched performance in many ways. This paper describes the design of L1C. A summary of LIC's background and history is provided. The signal description then proceeds with the overall signal structure consisting of a pilot component and a carrier component. The new L1C spreading code family is described, along with the logic used for generating these spreading codes. Overlay codes on the pilot channel are also described, as is the logic used for generating the overlay codes. Spreading modulation characteristics are summarized. The data message structure is also presented, showing the format for providing time, ephemeris, and system data to users, along with features that enable receivers to perform code combining. Encoding of rapidly changing time bits is described, as are the Low Density Parity Check codes used for forward error control of slowly changing time bits, clock, ephemeris, and system data. The structure of the interleaver is also presented. A summary of L 1C's unique features and their benefits is provided, along with a discussion of the plan for L1C implementation.

Betz, J. W.; Blanco, M. A.; Cahn, C. R.; Dafesh, P. A.; Hegarty, C. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Kasemsri, V.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L. S.; Ma, H. H.; Rushanan, J. J.; Sklar, D.; Stansell, T. A.; Wang, C. C.; Yi, S. K.

2006-01-01

209

Language, Communication and Style  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

St?ncu?a Ramona DIMA-LAZA

2011-01-01

210

An Exploration of William Stafford's Writing Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper William Stafford's varied descriptions and occasional judgments as to what it means to write a poem are gathered by prospecting through his essays, published lectures, and transcribed interviews. The paper describes Stafford's perspective on (1) the powerful language of poetry; (2) finding each poem's unique form; (3) practicing the…

Marshall, Gary T.

211

An Exploration of the Relationship between Vietnamese Students' Knowledge of L1 Grammar and Their English Grammar Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…

Tran, Tammie M.

2010-01-01

212

A Tale of Two Writing Systems: Double Dissociation and Metalinguistic Transfer Between Chinese and English Word Reading Among Hong Kong Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the rate of school-aged Chinese-English language learners at risk for reading difficulties in either Chinese or English only, or both, among second and fifth graders in Hong Kong. In addition, we examined the metalinguistic skills that distinguished those who were poor in reading Chinese from those who were poor in reading English. The prevalence of poor English readers among children identified to be poor in Chinese word recognition across the five participating schools was approximately 42% at Grade 2 and 57% at Grade 5. Across grades, children who were poor readers of both languages tended to have difficulties in phonological and morphological awareness. Poor readers of English only were found to manifest significantly poorer phonological awareness, compared to those who were poor readers of Chinese only; their average tone awareness score was also lower relative to normally developing controls. Apart from indicating possible dissociations between Chinese first language (L1) word reading and English second language (L2) word reading, these findings suggested that the degree to which different metalinguistic skills are important for reading in different writing systems may depend on the linguistic features of the particular writing system.

Tong X; Tong X; McBride-Chang C

2013-06-01

213

L1C signal design options  

Science.gov (United States)

Design activities for a new civil signal centered at 1575.42 MHz, called L1C, began in 2003, and the Phase 1 effort was completed in 2004. The L1C signal design has evolved and matured during a Phase 2 design activity that began in 2005. Phase 2 has built on the initial design activity, guided by responses to international user surveys conducted during Phase 1. A common core of signal characteristics has been developed to provide advances in robustness and performance. The Phase 2 activity produced five design options, all drawing upon the core signal characteristics, while representing different blends of characteristics and capabilities. A second round of international user surveys was completed to solicit advice concerning these design options. This paper provides an update of the L1C design process, and describes the current L1C design options. Initial performance estimates are presented for each design option, displaying trades between signal tracking robustness, the speed and robustness of clock and ephemeris data, and the rate and robustness of other data message contents. Planned remaining activities are summarized, leading to optimization of the L1C design.

Betz, J. W.; Cahn, C. R.; Dafesh, P. A.; Hegarty, C. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Jones, A. J.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L. S.; Ma, H. H.; Rushanan, J. J.; Stansell, T. A.; Wang, C. C.; Yi, S. K.

2006-01-01

214

POST-STROKE WRITING AND READING DISORDERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias, agraphias and acalculias) are more frequent than verified in routine exam, not only in the less developed but also in large neurological departments. Alexia is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called word blindness, text blindness orvisual aphasia. Alexia refers to an acquired inability to read caused by brain damage and must be distinguished from dyslexia, a developmental abnormality in which the individual is unable to learn to read, and from illiteracy, which reflects a poor educational back-ground. Most aphasics are also alexic, but alexia may occur in the absence of aphasia and may occasionally be the soledisability resulting from specific brain lesions. There are different classifications of alexias. Traditionally, the alexias are divided into three categories: pure alexia with agraphia, pure alexia without agraphia, and alexia associated with aphasia (“aphasic alexia”). Agraphia is defined as the disruption of previously intact writing skills by brain damage. Writing involves several elements—language processing, spelling, visual perception, visual-spatial orientation for graphic symbols, motor planning, and motor control of writing. A disturbance of any of these processes can impair writing. Agraphia may occur by itself or as association with aphasias, alexia, agnosia and apraxia. Agraphia can also result from “peripheral” involvement of the motor act of writing. Like alexia, agraphia must be distinguished from illiteracy, where writing skills were never developed. Acalculia is a clinical syndrome of acquired deficits in mathematical calculation, either mentally or with paper and pencil. This language disturbances can be classified differently, but there are three principal types of acalculia: acalculia associated with language disturbances, including number paraphasia, number agraphia, or number alexia; acalculia secondary to visual-spatial dysfunction with malalignment of numbers and columns, and a primary anarithmetria entailing disruption of the computation process.

Sinanovi? Osman; Mrkonji? Zamir

2013-01-01

215

Towards an Eclectic Framework for Teaching EFL Writing in a Chinese Context  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenges of writing itself and lack of appropriate teaching methodology demotivate EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners in some Chinese universities to write more, especially as the only incentive for students to write is the compulsory tests. The main objectives of this article are: (1) to discuss the background of the EFL learners…

Yan, Yi

2010-01-01

216

Autores Bilingues/Bilingual Authors: Writing within Dual Cultural and Linguistic Repertoires  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the writing development of English language learners (ELLs) in a fourth-grade bilingual classroom in Northern California. The purpose of this study was to explore the linguistic and cultural resources the students used to inform their writing and determine to what extent, if any, these resources influenced their writing. The…

Serna, Carolina

2009-01-01

217

The Effect of Arabic Proficiency on the English Writing of Bilingual-Jordanian Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relationship between first language (Arabic) proficiency and second language (English) performance in the writing skills of Jordanian bilingual second secondary school students. Despite the linguistic distance between English and Arabic, it is postulated that Arabic writing skills can be transferred positively to the…

Dweik, Bader S.; Abu Al Hommos, Mustafa D.

2007-01-01

218

The Effect of Arabic Proficiency on the English Writing of Bilingual-Jordanian Students  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study investigates the relationship between first language (Arabic) proficiency and second language (English) performance in the writing skills of Jordanian bilingual second secondary school students. Despite the linguistic distance between English and Arabic, it is postulated that Arabic writing skills can be transferred positively to the…

Dweik, Bader S.; Abu Al Hommos, Mustafa D.

2007-01-01

219

Does Recreational Reading in Native Language Influence Foreign Language Learning Process?  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited studies have been conducted on the effects on recreational reading in native language on foreign language learning, whereas no findings exist on the effects of recreational reading in Turkish as a native language (L1) on English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of recreational reading…

Aydin, Selami

2011-01-01

220

Encouraging Second Language Use in Cooperative Learning Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article begins by discussing whether students of second and foreign languages (hereafter, "second language" will be used to refer to both foreign and second languages) should be encouraged to use their second language (L2) with classmates when doing group activities. Reasons for both L2 and L1 (first language) use are discussed with…

Jacobs, George; Kimura, Harumi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Textographies and the researching and teaching of writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes three different examples of the use of textographies in the researching and teaching of writing. The first is an examination of the exegeses that art and design students write in their masters degrees. In the second example, a group of teachers looked at the writing section of Chinese College English tests. The third example describes a course in which second language students carry out an analysis of the kinds of writing that is required of them in their academic studies. Each of the projects aims to go “beyond the text” (Freedman, 1999) in order to gain an understanding of why the texts are written as they are.

Brian Paltridge

2008-01-01

222

Stevia plant named 'AKH L1 '  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new and distinct cultivar of stevia plant named 'AKH L1', characterized by its combination of late cycle, light green or yellow green leaves, high number of nodes on the main stem, medium number of basal buds, high Rebaudiosido A of total Glycoside Steviol content, and high yielding of dried leaves at harvest.

RAMON ALVAREZ BRITOS EDGAR

223

L=1 light quark mesons in QCD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Using the Borel transformed QCD sum rule formalism the masses of L = 1 light quark mesons with isospin I = 1 and I = 0 are calculated. Nonperturbative effects from higher dimensional operators up to dimension d = 6 in the operator product expansion are taken into account. (author)

1981-01-01

224

Estimates for L-1-vector fields  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A simple proof of an integral inequality involving L-1-vector fields is provided. This gives a short proof of estimates of Bourgain and Brezis for elliptic and div-curl systems. (C) 2004 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

Van Schaftingen, Jean

225

Automated characterization and identification of schizophrenia in writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prominent formal thought disorder, expressed as unusual language in speech and writing, is often a central feature of Schizophrenia. Since a more comprehensive understanding of phenomenology surrounding thought disorder is needed, this study investigates these processes by examining writing in Schizophrenia by novel computer-aided analysis. Thirty-six patients with DSM-IV criteria chronic Schizophrenia provided a page of writing (300-500 words) on a designated subject. Writing was examined by automated text categorization and compared with nonpsychiatrically ill individuals, investigating any differences with regards to lexical and syntactical features. Computerized methods used included extracting relevant text features, and utilizing machine learning techniques to induce mathematical models distinguishing between texts belonging to different categories. Observations indicated that automated methods distinguish schizophrenia writing with 83.3% accuracy. Results reflect underlying impaired processes including semantic deficit, independently establishing connection between primary pathology and language. PMID:19684495

Strous, Rael D; Koppel, Moshe; Fine, Jonathan; Nachliel, Smadar; Shaked, Ginette; Zivotofsky, Ari Z

2009-08-01

226

Diagnostic report writing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reviews purposes and types of diagnostic reports and provides guidelines for report writing. Report writing varies greatly depending upon the examination itself and the clinician's style of reporting. Such variation is acceptable as long as professional standards are maintained. The basic guidelines of report writing are: (1) the organization should provide for easy retrieval of specific information; (2) the terms and categories should be free of ambiguity; and (3) only terms in common use by professional should be used. Lack of uniformity, bad writing, inappropriate terminology, and overstatements are the basic problems of report writing that may be overcome through practice, study of sample reports, and courses in report writing.

Pannbacker M

1975-08-01

227

La producción de resúmenes en Inglés como Lengua Extranjera (ILE)/ Summary Writing in English as a Foreign Language (EFL)/ La rédaction de résumés en anglais langue étrangère (ALE)/ A produção de resumos em inglês como língua estrangeira (ILE)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A escritura de resumos de textos em inglês como língua estrangeira é um tema que tem recebido mais atenção por parte dos especialistas no âmbito internacional do que no nacional. A partir da abordagem discursivo-funcional, e com base em um corpus de cem resumos redigidos em inglês, estabelecemos como intuito deste trabalho pesquisar como os estudantes incluem em seus textos as funções discursivas do texto origem e como utilizam as marcas discursivas para destacar (more) essas funções. Para isso, foi utilizado o padrão textual Problema-Solução proposto por Hoey (2001). Os resultados desta análise demonstram que a maioria dos estudantes incluiu em seus resumos as funções hierarquicamente mais importantes do texto original. A estrutura to be about foi utilizada mais frequentemente para introduzir o tópico do texto origem e o verbo to evaluate para reportar o objetivo da pesquisa. Os resultados evidenciam que a maioria dos estudantes tem as aptidões necessárias não só para identificar as diferentes funções discursivas no texto original, mas também para reconstruir, com suas próprias palavras, um texto novo respeitando estas funções. Abstract in spanish La escritura de resúmenes de textos en inglés como lengua extranjera es un tema que ha recibido mayor atención de los expertos en el contexto internacional que en el nacional. Desde una perspectiva discursivo-funcional, y sobre la base de un corpus de cien resúmenes redactados en inglés, nos propusimos averiguar cómo los aprendices incluyen en sus textos las funciones discursivas del texto fuente y cómo utilizan las marcas discursivas para señalar estas funciones. (more) Para ello se utilizó el patrón textual Problema-Solución propuesto por Hoey (2001). Los resultados del análisis muestran que la mayoría de los estudiantes incluyó en sus resúmenes las funciones jerárquicamente más importantes del texto original. La estructura to be about fue utilizada con mayor frecuencia para introducir el tópico del texto fuente y el verbo to evaluate para reportar el propósito de la investigación. Los resultados evidencian que la mayoría de los estudiantes tiene las habilidades necesarias para identificar las diferentes funciones discursivas en el texto original y para reconstruir, con sus propias palabras, un texto nuevo respetando estas funciones. Abstract in english Summary writing in English as a foreign language has been investigated internationally more than locally. From a discursive-functional perspective and on the basis of the problem-solution textual pattern (Hoey, 2001), we analyzed a corpus of one hundred summaries of a scientific news article, written in English by Spanish speaking high school students. We aimed at finding out how the learners include the discursive functions of the source text in their writings and how th (more) ese functions are linguistically signaled. The results show that the majority of students included in their summaries the hierarchically most important functions of the original text. To be about was the most common structure used to introduce the topic of the original text while the verb to evaluate was most widely used to report the purpose of the source text. These findings indicate that the majority of the participants are discursively and linguistically competent not only to identify the different discourse functions of the original text, but also to reconstruct, in their own words, a new and coherent text.

Ruiz, Simón; Beke, Rebecca

2012-12-01

228

Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

Ortega, Lourdes

2012-01-01

229

Second language experience modulates functional brain network for the native language production in bimodal bilinguals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The functional brain network of a bilingual's first language (L1) plays a crucial role in shaping that of his or her second language (L2). However, it is less clear how L2 acquisition changes the functional network of L1 processing in bilinguals. In this study, we demonstrate that in bimodal (Chinese spoken-sign) bilinguals, the functional network supporting L1 production (spoken language) has been reorganized to accommodate the network underlying L2 production (sign language). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a picture naming task, we find greater recruitment of the right supramarginal gyrus (RSMG), the right temporal gyrus (RSTG), and the right superior occipital gyrus (RSOG) for bilingual speakers versus monolingual speakers during L1 production. In addition, our second experiment reveals that these regions reflect either automatic activation of L2 (RSOG) or extra cognitive coordination (RSMG and RSTG) between both languages during L1 production. The functional connectivity between these regions, as well as between other regions that are L1- or L2-specific, is enhanced during L1 production in bimodal bilinguals as compared to their monolingual peers. These findings suggest that L1 production in bimodal bilinguals involves an interaction between L1 and L2, supporting the claim that learning a second language does, in fact, change the functional brain network of the first language. PMID:22658973

Zou, Lijuan; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zinszer, Benjamin; Yan, Xin; Shu, Hua; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng

2012-05-30

230

Second language experience modulates functional brain network for the native language production in bimodal bilinguals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The functional brain network of a bilingual's first language (L1) plays a crucial role in shaping that of his or her second language (L2). However, it is less clear how L2 acquisition changes the functional network of L1 processing in bilinguals. In this study, we demonstrate that in bimodal (Chinese spoken-sign) bilinguals, the functional network supporting L1 production (spoken language) has been reorganized to accommodate the network underlying L2 production (sign language). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a picture naming task, we find greater recruitment of the right supramarginal gyrus (RSMG), the right temporal gyrus (RSTG), and the right superior occipital gyrus (RSOG) for bilingual speakers versus monolingual speakers during L1 production. In addition, our second experiment reveals that these regions reflect either automatic activation of L2 (RSOG) or extra cognitive coordination (RSMG and RSTG) between both languages during L1 production. The functional connectivity between these regions, as well as between other regions that are L1- or L2-specific, is enhanced during L1 production in bimodal bilinguals as compared to their monolingual peers. These findings suggest that L1 production in bimodal bilinguals involves an interaction between L1 and L2, supporting the claim that learning a second language does, in fact, change the functional brain network of the first language.

Zou L; Abutalebi J; Zinszer B; Yan X; Shu H; Peng D; Ding G

2012-09-01

231

Too Nervous to Write? The Relationship between Anxiety and EFL Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the students’ anxiety in essay writing and their writing performance in EFL context. The subjects were chosen from among 75 Iranian EFL students who took part in TOFEL proficiency test. 27 students majoring in English have been selected. They studied either English translation or English literature. The instruments to collect data were: a) Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI) (Cheng, 2004) b) Open - ended questionnaire and c) Writing performance tests. The results suggested that the students felt less nervous in writing when the teacher assured them that their papers will not be scored in contrast to the time when their papers were to be scored by the teacher. In addition, the correlation between final writing test and anxiety were significantly high. The participants’ responses to the open-ended questionnaire revealed that during their first stage of writing experience (when the teacher assured them that their papers will not be scored), the students had less physiological and psychological changes than their final test. The results suggested that by taking advantage of the facilitative aspect of anxiety, the students’ writing performance will be improved. The study has some pedagogical implications that will be discussed in this paper.

Giti Mousapour Negari; Omid Talebi Rezaabadi

2012-01-01

232

EFFECTS OF CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFER IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article concentrates on the impact that cross-linguistic influences have on second language acquisition. It investigates the importance of the learner's native language (L1) in written production of a second language (L2), particularly the use of L1 linguistic rules by Spanish speakers when they are writing in the target language (L2). This exploratory research focuses on the production errors made by students relative to specific subsystems such as semantic and syntactic areas. Errors are studied with respect to the differences between Spanish and English through a contrastive analysis between both languages in problematic linguistic areas. In this article only semantic errors will be considered as a first approximation to the study of transfer in written production. The results indicate that transfer is a reality and an important determinant in the process of second language acquisition. Teachers in an EFL context should be able to identify this phenomenon in order to prevent the errors which may arise from it.

