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Sample records for language l1 writing

  1. Voice and Narrative in L1 Writing

    Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing. Subsequ...... training of voice and narratives as a resource for academic writing, and that the Bildung potential of L1 writing may be tied to this issue.......This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing...... lower secondary L1, she found that her previous writing strategies were not rewarded in upper secondary school. In the second empiri-cal study, two upper-secondary exam papers are investigated, with a focus on their approaches to exam genres and their use of narrative resources to address issues of...

  2. Modeling the Development of L1 and EFL Writing Proficiency of Secondary School Students

    Schoonen, Rob; van Gelderen, Amos; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Hulstijn, Jan; de Glopper, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed severa

  3. Modeling the development of L1 and EFL writing proficiency of secondary school students

    R. Schoonen; A. van Gelderen; R.D. Stoel; J. Hulstijn; K. de Glopper

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed severa

  4. L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon

    van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2009-01-01

    This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…

  5. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  6. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  7. EXPLORING L1 INTERFERENCE IN THE WRITINGS OF KADAZANDUSUN ESL STUDENTS

    Chelster Sherralyn Jeoffrey Pudin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For many ethnic KadazanDusuns from Sabah, North Borneo, English is a third language after their mother tongue and Malay. The burden of having to contend with an additional language frequently leads to errors, particularly those caused by interference from the first language (L1. This study set out to identify the types and frequency of English language errors and their correlations in the writing of KadazanDusun ESL students at Universiti Malaysia Sabah. A further aim of the study was to establish which of these errors could be attributed to L1 interference. A total of 54 students with lower Malaysian University Entrance Test (MUET band scores were asked to complete a questionnaire and write a short essay on a designated topic. The language errors were categorized and analysed via statistical analysis. Errors considered to be related to L1 interference were then identified after consultation with an experienced KadazanDusun language lecturer. The most common errors were those involving singular /plural nouns and unusual sentence structures. The results show that approximately 25% of the errors were attributable to L1 interference, i.e. mode (normal/involuntary, voice (actor (-ing form /undergoer (-ed form, overuse of article, linker (when linker is used, no article is needed, auxiliary verb and direct translation. The findings of this study give ESL practitioners a better insight into student errors and should lead to improved writing performance in the classroom.

  8. Voice in High-Stakes L1 Academic Writing Assessment: Implications for L2 Writing Instruction

    Zhao, Cecilia Guanfang; Llosa, Lorena

    2008-01-01

    Despite the debate among writing researchers about its viability as a pedagogical tool in writing instruction [e.g., Helms-Park, R., & Stapleton, P. (2003). "Questioning the importance of individualized voice in undergraduate L2 argumentative writing: An empirical study with pedagogical implications." "Journal of Second Language Writing," 12 (3),…

  9. THE ROLE OF L1 IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION (SLA)

    LiuTianyun

    2004-01-01

    This paper based on the related SLA theories, attempts to present the development of the roles of the first language on language learning before focusing on what have been found in this area. The purpose of the writing is to call the public attention on the rediscovery of the role L1 plays in SLA.

  10. Teachers' Language: L1 Attrition in Russian-English Bilinguals

    Isurin, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    The present study reports on the evidence of first language (L1) attrition in a population that may appear to be the most resistant to L1 changes. Russian monolinguals (n=3) and Russian-English bilinguals (n=10) participated in the study. The bilinguals were graduate students teaching Russian as a foreign language at a U.S. university. The data…

  11. Panel: Opportunities and Challenges of Writing in a Second Language

    Kupatadze, Ketevan; Chiu, Scott C.; Cozart, Stacey Marie;

    knowledge and principles to the writing situations they perceive as suitable or doable. Students’ perception about the role of language in Globalized world and language learning, as well as their self-perception plays an integral role in their ability to transfer knowledge when writing in a second...... successful approaches to supporting students’ writing skills and to teaching advanced level writing in the second/foreign language classroom by examining students’ perception of writing and, more specifically, the link between L1 and L2 writing experiences. References: Literacy-based language learning...... (Richard Kern 2000, Claire Krasch, 1993); Wiring assessment (Carl Bereiter, 1995); Learning and writing transfer (Greeno, Smith, and Moore, 1993), Second language writing (Tony Silva and Paul Kei Matsuda, 2010). Paper (1): Bridging the Danglish Gap: A Study of Danish Doctoral Students’ Experiences...

  12. First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research

    Khaled Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.

  13. Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher

    Kalt, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

  14. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  15. Task Response and Text Construction across L1 and L2 Writing

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study, undertaken from a socio-cognitive perspective, aims to investigate the effects of intensive preparatory high school training in L1 and/or L2 essay writing for university entrance exams. The analysis focuses on the task response and structural features in L1 (Japanese) and L2 (English) essays written by first-year Japanese…

  16. VAGUE LANGUAGE AND BUSINESS ENGLISH LETTER WRITING

    LiuYongqiang

    2004-01-01

    It is general practice for business executives to use preciseand accurate language when writing business letters in order toavoid misunderstanding. However, proper use of vague languagein writing letters also enhances the successful conclusion of transactions. This article shows how vague language is exploitedin writing business letters, which ineludes proper expression ofcourtesy, realization of self-protection and embodiment of the“you-attitude”.

  17. Chinese High School Students' L1 Writing Instruction: Implications for EFL Writing in College —— A Qualitative Study

    WangZhaohui

    2004-01-01

    In EFL situation, the college English teaching has been criticized for being "time consuming and low in proficiency".However, in the case of writing, the problem is not only concerned with efficiency, but also the long-lasting poor performance on the students' part. One assumption of the poor performance is that college students are unskilled L1 writers,

  18. Generation 1.5 Writing Compared to L1 and L2 Writing in First-Year Composition

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have suggested that "second-language writers" are made up of two distinct groups: Generation 1.5 (long-term U.S.-resident language learners) and more traditional L2 students (e.g., international or recently arrived immigrants). To investigate that claim, this study compares the first-year composition writing of Generation 1.5…

  19. An Exploration of L1, L2, and Bilingual Students' Writing Features on the SAT Essay

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2012-01-01

    It is well-documented that students' prior knowledge, cultural background, and language proficiency play a role in how they read, interpret, and respond to writing tasks (Barkaoui, 2007; Connor & Kramer, 1995; Hinkel, 2002). Essays written by students from different language backgrounds often differ in their linguistic, stylistic, and…

  20. Writing Kurdish Alphabetics in Java Programming Language

    Rebwar Mala Nabi; Sardasht M-Raouf Mahmood; Mohammed Qadir Kheder; Shadman Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, Kurdish programmers usually suffer when they need to write Kurdish letter while they program in java. More to say, all the versions of Java Development Kits have not supported Kurdish letters. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop Java Kurdish Language Package (JKLP) for solving writing Kurdish alphabetic in Java programming language. So that Kurdish programmer and/or students they can converts the English-alphabetic to Kurdish-alphabetic. Furthermore, adding Kurdish langua...

  1. First language and second language writing : The role of linguistic knowledge, speed of processing, and metacognitive knowledge

    Schoonen, R.; van Gelderen, A.; de Glopper, C.M.; Hulstijn, J.; Snellings, P.; Simis, A.; Stevenson, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this study the relative importance of linguistic knowledge, metacognitive knowledge, and fluency or accessibility of this linguistic knowledge in both first language (L1; Dutch) and second language (L2; English) writing was explored. Data were collected from 281 grade 8 students. Using structural

  2. The Impact of First and Second Languages on Azerbaijani EFL Learners’ Writing Ability

    Mansour Shabani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a debate whether or not the learners’ first language (L1 can facilitate the process of learning foreign language. Since foreign language writing (FL is a complicated process, it seems that the role of the learners’ L1 and its effect on FL writing is of great importance in this regard. The present study aimed at investigating the role of Azerbaijani EFL learners’ L1 and L2 (Persian on their FL writing. To meet the purposes of the study, 30 female EFL upper-intermediate students were selected (through running an OPT, who were native speakers of Azerbaijani, with Persian as their L2 and official language of Iranian context. The data were collected through running three writing sessions (in which the participants wrote three essays in each session using Azerbaijani as L1, Persian as L2, and direct writing using the think-aloud protocol, through which they were asked to report their thoughts loudly to record using a tape recorder. In addition, a survey was used to ask their perceptions towards each writing task. The analysis of the data obtained from the evaluation of learners’ writings indicated that the mere use of their L1 or L2 in foreign language writing was by no means helpful for them and they performed better on direct writing task in comparison with the two other ones. It was also found that the majority of the learners (70% had difficulty in generating their ideas using Azerbaijani as their L1. In addition, nearly 77% of them claimed that even in direct writing mode, they made use of their L2 (Persian on the occasions they could not find a proper word or phrase in English. As the implications of the study, it seems that the present study can bring helpful insights for both FL teachers and learners about the roles that Azerbaijani and Persian languages play as the students’ L1 and L2 in FL writing.Keywords: Writing ability, first language, second language, foreign language

  3. Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom

    Mori, Miki

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

  4. Adult Learners' Perceptions of the Incorporation of Their L1 in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Brooks-Lewis, Kimberly Anne

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges the theory and practice of the exclusion of the adult learner's first language (L1) by reporting learners' overwhelmingly positive perceptions of its incorporation in foreign language teaching and learning. Classroom-based research was undertaken with university students in an English as a foreign language course which…

  5. Feedback on second language students' writing

    Hyland, K; Hyland, F.

    2006-01-01

    Feedback is widely seen as crucial for encouraging and consolidating learning, and this significance has also been recognised by those working in the field of second language (L2) writing. Its importance is acknowledged in process-based classrooms, where it forms a key element of the students' growing control over composing skills, and by genre-oriented teachers employing scaffolded learning techniques. In fact, over the past twenty years, changes in writing pedagogy and research have transfo...

  6. Beliefs and Practices about Writing in a Foreign Language among Economists Working in Two Languages

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    the predominance of English. We identified : a wide range of attitudes to the difficulty of writing in L2; practices associated with successful writing; fields in which international publication was more or less important; and a general reliance on implicit knowledge and intuitive learning, in......Product-oriented analyses have shown that academic English (the predominant L2 in their environment: Phillipson and Skuttnab-Kongas 1995) written by Scandinavian writers differs from that of L1 English writers in ways that might work to the disadvantage of the writers in terms of recognition or...... publishability. Simultaneously language-policy scholars have problematised the predominance of English in many academic fields. There is of course a great deal of individual variation in terms of language choice and publication success. We investigated the writing practices of some 75 Danish academics in various...

  7. Code-Switching: L1-Coded Mediation in a Kindergarten Foreign Language Classroom

    Lin, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a qualitative inquiry that investigated the role of teachers' mediation in three different modes of coding in a kindergarten foreign language classroom in China (i.e. L2-coded intralinguistic mediation, L1-coded cross-lingual mediation, and L2-and-L1-mixed mediation). Through an exploratory examination of the varying effects…

  8. Writing Kurdish Alphabetics in Java Programming Language

    Rebwar Mala Nabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Kurdish programmers usually suffer when they need to write Kurdish letter while they program in java. More to say, all the versions of Java Development Kits have not supported Kurdish letters. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop Java Kurdish Language Package (JKLP for solving writing Kurdish alphabetic in Java programming language. So that Kurdish programmer and/or students they can converts the English-alphabetic to Kurdish-alphabetic. Furthermore, adding Kurdish language to standard Java Development Kit (JDK. Additionally, in this paper we present the JKLP standard documentation for users. Our object-oriented solution composed of a package consisting two classes which have been implemented in the Java programming language.

  9. US University Learner Attitudes towards Foreign Language Writing

    Hubert, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Language acquisition research strongly suggests that writing is essential to modern language instruction. Current best practice dictates that some form of target language writing be part of almost every type of foreign language (FL) course. However, FL instructors often receive complaints from students concerning the writing required in different FL courses. Many instructors appear to believe that their students have negative attitudes towards FL writing, and that negative attitudes may hurt ...

  10. Genre and Second-Language Academic Writing

    Paltridge, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…

  11. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Use of the First Language (L1) in French Foreign Language (FL) Classes

    White, Erin; Storch, Neomy

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated teachers' use of the first language (L1) in two French foreign language (FL) intermediate level classes at two Australian universities. A native French-speaking teacher (NS) and a non-native French-speaking teacher (NNS) were observed and audio-recorded approximately every two weeks over a 12- week semester.…

  13. Enhancing Foreign Language Learning through Listening Strategies Delivered in L1: An Experimental Study

    Hitendra Pillay; Hossein Bozorgian

    2013-01-01

    Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian) and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female p...

  14. The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency.

    Bergmann, Christopher; Sprenger, Simone A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-10-01

    Fluent speech depends on the availability of well-established linguistic knowledge and routines for speech planning and articulation. A lack of speech fluency in late second-language (L2) learners may point to a deficiency of these representations, due to incomplete acquisition. Experiments on bilingual language processing have shown, however, that there are strong reasons to believe that multilingual speakers experience co-activation of the languages they speak. We have studied to what degree language co-activation affects fluency in the speech of bilinguals, comparing a monolingual German control group with two bilingual groups: 1) first-language (L1) attriters, who have fully acquired German before emigrating to an L2 English environment, and 2) immersed L2 learners of German (L1: English). We have analysed the temporal fluency and the incidence of disfluency markers (pauses, repetitions and self-corrections) in spontaneous film retellings. Our findings show that learners to speak more slowly than controls and attriters. Also, on each count, the speech of at least one of the bilingual groups contains more disfluency markers than the retellings of the control group. Generally speaking, both bilingual groups-learners and attriters-are equally (dis)fluent and significantly more disfluent than the monolingual speakers. Given that the L1 attriters are unaffected by incomplete acquisition, we interpret these findings as evidence for language competition during speech production. PMID:26298087

  15. Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?

    Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

  16. Promises and Obstacles of L1 Use in Language Classrooms: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Ghobadi, Mehdi; Ghasemi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Translation and language teaching techniques which take language learners' first language (L1) as point of reference for teaching the second language (L2) have been long discouraged on the ground that these teaching techniques would end in the fossilization of L2 structure forms in the learner's Interlanguage system. However, in recent years, the…

  17. Using Arabic (L1) in testing reading comprehension in English (L2) as a foreign language

    Al-Qudairy, Abdullah H. A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using Arabic (L1) as a language of questions and answers in testing reading comprehension in English (L2), and to explore student and teacher opinions about this. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. To collect the quantitative data, one hundred and forty-four students were given a reading comprehension test. Both multiple-choice and short-answer questions were used. The subjects were second-year English departm...

  18. Multilingualism, Language Policy and Creative Writing in Kenya

    Mbithi, Esther K

    2014-01-01

    Language use and creative writing go hand in hand. In the process of exploring language, we also engage in the study of literature. An engagement with literature is, indeed, a continuing process of improving our capacity to use language and refining our sensibility to good language use. In Kenya, there are clearly discernible patterns of creative…

  19. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  20. Vague Language and Its Application in Business English Writing

    张识谱

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, busines let er is one of the most important means of communication. The purpose of this paper is to study how vague language is exploited in writing business let ers, focusing on the application of vague language in Business English writing, and elaborate upon the realization of vagueness.

  1. Personal Narratives: A Pedagogical Proposal to Stimulate Language Students’ Writing

    Fredy Orlando Salamanca González

    2015-01-01

    In a public university in Tunja (Colombia), undergraduate language students mentioned that writing was important and yet, they kept at a distance from it due to its requirements. The aim of this pedagogical intervention was to find a strategy to encourage students to write and, more importantly, to feel an identity with their texts. For this pedagogical intervention, students were required to write narratives that allowed them to portray their experiences using the target language and to look...

  2. ¿Duermes mucho Tony? Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom

    Higareda Sandra; López Georgina; Mugford Gerrard

    2009-01-01

    Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1) in English Language Teaching (elt ), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations o...

  3. ¿duermes mucho tony? interpersonal and transactional uses of l1 in the foreign-language classroom

    Higareda, Sandra; López, Georgina; Mugford, Gerrard

    2009-01-01

    Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1) in English Language Teaching (elt ), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of ...

  4. RESEARCH STUDIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING AND IN CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2001-01-01

    The major aim of this article is to review studies of second language writing. The first part deals mainly with the process of writing in the second and first languages. The second part concerns contrastive rhetoric. In this second part, the findings of research studies on the relationship of first and second language rhetoric will be presented. Included in the discussion are research studies on contrastive rhetoric in the Indonesian context. The last section of this article concludes the dis...

