WorldWideScience
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Foreign Language Writing and Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In L1 writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose L1 is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

Wuri Soedjatmiko

2003-01-01

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Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing  

OpenAIRE

This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., lexical bundles) in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively. Published academic writing was found to exhibit the widest range of lexical bundles whereas L2 student writing showed the smallest range. Furthermore, som...

Yu-Hua Chen; Paul Baker

2010-01-01

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Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

2010-01-01

4

Writing in Recently Alphabetized Languages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The teaching of writing in the American Indian-English bilingual classroom is hampered in that most Amerindian languages have only recently been alphabetized. There are two problems: (1) What standard or orthography will be adopted? (2) What standards of style will be developed? Usually, there are several different writing systems for any one…

Burnaby, Barbara

5

Foreign Language Writing and Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: In LI writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose LI is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

Wuri Soedjatmiko

2002-01-01

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Early writing development in L1 English speaking children.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on the developmental and psychometric properties of an early writing task. The study was carried out over four years in Toronto, Canada with L1 English-speaking children. Two cohorts of children who began in Nursery School were followed to the end of their Grade 1 year. Children were administered the same writing task at four time points along with standardized measures of early reading. The early writing task required children to write words and number and word combinations; we examined how children move from understanding print as “objects” to understanding print as representation of sounds. We also examined how writing in Nursery School and Kindergarten related to later literacy skills. The methodology allowed us to examine the extent to which early writing in Nursery School (3 years old and Junior Kindergarten (4 years old predicted later literacy skills when children were in Grade 1 (6 years old and were receiving formal reading instruction. Results show characteristic features of children’s early writing of number and word combinations at each of the four grade levels and show that performance on the writing task in Kindergarten predicted reading skills at the end of Grade 1.

Lasenby, J.

2007-10-01

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TEACHING CREATIVE WRITING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM  

OpenAIRE

Writing, like all other aspects of language, is communicative. In our real life we write e-mails, notes, covering letters, reports, curriculums, assignments, essays and so on. Some of us write articles or work on forums and websites. A few write stories and poems. All of these writing tasks have a communicative purpose and a target audience. In the English language classroom, however, writing often lacks this. There are many reasons, as there are lots of ways to make the writing...

Rodriques, Marku Monis And M. V.

2012-01-01

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First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research  

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Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.

Khaled Karim

2013-01-01

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Panel: Opportunities and Challenges of Writing in a Second Language  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The advancement of Globalization has simultaneously diluted the need for writing in languages other then English and made us more aware of differences between diverse cultures. Hence, writing in a second/foreign language has acquired a new role. In order for individuals to compete on the international scale, they have to master a foreign language. Yet, the processes and elements of tasks involved in writing in L1 and L2 are far from identical. When writing in the L2, individual writers inevitably engage in the changing contexts between the language uses of L1 and L2 and apply their learned knowledge and principles to the writing situations they perceive as suitable or doable. Students’ perception about the role of language in Globalized world and language learning, as well as their self-perception plays an integral role in their ability to transfer knowledge when writing in a second/foreign language. This is particularly true when one teaches adult groups of students who have already formed distinct identities as academically and professionally successful L1 writers. The participants of our panel will look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest in finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writer’s identity. To further examine and understand the nature of writing across different contexts, the panel will consider how student attitudes and perceptions play into writer development and knowledge transfer from L1 to L2. The participants will explore the opportunities and problems of writing in L2, as well as the effects that second/foreign language writing has on writers’ identities, by asking the following guiding questions: 1). How do students develop identities and self-perceptions as L1 and L2 writers? How and to what degree, are their identities as L1 and L2 writers similar or different from each other? 2). How do students develop beliefs and attitudes towards L2 writing? How do their L1 writing experiences inform their L2 writing strategies? How do rhetorical and discursive strategies of L1 writing impact students’ learning of L2 writing and should such impact be viewed as an opportunity or as a problem when teaching second/foreign language writing? 3). What type of support do students need to become better L2 writers? What are their particular pedagogical needs? How can writing instructors or practitioners best support our students in achieving their goals as second/foreign language writers, and transferring their academic writing skills from one language into another, or from one context to another? Method: Through surveys, questionnaires, students feedback and analysis of students writing, the panel participants will look at the possibilities and problems of writing transfer from L1 to L2, as well as the effects that second language writing has on writers’ native identities, especially in the circumstances when they are already seeing the blurring frontiers between native and foreign cultural realms. Cross-context research into second/foreignlanguage writing is essential for a clearer and broader picture to emerge on L2 writing. To this end, the panel will bring together specialists from around the world, from different types of institutions, with different student bodies, who will present their research on teaching and learning L2 writing in diverse linguistic, cultural, institutional, and pedagogical contexts. We invite the audience to look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest of finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writers’ identities. This panel will also address the need for designing more successful approaches to supporting students’ writing skills and to teaching advanced level writing in the second/foreign language classroom by examining students’ perception of writing and, more specifically, the link between L1 and L2 writing experiences. References: Literacy-based language learning (Richard Kern 2000, Claire Krasch, 1993); Wiring assessment (Carl Bereiter, 1995); Learning and writing transfer (Greeno

Kupatadze, Ketevan; Chiu, Scott C.

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Good Language Learner: A Case Study of Writing Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The search for the common features of “good language learners” has obsessed scholars such as Naiman et al. (1978, Rubin (1975, and Stevick (1989. Regarding those with good writing skill in particular, some (Angelova, 1999; Beare, 2000; Victori, 1995 list some features such as language proficiency, L1 writing competence, use of cohesive devices, meta cognitive knowledge about the writing task. The purpose of this study was to find the cognitive and metacognitive strategies of a successful learner in writing skill (considering those suggested by Arndt, 1987; Wenden, 1991. Tina, a 27 year old language learner with a BS degree in architecture, was found the most suitable case based on the teacher`s observation of her good writing and the analysis of Oxford's (1990 strategy inventory for language learning (SILL administered. The data collected from the observation of her writing, the think-aloud protocol and the interview showed that Tina made use of most of the cognitive and metacognitive strategies listed but there was no evidence of L1 reliance in her L2 writing. The data also revealed that she was highly good at using prefabricated phrases and sentences in her writing.

Parviz Maftoon

2012-08-01

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First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research  

OpenAIRE

First language (L1) transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA), and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2) writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed ov...

Khaled Karim; Hossein Nassaji

2013-01-01

12

TEACHING CREATIVE WRITING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing, like all other aspects of language, is communicative. In our real life we write e-mails, notes, covering letters, reports, curriculums, assignments, essays and so on. Some of us write articles or work on forums and websites. A few write stories and poems. All of these writing tasks have a communicative purpose and a target audience. In the English language classroom, however, writing often lacks this. There are many reasons, as there are lots of ways to make the writing, we do with learners more communicative. There are many areas in which language learners can benefit from creative writing. Students express themselves and their own ideas. Most teachers would agree that what we want to say, what comes from the heart, we are happier to work on. Creative Writing (CW can be very stimulating and a lot of fun. Creative writing involves playful but rigorous work with language. A lot of people seem to associate creative writing with an "anything goes" mentality. However, in order to produce a good text, poem, short story or dramatic scene, the language needs to be correct and it needs to work. Creative Writing requires greater precision in expression. In order to say precisely what they mean, students have to be very careful in their use of vocabulary and idioms. In this article, an effort is made to discuss the characteristics and difficulties of CW and similarly, a few ideas for CW writing, benefits of CW and solutions to simplify and make it interesting is presented.

MARKU MONIS AND . M. V. RODRIQUES

2012-11-01

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Foreign Language Writing and Translation  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: In LI writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose LI is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or...

Wuri Soedjatmiko

2002-01-01

14

Writing Motivation of Students with Language Impairments  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the writing motivation of students with language impairments (LI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. For the study 272 students (33 students with language impairments, 242 TD peers) aged 8-10 years, in 11 elementary schools, were sampled. The two groups completed self-report measures of writing motivation and 20…

Brouwer, Kyle L.

2012-01-01

15

Kanji Recognition by Second Language Learners: Exploring Effects of First Language Writing Systems and Second Language Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…

Matsumoto, Kazumi

2013-01-01

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Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi and L2 (English writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of the framework provided by Johnson and Roen (1992, and Chafe and Danielwicz (1987. The results indicated that Iranian students (female and male did not make significantly different uses of L1 and L2 complimenting in terms of form and strategies. Also, the gender of the addressees was not accommodated to by the addressors differently as regards the use of form and strategies of complimenting in L1 and L2. The results suggest that L1 and L2, if used under some formal class based conditions, tend to become maximally similar, showing no transfer of L1 potentiality into L2.

Gholam Reza Zarei

2011-04-01

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Improving Writing Skills of Thai EFL Students by Recognition of and Compensation for Factors of L1 to L2 Negative Transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research is to utilize an experimental-education technique for improving the writing skills of Thai EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students. This improvement of skills is sought by making the student-participants in this study consciously aware of those specific aspects of L1 (Language 1, meaning the mother tongue) to L2…

Sersen, William J.

2011-01-01

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Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher  

Science.gov (United States)

Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

Kalt, Susan E.

2012-01-01

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Genre and Second-Language Academic Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…

Paltridge, Brian

2014-01-01

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Collaborative Writing: Fostering Foreign Language and Writing Conventions Development  

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Full Text Available The use of social technologies, such as wikis and chats, has brought a renewed attention to L2 collaborative writing. Yet, a question that still remains to be answered is the extent to which learners’ writing is enhanced when using these tools. By analyzing learners’ individual and collaborative writing, this study (a explores L2 learners’ approaches to the writing task in the wikis, (b examines learners’ collaborative synchronous interactions when discussing content, structure and other aspects related to the elaboration of the writing task, and (c describes learners’ perceptions of individual and collaborative writing and their impressions of the use of social tools in the FL writing class. Analysis of the data showed that while statistically significant differences were not evident in terms of fluency, accuracy and complexity when comparing the individual and collaborative assignments, there were observable trends that inform us about how learners’ interactions with the text differ when working individually or collaboratively. Further, an analysis of learners’ approaches to collaborative writing through the use of social tools shows that wikis and chats allowed them to concentrate on writing components in a different, yet complementary, manner depending on whether they interacted in the wikis or in the chats.

Elola Idoia

2010-10-01

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Writing processes, text quality, and task effects; empirical studies in first and second language writing  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out in order to advance our understanding of the writing process by linking process and product characteristics to each other. The underlying question was: how does the way in which writers use different cognitive activities, such as planning, generating ideas, and formulating, during the writing process influence the quality of the texts they produce? The main aim was to compare how writers write in L1 (Dutch) and L2 (English), in order to investigate the influence of ...

Weijen, D.

2009-01-01

22

Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

2011-01-01

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Beliefs and Practices about Writing in a Foreign Language among Economists Working in Two Languages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Product-oriented analyses have shown that academic English (the predominant L2 in their environment: Phillipson and Skuttnab-Kongas 1995) written by Scandinavian writers differs from that of L1 English writers in ways that might work to the disadvantage of the writers in terms of recognition or publishability. Simultaneously language-policy scholars have problematised the predominance of English in many academic fields. There is of course a great deal of individual variation in terms of language choice and publication success. We investigated the writing practices of some 75 Danish academics in various fields of economics and business studies by means of a questionnaire, and then interviewed a proportion of the respondents to get a richer sense of their practices, the intertextuality that lies behind them, the factors that lead to differential language choice and success, and the academics´ attitude to the predominance of English. We identified : a wide range of attitudes to the difficulty of writing in L2; practices associated with successful writing; fields in which international publication was more or less important; and a general reliance on implicit knowledge and intuitive learning, in contrast to the current trend towards explicit teaching of genre and rhetoric.

Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

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Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

25

Multilingualism, Language Policy and Creative Writing in Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Language use and creative writing go hand in hand. In the process of exploring language, we also engage in the study of literature. An engagement with literature is, indeed, a continuing process of improving our capacity to use language and refining our sensibility to good language use. In Kenya, there are clearly discernible patterns of creative…

Mbithi, Esther K

2014-01-01

26

Developing the Writing Ability of Intermediate Language Learners by Blogging  

OpenAIRE

Considering the widespread use of blogs during recent years, the present study explored how blogging can affect the writing skill of Iranian language learners. Besides, the learners' perception of blogging was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to see whether learners showed enthusiasm to blogging and how it motivated them to write. Two intermediate English classes were selected as the Control and Experimental Groups. Six writing topics were selected and were assigned to both groups. ...

Mohsen Hajiannejad

2012-01-01

27

Effects of sentence writing in second language lexical acquisition  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This study compared the effects of writing new words in sentences with word picture repetition learning alone. Second language (L2) Spanish learners attempted to learn 24 new Spanish words in one of two conditions while viewing word picture pairs. In Experiment 1, in the no sentence writing condition, the participants viewed 4 repetitions of each word for 6 seconds each. In the sentence writing con...

Barcroft, Joe

2004-01-01

28

Comparison of University Level EFL Learners' Linguistic and Rhetorical Patterns as Reflected in Their L1 and L2 Writing  

OpenAIRE

This study focused on the linguistic and rhetorical patterns of L1 and L2 writing samples of Iranian EFL learners and aimed to determine possible quantitative differences. For this purpose, an intact EFL class including 30 Iranian EFL learners at an English department (F=21, M=9) was selected and the participants were asked to write English and Persian compositions on the same topic in an argumentative style in two separate sessions. These tasks were then holistically scored according to the ...

Zare-ee, Abbas; Farvardin, Mohammad Taghi

2009-01-01

29

Drawing to Support Writing Development in English Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing is the dominant mode through which most learning and assessment is mediated in schools. It is through writing that learners are most often asked to demonstrate their understanding of learned concepts and share their understandings of these concepts. If English language learners are to succeed in English medium schools, they must become…

Adoniou, Misty

2013-01-01

30

Assessing Academic Writing in Foreign and Second Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic writing and education in foreign and second languages both have lengthy histories. Their histories have diverged but also intersected. Matsuda (2005), for example, described the convergence in policies that led to a distinctive discipline of "L2 writing" in higher education in the U.S.A. during the latter part of the 20th century.…

Cumming, Alister

2009-01-01

31

Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

Mori, Miki

2014-01-01

32

Writing Between Languages How English Language Learners Make the Transition to Fluency, Grades 4-12  

CERN Document Server

With Writing Between Languages, Danling Fu shows that by beginning with the literacy students bring from their native language and putting writing at the center of the curriculum, we can help them transition to English and support academic literacy. You'll learn the crucial and helpful role native literacy plays in building written English fluency, assess where ELLs are in their development as writers, use movement between languages to scaffold writing—no matter whether you know a student's home language—and implement instructional strategies to support development in writing

Fu, Danling

2009-01-01

33

The politics of teaching and learning writing in L1 and L2 in Korean universities: An exploration of the possibility of developing an indigenous writing program  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation investigates the practices and politics of college writing education in its first and second languages in an Expanding circle country, South Korea. Over the past 10 years, many Korean universities have developed their English and Korean writing programs and centers after a long period of no serious writing education. To investigate motivations and factors for these developments and changes at institutional, national, and international levels, various materials were collected...

Kim, Minsun

2012-01-01

34

Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

2012-01-01

35

Effective Writing Assessment and Instruction for Young English Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

The total number of English Language Learners in the American public schools is more than 4.5 million students or 9.6% of the total school population. This article focuses on instructional writing strategies and assessments for English Language Learners in the elementary classroom. This article provides early childhood education teachers with…

Schulz, Melissa M.

2009-01-01

36

Academic Language Socialization in High School Writing Conferences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines multilingual high school writers' individual talk with their teachers in two advanced English language development classes to observe how such talk shapes linguistically diverse adolescents' writing. Addressing adolescent writers' language socialization through microethnographic discourse analysis, the author…

Gilliland, Betsy

2014-01-01

37

Scientific writing in teaching foreign languages to future researchers  

OpenAIRE

This article highlights the need to address the stylistics of scientific writing when teaching a foreign language to future scientists. The author presents a historical overview of the key stages of development of functional style theory and describes the modern perspective on scientific writing in the following aspects: field of use, topic and content, characteristics of the sender and recipient, purpose and forms of speech, and general properties, linguistic features, and types of texts.

Ildutova O.

2014-01-01

38

Cross-cultural Aspects of Academic writing: a Study of Hungarian and North American College Students L1 Argumentative Essays  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents the findings and implications of a contrastive rhetorical study of Hungarian and North American college students’ L1 argumentative writing. With the help of the refined version of Mann &Thompson’s Rhetorical Structure Analysis, the investigation highlights potentially culture-bound differences in the positioning and function of nuclear or thesis statements, logical organisation in terms of rhetorical structure relations on different levels of text and the representa...

Godo?, A?gnes M.

2008-01-01

39

Genre-Based Tasks in Foreign Language Writing: Developing Writers' Genre Awareness, Linguistic Knowledge, and Writing Competence  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines how novice foreign language (FL) writers develop their genre awareness, linguistic knowledge, and writing competence in a genre-based writing course that incorporates email-writing tasks. To define genre, the study draws on systemic functional linguistics (SFL) that sees language as a resource for making meaning in a particular…

Yasuda, Sachiko

2011-01-01

40

Invented spelling in various contexts: Introduction to a special issue of L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature.  

OpenAIRE

Researchers working on acquisition of written language by children are traditionally more interested in reading than in writing even if, today, spelling and writing have become common subjects of research and the themes of academic conferences.

Fijalkow, J.

2007-01-01

41

Enhancing Foreign Language Learning through Listening Strategies Delivered in L1: An Experimental Study  

OpenAIRE

Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian) and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female p...

Hitendra Pillay; Hossein Bozorgian

2013-01-01

42

Foreign language research and pedagogy: A comparison between EFL and FL writing  

OpenAIRE

Research in Second Language Writing has predominantly focused on English as Second Language Writing (ESL), which has caused an imbalance in the available literature. While there has been a growing interest in foreign language writing in the past few years (Manchon, 2009; Reichelt, 2001), there is little understanding of how English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and Foreign Language Writing (non-English) have emerged as overlapping, yet potentially distinct lines of scholarship. Through the conc...

Pelaez-morales, Carolina

2013-01-01

43

The Interactional Approach to the Teaching of Writing and Its Implications for Second Language Acquisition  

OpenAIRE

Writing is a language skill which is relatively difficult to acquire. A number of efforts have been made to develop the students' writing skill, among others is by applying different approaches to the teaching of writing. This article discusses the interactional approach to the teaching of writing and its implications for second language acquisition.  

Lies Amin Lestari

2008-01-01

44

CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC WRITING: A STUDY OF HUNGARIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS L1 ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAYS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the findings and implications of a contrastive rhetorical study of Hungarian and North American college students’ L1 argumentative writing. With the help of the refined version of Mann &Thompson’s Rhetorical Structure Analysis, the investigation highlights potentially culture-bound differences in the positioning and function of nuclear or thesis statements, logical organisation in terms of rhetorical structure relations on different levels of text and the representation of alternative viewpoints. Differing argumentative schemata are related to different underlying intellectual traditions, and suggestions are made for the pedagogical integration of findings.

Ágnes M. Godó

2008-12-01

45

WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2) leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 com...

Alister Cumming; Jiang Li

2001-01-01

46

WRITING STRATEGIES IN L1 AND L2: ARE THERE DIFERENCES? Estratégias de escrita em L1 e L2: EXISTEM DIFERENÃ?AS? pesquisar  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. pesquisar Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions.

Dilys Karen Rees

1994-01-01

47

¿Duermes mucho Tony? Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom  

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Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1 in English Language Teaching (elt , critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students’ mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English. Key words: First language, critical pedagogy, phatic communion Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (l1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (ei, un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (l1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Palabras clave: Lengua materna, pedagogía crítica, comunión fática

Higareda Sandra

2009-11-01

48

Enhancing Foreign Language Learning through Listening Strategies Delivered in L1: An Experimental Study  

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Full Text Available Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female participants came from two EFL classrooms in an English language institute. The experimental class (n = 30 who listened to their classroom activities performed better (t value = 10.083 than the control class using a methodology that led learners through five listening strategies in Persian. The same teacher taught the students in the control class (n = 30, who listened to the same classroom listening activities without any of the above listening strategies. A pre and post listening test made by a group of experts in the language institute assessed the effect of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1. Results gathered on the post intervention listening test revealed that listening strategies delivered in L1 led to a statistically significant improvement in their discrete listening scores compared with the control group.

Hitendra Pillay

2013-01-01

49

Revealing the Misunderstood Identity of ESL/EFL Writing Students--From the Perspectives of Language Proficiency and Writing Expertise.  

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English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) student writers are often labeled as having poor language proficiency skills, poor writing skills, and poor organizational skills. These labels can negatively affect teachers and students. They have become yardsticks for guiding teachers' instruction and measuring students' performance. Often, ESL writing…

Chen, Dar-Wu

50

English language writing centres in Japanese universities: What do students really need?  

OpenAIRE

The installation of English language writing centres in Japanese universities is a relatively recent event—the first ones established with funding from the Ministry of Education in 2004. Because of the EFL writing context, setting up a writing centre requires consideration of students’ needs and cultural expectations of writing and writing centres. In general, writing centres that have been established in Japanese universities follow a structure similar to those in the US. This raises ...

Jim McKinley

2010-01-01

51

Using Arabic (L1) in testing reading comprehension in English (L2) as a foreign language  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using Arabic (L1) as a language of questions and answers in testing reading comprehension in English (L2), and to explore student and teacher opinions about this. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. To collect the quantitative data, one hundred and forty-four students were given a reading comprehension test. Both multiple-choice and short-answer questions were used. The subjects were second-year English departm...

Al-qudairy, Abdullah H. A.

2011-01-01

52

Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.  

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The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system. PMID:23055164

McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

2013-06-01

53

What Develops "Along with" the Development of Second Language Writing? Exploring the "By-Products."  

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Investigates predicted and unpredicted changes learners undergo as they develop writing skills in English-as-a-foreign-language academic writing courses. Reports on qualitative data elicited from learners' self-reports, which yielded three perceived categories of changes: outcomes in writing in English, outcomes in writing in general, and…

Katznelson, Helen; Perpignan, Hadara; Rubin, Bella

2001-01-01

54

Writing: Text and Interaction. Odense Working Papers in Language and Communication, No. 14.  

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This collection of lectures, which is the viewpoint that considers writing not only as a thinking tool but also a communication tool, and thus, a tool of interaction. addresses the interactive view of writing. Also included in the collection are two articles by Danish and Turkish writing researchers on writing in English as a Foreign Language…

Pogner, Karl-Heinz, Ed.

55

EFL Students’ Writing Strategies in Saudi Arabian ESP Writing Classes: Perspectives on Learning Strategies in Self-access Language Learning  

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Full Text Available This study was part of a PhD research to explore the writing strategies of 121 second-year undergraduate Saudi student writers who are studying English as a foreign language and for specific purposes in one of the Saudi industrial colleges: Jubail Industrial College (JIC. The writing strategies under investigation had been classified into two categories (process-oriented writing strategies and product-oriented writing strategies based on their instructional philosophies. A strategy questionnaire was designed to collect data. Although JIC writing classes were assumed to be product-oriented as reported by the majority of the participants’ description of their teachers’ writing approach, the results showed that almost all of the participants (95.9% were mixing the two kinds of strategies. More surprisingly, the top five writing strategies used by the participants were process-oriented.

Mohammad Alnufaie

2012-12-01

56

The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language  

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The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

Babayigit, Selma

2014-01-01

57

The Second Language Acquisition of Past Tense Marker in English by L1 Speakers of Chinese  

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Full Text Available This study is considered the L2 acquisition and underlying of past tense marker, focusing on whether or not L2 learners of English are successful in associating the grammatical properties with Chinese language. Although the dataset is small, the results showed that Chinese speakers are able to acquire the past-tense marker although Chinese language has none of this feature. The L1 Chinese speakers are able to acquire the regular past-tense marker better co mpared to the irregular form.
Keywords: Second language acquisition; Past tense marker; L1 Chinese speakers; Irregular form
Résumé: Cet article étudie l'acquisition d’une deuxième langue, et en particulier l’apprentissage du passé, en se concentrant sur le fait si les apprenants de l'anglais pouvaient réussir à associer les propriétés grammaticales de la langue anglaise avec la langue chinoise. Bien que l'ensemble des données est faible, les résultats montrent que les locuteurs du chinois sont capable de maîtriser le passé, même si la langue chinoise n'a pas cette fonctionnalité. Les locuteurs du chinois maîtrise mieux le passé en forme régulière par rapport en forme irrégulière.
Mots-Clés: acquisition d’une deuxième langue; temps passér; les locuteurs du chinois; forme irrégulière

Sharon Sharmini

2009-06-01

58

Developing Speaking and Writing Skills of L1 Arabic EFL Learners through Teaching of IPA Phonetic Codes  

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Full Text Available This exploratory study investigated the development of speaking and writing skills of L1 Arabic EFL learners based on their level of perception and understanding of phonetic transcriptions through visualisation of letter-to-symbol representations using the International Phonetic Alphabet (henceforth IPA. The participants were 169 University-level Preparatory Year Program (PYP male Saudi EFL students. The study was carried out as a pedagogical approach to improve university first year students’ pronunciation, correct speech and writing skills. The students selected attended 6, 50-minute Integrated Pronunciation Teaching (IPT lessons which included IPA transcription codes using both audio and visual teaching methods in addition to one ICT aided lesson.  Throughout those lessons, students were initially introduced to the IPA phonetic codes in gradual increase of difficulty and were encouraged to use the monolingual (English-English, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDCE. Two written tests and one oral test were conducted using a number of carefully selected IPA transcription codes related questions and results were analysed and interpreted. Results obtained showed slight variations between higher and lower ability students in understanding the IPA transcription codes. As a whole, however, the results indicated that students reached a high level of understanding of letter-to-symbol representations – the IPA system - and oral test results proved that phonological awareness can help Saudi students at tertiary level education improve their writing and speaking skills. Above all, learning the phonetic transcription codes helped them develop a sense of autonomy and competence when using monolingual dictionaries. The study concluded with a brief discussion of the ramifications of the study and the potential for further research.

Hussam Rajab

2013-04-01

59

WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

Alister Cumming

2001-12-01

60

37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.  

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...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language, paper, writing, margins, compact...Provisions The Application § 1.52 Language, paper, writing, margins, compact...section; and (ii) Be in the English language or be accompanied by a translation...

2010-07-01

61

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Writing and Their Relations to Language and Reading  

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Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement--Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and…

Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

2013-01-01

62

Students' Perceptions of Wiki-Based Collaborative Writing for Learners of English as a Foreign Language  

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This study proposes a Wiki-based collaborative writing approach to the writing process for EFL (English as a foreign language) learners. A five-stage computer-mediated collaborative writing project including collaborative planning, partitioned drafting, peer-revising, peer-editing, and individual publishing was blended with on-campus English…

Chao, Yu-Chuan Joni; Lo, Hao-Chang

2011-01-01

63

THE EVOLUTION OF THE FRENCH FIELD OF LA DIDACTIQUE DE L’ÉCRIT (DIDACTICS OF LANGUAGE PRACTICES) Theorizing the Teaching Practices of Writing in the Disciplines  

OpenAIRE

The study of the role of language activity in higher education in France has been evolving, in the past few years, out of the larger field of ‘la didactique du français,’ the field of L1 teaching and theory across all grade levels. This larger frame has provided several themes that are now being explored in higher education writing: language activity as a mode of co-construction of knowledge in school settings rather than a transparent medium, writing, reading and speaking as intimately ...

BERTRAND DAUNAY

2008-01-01

64

Learning To Write in the Primary Grades: Experiences of English Language Learners and Mainstream Students.  

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Compares writing samples by K-2 students and highlights the importance of developing better strategies for helping English-as-a-Second-or Other-Language (ESOL) teachers meet the instructional needs of young English language learners. (Author/VWL)

Huie, Kathleen; Yahya, Noorchaya

2003-01-01

65

An Investigation into Metaphor Use at Different Levels of Second Language Writing  

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Recent studies in linguistics have shown that metaphor is ubiquitous. This has important consequences for language learners who need to use it appropriately in their speech and writing. This study aims to provide a preliminary measure of the amount and distribution of metaphor used by language learners in their writing across Common European…

Littlemore, Jeannette; Krennmayr, Tina; Turner, James; Turner, Sarah

2014-01-01

66

Quantifying the Burden of Writing Research Articles in a Second Language: Data from Mexican Scientists  

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This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141…

Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen

2011-01-01

67

Dynamic Development of Complexity and Accuracy: A Case Study in Second Language Academic Writing  

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This paper reports on the development of complexity and accuracy in English as a Second Language (ESL) academic writing. Although research into complexity and accuracy development in second language (L2) writing has been well established, few studies have assumed the multidimensionality of these two constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2009) or…

Rosmawati

2014-01-01

68

Reading, Writing, and Animation in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language  

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Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…

Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.

2013-01-01

69

Second Language Writers' Strategy Use and Performance on an Integrated Reading-Listening-Writing Task  

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Integrated writing tasks that involve different language modalities such as reading and listening have increasingly been used as means to assess academic writing. Thus, there is a need for understanding how test-takers coordinate different skills to complete these tasks. This study explored second language writers' strategy use and its…

Yang, Hui-Chun; Plakans, Lia

2012-01-01

70

Second Language Learners’ Performance and Strategies When Writing Direct and Translated Essays  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL students’ performance and strategies when writing direct and translated essays. The study also aimed at exploring students’ strategies when writing in L2 (English and L1 (Arabic. The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative procedures for data collection and analysis. Adapted strategy questionnaires, writing essay prompts and follow-up questions were utilized for data gathering. Thirty six university students participated in writing three different essays (direct L2 essay, L1essay, and translated essay. Furthermore, the participants responded to strategy questionnaires and answered follow-up questions. The results revealed statistically significant differences between direct and translated writing in favor of the first one. No significant differences between direct and translated writing in the use of strategies were found. The study’s findings may have pedagogical implications for the fields of writing instruction, writing assessment and teacher training. Based on the results, the study ended with some recommendations to assist and direct future research.

Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail

2012-07-01

71

The Impact of Task Difficulty and Language Proficiency on Iranian EFL Learners? Code-switching in Writing  

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Full Text Available This study sought to investigate code-switching in the writing of Iranian EFL learners. Code switching can occur both in spoken and written discourse. In order to measure this behavior in the writing of Iranian EFL learners, a total of 30 participants (15 intermediate and 15 advanced learners were randomly selected. An Oxford Placement Test was administered to determine their level of second language (L2 proficiency. For gathering the relevant data from the learners, two writing tasks with different levels of difficulty were employed. The participants were required to think aloud as they were engaged in the act of writing. The data gathered from the think-aloud protocols were then analyzed and used for further analysis. Several independent T-test were conducted to analyze the data collected from the think-aloud protocols. The results showed that level of proficiency on the one hand and task level of difficulty were influential factors in writers’ rate of switching to their first language (L1.

Amir Sabzevar Qahfarokhi

2012-03-01

72

Task Representation in Foreign Language Reading-to-Write.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explored how third-year-level university students represented an assigned reading-to-write task as indicated by the type of papers they produced, and the relationship between the linguistic quality of those papers and the type of task representation. Findings suggest that the ability to interpret a reading-to-write task appropriately is dependent…

Ruiz-Funes, Marcela

2001-01-01

73

Reading Ability, Reading Fluency and Orthographic Skills: The Case of L1 Slovene English as a Foreign Language Students  

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Full Text Available This study examined the difference between less-skilled and skilled L1Slovene English as foreign language (EFL students in foreign language(L2 fluency and L2 orthographic skills; 93 less-skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students and 102 skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students participated in the study. The results showed that skilled readers performed better in all fluency and orthographic skills tasks, as the differences between groups were statistically significant. The correlations among all variables showed that L2 fluency and L2 orthographic skills are positively interrelated among both groups, suggesting that higher L2 fluency scores are associated with higher L2 orthography scores. This outcome implies that less-skilled readersneed to be greatly exposed to L2 language and be ensured necessaryopportunities in- or outside the classroom in L2 learning.

Florina Erbeli

2012-01-01

74

Aspects of Lexical Proficiency in Writing Summaries in a Foreign Language  

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This study investigated the impact of aspects of the lexical proficiency of EFL students on their summary writing in English (L2) by controlling for the impact of a range of linguistic abilities in English and Japanese (L1). Sixty-eight Japanese undergraduate students wrote two summaries of English texts in English. Their English lexical…

Baba, Kyoko

2009-01-01

75

The Search for a Common Language: Environmental Writing and Education  

OpenAIRE

A stellar group of writers, scientists, and educators illuminate the intersections between environmental science, creative writing, and education, considering ways to strengthen communication between differing fields with common interests.

Graulich, Melody; Crumbley, Paul

2005-01-01

76

Do L1 Reading Achievement and L1 Print Exposure Contribute to the Prediction of L2 Proficiency?  

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The study examined whether individual differences in high school first language (L1) reading achievement and print exposure would account for unique variance in second language (L2) written (word decoding, spelling, writing, reading comprehension) and oral (listening/speaking) proficiency after adjusting for the effects of early L1 literacy and…

Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

2012-01-01

77

English language writing centres in Japanese universities: What do students really need?  

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Full Text Available The installation of English language writing centres in Japanese universities is a relatively recent event—the first ones established with funding from the Ministry of Education in 2004. Because of the EFL writing context, setting up a writing centre requires consideration of students’ needs and cultural expectations of writing and writing centres. In general, writing centres that have been established in Japanese universities follow a structure similar to those in the US. This raises the question as to whether or not this is appropriate for the particular needs of EFL students and the obstacles they face. For this study, in order to explore students’ attitudes toward writing centres and the role they play in writing education, interview data was collected from students of English composition in two different departments at a university in Japan well known for its English language education: the English department, which does not have a writing centre, and the liberal arts department, which has one of the first writing centres established in Japan.