María del Mar Ramón Torrijos

2009-01-01

233

Native Language Effects on Spelling in English as a Foreign Language: A Time-Course Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The study explores first language (L1) influences on the mechanisms of spelling in English as a foreign language (EFL). We hypothesized that the transparency of L1 orthography influences (a) the amount of hesitation associated with spelling irregular English words, and (b) the size of units EFL spellers operate. Participants were adult speakers of…

Dich, Nadya; Pedersen, Bo

2013-01-01

234

Writing Strategies Used by ESL Upper Secondary School Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing is a great challenge whether performed in the mother tongue or in a second or foreign language (L2/FL).  Studies in L2 writing show that writing is a complex cognitive activity comprising a number of processes which includes the use of various strategies. This study aimed to examine strategies used in essay writing among 50 high-intermediate and low proficiency ESL upper secondary school students and to determine any significant differences in strategy use between the two groups. Data from the Writing Strategy Questionnaire indicate that the ESL students were moderate writing strategies users. The while-writing strategies were most frequently used whereas the revising strategies were least used. All students displayed approximately similar frequency use of strategies. They differed only in the type of strategies used. An implication of the study is that students need to be encouraged to use various strategies in improving their writing. Strategy training for ESL students is important to help them write successfully in the target language.

Nooreiny Maarof; Mazlin Murat

2013-01-01

235

In Cite: Epistemologies of Creative Writing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The epistemic creative writer is not merely an expressive writer, a writer who writes for creative writing programs at diverse university colleges. Rather, the epistemic creative writer is the writer who understands that in order to say something useful you must step out of the space that engages your ego. Awareness of what really matters comes from the contemplation of the futility of words. Before the word there is silence. After the word there is silence. But during the word there is knowledge that can be made crystal clear. This book is about extracting what writing means to a few writers who formulate ideas about creative writing without, however, making claims to instruction. Can creative writing that produces knowledge be taught without a method? Samuel Beckett, Raymond Federman, Gertrude Stein, Jacques Lacan, Frank O'Hara, Douglas Hofstadter, Brian Rotman, Herman Melville, Kathy Acker, Friedrich Nietzsche, David Markson, Andrei Codrescu, and a host of others, gather here to offer an answer. --"Camelia Elias speaks to the reader from that place where the language of the birds becomes the language of silence." (Patrick Blackburn, Professor of Formal Logic, Roskilde University)

Elias, Camelia

2013-01-01

236

Learning Science Through Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Describes an instructional approach which focuses on writing skills as a means of promoting science learning. Gives examples of science writing and research activities for grades two and six. Also discusses the goals, procedures, and results of the project. (ML)|

Armes, Rose Ann; Sullenger, Karen

1986-01-01

237

Writing in Civil Engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

The Civil Engineering Writing Project website contains two kinds of information: (1) research findings about the ways in which student writing in civil engineering differs from practitioners' writing and (2) materials for civil engineering students who want to improve writing skills that are especially useful in the workplace (as well as in the classroom). The resource resulted from a project funded by the National Science Foundation.

Conrad, Susan

238

The Attitudes of Pre-service Teachers towards EFL Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of the previous studies indicate that no consensus exists on either the attitudes towards EFL writing or the factors that affect these attitudes. In addition, the studies mainly focused on the attitudes of language learners, rather than teachers. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the attitudes of pre-service teachers towards writing in English as a foreign language and the relationship between their attitudes and certain variables. A background questionnaire and a scale intending to measure the attitudes were administered to a sample group of 162 pre-service teachers of English. The collected data were used to provide a descriptive and correlational analysis. The results of the study indicated that pre-service teachers mainly have positive attitudes towards writing in English as a foreign language. Furthermore, it was found that age, gender, educational background and language proficiency significantly correlate with some statements in the scale.

Selami Ayd?n; Tutku Ba?öz

2010-01-01

239

Technical Writing in Hydrogeology.  

Science.gov (United States)

A project for Writing Across the Curriculum at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire is described as a method to relate the process of writing to the process of learning hydrology. The project focuses on an actual groundwater contamination case and is designed to improve the technical writing skills of students. (JN)

Tinker, John R., Jr.

1986-01-01

240

The papillomavirus major capsid protein L1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The elegant icosahedral surface of the papillomavirus virion is formed by a single protein called L1. Recombinant L1 proteins can spontaneously self-assemble into a highly immunogenic structure that closely mimics the natural surface of native papillomavirus virions. This has served as the basis for two highly successful vaccines against cancer-causing human papillomaviruses (HPVs). During the viral life cycle, the capsid must undergo a variety of conformational changes, allowing key functions including the encapsidation of the ~8kb viral genomic DNA, maturation into a more stable state to survive transit between hosts, mediating attachment to new host cells, and finally releasing the viral DNA into the newly infected host cell. This brief review focuses on conserved sequence and structural features that underlie the functions of this remarkable protein.

Buck CB; Day PM; Trus BL

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

CMS L1 Trigger Control System  

CERN Multimedia

The L1 Trigger Control System (TCS) is responsible to control the delivery of L1 Trigger Accepts depending on the status of the sub-detectors readout systems and the data acquisition system. This status is derived from information provided through the Trigger Throttling System (TTS) and from the status of front-end Emulators. TCS is also responsible for generating synchronization and fast reset commands, as well as to control the delivery of test and calibration triggers. TCS uses the TTC network to distribute information to the subsystems. TCS partitioning permits groups of subdetectors main components to operate independently during setting-up, test or calibration phases. Local trigger control is foreseen for the subdetector operation in standalone mode (test beam mode) This document provides an overall description of the TCS requirements and architecture, and a detailed description o f the TCS components. The main TCS components are the Central Trigger Controller (TCS), the Local Trigger Controller (LTC), ...

Varela, Joao

2002-01-01

242

How to write and publish a scientific paper  

CERN Multimedia

Writing and publishing journal articles are crucial to scientific careers. Unfortunately, many young scientists find the process of communicating scientific information effectively a complete mystery. By providing practical, readable, and sometimes humorous guidance, this book helps researchers gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence to succeed in communicating about their work. This seventh edition of "How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper" contains 41 chapters focused upon two separate tasks: how to write the respective sections of a scientific paper and how to publish the paper. Other related topics include approaching a writing project, following ethical principles in scientific publishing, preparing oral presentations and poster presentations, writing grant proposals, and working with the popular media. The authors provide considerable guidance on appropriate scientific writing style as well as an extensive list of words and expressions to avoid - and supply the language to substitute for them.

Day, Robert A

2011-01-01

243

Teaching Writing through Genre-based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is an endeavour to examine the impact of genre-based approach on students’ writing performance as well as students’ attitudes towards the implementation of genre-based approach in writing learning. Research findings reveal that most of the students gained the control over the key features of the required recount genre in terms of social purposes, language features and schematic structure. The necessity and usefulness of the application of teaching-learning cycle into learning the recount genre was predominantly recognized among students. 

Luu Trong Tuan

2011-01-01

244

Proof Mining in L1-Approximation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed in Kohlenbach (Logic: from Foundations to Applications, European Logic Colloquium (Keele, 1993), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996, pp. 225-260) to analyze Cheney's simplification (Math. Mag. 38 (1965) 189) of Jackson's original proof (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 22 (1921) 320) of the uniqueness of the best L1-approximation of continuous functions f&unknown;C[0,1] by polynomials p&unknown;Pn of degree = -dependency as follows from Kroo (Acta Math. Acad. Sci. Hungar. 32 (1978) 331). The paper also describes how the uniform modulus of uniqueness can be used to compute the best L1-approximations of a fixed f&unknown;C[0,1] with arbitrary precision. The second author uses this result to give a complexity upper bound on the computation of the best L1-approximation in Oliva (Math. Logic Quart., 48 (S1) (2002) 66-77).

Oliva, Paulo Borges; Kohlenbach, Ulrich

2001-01-01

245

EFFECTS OF CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFER IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION EFFECTS OF CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFER IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article concentrates on the impact that cross-linguistic influences have on second language acquisition. It investigates the importance of the learner's native language (L1) in written production of a second language (L2), particularly the use of L1 linguistic rules by Spanish speakers when they are writing in the target language (L2). This exploratory research focuses on the production errors made by students relative to specific subsystems such as semantic and syntactic areas. Errors are studied with respect to the differences between Spanish and English through a contrastive analysis between both languages in problematic linguistic areas. In this article only semantic errors will be considered as a first approximation to the study of transfer in written production. The results indicate that transfer is a reality and an important determinant in the process of second language acquisition. Teachers in an EFL context should be able to identify this phenomenon in order to prevent the errors which may arise from it.

María del Mar Ramón Torrijos

2009-01-01

246

Specific language impairment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The acquisition of language is one of the most important achievements in young children, in part because most children appear to acquire language with little effort. Some children are not so fortunate, however. There is a large group of children who also have difficulty learning language, but do not have obvious neurological, cognitive, sensory, emotional, or environmental deficits. Clinicians often refer to these children as language disordered or language impaired. Researchers tend to refer to these children as specific language impaired (SLI). Children with SLI have intrigued researchers for many years because there is no obvious reason for their language learning difficulties. SLI has been found to be an enduring condition that begins in early childhood and often persists into adolescence and adulthood. The language problems of children with SLI are not limited to spoken language; they also affect reading and writing and thus much of academic learning. Knowledge of the characteristics of SLI should aid physicians, pediatricians, and early childhood specialists to identify these children during the preschool years and ensure that they receive appropriate services. With high-quality language intervention and literacy instruction, most children with SLI should be able to perform and function adequately in school and beyond.

Kamhi AG; Clark MK

2013-01-01

247

A language for mathematical language management  

CERN Multimedia

We argue that the language of Zermelo Fraenkel set theory with definitions and partial functions provides the most promising bedrock semantics for communicating and sharing mathematical knowledge. We then describe a syntactic sugaring of that language that provides a way of writing remarkably readable assertions without straying far from the set-theoretic semantics. We illustrate with some examples of formalized textbook definitions from elementary set theory and point-set topology. We also present statistics concerning the complexity of these definitions, under various complexity measures.

Kieffer, Steven; Friedman, Harvey

2008-01-01

248

Elaboration: The Power Punch of "Body Language" Detail  

Science.gov (United States)

"Zooming in" with a camera lens led students in Joan Berger's class to enrich their writing exponentially. Through class discussion of body language, along with the use of worksheets (provided), role-playing, modeling, and conferencing, one aspect of lively writing became a part of their writing repertoire. (Contains 5 figures.)

Berger, Joan

2003-01-01

249

The write time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For nurse leaders, professional writing is essential for career development. Writing, especially writing for publication in a peer-reviewed professional journal, establishes you as a qualified and respected authority in your field and increases your reputation both within and outside your agency. As well, professional writing by nurse leaders contributes to the advancement of the nursing discipline and provides a service to the public. Even more importantly, professional writing can be a stimulating, challenging, creative outlet and allow for personal growth and development. Many nurse leaders, however, find writing a time-consuming and, sometimes, difficult chore, and procrastinate. This article provides some timely tips to help you focus more effectively on professional writing.

Zilm G

2002-05-01

250

WEB-BASED WRITING INSTRUCTION AND ENHANCING EFL LEARNERS' WRITING QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to determine whether Web-based Writing Instruction (WBWI) has any influence on the writing quality of Iranian EFL learners. Two groups of EFL learners who were studying English in an English Language Institute participated in the experiment. They were enrolled in an advanced writing course. Before instruction, both groups were pre-tested through writing essays. T-test results illustrated significant differences between two groups in writing ability. The experimental group made too many errors and had many writing problems. Both groups studied the same in-class material, and were given the same assignments and assessment. In addition, the experimental group used an online course, which was provided for them through establishing a so-called website, from home. Experimental students posted their points, wrote short essays and posted stories in the comment section of the so-called website. They located information in sites like “Yahoo Movies” and “webMD”. They processed their essays and checked their spelling through Microsoft Office Word (2007). At the end of the experiment, both groups were post-tested through writing an essay. ANCOVA results showed considerable differences between two groups. The experimental group made more gains as a result of web-based instruction. They became more proficient, and made few errors.

Hamid R. KARGOZARI; Hamed GHAEMI

2011-01-01

251

Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987), we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993). Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge. To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987), we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993). Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge.

Keiko Koda; Estuko Takahashi; Michel Fender

2008-01-01

252

L1 AND L2 GLOSSES: THEIR EFFECTS ON INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of L1 and L2 glosses on incidental vocabulary learning in a multimedia environment. The investigation included the effects of additional pictorial cues in L1 and L2 glosses, and how these additions affect vocabulary learning. The analyses of a mixed design repeated measures 2 (L1, L2) X 2 (picture, no picture) X 2 (immediate test, delayed test) analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated no significant differences between L1 and L2 glosses for definition-supply and recognition tasks and showed significant differences between picture (text-plus-picture) and no-picture (text-only) glosses for definition-supply test only. The results also revealed significant interaction effects between languages and tests indicating that L1 and L2 groups showed different patterns of vocabulary retention over time. Findings suggest that both L1 and L2 glosses are effective for incidental vocabulary learning, but long-term retention may differ between the two types; and that the effect of additional visual cues on vocabulary learning may rely on the nature of the tasks given.

Makoto Yoshii

2006-01-01

253

Guaranteed bounds for L1-recovery  

CERN Document Server

We propose new methods of recovery of sparse signals from noisy observation based on L1-minimization. They are closely related to the well-known techniques such as Lasso and Dantzig Selector. However, these estimators come with {\\em efficiently verifiable guaranties of performance}. By optimizing these bounds with respect to the method parameters we are able to construct the estimators which possess better statistical properties than the commonly used ones. We also provide an oracle inequality to justify the proposed algorithms and show how the estimates can be computed using the Basis Pursuit algorithm.

Iouditski, Anatoli; Nemirovski, Arkadii S

2010-01-01

254

Code-switching across brainstorming sessions: implications for the revised hierarchical model of bilingual language processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The revised hierarchical model (RHM) of bilingual language processing posits independent word form representations for the dominant language (L1) and the nondominant language (L2), facilitated translation from L2 words to L1 words, access to common concepts for L1 and L2, and stronger activation of concepts for L1 than for L2. Spanish-English and English-Spanish bilinguals brainstormed for two sessions; half switched languages (L1-L2 or L2-L1) and half stayed in the same language (L1-L1 or L2-L2) across sessions. In both sessions, L1 brainstorming resulted in more efficient idea productivity than L2 brainstorming, supporting stronger concept activation for L1, consistent with the RHM. Switching languages from L2 to L1 resulted in the most efficient idea productivity in Session 2, suggesting that switching to L1 not only permits strong concept activation, but also the activation of concepts that are relatively different than those activated by L2, inconsistent with the RHM. Switching languages increased the proportion of Session 1 ideas repeated during Session 2, despite instructions not to repeat. This finding suggests that there is activation of concepts as well as word forms in same language brainstorming and that this dual activation aids in following instructions not to repeat, consistent with the RHM. It is suggested that the RHM be re-specified to accommodate the notion that L1 and L2 access relatively different concepts.

Blot KJ; Zárate MA; Paulus PB

2003-01-01

255

Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 16B, Nike Hercules Missile Crewman, Reference Soldier's Manual Dated 17 December 1976.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Job Language Performance Requirements (JLPR) study was conducted to determine language tasks the soldier must do in studying/performing job tasks. The language skills (listening, reading, writing, speaking) required to learn each Army job task were id...

1976-01-01

256

$L_1$-uniqueness of degenerate elliptic operators  

CERN Document Server

Let $\\Omega$ be an open subset of $\\Ri^d$ with $0\\in \\Omega$. Further let $H_\\Omega=-\\sum^d_{i,j=1}\\partial_i\\,c_{ij}\\,\\partial_j$ be a second-order partial differential operator with domain $C_c^\\infty(\\Omega)$ where the coefficients $c_{ij}\\in W^{1,\\infty}_{\\rm loc}(\\bar\\Omega)$ are real, $c_{ij}=c_{ji}$ and the coefficient matrix $C=(c_{ij})$ satisfies bounds $00$ where $\\mu(s)=\\int^s_0dt\\,c(t)^{-1/2}$ then we establish that $H_\\Omega$ is $L_1$-unique, i.e.\\ it has a unique $L_1$-extension which generates a continuous semigroup, if and only if it is Markov unique, i.e.\\ it has a unique $L_2$-extension which generates a submarkovian semigroup. Moreover these uniqueness conditions are equivalent with the capacity of the boundary of $\\Omega$, measured with respect to $H_\\Omega$, being zero. We also demonstrate that the capacity depends on two gross features, the Hausdorff dimension of subsets $A$ of the boundary the set and the order of degeneracy of $H_\\Omega$ at $A$.

Robinson, Derek W

2010-01-01

257

Linking engineering students in Spain and technical writing students in the US as co-authors: The challenges and outcomes of subject-matter experts and language specialists collaborating internationally  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a first-of-its-kind international collaboration, technical writing classes in Spain and the US matched engineering students with international technical writing students to coauthor procedural instructions. These were then tested for usability by students in Finland and the US, and subsequently translated and localized by students in Belgium, France, and Italy. The coauthors faced challenges in gaining expertise, communicating clearly in a lingua franca, handling differing cultures, testing for usability, and managing differing semester schedules and time zones. Insights from these experiences yield recommendations for instructors who wish to replicate such collaborations.

Bruce Maylath; Tym King; Elisabet Arnó Macià

2013-01-01

258

Consciência fonológica e o processo de aprendizagem de leitura e escrita: implicações teóricas para o embasamento da prática fonoaudiológica Phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing: theoretical implications for the basement of the Speech-Language pathologist practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA: consciência fonológica e o aprendizado da leitura e escrita. OBJETIVO: realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca do tema com o objetivo de retomar conceitos dispostos recentemente na literatura e oferecer ao Fonoaudiólogo a possibilidade de revisão de suas práticas para (re)formulação de estratégias terapêuticas. CONCLUSÃO: é possível observar que os estudos convergem para a importante relação no desenvolvimento das habilidades de consciência fonológica com o desenvolvimento da leitura e escrita. Tal fato reforça a necessidade de revisão de nossa prática clínica e científica para a criação e difusão de estratégias preventivas e/ou de remediação envolvendo atividades lúdicas que englobam a consciência da criança na manipulação dos sons da fala. Uma importante área de pesquisa na Fonoaudiologia do Brasil deveria convergir para o estudo e criação de ferramentas facilitadoras ao Fonoaudiólogo.BACKGROUND: phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing. PURPOSE: to hold a review of the literature about this theme, in order to resume concepts recently published on technical literature and offer for the Speech-Language pathologist the possibility to review some of their practices and formulate a therapeutic strategy. CONCLUSION: it is possible to observe that the studies point to the important relationship on the development of phonological awareness skills, including the increase of reading and writing. This fact reinforces the need for reviewing our clinical and scientific practice in order to approach the creation and to disseminate some preventive and remediate strategies involving recreational activities which include children awareness manipulation of the sounds of speech. One important area of the Speech Language research in Brazil should converge for the studies and creation on this subject toward the tools in order to help the Speech-Language Pathologist.