  5. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  6. Teachers’ and students’ amount and purpose of L1 use: English as foreign language (EFL) classrooms in Iran

    Hossein Bozorgian; Sediqe Fallahpour

    2015-01-01

    A surge of interest in using First Language (L1) in English as Second/Foreign Language (L2/EFL) learning has recently been developed. Despite this upsurge, the concern about using L1 by teachers and students in L2/EFL classrooms is still important for researchers to consider in the field. The focus of this study is to investigate the amount and purposes of L1 use in EFL classrooms by teachers and students in two English language institutes in Iran. Responding to the research questions on the ...

  7. Personal Narratives: A Pedagogical Proposal to Stimulate Language Students’ Writing

    Fredy Orlando Salamanca González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a public university in Tunja (Colombia, undergraduate language students mentioned that writing was important and yet, they kept at a distance from it due to its requirements. The aim of this pedagogical intervention was to find a strategy to encourage students to write and, more importantly, to feel an identity with their texts. For this pedagogical intervention, students were required to write narratives that allowed them to portray their experiences using the target language and to look for the most accurate words and descriptions. From a pedagogical perspective, writing the narratives provided the teacher with the possibility of knowing his students better and to feel an affiliation towards them.

  8. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  9. Language: Creating a Literate Environment for Reading and Writing Development.

    Stewart, Sharon Rowe

    1987-01-01

    The article presents suggestions for speech language pathologists in helping primary grade teachers create a literate classroom environment conducive to written language development for all children including the language handicapped through teacher modeling, classroom organization and management, and meaningful reading and writing opportunities.…

  10. Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills from Spanish L1 to English L2

    Sun-Alperin, M. Kendra; Wang, Min

    2011-01-01

    Previous cross-language research has focused on L1 phonological processing and its relation to L2 reading. Less extensive is the research on the effect that L1 orthographic processing skill has on L2 reading and spelling. This study was designed to investigate how reading and spelling acquisition in English (L2) is influenced by phonological and…

  11. Writing between languages how English language learners make the transition to fluency, grades 4-12

    Fu, Danling

    2009-01-01

    With Writing Between Languages, Danling Fu shows that by beginning with the literacy students bring from their native language and putting writing at the center of the curriculum, we can help them transition to English and support academic literacy. You'll learn the crucial and helpful role native literacy plays in building written English fluency, assess where ELLs are in their development as writers, use movement between languages to scaffold writing-no matter whether you know a student's home language-and implement instructional strategies to support development in writing.

  12. Successful ESL Writing for Publication: The Role ofWriters’ Autonomy, Linguistic Competence and L1/L2 Critical Reading Skills

    Natalia Smirnova

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the research is to examine professional LI (Russian)/L2 (English) writing experiences among staff members of one Russian research-intensive university as well as to provide more insights into the universal pedagogies of professional writing. The empirical paper focuses on assessing writers’ ability to reflect upon linguistic competence, independent LI/ L2 writing skills and L1/L2 critical reading issues which help multilingual scholars position themselves as successful writers...

  13. Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals

    Jacobs, George M.

    1999-01-01

    This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on...

  14. Effects of sentence writing in second language lexical acquisition

    Barcroft, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the effects of writing new words in sentences with word picture repetition learning alone. Second language (L2) Spanish learners attempted to learn 24 new Spanish words in one of two conditions while viewing word picture pairs. In Experiment 1, in the no sentence writing condition, the participants viewed 4 repetitions of each word for 6 seconds each. In the sentence writing con...

  15. Language Supports for Journal Abstract Writing across Disciplines

    Liou, H.-C.; Yang, P.-C.; Chang, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Various writing assistance tools have been developed through efforts in the areas of natural language processing with different degrees of success of curriculum integration depending on their functional rigor and pedagogical designs. In this paper, we developed a system, WriteAhead, that provides six types of suggestions when non-native graduate…

  16. The Writing Development of English Language Learners from Two Grades

    Zheng, Xun

    2012-01-01

    The current study is a qualitative case study that investigated the writing development of seven Chinese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) from kindergarten and 3rd-grade ESL classes in an elementary school in the Midwest and intended to discover the factors that affect students' English writing development in a one-year period.…

  17. Second language writing development in childhood: a case study

    Serrano, Raquel; Howard, Elizabeth R..

    2004-01-01

    Whereas most research on child second language acquisition has focused on the oral production of children, studies are needed to show their initial writing development in a second language. This paper aims to shed some light on this process, focusing on the English writing development of a native Spanish speaker enrolled in a two-way immersion program in the United States. Data for this presentation come from a longitudinal, national study which involves 484 students in 11 programs across the...

  18. Preparing Language Teachers for Blended Teaching of Summary Writing

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Research on preparing language teachers for blended teaching of summary writing, a mix of on-site and online instruction for college students to grasp the gist of the texts, is scarce in higher education. This study examined the problems encountered and solutions proposed by six language teachers, who altogether instructed 214 college students on…

  19. Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

  20. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish : Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition

  1. RESEARCH STUDIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING AND IN CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this article is to review studies of second language writing. The first part deals mainly with the process of writing in the second and first languages. The second part concerns contrastive rhetoric. In this second part, the findings of research studies on the relationship of first and second language rhetoric will be presented. Included in the discussion are research studies on contrastive rhetoric in the Indonesian context. The last section of this article concludes the discussion and proposes the implementation of more research on the relationship between Indonesian rhetoric and English rhetoric in essays written by Indonesian learners of English.

  2. Writing Strategy Instruction: Its Impact on Writing in a Second Language for Academic Purposes

    De Silva, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Writing for academic purposes in a second/foreign language is a major challenge faced by many students at both secondary and tertiary levels. This suggests that displaying content knowledge and understanding of a subject through a second language is a very complex process. This article discusses the findings of a longitudinal intervention study…

  3. A Suggested Syllabus for Advanced Writing Skills at English Language Teaching Departments

    Altay, Ismail Firat

    2010-01-01

    As is known, writing is an indispensable part of language education. As far as English Language Teaching Departments are concerned, writing courses, especially Advanced Writing Skills, are taken as a course of higher importance. However, forming a syllabus for Advanced Writing Course for English Language Teaching Departments is not an easy matter.…

  4. LEXICAL RETRIEVAL PROCESSES AND STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A SYNTHESIS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

    Rosa M. Manchon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lexical access and retrieval are essential processes in fluent and efficient second language (L2 oral and written productive uses of language. In the case of L2 writing, attention to vocabulary is of paramount importance, although the retrieval of relevant lexis while composing in an L2 frequently entails different degrees of problem-solving activity given the lack of (automatic access to the necessary linguistic resources characteristic of L2 communication. When engaged in this problem-solving behaviour, L2 writers have been reported to deploy a range of L1-based and L2-based lexical retrieval strategies. After situating lexical retrieval processes in cognitive views of written production, the main part of this paper is devoted to a review of the available empirical evidence on lexical retrieval processes and strategies in L2 writing. The paper finishes with some conclusions at the levels of theory and research.

  5. Teachers' attitudes towards (the alignment between) grammar in the L1 language curricula of primary and secondary education

    Devos, Filip; Van Vooren, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Dutch grammar education (L1) in Flemish primary (PE) as well as secondary education (SE) has been the subject of much debate. Research into the grammatical knowledge of students in SE (n=359) suggests that this expertise falls short of the final attainment targets. Additional research now tries to pinpoint the reasons underlying this trend, focusing on the attitude of teachers, which is an 'understudied' aspect of language teaching. This research, centring around L1 t...

  6. Teachers’ and students’ amount and purpose of L1 use: English as foreign language (EFL classrooms in Iran

    Hossein Bozorgian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A surge of interest in using First Language (L1 in English as Second/Foreign Language (L2/EFL learning has recently been developed. Despite this upsurge, the concern about using L1 by teachers and students in L2/EFL classrooms is still important for researchers to consider in the field. The focus of this study is to investigate the amount and purposes of L1 use in EFL classrooms by teachers and students in two English language institutes in Iran. Responding to the research questions on the amount and purpose of L1 use, the researchers collected the data for 12 sessions (a 90-minute class from six male and female EFL teachers aged from 25 to 30 and 155 students 19 to 25 years of age whose pre-intermediate classes were video recorded for two sessions. The findings revealed that the EFL teachers used a limited amount of L1 in the EFL classrooms though they still used it as an aid for a variety of purposes in order to improve their teaching purposes and the students’ learning. The findings also indicated that using L1 facilitates students’ learning in EFL classrooms, and it should not be excluded from the classroom syllabi or considered an evil in EFL classrooms.

  7. Approaching Pedagogical Language Knowledge through Student Teachers: Assessment of Second Language Writing

    Aalto, Eija; Tarnanen, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    The article examines student teachers' pedagogical language knowledge. The analysis is based on data from an applied task in which Finnish student teachers (n = 221) of 16 school subjects assessed second language (SL) learners' writing skills. First, we briefly discuss subject teachers' role in language and literacy teaching in the multilingual…

  8. The use of L1 and L2 in prewriting discussions in EFL writing and students' attitudes towards L1 and L2 use in prewriting discussions

    Karim, Hemn Adil

    2010-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 73-75. Karim, Hemn Adil Master's

  9. Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms

    Shagoury, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…

  10. An L1-script-transfer-effect fallacy: a rejoinder to Wang et al. (2003).

    Yamada, Jun

    2004-09-01

    Do different L1 (first language) writing systems differentially affect word identification in English as a second language (ESL)? Wang, Koda, and Perfetti [Cognition 87 (2003) 129] answered yes by examining Chinese students with a logographic L1 background and Korean students with an alphabetic L1 background for their phonological and orthographic processing skills on English word identification. Such a conclusion is premature, however. We propose that the L1 phonological system (rather than the L1 writing system) of the learner largely accounts for cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2). PMID:15147932

  11. The Interactional Approach to the Teaching of Writing and Its Implications for Second Language Acquisition

    Lies Amin Lestari

    2008-01-01

    Writing is a language skill which is relatively difficult to acquire. A number of efforts have been made to develop the students' writing skill, among others is by applying different approaches to the teaching of writing. This article discusses the interactional approach to the teaching of writing and its implications for second language acquisition.  

  12. IMPLICATION FOR SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY BY ANALYZING ERRORS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS' WRITINGS

    YanLidong

    2004-01-01

    Many linguists and teachers have become more aware of thelong-term value of Error Analysis as a chief means of assessinglearner's language. The present paper will focus on analyzing theerrors in college students' compositions. Firstly, it describes indetail the errors in students' writings, then analyzes the maintypes and causes of errors in students' writing, and then isconcerned with the implication for second language learning onthe basis of error analysis. In addition, it discusses theappropriate attitude toward students' errors and error correction.

  13. Language Simulations: The Blending Space for Writing and Critical Thinking

    Kovalik, Doina L.; Kovalik, Ludovic M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a language simulation involving six distinct phases: an in-class quick response, a card game, individual research, a classroom debate, a debriefing session, and an argumentative essay. An analysis of student artifacts--quick-response writings and final essays, respectively, both addressing the definition of liberty in a…

  14. Writing Learning Outcomes for English Language Lessons in Multilingual Schools

    Jones, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a pedagogic innovation in teacher education by articulating a method for writing learning outcomes for English language lessons in multilingual school contexts. The argument for this approach is founded on curriculum studies; however, the practice also draws specifically on applied psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic…

  15. Meaningful Literacy: Writing Poetry in the Language Classroom

    Hanauer, David I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of meaningful literacy and offers a classroom methodology--poetry writing--that manifests this approach to ESL/EFL literacy instruction. The paper is divided into three sections. The first deals with the concept of meaningful literacy learning in second and foreign language pedagogy; the second summarizes empirical…

  16. Mastering Academic Language: Organization and Stance in the Persuasive Writing of High School Students

    Uccelli, Paola; Dobbs, Christina L.; Scott, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Beyond mechanics and spelling conventions, academic writing requires progressive mastery of advanced language forms and functions. Pedagogically useful tools to assess such language features in adolescents' writing, however, are not yet available. This study examines language predictors of writing quality in 51 persuasive essays produced by high…

  17. An Analysis of the CET English Writing Tests from the Perspective of Language Testing

    李丽娜

    2014-01-01

    This article is mainly talked about CET English writing tests from the perspective of language testing. Writing tests de-signed to test the language proficiency, have direct and integrative characteristics. Writing requires the candidates to use language accurately, fluently and appropriately.

  18. Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals

    George M. Jacobs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on doing the actual writing. Here, it is suggested that we connect ideas, delve deeply into the ideas we present, strive to write the reader friendly manner, use visuals, and improve our writing by noticing how other journal authors write. The third section concerns relations with editors. The advice given is that we choose carefully the journal to which we submit our work, follow that journal's directions to contributors, include a cover letter, be prepared to wait patiently, welcome critical feedback from editors and reviewers, and view editors as colleagues.

  19. Wikipedia Writing as Praxis: Computer-Mediated Socialization of Second-Language Writers

    King, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the writing of Wikipedia articles as a form of authentic writing for learners of English in Hong Kong. Adopting "Second Language Socialization and Language Learning & Identity" approaches to language learning inquiry, it responds to an identified shortage of research on computer-mediated language socialization.…

  20. Chinese University EFL Learners’ Foreign Language Writing Anxiety: Pattern, Effect and Causes

    Meihua Liu; Huiliuqian Ni

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners’ foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that 1) FLWAS had three principal components—low confidence in English writing (FLWAS1), dislike of English writing (FLW...

  1. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  2. How Much L1 Is Too Much? Teachers' Language Use in Response to Students' Abilities and Classroom Interaction in Content and Language Integrated Learning

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2015-01-01

    In Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms where students' L2 proficiency has not reached the threshold level, teachers have been observed to use L1 to assist students in grasping specific technical terms and abstract concepts. It is argued to be a 'realistic' approach to the learning problems caused by students' limited L2…

  3. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish: Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition (SLA). Where the first studies mostly focussed on the influence of the L1 on the L2, later studies showed that the opposite is also possible, making linguistic transfer a bi-directional phenomenon...

  4. Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language

    Albrechtsen, Dorte; Haastrup, Kirsten; Henriksen, Birgit

    Book description: Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language is based on a large-scale empirical study. The innovative feature of the research was that the same students were asked to do the same tasks in both languages while reporting their thinking as they went along. Furthermore......-depth approach useful in understanding the processes of both first and second language performance...... the relationship between the skills and describe the level of development for individual learners within the three areas. In all cases, statistical and qualitative analyses are offered, the latter being based on the learners' own 'think-aloud' reports. Both researchers and teachers of language will find this in...

  5. Impact of peer revision on second language writing

    Öztürk, Burcu

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This study investigates the characteristics and effectiveness of peer revision on second language writing as an aid to teacher feedback. It compares peer revision with the individual revision, helping analyze the former in a more controlled way in terms of its general usefulness. The study was conducted at Middle East Technical University. The data was collected through peer revision processes, in which peers reviewed each other’s writi...

  6. Measuring and assessing the development of foreign language writing competence

    de Haan, Pieter; Esch, Kees van

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of writing skills of Dutch students of English and Spanish as foreign languages. Essays written in three consecutive years were analyzed for essay length, word length, and type/token ratio ??? reflecting linguistic competence. A selection of essays was analyzed for argument structure and the use of cohesive devices. These same essays were ranked holistically by experienced lecturers. Students develop linguistic and discourse competences, but...