Jim McKinley

2010-06-01

78

Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Allocation of Time to Writing Processes in English and Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

This study brings together previous research on writing processes and Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners to obtain a clearer picture of these learners' writing behaviors in English and Spanish. Following a cognitive-oriented framework, the study explores planning time, execution time, monitoring time, accuracy, and fluency. Twelve SHL…

Mikulski, Ariana; Elola, Idoia

2011-01-01

79

The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

2008-01-01

80

The Psycholinguistic Dimension in Second Language Writing: Opportunities for Research and Pedagogy Using Computer Keystroke Logging  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the use of computer logging as a means of investigating aspects of the second language (L2) writing process as writers are engaged in producing text at the keyboard. The observation of writing by means of this method provides researchers with detailed information concerning aspects of the planning, formulation, and revision…

Miller, Kristyan Spelman; Lindgren, Eva; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.

2008-01-01

81

Theoretical and Practical Linguistic Shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and Recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in Teaching Writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners  

OpenAIRE

Writing is a complex cognitive activity in which foreign language learners are required to pay attention simultaneously to content, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that an effective teaching method in one context would result in effective student learning in another. It is proved that Product/Guided Writing resulting in poor writers, and Process Writing dos not provide much care for metalinguistic feedback or eno...

Anwar Mourssi

2013-01-01

82

Investigating Malaysian ESL Students' Writing Problems on Conventions, Punctuation, and Language Use at Secondary School Level  

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Full Text Available

This study aimed at investigating the challenges in three aspects of writing development process, namely conventions, punctuation, and language use (proper use of grammar in secondary school level from students and teachers experiences. The data was collected from 30 ESL students as the student participants of this research, from the upper and lower secondary school, Form 1 to Form 5, and 10 teacher participants teaching English language for upper and lower secondary levels with different teaching experiences. A questionnaire and an essay examination were utilized as the instruments of the study. The findings revealed that Malaysian ESL students have problems in writing tasks, especially in language use (grammar and punctuation. The first language interference was also very tangible in their writings. The study suggests some practical methods in order to cope with writing difficulties.

 

Neda Ghabool

2012-05-01

83

Theoretical and Practical Linguistic Shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and Recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in Teaching Writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners  

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Full Text Available Writing is a complex cognitive activity in which foreign language learners are required to pay attention simultaneously to content, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that an effective teaching method in one context would result in effective student learning in another. It is proved that Product/Guided Writing resulting in poor writers, and Process Writing dos not provide much care for metalinguistic feedback or enough time for negotiation as well. Following the stages of Innovated Writing Process (IWP, the instructor may be able to teach students many skills that may improve the quality of their writing as well as speaking. This paper presents the theoretical and practical linguistic shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in teaching writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners. It is indicated that metalinguistic feedback, error/contrastive analysis and the communicative interaction negotiating of meaning and form provided by the teacher lead to remarkable improve in second/foreign language learners’ written accuracy and fluency as well.

Anwar Mourssi

2013-05-01

84

Blog writing integration for academic language learning purposes: towards an assessment framework  

OpenAIRE

This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006), then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming). The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expressi...

Liam Murray; Tríona Hourigan; Catherine Jeanneau

2007-01-01

85

English-Language Creative Writing in Mainland China  

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This paper presents the background, purpose and components of a creative writing course conducted in the Department of English at Sun Yat-sen University as part of the reform in the teaching of English in China. It explains and demonstrates the different components of the course and argues, drawing on evidence from students' work and reflections,…

Dai, Fan

2010-01-01

86

Beginning Reading and Writing. Language and Literacy Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this essay collection, scholars in the area of early literacy provide concrete strategies for achieving excellence in literacy instruction. The collection presents current, research-based information on the advances and refinements in the area of emerging literacy and the early stages of formal instruction in reading and writing. Following a…

Strickland, Dorothy S., Ed.; Morrow, Lesley Mandel, Ed.

87

Use of Resources in Second Language Writing Socialization  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated five Korean ESL graduate students' access to and utilization of professional and social resources in the process of socializing into American academic writing discourse. As a pilot study for a larger scale research study, data for the present study were collected during a four-month period through interviews. Findings…

Nam, Miyoung; Beckett, Gulbahar H.

2011-01-01

88

Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits  

OpenAIRE

With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there a...

Nathaniel Roberts

2010-01-01

89

«The Write Stuff»: The importance of language for medical writers  

OpenAIRE

«The Write Stuff (TWS)» is the journal of the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA). It is a vibrant, well-read journal that has been published continuously for over 17 years. The journal publishes a balance of feature articles, regular columns, items to entertain, and reports on the association's activities. This article describes the journal and explains its success in meeting the needs of its readers, in particular by publishing articles on English grammar and style and devoting a ...

Elise Langdon-Neuner; Gabi Berghammer

2010-01-01

90

«The Write Stuff»: The importance of language for medical writers  

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Full Text Available «The Write Stuff (TWS» is the journal of the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA. It is a vibrant, well-read journal that has been published continuously for over 17 years. The journal publishes a balance of feature articles, regular columns, items to entertain, and reports on the association's activities. This article describes the journal and explains its success in meeting the needs of its readers, in particular by publishing articles on English grammar and style and devoting a section of the journal to translation. The article further discusses why there should be a need among medical writers to learn more about English and about translation. ---------------------------------- «The Write Stuff»: la importancia del lenguaje para los redactores médicos. «The Write Stuff (TWS», revista oficial de la European Medical Writers Association (EMWA, es una publicación muy vital que cuenta con numerosos lectores y se mantiene activa ininterrumpidamente desde hace más de 17 años. En ella se ofrece una equilibrada combinación de artículos de fondo, columnas habituales y elementos de carácter lúdico, y se informa de las actividades de la asociación. El presente artículo describe la revista y su capacidad para atender satisfactoriamente las necesidades de sus lectores, que radica en gran medida en la publicación de artículos sobre gramática y estilo del inglés y la existencia de una sección dedicada a la traducción. Asimismo, se comenta por qué los redactores médicos deberían sentir la necesidad de ampliar sus conocimientos de inglés y de traducción.

Elise Langdon-Neuner

2010-12-01

91

The Effect of Scaffolding Technique in Journal Writing among the Second Language Learners  

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Full Text Available It was noted that one of the most distressing challenges faced by the L2 college students was the poor presentation of their journal writing skills. The researcher noticed a prevailing pattern in their journal writing, where most of them were unable to construct proper sentences, making too many grammatical errors and also lacking in vocabulary. These factors have eventually restricted them from expressing their ideas clearly and effectively in their journal writing. Therefore, this study is primarily designed to look at how second language learners have acquired the use of English language through journal writing and how they have improved within a short time frame. The researcher scaffold a number of 3 undergraduate university college students by using several interactive writing techniques and instructions in writing a journal which showed their progress, daily activities and new experiences. The writing errors from the samples of written journals during week 1 were as it was written before and during the scaffolding period. Data were collected and the results of the progression were obtained based on the observation and comparison of written journals on week 1 and 5. The scaffolding technique presented in this study has helped remedy the challenges faced by the target students by further developing their effectiveness in journal writing.

Veeramuthu A/L Veerappan

2011-07-01

92

Study on Effects of Chinese Thought and Culture on Japanese Writing:Research on the Second Language Writing by Think Aloud  

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Full Text Available Think Aloud is one of the main research methods in psychological linguistic study. It plays an important role in foreign language teaching study. This thesis researches into the second language writing process of Japanese learners whose native language are Chinese and draws the conclusion that their writing process include the characteristics of two languages. It is the characteristics that cause Japanese learners are influenced by Chinese and culture, especially in sentence structure and vocabulary. Key Words: Chinese thought; culture; Think Aloud; the second language writing

Qiu-juan ZHU

2009-06-01

93

Native Language Interference : A study of interference patterns in Swedish students' English writing  

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Abstract Titel: Native Language Interference: A study of interference patterns in Swedish students’ English writing. Författare: Skoog, Petra Engelska C, 2006 Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to find out if there are any patterns of native language interference in Swedish students’ written English. Extensive research has been carried out in the area of native language influence on the target language and a large number of terms are used when the influence of the native lan...

Skoog, Petra

2006-01-01

94

The Acquisition of Chinese as a third language by Japanese L1/English L2 speakers  

OpenAIRE

The role of language transfer in second language acquisition has long been the focus in the study of cross-linguistic influence. Much has been written about how the learner’s existing linguistic knowledge influences the course of second language development. In the last decade, however, there have been a considerable number of books and journal articles dealing with a relatively under-explored field: the role of language transfer during third language acquisition. The questio...

Di, Danqi

2005-01-01

95

Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits  

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Full Text Available With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

Nathaniel Roberts

2010-01-01

96

Multilingual Dyslexia in University Students: Reading and Writing Patterns in Three Languages  

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We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional…

Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

2011-01-01

97

Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda  

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This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

Crossley, Scott A.

2013-01-01

98

English as a World Language in Academic Writing  

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Language is a phenomenon which can hardly be viewed separate from its very inherent component, culture. This component does by all means play a significant role in enabling the language to gain a global status. No doubt, some prominent issues do contribute to this process: political, economic, and military supremacy, to name but a few. This study…

Genc, Bilal; Bada, Erdogan

2010-01-01

99

Metadiscourse Repertoire of L1 Mandarin Undergraduates Writing in English: A Cross-Contextual, Cross-Disciplinary Study  

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This article presents a qualitative, comparative study of metadiscourse in the academic writing of two groups of undergraduate students working in two different disciplines. The groups of students were: 1) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in China through the medium of English; 2) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in the UK through the…

Li, Ting; Wharton, Sue

2012-01-01

100

Literacy: reading and writing social practices in the teaching of additional languages  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to reflect on additional language teaching focusing on the development of literacy, i.e., on a pedagogical practice that beholds reading and writing as social actions. It is based on literacy studies that view literacy as a set of social-cultural practices involving the technology of writing (SCRIBNER; COLE, 1981; STREET, 1984; HEATH, 2001; GEE, 2004; BARTON, 2007) in their constitution. The article is divided in three sections: the first one discusses the concept of literacy;...

Cláudia Helena Dutra da Silva

2012-01-01

101

Language policy, 'Asia's world city' and anglophone Hong Kong writing  

OpenAIRE

Hong Kong's official language policy of 'biliteracy' (Chinese and English) and 'trilingualism' (Cantonese, Putonghua, English), announced after the reversion to China in 1997, claims to address actualities of language use in the territory, remove inequities between English and Chinese, and consolidate the linguistic platform to launch Hong Kong as 'Asia's World City'. Public discussion of and controversy over this policy immediately followed, and have continued in the past decade. But they ha...

Ho, Eyl

2010-01-01

102

The Influence of Process Approach on English as Second Language Students’ Performances in Essay Writing  

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Full Text Available This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students’ performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control quasi-experimental research design. The sample consisted of 80 senior secondary school final year students. The research material included the senior secondary school English Language recommended textbook, National Examination Council (NECO and West Africa Examinations Council (WAEC English Language Syllabi, Federal Ministry of Education English Language Curriculum, English-Language Teachers’ Lesson Notes and Students Essay Writing Exercise books. The West African Examinations Council’s (WAEC English Language Essay Question as an adapted instrument was used to gather data.  The data generated were subjected to statistical analysis and the results of the analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the pre-test scores of both the Control and the Experimental group which indicated the homogenous state of both Control and Experimental groups. There was significant difference in the post-test scores of the Experimental and the Control groups. There was no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the students in Control group. As evident from the out-come of the research, the Process Approach (which presents writing in multiple drafts before the final writing had significant effect on students’ overall performance in essay writing.

AKINWAMIDE Timothy Kolade

2012-02-01

103

An Insight to Students’ Perceptions on Teacher Feedback in Second Language Writing Classes  

OpenAIRE

Feedback is one of the crucial elements in language learning and teaching. In second language writing context, the effectiveness of feedback becomes even more important as it has an impact on the whole process of language learning. To increase the effectiveness of feedback, a teacher is expected to use any possible mean(s) available to suit learners’ needs and concerns (Hamp-Lyons, 2001; Hyland, 2010). In this respect, rather than framing the feedback process based on the premises put fo...

Meral Seker; Ayca Dincer

2014-01-01

104

A case study exploring oral language choice between the target language and the l1s in mainstream CLIL and EFL secondary education  

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Full Text Available This case study explores the purposes for which the target language (TL and the L1s were used orally by students (N=60 and teachers (N=3 in a mainstream CLIL secondary education context compared to EFL instruction in the Balearic Islands (Spain. Data were gathered by means of questionnaires addressed to students and teachers, oral interviews to instructors and observations of class sessions. The findings show some differences in the languages chosen to speak according to pedagogical functions –i.e. planned subject-based discourse– and real functions –i.e. unplanned discourse such as disciplinary or organizational matters– (Chavez 2003, with the TL being much more spoken in the former and with much lesser presence of the TL in the latter, especially in the case of the pupils. Moreover, specialized subject-matter terminology was almost always used in the TL by both the students and the teachers, even when speaking in the L1.

Maria Gené Gil

2012-07-01

105

Recognizing Syntactic Errors in the Writing of Second Language Learners  

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This paper reports on the recognition component of an intelligent tutoring system that is designed to help foreign language speakers learn standard English. The system models the grammar of the learner, with this instantiation of the system tailored to signers of American Sign Language (ASL). We discuss the theoretical motivations for the system, various difficulties that have been encountered in the implementation, as well as the methods we have used to overcome these problems. Our method of capturing ungrammaticalities involves using mal-rules (also called 'error productions'). However, the straightforward addition of some mal-rules causes significant performance problems with the parser. For instance, the ASL population has a strong tendency to drop pronouns and the auxiliary verb `to be'. Being able to account for these as sentences results in an explosion in the number of possible parses for each sentence. This explosion, left unchecked, greatly hampers the performance of the system. We discuss how this ...

Schneider, D A; Schneider, David A.; Coy, Kathleen F. Mc

1998-01-01

106

An integrated approach to enhancing prospective English language teachers' writing skills  

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Full Text Available This study reports on the experience of a group of pre-service teachers of English in a compulsory writing coursein the preparatory program of an English language teaching department in the Turkish context. This studyspecifically attempts to investigate to what extent the writing course contributes to the acquisition of basicconventions of written discourse in English when prospective teachers of English are involved in an extensivewriting practice which is based upon integration of product, process and genre based approaches to writing. Thestudy lasted for a period of 28 weeks with fifty-nine pre-service teachers of English who participated in thestudy. The participants studied the basic genre types which included expository writing such as classification,process, argumentation, opinion, cause and effect, compare and contrast, and narrative paragraphs and essays.The participants specifically received instruction as to the basic constituents of paragraph and essays writing;namely, organization, process, unity, coherence, word choice, language use, grammar, and mechanics whichwere further put into 49 observable competencies. Data were collected through an analytic assessment rubricapplied to participants’ pre-study and post-study essays. In addition, participants were distributed a pre-study anda post-study self-perception questionnaire in order to evaluate any possible improvements in their writingcompetence. The results of the study suggest that exposing pre-service teachers of English to various genres byinvolving them in an extensive writing practice adds to their writing competency positively in learning theprocess of writing practice, organizing the text, including relevant content in the text, using languageappropriately, producing correct grammar, coming up with relevant vocabulary, and following correctmechanical conventions.

Recep Sahin Arslan

2013-10-01

107

INVESTIGATING THE CASE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE USERS PRESERVING THEIR L1 ACCENT WITH REGARD TO GENDER  

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Full Text Available A ubiquitous phenomenon observed in the oral performance of foreign learners of English throughout different settings is speaking the L2 with some sort of accentuated articulation. The importance of accent, the emphasis being here on speaking English with a standard accent, is often neglected by those teachers who deemphasize its role in the whole process of learning a foreign/second language. Thus, the present study concerns language learners’ perception of their own accent and the consequences of speaking with an exotic accent. In this vein, the two variables of gender and the proficiency level of the learners were taken into account. To this aim, data were collected from thirty language learners of both sexes studying at the advanced level of proficiency in a Language Institute of Khomeiny Shahr. The results of a data analysis done after conducting an interview with the subjects alongside assessing the results of a questionnaire indicate that the female subjects preoccupation due to the hampering effects of their foreign accent while speaking in L2 is more than their male counterparts. It was also found that when they were asked if they are being assessed differently by their peers or language learners in the institutes of Isfahan City, over two thirds answered yes.

Masood ESTEKI

2009-10-01

108

Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study  

OpenAIRE

This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ q...

Tai, Hung-cheng

2013-01-01

109

Supplemental Learning Activity Package. Secondary. Language Arts--Writing. Volume III.  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing exercises and materials contained in this supplemental Learning Activity Package (LAP) for language arts were developed for use with high school students. A LAP is defined as a unit of activities involving print and nonprint media and is written in a specified format designed to meet specific student needs on an individual basis.…

Arredondo, Patricia

110

English-Language Creative Writing in Hong Kong: Colonial Stereotype and Process  

OpenAIRE

Describes the effort of Hong Kong University in Hong Kong, China to move away from colonial education policies toward a vision of higher education as a global creative and knowledge industry. Diversity of the English language; Stereotypes of the Hong Kong students' relationship to English; Poems made by Chinese students that have appeared in the English-language literary magazine 'Yuan Yang: A Journal of Hong Kong and International Writing.'

Lim, Sgl

2001-01-01

111

From Novice to Expert: Implications of Language Skills and Writing-Relevant Knowledge for Memory during the Development of Writing Skill  

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Full Text Available This article outlines a theory of the development of writing expertise illustrated by a review of relevant research. An argument is made for two necessary (although not sufficient components in the development of writing expertise: fluent language generation processes and extensive knowledge relevant to writing. Fluent language processes enable the developing writer (especially the young developing writer to begin to manage the constraints imposed by working memory, whereas extensive knowledge allows the writer to move beyond the constraints of short-term working memory and take advantage of long-term memory resources by relying instead on long-term working memory.

McCutchen, D.

2011-07-01

112

The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Meta Cognitive Learning Strategies on Promoting Iranian Intermediate Language Learners' Writing Skill  

OpenAIRE

The present study was an attempted to investigate the effect of explicit instruction of meta-cognitive learning strategies on promoting intermediate language learners' writing skill. To achieve this purpose, an Oxford Placement test (Allen, 2004) was administered to language learners in English language institution and ultimately 24 intermediate language learners were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups worked on the same writing tasks and ...

Keramat Ahmadi; Saeed Ketabi; Mitra Rabiee

2012-01-01

113

EFL/ESL Learners’ Language Related Episodes (LREs) during Performing Collaborative Writing Tasks  

OpenAIRE

This paper examined how the homogeneous dyads-- two EFL (i.e. Iranian) dyads and two ESL (i.e., Malaysian) dyads--consciously reflected on their language in the course of performing collaborative writing tasks. To this end, the dyads were asked to do fifteen writing tasks collaboratively. The pair talk was audio-recorded and transcribed for each dyad. It was revealed that EFL/ESL dyads had different orientations towards metatalk; EFL dyads tended to focus considerably more on meta-linguist...

Seyed Yasin Yazdi Amirkhiz; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Arshad Abd. Samad; Roselan Baki; Leila Mahmoudi

2013-01-01

114

Improving EFL Writing Through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language  

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Full Text Available Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to evaluate the influence of Asian EFL contexts on writing. Thus, formulaic language within academic texts from Korean university students was compared to that found in essays written by American university students. Results revealed that Korean EFL learners overused transitions to define the organization of academic texts at the expense of developing content. Moreover, they used repetition, general lists, and all-purpose formulaic language to “pad” content, neglecting to consider semantic or pragmatic purposes of the text. In contrast to their Korean EFL counterparts, American university students used formulaic language for a variety of pragmatic purposes such as involving the reader, putting examples into a larger perspective, adding connotation, and addressing the perspective of the reader. It appears that EFL contexts such as South Korea require pedagogical and curricular reforms which foster the development of writing composition for semantic and pragmatic purposes.

Andrew D. Schenck

2014-12-01

115

INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF L1 GRAMMAR NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON L2 WRITING SKILL – REVISITED  

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Full Text Available This study was re-conducted after 2 years to a larger population to confirm the previous research findings and also to discover why some Persian learners (EFL have still problems in learning certain structures of English language even in an academic level. To answer, a general proficiency test was administered to a total of 426 female and male university students of Payame-noor and Azad Universities in three different departments (Humanities, Basic Sciences and Technical Engineering through homogenization. Out of which 220 participants whose scores ranged from 55-75 out of 100 were chosen as the upper-intermediate level and 46 participants were crossed out during the TOEFL test due to frustration and lack of self-confidence

ASGHAR BASTAMI BANDPAY

2013-01-01

116

A Study of Students’ Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language  

OpenAIRE

This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40) Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampli...

Muhammad Javed; Wu Xiao Juan; Saima Nazli

2013-01-01

117

The Effect of Using Portfolio-based Writing Assessment on Language Learning: The Case of Young Iranian EFL Learners  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of portfolio-based writing assessment in EFL situations. Participants were 40 pre-intermediate young Iranian English learners. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 20 each. The experimental group wrote on five pre-established topics from their coursebook. Their writings were checked in terms of ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions of writing by two raters. They were given another opportunity to revise their writings to be corrected again. In contrast, the control group wrote only once and their writings were corrected only by their own teacher.  The participants were also required to complete a questionnaire to assess their reflection and self-assessment. Results of the study indicate that portfolio-based writing assessment has a positive effect on language learning and writing ability. It also shows that it helps students’ self-assessment and almost all students are satisfied with this method of assessment.

Saeed Taki

2011-08-01

118

Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...

Dracopoulos, Effie

2011-01-01

119

Utilizing the Analysis of Social Practices to Raise Critical Language Awareness in EFL Writing Courses  

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Full Text Available Language can be used as a means to control and influence people. EFL students need to realize that the language they interact with may contain ideological assumptions and propositional meanings. By increasing critical language awareness, students may come to recognize ideological assumptions within the language. Fairclough (2003 suggests that one of the ways to increase critical language awareness is to identify social practices, defined as rules and structures that limit human actions and interaction within a context. The elements of order of discourse– genre, discourse, and style—are the linguistic rules of social practices. The goal of this study was to provide a method for EFL teachers to increase students’ critical awareness through writing. The participants consisted of 16 teacher trainees and 10 university students who performed a journal-writing task over 10 sessions. Feedback, based on the elements of order of discourse, was provided after each session, and the participants were asked to consider the feedback for their next journal entry. After 10 sessions, the journals were quantified and regression analysis was used to calculate the slope polarity of the best fitting line. The results indicate that the scores of the majority of the participants increased.

Parviz Maftoon

2010-11-01

120

Writing fluency and quality in kindergarten and first grade: The role of attention, reading, transcription, and oral language.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language component skills. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that a model including attention was better fitting than a model with only language and literacy factors. Attention, a higher-order literacy factor related to reading and spelling proficiency, and automaticity in letter-writing were uniquely and positively related to compositional fluency in kindergarten. Attention and higher-order literacy factor were predictive of both composition quality and fluency in first grade, while oral language showed unique relations with first grade writing quality. Implications for writing development and instruction are discussed. PMID:25132722

Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

2014-08-01

121

Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?  

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Full Text Available Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females (M age 57.30 months participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP. Quantitative measures of writing: number of words, diversity of words, number of phrases/sentences and grammatical complexity of the phrases/sentences were also analysed. The children were also assessed on tasks measuring their language production and comprehension skills and the visuo-spatial, phonological, and central executive components of working memory. The results indicated that the boys were more likely to perform significantly less well than the girls on all measures of writing except the grammatical complexity of sentences. Initially, no significant differences were found on any of the measures of language ability. Further, no significant differences were found between the genders on the capacity and efficiency of their working memory functioning. However, hierarchical regressions revealed that the individual differences in gender and language ability, more specifically spoken language comprehension, predicted performance on the EYFSP writing scale. This finding accords well with the literature that suggests that language skills can mediate the variance in boys’ and girls’ writing ability.

Lorna Bourke

2012-03-01

122

Writing Fluency and Quality in Kindergarten and First Grade: The Role of Attention, Reading, Transcription, and Oral Language  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language…

Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

2014-01-01

123

The Use of L1 in the Foreign Language Classroom / El uso de la lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El uso de la lengua materna es una ocurrencia común en los contextos de la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, a pesar de que a veces reciba críticas por su interferencia en la adquisición de la Lengua meta. Mientras que los docentes deben maximizar el uso de la Lengua meta, sin duda, hay espacios pa [...] ra que el profesor utilice la lengua materna de los estudiantes en su pedagogía. En este trabajo se presenta un argumento basado en las perspectivas teóricas y la investigación empírica dentro de la literatura existente, apoyando el uso apropiado de la Lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera. El argumento se centra en tres cuestiones fundamentales-racionales para el uso de la lengua materna: Los efectos positivos que la lengua materna tiene tanto en el aprendizaje y la instrucción de una lengua extranjera, como en las formas en las que la lengua materna ayuda a los docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Abstract in english L1 use is a common occurrence in foreign language teaching contexts despite the fact that it often receives criticism for its interference with target language (TL) acquisition. While foreign language teachers should maximize their use of the TL, there is indeed a place for the teacher to use the st [...] udents' L1 in their pedagogy. In this paper, an argument derived from theoretical perspectives and empirical research within existing literature supporting the appropriate use of L1 in foreign language classrooms is presented. The argument addresses three key issues-rationales for L1 use, positive effects L1 has on both foreign language learning and instruction, and ways that L1 assists instructors on foreign languages.

Yi-chun, Pan; Yi-ching, Pan.

2010-07-01

124

Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

Yoon, Sae Yeol

125

Students of the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra as Object of the Research Results in Developing Foreign Language Writing Skills  

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Full Text Available Writing in the foreign language is one of the most important language skills students develop and improve at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra. Strong writing skills are essential to their future success, whether they are related to writing general reports on agricultural issues at home or in the world as well as to working-out some research papers aimed at agriculture, but also at some other areas of the business world. We have to state that writing is perhaps one of the most difficult skills students can develop and improve at our University. They learn how to write effectively, they are encouraged to develop an awareness of themselves as students - writers and essay authors. This paper deals with the essay writing analysis in teaching foreign languages at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, particularly from the point of their final results. The research was carried out in the Department of Languages and we present in our paper the results students achieved in writing essays in the two compared years, 2007 and 2010.

?ubomíra MORAVCOVÁ

2014-03-01

126

"Brilliant, Bright, Boiling Words": Literary Disability, Language and the Writing Body in the Work of Christopher Nolan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article uses theory on disability, embodiment and language to explore the production, context and presentation of two pieces of life-writing by Christopher Nolan. It examines Nolan's unusual use of language and form in his presentations of an experience of disability, and considers its literary and political significance. Consideration is…

Coogan, Tom

2012-01-01

127

The Writing Process of Italian as a Second Language: Theory and Practice.  

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Discusses the nature of good writing strategies, illustrates principles of correction and evaluation, and describes the elements of a writing curriculum for college students of Italian. The author suggests a series of writing activities and evaluation criteria to assess writing proficiency at beginning and intermediate levels. (26 references) (CK)

Laviosa, Flavia

1994-01-01

128

Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study  

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Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.

Hung-Cheng TAI

2013-06-01

129

A Study of Students’ Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language  

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Full Text Available This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40 Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampling. A sample consisting of 440 students (11students from each school was randomly selected using a table of random numbers. An achievement test consisting of different items was developed to assess the students’ competency and capability in sub-skills of writing such as word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/grammar and handwriting. Mean score and standard deviation were used to analyze the students’ proficiency in each sub-skill. The t-test was applied to make the comparison on the bases of gender, density and public and private sector. The overall performance of all the students was better in comprehension as compared to other sub-skills namely word completion, sentence making/syntax, tenses/grammar and handwriting. The analysis, based on t-value, revealed no significant difference between the performance of male and female students and the students of public and private schools, whereas there was a significant difference between the performance of urban and rural students.

Muhammad Javed

2013-07-01

130

Cross-linguistic influence in multilingual language acquisition: The role of L1 and non-native languages in English and Catalan oral production / La influencia entre lenguas en su adquisición multilingüe: el papel de L1 y de lenguas no nativas en la producción oral en inglés y en catalán  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Gran parte de la investigación en la adquisición de terceras lenguas se ha centrado en los efectos que tienen factores como la distancia entre lenguas, la competencia, el uso reciente, o el estatus de la segunda lengua (L2) en la elección de la lengua origen (L1) desde el punto de vista de la influe [...] ncia interlingüística. Se presenta aquí un análisis de dichos factores, así como la influencia que tiene la L1 (español) en la producción oral en L2 (inglés) y L3 (catalán). Se analiza la transferencia léxica y sintáctica en la producción en catalán e inglés de dos hablantes plurilingües con conocimiento similar de lenguas extranjeras. Fueron entrevistados dos veces en un ambiente informal. Los resultados muestran que la L1 es la principal fuente de transferencia, tanto en la producción oral en L2, como en L3; pero su influencia disminuye a medida que la competencia en la lengua meta incrementa. La distancia entre lenguas también tiene un papel importante en la influencia interlingüística, especialmente si la competencia en la lengua de origen es buena, y si ha habido un contacto reciente con ella. Los resultados también sugieren que mientras que la transferencia sintáctica se basa exclusivamente en la L1, la transferencia léxica se puede basar en la lengua no nativa. Abstract in english Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2) status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1) in cross-linguistic influence (CLI). This paper presents a study of these factors, and of [...] the influence that the L1 (Spanish) has on L2 (English) and L3 (Catalan) oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.

Mireia, Ortega.

2008-06-01

131

Choose your own adventure, Gordian Knot for a holistic approach to writing? : A creative writing experience in teaching Spanish as a Foreign Language through cooperative learning based wikis.  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this research is to uncover the potential that lies within the explorative genre of hyperfiction entitled Choose Your Own Adventure (CYOA), approached from the student’s final production, and its significance for the development of writing competency in Spanish as a Foreign Language (ELE). As our target sample population, we have chosen a multicultural and plurilingual group of 18 students from the University of Stockholm, all of whom have acquired at least a B2 level of the ...

Migura Garci?a, Begon?a

2012-01-01

132

Hemingway’s Language Style and Writing Techniques in The Old Man and the Sea  

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Full Text Available Among many great American writers, Hemingway is famous for his objective and terse prose style. As all the novels Hemingway published in his life, The Old Man and the Sea typically reflects his unique writing style. The language is simple and natural on the surface, but actually deliberate and artificial. Hemingway’s style is related to his experience as a journalist. The influence of his style is great all over the world. The Old Man and the Sea is full of facts, most of which comes from Hemingway own experience. In the forepart of the novel, they are used to show the quality of Santiago’s life, and are narrated simply and naturally; while in the latter part of the novel, they are used from inside Santiago’s own consciousness and form part of a whole scheme of the novel.

Yaochen Xie

2008-12-01

133

Politeness Strategies in Thai Graduate Research Paper Discussions: Implications for Second/Foreign Language Academic Writing  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of politeness strategies in 32 discussion sections of research papers produced by Thai graduate students at Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA, Bangkok, Thailand. The study reported in this paper adopts Brown and Levinson’s (1978, 1987 and Myers’ (1989 models of politeness strategies. The project as a whole aims to identify what politeness strategies are most commonly used in the whole corpus, whether differences exist in the use of these politeness strategies and how politeness strategies are employed. The analysis of the data reveals that these student researchers rarely employed politeness strategies in their discussions. However, they used more negative politeness strategies than the positive ones and the differences in the use of these two strategies were highly significant. This study provides some pedagogical implications for ESL/EFL academic writing and syllabus designing.

Kunyarut Getkham

2014-10-01

134

ACQUISITION OF EFFECTIVE WRITING SKILL – ISSUES AND CHALLENGESFOR THE SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNER OF THE ENGLISH – AN EXPLORATIVE STUDY.  

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Full Text Available Writing a short or long piece of text effectively flawlessly, precisely, concisely, up to the point with out any ambiguity has been a major concern for the L2 learners of English in the professional world. Professional like engineers need to write business letters, reports, proposals etc as their desk as a part of their routine work. On most of these cases it has been observed that they fail to write the content of the task precisely an effectively, therefore they end up with long of piece of writing without any precision of the text and fail to communicate the core information through that to their boss or to their office.At this point of time it is highly essential for the professionals to equip themselves with excellent writing skills with out which they might not survive in their pursuits,because there is hardly any professional activity which does not require writing skills. This paper will look into the various causes of ineffective writing skills of the second language learners of English and suggests possible remedial measures to overcome it.

Bishnu Paramguru Mahapatra

2014-04-01

135

Linking adverbials in first, second and foreign language English student writing corpora / J.G. Henning  

OpenAIRE

In the South African secondary and tertiary education system writing is a very important part of the curriculum. Students are expected to master basic writing skills in order to learn how to write longer argumentative essays during their tertiary education. Previous research has shown that tertiary learners, especially Black South African English learners, experience problems in writing well-structured, coherent argumentative essays. Previous research also identifies a numbe...