Cristiane Nunes; Silvana Frota; Renata Mousinho

2009-01-01

259

Consciência fonológica e o processo de aprendizagem de leitura e escrita: implicações teóricas para o embasamento da prática fonoaudiológica/ Phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing: theoretical implications for the basement of the Speech-Language pathologist practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese TEMA: consciência fonológica e o aprendizado da leitura e escrita. OBJETIVO: realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca do tema com o objetivo de retomar conceitos dispostos recentemente na literatura e oferecer ao Fonoaudiólogo a possibilidade de revisão de suas práticas para (re)formulação de estratégias terapêuticas. CONCLUSÃO: é possível observar que os estudos convergem para a importante relação no desenvolvimento das habilidades de consciência fonoló (more) gica com o desenvolvimento da leitura e escrita. Tal fato reforça a necessidade de revisão de nossa prática clínica e científica para a criação e difusão de estratégias preventivas e/ou de remediação envolvendo atividades lúdicas que englobam a consciência da criança na manipulação dos sons da fala. Uma importante área de pesquisa na Fonoaudiologia do Brasil deveria convergir para o estudo e criação de ferramentas facilitadoras ao Fonoaudiólogo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing. PURPOSE: to hold a review of the literature about this theme, in order to resume concepts recently published on technical literature and offer for the Speech-Language pathologist the possibility to review some of their practices and formulate a therapeutic strategy. CONCLUSION: it is possible to observe that the studies point to the important relationship on the development of phonological (more) awareness skills, including the increase of reading and writing. This fact reinforces the need for reviewing our clinical and scientific practice in order to approach the creation and to disseminate some preventive and remediate strategies involving recreational activities which include children awareness manipulation of the sounds of speech. One important area of the Speech Language research in Brazil should converge for the studies and creation on this subject toward the tools in order to help the Speech-Language Pathologist.

Nunes, Cristiane; Frota, Silvana; Mousinho, Renata

2009-06-01

260

AN ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTIVENESS OF WRITING LEARNING DOMAIN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TURKISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION CURRUCULUM ?LKÖ?RET?M TÜRKÇE DERS? Ö?RET?M PROGRAMINDAK? YAZMA Ö?RENME ALANININ ETK?L?L???N?N DE?ERLEND?R?LMES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine teachers’ perceptions of effectiveness of writing learning domain in elementary school Turkish Language Curriculum in practice. The participants of the study consisted of 15 Turkish Language teachers working in Malatya city. Data were collected by using a semi-structured interview form consisting of eight questions. NVivo 8 program was used to analyze the data and teachers’ answers were analyzed by using content analysis. The findings of the study were presented as frequencies and percentages. Analysis of interview data revealed that teachers found Turkish Language Curriculum effective in writing learning domain. Bu ara?t?rman?n amac?, ?lkö?retim ?kinci Kademe Türkçe Dersi Ö?retim Program?’ndaki “yazma” ö?renme alan?n?n uygulamada etkilili?ine ili?kin ö?retmen görü?lerini belirlemektir. Ara?t?rma Malatya ilinde görev yapan 15 Türkçe ö?retmeni üzerinde gerçekle?tirilmi?tir. Çal??mada veri toplama arac? olarak sekiz sorudan olu?an yar? yap?land?r?lm?? görü?me formu kullan?lm??t?r. Ara?t?rmada NVivo 8 program? kullan?lm?? ve ö?retmen cevaplar?n?n de?erlendirilmesinde içerik analizi yap?lm??t?r. Elde edilen bulgular frekans ve yüzde da??l?mlar? yap?lm??t?r. Yazma ö?renme alan? ile ilgili uygulamalarda ?lkö?retim Türkçe Dersi Ö?retim Program?’n?n genel olarak etkili oldu?u görülmü?tür.

Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKS?Z; Ahmet Turan S?NAN; Sezgin DEM?R

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

L1 Influence on the Use of English Deictic Motion Verbs for Chinese EFL Learners and French EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on Sloin’s (1996b) thinking for speaking approach, the study examines L1 influence on the use of English deictic Motion verbs for Chinese EFL learners and French EFL learners. The aim is to find out whether language learners will be influenced by the particular Thinking for Speaking acquired in L1in the process of L2 acquisition. It is revealed that there is an overuse of English deictic Motion verbs among French EFL learners due to boundary crossing constraint in French, which results from L1 transfer. On the other hand, Chinese EFL leaners benefit from positive transfer due to the similarity between L1 and L2 and their overuse of English deictic Motion verbs results from simplification. Whereas L1 influence exists among Chinese EFL learners in the use of go rather than the more target like come.

Xu Ziyan

2013-01-01

262

Diagnostic report writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews purposes and types of diagnostic reports and provides guidelines for report writing. Report writing varies greatly depending upon the examination itself and the clinician's style of reporting. Such variation is acceptable as long as professional standards are maintained. The basic guidelines of report writing are: (1) the organization should provide for easy retrieval of specific information; (2) the terms and categories should be free of ambiguity; and (3) only terms in common use by professional should be used. Lack of uniformity, bad writing, inappropriate terminology, and overstatements are the basic problems of report writing that may be overcome through practice, study of sample reports, and courses in report writing. PMID:1234950

Pannbacker, M

1975-08-01

263

Paradigm Online Writing Assistant  

Science.gov (United States)

The Paradigm Online Writing Assistant, a frames-based site provided by Professor Chuck Guilford of Boise State University, aids writers in a different way from well known Online Writing Labs (OWLs), such as Purdue University's (discussed in the March 8, 1996 Scout Report), in that it concentrates on helping students think about how to conceive a writing project instead of giving nuts and bolts aids on grammar and style. This site contains sections on discovering what to write, organizing, revising and editing your writing, various types of essays, including thesis/support, argumentative, exploratory, and informal, and documenting sources. Each section is accompanied by activities, which help the student to incorporate the concepts. Professor Guilford understands that good writing is well prepared and thought out before a word hits the page, and that is the power of this site.

1996-01-01

264

How Different Are They? A Comparison of Generation 1.5 and International L2 Learners' Writing Ability  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing body of literature in second-language writing suggests that the writing ability of international second language (L2) learners, who attend post-secondary education abroad after having completed high school in their home countries, and the so-called Generation 1.5 population, that is, L2 learners who enter post-secondary education after…

di Gennaro, Kristen

2013-01-01

265

Indo-European Languages Tutorials  

Science.gov (United States)

As a student of French and other languages, Jennifer Wagner has created this most helpful site to assist people looking for some basic language tutorials in French, Italian, German, and a number of other languages. The site currently contains fifteen language tutorials, divided into sections that include "French Slang", "French Phonetics", and "Italian I". First-time visitors can click on the "Language Tutorials" to look over other languages like Swedish and German, and they will find thematic subsections that cover nouns, subject pronouns, and adjectives. Moving on, the "Linguistics" section provides short articles that provide an overview of the field and some of Jennifer's writings on the biology of language. Finally, visitors shouldn't miss looking at Jennifer's weblog, which features her musings on living in the French city of Annecy.

Wagner, Jennifer

266

MyProLang - My Programming Language: A Template-Driven Automatic Natural Programming Language  

CERN Document Server

Modern computer programming languages are governed by complex syntactic rules. They are unlike natural languages; they require extensive manual work and a significant amount of learning and practicing for an individual to become skilled at and to write correct programs. Computer programming is a difficult, complicated, unfamiliar, non-automated, and a challenging discipline for everyone; especially, for students, new programmers and end-users. This paper proposes a new programming language and an environment for writing computer applications based on source-code generation. It is mainly a template-driven automatic natural imperative programming language called MyProLang. It harnesses GUI templates to generate proprietary natural language source-code, instead of having computer programmers write the code manually. MyProLang is a blend of five elements. A proprietary natural programming language with unsophisticated grammatical rules and expressive syntax; automation templates that automate the generation of in...

Bassil, Youssef

2012-01-01

267

First and Second Language Pragmatics in Third Language Oral and Written Modalities  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the transfer of first language (L1) and second language (L2) pragmatic expression--realized in the request speech act--in oral and written modalities by Spanish-speaking third language (L3) Portuguese learners (bilingual Spanish heritage speakers, native English speakers who are proficient in L2 Spanish, and native Spanish…

Koike, Dale A.; Palmiere, Denise T. L.

2011-01-01

268

Entre o dizer e o escrito: corpo e linguagem no ensino de Jacques Lacan/Between saying and the writing: body and language in the teaching of Jacques Lacan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente trabalho, pretendo mostrar o estatuto do dizer e do escrito no ensino do psicanalista Jacques Lacan. Lacan realizou, ao longo de 26 anos ininterruptos, atividades de ensino em regime de seminário; ele mesmo realizou a recopilação de seus textos fundamentais, lançados em 1966 sob o título: Escritos . Sabe-se também que um componente fundamental da sua doutrina é sua teoria sobre o estatuto do escrito na transmissão em psicanálise. Ao longo de seu ensino, também se preocupou por definir o estatuto do dizer. O dizer e o escrito aparecem enlaçados no ensino de Lacan em uma relação de temporalidade subjetiva, na qual a função essencial do dizer é a subjetivação do escrito, e isso se produz num tempo de espera no qual o corpo se vê comprometido pela própria inscrição da teoria no corpo (castração). In the present work, I intend to show the saying and the writing statute in the teaching of psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. Lacan carried throughout 26 years uninterrupted activities of teaching into the seminary regimen; he himself made the compilation of his basic texts, launched in 1966 under the heading: Writings. We also know that a basic component of his teaching is its theory on the writing statute in the psychoanalysis transmission. Throughout his teaching, he was also worried about defining the saying statute. Saying and the writing appear enlaced in the teaching of Lacan in a relation of subjective temporality, in which the essential function of saying (theory) is the subjectivation of the theoretical writing, and it is produced in an open assembly time in which the body itself is engaged for the proper inscription of the theory in the body (castration).

José Guillermo Milán-Ramos

2007-01-01

269

The Effects of Focused and Unfocused Written Corrective Feedback in an English as a Foreign Language Context  

Science.gov (United States)

Truscott [Truscott, J., 1996. "The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes.' "Language Learning" 46, 327-369; Truscott, J., 1999. "The case for "the case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes": a response to Ferris." "Journal of Second Language Writing" 8, 111-122] laid down the challenge to teacher educators and teachers to…

Ellis, Rod; Sheen, Younghee; Murakami, Mihoko; Takashima, Hide

2008-01-01

270

Washback to Learning Outcomes: A Comparative Study of IELTS Preparation and University Pre-Sessional Language Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated whether dedicated test preparation classes gave learners an advantage in improving their writing test scores. Score gains following instruction on a measure of academic writing skills--the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) academic writing test--were compared across language courses of three types; all…

Green, Anthony

2007-01-01

271

Feedback in ESL Writing: Toward an Interactional Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of feedback on writing involves complex issues and needs to be considered within the total context in which the feedback is given. The reason studies examining feedback effects are so inconsistent may be a function of the fact that these studies consider feedback issue from a single perspective. To deal with this problem, feedback is first defined from different perspectives, then different aspects of feedback are discussed and after that a discussion of the factors that affect the influence of feedback on second language writing follows and finally a model where all the factors interact to influence feedback practices in second langue writing is presented.

Hamdollah Ravand; Abbas Eslami Rasekh

2011-01-01

272

Optimizing scholarly communication: 30 tips for writing clearly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To share with potential authors tips for communicating their ideas more clearly in a scholarly manuscript. DESCRIPTION: Communicating scientific, technical, or medical information so that readers can understand its meaning requires logical organization and proper use of language. These 30 tips review basic English grammar and suggest ways authors can clearly and concisely present their material. We admonish authors to avoid common errors such as writing in the passive voice, overusing abbreviations, and emphasizing unimportant facts. CONCLUSION: Attention to matters of writing style enhances clear communication, which must be the prime objective of scientific writing.

Knight KL; Ingersoll CD

1996-07-01

273

Implementing Keyword and Question Generation Approaches in Teaching EFL Summary Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Summary writing has been considered an important aspect of academic writing. However, writing summaries can be a challenging task for the majority of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Research into teaching summary writing has focused on different processes to teach EFL learners. The present study adopted two methods – keyword and question generation – to guide Taiwanese university students in writing summaries in English. To decrease the students’ apprehension resulting from the difficulties in writing summaries, portfolios were used as a vehicle to help the students collect and reflect on the articles they read and the summaries they wrote. This paper investigated how much keyword methods and question generation helped Taiwanese EFL university students improve their English summary writing. The data showed that, with the help of keywords and question generation, the two approaches helped the majority of the participants increase their English reading and summary writing abilities.

Mu-hsuan Chou

2012-01-01

274

Cortical activation in the processing of passive sentences in L1 and L2: an fMRI study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The question of whether the bilingual brain processes a first and second language (L1 and L2, respectively) differently is a central issue in many psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic studies. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether late bilinguals process structurally complex sentences in L1 and L2 in different cortical networks. For this purpose, we directly compared brain activity during the processing of active and passive sentences in both L1 and L2. We asked 36 healthy subjects to judge whether or not a presented sentence was semantically plausible. Both L1 and L2 activated the left hemispheric language-related regions such as the left inferior frontal, superior/middle temporal, and parietal cortices. However, we found different activation patterns between L1 and L2 in the processing of passive sentences. Passive sentences elicited greater activation than their active counterparts in the left pars triangularis, the premotor area, and the superior parietal lobule in Japanese, but not in English. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between sentence type (active versus passive) and language (Japanese versus English) in the left pars orbitalis. The results of this study indicate that late bilinguals use similar cortical regions to comprehend both L1 and L2. However, when late bilinguals are presented with structurally complex sentences, the involvement of these regions differs between L1 and L2. These results suggest that, in addition to age of L2 acquisition and L2 proficiency, differences in grammatical construction affect cortical representation during the comprehension of L1 and L2.

Yokoyama S; Okamoto H; Miyamoto T; Yoshimoto K; Kim J; Iwata K; Jeong H; Uchida S; Ikuta N; Sassa Y; Nakamura W; Horie K; Sato S; Kawashima R

2006-04-01

275

Expanding Definitions of Academic Writing: Family History Writing in the Basic Writing Classroom and Beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

Narrow definitions of academic writing often do not serve students well because they ignore the rhetorically situated and social bases for writing and the potential role of writing to span the personal, professional, and civic areas of students' lives. Broadening school-sponsored writing to include writing about family can help students to see the…

Rankins-Robertson, Sherry; Cahill, Lisa; Roen, Duane; Glau, Gregory R.

2010-01-01

276

Process Approach to Teaching Writing Applied in Different Teaching Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English writing, as a basic language skill for second language learners, is being paid close attention to. How to achieve better results in English teaching and how to develop students’ writing competence remain an arduous task for English teachers. Based on the review of the concerning literature from other researchers as well as a summery of the author’s own experimental research, the author of this essay for the first time tries to give definitions of the process approach to writing, make a comparison between product and process approach to teaching writing and accordingly make suggestions about the basic principles of teaching writing with the application of the process approach. With this understanding of the process approach to writing, the author focuses on a discussion about the two classroom teaching models by using the process approach, namely teaching models with minimal control and maximal control to different English level students. Experimental study shows that the subjects were all making significant progress in their writing skill.

Chunling Sun; Guoping Feng

2009-01-01

277

Talking about Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

In fall 2000, Eastern Illinois University implemented an electronic writing portfolio (EWP) to assess students' writing skills. Students who were freshmen in fall 2000 and transfer students enrolling under the fall 2000 catalogue or subsequent catalogues must submit materials to the EWP. The EWP submissions come from each academic level as…

Hopgood, Debra C.

2004-01-01

278

Medical Ghost-Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Any assistance an author receives with writing a scientific article that is not acknowledged in the article is described as ghost-writing. Articles ghost-written by medical writers engaged by pharmaceutical companies who have a vested interest in the content have caused concern after scandals reveal...

Langdon-Neuner, Elise

279

Evaluating Teachers of Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describing the various forms evaluation can take, this book delineates problems in evaluating writing faculty and sets the stage for reconsidering the entire process to produce a fair, equitable, and appropriate system. The book discusses evaluation through real-life examples: evaluation of writing faculty by literature faculty, student…

Hult, Christine A., Ed.

280

Multiple-Description l1-Compression  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Multiple descriptions (MDs) is a method to obtain reliable signal transmissions on erasure channels. An MD encoder forms several descriptions of the signal and each description is independently transmitted across an erasure channel. The reconstruction quality then depends on the set of received descriptions. In this paper, we consider the design of redundant descriptions in an MD setup using $l_{1}$-minimization with Euclidean distortion constraints. In this way we are able to obtain sparse descriptions using convex optimization. The proposed method allows for an arbitrary number of descriptions and supports both symmetric and asymmetric distortion design. We show that MDs with partial overlapping information corresponds to enforcing coupled constraints in the proposed convex optimization problem. To handle the coupled constraints, we apply dual decompositions which makes first-order methods applicable and thereby admit solutions for large-scale problems, e.g., coding entire images or image sequences. We showby examples that the proposed framework generates non-trivial sparse descriptions and non-trivial refinements. We finally show that the sparse descriptions can be quantized and encoded using off-the-shell encoders such as the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) encoder, however, the proposed method shows a rate-distortion loss compared to state-of-the-art image MD encoders.