  7. ¿Duermes mucho Tony? Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom

    Higareda Sandra

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1 in English Language Teaching (elt , critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students’ mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English. Key words: First language, critical pedagogy, phatic communion Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (l1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (ei, un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (l1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Palabras clave: Lengua materna, pedagogía crítica, comunión fática

  8. Chinese University EFL Learners' Foreign Language Writing Anxiety: Pattern, Effect and Causes

    Liu, Meihua; Ni, Huiliuqian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners' foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured…

  9. The Potential Role(s) of Writing in Second Language Development

    Williams, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Writing is often seen as having a minor role in second language learning. This article explores recent research that suggests that writing can have a facilitative role in language development. In particular, it focuses on three features of writing: (1) its slower pace, and (2) the enduring record that it leaves, both of which can encourage…

  10. Creative Writing Assignments in a Second Language Course: A Way to Engage Less Motivated Students

    Arshavskaya, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for using creative writing in a second language course. Creative writing increases students' enthusiasm for writing skills development and supports students' creativity, which is a fundamental aspect of education. In order to engage less motivated students, a series of creative writing assignments was implemented in a…

  11. Learning to write in science: A study of English language learners' writing experience in sixth-grade science classrooms

    Qi, Yang

    Writing is a predictor of academic achievement and is essential for student success in content area learning. Despite its importance, many students, including English language learners (ELLs), struggle with writing. There is thus a need to study students' writing experience in content area classrooms. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined 11 ELL students' writing experience in two sixth grade science classrooms in a southeastern state of the United States, including what they wrote, how they wrote, and why they wrote in the way they did. The written products produced by these students over one semester were collected. Also collected were teacher interviews, field notes from classroom observations, and classroom artifacts. Student writing samples were first categorized into extended and nonextended writing categories, and each extended essay was then analyzed with respect to its schematic structure and grammatical features. Teacher interviews and classroom observation notes were analyzed thematically to identify teacher expectations, beliefs, and practices regarding writing instruction for ELLs. It was found that the sixth-grade ELLs engaged in mostly non-extended writing in the science classroom, with extended writing (defined as writing a paragraph or longer) constituting roughly 11% of all writing assignments. Linguistic analysis of extended writing shows that the students (a) conveyed information through nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbial groups and prepositional phrases; (b) constructed interpersonal context through choices of mood, modality, and verb tense; and (c) structured text through thematic choices and conjunctions. The appropriateness of these lexicogrammatical choices for particular writing tasks was related to the students' English language proficiency levels. The linguistic analysis also uncovered several grammatical problems in the students' writing, including a limited range of word choices, inappropriate use of mood

  12. The “Magnet Effect” – A Powerful Source of L1 Dialect Interference in the Pronunciation of English as a Foreign Language

    Klementina Jurančič Petek

    2014-01-01

    Wieden and Nemser (1991) carried out a study investigating the development of pronunciation of English as a foreign language in Austria. One of the main issues in this research was L1 dialect interference. Individual studies have proven that the pronunciation of a second (L2) or foreign language (FL) is not influenced only by the standard variety of the first language (L1), but also by the L1 dialect of the speaker’s place of origin (Karpf et al. 1980). Wieden and Nemser’s study wished to pro...

  13. Rhetorical Meta-Language to Promote the Development of Students' Writing Skills and Subject Matter Understanding

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language--a meta-language--for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and…

  14. A Systemic-Functional Analysis of English Language Learners' Writing

    Luciana C. DE OLIVEIRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a systemic-functional linguistic analysis of two writing samples of the University of California Analytical Writing Placement (AWP Examination written by English language learners (ELLs. The analysis shows the linguistic features utilized in the two writing samples, one that received a passing score and one that received a failing score. The article describes some of the grammatical resources which are functional for expository writing, which are divided under three main categories: textual, interpersonal, and ideational resources. Following this brief description is the analysis of both essays in terms of these resources.. The configuration of grammatical features used in the essays make up the detached style of essay 1 and the more personal style of essay 2. These grammatical features include the textual resources of thematic choices and development, clause-combining strategies (connectors, and lexical cohesion; interpersonal resources of interpersonal metaphors of modality; and ideational resources of nominalization and abstractions as ideational metaphors. Implications for educational practice and recommendations for educators based on the analysis are provided.

  15. Second Language Acquisition of Reflexive Verbs in Russian by L1 Speakers of English

    Alexieva, Petia Dimitrova

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the process of acquisition of semantic classes of reflexive verbs (RVs) in Russian by L2 learners with a native language English. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between current linguistic knowledge and the pedagogical literature existing in English on reflexives in Russian. RVs are taught partially and…

  16. Enlightenment from Rethinking Writing Teaching Approaches——From Second Language Acquisition Aspect

    李堂英

    2012-01-01

    English writing is a complex integrative process of compressive skill,which is difficult to master in a short period,especially for middle school students.However,writing teaching is an essential part in language learning process.The paper tries to rethinking the writing teaching process,and gives some advice for writing teaching in class so as to help student’s improve their English writing level.

  17. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system. PMID:23055164

  18. A Study of L1 Transfer on the Use of Attributive Clauses In English Writing%A Study of L1 Transfer on the Use of Attributive Clauses In English Writing

    边宛

    2011-01-01

    This study is carried out to find out the role of LI transfer on the problems of attributive clauses. By the application of Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis, the study shows, Chinese belongs to the left-branching language, while English is the right- branching one in terms of the structure of attributive clauses.

  19. An Automated Essay-Evaluation Corpus of English as a Foreign Language Writing

    Jiang, Yaoyi

    2015-01-01

    The Report of Chinese Students' English Writing Ability (2014) focuses on the Chinese students' English writing in the automated essay-evaluation context. The data and samples are primarily from a national-wide writing project involving 300,814 English as a Foreign Language participants from 452 schools in China during a period of April 10 to May…

  20. Signaled Stopping and Cognitive, Language Principles Applied to Public Relations Writing.

    Ramsey, Shirley A.

    To investigate the hypothesis that cognitive rules govern writing behavior, Carter's signaled stopping technique was used to study language and cognitive effects in public relations messages. Principles from Grunig, et al (1985) Axiomatic Theory of Cognition and Writing, which proposed premises, axioms and definitions about writing, were applied…

  1. Longitudinal Relations between Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Language and Literacy Skills

    Skibbe, Lori E.; Bindman, Samantha W.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental writing support was examined over time and in relation to children's language and literacy skills. Seventy-seven parents and their preschoolers were videotaped writing an invitation together twice during one year. Parental writing support was coded at the level of the letter to document parents' graphophonemic support…

  2. Mediation Strategies in L2 Writing Processes: A Case Study of Two Korean Language Learners

    Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…

  3. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Writing and Their Relations to Language and Reading

    Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement--Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and…

  4. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to…

  5. Second Language Learners' Performance and Strategies When Writing Direct and Translated Essays

    Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed; Alsheikh, Negmeldin Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL students' performance and strategies when writing direct and translated essays. The study also aimed at exploring students' strategies when writing in L2 (English) and L1 (Arabic). The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative procedures for data collection and analysis. Adapted strategy…

  6. Reading, Writing, and Animation in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…

  7. Second Language Writers' Strategy Use and Performance on an Integrated Reading-Listening-Writing Task

    Yang, Hui-Chun; Plakans, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Integrated writing tasks that involve different language modalities such as reading and listening have increasingly been used as means to assess academic writing. Thus, there is a need for understanding how test-takers coordinate different skills to complete these tasks. This study explored second language writers' strategy use and its…

  8. Quantifying the Burden of Writing Research Articles in a Second Language: Data from Mexican Scientists

    Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141…

  9. Dynamic Development of Complexity and Accuracy: A Case Study in Second Language Academic Writing

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of complexity and accuracy in English as a Second Language (ESL) academic writing. Although research into complexity and accuracy development in second language (L2) writing has been well established, few studies have assumed the multidimensionality of these two constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2009) or…

  10. Academic Vocabulary, Writing and English for Academic Purposes: Perspectives from Second Language Learners

    Coxhead, Averil

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on vocabulary and writing at university level from the perspectives of 14 English as an additional language students studying at a New Zealand university. The students individually carried out an integrated reading and writing task and then participated in an interview which focused on their language learning background and…

  11. A Practice-Oriented Definition of Post-Process Second Language Writing Theory

    Kalan, Amir

    2014-01-01

    This article is a synthesis of the scholarly literature on the post-process approach to teaching second language (L2) writing, particularly college and university composition in English as an additional language. This synthesis aims to offer a definition of post-process L2 writing that can readily lend itself to practice and be more accessible to…

  12. 37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.

    2010-07-01

    ... affecting § 1.52, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language, paper, writing... Processing Provisions The Application § 1.52 Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc...

  13. The Influence of Process Approach on English as Second Language Students' Performances in Essay Writing

    Akinwamide, Timothy Kolade

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students' performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control…

  14. An Investigation into Metaphor Use at Different Levels of Second Language Writing

    Littlemore, Jeannette; Krennmayr, Tina; Turner, James; Turner, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in linguistics have shown that metaphor is ubiquitous. This has important consequences for language learners who need to use it appropriately in their speech and writing. This study aims to provide a preliminary measure of the amount and distribution of metaphor used by language learners in their writing across Common European…

  15. INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF L1 GRAMMAR NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON L2 WRITING SKILL – REVISITED

    ASGHAR BASTAMI BANDPAY

    2013-01-01

    This study was re-conducted after 2 years to a larger population to confirm the previous research findings and also to discover why some Persian learners (EFL) have still problems in learning certain structures of English language even in an academic level. To answer, a general proficiency test was administered to a total of 426 female and male university students of Payame-noor and Azad Universities in three different departments (Humanities, Basic Sciences and Technical Engi...

  16. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  17. Blog writing integration for academic language learning purposes: towards an assessment framework

    Liam Murray

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006, then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming. The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expression, reflection and language acquisition in mandatory blog writings by students at a Third Level Institution. Previously in this research, students were asked, but not required, to keep a personal blog for up to five months; writing only about their language learning strategies and experiences with the declared aim of improving student language learning strategies through self-reflection and self-expression. Students are, this time, required to write and ‘complete’ their academic blog as it represents one compulsory element –with due weighting, given its importance– of a language module assessment. This compulsory blog writing task has raised a number of pedagogical questions which will be explored, such as: effective integration, assessing and rewarding student creative expression within the blog medium, self-reflection as a language learner and ultimately the role and value of academic blog writing in language acquisition.

  18. Exploring interactional metadiscourse markers in the teaching of foreign language writing

    2013-01-01

    This articles mainly explores the use of interactional metadiscourse markersin foreign language writing after discussing the model of metadiscourse (interactive metadiscourse and interactional metadiscourse)by Hyland and Tse, fol owed by looking particularly at the interactional metadiscourse and its definition,categories, and effects. Concerning the difficulties in foreign language writing, it stresses the importance of interactional metadiscourse markers in foreign language teaching, It also suggests some activities and exercises in practical teaching.

  19. English Language Writing Anxiety among Final Year Engineering Undergraduates in University Putra Malaysia

    Lau Sing Min; Nurhazlini Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Second Language Writing Anxiety (SLWA) is considered one of the most crucial factors affecting all second language learning. This study focused on a group of final year Engineering students’ English Language writing anxiety (N=93) in relation to their gender, race and MUET results. The findings showed that the the male gender, Chinese and MUET band 4 participants faced higher levels of anxiety as compared to the other groups respectively. Somatic anxiety was recorded to be the highest subscal...

  20. INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF L1 GRAMMAR NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON L2 WRITING SKILL – REVISITED

    ASGHAR BASTAMI BANDPAY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was re-conducted after 2 years to a larger population to confirm the previous research findings and also to discover why some Persian learners (EFL have still problems in learning certain structures of English language even in an academic level. To answer, a general proficiency test was administered to a total of 426 female and male university students of Payame-noor and Azad Universities in three different departments (Humanities, Basic Sciences and Technical Engineering through homogenization. Out of which 220 participants whose scores ranged from 55-75 out of 100 were chosen as the upper-intermediate level and 46 participants were crossed out during the TOEFL test due to frustration and lack of self-confidence

  1. Writing skills and strategies of bilingual immigrant students learning Greek as a second language and English as a foreign language

    Eleni Griva; Dora Chostelidou

    2013-01-01

    The present study was concerned with eliciting information about the problems that bilingual or immigrant students’ encounter and the strategies that they employ whilst writing in Greek as a second language (GL2) and in English as a foreign language (EFL). The sample consisted of a total of 32 bilingual students, aged between 10 and 12 from Albanian, Russian and Georgian families. The study followed a qualitative and quantitative method of data collection and analysis: (1) a screening writing...

  2. Rhetorical and Lexico-Grammatical Features of Argumentative Writing in Spanish as a Heritage Language and as a Second Language

    Paredes, Sofia M.

    2011-01-01

    Student academic writing in higher education is a central component of language programs whose purpose is to promote advanced literacy in the target language. At this level, students are required to produce texts that are analytical-argumentative in nature. This type of genre requires writers to formulate an interpretative statement or thesis and…

  3. Effects of a Language-Minority Family's Activities in Early Second Language Writing Development

    Wei, Michael; Zhou, Yalun

    2012-01-01

    The impact of social dimensions (e.g., parental involvement) on second language literacy acquisition is not well studied in the field (August & Shanahan, 2008). Although quite a few studies report immigrant parents' belief and perspectives of their children's second language reading and writing, it remains unknown for school teachers…

  4. Linguistic, reading, and transcription influences on kindergarten writing in children with English as a second language

    Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL) children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1) were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA) and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing f...

  5. Expanding Audiences for Online Writing Labs: OWLs in the English as a Foreign Language Context

    Paiz, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This presentation from the 2014 Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) discusses online writing labs (OWLs), specifically the Purdue OWL, in the traditionally-defined English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The ELF context often presents unique challenges for the teaching of English writing, including challenges of finding appropriate resources. This may lead EFL writing practitioners to rely on the information presented by OWLs to supplement their teaching. However, ...

  6. Smart Teaching and Learning Strategies in Pre-writing Activities in Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language)

    Baba, Suria; Aziz, Zahara Abdul

    2009-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of four smart schools’ teachers using purposive sampling. The study unveils the implementation of smart teaching and learning strategies in pre-writing activities in Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language). Pre-writing activities include reading, free writing, brainstorming, mind mapping, and listening. These activities revolve around student centered learning, thoughtful learning, group work, and also media in the implementation of teaching and learning. There is Int...

  7. Study on Effects of Chinese Thought and Culture on Japanese Writing:Research on the Second Language Writing by Think Aloud

    Qiu-juan ZHU; Shu-feng WU

    2009-01-01

    Think Aloud is one of the main research methods in psychological linguistic study. It plays an important role in foreign language teaching study. This thesis researches into the second language writing process of Japanese learners whose native language are Chinese and draws the conclusion that their writing process include the characteristics of two languages. It is the characteristics that cause Japanese learners are influenced by Chinese and culture, especially in sentence structure and voc...

  8. The Skills of A Practical Writing for a Tour Guide(Ⅰ)--Language Differentials

    王静研; 陈忱

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is about the skills of practical writing for Tour Guide.In this article,the differences between English and Chinese are discussed.As a Tour Guide,one needs to grasp these characteristics of the two languages,and has ability of describing sceneries beautifully and accurately by writing.

  9. Extending the Flipped Classroom Model: Developing Second Language Writing Skills through Student-Created Digital Videos

    Engin, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a project that aimed to leverage the students' interest and experience of technology and multimodal environments to develop their academic writing skills and second language learning. Students were expected to follow a model, research a topic, and craft a digital video tutorial on an aspect of academic writing which would…

  10. Effective Strategies for Improving Writing Skills of Elementary English Language Learners

    Cole, Jenny; Feng, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Reaching proficient levels of literacy is a universal goal for all children in the elementary classroom. This objective is especially challenging for English language learners particularly in the domain of writing. Writing has been identified as one of the most essential skills because the world has become so text-oriented. Due to this change,…

  11. The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

  12. A Qualitative Research on Portfolio Keeping in English as a Foreign Language Writing

    Aydin, Selami

    2010-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the problems about portfolio keeping in English as a foreign language (EFL) writing, while the existing literature mostly focuses on the effects of portfolios on writing skills of learners, rather than those of teachers or pre-service teachers. This study aims to investigate the problems encountered and…

  13. Capitalising on Learner Agency and Group Work in Learning Writing in English as a Foreign Language

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of learner agency and group work in learning writing in English as a foreign language (EFL). Through exploratory and participatory action research, this study examines how learner agency and group work function amidst the activity system of task-based EFL writing, especially how they influence and are influenced…

  14. How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1. PMID:26673115

  15. SMS Language and College Writing :The languages of the College Texters

    Norizul Azida Darus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many students have become avid texters and are seriously reinventing language to accommodate the 160-character limit of short messages. They are more interested in getting their messages across and thus becoming less concerned about correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. Since texting has become a way of life of many students, it is feared that the SMS language can affect students’ written performance. This research examines the effects of frequent usage of text messaging (SMS on undergraduates academic writing. For the purpose of the study, 264 Diploma students of UiTM Perlis were selected as participants. They were 94 male texters and 170 female texters aged between 18 – 22 years old who were taking three different English courses namely Preparatory English, Mainstream English 1 and Mainstream English 2. The data includes participants’ SMS messages, class assignments and examinations scripts which were analyzed in order to detect the existence of SMS language by using measuring instruments of Orthographic forms (Shortis, 2001. The findings reveal that there were few occurrences of SMS language in students’ examinations scripts among weak students.