Henning, Johanna Gertruida

2006-01-01

136

The Effectiveness of Using the Cooperative Language Learning Approach to Enhance EFL Writing Skills among Saudi University Students  

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Full Text Available Cooperative language learning (CLL approach was used to encourage second-year university students at the college of languages and translation, at Al-Imam University to learn from their peers so that they could develop their writing skills. Students in CLL-based groups were trained to be more responsible for their learning through developing their personal interaction as well as their linguistic competence in a more relaxed social context. This treatment included sophomore students enrolled in EN 211 course in the second semester of 2013 academic year. Two instruments were used in this study; a pre-post writing test, and an attitude questionnaire. The pre- and post- scores from the test were calculated for descriptive statistics and compared using a Wilcoxon Test. The process of evaluating students’ writings focused mainly on analyzing their mistakes with regard to spelling, using of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation as well as coherence. The findings revealed that the students’ scores in writing were higher for the post-test than the pre-test at the significance level of .001 after being subject to this kind of treatment. However, it must be stated that the degree of improvement was not extremely high as students still made some mistakes with regard to the previously mentioned points. As for the attitude scale, the results obtained proved that the students developed positive attitudes towards using the cooperative learning approach to develop language skills in general and to develop their writing skills in particular.

Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab Mahmoud

2014-05-01

137

Adult English Language Learners Constructing and Sharing Their Stories and Experiences: The Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography Writing Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is the culmination of the Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography (CLA) writing project, which details narrative descriptions of adult English language learners' (ELLs') cultural and linguistic experiences and how those experiences may have influenced the ways in which these learners constructed and reconstructed their identities.…

Park, Gloria

2011-01-01

138

THE WRITING PROBLEMS OF IRANIAN STUDENTS IN THE BASIC LEVEL WHO LEARNS TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE  

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Full Text Available At all levels of education as well as teaching Turkish to foreigners is an issue to be dealt with on the importance of input and output. In this respect, the work of writing and language learning that is possible to determine the level of their writing skills. In this context, at the end of term exams and courses, as well as on the data obtained, the detection and correction of errors, both in terms of the potential students and the teacher guiding the student is. In addition, the students already know their mistakes, to gain the ability to write in the future is important to minimize errors. At this work we identified the Iranian students writing problems and presented their recommendations for the solution. The study designed as a survey. The Data collected about the students problems on writing from the exams which the centre done on writing part and the students composition papers during the period. The mistakes of the students made in written expression, grouped audio information, morphology, the syntax and orthography.

Emrah Boylu

2014-08-01

139

The Process of Reading-to-Write Used by a Skilled Spanish-as-a-Foreign-Language Student: A Case Study.  

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Explored how one skilled Spanish-as-a-foreign-language student in a third-year level class performed reading-to-write tasks. Case Study research methodology was used to investigate the process of reading-to-write within an academic language setting. Data were collected using stimulated-recall interviews. (Author/VWL)

Ruiz-Funes, Marcela

1999-01-01

140

Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation  

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We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

2009-01-01

141

The Acting in Group of Teachers as Possibility of Resignification of the Interpretation about the Writing Language  

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Full Text Available Front of the possibility of acting with the teachers who teach in schools of Early Childhood Education for children aged six years, about the re-siginification of the understanding of writing language and of the importance of the child in this age group establish a positive relationship with this mode of language, was developed in 2011, a project linked to the Teaching of UNESP titled “Depathologization learning of the writing and inclusive education: reflections and actions of the teacher of Early Childhood Education”. This project aims to identification of the actions, in the classroom, of the patologization and subsequent implementation of actions depathologization writing by teachers’ actions, considering the increasingly early systematization of formal education of this kind of language in kindergarten. To this end, procedures that characterize the collaborative methodology are adopted. Throughout the methodological course, the engagement of the teachers, of the coordination and of the direction was valued, which seemed to favor both the formation, as the maintenance of the group, were very important aspects to ensure the interaction between its members and the common interest in the reflection about the topic in question. This paper focuses attention on whether thematic axes highlight during the initial survey of the expectations of teachers subsequently addressed in theoretical and reflective meetings leading up to identification of actions the patologization and/or of the proposition of the actions despatologizadoras of the learning of the writing, and in what refers to the way they are addressed.

Claudia Regina Mosca Giroto

2014-11-01

142

Creating a Self-Rating Instrument for Second Language Writing: From Idea to Implementation.  

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Reports on the development of a self-rating instrument for writing. The instrument engages learners in responding to a writing task and assessing their own proficiency against a set of benchmarks. Provides a description of the self-rating procedure, an account of instrument development, a report on a usability study with six learners of Finnish as…

Luoma, Sari; Tarnanen, Mirja

2003-01-01

143

Writing Strategies of Tunisian First Year University Students Learning English as a Foreign Language  

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Managing to communicate one's thoughts and ideas coherently and fluently remains a challenging task for native and non-native student writers alike. This challenge corresponds to the very nature of the writing act, which calls upon multiple and sophisticated cognitive operations. The major aim of this study was to investigate the writing…

Ferjani, Kaouther

2010-01-01

144

Finding a Place for Critical Thinking and Self-voice in College English as a Foreign Language Writing Classrooms  

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Full Text Available Although the concepts of critical thinking and self-voice have been extensively discussed in a second language writing, little attention has been given, on the pedagogical level, to critical thinking and self-voice in college EFL writing instruction. To fill such a void, this paper attempts to propose some pedagogical tasks namely:  persuasive writing tasks, draft workshops one-on-one mentoring approaches for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL classrooms. In doing so, this paper provides the operational definitions of critical thinking and self-voice concepts. It then discusses how these two concepts are closely related to complement EFL writing learning. In what follows, it presents the rationale for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL writing. It then touches on some pedagogical practices for developing critical thinking and self-voice in classrooms. Lastly, it addresses some challenges related to implementing critical thinking and self-voice tasks in EFL classrooms.

Osman Barnawi

2011-06-01

145

The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Meta Cognitive Learning Strategies on Promoting Iranian Intermediate Language Learners' Writing Skill  

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Full Text Available The present study was an attempted to investigate the effect of explicit instruction of meta-cognitive learning strategies on promoting intermediate language learners' writing skill. To achieve this purpose, an Oxford Placement test (Allen, 2004 was administered to language learners in English language institution and ultimately 24 intermediate language learners were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups worked on the same writing tasks and activities. The subjects in the experimental group were also instructed in the use of meta-cognitive language learning strategies following O'Malley (1985 while the subjects in the control group received some placebo treatment for a whole term. The results of the posttest showed that explicit instruction of meta-cognitive learning strategies for intermediate language learners proved effective. One reason may be that language learners at the intermediate level draw on these strategies in a conscious fashion and they need to develop a conscious awareness of the meta-cognitive learning strategies.

Keramat Ahmadi

2012-05-01

146

Additional Strategies for Increasing the Use of Academic Content Language in the Writing of English Language Learners  

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This chapter describes additional strategies classroom teachers need to consider with English Language Learners to help them develop scientific content vocabulary. Several of these strategies are not unique to science, but are drawn from language arts and

Klentschy, Michael P.

2008-04-01

147

Language Mixing and Code-Switching in Writing: Approaches to Mixed-Language Written Discourse. Routledge Critical Studies in Multilingualism  

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"Code-switching," or the alternation of languages by bilinguals, has attracted an enormous amount of attention from researchers. However, most research has focused on spoken language, and the resultant theoretical frameworks have been based on spoken code-switching. This volume presents a collection of new work on the alternation of languages in…

Sebba, Mark, Ed.; Mahootian, Shahrzad, Ed.; Jonsson, Carla, Ed.

2011-01-01

148

Future directions in feedback on second language writing: Overview and research agenda  

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Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn and Allen, it discusses how these papers situate written corrective feedback research in the wider area of second language acquisition research and contribute to the debate in feedback research on research design issues. This is followed by an examination of the major findings of the four situated empirical studies by Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary and Windeatt, and Martinez and Roca, which make up the second section. Echoing the authors of these papers, this article argues that we need more longitudinal naturalistic studies, adopting both cognitive and socio-cultural SLA frameworks to investigate the role of feedback and its impact on individual learners in more depth. Finally some pedagogic implications are discussed, including the need for feedback practices which facilitate students’ abilities to self regulate and evaluate their performance, and the need to raise teachers’ awareness of the different feedback sources and modes of delivery available to them.Este artículo ofrece una revisión de las siete aportaciones incluidas en este número especial sobre feedback, constatando cómo reflejan tanto el creciente interés por el tema en las distintas áreas de investigación como la continua búsqueda de técnicas más efectivas por parte del profesorado. Centrándose en primer lugar en las contribuciones de Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn y Allen, analiza cómo estos artículos sitúan la investigación sobre feedback en la corrección de trabajos escritos dentro del área más amplia de adquisición de segundas lenguas, contribuyendo al debate, dentro de la investigación sobre feedback, en torno a aspectos de diseño de la investigación. A continuación se examinan los resultados principales de los cuatro estudios empíricos realizados por Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary & Windeatt, y Martinez & Roca de Larios, que conforman la segunda sección. Siguiendo a estos autores, el artículo aboga por la realización de más estudios longitudinales de corte naturalista, que utilicen enfoques dentro del campo de la Adquisición de Segundas Lenguas tanto de carácter cognitivo como sociocultural, para investigar con más profundidad el papel del feedback y su impacto en perfiles concretos de aprendices. Finalmente, se tratan algunas implicaciones pedagógicas, incluyendo la necesidad de que las prácticas de feedback faciliten el desarrollo de habilidades de autocorrección y de evaluación del propio rendimiento por parte de los estudiantes, y la necesidad de incrementar el conocimiento que los docentes tienen acerca de las distintas fuentes y modos de implementación de feedback.

Fiona Hyland

2010-12-01

149

37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.  

Science.gov (United States)

...provisional application is filed in a language other than English, an English language translation of the non-English language provisional application will not be...a Compact Disc-Recordable (CD-R) in compliance with this...

2010-07-01

150

African American Language, Rhetoric, and Students' Writing: New Directions for SRTOL  

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For the past few decades, composition researchers have devoted critical attention to studying the ways that African American students employ Africanized linguistic and rhetorical patterns successfully in expository writing situations. More recently, research has focused on the use of African-based rhetorical patterns, since the use of African…

Perryman-Clark, Staci M.

2013-01-01

151

The Language of Sustainability: From Basic Writing Classroom to Professional Discourse  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Understanding and describing professional practice, especially in Engineering and the Sciences,  has always been at the heart of research in Professional Communication. Several significant field  research projects have showed us that content knowledge alone is not sufficient to claim disciplinary expertise; a rhetorical understanding of the discipline and its ways of thinking is essential in achieving full participation in the field. Most professionals would expect that such a sophisticated approach can only be learned through on-the-job training or opportunities to interact with practitioners within authentic disciplinary contexts. Although this can certainly be the case in many instances, we argue that a rhetorical understanding can be enacted even within a freshman writing classroom. The results of our content and rhetorical analyses of student work from the beginning and the end of a course on academic writing with the theme of sustainability show that students were able in one semester to write in discipline-appropriate ways and understand the rhetorical strategies necessary to become part of a disciplinary conversation.  The implications of our findings can extend into the way we design courses in basic writing or professional communication and the ways we can use pre-assessment data to drive our course design decisions. 

Karatsolis, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

152

Facebook, Writing and Language Learner Variables at a Large Metropolitan Community College  

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This study gathered information on student engagement with Facebook, and described non-native English speakers' (NNS) expectations and experience. This also assessed the relationship this technology has with writing efficacy and compared NNS and native English speakers (NS) groups. Demographic data were collected and means were compared to…

Dixon, Gregory A.

2012-01-01

153

Legislative drafting guidelines: How different are they from controlled language rules for technical writing?  

OpenAIRE

While human-oriented controlled languages developed and applied in the domain of technical documentation have received considerable attention, language control exerted in the process of legislative drafting has, until recently, gone relatively unnoticed by the controlled language community. This paper considers existing legislative drafting guidelines from the perspective of controlled language. It presents the results of a qualitative comparison of the rule sets of four German-language legis...

Ho?fler, Stefan

2012-01-01

154

Analysis of factors that influence the learning of a foreign language writing  

OpenAIRE

This study was designed to assess the influence of motivational variables, learning styles and learning strategies in the development of writing skills in English of students from first to second years at the University of Ciego de Avila. To achieve that objective was used the following questionnaires: R _SPQ_ 2 F to assess the level of motivation of the students towards the English, (CHAEA) to determine the learning styles of the sample, the Assessment Questionnaire Learning Strategies for d...

Mabel Anastasia Acosta García; Daniel González González

2012-01-01

155

37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (ii) Be in the English language or be accompanied by a translation...amendments into the English language together with a statement that...consecutively numbered using Arabic numerals, so as to...application may be filed in a language other than English....

2010-07-01

156

Reading, Living, and Writing Bilingual Poetry as ScholARTistry in the Language Arts Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Language arts educators who teach Latino English language learners know that part of their job is to help students learn to distinguish between the vernacular varieties of Spanish (or Mandarin, or Portuguese, or Swahili), English they use at home, and the school varieties of language expected in the classroom and in other professional and…

Cahnmann, Melisa

2006-01-01

157

The Effect of Target Language Use in Social Media on Intermediate-Level Chinese Language Learners' Writing Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

This quasi-experimental study examined whether there was any difference in the quantity and quality of the written texts produced by two groups (N = 18) of intermediate Chinese language learners. Over one semester, students in the experimental (E) group wrote weekly updates and comments in Chinese on a designated Facebook group page, while…

Wang, Shenggao; Vásquez, Camilla

2014-01-01

158

Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Bilingual Arabic-English Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were administered to the…

Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda

2013-01-01

159

Productive Vocabulary Knowledge and Evaluation of ESL Writing in Corpus-Based Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Since Sinclair (1991) concretized the possibilities of processing and analyzing large quantities of text data through corpus linguistic techniques, the applications of corpus linguistic approaches employing authentic language data and empirical evidence have been widely accepted in language teaching and research. As the applications of corpus…

Nam, Daehyeon

2010-01-01

160

Linguistic Contact Zones in the College Writing Classroom: An Examination of Ethnolinguistic Identity and Language Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

In this examination of Mexican-American bilingual college writers, it is argued that implicit language ideologies, common misconceptions about bidialectalism/bilingualism, and the classroom attitudinal domain subvert the success of ethnolinguistic minority students. The author designed and conducted a randomized language attitude survey (N = 195)…

Kells, Michelle Hall

2002-01-01

161

Oral Spelling and Writing in a Logographic Language: Insights from a Chinese Dysgraphic Individual  

Science.gov (United States)

The oral spelling process for logographic languages such as Chinese is intrinsically different from alphabetic languages. In Chinese only a subset of orthographic components are pronounceable and their phonological identities (i.e., component names) do not always correspond to the sound of the whole characters. We show that such phonological…

Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

2009-01-01

162

Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal / Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressig [...] nificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da Rede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by using the written language and how this process can constitute an opportunity to recr [...] eate their meanings. The data for this clinical study was collected in a group therapy involving 9 teenager students from public schools of Curitiba, with the complaint of reading and writing disorders. The group therapy was realized during one year inside the Speech language therapy clinic in Tuiuti University of Paraná. The meetings occurred every week during two hours totalizing 48 meetings. All data were video recorded and also written in a session diary. Six episodes considered very expressive were selected in order to analyze this theme. RESULTS: the research indicated that these individuals had a suffering relation with the written language and that they assumed incapacity positions towards it. It could be possible to observe that the clinical practices inside the group helped to recreate these relations, so that the individuals began to feel capable and assume responsibility positions in reading and writing practices. CONCLUSION: the speech language therapy group was built as a place where the individuals could set up a significant relation with reading and writing, providing key conditions for the re-significance of the symptoms and for interacting with different written texts, promoting thus changes between the individual and his own language.

Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida, Machado; Ana Paula, Berberian; Ana Paula, Santana.

2009-12-01

163

An Error-Analysis Design for Improving the Writing Skills of College-Level Foreign Language Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the premise that teaching basic writing involves first understanding what tends to go wrong when students write, a computer assisted system of error prediction and analysis was designed to improve college students' writing skills in both English and French. Students were to complete a sequenced series of writing assignments first in…

Krug, Clara

164

The influence of instructional support and teaching practices on first raders reading and writing. A comparative study in whole language and phonics classes.  

OpenAIRE

This study compares first graders’ acquisition of literacy in two different instructional settings. One teacher used a traditional skill-based approach while the other one was identified as a whole language teacher using literature and writing experiences with incidental attention to phonics. During the school year, documentation collection about the pedagogy included questionnaires, field notes of monthly observations of reading and writing lessons, systematic collections of the activities...

Pasa, L.

2001-01-01

165

Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressignificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da Rede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem.BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by using the written language and how this process can constitute an opportunity to recreate their meanings. The data for this clinical study was collected in a group therapy involving 9 teenager students from public schools of Curitiba, with the complaint of reading and writing disorders. The group therapy was realized during one year inside the Speech language therapy clinic in Tuiuti University of Paraná. The meetings occurred every week during two hours totalizing 48 meetings. All data were video recorded and also written in a session diary. Six episodes considered very expressive were selected in order to analyze this theme. RESULTS: the research indicated that these individuals had a suffering relation with the written language and that they assumed incapacity positions towards it. It could be possible to observe that the clinical practices inside the group helped to recreate these relations, so that the individuals began to feel capable and assume responsibility positions in reading and writing practices. CONCLUSION: the speech language therapy group was built as a place where the individuals could set up a significant relation with reading and writing, providing key conditions for the re-significance of the symptoms and for interacting with different written texts, promoting thus changes between the individual and his own language.

Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida Machado

2009-12-01

166

Teismeea loovkirjutiste sõnavara ja selle hindamine / Teenage vocabulary and its assessment in creative writing  

OpenAIRE

Within a study designed to find parameters of educated adult non-philologist L1-writings which give “ideal” benchmarks for assessing high-stakes L1 and L2 writing tests, students’ written vocabulary was targeted in grades 5, 7, 9, and 11 (age 12 to 18) to describe development towards those benchmarks (i.e., higher language cognition; see Hulstijn 2011). 159 students (90% of them native Estonians) were tasked to write an age-appropriate argumentative text on individual and social values....

Krista Kerge; Anne Uusen; Halliki Põlda

2014-01-01

167

Rocking Your Writing Program: Integration of Visual Art, Language Arts, & Science  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the integration of art, literacy and science in a second grade classroom, showing how an integrative approach has a positive and lasting influence on student achievement in art, literacy, and science. Ways in which art, science, language arts, and cognition intersect are reviewed. Sample artifacts are presented along with their…

Poldberg, Monique M.,; Trainin, Guy; Andrzejczak, Nancy

2013-01-01

168

Using Cooperative Learning To Improve Reading and Writing in Language Arts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deals with S. Kagan's (1990) structural approach to cooperative learning and its application to language arts. Offers detailed descriptions of several cooperative learning structures, including Numbered Heads Together, Roundtable, Think-Pair-Share, Corners, and others. Provides examples from actual classroom settings, along with various teacher…

Bromley, Karen; Modlo, Marcia

1997-01-01

169

Investigation of Writing Strategies, Writing Apprehension, and Writing Achievement among Saudi EFL-Major Students  

OpenAIRE

The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students` writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the relationship between writing strategies that EFL university students employ and writing apprehension, relationship between writing strategies use and stud...

AbdulRahman Al Asmari

2013-01-01

170

Alphabetic and nonalphabetic L1 effects in English word identification: a comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different writing systems in the world select different units of spoken language for mapping. Do these writing system differences influence how first language (L1) literacy experiences affect cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2)? Two groups of college students who were learning to read English as a second language (ESL) were examined for their relative reliance on phonological and orthographic processing in English word identification: Korean students with an alphabetic L1 literacy background, and Chinese students with a nonalphabetic L1 literacy background. In a semantic category judgment task, Korean ESL learners made more false positive errors in judging stimuli that were homophones to category exemplars than they did in judging spelling controls. However, there were no significant differences in responses to stimuli in these two conditions for Chinese ESL learners. Chinese ESL learners, on the other hand, made more accurate responses to stimuli that were less similar in spelling to category exemplars than those that were more similar. Chinese ESL learners may rely less on phonological information and more on orthographic information in identifying English words than their Korean counterparts. Further evidence supporting this argument came from a phoneme deletion task in which Chinese subjects performed more poorly overall than their Korean counterparts and made more errors that were phonologically incorrect but orthographically acceptable. We suggest that cross-writing system differences in L1s and L1 reading skills transfer could be responsible for these ESL performance differences. PMID:12590041

Wang, Min; Koda, Keiko; Perfetti, Charles A

2003-03-01

171

Digital Networks in Language Learning: Instant Messaging and the Practice and Acquisition of Writing Skills  

OpenAIRE

The advance of globalization and the information technology revolution call for fundamental changes in foreign language teaching and learning. However, according to Kern and Warschauer [1], “the computer, like any other technological tool used in teaching (…) does not in and of itself bring about improvements in learning.” Instead, they propose that we should “look to particular practices of use in particular contexts” so that we might be able to ascertain if the use of network-b...

Guerra, Luis

2012-01-01

172

Politeness Strategies in Thai Graduate Research Paper Discussions: Implications for Second/Foreign Language Academic Writing  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the use of politeness strategies in 32 discussion sections of research papers produced by Thai graduate students at Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok, Thailand. The study reported in this paper adopts Brown and Levinson’s (1978, 1987) and Myers’ (1989) models of politeness strategies. The project as a whole aims to identify what politeness strategies are most commonly used in the whole...

Kunyarut Getkham

2014-01-01

173

Toward a Theory of Adaptive Transfer: Expanding Disciplinary Discussions of "Transfer" in Second-Language Writing and Composition Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we argue that discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition studies have focused primarily on the reuse of past learning and thus have not adequately accounted for the adaptation of learned writing knowledge in unfamiliar situations. In an effort to expand disciplinary discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition…

DePalma, Michael-John; Ringer, Jeffrey M.

2011-01-01

174

¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom / ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1) de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI ), un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argume [...] ntos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1) parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Abstract in english Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifica [...] tions favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.

Sandra, Higareda; Georgina, López; Gerrard, Mugford.

2009-10-01

175

Self-Assessment of Writing in Learning English as a Foreign Language: A Study at the Upper Secondary School Level. Goteborg Studies in Educational Sciences 277  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of the study is to explore the role of self-assessment in EFL learning in developing lifelong language learning skills and in furthering the development of more comprehensive and thereby fairer assessment practices. The study explores how students perceived their own general and specific writing abilities in relation to syllabus goals…

Oscarson, Anne Dragemark

2009-01-01

176

Collaborative Writing Revision Process among Learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in an Online Community of Practice (CoP)  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study aimed to identify the revision strategies among learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). It also examined the focus of these strategies and learners' participation and membership in an online community of practice (CoP). As part of shared practices in this online CoP via a Facebook group, these revision writing…

Razak, Norizan Abdul; Saeed, Murad Abdu

2014-01-01

177

Japanese and English Sentence Reading Comprehension and Writing Systems: An fMRI Study of First and Second Language Effects on Brain Activation  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation from native Japanese (L1) readers reading hiragana (syllabic) and kanji (logographic) sentences, and English as a second language (L2). Kanji showed more activation than hiragana in right-hemisphere occipito-temporal lobe areas associated with visuospatial…

Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Just, Marcel A.

2009-01-01

178

e-Text Watermarking: Utilizing 'Kashida' Extensions in Arabic Language Electronic Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital signal. This work targets web applications that need to have hidden secure data within their Arabic e-text files. Many related watermarking techniques have been proposed as for text watermarking. However, most of them are suitable for English and cannot be generalized for different other languages such as Arabic. Arabic e-text watermarking is found having unique characteristics features that can be considered interestingly. In this paper, we are utilizing the extension Arabic character ‘Kashida’ to propose an improved method for Arabic e-text watermarking. We utilize all the extendable characters possibly fitted in words to represent some watermark bits. We embed bits within 'Kashida' characters in the cover text based on a secret key similar to classical cryptography. Our study showed that this watermarking scheme made the task of an attack much harder compared to previous similar and related methods. It also showed possibility to hide more secret data bits without degrading the security, which is believed to be attractive for web e-text data application such as preserving intellectual properties or copyright features.

Adnan Abdul-Aziz Gutub

2010-02-01

179

Investigation of Writing Strategies, Writing Apprehension, and Writing Achievement among Saudi EFL-Major Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students` writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the relationship between writing strategies that EFL university students employ and writing apprehension, relationship between writing strategies use and students` writing achievement, and differences between high and low writing anxiety in their writing strategy use. Data were drawn from 198 (68 males and 130 females EFL-major university students. The participants were asked to respond to a Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI; Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (Cheng, 2004 and to complete a Writing Strategies Inventory (Petric & Czarl, 2003. Some interviews were also conducted with some students to explore salient effective writing strategies that they used and the difficulties they faced during writing composition. Correlation, t-test, and ANOVA analyses were used to determine relationships between writing strategies and writing achievement and between students of high and low anxiety. The results of the study calls into question the common assumption that some of the Saudi undergraduates’ writing apprehension is pertinent to writing achievement. The results indicated that students with low writing anxiety were more users of writing strategies than the high anxious ones. Moreover, a significant negative correlation was found between students’ writing apprehension and their writing achievement.

AbdulRahman Al Asmari

2013-10-01

180

¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1 in English Language Teaching (ELT, critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI , un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.

Sandra Higareda

2009-10-01

181

Relationship among Iranian EFL Learners’ Self-efficacy in Writing, Attitude towards Writing, Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance  

OpenAIRE

The main trust of the present study was to investigate whether writing performance in students of English as a foreign language (EFL) was related to self-efficacy in writing, writing apprehension,  and attitude towards writing. Fifty IELTS students (30 females and 20 males) studying IELTS Writing participated in this study. In order to collect data, three instruments were used which were a writing apprehension test (WAT), a self-efficacy in writing scale (SWS), and a questionnaire on ...

Hoda Sarkhoush

2013-01-01

182

Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue  

Science.gov (United States)

Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) offers over 100 handouts on English writing skills. The collection could be called an online grammar book or a basic writing course. Categories covered include sentences, punctuation, parts of speech, spelling, methods of citing sources in research paper writing, English as a second language, and general writing concerns such as writers block, proofreading, non-sexist language, resume writing, business and professional writing, and coping with writing anxiety. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/

183

Writing 302: Writing Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

WRT 302: Writing Culture is an upper-level elective in the Department of Writing and Rhetoric at the University of Rhode Island (URI). As part of a group of four 300-level courses, Writing 302 draws many junior and senior majors in Writing and Rhetoric, English, and other majors who are looking to add creativity and experience with design to their…

White-Farnham, Jamie

2012-01-01

184

Assessing Learners' Writing Skills in a SLA Study: Validating the Rating Process across Tasks, Scales and Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

There is still relatively little research on how well the CEFR and similar holistic scales work when they are used to rate L2 texts. Using both multifaceted Rasch analyses and qualitative data from rater comments and interviews, the ratings obtained by using a CEFR-based writing scale and the Finnish National Core Curriculum scale for L2 writing…

Huhta, Ari; Alanen, Riikka; Tarnanen, Mirja; Martin, Maisa; Hirvelä, Tuija

2014-01-01

185

Word Reduction Editing in Second-Language Scientific Writing by East Asian and South Asian Chemistry Graduate Students  

Science.gov (United States)

A recursive scientific writing project was undertaken in a second-year, graduate-level course to teach students who were non-native English speakers to write scientific communications clearly and concisely in English. The instructor returned students' brief texts with editorial revisions marked to show how increased clarity may be achieved through…

Churchill, David G.

2006-01-01

186

Science Writing Achievement among English Language Learners: Results of Three-Year Intervention in Urban Elementary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of our professional development intervention, this study examined third-grade ELL students' writing achievement that included "form" (i.e., conventions, organization, and style/voice) and "content" (i.e., specific knowledge and understanding of science) in expository science writing. The study included six treatment schools from a large…

Lee, Okhee; Mahotiere, Margarette; Salinas, Alejandra; Penfield, Randall D.; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime

2009-01-01

187

Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Trilingual Arabic-Hebrew and English Learners  

OpenAIRE

This study examined whether helping poor readers improve their reading and writing language skills in English as a third language/foreign language (L3/FL) would also bring about an improvement in those same skills in Arabic (L1) and Hebrew (L2). Transferring linguistic skills from L3/FL to both L1 and L2 is termed “Cognitive Retroactive Transfer” (CRT). A battery of tests, administered to the experiment and control groups,...

Salim Abu-Rabia; Wael Shakkour

2014-01-01

188

Atribuição de significado à escrita, por crianças surdas usuárias de língua de sinais / Meaning assignment to writing by deaf children who are users of sign language  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo identifica orientações distintas presentes nas proposições metodológicas de ensino da escrita para surdos usuários de língua de sinais, assumidas na educação bilíngue. Assim, apresenta duas formas de interpretação e encaminhamento de proposições metodológicas de orientação bilíngue, em rela [...] ção ao ensino da escrita pelo surdo. O primeiro grupo de autores defende que o surdo deve aprender o português escrito tendo a língua de sinais como língua base. O segundo grupo, fundamentado em pesquisas da neuropsicologia cognitiva, defende que a escrita dos sinais, que deve ser a primeira língua escrita de aprendizes surdos sinalizadores. Conclui-se que as duas orientações sobre as possíveis relações entre o surdo e a escrita não devem ser tomadas como posições excludentes. Pelo contrário, sugere-se que a escrita dos sinais, enquanto um sistema simbólico repleto de significados, constitui-se como ferramenta eficiente para maximizar o desenvolvimento das funções psicológicas superiores dos aprendizes surdos, bem como para fornecer meios de aproximação com o sistema de escrita alfabética. Abstract in english This article identifies distinct guidelines on methodological propositions of the writing teaching for deaf users of sign language, which are assumed in bilingual education. So, it presents two forms of interpretation and routing of methodological propositions of bilingual orientation, in relation t [...] o the writing teaching by the deaf. The first group of authors defends that the deaf must learn written Portuguese having sign language as the base language. The second group, based on researches about cognitive neuropsychology, defends that SignWriting must be the first written language of deaf sign apprentices. We concluded that both orientations about the possible relations between the deaf and writing mustn't be taken as excluding positions. On the contrary, it is suggested that SignWriting, as a symbolic system full of meanings, is an efficient tool to maximize the development of higher psychological functions of the deaf apprentices, as well as to provide means of approximation with the system of alphabetic writing.

Tânia dos Santos Alvarez da, Silva; Maria Augusta, Bolsanello.

189

Self-expressions, Socialization and Learning in Dialogue Journals: Features of Beginner Writers in Second Language Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Collaborative learning involves learners working together as a group in maximizing their learning experience and in developing the learners’ sense of belonging to the group. This paper discusses the features of a collaborative writing activity, the dialogue journal, that exist during a writing activity. The features were discussed based on literature and a case study on a group of second-year ESL learners of Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis, Malaysia. The selections of the students’ dialogue journal writing were found to display features of the learners’ self-expressions, learning and interactions among their classmates and teacher.

Mahani Mansor

2011-08-01

190

Early development of language by hand: composing, reading, listening, and speaking connections; three letter-writing modes; and fast mapping in spelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first findings from a 5-year, overlapping-cohorts longitudinal study of typical language development are reported for (a) the interrelationships among Language by Ear (listening), Mouth (speaking), Eye (reading), and Hand (writing) in Cohort 1 in 1st and 3rd grade and Cohort 2 in 3rd and 5th grade; (b) the interrelationships among three modes of Language by Hand (writing manuscript letters with pen and keyboard and cursive letters with pen) in each cohort in the same grade levels as (a); and (c) the ability of the 1st graders in Cohort 1 and the 3rd graders in Cohort 2 to apply fast mapping in learning to spell pseudowords. Results showed that individual differences in Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression are stable developmentally, but each functional language system is only moderately correlated with the others. Likewise, manuscript writing, cursive writing, and keyboarding are only moderately correlated, and each has a different set of unique neuropsychological predictors depending on outcome measure and grade level. Results support the use of the following neuropsychological measures in assessing handwriting modes: orthographic coding, rapid automatic naming, finger succession (grapho-motor planning for sequential finger movements), inhibition, inhibition/switching, and phonemes skills (which may facilitate transfer of abstract letter identities across letter formats and modes of production). Both 1st and 3rd graders showed evidence of fast mapping of novel spoken word forms onto written word forms over 3 brief sessions (2 of which involved teaching) embedded in the assessment battery; and this fast mapping explained unique variance in their spelling achievement over and beyond their orthographic and phonological coding abilities and correlated significantly with current and next-year spelling achievement. PMID:16390289

Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Jones, Janine; Wolf, Beverly J; Gould, Laura; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Apel, Kenn

2006-01-01

191

Japanese and English sentence reading comprehension and writing systems: An fMRI study of first and second language effects on brain activation  

OpenAIRE

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation from Japanese readers reading hiragana (syllabic) and kanji (logographic) sentences, and English as a second language (L2). Kanji showed more activation than hiragana in right-hemisphere occipito-temporal lobe areas associated with visuospatial processing; hiragana, in turn, showed more activation than kanji in areas of the brain associated with phonological processing. L1 results underscore the difference in vi...

Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Just, Marcel A.

2009-01-01

192

Learning the language of school history: the role of linguistics in mapping the writing demands of the secondary school curriculum  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports on a research study which used the tools of functional linguistics to illuminate the writing requirements of the history curriculum in the context of Australian secondary schools. It shows how the resulting linguistic description was integrated into a sequence of teaching and learning activities through collaboration between linguist specialists and content/pedagogic specialists. These activities were designed to facilitate students’ writing skills whilst simultaneously d...

Coffin, Caroline

2006-01-01

193

The Full-Year Asian Language Concentration FALCON Program in Chinese Language at Cornell University.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Full-Year Asian Language Concentration (FALCON) program was designed for students who need an intensive program in Chinese to make them proficient enough for graduate study. Using L1, FALCON teaches students to express adult concepts in L2. Since good writing requires a great degree of proficiency, it is neglected initially for the sake of a…

McCoy, John

194

Science Writing Center  

Science.gov (United States)

This reference provides students with assistance in writing assignments. It offers samples of Science and Language Arts materials that focus on the writing process. Examples include investigation charts, a science rubric, and graphic organizers. There are also lists of transition words and phrases and persuasive writing signal words, a set of instructions on how to write a persuasive essay, and a set of instructions on proofreading.