Jensen, Tobias LindstrØm; Østergaard, Jan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Spanish researchers’ perceived difficulty writing research articles for English-medium journals: the impact of proficiency in English versus publication experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs) for publication in English (as L2) is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA) writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured questionnaire comprising thirty-seven questions about researchers’ publication experiences in scientific journals in English and in Spanish was designed and sent out to all (n = 8,794) Spanish postdoctoral researchers at one research-only institution and four universities in Spain, yielding responses from 1,717 researchers. Our first results show that the discussion is the section that is perceived as more difficult to write for English-medium journals, across the four broad knowledge areas in a way that cannot be fully explained by their lower level of proficiency in English (as L2). This article proposes the rhetorical transfer hypothesis as a possible explanation for their additional difficulty. Our results also reveal that their increased perceived difficulty writing RA discussions in English (as L2) does not decrease noticeably until Spanish researchers report high or very high levels of proficiency in English (as L2) for academic or general purposes or have published on average at least 37 RAs as corresponding author in English-medium journals over the last ten years. Implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) research and pedagogy are discussed.

Ana I. Moreno; Jesús Rey-Rocha; Sally Burgess; Irene López-Navarro; Itesh Sachdev

2012-01-01

282

L1 and L2 Picture Naming in Mandarin-English Bilinguals: A Test of Bilingual Dual Coding Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…

Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan

2013-01-01

283

What's the Problem? L2 Learners' Use of the L1 during Consciousness-Raising, Form-Focused Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study provides preliminary insight into the role of the first language (L1) when pairs of intermediate-level college learners of French and Spanish are engaged in consciousness-raising, form-focused grammar tasks. Using conversation analysis of audiotaped interactions and stimulated recall sessions, we explored the ways students…

Scott, Virginia M.; de la Fuente, Maria Jose

2008-01-01

284

Written language skills in children with specific language impairment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. AIMS: To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with typically developing peers. It also aimed to assess the relative contributions of reading and spelling skills to written language skills. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Forty-five children took part in the study: 15 were CwSLI, 15 were a chronological age match and 15 were a spelling age match. The children took part in a range of tasks that assessed writing, reading and spelling abilities. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: In their written language and compared with typical age-matched peers, CwSLI used a significantly less diverse range of words, had lower quality written compositions overall, and lower levels of organization, unity and coherence. They also had a higher proportion of spelling errors. Overall, writing skills were strongly associated with reading skills. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: The findings demonstrate the challenges CwSLI have in producing good-quality written text and that these challenges are likely to be related to the linguistic skills profile shown by these children.

Williams GJ; Larkin RF; Blaggan S

2013-03-01

285

[Oral language acquisition: relation and risk for written language].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study relates the acquisition of oral language to the development of writing in 236 children of a private school in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The objective of this research was to identify non-linguistic factors involved in phonological acquisition and to describe the relation of phonological acquisition with alterations of writing. At the age of 6 years, kindergarten students were divided into 2 groups, based on the test of Phonological Evaluation of Children. In the follow-up, at 9 years of age, students were evaluated by means of Balanced Dictation and textual production. The comparison of results from case and control groups showed statistically significant difference as to the number of mistakes made in writing, pointing to the acquisition of oral language as a predictive factor for the development of spelling.

França MP; Wolff CL; Moojen S; Rotta NT

2004-06-01

286

From Scribbles to Scrabble: Preschool Children's Developing Knowledge of Written Language.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to concurrently examine the development of written language across several writing tasks and to investigate how writing features develop in preschool children. Emergent written language knowledge of 372 preschoolers was assessed using numerous writing tasks. The findings from this study indicate that children possess a great deal of writing knowledge before beginning school. Children appear to progress along a continuum from scribbling to conventional spelling, and this progression is linear and task dependent. There was clear evidence to support the claim that universal writing features develop before language-specific features. Children as young as 3 years possess knowledge regarding universal and language-specific writing features. There is substantial developmental continuity in literacy skills from the preschool period into early elementary grades. Implications of these findings on writing development are discussed. PMID:22448101

Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J

2011-05-01

287

From Scribbles to Scrabble: Preschool Children's Developing Knowledge of Written Language.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to concurrently examine the development of written language across several writing tasks and to investigate how writing features develop in preschool children. Emergent written language knowledge of 372 preschoolers was assessed using numerous writing tasks. The findings from this study indicate that children possess a great deal of writing knowledge before beginning school. Children appear to progress along a continuum from scribbling to conventional spelling, and this progression is linear and task dependent. There was clear evidence to support the claim that universal writing features develop before language-specific features. Children as young as 3 years possess knowledge regarding universal and language-specific writing features. There is substantial developmental continuity in literacy skills from the preschool period into early elementary grades. Implications of these findings on writing development are discussed.

Puranik CS; Lonigan CJ

2011-05-01

288

Writing in no man's land: questions of gender and translation Writing in no man's land: questions of gender and translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the principal innovations in literary criticism in the last twenty years has been the debate inspired by feminist writers on the problems of gender and language. While Anglo-American feminist scholars have focused more on sociological issues concerning women, on the construction of gender in different cultural contexts and on historiography, elsewhere attention has shifted to an exploration of the vexed questions of gender and language, the relationship between writing, reading and the body. One of the principal innovations in literary criticism in the last twenty years has been the debate inspired by feminist writers on the problems of gender and language. While Anglo-American feminist scholars have focused more on sociological issues concerning women, on the construction of gender in different cultural contexts and on historiography, elsewhere attention has shifted to an exploration of the vexed questions of gender and language, the relationship between writing, reading and the body.

Susan Bassnett

2008-01-01

289

Second Language Acquisition Enhances Communicative Competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English is the language of international affairs, cultures and economic systems. It is a language of wider communication. The main aim of the learners is to acquire the target language but it can be acquired easily only if the language is made use of in our daily affairs. In order to achieve that target language acquisition of the new language is very important, it focuses on the language competency of the target language .Knowledge of the structure of the language is equally important in order to learn the language. Like all language teaching systems, however, it can only be judged by its ability to help learners practice using the content of language – phonology, lexis and structure and that content can only be practiced through the behaviors known as listening and speaking, reading and writing. Communicative language teaching (CLT) has remained in fashion for a long time since its first emergence from the 1970s. This approach has been exported worldwide and seems to still occupy a dominant position in the global ELT industry nowadays .Communicative Language Teaching has become very important in the field of Language Teaching ,it not only, helps the language learner to learn the language it further, focuses on the linguistics namely the syntax,phonemes,diction spelling ,grammar and discourse.

E.Sugantha Ezhil Mary; J.R.Nirmala

2012-01-01

290

Writing Hypertexts: Proposed effects on writing processes and knowledge acquisition.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we propose that hypertext writing at school could have beneficial effects on the acquisition of content knowledge and the acquisition of writing skills compared to linear writing. We view the effects of hypertext writing on writing skills from the perspective of “shared” cognitive activities in writing linear texts and hypertexts. In a pilot study we examined the effects of hypertext writing on writing processes and we related the occurrence of writing processes to the quality of the resulting writing products. We set up this study to identify students’ cognitive activities during hypertext and linear writing. We also tried to determine whether hypertext writing could facilitate linear writing. We focused on the most central, distinctive features of linear and hypertext writing. For linear writing, this is a linearization process: i.e., transforming elements of content into linear text. For hypertext writing, this is a hierarchicalization process: converting a linearly presented line of thought into a hierarchical structure. Students (N=123) from Grades 8 and 9 performed two linearization tasks and two hierarchicalization tasks under think aloud conditions. Results showed that Planning and Analyzing activities contributed to the final quality of hypertexts and linear texts, and that these activities were more often elicited in hypertext tasks than in linear writing. We argue that writing hypertexts stimulates the use of writing activities that are positively related to writing proficiency. Moreover, we speculate that creating hypertext writing conditions and optimizing these conditions for different writer/learner styles might be a theoretical and practical challenge for mother tongue teaching.

Braaksma, M.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Janssen, T.

2007-01-01

291

Relationships among L1 Print Exposure and Early L1 Literacy Skills, L2 Aptitude, and L2 Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Authors examined the relationship between individual differences in L1 print exposure and differences in early L1 skills and later L2 aptitude, L2 proficiency, and L2 classroom achievement. Participants were administered measures of L1 word decoding, spelling, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, receptive vocabulary, and listening…

Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

2012-01-01

292

Medical writing and publication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical writing and publication are important in developing the scholarly base of family medicine, as well as being integral to an academic career. The author must choose the best format for the topic-research report, review article, book chapter, or other. The five steps in writing for publication are: 1) conceptualization of the topic and how best to present data; 2) organization of material; 3) composition; 4) revision of drafts; and 5) manuscript preparation and submission. The author must overcome the impediments to scholarly activity, such as lack of time, and resolve to ascribe a high priority to medical writing and publication.

Taylor RB

1989-09-01

293

A Pure L1-norm Principal Component Analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The L 1 norm has been applied in numerous variations of principal component analysis (PCA). L 1-norm PCA is an attractive alternative to traditional L 2-based PCA because it can impart robustness in the presence of outliers and is indicated for models where standard Gaussian assumptions about the noise may not apply. Of all the previously-proposed PCA schemes that recast PCA as an optimization problem involving the L 1 norm, none provide globally optimal solutions in polynomial time. This paper proposes an L 1-norm PCA procedure based on the efficient calculation of the optimal solution of the L 1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem. We present a procedure called L 1-PCA* based on the application of this idea that fits data to subspaces of successively smaller dimension. The procedure is implemented and tested on a diverse problem suite. Our tests show that L 1-PCA* is the indicated procedure in the presence of unbalanced outlier contamination.

Brooks J; Dulá J; Boone E

2013-05-01

294

Writing Essays on a Laptop or a Desktop Computer: Does It Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

|To explore the potential effect of computer type on the Test of English as a Foreign Language-Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) Writing Test, a sample of 444 international students was used. The students were randomly assigned to either a laptop or a desktop computer to write two TOEFL iBT practice essays in a simulated testing environment,…

Ling, Guangming; Bridgeman, Brent

2013-01-01

295

The Technical Adequacy of Curriculum-Based Writing Measures with English Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of Curriculum-Based Measures in writing for English learners. Participants were 36 high school English learners with moderate to high levels of English language proficiency. Predictor variables were type of writing prompt (picture, narrative, and expository), time (3, 5, and 7…

Campbell, Heather; Espin, Christine A.; McMaster, Kristen

2013-01-01

296

Writing Essays on a Laptop or a Desktop Computer: Does It Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

To explore the potential effect of computer type on the Test of English as a Foreign Language-Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) Writing Test, a sample of 444 international students was used. The students were randomly assigned to either a laptop or a desktop computer to write two TOEFL iBT practice essays in a simulated testing environment, followed…

Ling, Guangming; Bridgeman, Brent

2013-01-01

297

The Relationship between Listening and Other Language Skills in International English Language Testing System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Listening comprehension is the primary channel of learning a language. Yet of the four dominant macro-skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), it is often difficult and inaccessible for second and foreign language learners due to its implicit process. The secondary skill, speaking, proceeds listening cognitively. Aural/oral skills precede the graphic skills, such as reading and writing, as they form the circle of language learning process. However, despite the significant relationship with other language skills, listening comprehension is treated lightly in the applied linguistics research. Half of our daily conversation and three quarters of classroom interaction are virtually devoted to listening comprehension. To examine the relationship of listening skill with other language skills, the outcome of 1800 Iranian participants undertaking International English Language Testing System (IELTS) in Tehran indicates the close correlation between listening comprehension and the overall language proficiency.

Hossein Bozorgian

2012-01-01

298

The Development of Theories of Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

Second language acquisition (SLA) is a relatively new field of enquiry. Before the late 1960s, educators did write about L2 learning, but very much as an adjunct of language teaching pedagogy, underpinned by behaviourism, the then-dominant learning theory in psychology. In this view, the task facing learners of foreign languages was to rote-learn…

Myles, Florence

2010-01-01

299

Languages in contact: The influence of language activation and competing language patterns on translation performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The two pilot studies described in this article, both part of a larger on-going project investigating multilingualism in a translation context, deal with separation of languages in translation students. At the same time, they demonstrate how multilingualism research can be integrated into the translation classroom. Within the framework of Grosjean's model (1997, 1998, 2001), the first study tests the influence on translation performance of preferentially activating one of the languages for the translation version Spanish (L2) into German (L1). The second assesses the transfer of structures from the dominant language in translating from German (L1) into English (L2). Despite the relatively small database, various inferences can be made about multilingual language processing in trainee translators.

Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen; Jekat, Susanne J.

2005-01-01

300

Teaching Writing through Reading Integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has not been a consensus among the researchers though the question whether writing teachers use reading activities in pre-writing phase in their writing class has been long posed. This paper is an endeavour to examine the extent to which reading integration approach is beneficial to EFL learners’ writing performance.

Luu Trong Tuan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Writing Approaches of Graduate Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The writing approach framework provides a comprehensive perspective on college-level academic writing based on the relationship of writers' beliefs and strategies to the quality of written outcomes. However, despite increased demands for more and better writing at the graduate level, little is known about graduate-level writing processes or about…

Lavelle, Ellen; Bushrow, Kathy

2007-01-01

302

Weblog Promotes ESL Learners’ Writing Autonomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, we observe widespread application of the internet, both synchronous and asynchronous communication, by educators in many worldwide classes. Weblog (blog or web log) can be one of the instructional and integral components for ESL instructors. By applying interview and observation, this study reports on ESL students’ experience and perceptions in applying weblog throughout a semester in a writing class in Malaysia. Besides, this study examined the effect of using Weblog on students’ writing autonomy. The findings revealed that students enjoyed the process of publishing their writings, and exchanging their experience in the weblog. Students also acknowledged weblog as a tool which provides more opportunities to publish their writing freely, extend their interaction with their peers outside the class setting, be able to publish and share interesting videos, have the chance to look for the appropriate materials in the World Wide Web (WWW) and check their sentences in the Google simultaneously. Students enjoyed some features in weblog which cannot be found in conventional modes of teaching and learning, such as experiencing unlimited time and place, more independency and freedom in publishing and exchanging comments. With the empirical data presented in this study, weblog can be applied as a suitable instructional tool to promote autonomy among language learners.

Maryam Foroutan; Nooreen Noordin; Mohd Sahandri Gani bin Hamzah

2013-01-01

303

La revisión entre pares de tareas de escritura como herramienta de una didáctica metacognitiva en el aula de lengua/ Peer Review of Writing Tasks as a Tool of a Metacognitive Didactic in the Language Classroom/ La révision par les pairs des tâches d'écriture, comme un outil d'une didactique métacognitive en classe de langue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo es un reporte de caso cuyo objetivo es presentar el análisis de una secuencia didáctica de revisión de textos entre pares y sus implicaciones en los procesos de aprendizaje del lenguaje escrito de un grupo de estudiantes de pregrado de la Universidad del Valle, en una asignatura denominada "Español". La secuencia hace parte de una propuesta que se inscribe en una perspectiva metacognitiva de enseñanza de la lengua, que pretende favorecer la toma de con (more) ciencia y la regulación de los procesos cognitivos y lingüísticos de los estudiantes cuando se enfrentan a tareas de escritura académica Abstract in english This article is a case report that has as its objective to present the analysis of a didactic sequence of peer review and its implications in the learning process of written language in a group of undergraduate students of a public university, who participated in a subject called "Spanish." The sequence makes up part of a proposal subscribed in a metacognitive perspective of language teaching, which aims to encourage awareness and regulation of the cognitive and linguistic processes of the students when facing academic writing tasks

López Gil, Karen Shirley

2012-12-01

304

A Study of the Teaching of ESL Writing in Colleges in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In China, ESL teaching constitutes an important part of higher education and ESL writing is a required skill for non-English majors in colleges and universities. However, the teaching of college English writing is unsatisfactory and problematic. The author did a survey on the teaching of ESL writing in five universities in China by using the methods of questionnaire, interview and sample collection. The results of the survey indicate that the students’ deficiency in English writing is due to personal and instructional reasons, such as ineffective teaching, students’ lack of interest in writing, students’ poor linguistic competence, students’ lack of the cultural knowledge of the target language and so on. In the teaching of college English Writing, the teacher should boost students’ motivation, integrate reading with writing, and provide effective feedback to the students.

Haiwen Mo

2012-01-01

305

"You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts  

Science.gov (United States)

Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

Lyon, Arabella

2009-01-01

306

Panos Theodorides: Within the Boundaries of Chartered Column Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Panos Theodoridis, writer and columnist, provides –in one of his rare interviews during the last decade– with his known heretic style, answers to issues such as the internet, arts, writing, the “Macedonian question”, the relation between language and philosophy etc.

Victor Tsilonis

2008-01-01

307

Motivating Students to Write through the Use of Children's Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

This action research project involved the implementation of a program designed to improve student motivation to write through the use of children's literature. The targeted populations were students in one kindergarten class and one third grade ELL [English Language Learners] class in two elementary schools. Both schools were located in a…

Daly, Laura; Sharko, Susan

2010-01-01

308

A Critical Review of the IELTS Writing Test  

Science.gov (United States)

Administered at local centres in 120 countries throughout the world, IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is one of the most widely used large-scale ESL tests that also offers a direct writing test component. Because of its popularity and its use for making critical decisions about test takers, it is crucial to draw attention to…

Uysal, Hacer Hande

2010-01-01

309

Plagiarism, Intertextuality and Emergent Authorship in University Students' Academic Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Issues of plagiarism, intertextuality and authorial presence in academic writing are fundamental to the teaching and learning activities of all university lecturers and their students. Knowing how to assist students, particularly those who speak English as an additional language (EAL), to develop a ...

Celia Helen Thompson

310

The C++ programming language  

CERN Multimedia

The new C++11 standard allows programmers to express ideas more clearly, simply, and directly, and to write faster, more efficient code. Bjarne Stroustrup, the designer and original implementer of C++, has updated his definitive reference and tutorial for everyone who uses the language and needs to understand its latest version. The C++ Programming Language, Fourth Edition, delivers meticulous, richly explained, and integrated coverage of the entire language—its facilities, abstraction mechanisms, standard libraries, and key design techniques. Throughout, Stroustrup presents concise, “pure C++11” examples, which have been carefully crafted to clarify both usage and program design. To promote deeper understanding, the author provides extensive cross-references, both within the book and to the ISO standard.

Stroustrup, Bjarne

2013-01-01

311

Neurolinguistics Aspects of Second Language Acquisition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

  Fundamental breakthroughs in the neurosciences, combined with technical innovations for measuring brain activity, are shedding new light on the neural basis of second language (L2)
processing, and on its relationship to native language processing (L1) (Perani & Abutalebi, 2005)...