  16. English language writing centres in Japanese universities: What do students really need?

    Jim McKinley

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The installation of English language writing centres in Japanese universities is a relatively recent event—the first ones established with funding from the Ministry of Education in 2004. Because of the EFL writing context, setting up a writing centre requires consideration of students’ needs and cultural expectations of writing and writing centres. In general, writing centres that have been established in Japanese universities follow a structure similar to those in the US. This raises the question as to whether or not this is appropriate for the particular needs of EFL students and the obstacles they face. For this study, in order to explore students’ attitudes toward writing centres and the role they play in writing education, interview data was collected from students of English composition in two different departments at a university in Japan well known for its English language education: the English department, which does not have a writing centre, and the liberal arts department, which has one of the first writing centres established in Japan.

  17. Theoretical and Practical Linguistic Shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and Recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in Teaching Writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners

    Anwar Mourssi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a complex cognitive activity in which foreign language learners are required to pay attention simultaneously to content, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that an effective teaching method in one context would result in effective student learning in another. It is proved that Product/Guided Writing resulting in poor writers, and Process Writing dos not provide much care for metalinguistic feedback or enough time for negotiation as well. Following the stages of Innovated Writing Process (IWP, the instructor may be able to teach students many skills that may improve the quality of their writing as well as speaking. This paper presents the theoretical and practical linguistic shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in teaching writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners. It is indicated that metalinguistic feedback, error/contrastive analysis and the communicative interaction negotiating of meaning and form provided by the teacher lead to remarkable improve in second/foreign language learners’ written accuracy and fluency as well.

  18. The “Magnet Effect” – A Powerful Source of L1 Dialect Interference in the Pronunciation of English as a Foreign Language

    Klementina Jurančič Petek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wieden and Nemser (1991 carried out a study investigating the development of pronunciation of English as a foreign language in Austria. One of the main issues in this research was L1 dialect interference. Individual studies have proven that the pronunciation of a second (L2 or foreign language (FL is not influenced only by the standard variety of the first language (L1, but also by the L1 dialect of the speaker’s place of origin (Karpf et al. 1980. Wieden and Nemser’s study wished to prove this on a larger scale. A similar study was carried out also for Slovenia (Jurančič Petek 2007. Contrastive analysis (CA of the Slovene Standard pronunciation and English was performed as well as that of the sound systems of individual Slovene dialects and the English one. Error analysis (EA of the obtained results showed that L1 dialect interference did not occur in the instances predicted by contrastive analysis; however the study in itself did prove the existence of such influence (“magnet effect” in vowels.

  19. Linguistic, reading, and transcription influences on kindergarten writing in children with English as a second language

    Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1 were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing fluency measure. Correlation and hierarchical regression results varied as a function of the writing tasks (procedural or generative and language status. Across language groups, writing tasks that captured children's developing graphophonemic knowledge were associated with a breadth of cognitive, linguistic, and early literacy skills. PA, reading, and transcription skills, but not oral vocabulary and syntactic knowledge contributed the most variance to writing irrespective of language status. The results suggest that parallel component skills and processes underlie ESL and EL1 children's early writing when formal literacy instruction begins in kindergarten even though ESL children are developing English oral and literacy proficiency simultaneously.

  20. Language context elicits native-like stop voicing in early bilinguals’ productions in both L1 and L2

    Antoniou, Mark; Catherine T Best; Tyler, Michael D.; Kroos, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The way that bilinguals produce phones in each of their languages provides a window into the nature of the bilingual phonological space. For stop consonants, if early sequential bilinguals, whose languages differ in voice onset time (VOT) distinctions, produce native-like VOTs in each of their languages, it would imply that they have developed separate first and second language phones, that is, language-specific phonetic realisations for stop-voicing distinctions. Given the ambiguous phonolog...

  1. Language Creativity and Co-Emergence of Form and Meaning in Creative Writing Tasks

    Tin, Tan Bee

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on various theoretical approaches to creativity and the emergentist perspectives, this study examines the opportunities for creative language use and emergence of complex language in creative writing tasks with high formal constraints (acrostics) and those with looser formal constraints (similes). It indicates that formal constraints lead…

  2. Developing Literary Reading Skills through Creative Writing in German as a Second Language

    Urlaub, Per

    2011-01-01

    Literary reading skills in a second language (L2) are essential for student success at the advanced levels of collegiate language instruction. This article introduces an instructional approach that fosters the development of L2 literary reading skills through creative writing activities. First, the article identifies those skills that language…

  3. Relations between Early Reading and Writing Skills among Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Children

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on the development of reading skills of Spanish-speaking language minority children, little research has focused on the development of writing skills in this population. This study evaluated whether children's Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language)…

  4. Effects of Reading Strategies and the Writing Process with Written Recasts on Second Language Achievement

    Ramirez, Helen; Jones, Don

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of teaching methods used with a second language reading and writing unit. This investigation addressed discrepancies between assessment scores in the four communicative language skill areas of students in beginning-level Spanish classes at a suburban middle school. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to…

  5. Teaching Young Dual Language Learners to Be Writers: Rethinking Writing Instruction through the Lens of Identity

    Wagner, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Although young dual language students (DLLs) learn to write and use language expressively in ways that differ from monolingual English speakers, these differences are rarely addressed in curricula and instruction. In particular, despite a recent shift in attention to how identities shape literacy practices and motivations, common frameworks for…

  6. The Heterogeneous Second-Language Population in US Colleges and the Impact on Writing Program Design

    di Gennaro, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    To effectively address the needs of second language (L2) learners in college writing courses, many postsecondary institutions, especially those located in cities with high concentrations of immigrants, offer college-level courses for L2 students. Such courses include noncredit English language courses in an intensive English program, developmental…

  7. Lexical Retrieval Processes and Strategies in Second Language Writing: A Synthesis of Empirical Research

    Manchon, Rosa M.; Murphy, Liz; Roca, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Lexical access and retrieval are essential processes in fluent and efficient second language (L2) oral and written productive uses of language. In the case of L2 writing, attention to vocabulary is of paramount importance, although the retrieval of relevant lexis while composing in an L2 frequently entails different degrees of problem-solving…

  8. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  9. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language - a meta-language - for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and feedback-giving. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore students' perception of teachers' feedback given on their texts in two genres, and to suggest how writing training and feedback-giving could become more efficient. Sample: In this study were included 44 degree project students in biology and molecular biology, and 21 supervising teachers at a Swedish university. Design and methods: The study concerned students' writing about their degree projects in two genres: scientific writing and popular science writing. The data consisted of documented teacher feedback on the students' popular science texts. It also included students' and teachers' answers to questionnaires about writing and feedback. All data were collected during the spring of 2012. Teachers' feedback, actual and recalled - by students and teachers, respectively - was analysed and compared using the so-called Canons of rhetoric. Results: While the teachers recalled the given feedback as mainly positive, most students recalled only negative feedback. According to the teachers, suggested improvements concerned firstly the content, and secondly the structure of the text. In contrast, the students mentioned language style first, followed by content. Conclusions: The disagreement between students and teachers regarding how and what feedback was given on the students texts confirm the need of improved strategies for writing training and feedback-giving in science education. We suggest that the rhetorical meta-language might play a crucial role in overcoming the difficulties observed in this study. We also discuss how training of writing skills may contribute to

  10. Notation Systems for Reading and Writing Sign Language

    McCarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for…

  11. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  12. Discourse Synthesis in Integrated Second Language Writing Assessment

    Plakans, Lia

    2009-01-01

    As integrated tasks become more common in assessing writing for academic purposes, it is necessary to investigate how test takers approach these tasks. The present study explores the processes of test takers undertaking reading-to-write tasks developed for a university English placement exam. Think-aloud protocols and interviews of…

  13. Notation systems for reading and writing sign language

    McCarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for developing written forms. These issues are considered from a behavioral perspective, and two sign language notation systems, Stokoe Notation and Sutton Si...

  14. Writing skills and strategies of bilingual immigrant students learning Greek as a second language and English as a foreign language

    Eleni Griva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was concerned with eliciting information about the problems that bilingual or immigrant students’ encounter and the strategies that they employ whilst writing in Greek as a second language (GL2 and in English as a foreign language (EFL. The sample consisted of a total of 32 bilingual students, aged between 10 and 12 from Albanian, Russian and Georgian families. The study followed a qualitative and quantitative method of data collection and analysis: (1 a screening writing test was used for student selection and their categorisation into skilled and less skilled writers; (2 student think-aloud reports and retrospective interviews were used to collect data whilst students were writing in GL2 and EFL. The findings indicated that the skilled bilingual writers held a much broader and complex view of their own writing process and showed more strategic knowledge compared to less-skilled writers. In particular, they were more flexible in using both cognitive and metacognitive strategies and employed a wider range of more ‘elaborated’ strategies. In contrast, the less-skilled writers had a more limited knowledge of the writing task, and they adopted lower-level processes and strategies. However, they had adequate awareness of their own writing problems related to word level, and they employed certain compensation strategies to overcome writing weaknesses. Some suggestions are made about the creation of educational and teaching conditions for developing bilingual students’ linguistic cognitive and metacognitive skills and expanding opportunities for them to become autonomous writers.

  15. Teachers’ Opinions on the Teaching Methodology for Standard School Scripts in Initial Reading and Writing in the Croatian Language

    Kolar Billege, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Standard school scripts are intended for teaching initial reading and writing in the Croatian language. They come as a result of the scientific-research project Language-Art Standards in Initial Reading and Writing in the Croatian Language and are included into the Croatian orthography (Hrvatski pravopis, 2013). They have been implemented in the first grade of primary school in the 2014/2015 academic year. The paper presents the content of initial reading and writing within the framework of t...

  16. Write to speak revisited: An ecological investigation of transfer between chatting and speaking in foreign languages

    Mendelson, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Dating back to some of the earliest investigations of the use of text-based, online chat in foreign language instruction, researchers and instructors have been hypothesizing that and asking if there is some transfer between chatting and oral language development (e.g., Beauvois, 1992; Chun, 1994). The possibility of this sort of transfer is especially promising for the many students whose ability to speak their foreign language lags behind their ability to read and write. In these cases, the ...

  17. Anxiety over EFL speaking and writing: A view from language classrooms

    Gkonou, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom spe...

  18. The Search for a Common Language: Environmental Writing and Education

    Graulich, Melody; Crumbley, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A stellar group of writers, scientists, and educators illuminate the intersections between environmental science, creative writing, and education, considering ways to strengthen communication between differing fields with common interests.

  19. Similar and/or Different Writing Processes? A Study of Spanish Foreign Language and Heritage Language Learners

    Elola, Idoia; Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2016-01-01

    Following a cognitively-oriented framework, this study builds upon the authors' previous work (Elola and Mikulski 2013; Mikulski and Elola 2011), which analyzed writing processes (planning time, execution time, revision time), fluency, and accuracy of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners when composing in English and in Spanish. By analyzing…

  20. ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera

    Sandra Higareda; Georgina López; Gerrard Mugford

    2009-01-01

    Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of ...

  1. Characteristics, Assessment, and Treatment of Writing Difficulties in College Students with Language Disorders and/or Learning Disabilities

    Richards, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Many students currently are enrolled in colleges and universities across the country with language disorders and/or learning disabilities (LLD). The majority of these students struggle with writing, creating a need to identify and provide them with writing intervention services. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may provide this intervention;…

  2. Modular Sequence: English as a Second Language, Methods and Techniques. TTP 001.11 Writing. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    Hernandez, Alberto; Melnick, Susan L.

    This learning module is designed to provide the prospective teacher of English as a second language with suggestions for practical applications of sound linguistic theory for teaching writing to second-language learners. After completing the module, the student is expected to be able to: (a) define the role of writing in foreign and…

  3. Creative Writing for Language, Content and Literacy Teaching

    Guillén, María Teresa Fleta; Bermejo, María Luisa García

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on pedagogies that promote language, content and literacy in English by stimulating learners' creativity. The starting point to promote creativity among learners was music and art. There seems to be a natural connection between music, language and thinking which suggests that incorporating musical experiences into daily…

  4. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing Studies

    Ferris, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Written corrective feedback, referred to hereafter as "written CF" and also known as "grammar correction" or "error correction", has been a controversial topic in second language studies over the past fifteen years. Inspired by John Truscott's thought-provoking 1996 essay in "Language Learning", many different researchers have undertaken new…

  5. English as a World Language in Academic Writing

    Genc, Bilal; Bada, Erdogan

    2010-01-01

    Language is a phenomenon which can hardly be viewed separate from its very inherent component, culture. This component does by all means play a significant role in enabling the language to gain a global status. No doubt, some prominent issues do contribute to this process: political, economic, and military supremacy, to name but a few. This study…

  6. Writing Government Policies and Procedures in Plain Language

    Byrne, Don

    2008-01-01

    Plain language involves more than just a few simple techniques, such as using everyday words, short sentences, and active voice. Although there is no single definition, "plain language" basically stands for several dozen well-established principles of clear communication. In this article, the author discusses the significance of plain language…

  7. English-Language Creative Writing in Mainland China

    Dai, Fan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the background, purpose and components of a creative writing course conducted in the Department of English at Sun Yat-sen University as part of the reform in the teaching of English in China. It explains and demonstrates the different components of the course and argues, drawing on evidence from students' work and reflections,…

  8. T(w)o and fro: using the L1 as a language teaching tool in the CLIL classroom

    Gallagher, Fiona; Colohan, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a small in-class study which sought to explore the effectiveness (or not) of using the emerging bilingual skills of the students as a teaching and learning tool in a Geography through English CLIL classroom in Northern Italy. In particular, the study sought to examine whether and to what extent the use of codeswitching / translanguaging between the native language and the language of instruction during content-related tasks might prove a useful technique for highlighti...

  9. English-Language Creative Writing in Hong Kong: Colonial Stereotype and Process

    Lim, SGL

    2001-01-01

    Describes the effort of Hong Kong University in Hong Kong, China to move away from colonial education policies toward a vision of higher education as a global creative and knowledge industry. Diversity of the English language; Stereotypes of the Hong Kong students' relationship to English; Poems made by Chinese students that have appeared in the English-language literary magazine 'Yuan Yang: A Journal of Hong Kong and International Writing.'

  10. "Writing For the enemy" : Kurdish Language standardization online

    Dehqan, Agri

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study some of the challenges that the Kurdish language and its standardization face, and offer a bottom-up solution through the “collective intelligence” and “good faith collaboration” of Wikipedia. Therefore, the fragmentation in the Kurdish language—caused by both external factors and those that are inherent to the language itself— is discussed and analyzed. Furthermore, this thesis describes some of the efforts that have been made to unify the Kurdish language,...

  11. Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?

    Lorna Bourke; Anne-Marie Adams

    2012-01-01

    Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females) (M age 57.30 months) participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP). Quantitative measures of writing: number of w...

  12. Language policy, 'Asia's world city' and anglophone Hong Kong writing

    Ho, EYL

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong's official language policy of 'biliteracy' (Chinese and English) and 'trilingualism' (Cantonese, Putonghua, English), announced after the reversion to China in 1997, claims to address actualities of language use in the territory, remove inequities between English and Chinese, and consolidate the linguistic platform to launch Hong Kong as 'Asia's World City'. Public discussion of and controversy over this policy immediately followed, and have continued in the past decade. But they ha...