195

EFFECTS OF CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFER IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION EFFECTS OF CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFER IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION  

OpenAIRE

This article concentrates on the impact that cross-linguistic influences have on second language acquisition. It investigates the importance of the learner's native language (L1) in written production of a second language (L2), particularly the use of L1 linguistic rules by Spanish speakers when they are writing in the target language (L2). This exploratory research focuses on the production errors made by students relative to specific subsystems such as semantic and syntactic areas. Err...

María del Mar Ramón Torrijos

2009-01-01

196

Learning the Language of School History: The Role of Linguistics in Mapping the Writing Demands of the Secondary School Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses the tools of functional linguistics to illuminate the writing requirements of the history curriculum in the context of Australian secondary schools. It shows how the resulting linguistic description was integrated into a sequence of teaching and learning activities through collaboration between linguists and content/pedagogic…

Coffin, Caroline

2006-01-01

197

Teaching and Assessing Academic Writing via the Portfolio: Benefits for Learners of English as an Additional Language  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the use of portfolios as pedagogical tools for developing academic writing. In particular, it considers the value of multi-drafting, where learners reflect on the learning of a text type as well as focusing on micro and macro aspects. The paper outlines a situated pedagogical approach, where students come to understand their…

Romova, Zina; Andrew, Martin

2011-01-01

198

How to Cope with Spaghetti Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores essay writing problems common to intermediate and advanced English-as-a-second-language students and suggests such remedies as pre-writing exercises and post-writing analysis to help students overcome these problems. (Author/CB)

McDevitt, Damien

1989-01-01

199

SOME THOUGHTS ON WRITING SKILLS  

OpenAIRE

Writing is one of the central pillars of language learning and should be of major interest and concern to teachers, students and researchers. This paper is intended to be a plea for writing and explores issues regarding instruction and evaluation of writing skills of nonnative speaker students. It examines expectations of nonnative speakers writing quality and performance on writing proficiency exams, as well. Finally, it is trying to ring a bell about this skill that has been neglected in sp...

Sim Monica Ariana

2010-01-01

200

Some Issues for the Teaching of Writing  

OpenAIRE

In this article the definition of writing as a means and as an end is analyzed in order to raise some concerns about the teaching of writing at different schools in general. From this definition I question other important issues that ultimately affect our students¿ writing production. These have to deal with the use of writing in the mother language, writing activities in the textbooks, the realistic nature of the writing tasks, the other language skills input, and the production of texts. T...

Lombana Claudia Helena

2002-01-01

201

Lenguas extranjeras, escritura y desarrollo: un reto para el profesional de las ciencias médicas Foreign languages, writing and development: a challenge for health professionals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El notable incremento de la colaboración médica cubana en la arena internacional y la revolución en las ciencias informáticas ha generado la necesidad de una reconceptualización de del aprendizaje de la escritura en el estudio de las lenguas extranjeras, el inglés en particular, en la educación médica superior. Se exploran los beneficios que aporta este tipo de competencia al estudiante de lenguas extranjeras y se particulariza cuán necesario es esta habilidad para el profesional de la salud.The growing Cuban health sector collaboration with other countries as well as the revolution in information sciences has brought about the need to reconceptualize the role of learning how to write in foreign languages, English in particular, in Higher Medical Education. The present work explores the general contribution of this type of competence to the learner of foreign languages and gives particular attention to the usefulness of this skill to the health professional.

Rafael Forteza Fernández

2004-12-01

202

PDI: Science for English Language Learners (ELL): Integrating Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking, and Thinking into the K-8 Classroom, New Orleans, Louisiana; March 18, 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

This Professional Development Institute (PDI) will focus on teaching strategies and methods that incorporate language acquisition with science instruction for English Language Learners (ELL) in the K-8 classroom. Specifically, this institute will begin with an overview of research on the ELL population, instruction, and programs available to teachers who have responsibilities for teaching science. The bulk of the 6 hours of instruction will provide guided inquiry activities that model integrated (Sheltered Instruction) strategies in science, reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking. The follow-up workshops will provide more in-depth research and instruction in each of the language skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking) as they apply to science instruction as well as working with specific populations of ELL students and available programs. Classrooms in the United States are becoming more diverse thus requiring regular classroom teachers to develop new skills in working with students whose first language is not English. Recent census data show that over the past twenty five years the number of ELL students (ages 5-17) grew from 3.8 million to 9.9 million or approximately 10% of the entire U.S. school population (NCES, 2006). With this incredible growth, regular classroom teachers are in need of learning new teaching skills in language acquisition to integrate into everyday classroom content instruction. Sheltered Instructional strategies or Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) involve teaching strategies used in developing language skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking and incorporates them into content area (Science) planning, instruction and assessment. These strategies include clearly defined language and content objectives, creating instruction that relates to students' prior knowledge, tailoring teacher talk to students' English language proficiency levels, allowing students to process material in a variety of formats including guided inquiry, scaffolding content instruction, and using assessment methods that allow students to display learning in a variety of ways (Becijos,1997; Echevarria, Vogt, and Short, 2008). This is especially important to teachers at the elementary and middle school as the majority of ELL students are entering schools at these levels. Of all ELL students entering school, 44% are in grades K-3 and 35% in grades 4-8 (Kindler, 2002). This Professional Development Institute will be conducted by David Crowther, a Professor of Science Education at the University of Nevada, Reno. Dr. Crowther is the coauthor/editor of Science for English Language Learners by NSTA Press. He has written several chapters in books and articles about science for ELLs; presented at NSTA workshops and TESOL on the subject; and teaches science methods using Sheltered Instruction strategies at the University of Nevada, Reno. Joaquin Vil� is a Professor of English and Second Language Acquisition at Salisbury University in Maryland. In his numerous years of experience he has conducted many workshops on teaching EL students, written chapters / articles, and led departments and programs for ELL within the English departments at several universities. Dr. Vil� is also a NCATE evaluator of TESOL programs and is the Special Assistant to the Vice President of the University for Diversity. Presenters are recognized as top researchers, authors, and workshop facilitators in the field of science and language acquisition.

1900-01-01

203

Teaching With Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching writing can be a challenge, even for those who have been in front of a class full of students for years. The website of the Writing Center at Colorado State University is a great source of information for people who teach writing. A good place to start is the Teaching Guides area, which includes strategies on Planning & Conducting Classes, Teaching Specific Writing Skills, and Writing Across the Curriculum. Furthermore, the Teaching Activities section includes a range of compelling aides including Argument Quiz Discussion Starter, Evaluating Writing, and A Storyteller's Misguided Guide to Focus. Visitors also should also read the Across the Disciplines journal, which is "devoted to language, learning, and academic writing.� Other highlights include The Composition Archives and a crucial guide to dealing with plagiarism.

2012-01-01

204

We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982.

Stephen Krashen

2008-04-01

205

Teaching Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors of "Teaching Writing" draw on their years of teaching and their knowledge of theory and research to present major concepts in teaching L2 writing. These concepts encompass how cultural differences affect the writing class, planning instruction, text-based writing, writing strategies, modeling, and responding to student…

Tomas, Z.; Kostka, I.; Mott-Smith, J. A.

2013-01-01

206

DESCRIPTIVE VERSUS DIALOGIC REFLECTION AND POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE STANCE IN THE REFLECTIVE WRITING OF TURKISH PROSPECTIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in thei...

Yes?i?lbursa, Amanda

2011-01-01

207

Phonological Awareness and Oral Language Proficiency in Learning to Read English among Chinese Kindergarten Children in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…

Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

2013-01-01

208

The influence of instructional support and teaching practices on first raders reading and writing. A comparative study in whole language and phonics classes.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compares first graders’ acquisition of literacy in two different instructional settings. One teacher used a traditional skill-based approach while the other one was identified as a whole language teacher using literature and writing experiences with incidental attention to phonics. During the school year, documentation collection about the pedagogy included questionnaires, field notes of monthly observations of reading and writing lessons, systematic collections of the activities, and analysis of the linguistic structures contained in the texts used for reading lessons in both classrooms. Data collection was conducted longitudinally and involved three tasks: invented spelling, oral reading and reading content recall. Various analyses indicate that both groups of children learnt the graphophonic system and were able to use it for encoding and decoding. Differences between the two groups were in the difficulties encountered in the three tasks. The influence of the way the teacher leads the reading lessons, the activities proposed and the reading supports used on first graders’ difficulties and the strategies used are discussed.

Pasa., L.

2001-01-01

209

University writing  

OpenAIRE

Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn) and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done). The article also discusses the contri...

Miguel Zabalza Beraza

2013-01-01

210

Cross-linguistic influence in the writing of an Italian learner of English as a foreign language: An exploratory study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo se basa en el análisis de la naturaleza de la influencia de la lengua primera en la producción escrita de un estudiante de inglés como lengua extranjera cuya lengua primera es el italiano. El propósito principal es examinar cómo la influencia croslingüística se manifiesta a nivel sintá [...] ctico y léxico. Los resultados sugieren que tanto la forma como los significados expresados en la lengua extranjera son formados por el conocimiento y el uso de la lengua extranjera y la influencia de la lengua materna. Abstract in english This paper is based on the analysis of the nature of the first language influence on the written production of an Italian learner of English as a foreign language. The goal of the present exploratory study is to examine how cross-linguistic influence manifests itself at the level of syntax and lexis [...] . Findings suggest that forms and meanings in the L2 are expressed and shaped by the learner's knowledge and use of the foreign language as well as by the influence of the mother tongue.

2008-01-01

211

Enhancing EFL Learners’ Writing Skill via Journal Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Frequently accepted as being the last language skill to be acquired for native speakers of the language as well as for foreign/second language learners” (Hamp-Lyons and Heasly, 2006: 2, English writing, for a number of EFL learners, appears to be challenging. This paper sought to investigate if learners can grow out of the writing difficulties by engaging in journal writing activity. 85 second-year students from the two writing classes, one treated as the experimental group (EG and the other as the control group (CG, at the Faculty of English Linguistics and Literature of the University of Social Sciences and Humanities in Ho Chi Minh City (USSH-HCMC were invited to participate in the study, whose findings substantiated the benefits of journal writing as an extensive activity to foster learners' writing motivation and enhance their writing skill as well as to build a close bonding between teachers and learners.

Luu Trong Tuan

2010-08-01

212

SOME THOUGHTS ON WRITING SKILLS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing is one of the central pillars of language learning and should be of major interest and concern to teachers, students and researchers. This paper is intended to be a plea for writing and explores issues regarding instruction and evaluation of writing skills of nonnative speaker students. It examines expectations of nonnative speakers writing quality and performance on writing proficiency exams, as well. Finally, it is trying to ring a bell about this skill that has been neglected in spite of its importance when it comes to foreign language acquisition

Sim Monica Ariana

2010-07-01

213

Linguagem escrita e relações estéticas: algumas considerações / Considerations on language writing and aesthetic relations / Lenguaje escrito y relaciones estéticas: algunas consideraciones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O processo de constituição do sujeito ocorre a partir de relações sociais, semioticamente mediadas. Assim, é via produção de sentidos que o ser humano produz cultura e, simultaneamente, constitui-se enquanto singularidade, o que caracteriza esse processo como criador. Ao reconhecer a linguagem como [...] constitutiva do sujeito e entender o processo de criação como característico do ser humano, o presente trabalho apresenta reflexões, à luz da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural, sobre os processos de criação na/com a linguagem escrita. Situações de uma pesquisa anteriormente desenvolvida são apresentadas para ilustrar as dicotomias existentes no processo de produção escrita, mais especificamente no que se refere às relações forma/conteúdo e técnica/sentido. Para a superação dessas dicotomias, necessário se faz estabelecer relações estéticas com a realidade, por cujo intermédio a pessoa pode distanciar-se e aproximar-se da produção escrita, seja esta produto de sua objetivação ou não. É este movimento que possibilita a organização de novos sentidos para a produção própria ou alheia e, por conseguinte, novas escritas. Abstract in spanish El proceso de constitución del sujeto ocurre a partir de relaciones sociales, semióticamente mediadas. Así, es vía producción de sentidos que el ser humano produce cultura y, simultáneamente, se constituye con singularidad, lo que caracteriza ese proceso como creador. Al reconocer el lenguaje como c [...] onstitutivo del sujeto y entender el de creación como característico del ser humano, el presente trabajo presenta reflexiones, a la luz de la Psicología Histórico-cultural, sobre los procesos de creación en el/con el lenguaje escrito. Situaciones de una encuesta anteriormente desarrollada son presentadas para ilustrar las dicotomías existentes en el proceso de producción escrita, más específicamente en lo que se refiere a las relaciones forma/contenido y técnica/sentido. Para la superación de esas dicotomías, se hace necesario establecer relaciones estéticas con la realidad, por cuyo intermedio la persona puede distanciarse y aproximarse de la producción escrita, sea ésta producto de su objetivación o no. Es este movimiento que posibilita la organización de nuevos sentidos para la producción propia o ajena y, por consiguiente nuevas escritas. Abstract in english The process of the constitution of the subject occurs through semiotically mediated social relationships. Through the production of meanings the human being produces culture and, simultaneously, constitutes its singularity, which characterizes the process as creative. While acknowledging language as [...] constitutive of the subject and the comprehension of the creative process as unique to humans, current analysis presents some considerations, based on historical-cultural psychology, on the creative processes with language writing. Situations from a previous research are shown to illustrate the dichotomies during the process of writing production, more specifically the relations between shape/content and technique/meaning. So that these dichotomies may be overcome, it is necessary to establish aesthetic relations with reality. Through reality the subject may distance him/herself from or approach the writing production whether or not it is his/her production. Such shifting permits the organization of new meanings for one’s own or for others’ production, or rather, for new writings.

Silmara Carina Dornelas, Munhoz; Andréa Vieira, Zanella.

2008-06-01

214

We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper. My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper.

Stephen Krashen

2008-04-01

215

DESCRIPTIVE VERSUS DIALOGIC REFLECTION AND POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE STANCE IN THE REFLECTIVE WRITING OF TURKISH PROSPECTIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in their teacher education could be beneficial in helping them to develop their critical thinking skills and to make the most of their future teaching experiences. Thus, the current study was conducted to describe the individual reflective profiles emerging from the analysis of the written reflections of 28 Turkish prospective English Language teachers on a video-recorded microteaching experience carried out as part of a methodology course. A mixed method approach was adopted to this aim. First, qualitative analysis of the written reflections revealed reflective categories showing how the participants reflected on their teaching experience. Second, frequency analysis was used to reveal the distribution of these reflective categories for each participant. The data analysis showed that the individual participants displayed different patterns of reflection in terms of descriptive and dialogic reflection, and positive and negative stance.

Amanda YE??LBURSA

2011-10-01

216

Writing Workshop.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six ideas for writing autobiographies with elementary school students include: model the writing process to get students started; read examples of autobiographies; brainstorm writing ideas; free-write the first draft; edit and revise; and publish the stories. Suggestions for mini-lessons are included. A student reproducible offers an editing…

Novelli, Joan

2001-01-01

217

Writing Objectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop writing objectives. Four objectives related to writing skills are stated: "write to communicate adequately in a social situation"; "write to communicate adequately in a business or…

Norris, Eleanor L.

218

University writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

Miguel Zabalza Beraza

2013-01-01

219

The role of previously learned languages in the thought processes of multilingual writers at the Deutsche Schule Barcelona  

OpenAIRE

To shed light on the type of behavior which goes on in multilingual classrooms, this study aims to investigate the lexical search processes of 10 upper-intermediate level German/Spanish/Catalan(/French) multilinguals from the Deutsche Schule Barcelona while writing in English. The results show that multiple languages were activated during composition, and that these languages were not limited to the target language and the L1. Referral to previously learned languages was a comm...

Tullock, Brandon D.

2011-01-01

220

Language  

OpenAIRE

Professor Dan Everett, linguistic anthropologist and author of Language: The Cultural Tool, tells us how a language spoken by a tribe living deep in the Amazon jungle poses a direct challenge to the widely-held view that language is inherent. Prize-winning poet Philip Gross talks to us about his father’s loss of language and reads from his collections Deep Field and The Water Table. As part of our academic inspiration series we speak to LSE economist and Bloomberg TV broadcaster Linda Yueh ...

Everett, Dan; Gross, Philip; Yueh, Linda; Mollett, Amy; Brumley, Cheryl

2012-01-01

221

Book Review: Stop, Write!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

Hans Thulesius

2013-06-01

222

Editorial. Crossing cultural boundaries. A window into diverse issues and contexts in L1-Education.  

OpenAIRE

This issue of L1 – Educational Studies in Language and Literature is the largest single issue we have produced since our introduction in 2000. Containing seven articles, it covers a range of L1 issues: reform movements, the role of literature, culture and multiculturalism in L1, literacy, technology, reading comprehension and the role of oral and written language in L1 Teacher Education.

Kooy, M.

2007-01-01

223

Model, Engage, Write, and Evaluate: A Model for Informative Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Writing is regarded as a particularly demanding process involving complex higher level thinking processes combined with the demands of certain meta-cognitive skills. Since academic success may be predicted by the student’s level of reading comprehension and writing skills and with the recent adoption of the Common Core State Standards, it is an ideal time for conceptualizing how to improve writing instruction for elementary students.  This mixed-methods study investigated the effects of process writing instruction on the development of second and third grade students’ writing abilities focusing on wide reading and inquiry, writing frames, technology netbooks, and grammar/mechanics.  Results indicate that all students involved advanced at least two stages on Gunning’s scale of writing proficiency, increased in number of words written, addressed problems in writing mechanics, and improved selective language use.  Findings are relevant to classroom teachers, specialists, and administrators alike.

Juanita Moller

2011-12-01

224

Spell by Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Specifically intended to address the teaching of spelling, this description of an elementary school program in Australia deals with many of the pedagogical problems that arise in whole language classrooms, and suggests ways for teachers to integrate a process approach to spelling with process writing to create a total language program. Following…

Bean, Wendy; Bouffler, Chrystine

225

Street Corner Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The language of Black America is rich and diverse in its utterance, whether through music (Jazz, Blues, Soul, Gospel, and Rap), through street corner "shuckin''n jivin'," or through writing. This language is used as a means of survival, of getting from one day to the next. Blacks have developed a system of taking the fewest words and making them…

Holiday, D. Alexander

226

Academic writing in a corpus of 4th grade science notebooks: An analysis of student language use and adult expectations of the genres of school science  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a study of language use in the context of an inquiry-based science curriculum in which conceptual understanding ratings are used split texts into groups of "successful" and "unsuccessful" texts. "Successful" texts could include known features of science language. 420 texts generated by students in 14 classrooms from three school districts, culled from a prior study on the effectiveness of science notebooks to assess understanding, in addition to the aforementioned ratings are the data sources. In science notebooks, students write in the process of learning (here, a unit on electricity). The analytical framework is systemic functional linguistics (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004), specifically the concepts of genre, register and nominalization. Genre classification involves an analysis of the purpose and register features in the text (Schleppegrell, 2004). The use of features of the scientific academic register, namely the use relational processes and nominalization (Halliday and Martin, 1993), requires transitivity analysis and noun analysis. Transitivity analysis, consisting of the identification of the process type, is conducted on 4737 ranking clauses. A manual count of each noun used in the corpus allows for a typology of nouns. Four school science genres, procedures, procedural recounts reports and explanations, are found. Most texts (85.4%) are factual, and 14.1% are classified as explanations, the analytical genre. Logistic regression analysis indicates that there is no significant probability that the texts classified as explanation are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, material process clauses predominate in the corpus, followed by relational process clauses. Results of a logistic regression analysis indicate that there is a significant probability (Chi square = 15.23, p < .0001) that texts with a high rate of relational processes are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, 59.5% of 6511 nouns are references to physical materials, followed by references to abstract concepts (35.54%). Only two of the concept nouns were found to be nominalized referents in definition model sentences. In sum, the corpus has recognizable genres and features science language, and relational processes are more prevalent in "successful" texts. However, the pervasive feature of science language, nominalization, is scarce.

Esquinca, Alberto

227

Contribution of L1 in EFL Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is conducted in a classroom action research to improve the students’ achievement in writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense in Structure 1 lessons. The subject consisted of 20 Semester II students who took Structure I lessons in English Education Department of Palangka Raya University, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The data were taken from the results of pre test and post test after the action was done. The results show that in cycle 1, in which the explanations were fully in English, only 40% of the students got a good achievement; 5-7 out of 20 test items were correct. After cycle 2 was done using L1 interchangeably with English in the explanations, the students’ achievement of writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense increased to 75%, in which 15-18 out 20 test items were correct.

Wahjuningsih Usadiati

2009-01-01

228

RAFT Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This web page provides an overview of the RAFT writing strategy, a strategy that helps students understand their role as a writer, the audience they will address, the varied formats for writing, and the topic they'll be writing about. Sample RAFT prompts and references are provided.

2012-01-01

229

Don't be afraid of writing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book deals with requirements of good writings, comprehension toward characters of language, understanding of subjects and materials, grasp of structure of writings, and reality of writing. It contains theoretical requirements of good writing such as creativity, clearness, probity, how to understand the right meanings of language by showing standard languages, dialects, foreign languages, loan words, newly coined words, in-words, slangs, jargon. It also introduces subjects, topics, materials, sentences, meaning, structure, type, requirement, length of paragraphs, diaries, letter writings, travel essays, descriptions, and essays.

230

Out of a Writing Conference: Speaking Writing Connection  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value onl...

Utami Widiati

1997-01-01

231

Business Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Georgia State University's website on Business Writing was designed as a tool for teachers creating new business writing courses. Included in the samples are class projects, student assignments, teaching philosophies, and multi-media suggestions for teaching writing to large groups. In addition to the syllabi provided, there are schedule breakdowns for classes held three times a week or two times per week, and assessment tips. This website could be valuable to any instructor of writing, but especially helpful for those designing business writing courses.

2007-03-24

232

Lassoing Levels of Language.  

Science.gov (United States)

In early stages of writing, the writing process encourages "writing the way we talk," but in the end students are expected to write as academicians: a student must control his/her written level of language. For English speaking students, needing to belong to ingroups, and the casual attitude of American society both contribute to students'…

Muniz, Eva Vera

233

Examining the Use of Computers in Writing by Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language: Analysis of Kanji in the Handwritten and Typed Domains  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares second-year Japanese university students' strategies to write kanji by hand with their strategies to produce the kanji characters on a computer, taking into account factors such as accuracy in writing, the amount of kanji used, the complexity of the kanji used, as well as how the characters used compare with the sequence…

Dixon, Michael

2012-01-01

234

Linguajamentos e contra-hegemonias epistêmicas sobre linguagem em produções escritas indígenas / Languaging and epistemic counter-hegemony on language in writings by Brazilian Indians / Modos de hablar y contrahegemonías epistémicas sobre lenguaje en producciones escritas indígenas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo, resultado de uma pesquisa qualitativa documental, discute práticas epistêmicas sobre linguagem de autoras e autores indígenas residentes no Brasil. Com base em autoras e autores indígenas e não indígenas - decolonialistas e pós-estruturalistas - confrontamos suas concepções de linguagem [...] , considerando a construção das sociedades indígenas como o outro/objeto, que está presente na produção hegemônica de saber sobre linguagem. Consideramos o processo de silenciamento a que as etnias indígenas foram sujeitadas, e também o processo de resistência e apropriação de práticas e conceitos dos não indígenas, assim como coexistência de conceitos como língua, escrita e identidade. Como conclusão, apontamos a necessidade de ampliar o olhar epistemológico para dar conta de práticas discursivas coexistentes às do não indígena. Abstract in spanish Este artículo, resultado de una investigación cualitativa documental, discute prácticas epistémicas sobre lenguaje de autoras y autores indígenas residentes en Brasil. Con base en autoras y autores indígenas y no indígenas - de colonialistas y posestructuralistas - confrontamos sus concepciones de l [...] eenguaje, considerando la construcción de las sociedades indígenas como el otro/objeto, que está presente en la producción hegemónica de saber sobre lenguaje. Consideramos el proceso de silenciamiento a que las etnias indígenas fueron sujetadas, y también el proceso de resistencia y apropriación de prácticas y conceptos de los no indígenas, así como coexistencia de conceptos como lengua, escritura e identidad. Como conclusión, apuntamos la necesidad de ampliar la observación epistemológica para dar cuenta de prácticas discursivas coexistentes a las de la no indígena. Abstract in english This paper presents the results of a qualitative documentary research which discusses epistemic practices on language by indigenous authors inhabiting Brazil. Based on indigenous authors, as well as on poststructuralist and decolonialist ones, this paper confronts theirs language concepts, consideri [...] ng the construction of indigenous societies as the other/object, which is part of the hegemonic production of knowledge about language. We make considerations on the process of silencing of the indigenous groups, and also the process of resistance and appropriation of concepts and practices by non-indigenous, as well as the coexistence of concepts such as language, writing and identity. As a conclusion, we point to the urgent need to expand epistemological perspectives in order to deal with the co-existing discursive practices of the indigenous and the non-indigenous.

Elismênnia Aparecida, Oliveira; Joana Plaza, Pinto.

2011-08-01

235

Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

2011-01-01

236

Writing successful UX proposals  

CERN Document Server

Bringing new project funding and business opportunities to your organization is a vital part of UX professionals' growth and success. Writing Successful UX Proposals teaches the proven techniques for assessing proposal requests, writing successful commercial and government funding proposals, and enhancing your business development skills. This book will teach UX practitioners how to succeed in UX business development by mastering the following goals: * Understand how to assess a request for proposals* Understand the "anatomy" of a proposal response * Speak the business language of those who will be evaluating the proposed approach* Recognize the successes of others and build upon their advice Complete with case studies, tricks and tips, and real-world examples throughout, this is a must-have resource for UX professionals interested in honing their proposal writing skills and setting themselves up for success. * Provides unique sales and proposal writing insights tailored to the UX arena (including both resear...

Hass, Chris

2014-01-01

237

El andamiaje docente en el desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura en lengua extranjera / Scaffolding in the development of foreing language reading and writing skills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El andamiaje constituye una estructura provisional, aportada por el docente o los pares más capacitados, que sirve de apoyo al estudiante en la construcción de los nuevos aprendizajes, la cual es retirada una vez que el estudiante es capaz de funcionar de manera independiente. El propósito de este e [...] studio es explorar la naturaleza de los procesos de andamiaje docente que operan durante el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera (LE), con el objeto de constituir un soporte teorético-heurístico que fundamente la selección de procedimientos de trabajo de aula orientados a promover y regular dichos procesos. Para ello, se realiza una investigación de tipo teórico-documental con un abordaje epistemológico racionalista, a partir del análisis de diversas fuentes bibliográficas y cibergráficas. En primer lugar, se define y clarifica el concepto de andamiaje con el objeto de proceder a su caracterización y establecer las teorías que lo sustentan. En segundo lugar, se señalan orientaciones generales para un mejor andamiaje de los procesos de aprendizaje por parte del docente de LE. Finalmente, se sugieren estrategias docentes que resultan efectivas en la provisión de andamiaje durante el desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura en LE. La investigación aporta basamentos teóricos y orientaciones procedimentales que se espera contribuyan a mejorar la praxis pedagógica del docente de lenguas extranjeras, acorde con tendencias pedagógicas de la actualidad. Abstract in english Scaffolding is a provisional structure provided by a teacher, other highly skilled teachers or skilled students, to support learners during construction of new knowledge. Once students are able to work on their own, the structure is withdrawn. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of i [...] nstructional scaffolding processes during foreign language (FL) learning. The objective was to build a theoretical background to support selection of classroom procedures that promote and regulate these processes. A theoretical and bibliographical research was carried out from a rationalist epistemological perspective, through an analysis of a variety of bibliographical references. First, the concept of scaffolding was defined and clarified in order to outline its characteristics and establish underlying theories. Then, general guidelines were pointed out to improve teacher scaffolding during FL learning. Finally, effective teaching strategies were suggested for scaffolding the development of reading and writing skills in a FL. This study yields theoretical background and procedural guidelines that we hope will contribute to the improvement of FL teaching practice in accordance with present-day pedagogical trends.

Ana Lucía, Delmastro.

2008-06-01

238

Out of a Writing Conference: Speaking Writing Connection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value only `the product' but also `the process'. When translated into the classroom, one of the features of this new paradigm, the writing process approach, is `the conference', which occurs between teacher and students as well as between students. As Mol (1992 states, writing conference provides students with immediate, meaningful responses to their writing, developing students' ability to reflect upon their own writing and the writing of others in a critical and constructive way. Looking back at our own experience in teaching writing, the conference does not only scaffold the students in the process of meaning-making but also creates an atmosphere where they are actively engaged in a `more focused' talk. This is of paramount importance since our students tend to speak in their native language even in the classroom.

Utami Widiati

1997-01-01

239

Shakespeare's Language  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Use these sites to answer the following questions: Shakepeare s Language, Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. Describe ...

Flowers, Ms.

2009-10-21

240

The Effect of Process Writing Practice on the Writing Quality of Form One Students: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Teachers who teach English as a second language are committed to develop an understanding and improvement of second language writing as learning to write in the second language is a complicated process. Despite the numerous research on second language writing, the phenomenon of writing is constantly under investigation as teachers want to share the findings of each study which provides knowledge that resonates with their teaching experience. This case study is a report about the effect of process writing practice on the writing quality of three Form one students. This study uses observation, interview, students’ drafts, and writing and examination scores as sources for data collection. The analyses show some effects on their writing pace and writing quality. The findings also reveal that students are able to attempt writing despite the difficulty of the given writing task.

Majid Pour-Mohammadi

2012-02-01

241

Looking, Writing, Creating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how a middle school language arts teacher makes analyzing and creating visual art a partner to reading and writing in her classroom. Describes a project on art and Vietnam which shows how background information can add to and influence interpretation. Describes a unit on Greek mythology and Greek vases which leads to a related visual…

Katzive, Bonnie

1997-01-01

242

Teorías personales de docentes de lengua sobre la enseñanza de la escritura en sistema de educación pública chilena / Language teacher personal theories about teaching writing in the Chilean public educational system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es sabido que las ideas que los docentes sostienen acerca de los procesos de enseñanza -aprendizaje de lenguas inciden en su quehacer pedagógico. Son escasos los estudios que explican las teorías personales de profesores de lenguas en torno a las habilidades lingüísticas de sus estudiantes. Por esta [...] razón, el objetivo de este trabajo es determinar cuáles son las teorías personales sobre escritura y su enseñanza en la educación media de seis profesores de inglés y de seis de Lenguaje y Comunicación que se desempeñan en establecimientos educacionales municipalizados de dos regiones de Chile. Para acceder a las teorías personales, los docentes fueron entrevistados con la finalidad de conocer sus ideas sobre diferentes aspectos de la enseñanza de la escritura. La metodología de análisis fue cualitativa y el procesamiento de los datos se realizó con el software NVivo. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los docentes asignan una alta importancia al desarrollo de la escritura, realizan actividades secuenciadas, se apoyan en textos modelos, favorecen el trabajo individual y promueven la escritura de textos breves. Abstract in english It is well known that the teachers' ideas about any area related to language teaching and learning processes impact on their pedagogical practice. There are not many studies, however, that explain language teachers' personal theories about linguistics abilities. The aim of this article is to present [...] the personal theories about writing of 6 English teachers and 6 Spanish teachers, who work in public schools in two regions of Chile. In order to find out the personal theories, we interviewed the teachers to deal with different aspects of the process of teaching writing. The methodology was qualitative and the data analysis was carried out with the support of NVivo software. The results indicate that the teachers assign great importance to the development of writing, carry out sequenced activities, support the process with model texts, foster individual work and promote the writing of brief texts.

Roxanna Carolina Correa, Pérez; Mónica Tapia, Ladino; Angie Neira, Martinez; Mabel Ortiz, Navarrete.

2013-06-01

243

El oficio del escritor académico: un portal para promover el uso de la lengua escrita como práctica social / The Profession of Academic Writing: A Portal to Promote the Use of Written Language as a Social Practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La escritura académica es un campo en creciente desarrollo debido al reconocimiento de que el uso de la lengua escrita y la socialización en las disciplinas académicas es indisoluble: la lengua no puede reducirse a la enseñanza de la ortografía y la gramática, ni la construcción de conocimiento pued [...] e entenderse sin la mediación de textos académicos en la educación superior. Sin embargo, existen aún muy pocas iniciativas institucionales para formalizar este tipo de acciones, y menos con un componente tecnológico. En este artículo presentamos el desarrollo de un portal de recursos para la escritura académica, el cual ilustra un conjunto de acciones y procesos constitutivos del oficio del escritor académico como una práctica social. Este modelaje de escritura académica se logra utilizando un paradigma sociocultural y uno de semiótica visual. Abstract in english Academic writing is a growing field due to the recognition that the use of written language and socialization in academic disciplines is indissoluble: language cannot be reduced to teaching spelling and grammar, nor can the construction of knowledge be understood without the mediation of academic te [...] xts in higher education. However, institutional initiatives for formalizing this type of actions are still very limited, especially in the case of technological components. In this article, we present the development of a portal of resources for academic writing, which illustrates a set of actions and processes that constitute the profession of academic writing as a social practice. This model of academic writing is achieved by using a sociocultural paradigm and a paradigm of visual semiotics.

Juan Manuel, Fernández-Cárdenas; Lorena, Piña-Gómez.

2014-03-01

244

Differences between Academic and Business Writing  

OpenAIRE

Most upper-division courses taken by foreign language majors and minors in US colleges and universities involve some form of academic writing. Students who transpose this writing style to the business setting risk being unsuccessful. The purpose of this article is to highlight how these styles of writing differ so that language instructors teaching business courses in departments of modern languages can better prepare students for the needs of the twenty-first-century workplace. Our students ...