Laleh Fakhraee Faruji

312

Towards a Vygotskyan model of writing assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article challenges a widely current model of second language writing assessment which focuses on language errors. A significant sample of the examination writing of matriculants from the then (1991) Department of Education and Training in the Cape Town area is assessed using elements of a Vygotskyan approach. Rather than focusing on surface errors, the analysis explores some of the conceptual and communicative processes involved, using three tools: word count, analysis of metaphors, and exploration of idiosyncratic expressions. This preliminary investigation describes underlying aspects of language proficiency in the group studied, and suggests areas to be clarified in developing a new approach to proficiency assessment.In hierdie artikel word 'n model om geskrewe tweede taal te evalueer wat tans wyd in gebruik is, aangespreek. 'n Beduidende monster van die geskrewe eksamens van die 1991-matrikulante van die voormalige Departement van Onderwys en Opleiding in die Kaapstadgebied is volgens elemente van die Vygotskyaanse benadering geevalueer. Die fokus is nie op oppervlaktefoute nie, maar op sommige van die konseptuele en kommunikatiewe prosesse wat betrokke is. Drie instrumente word gebruik, nl. woordtelling, analise van metafore en die eksplorasie van idiosinkratiese uitdrukkings. Hierdie voorlopige ondersoek beskryf die onderliggende aspekte van die studiegroep se taalvaardighede en maar voorstel/e oor areas wat uitgeklaar sal moet word in die ontwikkeling van 'n nuwe benadering tot vaardigheidsevaluasie.

L.P.D. Faragher; C.A. Puhl; J.J. Swartz

2013-01-01

313

Chain Programs for Writing Deterministic Metainterpreters  

CERN Document Server

Many metainterpreters found in the logic programming literature are nondeterministic in the sense that the selection of program clauses is not determined. Examples are the familiar "demo" and "vanilla" metainterpreters. For some applications this nondeterminism is convenient. In some cases, however, a deterministic metainterpreter, having an explicit selection of clauses, is needed. Such cases include (1) conversion of OR parallelism into AND parallelism for "committed-choice" processors, (2) logic-based, imperative-language implementation of search strategies, and (3) simulation of bounded-resource reasoning. Deterministic metainterpreters are difficult to write because the programmer must be concerned about the set of unifiers of the children of a node in the derivation tree. We argue that it is both possible and advantageous to write these metainterpreters by reasoning in terms of object programs converted into a syntactically restricted form that we call "chain" form, where we can forget about unification...

Rosenblueth, D A

2001-01-01

314

Writing as Self-Discovery: Teaching Writing Skills to Non-Native Speakers. TEAL Occasional Papers, Vol. 2, 1978.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of teaching writing to adult students of English as a second language is presented. The method emphasizes the first-person point of view. For an individual in a new culture with limited vocabulary and uncertain knowledge of structure, beginning with the self and observed events can be reassuring. With this method, described as being a…

Salzmann, Herbert

315

The language of speciation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature on speciation has expanded dramatically in recent years, catalyzed by the emergence of new conceptual frameworks, new theoretical approaches, and new methods for characterizing pattern and inferring process. As a consequence, the language used to describe the speciation process has become more complex. Increasing complexity may be an accurate reflection of current thinking with respect to how phenotypic differences limit gene flow, how selection results in the evolution of reproductive isolation, and genetic changes that contribute to speciation. However, increased language complexity has come at a cost; old definitions have been reconfigured and new terms have been introduced. In some instances, the introduction of new terminology has failed to recognize historical usage, leading to unnecessary ambiguity and redundancy. Although the writings of Mayr and Dobzhansky remain a reference point in the language of speciation, the last decades of the 20th century saw substantial changes in our thinking about the speciation process. During that period, the language of speciation remained relatively stable. In contrast, the first decade of the 21st century has witnessed a remarkable expansion of the language of speciation. Here, the origin and evolution of ideas about speciation are viewed through the lens of changing language use. PMID:23206125

Harrison, Richard G

2012-09-28

316

The language of speciation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The literature on speciation has expanded dramatically in recent years, catalyzed by the emergence of new conceptual frameworks, new theoretical approaches, and new methods for characterizing pattern and inferring process. As a consequence, the language used to describe the speciation process has become more complex. Increasing complexity may be an accurate reflection of current thinking with respect to how phenotypic differences limit gene flow, how selection results in the evolution of reproductive isolation, and genetic changes that contribute to speciation. However, increased language complexity has come at a cost; old definitions have been reconfigured and new terms have been introduced. In some instances, the introduction of new terminology has failed to recognize historical usage, leading to unnecessary ambiguity and redundancy. Although the writings of Mayr and Dobzhansky remain a reference point in the language of speciation, the last decades of the 20th century saw substantial changes in our thinking about the speciation process. During that period, the language of speciation remained relatively stable. In contrast, the first decade of the 21st century has witnessed a remarkable expansion of the language of speciation. Here, the origin and evolution of ideas about speciation are viewed through the lens of changing language use.

Harrison RG

2012-12-01

317

Peer Response to L2 Student Writing: Patterns and Expectations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the corrective feedback patterns in L2 writing and the student writers’ preferences for peer feedback. The study examines the actual focus of peer review and the types of corrective feedback provided in L2 composing process. Sixteen L2 matriculation students at a Malaysian university took part in five peer review sessions, responded to a debriefing questionnaire, and participated in an interview session after completing the peer review activities. Results show that peer responses to writing focused more on clarity of feedback unlike writer expectations which focused more on grammar correction. The study confirms the relevance of peer review as an alternative feedback delivery system in L2 writing and suggests that peer corrective feedback provides teachers with important perspectives about the L2 students’ language and writing knowledge.

Abdel Rahman Abdalla Salih

2013-01-01

318

Working with images: applying writing principles to photography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photography and writing are two media with the power to communicate. Both use a language: photogrphy uses images, writing uses words. Recognizing this similarity can help the writer/editor who knows very little about photography. If you regard a photography assignment in the same light as a writing assignment, you can apply the general principles of writing to photography. For instance, before you begin to create in any medium you need to consider your audience, your purpose, and your format. Next, you need to get to know your equipment, overcome your anxieties, and get started (often the most difficult step of the whole process). As you create and while you edit, remember these simple rules which hold true for words and images: Keep it clear and simple, beware of jargon, and choose the active voice.

Silverstein, A.P.

1982-01-05

319

Enrichment of processed pseudogene transcripts in L1-ribonucleoprotein particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long INterspersed Elements (LINE-1s, L1s) are responsible for over one million retrotransposon insertions and 8000 processed pseudogenes (PPs) in the human genome. An active L1 encodes two proteins (ORF1p and ORF2p) that bind with L1 RNA and form L1-ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs). Although it is believed that the RNA-binding property of ORF1p is critical to recruit other mobile RNAs to the RNP, the identity of recruited RNAs is largely unknown. Here, we used crosslinking and immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing to identify RNA components of L1-RNPs. Our results show that in addition to retrotransposed RNAs [L1, Alu and SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA)], L1-RNPs are enriched with cellular mRNAs, which have PPs in the human genome. Using purified L1-RNPs, we show that PP-source RNAs preferentially serve as ORF2p templates in a reverse transcriptase assay. In addition, we find that exogenous ORF2p binds endogenous ORF1p, allowing reverse transcription of the same PP-source RNAs. These data demonstrate that interaction of a cellular RNA with the L1-RNP is an inside track to PP formation. PMID:23696454

Mandal, Prabhat K; Ewing, Adam D; Hancks, Dustin C; Kazazian, Haig H

2013-05-21

320

The L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

We formalize an algorithm for solving the L(1)-norm best-fit hyperplane problem derived using first principles and geometric insights about L(1) projection and L(1) regression. The procedure follows from a new proof of global optimality and relies on the solution of a small number of linear programs. The procedure is implemented for validation and testing. This analysis of the L(1)-norm best-fit hyperplane problem makes the procedure accessible to applications in areas such as location theory, computer vision, and multivariate statistics. PMID:23024460

Brooks, J P; Dulá, J H

2012-04-10

 
 
 
 
321

The L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We formalize an algorithm for solving the L(1)-norm best-fit hyperplane problem derived using first principles and geometric insights about L(1) projection and L(1) regression. The procedure follows from a new proof of global optimality and relies on the solution of a small number of linear programs. The procedure is implemented for validation and testing. This analysis of the L(1)-norm best-fit hyperplane problem makes the procedure accessible to applications in areas such as location theory, computer vision, and multivariate statistics.

Brooks JP; Dulá JH

2012-01-01

322

TEACHING WRITING SKILLS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compared with speech, effective writing requires a number of things: a high degree of organization in the development of ideas and information; a high degree of accuracy so that there is no ambiguity of meaning; the use of complex grammar devices for focus and emphasis; and a careful choice of vocabulary, grammatical patterns, and sentence structures to create a style which is appropriate to the subject matter and the prospective readers.Students are aware of their own problems in writing, and they have attitudes and feelings about the writing process. Teachers can play a valuable part in raising awareness of the process of composition by talking explicitly about the stages of writing as well as by structuring tasks to take account of this.Teachers can play a support role during the early stages of the composition process by helping students to get their ideas together. This can be done by talking about things to generate ideas, by doing things such as interviewing other students, by pooling information, ideas, or opinions in the class, or by reading texts of various kinds.The teacher can also provide good models for writing, indirectly, by encouraging good reading habits but also directly, when appropriate, by analysing textual structure, particularly with some types of more formal academic writing.Planning activities structured by the teacher can help students to develop a sense of direction in their writing, though they should always be encouraged to regard a plan as an enabling device or support rather than as a rigid control.Teachers can encourage the drafting process by creating a workshop atmosphere in their classrooms, to the extent of providing rough paper, scissors, paste, erasers, etc. And while monitoring writing in progress, they can suggest that these are used for chopping and changing the structure of the text. Teachers can support the drafting process in various ways. They can intervene quietly, questioning and advising, in order to help writers get their ideas down on paper in English. Or they can encourage students to read each other’s work and suggest restructurings and revisions. Giving help during writing proves far more effective than giving it afterwards.

Anca Marina R?DULESCU

2010-01-01

323

Teaching Technical Writing - Towards Technical Writing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm that used to govern what the quality of an LSP text should be as opposed to the standpoint, which I advocate. By way of summing up, I will show how a university curriculum is designed so that - upon graduation - the technical translator could also be methodological quite well suited to take on the challenge of technical writing.

Kastberg, Peter

2000-01-01

324

Programming Language and Artificial Intelligence Development.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term language means communication tool which is used to write Computer program and develop application, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. Computer programming languages are used to write programs that define the behavior of a computer system. They are based on certain syntactic and semantic rules, which define the meaning of each of the programming language constructs. The syntactic and the semantic rules of every programming language define the language implementation. Programming languagesprovide computer programmers with the means to express computer algorithms. A programming language is a notation for writing programs, which are specifications of a computation or algorithm. [1] In computer technology, a set of conventions in which instructions for the machine are written called programming language. [2] Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines finds solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way. A more or less flexible or efficient approach can be taken depending on the requirements established, which influences how artificial the intelligent behaviour appears. [1] AI is generally associated with Computer Science, but it has many important links with other fields such as Maths, Psychology, Cognition, Biology and Philosophy, among many others. Our ability to combine knowledge from all these fields will ultimately benefit our progress in the quest of creating an intelligent artificial being. [2] The Present work is to identify relationship between programming language and AI development. The main objective of the work is to study the Application of Programming language, role of Programming language in AI development, The Languages Used for AI Programming and computer programming from Machine language to Artificial intelligence (AI) or future perspective of AI. This work will help the researchers to understand the concept, application, role and types of programming languages which is used in development of AI.

Mrs. Rekha Purohit; Prof. Prabhat Mathur

2013-01-01

325

Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture is the first monograph to discuss the Victorian critic Walter Pater's attitude to sculpture. It brings together Pater's aesthetic theories with his theories on language and writing, to demonstrate how his ideas of the visual and written language are closely linked. Going beyond Pater's views on sculpture as an art form, this study traces the notion of relief (rilievo) and hybrid form in Pater, and his view of the writer as sculptor, a carver in language. Alongside her treatment of rilievo as a pervasive trope, Lene Østermark-Johansen also employs the idea of rivalry (paragone) more broadly, examining Pater's concern with positioning himself as an art critic in the late Victorian art world. Situating Pater within centuries of European aesthetic theories as never before done, Walter Pater and the Language of Sculpture throws new light on the extraordinary complexity and coherence of Pater's writing: the critic is repositioned solidly within Victorian art and literature.

Østermark-Johansen, Lene

2011-01-01

326

The integration of lexical, syntactic, and discourse features in bilingual adolescents' writing: an exploratory approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the bilingual writing of adolescent English language learners (ELLs) using quantitative tools. Linguistic measures were applied to the participants' writing at the lexical, syntactic, and discourse levels, with the goal of comparing outcomes at each of these levels across languages (Spanish/English) and genres (expository/narrative). METHOD: Twenty Spanish-speaking ELLs, ages 11-14 years, each produced 8 expository and narrative autobiographical texts. Texts were coded and scored for lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and overall text quality. Scores were analyzed using Friedman's 2-way analysis of variance by ranks (Siegel & Castellan, 1988); resulting ranks were compared across languages and genre topics. RESULTS: The text topic impacted rank differences at all levels. Performance at the three levels was similar across languages, indicating that participants were emerging writers in both Spanish and English. The impact of genre was generally inconsequential at all levels. CONCLUSION: Similar results across languages implied the potential transfer of writing skills. Overall, students appeared to apply a knowledge-telling strategy to writing rather than strategically planning, composing, and revising their writing. Finally, outcomes highlighted the synergistic relationships among linguistic levels in text composition, indicating a need to address the interaction of vocabulary, morphosyntax, and text-level structures in the instruction and assessment of ELL writing.

Danzak RL

2011-10-01

327

Writing approaches of nursing students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past 20years, research has focused on the writing processes of college students, however, despite recent support for writing as a tool of reflection in nursing education, little is known about how it is that nursing students go about writing papers and assignments as part of their professional education. In order to determine the writing processes of nursing students, the Inventory of Processes in College Composition, a self-response questionnaire, was administered to 169 nursing students. Results support the independence of the writing approaches that nursing students use and similarity to the writing approaches of a general college student population.

Lavelle E; Ball SC; Maliszewski G

2013-01-01

328

Writing approaches of nursing students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 20years, research has focused on the writing processes of college students, however, despite recent support for writing as a tool of reflection in nursing education, little is known about how it is that nursing students go about writing papers and assignments as part of their professional education. In order to determine the writing processes of nursing students, the Inventory of Processes in College Composition, a self-response questionnaire, was administered to 169 nursing students. Results support the independence of the writing approaches that nursing students use and similarity to the writing approaches of a general college student population. PMID:22112918

Lavelle, Ellen; Ball, Susan C; Maliszewski, Genevieve

2011-11-23

329

Medical Ghost-writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Any assistance an author receives with writing a scientific article that is not acknowledged in the article is described as ghost-writing. Articles ghost-written by medical writers engaged by pharmaceutical companies who have a vested interest in the content have caused concern after scandals revealed misleading content in some articles. A key criterion of authorship in medical journals is final approval of the article submitted for publication. Authors are responsible for the content of their articles and for acknowledging any assistance they receive. Action taken by some journals and medical writer associations to encourage acknowledgement is an uphill task in the light of disinterest from the pharmaceutical industry and ignorance or similar lack of interest by those who agree to be named authors. However, acknowledgment alone is not sufficient to resolve medical ghost-writing; issues of how the acknowledgement is formulated, permission to acknowledge and access to raw data also need to be tackled.

Elise Langdon-Neuner

2008-01-01

330

The Effects of Portfolio Keeping on Writing Anxiety of EFL Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a growing body of research which documents the importance ofportfolios in foreign language teaching. The current study is an action research thatinvestigates the effects of portfolio keeping on the writing anxiety of students. Twoinstructors working collaboratively aimed to overcome the writing anxiety of theirstudents. They had a class of fifteen prospective teachers of English who were in theirpreparatory year in a foundation university, in Istanbul, Turkey. Data were gathered bymeans of the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI) (Cheng, 2004), abackground questionnaire and two reflective sessions. Findings of the study revealedthat portfolio keeping is beneficial in terms of overcoming writing anxiety. The resultsalso indicated that the experience with portfolios may affect the participants’ futureteaching practices positively. Therefore; this study suggests that portfolio keepingdeserves to be taken into consideration in the programme of Foreign LanguageEducation Departments.

Hande Öztürk; Sevde?er Çeçen

2007-01-01

331

INCORPORATING SHORT STORIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates how short stories can be integrated into an English language curriculum in order to consolidate students’ knowledge of the English language - grammar and vocabulary - and to promote their creative writing skills. The study was conducted with 21 Turkish university students receiving an English language preparatory programme. A selection of short stories appropriate to students’ language requirements was incorporated into the English language curriculum. A three-stage-model: presentation, exploration, and follow-up guided the use of each story with a special focus on student-centered learning, which required the students to take an active involvement in the learning process on the basis of given tasks. In order to obtain students’ opinion concerning the use of story, each student was asked to keep a diary in which to reflect their views following the study of each literary text, and a portfolio where they could keep their writings. The data collected through the diaries and student writings were complemented by administering an end-of-the year story perception questionnaire in order to have an overall evaluation of the course. Findings indicated that 1) the use of short stories contributed to students’ reinforcing effectively and meaningfully their knowledge of grammar and vocabulary; 2) it helped students to be more creative and imaginative in their writing, and 3) it freed the students from the routine procedures in the classroom. The article concludes with some pedagogical suggestions for the efficient exploitation of this literary genre in English language classes.

Yasemin KIRKGÖZ

2012-01-01

332

An L^1 Ergodic Theorem for Sparse Random Subsequences  

CERN Document Server

We prove an L^1 subsequence ergodic theorem for sequences chosen by independent random selector variables, thereby showing the existence of universally L^1-good sequences nearly as sparse as the set of squares. In the process, we prove that a certain deterministic condition implies a weak maximal inequality for a sequence of \\ell^1 convolution operators.