  13. The Impact of Dictation Practice on Turkish as a Foreign Language Learners' Writing Skills

    Büyükikiz, K. Kaan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to learn about the impact of dictation practice on B1 level Turkish as a foreign language learners' writing skills. In this study, a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with control group was used. The study was carried out with 24 B1 level students enrolled in Gaziantep University Turkish and Foreign Languages…

  14. Using Portfolio to Assess Rural Young Learners' Writing Skills in English Language Classroom

    Aziz, Muhammad Noor Abdul; Yusoff, Nurahimah Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at discussing the benefits of portfolio assessment in assessing students' writing skills. The study explores the use of authentic assessment in the classroom. Eleven primary school children from Year 4 in a rural school in Sabah participated in this study. Data were collected by observing them during the English Language lessons…

  15. The Effects of Planning on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy in Second Language Narrative Writing

    Ellis, Rod; Yuan, Fangyuan

    2004-01-01

    Building on previous studies of the effects of planning on second language (L2) learners' oral narratives and drawing on Kellog's (1996) model of writing, this article reports a study of the effects of three types of planning conditions (pretask planning, unpressured on-line planning, and no planning) on 42 Chinese learners' written narratives…

  16. Issues of Cultural Appropriateness and Pedagogical Efficacy: Exploring Peer Review in a Second Language Writing Class

    Hu, Guangwei; Lam, Sandra Tsui Eu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study designed to investigate (a) whether peer review is an effective pedagogical activity with adult Chinese students in the teaching of second language (L2) academic writing and (b) how factors such as perceptions of the influence of peer reviewers' L2 proficiency, previous experience with peer review, feedback…

  17. Concentrated Language Encounter Instruction Model III in Reading and Creative Writing Abilities

    Promnont, Piyapong; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2015-01-01

    The research is aimed to study the development of eleventh grade students' reading, creative writing abilities, satisfaction taught through the concentrated language encounter instruction method, CLE model III. One experimental group time series design was used, and the data was analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures, t-test for one-group…

  18. Dovetailing Language and Content: Teaching Balanced Argument in Legal Problem Answer Writing.

    Bruce, Nigel

    2002-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching first-year law students in an English for academic purposes course on how to write the academic genre of the legal problem answer. Offers students rhetorical tools to translate legal reasoning moves into effective written response to legal problems. The dovetailing of language and content involved considerable…

  19. Predictors of Spelling and Writing Skills in First- and Second-Language Learners

    Harrison, Gina L.; Goegan, Lauren D.; Jalbert, Rachel; McManus, Kelly; Sinclair, Kristin; Spurling, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and linguistic components related to spelling and writing in English as a second language (ESL) and native-English speaking (EL1) third graders were examined. ESL and EL1 children performed similarly on rapid naming, phonological awareness (PA), verbal short-term and working memory, reading fluency, single-word spelling, text spelling,…

  20. Hemingway's Language Style and Writing Techniques in "The Old Man and the Sea"

    Xie, Yaochen

    2008-01-01

    Among many great American writers, Hemingway is famous for his objective and terse prose style. As all the novels Hemingway published in his life, "The Old Man and the Sea" typically reflects his unique writing style. The language is simple and natural on the surface, but actually deliberate and artificial. Hemingway's style is related…

  1. Developing Foreign Language Skills, Competence and Identity through a Collaborative Creative Writing Project

    Feuer, Avital

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a collaborative creative writing project on identity formation and overall language proficiency development among advanced Hebrew students. In an exercise called "The Zoning Committee", college students created the fictional Israeli-American town of Beit Shemesh, located in northern Michigan. Qualitative data…

  2. Evaluating an academic writing program for nursing students who have English as a second language.

    Weaver, Roslyn; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Academic writing skills are essential to the successful completion of preregistration nursing programs, yet the development of such skills is a challenge for many nursing students, particularly those who speak English as a second language (ESL). It is vital to develop and evaluate strategies that can support academic writing skills for ESL nursing students. This qualitative study evaluated a four-day academic writing intervention strategy designed to support ESL first-year nursing students. Data from the program showed two major areas of difficulty for participants relating to academic writing: problems understanding course content in English, and problems expressing their understanding of that content in English. The participants noted a key benefit of this program was the provision of individual feedback. Programs such as this intervention successfully meet the demands of ESL nursing students, although ongoing support is also needed. PMID:21854244

  3. English Language Writing Anxiety among Final Year Engineering Undergraduates in University Putra Malaysia

    Lau Sing Min

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Second Language Writing Anxiety (SLWA is considered one of the most crucial factors affecting all second language learning. This study focused on a group of final year Engineering students’ English Language writing anxiety (N=93 in relation to their gender, race and MUET results. The findings showed that the the male gender, Chinese and MUET band 4 participants faced higher levels of anxiety as compared to the other groups respectively. Somatic anxiety was recorded to be the highest subscale of anxiety faced by most of the participants. The findings of this study can help in making suitable amendments in the engineering programme course structure, especially in determining the suitable English papers to be offered to the students.

  4. Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits

    Nathaniel Roberts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

  5. Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits [review essay

    Roberts, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

  6. Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits

    Nathaniel Roberts

    2010-01-01

    With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

  7. "If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity

    Lichon, Kathryn A.

    The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if

  8. Perception of speech rhythm in second language: the case of rhythmically similar L1 and L2.

    Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the perception of developmental changes in timing patterns that happen in the course of second language (L2) acquisition, provided that the native and the target languages of the learner are rhythmically similar (German and English). It was found that speech rhythm in L2 English produced by German learners becomes increasingly stress-timed as acquisition progresses. This development is captured by the tempo-normalized rhythm measures of durational variability. Advanced learners also deliver speech at a faster rate. However, when native speakers have to classify the timing patterns characteristic of L2 English of German learners at different proficiency levels, they attend to speech rate cues and ignore the differences in speech rhythm. PMID:25859228

  9. Communicative Writing

    彭燕

    2016-01-01

    Writing, like all other aspects of language , is communicative.Communicative writing takes an important part in English learn-ing.Communicative writing assignments train students to turn personal observations into impersonal prose , avoid value judgments unwelcome in the sciences, and write with economy and precision .In the English language classroom , however, writing often lacks this.Why?There are lots of reasons , as there are lots of ways to make the writing we do with students more communicative .

  10. Evaluating the English language scientific writing skills of Saudi dental students at entry level.

    El Tantawi, M; Al-Ansari, A; Sadaf, S; AlHumaid, J

    2016-02-01

    Better knowledge is needed about the effectiveness of preparatory English language courses for the health professions. This study evaluated the scientific writing skills of students finishing their preparatory year of a bachelor of dentistry programme in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014-15 among first-year dental students at the University of Dammam. Students were asked to write a 150-word English language assignment that was analysed for writing statistics and problems using Microsoft Word and plagiarism detection software. Of the 89 respondents, female students used a significantly greater number of words than did male students and their assignments had significantly lower Flesch reading ease scores. Male students had significantly lower odds of using references (OR 0.04) and higher odds of making punctuation and grammar mistakes (OR 2.63 and 3.91 respectively). One course of scientific writing in the preparatory year may not be enough to develop adequate writing skills among undergraduate dental students. PMID:27180743

  11. Argumentation Text Construction by Japanese as a Foreign Language Writers: A Dynamic View of Transfer

    Rinnert, Carol; Kobauashi, Hiroe; Katayama, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a dynamic view of transfer as reusing and reshaping previous knowledge in new writing contexts to investigate how novice Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) writers draw on knowledge across languages to construct L1 and L2 texts. We analyzed L1 English and L2 Japanese argumentation essays by the same JFL writers (N = 19) and L1

  12. Recognizing Syntactic Errors in the Writing of Second Language Learners

    Schneider, D A; Schneider, David A.; Coy, Kathleen F. Mc

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the recognition component of an intelligent tutoring system that is designed to help foreign language speakers learn standard English. The system models the grammar of the learner, with this instantiation of the system tailored to signers of American Sign Language (ASL). We discuss the theoretical motivations for the system, various difficulties that have been encountered in the implementation, as well as the methods we have used to overcome these problems. Our method of capturing ungrammaticalities involves using mal-rules (also called 'error productions'). However, the straightforward addition of some mal-rules causes significant performance problems with the parser. For instance, the ASL population has a strong tendency to drop pronouns and the auxiliary verb `to be'. Being able to account for these as sentences results in an explosion in the number of possible parses for each sentence. This explosion, left unchecked, greatly hampers the performance of the system. We discuss how this ...

  13. Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?

    Lorna Bourke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females (M age 57.30 months participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP. Quantitative measures of writing: number of words, diversity of words, number of phrases/sentences and grammatical complexity of the phrases/sentences were also analysed. The children were also assessed on tasks measuring their language production and comprehension skills and the visuo-spatial, phonological, and central executive components of working memory. The results indicated that the boys were more likely to perform significantly less well than the girls on all measures of writing except the grammatical complexity of sentences. Initially, no significant differences were found on any of the measures of language ability. Further, no significant differences were found between the genders on the capacity and efficiency of their working memory functioning. However, hierarchical regressions revealed that the individual differences in gender and language ability, more specifically spoken language comprehension, predicted performance on the EYFSP writing scale. This finding accords well with the literature that suggests that language skills can mediate the variance in boys’ and girls’ writing ability.

  14. Spanish Interference in EFL Writing Skills: A Case of Ecuadorian Senior High Schools

    Cabrera Solano, Paola Alexandra; Gonzalez Torres, Paul Fernando; Ochoa Cueva, Cesar Augusto; Quinonez Beltran, Ana Lucia; Castillo Cuesta, Luz Mercedes; Solano Jaramillo, Lida Mercedes; Espinosa Jaramillo, Franklin Oswaldo; Arias Cordova, Maria Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Extensive studies have been conducted regarding mother tongue (L1) interference and developing English writing skills. This study, however, aims to investigate the influence of the Spanish language on second language (L2) writing skills at several Ecuadorian senior high schools in Loja. To achieve this, 351 students and 42 teachers from second…

  15. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  16. High School Teacher Perspectives and Practices: Second Language Writing and Language Development

    Gilliland, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' understandings of second language learning influence their practices in the classroom. This paper analyzes interview and classroom data collected during a year-long ethnographic study of two high school English language development classes to identify (1) what the teachers understood about second language (L2) development and L2 academic…

  17. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment

    Dracopoulos, Effie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...

  18. The Effect of Virtual Language Learning Method on Writing Ability of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Hooshang Khoshsima; Fatemeh Sayadi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of virtual language learning method on Iranian intermediate EFL learners writing ability. The study was conducted with 20 English Translation students at Chabahar Maritime University who were assigned into two groups, control and experimental, after ensuring of their homogeneity by administering a TOEFL proficiency. The participants of the experimental group received virtual learning i.e. sending PowerPoint through their e-mails. The participants o...

  19. On Style and Language in Arthur Schopenhauer’s Philosophical Writings

    Dumitrache (Vârlan) Cecilia-Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    The present paper aims at examining the main characteristics of Arthur Schopenhauer’s style of writing philosophy. A. Schopenhauer was the first in the history of German philosophy who wrote philosophical texts that people actually enjoyed reading. Therefore, his style and language became our point of interest, since they are responsible for the easiness of text reading and the accessibility of the reader to the depths of the author’s thought. After a short biographical part, the paper briefl...

  20. Second language writing classification system based on word-alignment distribution

    Katsunori Kotani; Takehiko Yoshimi

    2010-01-01

    The present paper introduces an automatic classification system for assisting second language(L2) writing evaluation. This system, which classifies sentences written by L2 learners as eithernative speaker-like or learner-like sentences, is constructed by machine learning algorithmsusing word-alignment distributions as classification features for detecting word-bywordtranslated expressions. The experimental results demonstrated that our classificationsystem provided adequate classification res...

  1. Dovetailing language and content: teaching balanced argument in legal problem answer writing

    Bruce, NJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to teaching first-year law students how to write the academic genre of the legal problem answer. The approach attempts to offer students the rhetorical tools to translate legal reasoning moves into an effective written response to legal problems. The English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course in question shadows one specific law course, Tort, and is the outcome of close and continuing collaboration with the teachers of that course. The dovetailing of language ...

  2. Improving English as a Foreign Language Writing in Elementary Schools Using Mobile Devices in Familiar Situational Contexts

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Holly S. L.; Shadiev, Rustam; Huang, Ray Yueh-Min; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This research proposed a situational learning system to help elementary school students practice and improve their English as a foreign language (EFL) writing skills. Students carried out assigned writing tasks using the support of mobile devices in situations deemed to be familiar to the students, such as on the school playground, within…

  3. Learner Characteristics and Writing Performance in a Community College English as a Second Language Course: Some Unexpected Findings

    Lambert, Olga D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between individual learner characteristics and gain in writing performance as measured by a standardized writing assessment in a sample of community college academic English as a Second Language (ESL) students in the United States. The ethnically and linguistically diverse convenience sample included 76…

  4. The Acting in Group of Teachers as Possibility of Resignification of the Interpretation about the Writing Language

    Claudia Regina Mosca Giroto; Rosane Michelli de Castro; Fabiana Cristina Frigieri de Vitta; Joice Emanuele Munhoz Cicilino

    2014-01-01

    Front of the possibility of acting with the teachers who teach in schools of Early Childhood Education for children aged six years, about the re-siginification of the understanding of writing language and of the importance of the child in this age group establish a positive relationship with this mode of language, was developed in 2011, a project linked to the Teaching of UNESP titled “Depathologization learning of the writing and inclusive education: reflections and actions of the teacher of...

  5. Levels of aggregation: Identification of sociolinguistic determinants of L1 proficiency in higher education

    Tummers, José; Deveneyns, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    We will investigate sociolinguistic determinants of written L1 proficiency of students in higher education in Flanders. Firstly, higher education institutions set up various support initiatives to improve the academic writing skills of incoming students (Peters & Van Houtven 2010). Secondly, research identified a correlation between first year students’ language proficiency and their study progress (De Wacher et al. 2013). To support evidence-based language policy, the following research ...

  6. Students of the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra as Object of the Research Results in Developing Foreign Language Writing Skills

    Ľubomíra MORAVCOVÁ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the foreign language is one of the most important language skills students develop and improve at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra. Strong writing skills are essential to their future success, whether they are related to writing general reports on agricultural issues at home or in the world as well as to working-out some research papers aimed at agriculture, but also at some other areas of the business world. We have to state that writing is perhaps one of the most difficult skills students can develop and improve at our University. They learn how to write effectively, they are encouraged to develop an awareness of themselves as students - writers and essay authors. This paper deals with the essay writing analysis in teaching foreign languages at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, particularly from the point of their final results. The research was carried out in the Department of Languages and we present in our paper the results students achieved in writing essays in the two compared years, 2007 and 2010.

  7. Potential Problematic Rhetorical Style Transfer from First Language to Foreign Language: A Case of Indonesian Authors Writing Research Article Introductions in English

    Arsyad, Safnil; Arono

    2016-01-01

    Rhetorical style transfer from first language to a foreign language can be serious problems in academic writing, such as Research Articles (RAs). This study is aimed at analyzing the rhetorical style of Indonesian RA introductions in multiple disciplines written by Indonesian authors and published in Indonesian research journals especially on the…

  8. Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing. Second Language Acquisition

    del Pilar Agustin Llach, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Lexical errors are a determinant in gaining insight into vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary use and writing quality assessment. Lexical errors are very frequent in the written production of young EFL learners, but they decrease as learners gain proficiency. Misspellings are the most common category, but formal errors give way to semantic-based…

  9. An Exploration into the Writing Ability of Generation 1.5 and International Second Language Writers: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Di Gennaro, Kristen K.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the writing ability of international second language learners (IL2) and US-resident second language learners, also referred to as Generation 1.5 (G1.5), differs, despite a dearth of substantial empirical evidence supporting such claims. The present study provides much-needed empirical evidence concerning…

  10. The Effect of Virtual Language Learning Method on Writing Ability of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of virtual language learning method on Iranian intermediate EFL learners writing ability. The study was conducted with 20 English Translation students at Chabahar Maritime University who were assigned into two groups, control and experimental, after ensuring of their homogeneity by administering a TOEFL proficiency. The participants of the experimental group received virtual learning i.e. sending PowerPoint through their e-mails. The participants of the experimental group did not have to attend the classes, however they had to study the PowerPoint and send the assigned task on the mentioned deadline. A writing posttest was administered to find the impacts of both methods. A paired sample t-test and an independent sample t-test were run to analyze the posttest scores using SPSS. The findings of the study indicated that both groups showed some improvements in terms of their writing ability since the obtained p value of both groups were 0.000 which is smaller than 0.05. However using virtual method appeared to be a more fruitful tool since the mean score of the experimental group (12.75 was much higher than the mean score of the control group (9.8.Keywords: writing ability; virtual learning; product approach; process approach; virtual environment

  11. Measuring affective language in known peer feedback on L2 Academic writing courses: A novel approach

    Roger Michael Alan Yallop

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Publishing scientific articles in English is often a prerequisite for academic success. Thus, developing effective pedagogies to support Estonian university students develop writing skills in L2 (English is becoming increasingly more important. One such method is by forming small writing groups where each member periodically gives written feedback on their colleague’s writing. Here, the affective language used in the written communication between the reviewer and writer may strongly influence their relationship. This in turn may have a significant impact on the writing process. This study describes the development of a novel taxonomy to measure the cumulative effect of affective factors by accounting for the uniqueness of each individual, and how they project their distinct personalities or ‘social presence’ to build rapport within the group. The hypothesis is that individuals exhibiting a high social presence are more likely to produce higher-quality feedback and more improved subsequent texts than those with a lower social presence. The paper concludes by illustrating how this taxonomy can be used to both test this hypothesis and gain further insight into the peer feedback process in future studies.