Va?squez, Fe?lix S.

2013-01-01

245

Writing Nature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.

Kristin Asdal

2014-06-01

246

WEB-BASED WRITING INSTRUCTION AND ENHANCING EFL LEARNERS' WRITING QUALITY  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the present study is to determine whether Web-based Writing Instruction (WBWI) has any influence on the writing quality of Iranian EFL learners. Two groups of EFL learners who were studying English in an English Language Institute participated in the experiment. They were enrolled in an advanced writing course. Before instruction, both groups were pre-tested through writing essays. T-test results illustrated significant differences between two groups in writing ability. The ex...

Kargozari, Hamid R.; Ghaemi, Hamed

2011-01-01

247

Writing Excel Macros with VBA  

CERN Document Server

To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

Roman, Steven

2008-01-01

248

Tools for College Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Joseph McNeilly of Cabrillo College (Aptos, California), Tools for College Writing introduces beginning college students to the fundamentals of the writing process, providing them with the "skills that will enhance their chance of success as college writers." In addition, the site gives new students a general introduction to "college culture" and explains "how college works," enabling them to survive and thrive as college students. The site features a built-in dictionary to aid learning, and the text for each section is also available as a sound file to assist students who speak English as a second language and to help students who may have learning disabilities.

249

The Effect of Process Writing Practice on the Writing Quality of Form One Students: A Case Study  

OpenAIRE

Teachers who teach English as a second language are committed to develop an understanding and improvement of second language writing as learning to write in the second language is a complicated process. Despite the numerous research on second language writing, the phenomenon of writing is constantly under investigation as teachers want to share the findings of each study which provides knowledge that resonates with their teaching experience. This case study is a report about the effect of pro...

Majid Pour-Mohammadi; Mohamad Jafre Zainol Abidin; Cheong Lai Fong

2012-01-01

250

Some Issues for the Teaching of Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article the definition of writing as a means and as an end is analyzed in order to raise some concerns about the teaching of writing at different schools in general. From this definition I question other important issues that ultimately affect our students¿ writing production. These have to deal with the use of writing in the mother language, writing activities in the textbooks, the realistic nature of the writing tasks, the other language skills input, and the production of texts. The article pretends to raise awareness in the teaching of writing by taking into account what is implied in the writing skill so teachers can be more attentive in the selection of written tasks for their students.

Lombana Claudia Helena

2002-08-01

251

Coesão textual na escrita de um grupo de adultos surdos usuários da língua de sinais Brasileira / Text cohesion in writing of a group of deaf adults users of Brazilian sign language  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: investigar a coesão textual em produções escritas por quatro adultos surdos usuários da Língua de Sinais Brasileira alfabetizados, integrantes de um grupo de discussão nessa língua, sobre o tema violência, coordenado por uma intérprete fluente. Verificar a possível interferência da Libras [...] na escrita em português. MÉTODOS: após terem participado de sessões de discussão sobre o tema violência, cada participante produziu um texto relacionado a algum tipo de violência. Seus textos foram analisados qualitativamente em termos de sua coesão. RESULTADOS: os textos produzidos faziam referência a situações de violência simbólica. O estudo dos textos evidenciou presença de coesão textual sequencial e referencial em todos os textos, embora comprometida. Houve interferência da Libras nas redações. Observou-se que os textos, por si sós, são difíceis de serem compreendidos sem a interação direta com o participante. Apesar da dificuldade na compreensão da língua escrita, que é diferente da estrutura da língua de sinais, o estudo evidenciou que esses surdos podem construir textos com sentido e coesão. CONCLUSÃO: a produção escrita dos surdos pesquisados apresenta coesão, porém com interferência da Libras, o que prejudica, em alguns casos, a compreensão por parte do leitor. Quanto menor a coesão textual, maior a necessidade de explicações do autor sobre o que quis dizer com seu texto. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to investigate text cohesion in written productions of four deaf male adults using Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) and write in Portuguese. Participants integrate a discussion group on violence using that language coordinated by a fluent interpreter. The study also verifies possible interf [...] erence of Libras on writing in Portuguese. METHODS: after a few sessions, a discussing the theme violence, each deaf participant wrote a text on a violence situation. These texts were analyzed qualitatively as for their cohesion. RESULTS: the study pointed out the existence of sequential and referential text cohesion in all the analyzed texts, although compromised. There was interference of Libras in their writing. The produced texts related in some way to symbolic violence. The texts per se were difficult to understand without direct interaction with the participant. Despite difficulties in comprehension of writing language whose structure is very different from the sign language, it became clear that these deaf persons could construct texts with sense and cohesion. CONCLUSION: the texts produced by the studied deafs have cohesion, although the interference of Libras was harmful in some cases as for the reader's comprehension. As text cohesion diminishes, there is more need for explanations by the author about the meaning of the said text.

Elizabeth Oliveira Crepaldi de, Almeida; Carolina Ronqui, Filasi; Luiza Crepaldi de, Almeida.

2010-04-01

252

Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory  

OpenAIRE

The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT) methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, b...

Barney G Glaser, Phd

2012-01-01

253

A atenção fonoaudiólogica e a linguagem escrita de pessoas com baixa visão: estudo exploratório / Speech and language pathology therapy and the reading and writing of a person with visual disabilitie: exploratory study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: conhecer como as pessoas com baixa visão (visão subnormal) adquirida utilizavam a linguagem escrita no cotidiano e recomendar a atenção fonoaudiológica nesse processo. Foi realizado estudo descritivo exploratório para a construção do instrumento de coleta de dados. [...] A amostra foi constituída por pessoas com baixa visão que freqüentaram o Programa de Reabilitação de Adolescentes e Adultos do Cepre/FCM/Unicamp em 2008. Aplicou-se questionário por entrevista, onde foram investigadas as variáveis: características pessoais, uso de recursos de tecnologia assistiva na leitura e escrita, razões das atividades de leitura e escrita e frequência do uso após a perda visual. A amostra foi composta por 08 pessoas com baixa visão com média de idade de 47 anos e predominância do sexo masculino (75,0%). Os resultados indicaram que a maioria (62,5%) relatou utilizar auxílios ópticos nas atividades de leitura. Todos informaram utilizar auxílios não ópticos na leitura. Os sujeitos declararam utilizar a leitura para obter informações sobre assuntos que os interessavam e a escrita para se comunicarem com as outras pessoas. Verificou-se que a maioria (75,0%), relatou não utilizar a leitura e nem a escrita com a mesma freqüência que usava antes da perda visual e os motivos alegados foram a dificuldade para enxergar e o cansaço visual. A redução do uso da linguagem escrita no cotidiano por sujeitos com baixa visão adquirida compromete a autonomia e independência, fato este que demonstra necessidade de ênfase no trabalho com a linguagem escrita que poderá ser maximizado por meio da atenção fonoaudiológica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to: understand how people with acquired low vision (subnormal vision) used written language in daily living and to recommend speech and language pathology therapy during the process. A descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in order to build a data collection instrumen [...] t. The sample was composed of subjects with low vision who attended Cepre / FCM / Unicamp in 2008. A questionnaire was applied during an interview, during which time the following variables were investigated: personal characteristics, use of assistive technology in reading and writing, reasons for performing reading and writing activities and the frequency of reading and writing after having acquired the visual loss. The sample was made up of 8 subjects with acquired low vision. The mean age was 47 years, of which 75,0% were males. Most of the subjects (62,5%) declared they used optical aids to read. All reported they used non-optical aids to read. The results showed that the subjects reported that they used to read to get information on topics of interest and they write to communicate with other people. The majority (75,0%) reported they didn't read and write with the same frequency as before the emergence of the ophthalmic problem and the reason given was difficulty in seeing and eyestrain. The reduction of reading and writing for individuals with low vision justifies the need for greater emphasis on working with reading and writing during rehabilitation, and this can be enhanced by speech and language pathology therapy.

Mayla Myrina Bianchim, Monteiro; Rita de Cássia Ietto, Montilha; Maria Elisabete Rodrigues Freire, Gasparetto.

2011-04-01

254

La comprensión oral del lenguaje no literal y su relación con la producción escrita en escolares / Co-relation between oral comprehension of non-literal language and writing in elementary school students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un grupo considerable de niños y jóvenes chilenos escolarizados presenta problemas para producir textos escritos en forma autónoma. Las explicaciones de este fenómeno son diversas, pero este trabajo se focalizará en el desarrollo de la lengua oral que ocurre durante la edad escolar, a partir de los [...] seis años. Concretamente, se referirá aquí a la interpretación de ciertas formas orales de lo no literal: los actos de habla indirectos y las ironías. Teóricamente, la conexión escritura/comprensión oral de lo no literal se fundamenta en que ambas parecieran estar relacionadas con el desarrollo de la conciencia metalingüística y de la teoría de la mente. Empíricamente, se lleva a cabo un estudio con 141 estudiantes de 13 y 14 años cuya comprensión oral fue medida con el Instrumento de Medición de Inferencias Pragmáticas (IMIP) y su habilidad de escritura, con una Pauta de Evaluación Analítica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una correlación canónica y los resultados muestran, por una parte, un grado moderado de asociación entre las variables observables orales y escritas entre sí y, por otra parte, un grado de correlación canónica bajo pero significativo entre las dimensiones latentes comprensión oral y producción escrita (Rc = 0,26, p Abstract in english A substantial number of school children and youngsters encounters problems with the production of written texts in an autonomous fashion. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are various, it will hereby be focused on the development of the oral language occurring during the school age; that is, [...] from six years of age on. In particular, this study will refer to certain forms of non-literal language: indirect speech acts and ironies. Theoretically, the writing/oral comprehension of non-literal language connection is based on their seeming relationship with the development of a metalinguistic conscience and a theory of the mind. Empirically, this study involves the participation of 141 13-14-year-old students whose oral comprehension was measured by the Instrument for the Measurement of Pragmatic Inferences (IMIP, according to the Spanish acronym), and writing, by an Analytic Assessment Guide. Data were analyzed with the aid of canonical co-relation and the results reveal, on the one hand, a moderate degree of association in the observable oral and writing variables among themselves and, on the other, a low but significant degree of canonical co-relation between the latent oral and writing variables (Rc = 0,26, p

Nina, Crespo; Ricardo, Benítez; Pablo, Cáceres.

255

Escrever sobre o escrever / Writing about the act of writing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste texto é propor uma problematização a respeito da escrita e do escrito, cuja incidência específica, por decorrência, dá-se na escrita escolar. Procuro demarcar a polissemia e a impossibilidade que a escrita convoca, valendo-me de vários autores, principalmente Fernando Pessoa e Jacqu [...] es Lacan. Assinalo, ainda, alguns desdobramentos possíveis entre escrita, escrito, escritura, inscrição e criação. Abstract in english This text aims to discuss theoretical problematizations about the act of writing, relating this subject with writing experiences in school. The principal references are concepts of Jacques Lacan and Fernando Pessoa texts about the act of writing. The article puts forward the argument that writing is [...] a complex issue, considering its condition of real "impossibility" and the difficulties that reality of polysemy brings to us. Finally, the author establishes relations between writing, écriture, creation and inscription.

Margareth, Schäffer.

256

Using Wikis to Promote Collaborative EFL Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the use of wikis in collaborative writing projects in foreign language learning classrooms. A total of 34 intermediate level university students learning English as a foreign language (EFL) were asked to accomplish three different wiki-based collaborative writing tasks, (argumentative, informative and decision-making) working…

Aydin, Zelilha; Yildiz, Senem

2014-01-01

257

Teaching Writing to Middle School Students: A National Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

A random sample of language arts, social studies, and science middle school teachers from the United States were surveyed about their preparation to teach writing, beliefs about responsibilities for teaching writing, use of evidence-based writing practices, assessment of writing, use of technology, and adaptations for struggling writers. The…

Graham, Steve; Capizzi, Andrea; Harris, Karen R.; Hebert, Michael; Morphy, Paul

2014-01-01

258

THE EFFECT OF TEACHING WRITING STRATEGIES ON TURKISH LANGUAGE TEACHING DEPARTMENT FRESMAN STUDENTS’ WRITING ACHIEVEMENT/YAZMA STRATEJ?LER? Ö?RET?M?N?N TÜRKÇE Ö?RETMENL??? B?R?NC? SINIF Ö?RENC?LER?N?N YAZMA BA?ARISINA ETK?S?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the effect of writing strategies instruction on Turkish Language Teaching Department freshmen’s writing achievement. In accordance this aim, the pretest-posttest control group design was used to identify the effect of writing strategies instruction on freshmen’s writing achievement. As the quasi-experimental design was used in the study, population and sample was not defined. Instead, sample groups were taken based on the equality of the groups. The control group consisted of 18 girls and 6 boys, totally 24 students whereas the experimental group included 21 girls and 5 boys, totally 26 students. In the study, written expression evaluation scale was used as measurement device. At the end of the study, it was concluded that writing strategies instruction enhances writing achievement of the experimental group while the scores of pretest and posttest of the control group were not significantly changed. Bu ara?t?rman?n amac?, yazma stratejileri e?itiminin Türkçe ö?retmenli?i 1. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin yaz?l? anlat?m ba?ar?lar?na olan etkisini belirlemektir. Bu amaç do?rultulsunda, ön test-son test kontrol gruplu yar? deneysel desene ba?vurulmu?tur. Ara?t?rmada yar? deneysel desen kullan?ld???ndan dolay? evren ve örneklem seçilmemi?, bunun yerine çal??ma gruplar? al?n?p gruplar?n e?itli?i üzerinde durulmu?tur. Kontrol grubu 18 k?z, 6 erkek olmak üzere toplam 24 ki?iden, deney grubu ise 21 k?z, 5 erkek olmak üzere toplam 26 ki?iden olu?maktad?r. Çal??mada ölçme arac? olarak Yaz?l? Anlat?m De?erlendirme Ölçe?i kullan?lm??t?r. Ara?t?rman?n sonunda deney grubu ö?rencilerinin yazma ba?ar?s? ön test ve son test puanlar? aras?nda son test lehine anlaml? farkl?l?k oldu?u, kontrol grubu ö?rencilerinin yazma ba?ar?s? ön test ve son test puanlar? aras?nda anlaml? farkl?l?k olmad??? tespit edilmi?tir.

Ersoy TOPUZKANAMI?

2014-06-01

259

Helping Students Write Better Conclusions  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike the vocabulary used in language arts and social studies, knowledge of expository text (text written to inform) and the language of science are required for reading and writing in science (Carrier 2005). This vocabulary, along with expository text structures, often is not taught in middle and high school classrooms, thus hindering students,…

Berber-Jimenez, Lola; Montelongo, Jose; Hernandez, Anita C.; Herter, Roberta; Hosking, David

2008-01-01

260

Topical Knowledge and ESL Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the effects of topical knowledge on ESL (English as a Second Language) writing performance in the English Language Proficiency Index (LPI), a standardized English proficiency test used by many post-secondary institutions in western Canada. The participants were 50 students with different levels of English proficiency…

He, Ling; Shi, Ling

2012-01-01

261

About writing and description  

OpenAIRE

The goal of our study is to show our University students’ level of writing in a Second Language at the initial stage of their University period, particularly regarding French descriptive texts. Our working corpus is formed by a questionnaire plus twenty texts. We can state that our students neither command text competence, nor they describe what they see and feel, but they rather reproduce familiar patterns for exercises. Their texts lack organisation, they show few connectors, lit...

Castro Castro, Carmen

2013-01-01

262

Curriculum: Foreign language learning  

OpenAIRE

This article presents an overview of various issues related to curriculum in foreign language learning, and in particular focuses on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Foreign language learning is taken to mean the learning of a language other than the learner’s first language (L1), and this language is not ordinarily used in the learner’s everyday life. Thus, foreign language learning contexts are very different from second language learning contexts, for in second language le...

Lin, Amy

2010-01-01

263

Reading, Writing and Speaking Shakespeare  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. Task One What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Task Two Use these site to answer the following questions: Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. ...

Mcguire, Mr.

2010-04-25

264

Representações de escrita de alunos de Mestrado em Letras / Social representations in the writing of students of Masters in Languages / Representaciones de escritura de alumnos de maestría en Letras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Verificamos as representações sociais de escrita de alunos de Mestrado em Letras. Procuramos usar a Teoria das Representações Sociais para investigarmos as representações da escrita de 10 alunos do Mestrado em Letras de uma Universidade Federal do interior de Minas Gerais. Associamos essas represent [...] ações aos discursos sobre a escrita difundidos na esfera acadêmica. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, baseado em narrativas elaboradas por esses alunos. Concluímos que, durante o maior período de escolarização desses alunos, as representações da escrita foram negativas, mas se transformaram em positivas com o passar do tempo. Isso demonstra que as representações são plásticas, flexíveis, pois antigas representações dão lugar a novas representações em função das experiências humanas, influenciadas por novos contextos. As narrativas sobre a história da escrita podem ser um caminho para professores conhecerem os percursos da escrita desenvolvidos por seus alunos, assim como permitem a identificação das representações sociais desses alunos. Abstract in spanish Verificamos las representaciones sociales de escritura de alumnos de Maestría en Letras. Procuramos usar la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales para investigar las representaciones de la escritura de 10 alumnos de la Maestría en Letras de una Universidad Federal del interior de Minas Gerais. Aso [...] ciamos esas representaciones a los discursos sobre la escritura difundidos en la esfera académica. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, basado en narrativas elaboradas por esos alumnos. Concluimos que, durante el mayor período de escolaridad de esos alumnos, las representaciones de la escritura fueron negativas, pero se transformaron en positivas con el paso del tiempo. Eso demuestra que las representaciones son plásticas, flexibles, pues antiguas representaciones dan lugar a nuevas representaciones en función de las experiencias humanas, influenciadas por nuevos contextos. Las narrativas sobre la historia de la escritura pueden ser un camino para que profesores conozcan los recorridos de la escritura desarrollados por sus alumnos, así como permiten la identificación de las representaciones sociales de esos alumnos. Abstract in english Here we examine the social representations in the writing of students of Masters in Languages. We used the Social Representation Theory to investigate the representations in the writings of 10 students of the Masters in Languages at a Federal University in upstate Minas Gerais. We associated these r [...] epresentations to the discourses spread in the academic sphere. The results obtained from the reading of the narratives written by the students will be presented. We concluded that throughout most of the period of these students' schooling the representations in their writing were negative, but became positive through the time. This demonstrates that the representations are plastic and flexible because old representations give place to new ones in function of human experiences influenced by new contexts. The narratives about the writing history may be a path for teachers to learn the routes of the writing developed by their students, as well as allowing an identification of the social representations and discourses of writing internalized by these students.

Adriana da, Silva.

2013-08-01

265

Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity in Graded and Ungraded Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the effect of grades on second language writing performance. Do students write better when their essays are graded, and what implications might this have for foreign language instruction? This study compares three different types of student writing: graded compositions; for-credit online discussion boards; and ungraded,…

Armstrong, Kimberly M.

2010-01-01

266

Writing In Math Class  

Science.gov (United States)

This webpage provides many ideas for teachers to help their students write in the elementary mathematics classroom. Sections include writing prompts, creative math writing, solution writing, and other pedagogical strategies.

2009-01-01

267

La comprensión oral del lenguaje no literal y su relación con la producción escrita en escolares Co-relation between oral comprehension of non-literal language and writing in elementary school students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Un grupo considerable de niños y jóvenes chilenos escolarizados presenta problemas para producir textos escritos en forma autónoma. Las explicaciones de este fenómeno son diversas, pero este trabajo se focalizará en el desarrollo de la lengua oral que ocurre durante la edad escolar, a partir de los seis años. Concretamente, se referirá aquí a la interpretación de ciertas formas orales de lo no literal: los actos de habla indirectos y las ironías. Teóricamente, la conexión escritura/comprensión oral de lo no literal se fundamenta en que ambas parecieran estar relacionadas con el desarrollo de la conciencia metalingüística y de la teoría de la mente. Empíricamente, se lleva a cabo un estudio con 141 estudiantes de 13 y 14 años cuya comprensión oral fue medida con el Instrumento de Medición de Inferencias Pragmáticas (IMIP y su habilidad de escritura, con una Pauta de Evaluación Analítica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una correlación canónica y los resultados muestran, por una parte, un grado moderado de asociación entre las variables observables orales y escritas entre sí y, por otra parte, un grado de correlación canónica bajo pero significativo entre las dimensiones latentes comprensión oral y producción escrita (Rc = 0,26, p A substantial number of school children and youngsters encounters problems with the production of written texts in an autonomous fashion. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are various, it will hereby be focused on the development of the oral language occurring during the school age; that is, from six years of age on. In particular, this study will refer to certain forms of non-literal language: indirect speech acts and ironies. Theoretically, the writing/oral comprehension of non-literal language connection is based on their seeming relationship with the development of a metalinguistic conscience and a theory of the mind. Empirically, this study involves the participation of 141 13-14-year-old students whose oral comprehension was measured by the Instrument for the Measurement of Pragmatic Inferences (IMIP, according to the Spanish acronym, and writing, by an Analytic Assessment Guide. Data were analyzed with the aid of canonical co-relation and the results reveal, on the one hand, a moderate degree of association in the observable oral and writing variables among themselves and, on the other, a low but significant degree of canonical co-relation between the latent oral and writing variables (Rc = 0,26, p < 0.05, where the former would seem a factor variable and the latter, a criterion variable. The conclusion is that, even though the development of oral comprehension of non-literal language seems to influence writing abilities, such a co-relation is not strong enough to look at it as having practical significance.

Nina Crespo

2007-01-01

268

Main: L1DCPAL1 [PLACE  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available L1DCPAL1 S000504 15-September-2006 (last modified) kehi L1 element, found in PAL1 promoter in carrot ... S000492 (BOXL CORE of DC PAL1); L1 Daucus carota (carrot ) ATTCACCTACCC ...

269

"This english writing thing": students' perceptions of their writing experiences at an english-medium university  

OpenAIRE

This article explores five students’ perceptions of their writing experiences at an English-medium post-graduate university in a non-English speaking country as compared to writing in their home country universities in their native languages. Three types of differences are found to be relevant: language and rhetorical differences, disciplinary differences, and differences in educational systems (such as the number of assignments required, the focus of writing instruction, and feedback...

Petri, Bojana

2007-01-01

270

The Writing Consultation: Developing Academic Writing Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes and analyses a specific mechanism, the writing consultation, designed to help academics to prioritise, reconceptualise and improve their writing practices. It makes the case for its potential to stimulate consideration of writing practices and motivations, a possible precondition for creating time for writing in academic…

Murray, Rowena; Thow, Morag; Moore, Sarah; Murphy, Maura

2008-01-01

271

Cohesive Errors in Writing among ESL Pre-Service Teachers  

OpenAIRE

Writing is a complex skill and one of the most difficult to master. A teacher’s weak writing skills may negatively influence their students. Therefore, reinforcing teacher education by first determining pre-service teachers’ writing weaknesses is imperative. This mixed-methods error analysis study aims to examine the cohesive errors in the writing of English as a Second Language (ESL) pre-service teachers of differing language proficiency levels—Medium and High-level, as indicated by...

Kwan, Lisa S. L.; Melor Md Yunus

2014-01-01

272

Exploring Pragmatic Failure into the Writing of Young EFL Learners: A Critical Analysis  

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Full Text Available This present study provides overviews of the phenomenon in EFL writing instruction in basic education in mainland China, which in its natural sense never proceeds among young learners at high school level. Then it investigated 34 students’ short in-class compositions. Beyond many spelling and syntactic errors, their pragmatic failures are therefore categorized into pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic failures in accordance with Jenny Thomas (1983. It finds that pragmalinguistic failures are as follows: verbose appositions, combination of two subordinate clauses, misunderstandings of word meaning, Chinese construction of sentences, run-on sentences, independent subordinate clauses, the omission of relative pronouns and that sociopragmatic failure, considerably rare, lies in their perception and expression of specific Chinese-based pragmatic conventions. The author argues that the causes of pragmatic failure are their limited language proficiency and L1 pragmatic transfer. Based on the investigation and findings of the study, the author puts forward some tentative solutions to achieve pragmatic appropriateness in writing: (1 Appropriate in-class introduction of target language pragmatic knowledge and culture; (2 The awareness of distinguishing the target language with L1.

Peter Yunlin Muir

2011-11-01

273

Writing Tamang  

OpenAIRE

This article is directed to Tamang native speakers and educators who wish to develop an orthography for their language. Tamang, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nepal, was just starting to be written on a large scale in the 1990's. We discuss three plausible alphabets: roman, Devanagari and Tibetan, and the modifications which each of them would require to fulfill the distinctive needs of the Tamang language

Mazaudon, Martine

1993-01-01

274

Never Quite a Native Speaker: Accent and Identity in the L2-and the L1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines second language (L2) and second culture (C2) acquisition by focusing on identity and more specifically on changes in L2 accent. Explains changes in the L2 accent and later in the first language (L1) accent, applying the metaphor of self-translation as a general framework for explaining processes of L2 learning and L1 loss, and the…

Marx, Nicole

2002-01-01

275

Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.

Tèmít??p?? Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

2013-06-01

276

A Study on Strategy Instruction and EFL Learners’ Writing Skill  

OpenAIRE

Writing in a second or foreign language seems to be the most difficult language skill for language learners to acquire in academic contexts. While explicit instruction of strategies is not a usual practice in foreign language classrooms, it could be beneficial for language learners. The present study aims at investigating the effect of concept mapping strategy on EFL learners' writing performance. To this end, sixty Iranian students at the intermediate level of language proficiency participat...

Giti Mousapour Negari

2011-01-01

277

Writing Anxiety as a Predictor of Writing Self-Efficacy in English for Special Education Arab Learners  

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Full Text Available The study aimed at investigating the relationship between writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy in English for special education Arab learners of English. It also investigated the use of writing anxiety scores as a predictor of writing self-efficacy. In addition, it explored differences between males and females in both writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy in English. The sample of the study consisted of 90 intermediate school students in the state of Kuwait (47 males and 43 females; the mean age was 8.67 years and the standard deviation was 2.4 years. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The researchers used writing anxiety scale, writing self-efficacy scale and an achievement test in English writing skills. Results of the study showed that there is a positive relationship between students’ writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy for male students and the overall sample while no relationship was detected among these variables for female students. In addition, results revealed that writing anxiety scores could be used as a predictor of students’ writing self-efficacy in English for male students and the overall sample of the study whereas writing anxiety scores could not be used as a predictor of writing self-efficacy for female students. It was found that there were no statistically significant differences between male and female students in their scores of writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy in English Language.

Ashraf Atta M. S. Salem

2014-05-01

278

Selected writings  

CERN Document Server

'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

Galilei, Galileo

2012-01-01

279

Teaching Writing Skills for Engineering Students  

OpenAIRE

This research paper focuses on the writing skills of the Engineering students of all the branches especially at the time of placements. Writing in English is almost a prerequisite for the job. Now- a-days testing the writing skills of the students is mandatory before going to attend the interviews. LSRW skills are essential in the acquisition of language. In order to help the students with these writing skills, teacher has to take the initiative to motivate them. Most of the students are ...

Vijaya Lakshmi, D.; Ragini, K.

2014-01-01

280

Review of the Influence of L1 in L2 Acquisition  

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Full Text Available L1 has a significant influence on second language study. However, how L1 influence L2 is very complicated and abstract. But to study the mechanism of how L1 influence L2 is significant because L2 acquisition is making contribution on many fields like education and psychology. L1 is one of the central elements influencing SLA. In this course paper, we are going to overview what linguists have done about L1 and L2 and what approaches and theories they have made.

Zhanming WANG

2014-10-01

281

Interferência da língua falada na escrita de crianças: processos de apagamento da oclusiva dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/ / Interference of the spoken language on children's writing: cancellation processes of the dental occlusive /d/ and final vibrant /r/  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a influência da língua falada na escrita de crianças em relação aos fenômenos do cancelamento da dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/. Elaboramos e aplicamos um instrumento de pesquisa em alunos do Ensino Fundamental em escolas de Fortaleza. Para a anál [...] ise dos dados obtidos, utilizamos o software SPSS. Os resultados nos revelaram que o sexo masculino e as palavras polissílabas são fatores que influenciam, de forma parcial, a realização da variável dependente /no/ e que os verbos e o nível de escolaridade são elementos condicionadores para o cancelamento da vibrante final /r/. Abstract in english The present study aims to investigate the influence of the spoken language in children's writing in relation to the phenomena of cancellation of dental /d/ and final vibrant /r/. We elaborated and applied a research instrument to children from primary school in Fortaleza. We used the software SPSS t [...] o analyze the data. The results showed that the male sex and the words which have three or more syllable are factors that influence, in part, the realization of the dependent variable /no/ and that verbs and level of education are conditioners elements for the cancellation of the final vibrant /r/.

Socorro Cláudia Tavares de, Sousa.

282

Writing a Condolence Note  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing a Condolence Note By Helen Fitzgerald, CT Focusing only on happy thoughts, it is usually easy ... to write an anniversary or birthday greeting. But writing a condolence note is something altogether different because, ...

283

PROBING INTO ACADEMIC WRITING: BUILDING STUDENT’S CONFIDENCE TO WRITE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Student’s responses are usually negative when invited to write, in the L2, anything from a paragraph to an academic paper in tertiary education. This is due to many different factors including the fact that students attending an ESP/EAP language course are usually of different language levels. The most difficult part of an ESP/EAP language teacher is to persuade students of the need to write in the foreign language and more specifically to write using the terminology of their discipline.Providing students with a broad range of opportunities to write, thus facilitating their ability to discover the socially appropriate language structures necessary in their science, will aid students in their quest for more knowledge. One first step which should be taken by the ESP/EAP language teacher is to enable students to distinguish the different academic writing styles such as tentative, formal, informal and objective, etc. This presupposes, on the side of the students, a sound knowledge of grammar, syntax, spelling, etc, of the foreign language, and if students do not have this kind of knowledge then it is the teacher’s duty to make sure that she/he will start her teaching process with these basic language structures and that she/he will then move on to paragraph and summary writing, to processing, to interpreting and to synthesizing their material. This paper broaches the subject of writing and more specifically of academic writing in tertiary education, and probes into matters such as, for example, the techniques and approaches employed in the teaching of academic writing. It also looks at the techniques which are employed by ESP/EAP teachers to encourage their students to build their confidence in writing.

Evmorphia PANOURGIA

2012-06-01

284

Self and Language Anxiety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses relationships between language anxiety and self. Self refers to an individual’s (a self-confidence, (b language ego, L2/FL self or identity developed during second or foreign language learning, or a combination of both L1 self and L2/FL self. Based on previous literature on language anxiety and L2 or FL learning, language learners’ self-confidence might imply a lack of language anxiety which enhances language achievement (e.g., Casado & Dereshiwsky, 2004; Clément, 1980; Liu & Chen, 2013; Matsuda & Gobel, 2004; Onwuegbuzie, Bailey, & Daley, 1999; Peng & Woodrow, 2010; Ro, 2013. Language anxiety is an experience unique to the language learning process, and this unique emotion or experience may be associated with the anxiety of feeling limited, broken, incompetent, having another self or a different personality in a target language. I believe that while learning target languages, L2 or FL identities are developing, and L1 identities are reconstructed. Language learners may feel the loss of L1 identities in a target language context or may feel that they are not able to express their thoughts in a target language. When learners feel the loss of L1 identities, feel limited or broken, this may be language anxiety arising.

Yi-Wen Huang

2014-05-01

285

Traductor Writing System Web  

CERN Document Server

A compilator is a program which is development in a programming language that read a file known as source. After this file have to translate and have to convert in other program known as object or to generate a exit. The best way for to know any programming language is analizing a compilation process which is same in all programming paradigm existents. To like to generate a tool that permit a learning in university course. This course could explain in any plataform such as Linux o Windows. This goal is posible through development a Web aplication which is unite with a compilator, it is Traductor Writing System (Sistema de Escritura de Traductores). This system is complete and permit extend and modify the compilator. The system is a module in Moodle which is a Course Management System (CMS) that help teachers for to create comunities of learning in line. This software is in free software license (GPL).

Texier, Jose

2012-01-01

286

Noções de coesão textual na produção escrita de formandos do curso de Letras Textual cohesion notions in writing production of undergraduate Language students  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar como se manifesta o conceito de coesão textual na produção escrita de formandos do curso de Letras. O corpus sob análise é constituído de 210 textos de alunos de universidades públicas e particulares do Brasil ao responderem à questão de Linguística e Língua Portuguesa da prova do Exame Nacional de Cursos de 2001. Apoia-se, para tanto, no conceito de interacionismo dialógico de Bakhtin e no conceito de heterogeneidade(s enunciativa(s de Authier-Revuz, partindo do pressuposto de que o discurso desses acadêmicos se realiza por sujeitos constituídos social e historicamente. De acordo com os resultados, as formas de manifestação de noções de coesão textual ocorrem por meio de marcas relacionadas com o conceito de heterogeneidade mostrada marcada e não marcada com ancoragem em uma concepção tradicional de linguagem.This work aims to verify how the concept of textual cohesion is manifested in the written production of undergraduate Language students. The corpus under analysis is constituted of 210 texts written by students from public and private Brazilian universities when answering the question of Linguistics and Portuguese test from the National Courses Examination in 2001. It is theoretically supported by Bakhtinian’s concept of dialogic interactionism and by Authier-Revuz concept of enunciative heterogeneity, based on the idea that the students’ discourse is historically and socially constructed. The results reveal that the forms of manifestation of textual cohesion notions occur by means of marks related to the marked and unmarked heterogeneity concept based on a traditional view of language.