LaVictoire, Patrick

2008-01-01

333

Aerobic vinyl chloride metabolism in Mycobacterium aurum L1.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mycobacterium aurum L1, capable of growth on vinyl chloride as a sole carbon and energy source, was previously isolated from soil contaminated with vinyl chloride (S. Hartmans et al., Biotechnol. Lett. 7:383-388, 1985). The initial step in vinyl chloride metabolism in strain L1 is catalyzed by alken...

Hartmans, S; De Bont, J A

334

THE USE OF DIDACTIC SEQUENCES AND THE TEACHING OF L1.AN ANALYSIS OF AN INSTITUTIONAL PROGRAM OF TEACHING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A competitive program called “Writing the Future (Escrevendo o Futuro)”, developed withthe aim of improving written production at Brazilian public schools may gain importance in a contextwhere meaningful reading and writing skills are considered key factors to social inclusion and to personal,educational and professional achievements. This paper will begin by presenting an overview of theBrazilian Competitive Program “Writing the Future (Escrevendo o Futuro)” developed using a genrebasedapproach, before proceeding with the following objectives: a) to analyze written texts produced bystudents who used the Program’s didactic sequence as a learning tool of the didactic intervention work,and b) to debate critically teaching writing at school with such a program. Didactic sequences are definedas a group of school activities systematically organized within a class project (Dolz & Schneuwly, 1998:93) aimed at developing students’ language capacities. The texts were analyzed according to two dimensions:a) the criteria established by the program itself; b) the language plans that constitute any text (accordingto Bronckart, 2003). As a preliminary result, the levels of (in)adequacy of the texts produced inthe genre taught in the didactic sequence may be stressed, as well as the type of difficulty of linguisticaccuracy in general. Another result is the kind of pedagogic practice underlying the proposal, togetherwith the different dimensions of teacher education it may involve.

VERA LÚCIA LOPES CRISTOVÃO

2009-01-01

335

Writing a research abstract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research abstracts may be difficult to write, especially for novice researchers. Reading abstracts from previous ENA Scientific Assemblies with a critical eye will help you focus on the abstract elements described in this article. Your abstracts should be clear, logical, and grammatically correct. Having others (for example, clinical nurses and a nurse researcher) review your abstract and provide feedback before submission is also helpful. And, after your research abstract has been accepted and presented, it's still not over--the next step is writing the research manuscript!

Cole FL; Koziol-McLain J

1997-10-01

336

Science and report writing  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years Australian primary schools have adopted an across-the-curriculum approach to writing. However, relatively little research has been conducted in the area of primary science. This paper reports the result of a small scale collaborative study involving a Year 2 and a Year 5 class, and their classroom teacher, which used science activities as the basis for developing report-writing skills using a framework consisting of three focus questions. Students in both classes learned to use the framework in one term and it was found that it improved the quality of reports.

Francis, Rod; Hill, Doug

1991-12-01

337

Forensic report writing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the area of specialization of forensic psychology broadens its horizons, it will become increasingly more difficult for clinical psychologists to avoid participating in the forensic arena. As a result, clinical psychologists may be asked to write reports about therapeutic intervention or evaluations in divorce, personal injury, competency, abuse, or criminal proceedings. In this article, the author addresses the issues that the clinical psychologist needs to understand in writing reports that may be utilized in forensic settings. How these reports are affected by the American Psychological Association Ethics Code (APA; 2002), the audience receiving the report, the subject matter of the report, and dissemination of the information are all discussed in this article.

Ackerman MJ

2006-01-01

338

Building Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Building Languages How can I start communicating with my ... to choose which language (or languages) and which building blocks you want for your child. These five ...

339

Learning with l1-graph for image analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The graph construction procedure essentially determines the potentials of those graph-oriented learning algorithms for image analysis. In this paper, we propose a process to build the so-called directed l1-graph, in which the vertices involve all the samples and the ingoing edge weights to each vertex describe its l1-norm driven reconstruction from the remaining samples and the noise. Then, a series of new algorithms for various machine learning tasks, e.g., data clustering, subspace learning, and semi-supervised learning, are derived upon the l1-graphs. Compared with the conventional k-nearest-neighbor graph and epsilon-ball graph, the l1-graph possesses the advantages: (1) greater robustness to data noise, (2) automatic sparsity, and (3) adaptive neighborhood for individual datum. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets show the consistent superiority of l1-graph over those classic graphs in data clustering, subspace learning, and semi-supervised learning tasks.

Cheng B; Yang J; Yan S; Fu Y; Huang TS

2010-04-01

340

Why writing centers matter Why writing centers matter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past twenty-five years, most post-secondary institutions in the United States have established facilities known as writing centers, although sometimes they are called writing "labs," or writing "rooms." One writing center may he enclosed in a large glass building nestled in a redwood forest, where students and tutors confer with one another in spacious, well-lit study spaces. Another may be housed in a converted, under-sized classroom, furnished with only a battered table and a shabby sofa. Whatever their physical characteristics, writing centers are now recognized as playing a vital role in the teaching of writing, one that is as pedagogically significant as that of the composition classroom. The following scenarios embody what I perceive as the essence of the writing center approach and provide a graphic representation of "why writing centers matter." Over the past twenty-five years, most post-secondary institutions in the United States have established facilities known as writing centers, although sometimes they are called writing "labs," or writing "rooms." One writing center may he enclosed in a large glass building nestled in a redwood forest, where students and tutors confer with one another in spacious, well-lit study spaces. Another may be housed in a converted, under-sized classroom, furnished with only a battered table and a shabby sofa. Whatever their physical characteristics, writing centers are now recognized as playing a vital role in the teaching of writing, one that is as pedagogically significant as that of the composition classroom. The following scenarios embody what I perceive as the essence of the writing center approach and provide a graphic representation of "why writing centers matter."

Irene Lurkis Clark

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Leer múltiples documentos para escribir textos académicos en la universidad: o cómo aprender a leer y escribir en el lenguaje de las disciplinas/ Reading multiple documents to produce academic writing at the university: learning how to read and write in the language of the different disciplines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En las últimas tres décadas, la investigación en el campo de la composición y de la comprensión del texto se ha ocupado de dilucidar los procesos cognitivos y los condicionantes sociales y culturales que caracterizan a las tareas híbridas que requieren comprender y sintetizar múltiples fuentes para escribir textos académicos. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo presentar una revisión de los principales resultados de esta investigación. Para ello, en primer (more) lugar se abordan las diferentes representaciones que las tareas híbridas pueden suscitar tanto en los estudiantes como en sus profesores. En segundo lugar, nos ocupamos de los procesos de búsqueda, comprensión y síntesis de la información que implican dichas actividades, remarcando aquellos aspectos que la investigación ha señalado como más problemáticos para los estudiantes. Concluimos señalando algunas de las implicaciones educativas que se desprenden de la revisión anterior. Abstract in english In the past three decades, research in the field of text writing and reading comprehension has been concerned to elucidate the cognitive processes and social and cultural conditions that characterize the hybrid tasks that require understanding and synthesizing multiple sources to write academic texts. This article aims to present a review of the major research findings To do this, first we addressed the different representations of hybrid tasks made both by the students a (more) nd their teachers. Secondly, we deal with the search processes comprehension and synthesis of information associated with such activities, emphasizing those aspects identified by the research as the most problematic for students. We conclude by pointing out some of the educational implications that derive from the previous review.

Castelló, Montserrat; Bañales Faz, Gerardo; Vega López, Norma Alicia

2011-04-01

342

Learning to Use an Alphabetic Writing System.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gaining facility with spelling is an important part of becoming a good writer. Here we review recent work on how children learn to spell in alphabetic writing systems. Statistical learning plays an important role in this process. Thus, young children learn about some of the salient graphic characteristics of written texts and attempt to reproduce these characteristics in their own productions even before they use letters to represent phonemes. Later, children apply their statistical learning skills to links between phonemes and spellings, including those that are conditioned by context and morphology. Children use what they know about language and about letter names when learning about spelling, and learning to spell in turn influences their ideas about language. Although children learn about some aspects of spelling implicitly, explicit instruction has an important role to play. We discuss some implications of the research for the design of that instruction.

Treiman R; Kessler B

2013-01-01

343

A infância na pobreza urbana: linguagem oral e a escrita da história pelas crianças The childhood of urban poverty: verbal language and the children?s writing of the history  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Através da convivência com um grupo de 14 crianças entre 3 e 9 anos, em um bairro da periferia de São Paulo, procurou-se verificar a tese de que essas crianças são portadoras de "deficiência de linguagem" devido à pobreza de seu ambiente verbal, da precariedade da linguagem dos adultos e de sua relação verbal com os filhos. O contato com as crianças, com seus pais e com o bairro revelou a complexidade com que elas se utilizam da linguagem verbal; é através dela que elas conquistam seu lugar no mundo dos adultos e sobretudo expressam constantemente suas vivências em seu ambiente próximo. É através de interações verbais muito ricas, do recurso a músicas folclóricas e metáforas, da narrativa dos acontecimentos do bairro e da expressão verbal de suas fantasias e temores que elas se constituem como porta-vozes e como memória viva e coletiva de um bairro no qual a luta não só pela sobrevivência, mas pela vida digna é a principal tarefa que organiza a vida cotidiana.Through the experience of being with a group of children between 3 and 9 years old, in the outskirts of São Paulo, I wanted to verify the thesis that these children are "language impaired" as a consequence of their poor verbal environment, the precarious use of language by parents and the verbal relationship with their children. The contact with the children, the parents and with the neighborhood revealed the complexity in which they use verbal language; it is through the language that the children determine their place in the adult world and above all constantly express their everyday experiences in their surrounding environment. It is through these rich verbal interactions, availability of popular and folklore music and metaphors, narrative occurrences in the neighborhood and the verbal expression of fantasies and fears, that the children become the "spokesmen" of a living and collective memory of the neighborhood. A neighborhood in which the struggle, not only for survival but also for the dignity of life, is the principal task that structures everyday life.

Sandra Maria Sawaya

2001-01-01

344

A infância na pobreza urbana: linguagem oral e a escrita da história pelas crianças/ The childhood of urban poverty: verbal language and the children?s writing of the history  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Através da convivência com um grupo de 14 crianças entre 3 e 9 anos, em um bairro da periferia de São Paulo, procurou-se verificar a tese de que essas crianças são portadoras de "deficiência de linguagem" devido à pobreza de seu ambiente verbal, da precariedade da linguagem dos adultos e de sua relação verbal com os filhos. O contato com as crianças, com seus pais e com o bairro revelou a complexidade com que elas se utilizam da linguagem verbal; é através de (more) la que elas conquistam seu lugar no mundo dos adultos e sobretudo expressam constantemente suas vivências em seu ambiente próximo. É através de interações verbais muito ricas, do recurso a músicas folclóricas e metáforas, da narrativa dos acontecimentos do bairro e da expressão verbal de suas fantasias e temores que elas se constituem como porta-vozes e como memória viva e coletiva de um bairro no qual a luta não só pela sobrevivência, mas pela vida digna é a principal tarefa que organiza a vida cotidiana. Abstract in english Through the experience of being with a group of children between 3 and 9 years old, in the outskirts of São Paulo, I wanted to verify the thesis that these children are "language impaired" as a consequence of their poor verbal environment, the precarious use of language by parents and the verbal relationship with their children. The contact with the children, the parents and with the neighborhood revealed the complexity in which they use verbal language; it is through th (more) e language that the children determine their place in the adult world and above all constantly express their everyday experiences in their surrounding environment. It is through these rich verbal interactions, availability of popular and folklore music and metaphors, narrative occurrences in the neighborhood and the verbal expression of fantasies and fears, that the children become the "spokesmen" of a living and collective memory of the neighborhood. A neighborhood in which the struggle, not only for survival but also for the dignity of life, is the principal task that structures everyday life.

Sawaya, Sandra Maria

2001-01-01

345

Write to read: the brain's universal reading and writing network.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Do differences in writing systems translate into differences in the brain's reading network? Or is this network universal, relatively impervious to variation in writing systems? A new study adds intriguing evidence to these questions by showing that reading handwritten words activates a pre-motor area across writing systems.

Perfetti CA; Tan LH

2013-02-01

346

One Simple Word: From Creative Writing to Creative Writing Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this essay, the author argues that, within the current realm of higher education in the United States, creative writing and creative writing studies are two distinct enterprises-- although they do overlap at some significant points--and should be recognized as such. "Creative writing" is the academic enterprise of hiring successful writers…

Mayers, Tim

2009-01-01

347

[Specific features of written medical English language].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical language is a special language used by experts in mutual communication. One of the characteristics of medical discourse community is writing research papers in English. When writing a research paper, it is necessary to apply appropriate rules based on the IMRAD structure. This structure has its own clearly defined style which is clear, precise, exact and objective. This style of writing reflects the characteristics of medical language. The most frequent problems that doctors encounter in this context predominantly refer to linguistic elements of English. Namely, a very common dilemma is related to the use of English tenses in specific parts of the IMRAD structure. Another problem is the use of specific expressions for introducing a research, presenting results and methods used, developing discussion and stating conclusions. This work aims to point out the specific style and structure of medical research papers in English with an outline of the linguistic elements used in this context.

Zorica A

2010-09-01

348

[Specific features of written medical English language].  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical language is a special language used by experts in mutual communication. One of the characteristics of medical discourse community is writing research papers in English. When writing a research paper, it is necessary to apply appropriate rules based on the IMRAD structure. This structure has its own clearly defined style which is clear, precise, exact and objective. This style of writing reflects the characteristics of medical language. The most frequent problems that doctors encounter in this context predominantly refer to linguistic elements of English. Namely, a very common dilemma is related to the use of English tenses in specific parts of the IMRAD structure. Another problem is the use of specific expressions for introducing a research, presenting results and methods used, developing discussion and stating conclusions. This work aims to point out the specific style and structure of medical research papers in English with an outline of the linguistic elements used in this context. PMID:21180102

Zorica, Anti?

349

Speech and language delay in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

McLaughlin, Maura R

2011-05-15

350

Análise comparativa do desempenho textual de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental com e sem queixa de dificuldades na linguagem escrita Comparative analysis of textual performance in student of fourth and fifth grade of elementary school with and without complaint of disabilities in writing language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o desempenho na produção textual e a compreensão leitora de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental, com e sem queixa de dificuldades de linguagem escrita, relacionando-as às práticas de letramento experenciadas por esses estudantes. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 21 pré-adolescentes, de quarta e quinta série de duas escolas públicas, com queixa de dificuldade de linguagem escrita e 21 controles da mesma sala de aula, quanto à produção textual, compreensão textual e práticas de letramento. As produções textuais foram avaliadas segundo o protocolo de níveis textuais. RESULTADOS: não há diferença estatística entre os grupos de estudo e controle, em ambas as séries, na habilidade de compreensão textual. Em relação à produção textual, na quarta série os itens que apresentaram diferença estatística foram: situacionalidade, aceitabilidade, repetição, progressão e intencionalidade. Já na quinta série, os itens alterados foram a aceitabilidade e a progressão. Todos os sujeitos apresentaram práticas de letramento insuficientes. CONCLUSÕES: houve diferença estatística entre o grupo controle e de estudo em algumas categorias textuais, sobretudo, aceitabilidade e progressão. De um modo geral, ambos os grupos apresentaram desempenhos textuais abaixo do esperado para sua escolaridade, fato que parece estar relacionado a práticas de letramento insuficientes, tanto na escola como no ambiente familiar.PURPOSE: compare the textual performance of production and the reading comprehension of students in fourth and fifth grade of elementary school, with and without complaints of desabilities in the writing language, relating them with the practices of literacy experienced by these students. METHODS: 21 were assessed pre-adolescents in 4th and 5th grade of public schools,with complaint of desability in writing language and 21 controls in the same classroom, on the textual production, textual comprehension and practices of literacy. The textual productions were evaluated following the protocol of textual levels. RESULTS: there isn't statistical difference between the study groups and control in both grades in the ability textual understanding. Regarding the textual production in the 4th grade the items that showed changes were: situational, acceptability, repetition, progression, and intentionality. Already in the 5th grade, the items changed to acceptability and progress. All subjects had insufficient practice of literacy. CONCLUSION: there was a statistical difference between the control group and the study in some textual categories, particularly acceptability and progress. In general, both groups were lower than expected textual performance for your schooling, a fact that seems to be related to inadequate practices of literacy as much in the school as the family environment.

Vanessa Deuschle-Araújo; Ana Paula Ramos de Souza

2010-01-01

351

Análise comparativa do desempenho textual de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental com e sem queixa de dificuldades na linguagem escrita/ Comparative analysis of textual performance in student of fourth and fifth grade of elementary school with and without complaint of disabilities in writing language  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: comparar o desempenho na produção textual e a compreensão leitora de estudantes de quarta e quinta séries do ensino fundamental, com e sem queixa de dificuldades de linguagem escrita, relacionando-as às práticas de letramento experenciadas por esses estudantes. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 21 pré-adolescentes, de quarta e quinta série de duas escolas públicas, com queixa de dificuldade de linguagem escrita e 21 controles da mesma sala de aula, quanto à pr (more) odução textual, compreensão textual e práticas de letramento. As produções textuais foram avaliadas segundo o protocolo de níveis textuais. RESULTADOS: não há diferença estatística entre os grupos de estudo e controle, em ambas as séries, na habilidade de compreensão textual. Em relação à produção textual, na quarta série os itens que apresentaram diferença estatística foram: situacionalidade, aceitabilidade, repetição, progressão e intencionalidade. Já na quinta série, os itens alterados foram a aceitabilidade e a progressão. Todos os sujeitos apresentaram práticas de letramento insuficientes. CONCLUSÕES: houve diferença estatística entre o grupo controle e de estudo em algumas categorias textuais, sobretudo, aceitabilidade e progressão. De um modo geral, ambos os grupos apresentaram desempenhos textuais abaixo do esperado para sua escolaridade, fato que parece estar relacionado a práticas de letramento insuficientes, tanto na escola como no ambiente familiar. Abstract in english PURPOSE: compare the textual performance of production and the reading comprehension of students in fourth and fifth grade of elementary school, with and without complaints of desabilities in the writing language, relating them with the practices of literacy experienced by these students. METHODS: 21 were assessed pre-adolescents in 4th and 5th grade of public schools,with complaint of desability in writing language and 21 controls in the same classroom, on the textual pr (more) oduction, textual comprehension and practices of literacy. The textual productions were evaluated following the protocol of textual levels. RESULTS: there isn't statistical difference between the study groups and control in both grades in the ability textual understanding. Regarding the textual production in the 4th grade the items that showed changes were: situational, acceptability, repetition, progression, and intentionality. Already in the 5th grade, the items changed to acceptability and progress. All subjects had insufficient practice of literacy. CONCLUSION: there was a statistical difference between the control group and the study in some textual categories, particularly acceptability and progress. In general, both groups were lower than expected textual performance for your schooling, a fact that seems to be related to inadequate practices of literacy as much in the school as the family environment.