  12. SMS Language and College Writing :The languages of the College Texters

    Norizul Azida Darus; Nazira Osman; Latisha Asmaak Shafie

    2010-01-01

    Many students have become avid texters and are seriously reinventing language to accommodate the 160-character limit of short messages. They are more interested in getting their messages across and thus becoming less concerned about correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. Since texting has become a way of life of many students, it is feared that the SMS language can affect students’ written performance. This research examines the effects of frequent usage of text messaging (SMS) on undergr...

  13. Revitalising and preserving endangered indigenous languages in South Africa through writing and publishing

    Patrick Ngulube

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Libraries and librarians play a central role in organising and communicating knowledge. They are an important part of theknowledge production and use chain. The development and sustenance of a knowledge-based economy hinges on theirability to facilitate the accessibility, retrievability and usability of the knowledge and information that permeates theinformation society. Writers and publishers as part and parcel of the knowledge chain are central to the production anddistribution of ideas. Language is fundamental to their ability to communicate and get their literal messages, expressionsand ideas through. Their preferred language of writing and publishing may mean a difference between the growth anddemise of a language of a society and its culture and civilisation. Many indigenous languages around the globe arestruggling to survive because of various reasons including neglect by writers and publishers. Publishers and writers as majorrole players in the knowledge production and reproduction chain may assist in promoting and preserving indigenouslanguages in general and in South Africa in particular. This may ensure that South Africa’s knowledge economy developswithout sidelining or discriminating against any culture or language. There are challenges and opportunities that writersand publishers are likely to face in attempting to revitalise and empower indigenous languages in South Africa, but theyare not insurmountable. Using a theoretical approach, the purpose of this article is to highlight the role that writers andpublishers may play in revitalising and preserving endangered indigenous languages in South Africa. Recommendations aremade on how the role players may deal with the challenges that have culminated in the neglect of the endangeredindigenous languages.

  14. Alphabetic and nonalphabetic L1 effects in English word identification: a comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners.

    Wang, Min; Koda, Keiko; Perfetti, Charles A

    2003-03-01

    Different writing systems in the world select different units of spoken language for mapping. Do these writing system differences influence how first language (L1) literacy experiences affect cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2)? Two groups of college students who were learning to read English as a second language (ESL) were examined for their relative reliance on phonological and orthographic processing in English word identification: Korean students with an alphabetic L1 literacy background, and Chinese students with a nonalphabetic L1 literacy background. In a semantic category judgment task, Korean ESL learners made more false positive errors in judging stimuli that were homophones to category exemplars than they did in judging spelling controls. However, there were no significant differences in responses to stimuli in these two conditions for Chinese ESL learners. Chinese ESL learners, on the other hand, made more accurate responses to stimuli that were less similar in spelling to category exemplars than those that were more similar. Chinese ESL learners may rely less on phonological information and more on orthographic information in identifying English words than their Korean counterparts. Further evidence supporting this argument came from a phoneme deletion task in which Chinese subjects performed more poorly overall than their Korean counterparts and made more errors that were phonologically incorrect but orthographically acceptable. We suggest that cross-writing system differences in L1s and L1 reading skills transfer could be responsible for these ESL performance differences. PMID:12590041

  15. Learners between Childhood and Adulthood: Assessing Writing Competences of Teens Learning French as a Foreign Language

    Meta Lah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces learners between two age groups: childhood and adulthood. The aim of the author is to analyse the writing skills of French primary school learners – mostly 14 years old – and to determine which descriptors could be used to assess them. The article begins with a presentation of the learners’ characteristics and continues with a review of the position of the French language in Slovenian primary schools, where French is taught as a second foreign language and an elective subject. Since French is a rather infrequent subject in primary schools, it is difficult to obtain comparable materials. Finally, 36 written compositions from the national French competition serve as the basis for analysis. The detailed analysis is accompanied by a presentation of the CEFR and AYLLIT descriptors for writing, as well as reflection on which descriptors are appropriate for assessing compositions and placing them on the CEFR levels. The AYLLIT descriptors seem more relevant, as they are more explicit and appropriate for the target group.

  16. An analyses of feedback styles in the assessment of creative writing by grade 10 teachers in SeSotho Home Language: A case study

    Sibeko, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the assessment of creative essays in grade 10 Sesotho home language. Nine participants from a total of six schools took part in the research. For the purpose of this study, no literature was found on the assessment of Sesotho essays (or essay writing in any other African language) in general or specific to creative writing in high schools in South Africa. The literature on English first language teaching and English second language teaching were then used to theoretica...

  17. Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study

    Hung-Cheng TAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.

  18. Modeling the Relationship between Lexico-Grammatical and Discourse Organization Skills in Middle Grade Writers: Insights into Later Productive Language Skills That Support Academic Writing

    Galloway, Emily Phillips; Uccelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Learning to write in middle school requires the expansion of sentence-level and discourse-level language skills. In this study, we investigated later language development in the writing of a cross-sectional sample of 235 upper elementary and middle school students (grades 4-8) by examining the use of (1) lexico-grammatical forms that support…

  19. Students' Argumentative Writing Skills in Science and First-Language Education: Commonalities and differences

    Heitmann, Patricia; Hecht, Martin; Schwanewedel, Julia; Schipolowski, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    The ability to build arguments is a crucial skill and a central educational goal in all school subjects including science as it enables students to formulate reasoned opinions and thus to cope with the increasing complexity of knowledge. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the domain-specificity of argumentative writing in science by comparing it with a rather general type of argumentation as promoted in first-language education and with formal reasoning to gain insight into different forms of argumentation on theoretical and empirical levels. Using a paper-and-pencil test, we analyzed written argumentations and the reasoning abilities of 3,274 Grade-10 students in German secondary schools. Correlation and multiple regression analyses as well as a qualitative analysis of students' answers to a subset of tasks in the domains of science and first-language education were conducted. Results showed moderate relations between argumentation in science, argumentation in first-language education, and reasoning. Half of the variance in argumentation in science was explained by individual differences in argumentation in first-language education and reasoning. Furthermore, the examination of written arguments revealed differences, for example, in students' weighing of pros and cons. We assume that the familiarity of the underlying scientific information may play an essential role in the argumentation process and posit that it needs to be investigated in more detail. Overall, the study indicates that investigating the argumentational abilities of learners in first-language education and reasoning abilities can help to shed light on the domain-specificity of argumentation in science.

  20. Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Bilingual Arabic-English Readers

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were administered to the…

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Persian and English Writing Skills among Adult EFL Learners in Iran

    Azim Javadi-Safa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at investigating the relationship between writing skill and sub-skills of first language (Persian and foreign language (English. Therefore, 50 upper-intermediate EFL learners in Iran who were majoring in the English language were asked to write on two different topics in Persian and English. Then, the compositions were evaluated based on ESL Composition Profile. Subsequently, using Pearson product-moment correlation, the correlation between the compositions overall scores in L1 and L2, as well as the correlations between each of five major components of writing, including content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics in the two languages were examined. The results displayed large correlations between the compositions overall scores as well as between the four writing sub-skills in L1 and L2. The highest correlations were observed between writing sub-skills of vocabulary, mechanics, language use, and content respectively. These findings entail some pedagogical implications for effective language learning in both L1 and L2, utilizing the enhancing effect of cross-linguistic transfer of writing.Key words: L1-L2 Relationship, Cross-linguistic Transfer, Writing, Adult EFL Learners, Persian

  2. The Development of Language and Reading Skills in the Second and Third Languages of Multilingual Children in French Immersion

    Berube, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between first language (L1) typology, defined as the classification of languages according to their structural characteristics (e.g. phonological systems and writing systems), and the development of second (L2) and third (L3) language skills and literacy proficiency in multilingual children was investigated in this study. The…

  3. ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera

    Sandra Higareda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1 in English Language Teaching (ELT, critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI , un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.

  4. The Impact of Executive Functions on the Written Language Process: Some Evidence from Children with Writing Disabilities

    Alevriadou, Anastasia; Giaouri, Stergiani

    2015-01-01

    Written language is a difficult endeavour as the demands of transcription require self-regulatory skills from a motor, cognitive and attention perspective. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between the Test of Writing Difficulties (Porpodas et al., 2007) and the Test of Detection and Investigation of Executive…

  5. Influence of Spoken Language on the Initial Acquisition of Reading/Writing: Critical Analysis of Verbal Deficit Theory

    Ramos-Sanchez, Jose Luis; Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a quasi-experimental study of whether there exists a causal relationship between spoken language and the initial learning of reading/writing. The subjects were two matched samples each of 24 preschool pupils (boys and girls), controlling for certain relevant external variables. It was found that there was no…

  6. Adopting Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as Interactive Communities among English Foreign Language (EFL) Learners in Writing: Opportunities and Challenges

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Saeed, Murad; Ahmad, Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    As most traditional classroom environments in English as Foreign Language (EFL) still restrict learners' collaboration and interaction in college writing classes, today, the majority of EFL learners are accessing Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as online communities of practice (CoPs) for adopting informal collaborative learning as a way of…

  7. Helping Taiwanese Graduate Students Help Themselves: Applying Corpora to Industrial Management English as a Foreign Language Academic Reading and Writing

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2015-01-01

    Lack of knowledge in the conventional use of vocabulary and multiword patterns in one's respective field of expertise causes Taiwanese students to produce academic writing that is markedly "non-nativelike." This is because Taiwanese students are first and foremost second language readers and often have difficulty "picking up…

  8. Word-Processor or Pencil-and-Paper? A Comparison of Students' Writing in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Zhu, Yu; Mark Shum, Shiu-Kee; Brian Tse, Shek-Kam; Liu, Jinghui Jack

    2016-01-01

    A study is reported of the performance and attainment of 32 students from overseas studying elementary Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in a Chinese university. With an AB-BA design, they were asked to use two forms of writing media to present two essays: one a word-processed essay entitled "My Favourite Female" and the other a…

  9. Making Sense of Power Relations in a Malaysian English-as-a-Second-Language Academic Writing Classroom

    Abraham, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The role of power in an English-as-a-second-language classroom has yet to be fully explored by an action research practitioner, especially in a Malaysian higher education setting. This study aims to contribute to this gap by working within an academic literacies perspective to teaching academic writing, which propagates the understanding of…

  10. Using micro-contexts to describe a writing process in Estonian as a second language across proficiency levels

    Olga Pastuhhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the writing process of native Russian‑speaking students in Estonian as a second language. 34 participants were given the assignment of writing a text in the L2. The written texts were then rated as being at levels from A2 to C1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. The data were collected by computer keystroke logging and analysed based on the concept of a ‘micro-context’. Micro-contexts were analysed according to their frequency and duration and were compared across proficiency levels. The results show that writing in the L2 is not a smooth process. The longest transitions in micro-contexts reveal that the most cognitive effort is made between paragraphs and sentences and when deletions are involved. The growing number of consecutive deletions demonstrates that even with developing proficiency, the linear production text is subject to constant revision, correction and modification.

  11. A Study of Students’ Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language

    Muhammad Javed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40 Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampling. A sample consisting of 440 students (11students from each school was randomly selected using a table of random numbers. An achievement test consisting of different items was developed to assess the students’ competency and capability in sub-skills of writing such as word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/grammar and handwriting. Mean score and standard deviation were used to analyze the students’ proficiency in each sub-skill. The t-test was applied to make the comparison on the bases of gender, density and public and private sector. The overall performance of all the students was better in comprehension as compared to other sub-skills namely word completion, sentence making/syntax, tenses/grammar and handwriting. The analysis, based on t-value, revealed no significant difference between the performance of male and female students and the students of public and private schools, whereas there was a significant difference between the performance of urban and rural students.

  12. Academic writing

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  13. Affordances for Language Awareness in a Middle School Transitional Classroom: Multi-Competent L1/L2 Users Under No Child Left Behind

    Gage-Serio, Ondine Angelique

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines affordances for Language Awareness within a classroom serving English learners in a coastal California middle school under the policy context of No Child Left Behind. As an ecologically inspired account, this study contributes to understanding how students use and learn language in classroom settings. Affordances for Language Awareness represent possibilities available to students for accessing relevant information to make meaning of language within a classroom. Af...

  14. Developing and Improving:A Study of the Middle School Students’ Writing Ability in the Second Language Education

    Bing WANG

    2016-01-01

    With the development and advancement of social and cultural communication between China and other countries in the world, the second language education is very popular with Chinese people. And usually, it will take the young for nearly 16 years to learn a second language, especially English. Most of them learn English from primary school until university. Besides having routine English classes at school, they also pay extra time and money to learn English in their spare time in many training companies. And now, English education has already become an industry in China and some training companies such as New Oriental English, are familiar to common people. And a crucial problem is that, after so many years of hard work, most of them are even having basic writing difficulties. The systemic and effective teaching method of writing in a second language education in China is being researched. This thesis attempts to cultivate the students’ subjective initiative in second language education activities, raise the students’ learning consciousness, and enhance their lasting interests in learning so as to reach the goal to improve the students’ writing ability in second language education.

  15. Ngelidin Sétra, Nepukin Sema? Thoughts on Language and Writing in Contemporary Bali

    Richard Fox

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRecent decades have seen a shift in Balinese sensibilitiesregarding the use of the island’s traditional script, andof the texts that are written in that script; and this shiftappears to be linked to a series of wider-reaching changesin the way people set about embodying, cultivating andcontesting shared ideals of agency, community and thecollective good.1 That is to say there seems to be a linkbetween, on the one hand, the material practices of scriptand writing and, on the other, broader styles of what Iwould call social and practical reasoning. I wish to suggestthat this empirical observation may have some ratherimportant implications for how we think about culturalpreservation, and perhaps especially the challengesfacing those working to safeguard the future of Balineselanguage, script and literature. I would like to present thisargument with specific reference to the idea of ‘languageendangerment’, not only on account of its prominence incurrent debates on language and cultural heritage, but alsoas the questions it raises have special bearing on the issues at stake in contemporary Bali. The recent controversy overthe place of Balinese language instruction in the NationalCurriculum offers a useful way into the problem.

  16. Writing Instruction in Foreign Language Courses: Multiple Perspectives on the Impact of Peer Feedback on Studentsâ Writing Proficiency

    Levi Altstaedter, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Grounded in sociocultural theory, peer feedback can help students engage in interaction and negotiation of meaning, which serve as a basis for the construction of knowledge (Vygotsky, 1978). It can also contribute to the development of self-regulation, as well as of reflection on one's own learning (Doolittle & Hicks, 2003). Its strategic incorporation into foreign language instruction can help students use the language they are in the process of acquiring to mediate language acquisition (Shr...

  17. LANGUAGE

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  18. THE WRITING PROBLEMS OF IRANIAN STUDENTS IN THE BASIC LEVEL WHO LEARNS TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Emrah Boylu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At all levels of education as well as teaching Turkish to foreigners is an issue to be dealt with on the importance of input and output. In this respect, the work of writing and language learning that is possible to determine the level of their writing skills. In this context, at the end of term exams and courses, as well as on the data obtained, the detection and correction of errors, both in terms of the potential students and the teacher guiding the student is. In addition, the students already know their mistakes, to gain the ability to write in the future is important to minimize errors. At this work we identified the Iranian students writing problems and presented their recommendations for the solution. The study designed as a survey. The Data collected about the students problems on writing from the exams which the centre done on writing part and the students composition papers during the period. The mistakes of the students made in written expression, grouped audio information, morphology, the syntax and orthography.

  19. What is creative about creative writing? A case study of the creative writing of a group of A Level English Language students

    Caine, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This thesis reports on a case study of the creative writing of A Level English Language students. The research took place over the two year course and involved five students from one class in an 11 – 18, secondary grammar school in the South East of England. The students were aged 16 at the beginning of the case study. There were two girls and three boys, and all from families with little or no tradition of going to university. The research was based on the theoretical framework of the Ne...