Orlando de Paula

2012-01-01

287

Getting Past "Just Because": Teaching Writing in Science Class  

Science.gov (United States)

How many times do teachers assign writing in science class only to be exasperated by their students' lack of writing skills? They often have difficulty making claims and using evidence; instead of explaining their reasoning, they state, "Just because." But teaching writing isn't just for English/language arts (ELA) class. Over the past two years,…

Grymonpre, Kris; Cohn, Allison; Solomon, Stacey

2012-01-01

288

Teaching Writing Skills for Engineering Students  

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Full Text Available This research paper focuses on the writing skills of the Engineering students of all the branches especially at the time of placements. Writing in English is almost a prerequisite for the job. Now- a-days testing the writing skills of the students is mandatory before going to attend the interviews. LSRW skills are essential in the acquisition of language. In order to help the students with these writing skills, teacher has to take the initiative to motivate them. Most of the students are coming from rural areas and basically from regional medium background. So they require support at every step. Writing becomes a Herculean task to them. Triggering their requirement is a pivotal role of the teacher. Different perspectives of writing skills like free writing, mechanics of writing, vocabulary, grammar, description of a picture, paragraph, essay and summary writing and report, resume, letter and e-mail writings are discussed in this paper. Activities like pair work or group work of all the tasks are added benefit to the students. Interest and command on the identified topic of the student is not identical. Analysis and feedback of each and every activity is an added grace to the teacher and advantage to the student. If the students are trained logically from the beginning of their first year of Engineering they achieve their dream of getting a placement before completing their Bachelor’s degree.

D.Vijaya Lakshmi*1

2014-04-01

289

The Role of L1 in the Acquisition of Motion Verbs in English by Chinese and Japanese Learners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shows that underlying first language (L1) and second language (L2) lexical similarities between typologically unrelated languages can benefit L2 vocabulary learning. The article's comparison of the use of motion verbs in English by Chinese- and Japanese-speaking learners indicates an advantage for Chinese speakers, whose L1 lexicalizes motion in a…

Yu, Liming

1996-01-01

290

Best practices in writing instruction  

CERN Document Server

An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language le

Graham, Steve; Fitzgerald, Jill

2013-01-01

291

Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing  

Science.gov (United States)

Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

2011-01-01

292

Too Nervous to Write? The Relationship between Anxiety and EFL Writing  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the students’ anxiety in essay writing and their writing performance in EFL context. The subjects were chosen from among 75 Iranian EFL students who took part in TOFEL proficiency test. 27 students majoring in English have been selected. They studied either English translation or English literature. The instruments to collect data were: a) Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI) (Cheng, 2004) b) Open - ended ...

Giti Mousapour Negari; Omid Talebi Rezaabadi

2012-01-01

293

The Effects of Peer Feedback on The Writing Anxiety of Prospective Turkish Teachers of EFL  

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Full Text Available Studies done in L1/L2 English settings have revealed the negative effects of writing anxiety on both learner motivation and academic achievement and teachers’ attitudes towards writing and the practices they use in their own classes. The present study aims to find out the effects of peer feedback on the writing anxiety of Turkish prospective teachers (PTs of English. A total of 86 PTs of English participated in this study. During the eight-week study, PTs in the experimental group, who had been given a training on peer feedback, were asked to work in pairs in their writing class, give feedback on each other’s essays and discuss their feedback with each other before handing them to their instructors. On the other hand, PTs in the control group received only teacher feedback on their essays. Data were collected by means of the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 given at the beginning and end of the study and by means of interviews carried out with 20 experimental group PTs at the end of the term. Results of the quantitative data showed that the peer feedback group experienced significantly less writing anxiety than the teacher feedback group at the end of the study. The interview results revealed that the participating PTs benefited from the peer feedback process as with the feedback of their friends they became aware of their mistakes. Moreover, during the process they received opinions from their friends to elaborate on, and this collaboration helped them look at their essays from a different perspective.

Gökçe KURT

2007-01-01

294

Main: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 S000386 05-November-2005 (last modified) kehi L1 box found in promoter of Arabidopsi ... main protein ATML can bind to the L1 box; Y=C/T; A cotton ... fiber gene, RD22-like 1 (RDL1), contains a homeodo ... sion; Shoot apical meristem; SAM; organ primordia; cotton ... fiber; HDZip; homeodomain; leucine zipper; Arabido ...

295

Recent Development of Wiki Applications in Collaborative Writing  

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Full Text Available Wiki is increasingly gaining popularity in language learning. Some researchers suggest that wiki is a useful tool that enhances collaboration among students. Moreover, collaborative writing through wiki is an effective strategy for improving students’ writing skills. This review summarizes findings of empirical research studies on the application of wiki in collaborative writing from 2005 till 2011. Some directions for future research related to the use of wiki for collaborative writing are also suggested.

Shokoufeh Ansarimoghaddam

2012-10-01

296

Recent Development of Wiki Applications in Collaborative Writing  

OpenAIRE

Wiki is increasingly gaining popularity in language learning. Some researchers suggest that wiki is a useful tool that enhances collaboration among students. Moreover, collaborative writing through wiki is an effective strategy for improving students’ writing skills. This review summarizes findings of empirical research studies on the application of wiki in collaborative writing from 2005 till 2011. Some directions for future research related to the use of wiki for collaborative writing...

Shokoufeh Ansarimoghaddam; Bee Hoon Tan; Mei Fung Yong; Zalina Mohd. Kasim

2012-01-01

297

Perspectives on Academic Writing in European Higher Education: Genres, Practices, and Competences  

OpenAIRE

Academic writing in European higher education is a little explored field hidden behind fifty major language and fifty national educational systems of which it is part. The article aims at developing a perspective for studying the diversity of writing in Europe and finding a shared language for analyzing student writing. The article recaps baselines theories for the teaching of writing and reports on three important European writing traditions. The main part of the paper is devoted to three...

Otto Kruse

2013-01-01

298

Language as capital in international university education  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As Bourdieu and Passeron noted, academic discourse is never anyone’s ‘mother tongue’. Acquisition of this discourse in one’s first language is a prime aim of undergraduate education, but there is evidence that a substantial minority of students fail to acquire it. There is strong evidence that academic discourse skills are transferable from L1 to L2 and best acquired in L1, but it is not clear to what extent these skills represent usable capital in professional life. Graduates often report having to write in a very different style from the one they have been taught at university. There may be a trade-off between the fluency in a second language provided by its use as sole or parallel medium in education and educational depth in the discipline studied. This fluency may in some circumstances constitute greater capital than the disciplinary insights partially sacrificed. But this varies strikingly across disciplines. This paper uses Bourdieu’s framework to assess the types of linguistic capital – academic discourse, foreign-language fluency, and more – to be acquired in the internationalized university, their utility in the personal advancement of graduates in various societies, and the variation of these factors across disciplines.

Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

299

Using Writing in Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

Interested in incorporating writing into a math class? This article includes specific suggestions for managing journals, developing prompts for writing, and providing students with feedback on their writing. In addition, the site includes two sample lessons for introducing writing activities in a math classroom.

2009-01-01

300

Cultural Transfer as an Obstacle for Writing Well in English: The Case of Arabic Speakers Writing in English  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews and strengthens the data on cultural transfer by Arab Muslim students writing in English and adds the significant element of the cultural impact of Islam on such writing. This qualitative study examines the writing of 18 teacher trainees at an Arab language teacher training college in Israel. Results point to a strong cultural influence appearing in the students' writing. It is suggested that greater consideration should be given to the first and the target culture when des...

Ruwaida Abu Rass

2011-01-01

301

Writing in Higher Education  

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Full Text Available The following article presents results from a research developed in Higher Education, focusing on the writing in university contents. Academic testimonials show some resistance to the act of writing, which often distances the writer from the written process. In this way, the parcial analyzed results show that: assumption 1 - there is a rupture in the idea of coherence between what we think, what wewrite and what our interlocutor understands; assumption 2 - the act of self-correcting written texts is essential for the writing improvement; assumption 3 -the class diaries represent a rich instrument for the writing improvement in theHigher Education; assumption 4 - there is a need for the student to write indifferent writing types, even though the university fullfills its role emphasizingacademic writing; assumption 5 - the work with writing in Higher Education should emphasize the basic components of written expression: writing code and writing composition.

Maria Inês Corte Vitória

2013-01-01

302

Learning a Second Language Naturally the Voice Movement Icon Approach  

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Full Text Available Second language (L2 instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1 acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI is first performed by the language trainer andthen imitated by the learners. Behavioral experiments demonstrate that words encoded through VMIs are easierto memorize than audio-visually encoded words and that they are better retained over time. The reasons whygestures promote language learning are manifold. First, we focus on language as an embodied phenomenon ofcognition. Then we review evidence that gestures scaffold the acquisition of L1. Because VMIs reconnectlanguage learning with the body, they can be considered as a more natural tool for language instruction thanaudio-visual activities.

Manuela Macedonia

2013-09-01

303

Culture, cognition and language in the constitution of reading and writing practices in an adult literacy classroom / Cultura, cognição e linguagem na constituição de práticas de leitura e escrita de adultos em processo de alfabetização  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo analisamos uma interação discursiva entre uma pesquisadora e um estudante da Educação de Jovens e Adultos objetivando mostrar sentidos e usos da leitura e da escrita por ele mobilizados. Tomamos como base para nossa discussão os aportes teórico-metodológicos da Psicologia Histórico-Cult [...] ural e das teorizações de Paulo Freire, que conjugamos com a concepção de diálogo de Bakhtin. Tal procedimento nos possibilitou, por um lado, entrar na perspectiva do outro, e por outro, fazer relações entre cognição, linguagem e cultura para compreendermos as estratégias metacognitivas de alunos da EJA ao se apropriarem da cultura escolar. Pudemos também evidenciar a íntima relação entre fazer e saber e a importância da escola na transição do pensamento concreto para o abstrato e vice-versa. Abstract in english In this article we analyze a discursive interaction between a researcher and an Youth and Adult Education student intending to show the meanings and uses of reading and writing taken by him. We take as our basis for discussion the theoretical-methodological contributions from Historical-Cultural Psy [...] chology and Paulo Freire's theories, which are combined with Bakhtin's concept of dialogue. This procedure allowed us, on one hand, getting into the other's perspective and, on the other hand, to make relations between cognition, language and culture to understand the adult students' metacognitive strategies, in the appropriation process of literacy practices of school culture. Thus, we could discuss the intimate relationship between doing and knowing and the importance of school in the transition from concrete thinking to the abstract thinking and vice-versa.

Maria de Fátima Cardoso, Gomes; Maria da Conceição Ferreira Reis, Fonseca; Maira Tomayno de Melo, Dias; Patricia Guimarães, Vargas.

304

Approaches to teaching writing  

OpenAIRE

About the book: Student academic writing is at the heart of teaching and learning in higher education. Students are assessed largely by what they write, and need to learn both general academic conventions as well as disciplinary writing requirements in order to be successful in higher education. Teaching Academic Writing is a 'toolkit' designed to help higher education lecturers and tutors teach writing to their students. Containing a range of diverse teaching strategies, the book offers b...

Curry, Mary Jane; Hewings, Ann

2003-01-01

305

14 Writing Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

That a relatively small piece of writing such as Albert Einstein's three-page paper of relativity could be so important certainly illustrates the significance of writing to science. A science class is not complete unless it helps students learn to think like scientists, and writing is an essential part of such thinking. This article enumerates fourteen writing strategies that will encourage critical thinking skills and provide legitimate, purposeful writing practice by promoting solid science learning and review.

Amy Broemmel

2006-12-01

306

Brush Talk at the Conversation Table: Interaction between L1 and L2 Speakers of Chinese  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese characters are used in both Chinese and Japanese writing systems. When literate speakers of either language experience problems in finding or understanding words, they often resort to using Chinese characters or "kanji" (i.e., Chinese characters used in Japanese writing) in their talk, a practice known as "brush talk" ("bitan" in Chinese,…

Hwang, Menq-Ju

2009-01-01

307

Negative Transfer of Chinese to College Students? English Writing  

OpenAIRE

In China, in the process of college students’ foreign language learning, English writing is the reflection of their integrating skills and it is also the process of rewriting based on gaining English knowledge. Meanwhile, Chinese college students’ English writing is a cross-language and cross-cultural communicative behavior, and also a behavior of the transformation of thinking and cultural model. However, in the process of English writing, the negative transfer of Chinese influen...

Zhiliang Liu

2011-01-01

308

L1 and L2 Strategy Use in Reading Comprehension of Chinese EFL Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study revealed the relationship between L1 (Mandarin Chinese) and L2 (English) strategy use in L2 reading comprehension by focusing on the correlation of L1 reading ability, L2 proficiency and employed reading strategies. The participants, 222 undergraduates learning English as a foreign language (EFL), were classified into skilled and…

Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ernst, Cheryl; Talley, Paul C.

2010-01-01

309

Writing Hypertexts: Proposed effects on writing processes and knowledge acquisition.  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we propose that hypertext writing at school could have beneficial effects on the acquisition of content knowledge and the acquisition of writing skills compared to linear writing. We view the effects of hypertext writing on writing skills from the perspective of “shared” cognitive activities in writing linear texts and hypertexts. In a pilot study we examined the effects of hypertext writing on writing processes and we related the occurrence of writing processes to the quali...

Janssen, T.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Braaksma, M.

2007-01-01

310

Situating ESL Writing in a Cross-Disciplinary Context.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims to construct a view of the field of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing that meets the needs of ESL writers. Presents three models of ESL writing in relation to Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) and composition studies. Discusses implications. (PA)

Matsuda, Paul Kei

1998-01-01

311

Writing Center Handouts  

Science.gov (United States)

High-quality materials on the art and craft of effective college-level writing are always in demand, and this website from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has a veritable cornucopia of such documents. The materials were created by the school's Writing Center, and they are divided into four areas: "Writing the Paper", "Citation, Style, and Sentence Level Concerns", "Specific Writing Assignments/Contexts", and "Writing for Specific Fields". The "Writing for Specific Fields" area is a great place for students who have declared a major, and each piece contains a bit of background on the nature of writing in each field, along with some information about the key units of analysis, assumptions, and so on. What is perhaps most impressive about this site are the multimedia writing demonstrations which cover "Developing Ideas", "Drafting", and two other key areas of the writing process.

312

Why Assign Themes and Topics To Teach Writing? A Reply to Tony Silva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responds to Tony Silva's 1997 article, which asserted that English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing teachers should prevent themes and topics from dominating or controlling the curriculum. This paper argues that it is sometimes helpful for writing teachers to control why and what students write, focusing on university-level English writing in…

Jones, Nathan B.

313

Writing Teacher Education and Teacher Learning: Testimonies of Four EFL Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

In studies of L2 writing, much more attention has been paid to the needs of students learning to write than to teachers learning to teach. In EFL contexts, while much research is geared towards helping learners cope with the challenges of writing in a foreign language, studies on EFL writing teacher education are few and far between. We have…

Lee, Icy

2010-01-01

314

A Study on the Relationship between University Students’ Chinese Writing Proficiency and Their English Writing Proficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Up to now, most researchers have been paying attention to the negative transfer of mother tongue to second language writing. Few studies, if any, have touched upon the positive transfer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the positive transfer of Chinese to 26 first-year university students’ English writing holistically and segmentally in the use of words, grammar, coherence, and content and organization. The result of the Pearson correlation coefficient turned out to be 0.43 at the 5% significance level, indicating a positive relationship between the Chinese writing and the English writing. The questionnaires have also confirmed the result of the correlation analysis. In particular, the positive transfer of Chinese seems to be more apparent in the content and organization of the English writing, followed by coherence and use of words. Thus, it can be concluded that the positive transfer of mother tongue can facilitate English writing.

Xiaoyu Huang

2011-06-01

315

The Role of First Language Literacy and Second Language Proficiency in Second Language Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the interrelationships of first language (L1) literacy, second language (L2) proficiency, and L2 reading comprehension with 246 Chinese college students learning English. L1 literacy and L2 proficiency were measured with college admission exams in Chinese and English. L2 reading comprehension was measured with the reading…

Jiang, Xiangying

2011-01-01

316

Creating a Character as a Writing Exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests an approach to teaching German as a second language in which students jointly create a character and her family and then write a series of stories during he year about the character in various everyday situations. Benefits include use of basic language, cultural issues, and stimulation of student creativity and interest. (Author/VWL)

Latta, Alan D.

2001-01-01

317

Journal Writing: Pedagogical Perspectives. [SFC Monograph #3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articles on the use of student journals in high school and college English-as-a-Second-Language instruction, specifically in the Japanese context, include: "Journal Writing and the Damaged Language Learner" (Alan J. McCormick); "Interested?" (Sven G. M. Puetter); "Tradition and the Student Journal" (George Deaux); "Reader-Response Journals" (Peter…

Casanave, Christine Pearson, Ed.

318

The Impact of Different Writing Tasks on Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance  

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Full Text Available It is academically believed that conventional methods of teaching writing could not provide satisfactorily the Iranian intermediate English as Foreign Language (EFL learners with being fully equipped to meet the demand of their authorities while preparing their reports, compositions, essays, papers, assignments, and projects. Therefore, to introduce a desirable approach to teaching writing, researchers usually introduce task based approaches to compensate for such flaws and end such kinds of concerns. So this experimental study tried to investigate the impact of four different pedagogic writing tasks, i.e., Topic Writing (TW, Summary Writing (SW, Graphic Writing (GW, and Picture Writing (PW on complexity and accuracy of writing performance of aforementioned learners. To this end, 120 subjects were selected as the participants of this experimental study to see which kinds of writing task can ameliorate the current condition well. For implementation the command of the study, altogether 960 written texts as documents of the pre and post test and also treatment were collected and analyzed to pinpoint meticulously the efficacy of these different kinds of writing tasks on subjects' accomplishment in their written production. The results of the study revealed the superiority of SW group for complexity and GW for accuracy of their written productions.

Abdolreza Abdali

2014-04-01

319

La producción de resúmenes en Inglés como Lengua Extranjera (ILE) / La rédaction de résumés en anglais langue étrangère (ALE) / Summary Writing in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) / A produção de resumos em inglês como língua estrangeira (ILE)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A escritura de resumos de textos em inglês como língua estrangeira é um tema que tem recebido mais atenção por parte dos especialistas no âmbito internacional do que no nacional. A partir da abordagem discursivo-funcional, e com base em um corpus de cem resumos redigidos em inglês, estabelecemos com [...] o intuito deste trabalho pesquisar como os estudantes incluem em seus textos as funções discursivas do texto origem e como utilizam as marcas discursivas para destacar essas funções. Para isso, foi utilizado o padrão textual Problema-Solução proposto por Hoey (2001). Os resultados desta análise demonstram que a maioria dos estudantes incluiu em seus resumos as funções hierarquicamente mais importantes do texto original. A estrutura to be about foi utilizada mais frequentemente para introduzir o tópico do texto origem e o verbo to evaluate para reportar o objetivo da pesquisa. Os resultados evidenciam que a maioria dos estudantes tem as aptidões necessárias não só para identificar as diferentes funções discursivas no texto original, mas também para reconstruir, com suas próprias palavras, um texto novo respeitando estas funções. Abstract in spanish La escritura de resúmenes de textos en inglés como lengua extranjera es un tema que ha recibido mayor atención de los expertos en el contexto internacional que en el nacional. Desde una perspectiva discursivo-funcional, y sobre la base de un corpus de cien resúmenes redactados en inglés, nos propusi [...] mos averiguar cómo los aprendices incluyen en sus textos las funciones discursivas del texto fuente y cómo utilizan las marcas discursivas para señalar estas funciones. Para ello se utilizó el patrón textual Problema-Solución propuesto por Hoey (2001). Los resultados del análisis muestran que la mayoría de los estudiantes incluyó en sus resúmenes las funciones jerárquicamente más importantes del texto original. La estructura to be about fue utilizada con mayor frecuencia para introducir el tópico del texto fuente y el verbo to evaluate para reportar el propósito de la investigación. Los resultados evidencian que la mayoría de los estudiantes tiene las habilidades necesarias para identificar las diferentes funciones discursivas en el texto original y para reconstruir, con sus propias palabras, un texto nuevo respetando estas funciones. Abstract in english Summary writing in English as a foreign language has been investigated internationally more than locally. From a discursive-functional perspective and on the basis of the problem-solution textual pattern (Hoey, 2001), we analyzed a corpus of one hundred summaries of a scientific news article, writte [...] n in English by Spanish speaking high school students. We aimed at finding out how the learners include the discursive functions of the source text in their writings and how these functions are linguistically signaled. The results show that the majority of students included in their summaries the hierarchically most important functions of the original text. To be about was the most common structure used to introduce the topic of the original text while the verb to evaluate was most widely used to report the purpose of the source text. These findings indicate that the majority of the participants are discursively and linguistically competent not only to identify the different discourse functions of the original text, but also to reconstruct, in their own words, a new and coherent text.

Simón, Ruiz; Rebecca, Beke.

2012-12-01

320

A Study on Strategy Instruction and EFL Learners’ Writing Skill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing in a second or foreign language seems to be the most difficult language skill for language learners to acquire in academic contexts. While explicit instruction of strategies is not a usual practice in foreign language classrooms, it could be beneficial for language learners. The present study aims at investigating the effect of concept mapping strategy on EFL learners' writing performance. To this end, sixty Iranian students at the intermediate level of language proficiency participated in the study. Their language proficiency was determined by Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency. The results of the Analysis of Covariance revealed that the instruction of concept mapping strategy had a positive effect on EFL learners’ writing achievements. The findings have some pedagogical implications for teaching language skills and designing strategy-based syllabus leading to successful language performance.

Giti Mousapour Negari

2011-08-01

321

But why do you write in Hindi  

OpenAIRE

Whenever attending meetings on Commonwealth or postcolonial literature outside the sub continent, a Hindi writer will invariably be asked this ritual question, ‘why do you write in Hindi?', and similarly any other “regional” or “vernacular” writer, even if the name of these other languages may sometimes be confused with the name of the state (Malyalam and Kerala, Kannada and Karnataka, Oriya and Orissa). The wonder of the Western journalist or literature scholar at Indians writing i...

Montaut, Annie

2009-01-01

322

Writing in Civil Engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

The Civil Engineering Writing Project website contains two kinds of information: (1) research findings about the ways in which student writing in civil engineering differs from practitioners' writing and (2) materials for civil engineering students who want to improve writing skills that are especially useful in the workplace (as well as in the classroom). The resource resulted from a project funded by the National Science Foundation.

Susan Conrad, Ph.D.

323

Pedagogical Implications to Teaching English Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English, as an international language, takes such a position in foreign language teaching and learning in China. As we all know that the ultimate purpose of language teaching is to cultivate students’ communicative ability including not only the oral ability, but also the writing ability. However, teaching of English writing is far from satisfactory, and many students still have a great difficulty in writing English composition. They find it hard to express their ideas and feeling freely and fluently, also they make many mistakes in vocabulary and grammar. Even though there are few grammar mistakes in the composition, it still seems more or less odd when read by native speakers. Teachers should make corresponding changes of the emphasis and pedagogy in their teaching and thus provide the most effective way to ease the students in the writing process and motivate them to write. The aim of this paper is to provide pedagogical implications to help the students to improve their English writing competence.

Fushan Sun

2010-11-01

324

Subjectivity, Intentionality, and Manufactured Moves: Teachers' Perceptions of Voice in the Evaluation of Secondary Students' Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Composition theorists concerned with students' academic writing ability have long questioned the application of voice as a standard for writing competence, and second language compositionists have suggested that English language learners may be disadvantaged by the practice of emphasizing voice in the evaluation of student writing. Despite these…

Jeffery, Jill V.

2011-01-01

325

Technical and Scientific Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intent of this book is to acquaint teachers with the realistic situations and composing processes that they can use when teaching business, report, and scientific writing. An introductory chapter provides a working definition of technical writing that reflects such essential writing components as recording the experience and having an…

Collins, Sarah H.; Tuttle, Frederick B., Jr.

326

Assess Student Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining what constitutes good writing is difficult, though many say they know it when they see it. Although this approach may have support in the literature, there are other efficient and valid ways to assess students' writing. To obtain a complete picture of a student's writing skills, it is important that teachers take a balanced approach to…

Hessler, Terri; Konrad, Moira; Alber-Morgan, Sheila

2009-01-01

327

How Do I Write…? Scaffolding Preschoolers' Early Writing Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

Providing preschoolers with rich writing experiences can help to lay a foundation for their later reading and writing success. Early writing experiences can be greatly enhanced by how preschool teachers answer young children's questions about writing and engage them in productive writing instruction. With appropriate scaffolding, early writing…

Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.; Gerde, Hope K.

2013-01-01

328

L1CAM whole gene deletion in a child with L1 syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

L1 syndrome is a group of overlapping, X-linked disorders caused by mutations in L1CAM. Clinical phenotypes within L1 syndrome include X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius (HSAS); mental retardation, adducted thumbs, shuffling gait, and aphasia (MASA) syndrome; spastic paraplegia type 1; and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Over 200 mutations in L1CAM have been reported; however, only a few large gene deletions have been observed. We report on a 4-month-old male with a de novo whole gene deletion of L1CAM presenting with congenital hydrocephalus, aqueductal stenosis, and adducted thumbs. Initial failure of L1CAM gene sequencing suggested the possibility of a whole gene deletion of L1CAM. Further investigation through chromosome microarray analysis showed a 62Kb deletion encompassing the first exon of the PDZD4 gene and the entire L1CAM gene. Investigations into genotype-phenotype correlations have suggested that mutations leading to truncated or absent L1 protein cause more severe forms of L1 syndrome. Based on the presentation of the proband and other reported patients with whole gene deletions, we provide further evidence that L1CAM whole gene deletions result in L1 syndrome with a severe phenotype, deletions of PDZD4 do not cause additional manifestations, and that X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus reported in a subset of patients with large L1CAM deletions results from the loss of AVPR2. PMID:24668863

Chidsey, Brandalyn A; Baldwin, Erin E; Toydemir, Reha; Ahles, Lauren; Hanson, Heather; Stevenson, David A

2014-06-01

329

L1-norm-based 2DPCA.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we first present a simple but effective L1-norm-based two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA). Traditional L2-norm-based least squares criterion is sensitive to outliers, while the newly proposed L1-norm 2DPCA is robust. Experimental results demonstrate its advantages. PMID:20083461

Li, Xuelong; Pang, Yanwei; Yuan, Yuan

2010-08-01

330

Implementing the L1 trigger path  

CERN Document Server

This note discusses two issues which have emerged recently related to the transmission of data to the DAQ system by the L1 Front-End electronics and the implementation of the L1 trigger path. Firstly the note describes a scheme to centrally broadcast the IP destinations for the L1 data channel and the High-Level Trigger channel. The scheme is already supported by the TFC system, in particular by the current version of the Readout Supervisor "ODIN". Secondly, the note discusses the consequences of eliminating the L1 Trigger Sorter module located between the L1 trigger processing in the CPU farm and the TFC system. Two possible implementations are described: sorting the L1 triggers in the Readout Supervisor "ODIN" or handling unsorted L1 triggers fully. The two solutions require a redesign of the Readout Supervisor which implies a delay of about one year with respect to the current planning. However, the current version can still be used for tests and in the experiment provided a provisory L1 Trigger Sorted mod...

Jacobsson, R

2003-01-01

331

Cerebral localization of the center for reading and writing music.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms that underlie the ability to read and write music remain largely unclear compared to those involved in reading and writing language. We had the extremely rare opportunity to study the cerebral localization of the center for reading and writing music in the case of a professional trombonist. During rehearsal immediately before a concert, he suffered a hemorrhage that was localized to the left angular gyrus, the area that has long been known as the center for the ability to read and write. Detailed tests revealed that he showed symptoms of alexia with agraphia for both musical scores and language. PMID:11043568

Kawamura, M; Midorikawa, A; Kezuka, M

2000-09-28

332

Enacting and Transforming Local Language Policies  

Science.gov (United States)

Exploring language practices, beliefs, and management in a first-year writing program, this article considers the obstacles to and opportunities for transforming language policy and enacting a new multilingual norm in U.S. postsecondary writing instruction. It argues that the articulation of statements regarding language diversity, co-developed by…

Tardy, Christine M.

2011-01-01

333

Fostering Writing and Critical Thinking through Dialogue Journal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much like the regular physical exercise, having a regular writing workout is necessary for learners of English language. Dialogue journals provide the perfect means for this. Dialogue journal in an English classroom is an informal written conversation between the students and the teacher; in fact it can motivate a learner to write more in English. The language in a dialogue journal is closer to speech than to academic writing, so it promotes authentic, informal and lively conversation between the writers. As our learners need frequent opportunities to practice speaking English freely without fear of being corrected, in order to achieve oral fluency; similarly they need the chance to write freely without inhibition to promote fluency in writing. Often it is in the act of writing a response that actual learning takes place and this is how critical thinking develops. In fact, dialogue journal is the place where students explore their thinking before classroom discussion. It enables speaking and writing, referencing each other. The main objective of using dialogue journals in the English language classroom is to give students more time and opportunities for writing so that they can experience the pleasure of communication through the written word and at the same time become better writers and thinkers in English. With this background, the aim of this paper is to discuss the role of dialogue journals in developing the skills of writing and critical thinking of English language learners.

Ravi Bhushan

2014-06-01

334

Second Language Acquisition and Autism  

OpenAIRE

Current research on language development and bilingual development suggests that good proficiency in the first language (L1) is a prerequisite for acquiring a second language (L2). Documentation from the Icelandic State's Diagnostic and Counselling Centre seems to challenge this assumption, as a number of children who have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and that have delayed or impaired L1 development, seems to have very good proficiency in English, which is their L2. Th...

Karl Óskar Þráinsson 1975

2012-01-01

335

Improving linguistic fluency for writing: Effects of explicitness and focus of instruction.  

OpenAIRE

In an explorative classroom experiment the effects of several instructional conditions for writing were compared. Studies on writing suggest that linguistic fluency is an important factor in writer’s abilities to manipulate sentence structures in order to produce comprehensible text. L1 writing theories indicate that working memory limitations play an important role in formulation. Therefore, improving linguistic fluency presumably frees working memory space and allows the writer to devote ...

Gelderen, A.; Oostdam, R.

2002-01-01

336

Negative Transfer of Chinese to College Students? English Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In China, in the process of college students’ foreign language learning, English writing is the reflection of their integrating skills and it is also the process of rewriting based on gaining English knowledge. Meanwhile, Chinese college students’ English writing is a cross-language and cross-cultural communicative behavior, and also a behavior of the transformation of thinking and cultural model. However, in the process of English writing, the negative transfer of Chinese influences students’ writing. Here, according to the research to the students’ writing and the relative questionnaire survey in Beihai College of Beihang University, this paper is a systematic and objective analysis on the negative transfer of Chinese to college students’ English writing at the levels of lexis, sentence structure and discourse.

Zhiliang Liu

2011-09-01

337

Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Writing Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to find the relationship between multiple intelligences and writing strategies among Iranian EFL learners. The participants in this study were 120 adult males and females studying at high and advanced levels of Iran Language Institute. They filled two questionnaires during the first sessions of spring semester of 2012. The first questionnaire was a multiple intelligences inventory surveying nine types of intelligences based on Gardner’s theory and the second one was a writing skills and strategies questionnaire checking the students’ use of general, before, during and after writing strategies. According to the results of a corelational analysis, “logical, existential, kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences” correlated with “general writing strategies”. Moreover, “naturalistic, logical, kinesthetic and visual intelligences” showed relationship with “before writing strategies”. The researcher found that some types of intelligences among females had relationship with some writing strategies while in the male group no relationships were found. Besides, the results of advanced levels showed more significant correlations than those of high levels. Regression analysis, on the other hand, proved that none of the intelligences could predict writing strategies separately.

Narges Moheb

2013-07-01

338

Improving linguistic fluency for writing: Effects of explicitness and focus of instruction.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an explorative classroom experiment the effects of several instructional conditions for writing were compared. Studies on writing suggest that linguistic fluency is an important factor in writer’s abilities to manipulate sentence structures in order to produce comprehensible text. L1 writing theories indicate that working memory limitations play an important role in formulation. Therefore, improving linguistic fluency presumably frees working memory space and allows the writer to devote more attention to meaning-related problems. An important point of debate in language-learning theories is the role of explicit knowledge about linguistic structure. Some believe that explicit rule knowledge has an important role in acquiring fluency, while others maintain that explicit knowledge has no real influence on skill development, and that fluency develops on the basis of the implicit knowledge of linguistic structures. In recent L2 theories a focus solely on meaning appears insufficient for mastery of linguistic structures. Meaning-oriented language production should, in this view, be complemented by a focus on form(s. Four learning conditions for improving linguistic fluency were discriminated according to the dimensions “focus of instruction” (forms vs. meaning and “explicitness of instruction” (implicit vs. explicit. Students of elementary grades 5 and 6 (including both first- and advanced second-language learners of Dutch received four lessons involving the linguistic operations for adding information to sentences in meaningful contexts and avoiding unnecessary (repetition of information. Results of the experiment show significant positive effects of all four conditions on two post-test formulation tasks in comparison to a control group.

Van Gelderen, A.

2002-01-01

339

Essay: Learning a Second Language  

Science.gov (United States)

What challenges face students who are learning a second language at the same time as they are learning science? This essay considers some of the difficulties associated with learning to speak, read, and write in a second language. Although the principles of language learning discussed here can be generalized across languages and contexts, this essay considers situations in which English is both the language of instruction and the language being learned.