Deuschle-Araújo, Vanessa; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

2010-08-01

352

EFL Writing Apprehension: The Macro or the Micro?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was part of a doctoral project to explore the writing apprehension levels of 121 second-year undergraduate Saudi student writers who were studying English as a foreign language and for specific purposes in a Saudi industrial college.The study draws on Dörnyei’s (1994) framework of L2 motivation levels and their micro-motivational conditions in L2 learning situations, and addresses EFL writing apprehension in strategy-related conditions. For data collection, aWriting Strategy Apprehension Scale (WSAS) was developed and adapted from a test designed by John Daly and Michael Miller (1975) and from the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI) designed by Cheng (2004).The participants were classified into three levels of apprehension (apprehensive strategy users, average apprehensive strategy users, and low apprehensive strategy users). The results showwhile the majority of the participants (57.9%) were average in their stress and apprehension levels towards writing strategies, almost a third of them (31.4%) were highly apprehensive. In addition, the most stressful strategies were those that indicate the lack of generating ideas, the care about accuracy, and the follow of teacher’s expectations.

Mohammad Alnufaie; Michael Grenfell

2013-01-01

353

Composition Medium Comparability in a Direct Writing Assessment of Non-Native English Speakers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) contains a direct writing assessment, and examinees are given the option of composing their responses at a computer terminal using a keyboard or composing their responses in handwriting. This study sought to determine whether performance on a direct writing assessment is comparable for examinees when given the choice to compose essays in handwriting versus word processing. We examined this relationship controlling for English language proficiency and several demographic characteristics of examinees using linear models. We found a weak two-way interaction between composition medium and English language proficiency with examinees with weaker English language scores performing better on handwritten essays while examinees with better English language scores performing comparably on the two testing media. We also observed predictable differences associated with geographic region, native language, gender, and age.

Edward W. Wolfe; Jonathan R. Manalo

2004-01-01

354

Multivalent human papillomavirus l1 DNA vaccination utilizing electroporation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Naked DNA vaccines can be manufactured simply and are stable at ambient temperature, but require improved delivery technologies to boost immunogenicity. Here we explore in vivo electroporation for multivalent codon-optimized human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 and L2 DNA vaccination. METHODS: Balb/c mice were vaccinated three times at two week intervals with a fusion protein comprising L2 residues ?11-88 of 8 different HPV types (11-88×8) or its DNA expression vector, DNA constructs expressing L1 only or L1+L2 of a single HPV type, or as a mixture of several high-risk HPV types and administered utilizing electroporation, i.m. injection or gene gun. Serum was collected two weeks and 3 months after the last vaccination. Sera from immunized mice were tested for in-vitro neutralization titer, and protective efficacy upon passive transfer to naive mice and vaginal HPV challenge. Heterotypic interactions between L1 proteins of HPV6, HPV16 and HPV18 in 293TT cells were tested by co-precipitation using type-specific monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: Electroporation with L2 multimer DNA did not elicit detectable antibody titer, whereas DNA expressing L1 or L1+L2 induced L1-specific, type-restricted neutralizing antibodies, with titers approaching those induced by Gardasil. Co-expression of L2 neither augmented L1-specific responses nor induced L2-specific antibodies. Delivery of HPV L1 DNA via in vivo electroporation produces a stronger antibody response compared to i.m. injection or i.d. ballistic delivery via gene gun. Reduced neutralizing antibody titers were observed for certain types when vaccinating with a mixture of L1 (or L1+L2) vectors of multiple HPV types, likely resulting from heterotypic L1 interactions observed in co-immunoprecipitation studies. High titers were restored by vaccinating with individual constructs at different sites, or partially recovered by co-expression of L2, such that durable protective antibody titers were achieved for each type. DISCUSSION: Multivalent vaccination via in vivo electroporation requires spatial separation of individual type L1 DNA vaccines.

Kwak K; Jiang R; Jagu S; Wang JW; Wang C; Christensen ND; Roden RB

2013-01-01

355

Electrohydrodynamic direct-writing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) direct-writing technique can be used to print solid/liquid straight/serpentine nanofibers onto a large-area substrate, in a direct, continuous, and controllable manner. It is a high-efficiency and cost-effective solution-processable technique to satisfy increasing demands of large-area micro/nano-manufacturing. It is ground-breaking to direct-write sub-100 nm fibers on a rigid/flexible substrate using organic materials. A comprehensive review is presented on the research and developments related to the EHD direct-writing technique and print heads. Many developments have been presented to improve the controllability of the electrospun fibers to form high-resolution patterns and devices. EHD direct-writing is characterized by its non-contact, additive and reproducible processing, high resolution, and compatibility with organic materials. It combines dip-pen, inkjet, and electrospinning by providing the feasibility of controllable electrospinning for sub-100 nm nanofabrication, and overcomes the drawbacks of conventional electron-beam lithography, which is relatively slow, complicated and expensive.

Huang Y; Bu N; Duan Y; Pan Y; Liu H; Yin Z; Xiong Y

2013-09-01

356

Improving writing through creativity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trabalho de Projecto apresentado para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ensino do Inglês , This project is the result of an attempt to answer the question “Can Creative Writing Be Taught?” proposed by Francine Prose (2007), in the first chapter of her book Reading L...

Cachão, Margarida Adelaide Botelho

357

The Write Stuff  

Science.gov (United States)

Black journalism professors live and breathe writing and research, yet there is very little information about their experiences. Virtually everyone interviewed for this article thinks that Black journalism professors are confronting more challenges than almost any other group of educators. They have to deal with many students who have very poor…

Ruffins, Paul

2011-01-01

358

Writing with Voice  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

Kesler, Ted

2012-01-01

359

Cactus: Writing an Article  

Science.gov (United States)

Some people became mathematics or science teachers by default. There was once such a limited range of subjects that students who could not write essays did mathematics and science. Computers changed that. Word processor software helped some people overcome huge spelling and grammar hurdles and made it easy to edit and manipulate text. Would-be…

Hyde, Hartley; Spencer, Toby

2010-01-01

360

Direct laser writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Start-up company Nanoscribe has developed table-top systems that can write intricate 3D structures not possible through other lithographic technologies. Nadya Anscombe finds out how the company was founded and what its plans are for the future.

Anscombe, Nadya

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Testing Writing on Computers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer use has grown rapidly during the past decade. Within the educational community, interest in authentic assessment has also increased. To enhance the authenticity of tests of writing, as well as of other knowledge and skills, some assessments require students to respond in written form via paper-and-pencil. However, as increasing numbers of students grow accustomed to writing on computers, these assessments may yield underestimates of students' writing abilities. This article presents the findings of a small study examining the effect that mode of administration -- computer versus paper-and-pencil -- has on middle school students' performance on multiple-choice and written test questions. Findings show that, though multiple-choice test results do not differ much by mode of administration, for students accustomed to writing on computer, responses written on computer are substantially higher than those written by hand (effect size of 0.9 and relative success rates of 67% versus 30%). Implications are discussed in terms of both future research and test validity.

Michael Russell; Walt Haney

1997-01-01

362

Performance in L1 and L2 observed in Arabic-Hebrew bilingual aphasic following brain tumor: A case constitutes double dissociation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Raphiq IbrahimUniversity of Haifa and Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: This study aimed to verify the existence of a double first language (L1)/second language (L2) dissociation. In recent work, I described a case study of a Arabic-Hebrew aphasic patient (MH) with disturbances in the two languages, with Hebrew (L2) being more impaired. In this case, an Arabic-Hebrew bilingual patient (MM) with a similar cultural background who suffered brain damage following a left hemisphere tumor (oligodendroglioma) and craniotomy is reported. The same materials were used, which overcame methodological constraints in our previous work. The results revealed a complementary pattern of severe impairment of L1 (Arabic), while MM had mild language disorder in L2 (Hebrew) with intact semantic knowledge in both languages. These two cases demonstrate a double L1/L2 dissociation in unique languages, and support the notion that bilingual persons could have distinct cortical language areas.Keywords: aphasia, arabic, hebrew, brain damage, dissociation, double-dissociation, bilingual, localization

Raphiq Ibrahim

2008-01-01

363

Writing clear animal activity proposals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

Pinson DM

2011-06-01

364

Structural analysis of interdomain mobility in ribosomal L1 proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ribosomal protein L1 consists of two domains connected by two oppositely directed fragments of the polypeptide chain in a hinge-resembling fashion. The domain arrangement determines the overall shape of the protein, corresponding to an open or a closed conformation. Ribosomal L1 proteins from archaea demonstrate the open conformation in both isolated and RNA-bound forms. RNA-free ribosomal L1 proteins from bacteria display the closed conformation, whereas in complex with RNA these proteins exist in an open conformation similar to their archaeal counterparts. Analysis of all available L1 amino-acid sequences shows that in comparison to the archaeal proteins, the bacterial proteins possess an extra residue in one of the two interdomain fragments which could be responsible for their closed conformation. To verify this suggestion, a Thermus thermophilus L1 mutant lacking one residue in the fragment corresponding to the hinge was obtained and its crystal structure was solved. It was found that this mutation transformed the closed conformation of the bacterial L1 protein into an open conformation similar to that of the archaeal L1 proteins.

Tishchenko S; Nikonova E; Kostareva O; Gabdulkhakov A; Piendl W; Nevskaya N; Garber M; Nikonov S

2011-12-01

365

Literacy Cafe: Making Writing Authentic  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Literacy Cafe," a celebration of genre study and student writing, offers students (and visitors!) a positive environment in which to engage in reading and discussion of writing without self-consciousness or fear of criticism. It works because students learn to recognize writing as a learning tool and a relevant, authentic skill in the real…

Daniels, Erika

2007-01-01

366

Collaborative Writing of XML Documents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Collaborative writing is the process of two or more people working together to create a common document. People can be distributed in time, in place and across organizations. They can share writing different kinds of documents. In this paper, we focus on collaborative writing of XML documents. XML d...

Skaf-Molli, Hala; Molli, Pascal; Rahhal, Charbel; Naja-Jazzar, Hala

367

Discourse Markers in English Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many devices, such as reference, substitution, ellipsis, and discourse marker, contribute to a discourse’s cohesion and coherence. This paper focuses on discourse markers’ role in Chinese Students’ English writing, analyzing the misuse and inappropriateness of discourse markers occurring to their writing, and concludes with the suggestion that discourse markers should be paid some attention when we teach writing.

Li FENG

2010-01-01

368

Writing Styles of College Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that the college writing style model is based on a wide range of research conducted in the United States and abroad. Notes the writing style model is comprehensive because it explains strategies writers use in relation to writers' beliefs, writing environments, and written products. Concludes with recommendations for instruction that…

Lavelle, Ellen

2001-01-01

369

Unsicherheit do século XXI: o ensino e aprendizagem da leitura e da escrita em língua portuguesa em São Paulo Unsicherheit del siglo XXI: la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la lectura y de la escritura en lengua portuguesa en San Pablo Unsicherheit in the XXI century: the teaching and the learning of reading and writing of portuguese language in Sao Paulo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir os processos de ensino e aprendizagem da leitura e escrita em língua portuguesa, atualmente, em São Paulo. Ele se ancora nos conceitos de D. Winnicott, descrevendo, com base nos postulados de Bauman, a sociedade em que se vive - suas regras, princípios e valores da "modernidade líquida", objeto destas reflexões - que interferem no resultado das relações pedagógicas, promovendo o aumento da atenção para questões advindas destas dificuldades; defende-se a "criatividade" aliada à "confiança" como condições mínimas para estabelecimento de clima afetivo e social adequado ao ensino e aprendizado da língua portuguesa, construindo caminhos para a Pedagogia deste novo milênio.Este artículo tiene como objetivo discutir los procesos actuales de la enseñanza y aprendizaje de la lectura y escritura en lengua portuguesa, en San Pablo. Apoyados en conceptos de D. Winnicott, describiendo, con base en los postulados de Bauman, la sociedad en que se vive - sus reglas, principios y valores implementados, de la "modernidad liquida" que será objeto de esta reflexión - que interfieren en los resultados de las relaciones pedagógicas, promoviendo aumento de la atención para cuestiones resultado de estas dificultades. Defiendes la "creatividad" unida a la "confianza" como condiciones mínimas para establecer un clima afectivo y social adecuado para la enseñaza y aprendizaje de la lengua portuguesa, construyendo caminos para la Pedagogía de este nuevo milenio.The objective of this paper is to discuss the teaching and learning process of reading and writing in Portuguese language, nowadays, in Sao Paulo. It is anchored in the Winnicott's concepts, describing, based on Bauman's postulates, the society where we live - its rules, principles and implemented values of the "liquid modernity" , the object of these reflections - that affect the result of the pedagogical relations, promoting the increase attention about questions concerning these difficulties; we defend the "creativity" and the "confidence" as minimum conditions to establish an affective and social climate adjusted to teaching and learning Portuguese language, constructing ways for Pedagogy in this new millennium.

Nilce da Silva; Patrícia Claudia da Costa Fridman

2007-01-01

370

Revising our Curriculum/Empowering Students: Teachers‘ Preparation and Perceptions about Bilingual Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While emphasis on writing instruction has been a main concern in teaching Spanish to bilingual students in the U. S., it is an area in which very few theoretical advances have been made; in Mexico’s case the situation is even more challenging. Therefore, based on classroom observations, and individual interviews with both teachers and students, and on the collection of class syllabi, this paper seeks to describe the current state of affairs regarding Spanish and English writing instruction for bilingual students in both countries. The main objectives are: 1) the analysis and comparison of the diverse teaching methodologies that high school teachers use to teach Spanish and English writing; 2) the analysis of the effects that the specific observed writing instruction has on students’ perceptions about their own writing in both languages; and 3) the analysis of the perceptions that teachers have about their students’ writing.

Maria Luisa Spicer-Escalante

2011-01-01

371

Language Effects in Trilinguals: An ERP Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Event-related potentials were recorded during the visual presentation of words in the three languages of French-English-Spanish trilinguals. Participants monitored a mixed list of unrelated non-cognate words in the three languages while performing a semantic categorization task. Words in L1 generated earlier N400 peak amplitudes than both L2 and L3 words, which peaked together. On the other hand, L2 and L3 words did differ significantly in terms of N400 amplitude, with L3 words generating greater mean amplitudes compared with L2 words. We interpret the effects of peak N400 latency as reflecting the special status of the L1 relative to later acquired languages, rather than proficiency in that language per se. On the other hand, the mean amplitude difference between L2 and L3 is thought to reflect different levels of fluency in these two languages.

Aparicio X; Midgley KJ; Holcomb PJ; Pu H; Lavaur JM; Grainger J

2012-01-01

372

On the Duality between l^1-Homology and Bounded Cohomology  

CERN Multimedia

We modify the definition of l^1-homology and argue why our definition is more adequate than the classical one. While we cannot reconstruct the classical l^1-homology from the new definition for various reasons, we can reconstruct its Hausdorffification so that no information concerning semi-norms is lost. We obtain an axiomatic characterization of our l^1-homology as a universal delta-functor and prove that it is pre-dual to our definition of bounded cohomology. We thus answer a question raised by Loeh in her thesis. Moreover, we prove Gromov's theorem and the Matsumoto-Morita conjecture in our context.

Buehler, Theo

2008-01-01

373

Selecting features with L1 regularization in Conditional Random Fields Sélection de caractéristiques pour les champs aléatoires conditionnels par pénalisation L1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discriminative probabilistic models are able to cope with enriched linguistic representations, typically in the form of extremely large feature vectors. Working in high dimensional spaces is however problematic, and these problems are compounded in the case of structured output models, such as conditional random ?elds (CRF). In this context, feature selection techniques help building more compact and ef?cient models. In this work, we propose a novel estimation algorithm for CRF with L1 penalization, which yields sparse representations, thus implicitly selecting relevant features. We also report experiments conducted on two standard language engineering tasks (chunking and named Entity recognition), for which we analyze the generalization performance and the patterns of selected features. We ?nally suggest various implementation speed-ups that should allow to ef?ciently tackle even larger feature vectors.

Nataliya Sokolovska; Olivier Cappé; François Yvon

2010-01-01

374

Language Models for Handwritten Short Message Services  

CERN Document Server

Handwriting is an alternative method for entering texts composing Short Message Services. However, a whole new language features the texts which are produced. They include for instance abbreviations and other consonantal writing which sprung up for time saving and fashion. We have collected and processed a significant number of such handwriting SMS, and used various strategies to tackle this challenging area of handwriting recognition. We proposed to study more specifically three different phenomena: consonant skeleton, rebus, and phonetic writing. For each of them, we compare the rough results produced by a standard recognition system with those obtained when using a specific language model.

Prochasson, Emmanuel Ep; Morin, Emmanuel

2009-01-01

375

Emerging Technologies for Autonomous Language Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drawing on a lengthier review completed for the US National Institute for Literacy, this paper examines emerging technologies that are applicable to self-access and autonomous learning in the areas of listening and speaking, collaborative writing, reading and language structure, and online interaction. Digital media reviewed include podcasts, blogs, wikis, online writing sites, text-scaffolding software, concordancers, multiuser virtual environments, multiplayer games, and chatbots. For each of these technologies, we summarize recent research and discuss possible uses for autonomous language learning.