  20. Responding to L2 Students in College Writing Classes: Teacher Perspectives

    Ferris, Dana; Brown, Jeffrey; Liu, Hsiang Sean; Stine, Maria Eugenia Arnaudo

    2011-01-01

    Response to student writing has been a research concern for composition specialists for the past several decades. However, most research to date has utilized student opinions or researcher judgments about teacher feedback, with researchers rarely consulting teachers themselves as informants. Also, first language (L1) and second language (L2)…

  1. Signalling L2 Centrality, Maintaining L1 Dominance: Teacher Language Choice in an Ethnic Minority Primary Classroom in the Lao PDR

    Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose

    2011-01-01

    Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic has speakers of up to 230 different languages belonging to four ethnolinguistic families, the Lao Government's policy as stated in its Education Law is that Lao is the official language of education at all levels. This creates a challenging situation for teachers in ethnic minority villages throughout…

  2. Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language (L2)…

  3. Spanish Interference in EFL Writing Skills: A Case of Ecuadorian Senior High Schools

    Paola Alexandra Cabrera Solano; Paul Fernando Gonzalez Torres; Cesar Augusto Ochoa Cueva; Ana Lucia Quinonez Beltran; Luz Mercedes Castillo Cuesta; Lida Mercedes Solano Jaramillo; Franklin Oswaldo Espinosa Jaramillo; Maria Olivia Arias Cordova

    2014-01-01

    Extensive studies have been conducted regarding mother tongue (L1) interference and developing English writing skills. This study, however, aims to investigate the influence of the Spanish language on second language (L2) writing skills at several Ecuadorian senior high schools in Loja. To achieve this, 351 students and 42 teachers from second year senior high schools (public and private) were asked to participate in this study. The instruments for data collection were student and teacher que...

  4. Enhancing Content Knowledge in Essay Writing Classes: A Multimedia Package for Iranian EFL Learners

    Marziyeh Tahmouresi Majelan

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate empirically if promoting a multimedia package enhances content knowledge in essay writing of 80 junior English translation students at a University in Karaj, Iran; plus, whether the learners’ writing content improve due to the presence of the multimedia package or not. The multimedia was considered to be a CD, containing recordings both in first language (L1=Farsi) and in second language (L2=English) along with manipulative and task-based ac...

  5. “Remedying the remedy. An education development project for broadening language support to include 21st Century writing skills”

    Lievens, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Flemish minister of Education sounded the alarm on language and writing skills. He felt that students were getting “sloppy”, and teachers displayed an “all too accepting didactic attitude”. Furthermore, the minister worried over the 2006 PISA results, which showed that nowhere in Europe the school performance gap between low and high SES students was as wide as in Flanders. A lack of language competencies, the minister argued, was at the root of the problem. He urged the institut...

  6. Supporting the Development of Autonomous Learning Skills in Reading and Writing in an Independent Language Learning Centre

    Hazel L. W. Chiu

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development....

  7. Executive functions, oral language and writing in preschool children: Development and correlations

    Talita de Cassia Batista Pazeto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF and oral language (OL are important for learning reading and writing (RW and for the development of other skills in preschool. The study investigated the progression and the relationships between the performances in these competences in pre-schoolers. Participants were 90 children, mean age 4.91 years, students from Kindergarten years I and II of a private school in SP, assessed, individually, with a battery with nine instruments for EF, OL, and RW. There was increase of the performances as a result of educational level for all OL and RW measures, but only for attention in the field of EF. Significant correlations were found between the measurements assessing the same cognitive domain, as well as inter-domain, although portraying a different pattern. The results indicate that OL and RW seem to develop rapidly in the course of preschool, while the EF have slower development. The fields of OL and RW, EF and RW are more interdependent, and EF and OL are relatively independent.

  8. The Teaching of Reading, Writing and Language in a Clinical Speech and Language Setting: A Blended Therapy Intervention Approach

    Ammons, Kerrie Allen

    2013-01-01

    With a growing body of research that supports a link between language and literacy, governing bodies in the field of speech and language pathology have recognized the need to reconsider the role of speech-language pathologists in addressing the emergent literacy needs of preschoolers who struggle with literacy and language concepts. This study…

  9. The Effects of Blog-Mediated Peer Feedback on Learners' Motivation, Collaboration, and Course Satisfaction in a Second Language Writing Course

    Zhang, Haisen; Song, Wei; Shen, Suping; Huang, Ronghuai

    2014-01-01

    This paper reported on a study of using blogs as out-of-class assignments for the development of learners' writing competence. There were 36 students of English majors from an intact second language (L2) writing class participating in this study. A mixed method design was employed to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. The results…

  10. ATG16L1

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris;

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1...... importance of ATG16L1 and its genetic variant (T300A) within the elementary biological processes linked to Crohn disease....

  11. Technology in L1

    Elf, Nikolaj Frydensbjerg; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Skaar, Håvard; Erixon, Per-Olof

    In recent decades, several Scandinavian research projects have had an explicit focus on how technology intervenes in L1 (or so-called Mother Tongue Education) practices in Swedish, Norwegian and Danish educational contexts, and how this may impact on understanding of the subject. There is currently...... no systematic overview of the documented possibilities and challenges related to the use of technology in L1. At the same time, there is terminological confusion in use of ‘technology’ and related concepts in L1. Finally, there is a general lack of critical reflection on the relation between...... technological developments, political rhetoric, and the development of L1 teaching and learning as a social practice related to specific contexts and actors. Thus, the paper attempts to answer three interrelated research questions: 1) what do we mean when we talk about ‘technology’ in L1?; 2) based on a...

  12. Technology in L1

    Elf, Nikolaj Frydensbjerg; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Skaar, Håvard;

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, several Scandinavian research projects have had an explicit focus on how technology intervenes in L1 (or so-called Mother Tongue Education) practices in Swedish, Norwegian and Danish educational contexts, and how this may impact on understanding of the subject. There is currently...... no systematic overview of the documented possibilities and challenges related to the use of technology in L1. At the same time, there is terminological confusion in use of ‘technology’ and related concepts in L1. Finally, there is a general lack of critical reflection on the relation between...... technological developments, political rhetoric, and the development of L1 teaching and learning as a social practice related to specific contexts and actors. Thus, the paper attempts to answer three interrelated research questions: 1) what do we mean when we talk about ‘technology’ in L1?; 2) based on a...

  13. The "magnet effect" - a powerful source of L1 dialect interference in the pronunciation of English as a foreign language: "Magnetni učinek" - močan vir vpliva narečja materinščine na izgovorjavo angleščine kot tujega jezika:

    Jurančič, Klementina

    2014-01-01

    Wieden and Nemser (1991) carried out a study investigating the development of pronunciation of English as a foreign language in Austria. One of the main issues in this research was L1 dialect interference. Individual studies have proven that the pronunciation of a second (L2) or foreign language (FL) is not influenced only by the standard variety of the first language (L1), but also by the L1 dialect of the speaker's place of origin (Karpf et al. 1980). Wieden and Nemser's study wished to pro...

  14. Writing Is a Foreign Language, and a Senior Writing Workshop Is a Tower of Babel Whose Many Languages Need to Be Translated

    Barany, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This paper, presented at the CCCC 2008 Senior Citizens Writing session, draws upon my experiences as a senior workshop member and past teacher. Addressing workshop leaders, it emphasizes the need for the many-faceted seniors' voices to be "translated" and tested within a workshop's microcosm before entering the outside world's macrocosm.

  15. Is Speking Easier than Writing?: Exploring the Coplexity of Spoken Language

    Luh Putu Artini

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate the complexity of spoken language. First of all, the general characteristics of both varieties of language are dissussed, followed by an analysis of the differences between the spoken and written language. As spoken language is usually associated with non-standard language, the notion of standard and non-standard English will also be dissussed. The spoken and written language dissussed here refers to English only. In addition, spoken data were taken from s...

  16. Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing

    Danuta Gabrys-Barker

    2007-01-01

    Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA) very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learn...

  17. Diversified Styles of Language Used in the Practical Writing%应用文书语言的多元化特征

    罗玉石

    2013-01-01

      应用文书的表达手段非常丰富,其语言具有精确性和模糊性的统一,文雅性与平实性的统一,委婉性与直接性的统一的特征。在写作中需恰当地使用不同的语言表述方式,以提高文书的表达效果。%Expressions used in the partial writing are very rich, the features of language style of the practical writing can be summarized as the unity between vagueness and precision;unified elegant and plain of euphemism;unity and directly.In the writing , proper use of different language expressions help to improve the effect of language used in the practical writing.

  18. Understanding EFL Students' Participation in Group Peer Feedback of L2 Writing: A Case Study from an Activity Theory Perspective

    Yu, Shulin; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    While the last three decades have witnessed a growing body of research on peer feedback in first language (L1) and second language (L2) writing, research about students' motives for participating in group peer feedback has remained underexplored. In order to fill this important gap, this case study, guided by the constructs of activity and motive…

  19. The Effect of Arabism of Romanic Alphabets on the Development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language Students' Writing Skills at Secondary School Level

    Zuhair, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the effect of Arabization of Romanic Alphabets on the development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language students' composition writing skills at secondary school level. This experimental study includes 25 secondary school students in their 9th Grade in which English is taught as a foreign language at…

  20. The Effect of Strategic and Online Planning on Accuracy of L1 Learners' Written Production

    Asghar Salimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the application of writing tasks has effectively shed lights on promoting learners' written production. Research on SLA stresses the importance of tasks in the case of complexity, fluency and accuracy (Foster, 1997, 2001; Givon, 1985; Robinson, 2001; Skehan, 1998, since they have had fluctuating impact on L2 learning. However, what is neglected in the literature is the impact of writing task on learners' first language written production that in most cases has paved the way for transmitting ideas in L2. Therefore, the essential aim in the present study is to investigate the effect of strategic planning time and on – line planning time on accuracy of first language learners' written production.  To attain the goal, two classes of 6th grade school students (n = 32, n = 24 were selected. The students did the writing task in the first session which was considered as a pretest in the study. Following a weekly "time out", in the class A (n = 32 strategic planning time was presented to the students and in the class B (n = 24, on – line planning time was conducted for ten minutes proceeding writing task. Time limit to complete the writing production was 30 minutes in both classes. The collected written data was quantified in terms of accuracy measure. Paired sample T-tests and independent sample T-test were conducted to statistically analyze data. The obtained results revealed that strategic planning led to much accuracy in post task in terms of L1 written production compared to pre task. However, the result of statistical analysis in on – line planning time was not significant, since it didn't result in students' L1 writing progress. Keywords: strategic planning time, online planning time, written production, accuracy 

  1. Public Internet Forums: Can They Enhance Argumentative Writing Skills of Second Language Learners?

    Ritchie, Mathy; Black, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Improving university students' writing skills is always a challenge. In a third-year French composition course, the researchers introduced the use of public Internet discussion forums to see if that would help achieve the argumentative writing skills goals that were set for this study. The results show that participation in the forums had a…

  2. Legislative drafting guidelines: How different are they from controlled language rules for technical writing?

    Höfler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    While human-oriented controlled languages developed and applied in the domain of technical documentation have received considerable attention, language control exerted in the process of legislative drafting has, until recently, gone relatively unnoticed by the controlled language community. This paper considers existing legislative drafting guidelines from the perspective of controlled language. It presents the results of a qualitative comparison of the rule sets of four German-language legis...

  3. The Use Of First Language In Limited English Proficiency Classes: Good, Bad Or Ugly?

    Siti Hamin Stapa; Abdul Hameed Abdul Majid

    2006-01-01

    There has been an ongoing debate among language teachers on whether to use students’ first language (L1) in second language (L2) teaching. Nevertheless, the use of L1 in L2 teaching has been advocated with grounded theory as far as it merits the situation. This research article aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of L1 to generate ideas for second language writing among low proficiency ESL learners. The study employed the experimental research design where students in the experim...

  4. Your language or mine? or English as a lingua franca? Comparing effectiveness in English as a lingua franca and L1–L2 interactions: implications for corporate language policies

    Mulken, M.J.P. van; Hendriks, B.C.

    2014-01-01

    For multinational corporations, the need for efficiency and control has motivated the choice for a corporate language. However, increasing internationalisation has forced corporations to rethink their language policies to cater to the changing demands of the multicultural and multilingual workplace.

  5. Your language or mine? or English as a lingua franca? Comparing effectiveness in English as a lingua franca and L1–L2 interactions: implications for corporate language policies

    Mulken, M.J.P. van; Hendriks, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    For multinational corporations, the need for efficiency and control has motivated the choice for a corporate language. However, increasing internationalisation has forced corporations to rethink their language policies to cater to the changing demands of the multicultural and multilingual workplace.

  6. Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing

    Danuta Gabrys-Barker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learners’ written production after a year of intensive language instruction in the controlled conditions of a classroom. The objective of the study presented here is: 1. to determine the types of error produced in a short translation task at different levels of language (morphosyntactic, lexical 2. to observe manifestations of crosslinguistic influences between languages the subjects know (interlingual transfer as well as those related to the language learnt itself (intralingual transfer.The small sample of texts produced does not allow for any generalized observations and conclusions, however, at the level of elementary competence in any foreign language, as other research shows, the amount of individual variation is not the most significant factor. Thus the incorrect forms produced may testify to some more universally error-prone areas of language. The value of this kind of analysis lies in this direct application to the teaching of Polish as a synthetic language. The study also demonstrates the fact that communicative teaching has a limited contribution to make in the case of this family of languages. It suggests that overt and explicit teaching of a synthetic language will give a sounder basis for further development of language competence in its communicative dimension

  7. Reading, Living, and Writing Bilingual Poetry as ScholARTistry in the Language Arts Classroom

    Cahnmann, Melisa

    2006-01-01

    Language arts educators who teach Latino English language learners know that part of their job is to help students learn to distinguish between the vernacular varieties of Spanish (or Mandarin, or Portuguese, or Swahili), English they use at home, and the school varieties of language expected in the classroom and in other professional and…

  8. The Development of Writing in English and Spanish as Foreign Languages

    de Haan, Pieter; van Esch, Kees

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the first results of the study of argumentative essays in English as a foreign language and in Spanish as a foreign language and as a native language, carried out at Radboud University Nijmegen (formerly the University of Nijmegen) between 2002 and 2008. The aim of the project is to compare teachers' holistic assessments with…

  9. Internet Tools for Language Learning: University Students Taking Control of Their Writing

    Conroy, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Many excellent corpus-based language learning resources (e.g., concordancers) have been freely available on the Internet for some time. Google assisted language learning (GALL) is also gaining increasing acceptance. These tools are a potential resource for English as an additional language (EAL) university students who want to independently…

  10. Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Early Literacy, Language, and Fine Motor Skills

    Bindman, Samantha W.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, a...

  11. ESL Students’ Perceptions of the use of Higher Order Thinking Skills in English Language Writing

    Malini Ganapathy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the education curriculum in the Malaysia Education Development Plan (PPPM 2013-2025 focuses on the Higher Order Thinking (HOT concept which aims to produce knowledgeable students who are critical and creative in their thinking and can compete at the international level. HOT skills encourage students to apply, analyse, evaluate and think creatively in and outside the classroom. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the impact of using HOT skills in a secondary ESL writing classroom. A total of 120 Form Two ESL students from three intact classes participated in this study. The students experienced project and group-based work both independently and collaboratively in groups during their writing lessons. The findings from the focus group interviews revealed the following student perceptions: felt engaged in active learning, experienced learner autonomy, developed their writing, researching and personal skills. The implications of this study suggest that using HOT skills in ESL writing lessons facilitate students’ writing ability and interest and it is recommended that HOT skills be explicitly infused in the teaching and learning of writing activities in ESL classrooms. 

  12. Analysis of factors that influence the learning of a foreign language writing

    Mabel Anastasia Acosta García

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of motivational variables, learning styles and learning strategies in the development of writing skills in English of students from first to second years at the University of Ciego de Avila. To achieve that objective was used the following questionnaires: R _SPQ_ 2 F to assess the level of motivation of the students towards the English, (CHAEA to determine the learning styles of the sample, the Assessment Questionnaire Learning Strategies for determine the strategies used in learning English, and a writing test where students wrote a letter to a foreign friend telling them about your country, to assess the level of writing skills. Our results confirm the hypothesis proposed earlier: when the deep motivation level is higher than the motivation level surface is achieved further development of writing skills, students with a balanced profile between four learning styles get a higher level of development in writing and, when all students develop learning strategies or more of them get further development in writing.