Ellen Bialystok, York University

2008-01-01

340

Teaching English Medical Writing in a Blended Setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical writing activities which may have a context and seem to be engaging may be perceived as demotivating by the students of medicine. This opinion was confirmed by the learners' responses to the open-ended question given to them prior to this study. In their responses students evaluated the writing section of English course negatively. The negative views about the writing course posed a problem to the class teacher. The computer technology and the Internet can easily be integrated into language classroom if activities are designed carefully, and carried out systematically. These attempts brought about a new understanding to teaching and learning: blended learning (BL. The purpose of this research was to investigate students of medicine attitude to blended writing classes. It was conducted with second year learners in the Faculty of Medicine at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. The first reflection aimed at finding out medical students' attitude toward blended writing lessons. Although learners' attitude to writing lessons was negative in the first reflections, they changed into positive in the latter ones. The findings indicated that blended writing class had changed students' perception of writing lessons positively. Therefore, this kind of classes may help students develop a positive attitude towards writing by providing meaningful writing opportunities. Like the student portfolio before it, the weblog faces challenges with practicality and security, but ultimately provides an alternative way to teach and assess authentic writing and reading skills. Blog Assisted Language Learning not only provides teachers with an exciting new way to approach communicative language learning, it also gives the students a new reason to enjoy writing! The paper concludes that Internet tools have the potential to be a transformational technology for teaching and learning writing, and teachers ought to give strong consideration to the setting up their facilities within their learning management system.

Jafar Asgari Arani

2012-12-01

341

ON TEACHERS’ KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND WISDOM – AND THE INEVITABILITY OF LANGUAGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the concept of knowledge with a view on L1 teachers. Influenced by Aristotle’s epistemology, it explores how teacher knowledge could be described and understood.The empirical foundation of the article is a case study of seven Icelandic L1 teachers.The article analyses the concept of teachers’ professional knowledge and discusses questions such as: What kind of knowledge do the teachers actually possess and value? How do L1 teachers deal with the complexity of their work? Does their knowledge cover the needs of their profession?The analysis indicates that the L1 subject in some respects is in a special position: It addition to being a school subject, it relates to cultural traditions and values. Moreover, the subject relates to pupils’ devel-opment both as individuals and citizens, and so even deals with citizenship in a fundamental way. Fur-thermore, L1 is a tool for any subject: pupils need to read and to express themselves both in writing and orally in all classes. Besides, the subject often treats themes which affect pupils’ personally, e.g. due to the close connection between language and identity. Therefore teachers’ knowledge should include morality, in addition to academic and pedagogic skills.

KJERSTI LEA

2012-08-01

342

Fisher discriminant analysis with L1-norm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a classical subspace learning technique of extracting discriminative features for pattern recognition problems. The formulation of the Fisher criterion is based on the L2-norm, which makes LDA prone to being affected by the presence of outliers. In this paper, we propose a new method, termed LDA-L1, by maximizing the ratio of the between-class dispersion to the within-class dispersion using the L1-norm rather than the L2-norm. LDA-L1 is robust to outliers, and is solved by an iterative algorithm proposed. The algorithm is easy to be implemented and is theoretically shown to arrive at a locally maximal point. LDA-L1 does not suffer from the problems of small sample size and rank limit as existed in the conventional LDA. Experiment results of image recognition confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:23912504

Wang, Haixian; Lu, Xuesong; Hu, Zilan; Zheng, Wenming

2014-06-01

343

Genetics Home Reference: L1 syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

... complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia type 1 X-linked corpus callosum agenesis X-linked hydrocephalus syndrome X-linked hydrocephalus with ... What glossary definitions help with understanding L1 syndrome? agenesis ; cell ; chromosome ; ... hereditary ; hydrocephalus ; inheritance ; inherited ; mutation ; nervous ...

344

The Effect of Concept Mapping on L2 Writing Performance: Examining Possible Effects of Trait-Level Writing Anxiety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students’ learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students’ writing anxiety. Participants completed writing anxiety scales and were randomly assigned to three groups before completing a writing task: concept mapping, idea listing, or an unrelated task. Results indicated that, especially for students with low trait-level writing anxiety, concept mapping positively influenced the quality of writing content. Teaching implications will be discussed in the light of the results of this study.

Naoko Machida

2014-08-01

345

Efficient L1/Lq Norm Regularization  

OpenAIRE

Sparse learning has recently received increasing attention in many areas including machine learning, statistics, and applied mathematics. The mixed-norm regularization based on the L1/Lq norm with q > 1 is attractive in many applications of regression and classification in that it facilitates group sparsity in the model. The resulting optimization problem is, however, challenging to solve due to the structure of the L1/Lq -regularization. Existing work deals with special cas...

Liu, Jun; Ye, Jieping

2010-01-01

346

Evidentiality in Academic Writing  

OpenAIRE

Inevitability of using evidentials (EVs) and references in all academic writings signifies the importance of distinguishing and applying EVs for those who attempt to write in academic prose. With the aim of creating a unique model of EVs in academic texts, this study used well-established taxonomies of metadiscourse markers adapted by Hyland (2005) combined with Swales' (1990) classification of citations as well as Berkenkotter and Huckin's (1995) concept of intertexuality in academic writing...

Mojdeh Ebrahimi Dehkordi; Hamid Allami

2012-01-01

347

An Investigation into the use of wikis for collaborative writing in L2 academic writing workshops. A pilot study  

OpenAIRE

Although public wikis have proven to be successful for collaborative writing projects, very few studies have investigated their use in L2 classes. This study sets out to explore the use of wikis for collaborative writing in L2 academic writing workshops. The students were all adult EFL students at Intermediate level studying English at a language school in Edinburgh. Six students were observed as they worked on a wiki. Two students were interviewed to elicit their experience of...

Chetty, Gillian

2006-01-01

348

A Study on the Relationship between University Students’ Chinese Writing Proficiency and Their English Writing Proficiency  

OpenAIRE

Up to now, most researchers have been paying attention to the negative transfer of mother tongue to second language writing. Few studies, if any, have touched upon the positive transfer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the positive transfer of Chinese to 26 first-year university students’ English writing holistically and segmentally in the use of words, grammar, coherence, and content and organization. The result of the Pearson correlation coefficient turned out to...

Xiaoyu Huang; Xueying Liang; Effie Dracopoulos

2011-01-01

349

Academic Writing Retreat: A Time for Rejuvenated and Focused Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of a three-day academic writing retreat on the writing lives of four female university faculty members. Goals of the retreat included rejuvenating their writing lives, focusing their research agendas, improving their writing, and engaging in concentrated blocks of writing and collaborative…

Swaggerty, Elizabeth A.; Atkinson, Terry S.; Faulconer, Johna L.; Griffith, Robin R.

2011-01-01

350

POST-STROKE WRITING AND READING DISORDERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias, agraphias and acalculias are more frequent than verified in routine exam, not only in the less developed but also in large neurological departments. Alexia is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called word blindness, text blindness orvisual aphasia. Alexia refers to an acquired inability to read caused by brain damage and must be distinguished from dyslexia, a developmental abnormality in which the individual is unable to learn to read, and from illiteracy, which reflects a poor educational back-ground. Most aphasics are also alexic, but alexia may occur in the absence of aphasia and may occasionally be the soledisability resulting from specific brain lesions. There are different classifications of alexias. Traditionally, the alexias are divided into three categories: pure alexia with agraphia, pure alexia without agraphia, and alexia associated with aphasia (“aphasic alexia”. Agraphia is defined as the disruption of previously intact writing skills by brain damage. Writing involves several elements—language processing, spelling, visual perception, visual-spatial orientation for graphic symbols, motor planning, and motor control of writing. A disturbance of any of these processes can impair writing. Agraphia may occur by itself or as association with aphasias, alexia, agnosia and apraxia. Agraphia can also result from “peripheral” involvement of the motor act of writing. Like alexia, agraphia must be distinguished from illiteracy, where writing skills were never developed. Acalculia is a clinical syndrome of acquired deficits in mathematical calculation, either mentally or with paper and pencil. This language disturbances can be classified differently, but there are three principal types of acalculia: acalculia associated with language disturbances, including number paraphasia, number agraphia, or number alexia; acalculia secondary to visual-spatial dysfunction with malalignment of numbers and columns, and a primary anarithmetria entailing disruption of the computation process.

Sinanovi? Osman

2013-01-01

351

Mrs. Thorne's writing bureau  

OpenAIRE

Measured, detailed sketch of a decorative design for Mrs Thorne's writing bureau. Probably prepared for prof. Geoffrey Pearse's book "Eighteenth Century Furniture in South Africa", but never included.

Fassler, John

2006-01-01

352

Language Training  

CERN Multimedia

General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 8 May to 30 June (or 7 July) 2006. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 10 April to 19 June 2006. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 24 hours Price: 528 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2006-01-01

353

L1 Allophones in L2 Speech Production: The Case of English Learners of Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is broadly accepted that adult second-language (L2) learners focus attention only on those aspects of sounds needed for phonemic contrast, the role that allophony plays in the process of L2 speech learning is less well understood. It is widely assumed that speakers do not have conscious awareness of and access to first-language (L1

Vokic, Gabriela

2010-01-01

354

Too Nervous to Write? The Relationship between Anxiety and EFL Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the students’ anxiety in essay writing and their writing performance in EFL context. The subjects were chosen from among 75 Iranian EFL students who took part in TOFEL proficiency test. 27 students majoring in English have been selected. They studied either English translation or English literature. The instruments to collect data were: a Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 b Open - ended questionnaire and c Writing performance tests. The results suggested that the students felt less nervous in writing when the teacher assured them that their papers will not be scored in contrast to the time when their papers were to be scored by the teacher. In addition, the correlation between final writing test and anxiety were significantly high. The participants’ responses to the open-ended questionnaire revealed that during their first stage of writing experience (when the teacher assured them that their papers will not be scored, the students had less physiological and psychological changes than their final test. The results suggested that by taking advantage of the facilitative aspect of anxiety, the students’ writing performance will be improved. The study has some pedagogical implications that will be discussed in this paper.

Giti Mousapour Negari

2012-12-01

355

On the Write Track. A 353 Special Project. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary goal of a project was to encourage students in adult basic education, General Educational Development, and English as a second language to express their thoughts and feelings through writing. Its objectives were to collect and publish exemplary student writings from adult education programs throughout the state of Pennsylvania and to…

Lancaster-Lebanon Intermediate Unit 13, Lancaster, PA.

356

Raising Critical Consciousness via Creative Writing in the EFL Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study discusses a method to promote raising critical consciousness in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom via creative writing activities by having students write journals and/or personal letters from the perspective of individuals from outside groups that have been marginalized or vilified in the students' dominant culture.…

Stillar, Scott

2013-01-01

357

Roots in the Sawdust: Writing to Learn across the Disciplines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Written by teachers, the chapters in this book show how writing fosters learning in math, science, English, social studies, foreign language, philosophy, psychology, and art. Following an introduction by Anne Ruggles Gere, the first chapter, "Writing to Learn: The Nurse Log Classroom," by Steve Pearse, presents a comprehensive overview of a…

Gere, Anne Ruggles, Ed.

358

The Role of Wiki Writing in Learning Spanish Grammar  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which wiki writing improves college students' grammatical knowledge in Spanish as a second language (L2). Fifty-three students participated in the study for three consecutive semesters. Pre- and posttest results show that wiki writing was helpful in improving their grammatical…

Castañeda, Daniel A.; Cho, Moon-Heum

2013-01-01

359

Medical writing, revising and editing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic form. Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client

Pilegaard, Morten

2006-01-01

360

EFFECTIVE WRITING IN ENGLISH COMPOSITION  

OpenAIRE

Today students realize the need of effective written communication in composition writing and other writing capacities which in turn is a vital concern for educators and employers universities have moved towards more writing and have made requirements in writing stricter. Those teaching a writing course must be aware of suggestions for approaching a topic such as tenses and sentences.

Deshmukh, J. A.

2014-01-01

361

L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak

2009-01-01

362

Collaborative Writing: Product, Process, and Students' Reflections  

Science.gov (United States)

Although pair and group work are commonly used in language classrooms, very few studies have investigated the nature of such collaboration when students produce a jointly written text. This study set out to investigate collaborative writing. The study was classroom based, and the participants (23) were adult ESL students completing degree courses.…

Storch, Neomy

2005-01-01

363

An Imaginative Approach to Teaching Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Mindful of the fact that one of the most important ingredients in learning to write in a foreign language is motivation, the authors have experimented in their classes with a wide range of exercises from a very useful source: Gianni Rodari's "Grammatico della Fantasia: lntroduzione all'arte di inventare storie" (Torino: Piccola Biblioteca Einandi,…

Cuenca, Carmen Manuel; Carmona, Rodrigo Fernandez

2012-01-01

364

English Language, Linguistics and Literature.  

OpenAIRE

This collection contains selected readings of Ccassical writings for linguistic theory, literature history, and applications of the English language in documents from the early beginnings to the 20th century.

Haase, Fee

2009-01-01

365

Grade Two Children's Emergent Writing in English and Hebrew in a Dual Curriculum School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Used multiple case studies to examine the writing of eight second graders in a dual curriculum school with Hebrew as an additional language. Findings revealed some letter and directional reversals, mostly conventional word boundaries, and invented spellings in both languages. Evidence suggests that learning to write in an additional language is an…

Chapman, Marilyn L.; Michaelson, Myra

1998-01-01

366

Writing as Revision.  

Science.gov (United States)

This proposal for a longitudinal experimental study with a treatment intervention focuses on the process of writing as revision. Revision refers to the process which occurs prior to and throughout the writing of a work, rather than the final editing. According to this process, the writer goes through five stages: preconceptions concerning style…

Della-Piana, Gabriel M.; Endo, George T.

367

Writing in Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

A brief teacher-to-teacher article on getting started with writing in math class: moving from think-pair-share to the less known model of think-write-pair-share. Also included are helpful links to more information on the topic.

Terry Kawas

2006-01-01

368

Writing Technical Instructions  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students walk through the process of creating technical instructions by first analyzing existing instructions. They then select an item and an audience for which they will write technical instructions. After writing their own instructions, students conduct usability tests of each other’s instructions, providing user feedback. Finally, students use this user feedback to revise their instructions before publishing them.

2012-05-24

369

Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing  

OpenAIRE

As a teacher of EFL at UFSC since 1975, I have observed semester after semester the difficulties that students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature have in reading and especially inwriting not only at the beginning but at more advanced stages when they are close to graduating. I have also observed that these students have little interest in reading and writing in a foreign language either inside or outside the classroom. Conversations with my fellow teachers confirmed th...

Loni Kreis Taglieber

2008-01-01

370

Florida: Feast of Figurative Language  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson (part two of a two-part unit), students will read the poem “Florida” by Elizabeth Bishop and label her use of figurative language. Students will then determine how word choice and figurative language enhance and convey authorâs meaning and tone. Using Bishopâs poem as a model, students then write their own Florida poem brimming with figurative language and vivid vocabulary.

Davis, Helen

2012-08-10

371

Seismic ray tomography using L1 integral norm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O alto consumo de tempo em processamento computacional é um problema que, geralmente, está associado aos métodos de tomografia sísmica. Isto ocorre porque, em cada passo do processo iterativo de inversão definido pelo método tomográfico, o problema da conexão de dois pontos, pela curva da trajetória [...] do raio sísmico, deve ser resolvido para cada par fonte-receptor. A fim de reduzir a gravidade deste tipo de problema, a norma Euclideana (norma L2de vetor), comumente empregada nas funções de erro a ser minimizado no processo de inversão, é substituída por uma norma L1 de função. Essa mudança permite estimar parâmetros do modelo através da minimização da área entre curvas de tempos observados e calculados que são interpoladas (ou ajustadas) aos pontos referentes aos dados. Desenvolvimentos matemáticos e experimentos numéricos relativamente simples, com modelos bidimensionais de campos de velocidade sísmica de ondas compressionais, mostram que a norma L1 de função permite poupar uma enorme quantidade de tempo de processamento sem uma importante perda de precisão. Às vezes, os parâmetros do modelo são estimados de modo mais acurado usando-se a norma L1 da integral em lugar da norma L2 de vetor, tradicionalmente usada na inversão tomográfica. Abstract in english Seismic ray tomography methods are usually associated with substantial computer processing time. The reason for this is that at each step of the iterative inversion process defined by the tomographic method the two-point ray tracing problem must be solved for each source-receiver pair. In order to r [...] esolve this, an Euclidean norm (L2 vector norm), commonly used in error functions which are to be minimized in inversion procedures, is substituted by an L1 integral norm, which enables the estimation of model parameters by minimizing the area between observed and calculated traveltime curves that are interpolated (or adjusted) to the data points. Relatively simple mathematical developments and numerical experiments with two-dimensional compressional seismic wave velocity field models showthat L1 integral norm saves an enormous amount of processing time with no significant loss of accuracy. Occasionally, parameters of the model can be better estimated using L1 integral norm than the L2 vector norm that is traditionally utilized in seismic inversion tomography.

Vânia G. de Brito dos, Santos; Wilson M., Figueiró.

2011-06-01

372

Technical report writing today  

CERN Document Server

"Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...

Riordan, Daniel G

2014-01-01

373

Yale College Writing Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yale College Writing Center "supports writers and writing teachers through the resources on this website" and consequently support an audience far beyond New Haven. First-time visitors should look at the Advice for Students to get started. Here, they will find areas that include "What Good Writers Know" and "Model Papers from the Disciplines.� The first area contains short and succinct advice with detailed explanations while the second area contains thoughtful works from Yale students in fields such as philosophy, natural science, and literature. Moving along, Writing at Yale includes information about the various writing programs and initiatives at Yale College, along with links to writing award programs from around the country.

374

Expanding Definitions of Academic Writing: Family History Writing in the Basic Writing Classroom and Beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

Narrow definitions of academic writing often do not serve students well because they ignore the rhetorically situated and social bases for writing and the potential role of writing to span the personal, professional, and civic areas of students' lives. Broadening school-sponsored writing to include writing about family can help students to see the…

Rankins-Robertson, Sherry; Cahill, Lisa; Roen, Duane; Glau, Gregory R.

2010-01-01

375

Professional Writing in the English Classroom: Professional Collaborative Writing--Teaching, Writing, and Learning--Together.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors report the importance of teaching students about collaborative writing. When teachers are effective in helping students to learn processes for collaborative writing, everyone involved needs to speak, listen, write, and read about how to write well and what makes writing good. Students are forced to "go meta"…

Bush, Jonathan; Zuidema, Leah

2013-01-01

376

Textographies and the researching and teaching of writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes three different examples of the use of textographies in the researching and teaching of writing. The first is an examination of the exegeses that art and design students write in their masters degrees. In the second example, a group of teachers looked at the writing section of Chinese College English tests. The third example describes a course in which second language students carry out an analysis of the kinds of writing that is required of them in their academic studies. Each of the projects aims to go “beyond the text” (Freedman, 1999 in order to gain an understanding of why the texts are written as they are.

Brian Paltridge

2008-04-01

377

Panos Theodorides: Within the Boundaries of Chartered Column Writing  

OpenAIRE

Panos Theodoridis, writer and columnist, provides –in one of his rare interviews during the last decade– with his known heretic style, answers to issues such as the internet, arts, writing, the “Macedonian question”, the relation between language and philosophy etc.

Victor Tsilonis

2008-01-01

378

Imagining Writing Futures: Photography, Writing, and Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The article examines high school students' writing composition practices in multimodal instructional environments. We use Rosenblatt's transactional theory to look across the findings of 2 studies that blend traditional and digital modes of instruction in order to explore how modal switching can support students' reading and…

McLean, Cheryl A.; Rowsell, Jennifer

2015-01-01

379

Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

Miller, J. Hillis

1993-01-01

380

Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language  

OpenAIRE

Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer user...

Annamalai, Muthiah

2009-01-01

381

The Reading and Writing Relationship: A Case for Confluent Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading and writing are part of the world of children. Most school language arts programs, however, do not help students develop a personal, functional need for being language users themselves. Too often in schools, the purpose of language is to satisfy an external demand and not an internal, expressive, or communicative need. Research in the last…

Collins, Norma Decker

382

In Cite : Epistemologies of Creative Writing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The epistemic creative writer is not merely an expressive writer, a writer who writes for creative writing programs at diverse university colleges. Rather, the epistemic creative writer is the writer who understands that in order to say something useful you must step out of the space that engages your ego. Awareness of what really matters comes from the contemplation of the futility of words. Before the word there is silence. After the word there is silence. But during the word there is knowledge that can be made crystal clear. This book is about extracting what writing means to a few writers who formulate ideas about creative writing without, however, making claims to instruction. Can creative writing that produces knowledge be taught without a method? Samuel Beckett, Raymond Federman, Gertrude Stein, Jacques Lacan, Frank O'Hara, Douglas Hofstadter, Brian Rotman, Herman Melville, Kathy Acker, Friedrich Nietzsche, David Markson, Andrei Codrescu, and a host of others, gather here to offer an answer. --"Camelia Elias speaks to the reader from that place where the language of the birds becomes the language of silence." (Patrick Blackburn, Professor of Formal Logic, Roskilde University)

Elias, Camelia

2013-01-01

383

In Cite: Epistemologies of Creative Writing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The epistemic creative writer is not merely an expressive writer, a writer who writes for creative writing programs at diverse university colleges. Rather, the epistemic creative writer is the writer who understands that in order to say something useful you must step out of the space that engages your ego. Awareness of what really matters comes from the contemplation of the futility of words. Before the word there is silence. After the word there is silence. But during the word there is knowledge that can be made crystal clear. This book is about extracting what writing means to a few writers who formulate ideas about creative writing without, however, making claims to instruction. Can creative writing that produces knowledge be taught without a method? Samuel Beckett, Raymond Federman, Gertrude Stein, Jacques Lacan, Frank O'Hara, Douglas Hofstadter, Brian Rotman, Herman Melville, Kathy Acker, Friedrich Nietzsche, David Markson, Andrei Codrescu, and a host of others, gather here to offer an answer. --"Camelia Elias speaks to the reader from that place where the language of the birds becomes the language of silence." (Patrick Blackburn, Professor of Formal Logic, Roskilde University)

Elias, Camelia

2013-01-01

384

First language polysemy affects second language meaning interpretation: evidence for activation of first language concepts during second language reading  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The present study investigates the influence of first language (L1) lexicalization patterns on the processing of second language (L2) words in sentential contexts by advanced German learners of English. The focus was on cases where a polysemous word in the L1 is realized by independent words in the L2, e.g. German Blase realized by English bubble and blister. An anomaly detection task ...

Elston-gu?ttler, Kerrie E.; Williams, John N.

2008-01-01

385

Transforming Literacy Changing Lives Through Reading and Writing  

CERN Document Server

The book is interdisciplinary in focus and centers on enlarging teachers' understanding of how reading and writing can change lives and how the language arts can contribute significantly to and change educational processes in the twenty-first century. Implicit in its argument is that although the emphasis on science and math is crucial to education in the digital edge, it remains vitally important to keep reading and writing, language and story, at the heart of the educational process

Waxler, Robert P

2011-01-01

386

Culture, cognition and language in the constitution of reading and writing practices in an adult literacy classroom Cultura, cognição e linguagem na constituição de práticas de leitura e escrita de adultos em processo de alfabetização  

OpenAIRE

In this article we analyze a discursive interaction between a researcher and an Youth and Adult Education student intending to show the meanings and uses of reading and writing taken by him. We take as our basis for discussion the theoretical-methodological contributions from Historical-Cultural Psychology and Paulo Freire's theories, which are combined with Bakhtin's concept of dialogue. This procedure allowed us, on one hand, getting into the other's perspective and, on the other hand, to m...

Maria de Fátima Cardoso Gomes; Maria da Conceição Ferreira Reis Fonseca; Maira Tomayno de Melo Dias; Patricia Guimarães Vargas

2011-01-01

387

Unit 1003: The Language of Exposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This language unit for grade 10 builds on a definition of the expository use of language developed in the two previous 10th-grade units. In a brief overview of report language, the referential language of Thomas Huxley is compared with the expressive language of Edgar Allan Poe. The writings of S. I. Hayakawa, Hans Guth, and others are examined…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

388

Influence of Additional Language Learning on First Language Learning in Children with Language Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language…

To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

2012-01-01

389

How to write and publish a scientific paper  

CERN Document Server

Writing and publishing journal articles are crucial to scientific careers. Unfortunately, many young scientists find the process of communicating scientific information effectively a complete mystery. By providing practical, readable, and sometimes humorous guidance, this book helps researchers gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence to succeed in communicating about their work. This seventh edition of "How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper" contains 41 chapters focused upon two separate tasks: how to write the respective sections of a scientific paper and how to publish the paper. Other related topics include approaching a writing project, following ethical principles in scientific publishing, preparing oral presentations and poster presentations, writing grant proposals, and working with the popular media. The authors provide considerable guidance on appropriate scientific writing style as well as an extensive list of words and expressions to avoid - and supply the language to substitute for them.

Day, Robert A

2011-01-01

390

DYSGRAPHIA IN FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IN SLOVENIAN PRIMARY SCHOOLS  

OpenAIRE

This thesis with the title “Dysgraphia in first language acquisition in Slovenian primary schools” consists of two parts. In the first theoretical part we defined different aspects of writing disorders. The studied literature helped us to write the definition of writing disorder and to define the classes, forms, types, causes, phases and the source of writing disorders. We divided the writing disorders into two main classes – dysgraphia, meaning the transcription disability, and dysorth...

Urleb, Karla

2013-01-01

391

KU Writing Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Kansas has a number of fine academic programs, and they also provide writing support for students who might be having trouble getting started with their own assignments or term papers. While visitors may not be able to make the trek on over to Lawrence, they can certainly hop online here to take advantage of some of their writing tutorials and guide sheets. Most visitors will probably want to start at the "Students" section, where they can then click on sections specifically designed for undergraduates or graduate students. Some of these materials have been created specifically by the professionals at KU's Writing Center, including some very helpful guides to crafting an effective thesis statement and working on pre-writing strategies. Also, the "Writing Guides" section includes a sample writing gallery and an assignment planner. For a bit of fun, users can also check out their online photo gallery and also watch their short film, "A Week in the Life of the KU Writing Center".

392

Invented Spelling in the Writing Process: Applications for the Elementary EFL/ESL Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study in Thailand investigated the relationship of invented spelling and writing skills among students of English as a Second Language (ESL). Subjects were 12 first-grade children, aged 6-7 years, in an international school. All were taught English, including writing, by the same method. Analysis of writing samples over the course of the year…

Lundblade, Shirley Mae

393

Code-Switching Patterns in the Writing-Related Talk of Young Emergent Bilinguals  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study examined code-switching patterns in the writing-related talk of 6 emergent Spanish-English bilingual first-grade children. Audio recordings, field notes, and writing artifacts documenting participant activities and language use in Spanish and English writing workshops were gathered over the course of 6 months and analyzed…

Gort, Mileidis

2012-01-01

394

"Why Am I Paraphrasing?": Undergraduate ESL Writers' Engagement with Source-Based Academic Writing and Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most common and vital areas of coverage in second language (L2) writing instruction is writing from sources, that is, the process of reading source text material and transferring content from that reading to writing. Research as well as everyday practice in the classroom has long shown that working with source texts is one of the most…

Hirvela, Alan; Du, Qian

2013-01-01

395

A Blended Collaborative Writing Approach for Chinese L2 Primary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines an adaptable collaborative writing approach employing a wiki to address the typical weaknesses of young Singaporean Chinese students learning Chinese as second language (L2) in Chinese writing. These students' problems in writing include limited and incorrect use of vocabulary, English-style grammar, badly structured passages,…

Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chen, Wenli; Chai, Ching-Sing; Chin, Chee-Kuen; Gao, Ping

2011-01-01

396

Exploring Students' Perceptions of Integrating Wiki Technology and Peer Feedback into English Writing Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

This study applied Wiki technology and peer review to an English as a foreign language writing class. The objective was to investigate whether this system, as a collaborative platform, would improve students' writing skills. The study gauged students' perceptions about integrating a Wiki writing course and peer feedback. The participants were 32…

Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yang, Shu Ching

2011-01-01

397

GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

Rosaria Solarino

2011-02-01

398

The Role of L1 in L2 Acquisition: Attitudes of Iranian University Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning a second language in an EFL context requires both students and teachers to cooperate efficiently and resourcefully. By referring to the current theories of second language acquisition and reviewing the recent literature, it can be seen that the first language of learners (L1 has a necessary and facilitating role in all aspects of language instruction. This indicates that the ‘bilingual approach’ is gaining more support by incorporating the students’ L1 as a learning tool and also as a facilitator for an efficient communication. At the same time, advocacy for an English-only policy has been declining. Inspired by these views, this paper aims to explore the Iranian university students' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of L1. A well-known survey – Prodromou (2002 was employed and, surprisingly, the results were contradictory to the all previous similar studies. Iranian university students reported reluctance to use their L1. Finally, some pedagogical suggestions for a judicious use of L1 will be presented.

Mustafa NAZARY

2008-10-01

399

Dutch gender in specific language impairment and second language acquisition  

OpenAIRE

Abstract In this article we compare five groups of learners acquiring Dutch gender as marked on determiners and adjectival inflection. Groups of L1 (first language) children and L1-SLI (first-language specific-language-impairment) children are compared to three Turkish-Dutch L2 (second language) groups: adult L2, child L2 and child L2-SLI. Overall, our findings show that gender is vulnerable in both SLI and L2 groups. More particularly, they suggest that all child groups basically ...

Orgassa, Antje; Weerman, Fred

2008-01-01

400

UAE University Students’ Awareness of Using the Writing Center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing has always been regarded as playing a prominent role in learning a second language. UAE university writing center provides a key support service within the institution, and as such must find ways to evaluate the impact of the instruction they provide. However, many studies of tutorial effectiveness lack adequate analyses of tutorial services and of both student and tutor awareness and outcomes. The purpose of the study is to explore the effectiveness of the writing center and its proposed services to improve students’ academic writing skills. The study combined quantitative and qualitative strategies involving surveying 50 students followed by in-depth interview with the supervisor of the UAEU’s writing center. Some major findings are that the study indicated that some students who visit the writing center are not aware of how to use it effectively. The study shows that 76% of students stated that the role of the writing center is to edit their assignments. The study indicates that 32% of students who visited the writing center were encouraged by their instructors to visit the writing center. This study implies some strategies to raise the students’ awareness of the writing center purpose and services.

Ghadah Al Murshidi

2014-05-01

401

Negative Transfer of Chinese Sentence Patterns on Students’ English Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The necessity of improving the English writing ability of the Chinese students has been realized gradually and writing is always difficult for Chinese students as well as for teachers of English. Among the many difficulties, errors from the influence of Chinese sentence patterns are the obscure one which students cannot overcome easily. This paper, which aims at exploring the differences between Chinese and English sentence patterns, along with the causes of negative transfer of Chinese sentence patterns on students’ English writing, is desired to be of some help to both language teachers and language learners.

Fushan Sun

2013-11-01

402

Technical Writing Exercise  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning activity by Brown and from the Mechatronics Education CenterâÂÂs Project SHINE develops student technical writing skills. The lesson helps students understand the differences between literature and technical writing, while learning the processes, concepts and considerations used in technical writing. In particular, this activity aims to increase student understanding of sequential order, attention to detail, trouble-shooting, matching illustrations to text and ability to assess an audienceâÂÂs needs. The activity requires 90 minutes of class time.

Brown, Emily

2010-12-24

403

L1 Projections with Box Constraints  

CERN Document Server

We study the L1 minimization problem with additional box constraints. We motivate the problem with two different views of optimality considerations. We look into imposing such constraints in projected gradient techniques and propose a worst case linear time algorithm to perform such projections. We demonstrate the merits and effectiveness of our algorithms on synthetic as well as real experiments.

Gupta, Mithun Das; Xiao, Jing

2010-01-01

404

L = 1 light quark mesons in QCD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the Borel transformed QCD sum rule formalism, the masses of L = 1 light quark mesons with isospin I = 1 and I = 0 are calculated. Non-perturbative effects from higher dimensional operators up to dimension d = 6 in the operator product expansion are taken into account. (orig.)

405

L=1 light quark mesons in QCD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the Borel transformed QCD sum rule formalism the masses of L = 1 light quark mesons with isospin I = 1 and I = 0 are calculated. Nonperturbative effects from higher dimensional operators up to dimension d = 6 in the operator product expansion are taken into account. (author)

406

Reference: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 He nriksson E , Olsson AS, Johanne sson H, Johansson H, Hanson J, E ngstrom P, Sode rman ... E . Home odomain le ucine ... zippe r class I ge ne s in Arabidopsis ... . E xpre ssion patte rns and phyloge ne tic re ... Plant Physio ... l. 139: 509-518. (2005) PubMe d: 16055682 ...

407

Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language  

CERN Document Server

Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer users. Grammar for Ezhil and a few example programs are reported here, from the initial proof-of-concept implementation using the Python programming language1. To the best of our knowledge, Ezhil language is the first freely available Tamil programming language.

Annamalai, Muthiah

2009-01-01

408

THE EFFECT OF TEACHER TALK IN EFL CLASSROOMS: THE NONUSE OR USE OF LEARNERS' L1 BY AN INSTRUCTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the effect of the variation of teacher talk on EFL learners' performance, especially the one related to listening comprehension skills, by chronologically observing a Japanese first language (L1 instructor's classrooms at a university.