Mark Warschauer; Meei-Ling Liaw

2011-01-01

376

The nature of written language deficits in children with SLI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have associated difficulties in reading decoding and reading comprehension. To date, few research studies have examined the children's written language. The aim of the present study was to (a) evaluate the nature and extent of the children's difficulties with writing and (b) investigate the relationship between oral and written language. Eleven children with SLI were identified (mean age = 11 years) and were compared with a group of children matched for chronological age (CA; mean age = 11;2 [years;months]) and language age (LA; mean CA = 7;3). All groups completed standardized measures of language production, writing, and reading decoding. The writing assessment revealed that the SLI group wrote fewer words and produced proportionately more syntax errors than the CA group, but they did not differ on a measure of content of written language or on the proportion of spelling errors. The SLI group also produced proportionately more syntax errors than the LA group. The relationships among oral language, reading, and writing differed for the 3 groups. The nature and extent of the children's written language problems are considered in the context of difficulties with spoken language. PMID:15842023

Mackie, Clare; Dockrell, Julie E

2004-12-01

377

The nature of written language deficits in children with SLI.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have associated difficulties in reading decoding and reading comprehension. To date, few research studies have examined the children's written language. The aim of the present study was to (a) evaluate the nature and extent of the children's difficulties with writing and (b) investigate the relationship between oral and written language. Eleven children with SLI were identified (mean age = 11 years) and were compared with a group of children matched for chronological age (CA; mean age = 11;2 [years;months]) and language age (LA; mean CA = 7;3). All groups completed standardized measures of language production, writing, and reading decoding. The writing assessment revealed that the SLI group wrote fewer words and produced proportionately more syntax errors than the CA group, but they did not differ on a measure of content of written language or on the proportion of spelling errors. The SLI group also produced proportionately more syntax errors than the LA group. The relationships among oral language, reading, and writing differed for the 3 groups. The nature and extent of the children's written language problems are considered in the context of difficulties with spoken language.

Mackie C; Dockrell JE

2004-12-01

378

Using Native Language in ESL Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The debate over whether to use or not to use to learners’ L1 inside the classroom has always been the topic of discussion for various people for various reasons. The debate has also involved ESL/EFL teachers. Some argue that such use may lead to more dependence of an ESL/EFL on his/her L1 that may hinder the progress of mastering the target language. Whereas others believe that the use of an ESL/EFL learners’ L1 may ease the process of teaching and learning the target language as the teachers can explain complex ideas and rule more effectively in learners’ L1 saving a lot of time. This use can also assist the ESL/EFL learners in acquiring and mastering target language vocabulary. Keeping in mind such counter arguments, the present paper aim to investigate when to use native language in a class and, most importantly, how to use it and promote learning, advantages and disadvantages of using native language in classroom, how to encourage students to use L2 appropriately, and exploring some of the best ways to teach English language.

Isa SPAHIU

2013-01-01

379

The Effect of Discourse Markers Instruction on EFL Learners’ Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing is one of the four skills in language learning and it should be paid more attention. In this regard, creating contexts which is value coherence in pragmatic level, and cohesion in semantic level is important. Knowledge about the discourse Markers (DMs), amongst other things, be used to improve writing skill. DMs are expression such as “now, well, so, which signal a sequential relationship between the current basic message and previous discourse.  The present paper focuses on the instruction of the DMs and its effect on learners ‘ writing  ability. To do this, two groups as control and experimental were chosen from Shoukoh Iran English Institute in Tabriz, Iran. Both groups were asked to fill the gaps with the best option from among the DMs suggested. Then treatment sessions were conducted for experimental group while during that period, control group held back to receive such a treatment. Analyzing the misuse and inappropriateness of DMs occurring to their writing , pre-test, and  investigating the relevant and suitable application of DMs appearing in their writing, post-test,  and concludes with the suggestion that  teaching text markers to learners should be paid more attention. And also the result reveals the effectiveness of teaching text markers to students in enhancing their awareness and sensitivity of discourse and consequently raising their writing levels.

Nader Assadi Aidinlou; Hakimeh Shahrokhi mehr

2012-01-01

380

The Logic of Scientific Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, I describe a logical method for scientific writing. Any decision made in this type of writing should be based on the logic of science and the rules of communication, as part of a creative discourse. I present some logical flaws (regarding journal classification, academic vs. non-academic texts, and subjective inferences) and writing mistakes (in the structure of a paper and the writing style) that can undermine publication.Key Words:scientific writing, scientific communication, scientific publication, science, logic

VOLPATO, G. L.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

L’apport des TICE et de l’écriture collaborative au développement des compétences écrites dans l’acquisition/apprentissage d’une L2 Can new technologies and collaborative writing contribute to better written performance in second language acquisition/learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche-action en école d’ingénieurs, nous avons cherché à développer un savoir et un savoir-faire propre à la technique du compte-rendu. Cet objectif était facilité par des activités langagières et des procédures formalisées sous forme de grilles d’auto-évaluation. L’apprentissage se déroulait dans un environnement collaboratif et s’appuyait sur des outils informatisés. En conséquence, nous avons comparé deux situations d’apprentissage autour de ces questions : dans quelle mesure une tâche médiatisée par l’ordinateur permet une meilleure appropriation de la technique d’écriture et, une fois acquis, ce savoir faire peut-il être transféré quel que soit le support ?This field research is aimed at teaching the report writing technique to engineering students through various language activities and self-assessment grids. They worked in a collaborative environment using new technologies. We compared two learning situations to show how computer-mediated tasks help improve the written performance and how this know-how is transferred to other learning situations.

Isabelle Bonnassies

2012-01-01

382

Language training: French courses  

CERN Document Server

General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 30 January to 07 April 2006. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 30 January to 07 April 2006. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2006-01-01

383

Language training: French training  

CERN Multimedia

General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 30 January to 07 April 2006. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 30 January to 07 April 2006. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

384

Language Training: Anglais  

CERN Document Server

If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 2 hours a week between 26 April and 1 July 2004. Timetable: Thursdays 12.00 to 14.00 Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students and 20 hours) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2004-01-01

385

Language Training: French  

CERN Multimedia

General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 24 January to 18 March 2005. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 24 January to 18 March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 24 hours Price: 528 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

386

Language Training: French  

CERN Document Server

General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 24 January to 18 March 2005. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 24 January to 18 March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 24 hours Price: 528 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

387

Language Training: French  

CERN Document Server

General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 18 April to 30 June 2005. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 18 April to 30 June 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

388

L1-norm-based common spatial patterns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Common spatial patterns (CSP) is a commonly used method of spatial filtering for multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The formulation of the CSP criterion is based on variance using L2-norm, which implies that CSP is sensitive to outliers. In this paper, we propose a robust version of CSP, called CSP-L1, by maximizing the ratio of filtered dispersion of one class to the other class, both of which are formulated by using L1-norm rather than L2-norm. The spatial filters of CSP-L1 are obtained by introducing an iterative algorithm, which is easy to implement and is theoretically justified. CSP-L1 is robust to outliers. Experiment results on a toy example and datasets of BCI competitions demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Wang H; Tang Q; Zheng W

2012-03-01

389

Aerobic vinyl chloride metabolism in Mycobacterium aurum L1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mycobacterium aurum L1, capable of growth on vinyl chloride as a sole carbon and energy source, was previously isolated from soil contaminated with vinyl chloride. The initial step in vinyl chloride metabolism in strain L1 is catalyzed by alkene monooxygenase, transforming vinyl chloride into the reactive epoxide chlorooxirane. The enzyme responsible for chlorooxirane degradation appeared to be very unstable and thus hampered the characterization of the second step in vinyl chloride metabolism. Dichloroethenes are also oxidized by vinyl chloride-grown cells of strain L1, but they are not utilized as growth substrates. Three additional bacterial strains which utilize vinyl chloride as a sole carbon and energy source were isolated from environments with no known vinyl chloride contamination. The three new isolates were similar to strain L1 and were also identified as Mycobacterium aurum.

Hartmans, S.; Bont, J.A.M. de (Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands))

1992-04-01

390

Phosphatidylcholine induces apoptosis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylcholine (PPC) formulation is used for lipolytic injection, even though its mechanism of action is not well understood. Methods The viability of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was measured after treatment of PPC alone, its vehicle sodium deoxycholate (SD), and a PPC formulation. Western blot analysis was performed to examine PPC-induced signaling pathways. Results PPC, SD, and PPC formulation significantly decreased 3T3-L1 cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. PPC alone was not cytotoxic to CCD-25Sk human fibroblasts at concentrations Conclusions PPC results in apoptosis of 3T3-L1 cells.

Li Hailan; Lee Jong-Hyuk; Kim Su Yeon; Yun Hye-Young; Baek Kwang Jin; Kwon Nyoun Soo; Yoon Yoosik; Jeong Ji Hoon; Kim Dong-Seok

2011-01-01

391

Writing Lab Outreach Project, September 1, 1998-August 31, 2002. Outreach Projects for Children with Disabilities. Final Performance Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This final report describes activities and accomplishments of the Writing Lab Outreach Project (WLOP), a federally supported 3-year collaborative effort of Western Michigan University and the Kalamazoo (Michigan) Public Schools to prepare teams of general and special educators and speech-language pathologists to implement the writing lab approach…

Nelson, Nickola W.; Bahr, Christine M.; Van Meter, Adelia

392

Software Reviews: "The Princess and the Pea" (William K. Bradford), "PreWrite" (Mindscape), and "Dinosaur Days" (Pelican).  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes and evaluates three software programs for elementary level language arts: (1) "The Princess and the Pea," which connects the fairy tale with the modern world; (2) "PreWrite, Level 1," which helps students identify and develop writing topics; and (3) "Dinosaur Days," a creative graphics and publishing program with speech capabilities. (MM)

Kraemer, Kristi

1989-01-01

393

An Empirical Study on the Comparison between Strategies on Oral English Classes and Writing English Classes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, English writing and speaking have received more and more attention at home and abroad. Both scholars and educators have done research on second language learning, especially the learning strategies to facilitate the learning and teaching of English. Among all the branches of English, speaking and writing rank to the most important compared with others.The present study aims to find out the correlation between the use of speaking and writing strategies of students with poor English. As their English is poor, they have to employ mother tongue to help their speaking and writing of a second language. The subjects of the present study are students in a vocational institute, who wan correlation t to go abroad after two or three years’ study there. Therefore, they have strong motivation. This paper investigated the correlation between their language proficiency levels and their use of strategies and found that these two are closely correlated with each other. Besides, the present study also discussed the correlation between different categories of strategies of speaking and writing, and the results show that cognitive, meta-cognitive, social strategies of speaking and writing are closely correlated. All of these give significant implications to the teachers and investigators of second language learning.

Tsinghong Ma

2009-01-01

394

Use of E-mail Dialogue Journal in Enhancing Writing Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the age of computer mediated technology, the effects of the internet applications on learners’ performance have been broadly investigated by many researchers. In keeping with this trend, this study compared the effect of conventional tools as pen-and-paper, and e-mail, on the writing performance in terms of content, organization, language use, vocabulary and mechanics. Forty two English major students from one intact class at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), based on their grades in “Expository Writing”, as a subject taken in the previous semester, were randomly assigned into two groups, namely: pen-and-paper dialogue journal and e-mail dialogue journal. Pre and post writing tests were administered to identify two groups’ differences in their writing performance scores. After going through seven week intervention, quantitative research results revealed that e-mail group outperformed their counterparts in overall writing performance and language use, one of the categories. However, for other writing performance components, this research showed no significant difference between groups. With the empirical data offered in this study, e-mail can be applied as a suitable tool to assist language learner to improve their writing performance.

Maryam Foroutan; Nooreen Noordin; Mohd Sahandri Gani bin Hamzah

2013-01-01

395

MORE THAN A LINGUISTIC REFERENCE: THE INFLUENCE OF CORPUS TECHNOLOGY ON L2 ACADEMIC WRITING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigated the changes in students’ writing process associated with corpus use over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how corpus technology affects students’ development of competence as second language (L2) writers. The research was mainly based on case studies with six L2 writers in an English for Academic Purposes writing course. The findings revealed that corpus use not only had an immediate effect by helping the students solve immediate writing/language problems, but also promoted their perceptions of lexico-grammar and language awareness. Once the corpus approach was introduced to the writing process, the students assumed more responsibility for their writing and became more independent writers, and their confidence in writing increased. This studyidentified a wide variety of individual experiences and learning contexts that were involved in deciding the levels of the students’ willingness and success in using corpora. This paper also discusses the distinctive contributions of general corpora to English for Academic Purposes and the importance of lexical and grammatical aspects in L2 writing pedagogy.

Hyunsook Yoon

2008-01-01

396

The Acquisition of Tense in English: Distinguishing child second language from first language and specific language impairment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports on a comparison of the use and knowledge of tense-marking morphemes in English by first language (L1), second language (L2) and specifically language-impaired (SLI) children. The objective of our research was to ascertain whether the L2 children's tense acquisition patterns were similar or dissimilar to those of the L1 and SLI groups, and whether they would fit an (Extended) Optional Infinitive profile, or an L2-based profile, e.g., the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis. Results showed that the L2 children had a unique profile compared with their monolingual peers, which was better characterized by the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis. At the same time, results reinforce the assumption underlying the (Extended) Optional Infinitive profile that internal constraints on the acquisition of tense could be a component of L1 development, with and without SLI.

Paradis J; Rice ML; Crago M; Marquis J

2008-01-01

397

Gold nanoparticles functionalized with a fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 stimulate L1-mediated functions  

Science.gov (United States)

The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1 sequence of the third fibronectin type III domain of murine L1 was identified and conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain constructs that interact homophilically with the extracellular domain of L1 and trigger the cognate beneficial L1-mediated functions. Covalent conjugation was achieved by reacting mixtures of two cysteine-terminated forms of this L1 peptide and thiolated poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) ligands (~2.1 kDa) with citrate stabilized AuNPs of two different sizes (~14 and 40 nm in diameter). By varying the ratio of the L1 peptide-PEG mixtures, an optimized layer composition was achieved that resulted in the expected homophilic interaction of the AuNPs. These AuNPs were stable as tested over a time period of 30 days in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and interacted with the extracellular domain of L1 on neurons and Schwann cells, as could be shown by using cells from wild-type and L1-deficient mice. In vitro, the L1-derivatized particles promoted neurite outgrowth and survival of neurons from the central and peripheral nervous system and stimulated Schwann cell process formation and proliferation. These observations raise the hope that, in combination with other therapeutic approaches, L1 peptide-functionalized AuNPs may become a useful tool to ameliorate the deficits resulting from acute and chronic injuries of the mammalian nervous system.The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1 sequence of the third fibronectin type III domain of murine L1 was identified and conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain constructs that interact homophilically with the extracellular domain of L1 and trigger the cognate beneficial L1-mediated functions. Covalent conjugation was achieved by reacting mixtures of two cysteine-terminated forms of this L1 peptide and thiolated poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) ligands (~2.1 kDa) with citrate stabilized AuNPs of two different sizes (~14 and 40 nm in diameter). By varying the ratio of the L1 peptide-PEG mixtures, an optimized layer composition was achieved that resulted in the expected homophilic interaction of the AuNPs. These AuNPs were stable as tested over a time period of 30 days in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and interacted with the extracellular domain of L1 on neurons and Schwann cells, as could be shown by using cells from wild-type and L1-deficient mice. In vitro, the L1-derivatized particles promoted neurite outgrowth and survival of neurons from the central and peripheral nervous system and stimulated Schwann cell process formation and proliferation. These observations raise the hope that, in combination with other therapeutic approaches, L1 peptide-functionalized AuNPs may become a useful tool to ameliorate the deficits resulting from acute and chronic injuries of the mammalian nervous system. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: In vitro assays of the stimulatory activity of the L1-peptide, in vitro assays comparing the stimulatory activity of the L1-peptide coupled and not coupled to AuNPs, TEM characterization of AuNPs, additional results of aggregation experiments including an explanatory figure, UV-vis data proving the stability of AuNP@L1/PEGMUA-conjugates in relevant buffers, simple structure modeling of a L1-peptide and PEGMUA on AuNPs, and structure modeling of L1-peptides. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02707d

Schulz, Florian; Lutz, David; Rusche, Norman; Bastús, Neus G.; Stieben, Martin; Höltig, Michael; Grüner, Florian; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Loers, Gabriele

2013-10-01

398

Towards a Reversible Functional Language  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We identify concepts of reversibility for a functional language by means of a set of semantic rules with specific properties. These properties include injectivity along with local backward determinism, an important operational property for an efficient reversible language. We define a concise reversible first-order functional language in which access to the backward semantics is provided to the programmer by inverse function calls. Reversibility guarantees that in this language a backward run (inverse interpretation) is as fast as the corresponding forward run itself. By adopting a symmetric first-match policy for case expressions, we can write overlapping patterns in case branches, as is customary in ordinary functional languages, and also in leaf expressions, unlike existing inverse interpreter methods, which enables concise programs. In patterns, the use of a duplication/equality operator also simplifies inverse computation and program inversion. We discuss the advantages of a reversible functional language using example programs, including run-length encoding. Program inversion is seen to be as lightweight as for imperative reversible languages and realized by recursive descent. Finally, we show that the proposed language is r-Turing complete.

Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock

2012-01-01

399

[Language disorders. Diagnosis and treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS. The study reviews language disorders in children. Taking their normal development as the starting point, the work puts forward a differential diagnosis based on the symptoms presented in the moment the patient visited the physician. It also suggests an approach for children with language disorders from the neuropaediatric point of view while also updating the management of some of its forms. DEVELOPMENT. The acquisition of language is one of the key milestones in the development of children. A child's social and intellectual development is affected by delayed acquisition of language and this can give rise to a ongoing effect involving isolation and regression, which tends towards poor academic achievement and, eventually, leads to the development of learning and social problems. There are studies that evidence a close relationship in children between the development of spoken language and written language, as well as the importance of acquiring language as the basis for writing skills. These problems cause a great deal of anxiety in parents. CONCLUSIONS. Knowledge of the problem allows the specialist to detect these children early on in the preschool stage and to ensure they receive the right attention. If treated in time, language learning can be modified to a significant degree, thereby avoiding the complications that affect its development. The specialist working with children must recognise these problems and channel them towards the most suitable therapy.

Moreno-Flagge N

2013-09-01

400

Writing for publication: the basics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PROBLEM: Most midwives and nurses do not write for publication. Previous authors on this topic have focussed on the processes of writing and getting published. Although definitive English usage style guides exist, they are infrequently consulted by new midwifery authors. PURPOSE: To enable new writers to confidently apply the basic skills of scientific writing when preparing a paper for publication. OVERVIEW: The basic skills needed for scientific writing are the focus of this paper. The importance of careful word choices is discussed first. Next, the skills of writing sentences are presented. Finally, the skills of writing paragraphs are discussed. Examples of poor and better writing are given in relation to each of these basic elements.

Fahy K

2008-06-01