Chiyo Myojin

2007-01-01

409

Writing Hypertexts: Proposed effects on writing processes and knowledge acquisition.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we propose that hypertext writing at school could have beneficial effects on the acquisition of content knowledge and the acquisition of writing skills compared to linear writing. We view the effects of hypertext writing on writing skills from the perspective of “shared” cognitive activities in writing linear texts and hypertexts. In a pilot study we examined the effects of hypertext writing on writing processes and we related the occurrence of writing processes to the quality of the resulting writing products. We set up this study to identify students’ cognitive activities during hypertext and linear writing. We also tried to determine whether hypertext writing could facilitate linear writing. We focused on the most central, distinctive features of linear and hypertext writing. For linear writing, this is a linearization process: i.e., transforming elements of content into linear text. For hypertext writing, this is a hierarchicalization process: converting a linearly presented line of thought into a hierarchical structure. Students (N=123 from Grades 8 and 9 performed two linearization tasks and two hierarchicalization tasks under think aloud conditions. Results showed that Planning and Analyzing activities contributed to the final quality of hypertexts and linear texts, and that these activities were more often elicited in hypertext tasks than in linear writing. We argue that writing hypertexts stimulates the use of writing activities that are positively related to writing proficiency. Moreover, we speculate that creating hypertext writing conditions and optimizing these conditions for different writer/learner styles might be a theoretical and practical challenge for mother tongue teaching.

Janssen, T.

2007-10-01

410

How We Write: Understanding Scholarly Writing through Metaphor  

Science.gov (United States)

This article introduces the "writing metaphor" and examines why political scientists should consider developing one to describe their own writing process. Drawing on the author's experience with writing accountability groups, it defines the components of the writing metaphor, provides an example, and discusses its advantages and disadvantages. The…

Boyd, Michelle

2012-01-01

411

Why Do You Write? Creative Writing and the Reflective Teacher  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author asserts that whether we write creatively or academically (or both) it takes time to understand the reasons why we "want" to write, and the more we write, the more we fully begin to appreciate why we have to write in the ?rst place. From an early age, nearly every day, Rachel Hains-Wesson actively participated in…

Hains-Wesson, Rachael

2013-01-01

412

Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

2011-01-01

413

La Alternancia lingüística entre L1 Y L2 en tres contextos AICLE  

OpenAIRE

This paper’s aim is to analyze teachers` code-switching from L1 (Italian) to L2 (English) in various CLIL contexts in Italy. For years the shift from L1 to L2 was banned in language classes since it was thought that in this way the learning of the foreign language could be impaired. On the contrary, in recent years there has instead been a recognition of the validity of code-switching which has been considered as a strategy adopted by all bilingual speakers (Baker 1996, Butzkamm 1998, Cook ...

Costa, Francesca

2009-01-01

414

Writing Center: Vassar College  

Science.gov (United States)

Even if you can't make it to Poughkeepsie, you can still benefit from the resources offered by the writing center at Vassar College. On its site, visitors can learn how to become a more creative writer, compose a thesis, and also look over formal academic courses of study. In the Resources for Writers section, visitors will find writing guides, odes to the importance of good sentence structure, and the in-house journal, The Oak Door. Moving along, the Videos area contains remarks by professors, writing center staff, and others on how writing matters. The site also contains links to external resources from York University, Rio Solado College, and other institutions passionate about the written word.

415

Legal Writing Institute  

Science.gov (United States)

For those not familiar with its nuances and requirements, legal writing can be a taxing affair at first. Fortunately, the Legal Writing Institute's homepage is a good place to start learning more about the basics of legal writing. First-time visitors can begin by looking over the "About" section, which offers up a host of materials about the Institute, including a most useful FAQ guide and information about their listservs. After that, visitors will want to move to the "Resources" section. Here they will find a collection of syllabi, resources on plagiarism, and an "Idea Bank" which will be quite a boon to legal writing instructors. The site is rounded out by an "Employment Listings" area and information about the Institute's conferences.

416

Evidentiality in Academic Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inevitability of using evidentials (EVs and references in all academic writings signifies the importance of distinguishing and applying EVs for those who attempt to write in academic prose. With the aim of creating a unique model of EVs in academic texts, this study used well-established taxonomies of metadiscourse markers adapted by Hyland (2005 combined with Swales' (1990 classification of citations as well as Berkenkotter and Huckin's (1995 concept of intertexuality in academic writing. The proposed model yields at least two important advantages. First, it can develop a pattern of the uses of EVs in academic texts, thus deepening our understanding of the organization of such texts. Second, it has potential applications in pedagogy for those students who attempt to write in academic prose and for scholars, teachers, and material developers.

Mojdeh Ebrahimi Dehkordi

2012-09-01

417

Proposal Writing Short Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an online, open-access, multilingual short course on how to write a proposal. This course includes instruction on composing the executive summary, statement of need, project description, and budget.

Foundation Center (Foundation Center)

2012-01-04

418

Process writing in a product-oriented context: challenges and possibilities / Produção textual como um processo em um contexto centrado no produto: desafios e possibilidades  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo de caso analisou a aplicabilidade de uma pedagogia para o ensino da escrita como um processo em um contexto de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira e como os estudantes reagiram e responderam a essa metodologia de ensino. Um grupo de 16 adolescentes de nível intermediário em uma inst [...] ituição particular de ensino de inglês foi selecionado. Foi seguido um projeto pedagógico em torno da escrita como um processo e as reações e o desempenho dos alunos em cada um dos estágios do processo foi analisado. Ao mesmo tempo, investigou-se como se dá o ensino da escrita na língua materna nas escolas regulares dos alunos. Concluiu-se que o ensino de produção textual nas escolas regulares enfoca mais o processo do que o produto e que uma pedagogia voltada para o processo nas aulas de inglês pode preencher lacunas deixadas nas experiências dos alunos com a escrita na língua materna. Abstract in english This case study analyzed to what extent localized process writing pedagogy is applicable and effective in an EFL context and how students respond and react to it. A class of 16 intermediate-level teenage students in an ELT Institute in Brazil was selected. A carefully planned project on process-base [...] d writing was followed, and students' performance in and reactions to each stage of the process were analyzed. Concurrently, the study also investigated the teaching of writing in students' native language - Portuguese - in their regular schools. It could be concluded that the teaching of writing in the regular schools focuses more on the process than on the product and that a pedagogical approach focused on the process in the EFL classroom can serve to fill in the gaps left by the students' experiences with writing in L1.

Isabela de Freitas, Villas Boas.

419

Science Writing and the Writing Center: Tutorial Models  

OpenAIRE

University students typically complete lower-division writing courses and then move into writing in their majors, known as writing-in-the-discipline, which has specific conventions for the field. Students may not readily transfer their skill set from the foundation writing courses to their major subject and also need instruction in the field-specific writing conventions. This report, composed by Samantha Latham as part of a research project in English 6810, demonstrates the role that the writ...

Latham, Samantha

2014-01-01

420

Proton beam writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proton beam (p-beam writing is a new direct-writing process that uses a focused beam of MeV protons to pattern resist material at nanodimensions. The process, although similar in many ways to direct writing using electrons, nevertheless offers some interesting and unique advantages. Protons, being more massive, have deeper penetration in materials while maintaining a straight path, enabling p-beam writing to fabricate three-dimensional, high aspect ratio structures with vertical, smooth sidewalls and low line-edge roughness. Calculations have also indicated that p-beam writing exhibits minimal proximity effects, since the secondary electrons induced in proton/electron collisions have low energy. A further advantage stems from the ability of protons to displace atoms while traversing material, thereby increasing localized damage especially at the end of range. P-beam writing produces resistive patterns at depth in Si, allowing patterning of selective regions with different optical properties as well as the removal of undamaged regions via electrochemical etching.

Frank Watt

2007-06-01

421

Dartmouth Writing Program  

Science.gov (United States)

As students begin to return to college campuses across the country, they may be curious to know that there are a number of fine online resources that will help them develop their college-level writing skills. The first site offered here comes from the Dartmouth College Writing Program, and contains a number of helpful materials, such as some well-written essays that answer the question "What is an academic paper?" and also provide information on researching topics for papers. The site also includes information on such topics as writing about film, writing for sociology courses, and helpful suggestions on writing from fellow students. The second site is offered by the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Writing Center and contains material on how best to cite references and avoiding common grammar and punctuation mistakes. Taken together, these sites provide a host of materials that will allow students to become better writers in their various courses during their time in the world of higher education and beyond.

422

Teachers' orientations towards writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study of 29 teachers from four states in the US investigated teachers' orientations towards writing and the influences on their beliefs. Through interviews about writing instruction, the researchers found significant differences between teachers in high and low-income schools. While teachers in high-income schools valued rhetorical style, developing voice, and reading-writing connections, teachers in low-income schools focused on grammar, mechanics and sentence structure. Teachers in high-income schools appear to be exercising more choice in curricular materials and valuing quality of writing beyond grammar and mechanics, whereas teachers in low-income schools are using specific curriculum mandated by the districts. Influences on teachers' orientations included school context, programs and materials, and assessments. The study raises concerns that students in low-income schools are missing out on authentic, challenging, and meaningful writing opportunities since the focus is on skills-based instruction. The findings point to the need for teachers to provide all students with opportunities to develop rhetorical style, voice, and reading-writing connections in addition to grammar, mechanics, and sentence structure.

Sarah J. McCarthey & Dumisile Mkhize

2013-06-01

423

Teach Social Studies through Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Claims that social studies classroom teachers have a responsibility to teaching writing skills as well as content. Offers a five stage instructional strategy as a means of helping students improve their writing. Stages are gathering information, classroom discussion, writing assignments, peer assessment, and writing a model paragraph. (DB)

Dolgin, Ann B.

1981-01-01

424

Writing in the Science Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

There are a plethora of opportunities for pupils to write across the curriculum. Each academic discipline may well provide chances for pupils to develop skill in writing, science being no exception. The science teacher needs to develop pupil knowledge in science as well as using the contents in written work. Learning to write and writing to learn…

Ediger, Marlow

2012-01-01

425

Writing Lessons with Gavin Curtis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses a literature-inspired model of teaching writing and two scenarios of reading and writing connections in the classroom. Presents several reading and writing lessons drawn from the children's book "The Bat Boy and His Violin" by Gavin Curtis. Discusses Curtis' craft and demonstrates how to use this book to teach writing. Includes brief…

Fu, Danling; Lamme, Linda

2002-01-01

426

Peer Evaluation in CMC Learning Environment and Writing Skill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peer evaluation and technology-based instruction as the various domains of language teaching perspectives might affect language development. Group work in a technology-based environment might be more successful when learners are involved in developing the assessment process particularly peer assessment. This study investigated the effectiveness of peer evaluation in technology-based language environment and its effects on English writing ability. To reach this goal, 70 Iranian learners were participated in English language writing context. They were divided into two groups, one group assigned to CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication language learning context and the other assigned to a traditional learning environment. Both groups were encouraged to evaluate their classmates’ writing tasks. In addition, interviews were conducted with two learners. Comparing these two groups provides comprehensive guidelines for teachers as well as curriculum designers to set adjusted writing language environment for more effective and creative language teaching and learning. E-collaboration classroom tasks have high intrinsic motivation as well as significant effects on learners’ outcomes. Cooperative tasks specifically in technology-based environment lead learners to group working and consequently group learning. Computer-Mediated Communication is meaningful, especially in contexts in which teachers stimulate group work activities.Keywords: Information communication technology (ICT, Computer-mediated communication (CMC, Technology-based environment, Writing skill, E-collaboration, Cooperative learning

Morteza Mellati

2014-09-01

427

A tale of two writing systems: double dissociation and metalinguistic transfer between chinese and english word reading among Hong Kong children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the rate of school-aged Chinese-English language learners at risk for reading difficulties in either Chinese or English only, or both, among second and fifth graders in Hong Kong. In addition, we examined the metalinguistic skills that distinguished those who were poor in reading Chinese from those who were poor in reading English. The prevalence of poor English readers among children identified to be poor in Chinese word recognition across the five participating schools was approximately 42% at Grade 2 and 57% at Grade 5. Across grades, children who were poor readers of both languages tended to have difficulties in phonological and morphological awareness. Poor readers of English only were found to manifest significantly poorer phonological awareness, compared to those who were poor readers of Chinese only; their average tone awareness score was also lower relative to normally developing controls. Apart from indicating possible dissociations between Chinese first language (L1) word reading and English second language (L2) word reading, these findings suggested that the degree to which different metalinguistic skills are important for reading in different writing systems may depend on the linguistic features of the particular writing system. PMID:23784785

Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2015-03-01

428

Interpolation via weighted $l_1$ minimization  

OpenAIRE

Functions of interest are often smooth and sparse in some sense, and both priors should be taken into account when interpolating sampled data. Classical linear interpolation methods are effective under strong regularity assumptions, but cannot incorporate nonlinear sparsity structure. At the same time, nonlinear methods such as $l_1$ minimization can reconstruct sparse functions from very few samples, but do not necessarily encourage smoothness. Here we show that weighted $l...

Rauhut, Holger; Ward, Rachel

2013-01-01

429

$l_1$-regularized Outlier Isolation and Regression  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposed a new regression model called $l_1$-regularized outlier isolation and regression (LOIRE) and a fast algorithm based on block coordinate descent to solve this model. Besides, assuming outliers are gross errors following a Bernoulli process, this paper also presented a Bernoulli estimate model which, in theory, should be very accurate and robust due to its complete elimination of affections caused by outliers. Though this Bernoulli estimate is hard to solve...

Han, Sheng; Wang, Suzhen; Wu, Xinyu

2014-01-01

430

Pénalisation l1 pour les MAG  

OpenAIRE

Nous présentons une nouvelle méthode d'estimation fonctionnelle dans le cadre des modèles additifs généralisés (MAG). Les paramètres de ce modèle sont estimés par vraisemblance pénalisée, où le terme de régularisation généralise la pénalisation l_1 aux fonctions splines. Comme dans le cas linéaire, certains coefficients sont rétrécis, alors que les autres sont annulés exactement, aboutissant ainsi à des modèles parcimonieux, sélectionnant les variables jugées significa...

Avalos, Marta; Grandvalet, Yves; Ambroise, Christophe

2005-01-01

431

Proof Mining in L1-Approximation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed in Kohlenbach (Logic: from Foundations to Applications, European Logic Colloquium (Keele, 1993), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996, pp. 225-260) to analyze Cheney's simplification (Math. Mag. 38 (1965) 189) of Jackson's original proof (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 22 (1921) 320) of the uniqueness of the best L1-approximation of continuous functions f&unknown;C[0,1] by polynomials p&unknown;Pn of degree = -dependency as follows from Kroo (Acta Math. Acad. Sci. Hungar. 32 (1978) 331). The paper also describes how the uniform modulus of uniqueness can be used to compute the best L1-approximations of a fixed f&unknown;C[0,1] with arbitrary precision. The second author uses this result to give a complexity upper bound on the computation of the best L1-approximation in Oliva (Math. Logic Quart., 48 (S1) (2002) 66-77).

Oliva, Paulo Borges; Kohlenbach, Ulrich

2001-01-01

432

Technical writing in America: A historical perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

The standard distinction between poetic and referential language, the gulf between science and the humanities, and the distress many teachers of English feel when faced for the first time with the prospect of teaching technical writing are discussed. In the introduction of many technical writing textbooks. Technical communication is divorced from other forms of linguistic experience by making language limiting and reductive rather than creative and expansive. The emphasis on technical/scientific writing as radically different had blinded people to those traits it has in common with all species of composition and has led to a neglect of research, on fundamental rhetorical issues. A complete rhetorical theory of technical discourse should include information about the attitudes and motives of writers, the situations which motivate (or coerce) them to write, definitive features of technical style and form, interrelationship of expression and creativity, and functions of communication in shaping and preserving scientific networds and institutions. The previous areas should be explored with respect to contemporary practice and within an historical perspective.

Connaughton, M. E.

1981-01-01

433

L1 Communicative-textual competence of Greek upper elementary school students.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents and discusses the findings of a research study on the issue of L1 communicative-textual competence (CTC. More specifically it examines the L1 CTC of 10–12-year-old Greek elementary school students, before and after the use of alternative communicative-text-oriented teaching material versus traditional language materials currently used in the schools. The CTC of the students was examined using a version of the test published by the French Ministry of Education revised and adapted to the Greek language and educational context. Analysis of the pre- and post-intervention data suggests that using appropriately designed communicative-text-oriented teaching materials can increase Greek school students’ level of written L1 CTC.

Spinthourakis, J.A.

2004-01-01

434

Teaching Technical Writing - Towards Technical Writing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm that used to govern what the quality of an LSP text should be as opposed to the standpoint, which I advocate. By way of summing up, I will show how a university curriculum is designed so that - upon graduation - the technical translator could also be methodological quite well suited to take on the challenge of technical writing.

Kastberg, Peter

2000-01-01

435

Communication trough formal writing and administrative act in Abidjan : ethic and aesthetic  

OpenAIRE

Between the tradition of the writing and that of the orality, the formal writing, in Abidjan, is a writing between two. It is located between two cultures that convey an official language to the status legitimated by the constitution and the local languages from four linguistic groups and which , althought not taught, are commonly practiced by the populations. In such a situation diglossia and contrary to practices in french, wich oral, in francophone Africa, highlight a ownership of the Fren...

Kouadio-bouadou, Kadiatou

2010-01-01

436

Systematic Teaching Design of Communicative Context in Business English Writing in Chinese Context  

OpenAIRE

It is a heated discussion among researchers of foreign-language teaching on how to enhance the interest of study and teaching effect through the design, organization and implementation of classroom teaching of EFL writing, which is responsible for the enhancement of the student’s writing competence. This study is devoted to the systematic teaching design of communicative context in EFL writing within the paradigm of communicative language teaching, concentrating on the exploring of the c...

Li, Xiping

2014-01-01

437

Native Language Effects on Spelling in English as a Foreign Language: A Time-Course Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The study explores first language (L1) influences on the mechanisms of spelling in English as a foreign language (EFL). We hypothesized that the transparency of L1 orthography influences (a) the amount of hesitation associated with spelling irregular English words, and (b) the size of units EFL spellers operate. Participants were adult speakers of…

Dich, Nadya; Pedersen, Bo

2013-01-01

438

Second language acquisition and first language loss in adult early bilinguals: exploring some differences and similarities  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This study compares the linguistic knowledge of adult second language (L2) learners, who learned the L2 after puberty, with the potentially ‘eroded’ first language (L1) grammars of adult early bilinguals who were exposed to the target language since birth and learned the other language simultaneously, or early in childhood (before age 5). I make two main claims: (1) that the L1 grammar of ...

Montrul, Silvina

2005-01-01

439

The Effect of Arabic Proficiency on the English Writing of Bilingual-Jordanian Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relationship between first language (Arabic) proficiency and second language (English) performance in the writing skills of Jordanian bilingual second secondary school students. Despite the linguistic distance between English and Arabic, it is postulated that Arabic writing skills can be transferred positively to the…

Dweik, Bader S.; Abu Al Hommos, Mustafa D.

2007-01-01

440

Peer-Feedback and Revision Process in a Wiki Mediated Collaborative Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the use of a wiki for collaborative writing among primary levels five (P5) and six (P6) students (n = 119) in a Chinese primary school in Hong Kong where English is taught as a second language (L2). Three classes of students and their English subject teachers participated in a three-month English language writing programme…

Woo, Matsuko Mukumoto; Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Li, Xuanxi

2013-01-01

441

Talking about Writing: Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Adolescents' Socialization into Academic Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation describes and analyzes the academic language socialization of culturally and linguistically diverse adolescents through a multi-case ethnographic study of high school writing instruction in California. I argue that there is a significant gap between the norms for writing in English language development classes and those in the…

Gilliland, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

442

Reading Skills and Strategies: Assessing Primary School Students’ Awareness in L1 and EFL Strategy Use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed and conducted with the purpose to assess primary school students’ awareness in GL1 (Greek as first language and EFL (English as a foreign language strategy use and investigate the relations between the reported reading strategies use in first (L1 and foreign language (FL.  The sample (455 students attending the fifth and sixth grades of primary schools in Northern Greece was first categorized into skilled and less skilled L1 and EFL readers through screening reading comprehension tests, one in L1 and one in FL, before filling in the reading strategy questionnaires. The findings revealed participants’ preference for “problem solving” strategies, while “global strategies” coming next. Girls were proved to be more aware of their reading strategies use with the boys reporting a more frequent use in both languages. Also, skilled readers were found to use reading strategies more effectively, and appeared to be more flexible in transferring strategies from L1 to FL compared to less-skilled readers.Keywords: reading awareness, reading strategies, reading difficulties, primary school students

Evdokimos Aivazoglou

2014-09-01

443

How Do English L1 Learners of Advanced Japanese Infer Unknown "Kanji" Words in Authentic Texts  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates advanced Japanese language learners' abilities to infer unknown "kanji" (Chinese character )words while reading authentic Japanese texts. Data obtained from 42 English L1 students indicate that, first, although they can guess the meanings of unknown "kanji" words in context, they frequently make erroneous guesses or fail to…

Kondo-Brown, Kimi

2006-01-01

444

National Writing Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing is an important skill for everyone to possess, and the National Writing Project (NWP) "envisions a future where every person is an accomplished writer, engaged learner, and active participant in a digital, interconnected world." The NWP is a network of sites based at colleges and universities, and their work provides professional development resources, research reports, and practical classroom activities for students of all ages. Visitors will want to make a beeline for the "Resources" section of the site. Here they will find topical sections that cover "Teaching Writing", "Teaching Reading", "Standards and Assessment", and four other areas. Within each section, visitors will find well-organized groups of links to a range of helpful materials. Back on the homepage, visitors can read through the "Events & Opportunities" listings, and also check in with their "In the News" postings. Finally, visitors should also sign up for their free newsletter.

445

Analysis of Spelling Errors of Beginner Learners of English in the English Foreign Language Context in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the types of spelling errors made by the beginner learners of English in the EFL context as well as the major sources underpinning such errors in contextual writing composition tasks. Data were collected from written samples of 122 EFL students (male and female enrolled in the intensive English language programme during the preparatory year at the University of Ha'il in Saudi Arabia. Students were given 1.5 hours to write on one of four different descriptive topics related to their life and culture. The spelling errors found in the writing samples was analysed and classified intofour categories of errors according to Cook’s Classification: omission, substitution, insertion, and transposition. An analysis of errors established that errors of omission constituted the highest proportion of errors. The majority of learners’ spelling errors were related to a wrong use of vowels and pronunciation. When uncertain about accurate spellings, beginner learners often associated a wide range of vowel and consonant combinations in an attempt to spell words accurately, sometimes even combining two distinct lexical items by overlapping vowels. The findings suggest that spelling errors are mainly the outcome of anomalies existing in the target language of the learners as well as L1 interference from their internalized Arabic language system.

Eid M Alhaisoni

2015-02-01

446

Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT of Language Skills among Trilingual Arabic-Hebrew and English Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined whether helping poor readers improve their reading and writing language skills in English as a third language/foreign language (L3/FL would also bring about an improvement in those same skills in Arabic (L1 and Hebrew (L2. Transferring linguistic skills from L3/FL to both L1 and L2 is termed “Cognitive Retroactive Transfer” (CRT. A battery of tests, administered to the experiment and control groups, assessed orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension in English, Arabic, and Hebrew. The treatment group was provided with an intervention program in English, but not in Arabic or Hebrew, both before and after the experiment. Findings indicated a significant improvement in the treatment group’s achievements in all linguistic and meta-linguistic skills in all study languages after the intervention, except for orthographic knowledge in Arabic and Hebrew. The results are discussed in light of the international data.

Salim Abu-Rabia

2014-02-01

447

"Our Zoo to You": The Link between Zoo Animals in the Classroom and Science and Literacy Concepts in First-Grade Journal Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined first-grade students' journal writing to determine how placing live zoo animals in classrooms for science education links to students' emergent and early writing. Students were asked to write journal entries during the daily language arts period. Although no direct instruction in informational text writing was offered, teachers…

Wilson, Kathleen; Trainin, Guy; Laughridge, Virginia; Brooks, David; Wickless, Mimi

2011-01-01

448

LANGUAGE TRAINING  

CERN Document Server

If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

2004-01-01

449

LANGUAGE TRAINING  

CERN Document Server

If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

2004-01-01

450

The "Pro-Drop" Parameter in Adult Second Language Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a study which tested the proposal that adults learning second languages transfer errors from their first language (L1) to their second language (L2) when the L1 has activated a parameter of Universal Grammar which is not operative in the L2. The subjects were native Spanish speakers learning English. (SED)

White, Lydia

1985-01-01

451

Meta 7 Translator Writing System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Meta 7 language and system are described. Meta 7 is the result of an attempt to identify and correct the weaknesses of previous systems in the Meta family of translator writing languages and to produce a system from which practical compilers could be constructed. The criteria considered important in the design of Meta 7 were that the system be easy to understand and use and that its compilers have good compile time and object time efficiency. The system should permit a broad class of languages and any type of data manipulation to be described, and the metalanguage should be relatively machine independent. Meta 7 provides a facility for syntax-directed compilation with a broad set of data manipulation and input/output imperatives. Considerable power and flexibility in the bit and string manipulation are provided. The user is in complete control of all phases of the translation process. Meta 7 differs from the previous Meta systems in that it is truly a compiler-generated system, with only a small group of assembly language-coded support routines. All the control is located in the compiler-generated portion; a flexible system, which is easy to modify and implement on new machines, results. The specifications of the Meta 7 language are described, as is its implementation on a XDS Sigma 7 compiler. A procedure for the translation of arithmetic-logical expressions in which several operand lengths are involved, and which makes use of the multiple accumulators available on third-generation computers, is presented. 23 figures, 9 tables.

Tyrrill, A.R.

1971-09-01

452

Identifying Gaps in Academic Writing of ESL Students  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing evidence that the lack of competence of university ESL (English as a second language) students in academic writing affects their overall academic performance. Olivas and Li (2006) connected low second-language proficiency levels in English to poor academic performance of international students studying at both university and…

Giridharan, Beena

2012-01-01

453

Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Writing Strategies  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to find the relationship between multiple intelligences and writing strategies among Iranian EFL learners. The participants in this study were 120 adult males and females studying at high and advanced levels of Iran Language Institute. They filled two questionnaires during the first sessions of spring semester of 2012. The first questionnaire was a multiple intelligences inventory surveying nine types of intelligences based on Gardner’s theory and the second ...

Narges Moheb; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

2013-01-01

454

Mirror Writing and a Dissociative Identity Disorder  

OpenAIRE

Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam—mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirr...

Catherine Le; Lewis Cohen; Joyce Smith

2009-01-01

455

Quick e-guide to academic writing  

OpenAIRE

This on-line learning resource supports students' acquisition of basic academic writing skills. It is intended to be used both as a teaching tool and to be accessed by students out of contact time to reinforce learning. This resource covers areas such as: developing an argument, using evidence and structuring paragraphs. It also models how to present ideas using appropriate academic language (for example: use of formal English, cautious academic style, signposting and citation).

Griffiths, Linda

2012-01-01

456

The Write Stuff: Teaching the Introductory Public Relations Writing Course.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outlines an introductory public relations writing course. Presents course topics and objectives, and assignments designed to meet them. Provides a sample grading rubric and evaluates major public relations writing textbooks. Discusses learning and assessment strategies. (SR)

King, Cynthia M.

2001-01-01

457

Challenges of Chinese Language Education in Multi-lingual Societies: Hong Kong and Singapore  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to study the current challenges of Chinese language education in the multilingual societies of Hong Kong and Singapore through policy documents. After the handover of Hong Kong to China in 1997, the role of Putonghua is far more important than before due to political and economic reasons. However, the medium of instruction for the Chinese Language subject in Hong Kong has long been Cantonese since the British colony days. A change in the medium of instruction from mother-tongue Cantonese to Putonghua is a shift from L1 to L2. This paper will discuss the feasibility of this long term policy of Hong Kong Education Bureau with reference to Singapore’s experience. Currently, Singapore faces the problem of declining standard of reading and writing in Huayu (Putonghua in China and this paper will investigate the reason for that and suggest possible remedies.

Ho-kin Tong

2008-11-01

458

Why writing centers matter Why writing centers matter  

OpenAIRE

Over the past twenty-five years, most post-secondary institutions in the United States have established facilities known as writing centers, although sometimes they are called writing "labs," or writing "rooms." One writing center may he enclosed in a large glass building nestled in a redwood forest, where students and tutors confer with one another in spacious, well-lit study spaces. Another may be housed in a converted, under-sized classroom, furnished with only a battered table and a ...

Irene Lurkis Clark

2008-01-01

459

Implementing Keyword and Question Generation Approaches in Teaching EFL Summary Writing  

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Full Text Available Summary writing has been considered an important aspect of academic writing. However, writing summaries can be a challenging task for the majority of English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners. Research into teaching summary writing has focused on different processes to teach EFL learners. The present study adopted two methods – keyword and question generation – to guide Taiwanese university students in writing summaries in English. To decrease the students’ apprehension resulting from the difficulties in writing summaries, portfolios were used as a vehicle to help the students collect and reflect on the articles they read and the summaries they wrote. This paper investigated how much keyword methods and question generation helped Taiwanese EFL university students improve their English summary writing. The data showed that, with the help of keywords and question generation, the two approaches helped the majority of the participants increase their English reading and summary writing abilities.

Mu-hsuan Chou

2012-10-01

460

Predictors of English Reading Comprehension: Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…

Uchikoshi, Yuuko

2013-01-01

461

An Online Writing Partnership: Transforming Classroom Writing Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

The four authors of this article have each at different times over a ten-year period helped develop versions of the Online Writing Partnership between future English teachers learning to teach writing and high school students learning to write better. The authors have been striving to help future English teachers learn how to help high school…

Townsend, Jane S.; Nail, Allan; Cheveallier, Jennifer; Browning, Angela

2013-01-01

462

"We Can Write!" The Writing Workshop for Young Learners  

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The study presents the process of differentiated instruction, its implementation, and impact on second graders in a Lebanese school. It analyses how writing instruction has been differentiated through implementing the writing workshop to help students demonstrate improved writing skills. It examines the effects of second graders' participation in…

Hachem, Amira; Nabhani, Mona; Bahous, Rima

2008-01-01

463

Learning through Writing: Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in Writing Assignments  

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Traditional writing assignments often fall short in addressing problems in college students' writing as too often these assignments fail to help students develop critical thinking skills and comprehension of course content. This article reports the use of a two-part (staged) writing assignment with postscript as a strategy for improving critical…

Cavdar, Gamze; Doe, Sue

2012-01-01

464

Writing with Veterans in a Community Writing Group  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an analysis of the growing phenomenon of community writing groups for military veterans. Drawing on the scholarship on literacy studies, community literacy, and veterans' writing groups, the author profiles three veterans' writing groups and provides strategies for starting up, conducting, and sustaining such…

Schell, Eileen E.

2013-01-01

465

Writing to Learn Writing Skills--A Case Study  

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The paper describes a case study in which the main objective is to understand how engineering students can improve their writing skills, regarding spelling and syntax, when taught specifically on these issues. The methodology Writing To Learn is applied in two courses and, making use of the written texts, the students' writing skills are assessed…

Fernandes, Antonio S. C.

2012-01-01

466

Teaching Writing for the "Real World": Community and Workplace Writing  

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In this article, the authors offer an approach to teaching that can help students prepare to write for the workplace and in the community: a case study of community-based writing. In this case-study project, students work in groups to study the writing needs and practices of a community-based group or organization, such as a local public library,…

Cox, Michelle; Ortmeier-Hooper, Christina; Tirabassi, Katherine E.

2009-01-01

467

Computer-Assisted Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indicates that English faculty are discovering the value of computers for student writers through the use of word processing systems with dictionary and editorial functions. Discusses benefits, program building, and faculty and administrator involvement, as well as appropriate software and the place of microcomputers in writing centers. (DMM)

Levin, Robert L.

1984-01-01

468

Process Writing with Hawthorne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers can use the process writing format for many assignments to teach and refine more skills than are often incorporated in older methods, and this is exemplified by a teaching unit comparing two short stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Peer conferences and peer editing in the revision stages, which are features of the process model, can lead to…

Edwards, Lita R.

469

"The Writing Trek."  

Science.gov (United States)

The project-based software, "The Writing Trek," was created to give teachers the tools they need to promote literacy at all grade levels. Lessons include skill-building exercises, an onscreen reference library (writer's handbook, almanac, thesaurus, rhyming dictionary, and lexicon), and advice by leading writers. The design and development process…

Bailey, Valeska

2001-01-01

470

The Write Stuff  

Science.gov (United States)

Black journalism professors live and breathe writing and research, yet there is very little information about their experiences. Virtually everyone interviewed for this article thinks that Black journalism professors are confronting more challenges than almost any other group of educators. They have to deal with many students who have very poor…

Ruffins, Paul

2011-01-01

471

Writing a Research Paper  

Science.gov (United States)

The value of research and the career of a university lecturer depend heavily on the success in publishing scientific papers. This article reviews the guidelines for writing and submitting research papers. The three most important success criteria in publishing are as follows: the paper describes a good research, it is written according to the…

Mikk, Jaan

2006-01-01

472

Process Approach to Teaching Writing Applied in Different Teaching Models  

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Full Text Available English writing, as a basic language skill for second language learners, is being paid close attention to. How to achieve better results in English teaching and how to develop students’ writing competence remain an arduous task for English teachers. Based on the review of the concerning literature from other researchers as well as a summery of the author’s own experimental research, the author of this essay for the first time tries to give definitions of the process approach to writing, make a comparison between product and process approach to teaching writing and accordingly make suggestions about the basic principles of teaching writing with the application of the process approach. With this understanding of the process approach to writing, the author focuses on a discussion about the two classroom teaching models by using the process approach, namely teaching models with minimal control and maximal control to different English level students. Experimental study shows that the subjects were all making significant progress in their writing skill.

Chunling Sun

2009-02-01

473

Methods for cross-language plagiarism detection  

OpenAIRE

Three reasons make plagiarism across languages to be on the r