  13. The impact of science notebook writing on ELL and low-SES students' science language development and conceptual understanding

    Huerta, Margarita

    the first two domains. These differences, however, were not statistically significant in the last domain. Last, correlations between language and concept scores were overall, positive, large, and significant across domains and groups. The study presents a rubric useful for quantifying diverse students' science notebook entries, and findings add to the sparse research on the impact of writing in diverse students' language development and conceptual understanding in science.

  14. Your Language or Mine? Or English as a Lingua Franca? Comparing Effectiveness in English as a Lingua Franca and L1-L2 Interactions: Implications for Corporate Language Policies

    van Mulken, Margot; Hendriks, Berna

    2015-01-01

    For multinational corporations, the need for efficiency and control has motivated the choice for a corporate language. However, increasing internationalisation has forced corporations to rethink their language policies to cater to the changing demands of the multicultural and multilingual workplace. This paper explores two related issues. First,…

  15. Exploring the impact of different task-based language teaching scaffolding approaches in Wikispaces collaborative writing

    Huang, Shu-ling; 黃淑玲

    2012-01-01

    Task-based Language Teaching is the process of experiential learning. Learners’ active involvement is central to this approach, i.e. Learning by Doing (Nunan, 2004). Technology is able to provide individual remedial/tutorial assistance, allow differentiation, offer enriched content, enhance motivation and encourage involvement (Branden, 2006). With technology, students can enjoy more self-learning chances for improving language skills. The implementation of Task-based Language Teaching an...

  16. Future directions in feedback on second language writing: Overview and research agenda

    Fiona Hyland

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn and Allen, it discusses how these papers situate written corrective feedback research in the wider area of second language acquisition research and contribute to the debate in feedback research on research design issues. This is followed by an examination of the major findings of the four situated empirical studies by Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary and Windeatt, and Martinez and Roca, which make up the second section. Echoing the authors of these papers, this article argues that we need more longitudinal naturalistic studies, adopting both cognitive and socio-cultural SLA frameworks to investigate the role of feedback and its impact on individual learners in more depth. Finally some pedagogic implications are discussed, including the need for feedback practices which facilitate students’ abilities to self regulate and evaluate their performance, and the need to raise teachers’ awareness of the different feedback sources and modes of delivery available to them.Este artículo ofrece una revisión de las siete aportaciones incluidas en este número especial sobre feedback, constatando cómo reflejan tanto el creciente interés por el tema en las distintas áreas de investigación como la continua búsqueda de técnicas más efectivas por parte del profesorado. Centrándose en primer lugar en las contribuciones de Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn y Allen, analiza cómo estos artículos sitúan la investigación sobre feedback en la corrección de trabajos escritos dentro del área más amplia de adquisición de segundas lenguas, contribuyendo al debate, dentro de la investigaci

  17. Evaluating the Role of Writing in the First and Second Year University Foreign Language Curriculum

    Hubert, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to foreign language (FL) instruction have changed a great deal in the past fifty years, the most fundamental change being the shift from a focus solely on language form to a focus on communicative competence (CC). Although most FL instructors now appear to focus on CC in the teaching of speaking, they do not necessarily apply CC to…

  18. Understanding the Conceptual and Language Challenges Encountered by Grade 4 Students When Writing Scientific Explanations

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2016-01-01

    This study is an attempt to examine the use of linguistic resources by primary science students so as to understand the conceptual and language demands encountered by them when constructing written explanations. The students' written explanations and the instructional language (whole-class discussion and textbook) employed over the topic, the life…

  19. Reading and Writing the World Using Beautiful Books: Language Experience Re-Envisioned

    Hoffman, James V.; Roser, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Through this article, we describe an instructional strategy termed "Beautiful Books." This strategy involves the creation of images and texts to be used in the development of oral and literacy skills. We explore the historical roots of the strategy in Language Experience Approach (LEA) and Whole language and consider how dictation and early…

  20. Writing Superheroes: Contemporary Childhood, Popular Culture, and Classroom Literacy. Language and Literacy Series.

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    Based on an ethnographic study in an urban classroom of 7- to 9-year olds, this book examines how young school children use popular culture, especially superhero stories, in the unofficial peer social world and in the official school literary curriculum. In one sense, the book is about children "writing superheroes"--about children appropriating…

  1. Teaching Reading and Writing in Local Language Using the Child-Centred Pedagogy in Uganda

    Akello, Dora Lucy; Timmerman, Greetje; Namusisi, Speranza

    2016-01-01

    Uganda introduced the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction in primary schools in 2007. This was meant to promote interaction and participation in the learning process and improve children's proficiency in reading and writing. Drawing elements of interaction and participation from the socio-cultural theory, the child-centred pedagogy was…

  2. Verb-Noun Collocations in Second Language Writing: A Corpus Analysis of Learners' English

    Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…

  3. Writing Differences in Teacher Performance Assessments: An Investigation of African American Language and Edited American English

    Szpara, Michelle Y.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Differential performance results occur when a specific population subgroup achieves a passing rate which is significantly lower than that of the normative reference group. African Americans do less well, in general, on all types of assessments, including constructed-response tests. The present study examined the writing styles of African American…

  4. Seeing How to Ask First: Photo Elicitation Motivates English Language Learners to Write

    Zenkov, Kristien; Ewaida, Marriam; Bell, Athene; Lynch, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The authors have learned that using image-based methods to "ask" young adolescents about their relationships to school--instead of only "telling" them about school's importance--helps them to appreciate the writing tasks in which the authors ask them to engage. In this article, the authors discuss the positive effects these photo elicitation…

  5. The Effect of Target Language Use in Social Media on Intermediate-Level Chinese Language Learners' Writing Performance

    Wang, Shenggao; Vásquez, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined whether there was any difference in the quantity and quality of the written texts produced by two groups (N = 18) of intermediate Chinese language learners. Over one semester, students in the experimental (E) group wrote weekly updates and comments in Chinese on a designated Facebook group page, while…

  6. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  7. On The Effects of Peer Feedback and Teacher Feedback on Iranian English Language Learners, Writing Ability

    Moussa Ahmadian; Hooshang Yazdani; Sabriyeh Ebadi

    2013-01-01

    Among different forms of giving feedback to students, peer feedback is the one which has been more studied in recent years. Peer feedback is the process in which students are required to give feedback to their peers through collaborative discussions, compared with teacher feedback in which the students receive feedback merely from the teacher. This study examines the effects of peer-feedback and teacher-feedback on Iranian EFL learners’ writing ability. 52 homogenous undergraduate university ...

  8. Language, Literacy, and the Institutional Dynamics of Racism: Late-1960s Writing Instruction for "High-Risk" African American Undergraduate Students at One Predominantly White University

    Lamos, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This essay analyzes the ways in which subtly but powerfully racist ideologies of language and literacy shaped the institutional development of one writing program for "high-risk" African American college students during the late 1960s and early 1970s. It further theorizes the value of such institutional analysis for counteracting racism within…

  9. Paper Partners: A Peer-Led Talk-Aloud Academic Writing Program for Students Whose First Language of Academic Study Is Not English

    Vechter, Andrea; Brierley, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the Paper Partners program at Ryerson University, Toronto. This peer-mentoring program was developed to support the academic writing skills of students whose first language of academic study was not English. The program integrated a team of student-facilitators, a talk-aloud co-editing process, and a reflective feedback…

  10. Supporting the Development of Autonomous Learning Skills in Reading and Writing in an Independent Language Learning Centre

    Hazel L. W. Chiu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development. These learner-centred support sessions aim to develop awareness of different types of learning strategies to suit individual learning needs, and cultivate interest and ability for continuous self-learning. The benefits of a semi-structured scaffolding format with attention to individual learning differences and supported by technology will be highlighted.

  11. The L1=L2 Hypotheses: A Reconsideration

    Ellis, Rod

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the L1=L2 hypothesis which states that, all other things except knowledge of language being equal, first language acquisition is the same as second language acquisition. Reviews the evidence for and against the hypothesis, looks at current research and considers the general distinction between formal and informal learning. (SED)

  12. Raising Learners' Awareness through L1-L2 Teacher Collaboration

    Gunning, Pamela; White, Joanna; Busque, Christine

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in teacher collaboration across mother tongue and second language curricula. However, cross-curricular collaboration in reading strategy instruction has seldom been investigated. We report a two-year study involving collaboration between the French first language (L1) and English second language (L2) teachers in an…

  13. «The Write Stuff»: The importance of language for medical writers

    Elise Langdon-Neuner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available «The Write Stuff (TWS» is the journal of the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA. It is a vibrant, well-read journal that has been published continuously for over 17 years. The journal publishes a balance of feature articles, regular columns, items to entertain, and reports on the association's activities. This article describes the journal and explains its success in meeting the needs of its readers, in particular by publishing articles on English grammar and style and devoting a section of the journal to translation. The article further discusses why there should be a need among medical writers to learn more about English and about translation. ---------------------------------- «The Write Stuff»: la importancia del lenguaje para los redactores médicos. «The Write Stuff (TWS», revista oficial de la European Medical Writers Association (EMWA, es una publicación muy vital que cuenta con numerosos lectores y se mantiene activa ininterrumpidamente desde hace más de 17 años. En ella se ofrece una equilibrada combinación de artículos de fondo, columnas habituales y elementos de carácter lúdico, y se informa de las actividades de la asociación. El presente artículo describe la revista y su capacidad para atender satisfactoriamente las necesidades de sus lectores, que radica en gran medida en la publicación de artículos sobre gramática y estilo del inglés y la existencia de una sección dedicada a la traducción. Asimismo, se comenta por qué los redactores médicos deberían sentir la necesidad de ampliar sus conocimientos de inglés y de traducción.

  14. Integrating Technologically - Enhanced Self - Regulated Strategies into Writing English as a Foreign Language Classes

    Abdullah Coşkun; Hamed Ghaemi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of technologically-enhanced (i.e., NetSupport School) self-regulated strategies (i.e., wrapper activity, think aloud and reciprocal teaching) on learners' achievement in the writing section of the TOEFL iBT (TOEFL Internet-based Test) and to explore the change in learners' self-regulated learning skill levels as a result of the technologically-enhanced self-regulated strategies training. Thirty-nine TOEFL iBT candidates who were studying TOEFL iBT ...

  15. Critique of Erotic Writing in Colloquial Language Poems%口语诗的情色书写批判

    向天渊

    2014-01-01

    情色书写介于色情与情爱书写之间,伟大的情色书写,往往能在灵、肉之关系上达成微妙的平衡,处理不当,则很容易忽视“情”而滑向“色”,落入铺陈肉体欲望与行为的色情陷阱;口语诗中以下半身写作为代表的凸显肉体感、在场感的理论主张,虽然对趋于僵硬、虚伪的体制化写作产生了一定的冲击,但他们的作品却没能担当这种叛逆美学的重任;他们凭借回到动物性肉体体验以获得艺术审美体验的希望,恰如南辕北辙无法实现。同样,通过表现生殖器快感去返回诗歌的本质,最终也只能是竹篮打水一场空;口语诗中的情色之作仅仅处于“物之诗”、“欲之诗”的阶段,必须经过情与美的洗涤与转换,才有可能上升为存在之诗、真理之诗,进而才配称为“人之诗”。%Erotic writing stays between pornographic and love ones.Great erotic writing could get a delicate balance between spirit and body,but if it couldn’t be dealt with properly,it may get into the por-nographic trap of carnal desire and behavior easily from love to pornography.Although the theories of col-loquial language poems,represented by the lower-body writing which highlights body and the presence of feeling,have a certain impact on rigid,false and institutionalized writing,colloquial language poems have failed to take a leading role in this rebellion.They hope to get aesthetic experience through carnal animal experience,but this is useless.So does the attempt to get back to the poem essence by expressing genital pleasant sensation.Erotic poems in colloquial language ones j ust stay at the stage of the poem of the animal and carnal poem.They must be transformed by love and beauty to become poem of existence and truth. Only in this way,could they be called the poem of human being.

  16. The Use Of First Language In Limited English Proficiency Classes: Good, Bad Or Ugly?

    Siti Hamin Stapa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an ongoing debate among language teachers on whether to use students’ first language (L1 in second language (L2 teaching. Nevertheless, the use of L1 in L2 teaching has been advocated with grounded theory as far as it merits the situation. This research article aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of L1 to generate ideas for second language writing among low proficiency ESL learners. The study employed the experimental research design where students in the experimental group used Bahasa Melayu in generating ideas before they resumed writing their essays in English. Students in the control group used English. Two independent raters graded the essays and the scores were analysed using the paired t-test. The findings showed a marked improvement in the writing performance of students who used their first language to generate ideas before using their second language for writing. Based on the findings, we recommend that teachers encourage the use of first language before writing or composing in English especially among low-level proficiency ESL learners.

  17. Phonological Awareness and Oral Language Proficiency in Learning to Read English among Chinese Kindergarten Children in Hong Kong

    Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…

  18. "I Was Born Full Deaf." Written Language Outcomes after 1 Year of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction

    Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Dostal, Hannah M.; Bowers, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Nonstandard grammatical forms are often present in the writing of deaf students that are rarely, if ever, seen in the writing of hearing students. With the implementation of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) in previous studies, students have demonstrated significant gains in high-level writing skills (e.g., text structure) but…

  19. A Pedagogical Perspective on Promoting English as a Foreign Language Writing through Online Forum Discussions

    Jayaron, Jose; Abidin, Mohammed Jafre Zainol

    2016-01-01

    Use of educational technologies has become increasingly significant in the field of English Language Learning. Both the teachers and students are dependent on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its different tools for teaching and learning in particular, and socialization in general. The scope and significance of the study on the…

  20. Reading, Writing, and Rhetoric: An Inquiry into the Art of Legal Language.

    Ranney, Frances J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes research creating a feminist, rhetorical analysis of legal language by examining in detail both the "Plain English" and the "Law and Literature" movements. Examines legal texts that construct the "reasonable woman," asking how that hypothetical legal subject is construed by judicial discourse and what its impact may be on everyday…

  1. Developing the Second Language Writing Process through Social Media-Based Interaction Tasks

    Gómez, Julian Esteban Zapata

    2015-01-01

    This paper depicts the results from a qualitative research study focused on finding out the effect of interaction through social media on the development of second language learners' written production from a private school in Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia. The study was framed within concepts such as "social interaction," "digital…

  2. Effect of Instruction on English as a Second Language Students' Discourse Synthesis Writing

    Zhang, Cui

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the number of English as a second language (ESL) students who study in the United States has rapidly increased. This increase poses serious challenges for the U.S. universities in which the students are enrolled as well as for the students themselves. One of the challenges the students face is a lack of training in one type of writing…

  3. Evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive error correction in second language writing

    C.G. van Beuningen; N.H. de Jong; F. Kuiken

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of direct and indirect comprehensive corrective feedback (CF) on second language (L2) learners’ written accuracy (N = 268). The study set out to explore the value of CF as a revising tool as well as its capacity to support long-term accuracy development. In additio

  4. Rocking Your Writing Program: Integration of Visual Art, Language Arts, & Science

    Poldberg, Monique M.,; Trainin, Guy; Andrzejczak, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the integration of art, literacy and science in a second grade classroom, showing how an integrative approach has a positive and lasting influence on student achievement in art, literacy, and science. Ways in which art, science, language arts, and cognition intersect are reviewed. Sample artifacts are presented along with their…

  5. Understanding the Conceptual and Language Challenges Encountered by Grade 4 Students When Writing Scientific Explanations

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2016-06-01

    This study is an attempt to examine the use of linguistic resources by primary science students so as to understand the conceptual and language demands encountered by them when constructing written explanations. The students' written explanations and the instructional language (whole-class discussion and textbook) employed over the topic, the life cycle of plants, in four grade 4 classrooms (age 10) taught by three teachers constitute the data for this study. Students' written explanations were subjected to a combination of content and linguistic analysis. The linguistic analysis was conducted using selected analytical tools from the systemic functional linguistics framework. A diversity of linguistic resources and meanings were identified from the students' explanations, which reveal the extent to which the students were able to employ linguistic resources to construct written scientific explanations and the challenges involved. Both content and linguistic analyses also illuminate patterns of language use that are significant for realising scientific meanings. Finally, a comparison is made in the use of linguistic resources between the students' explanations and the instructional language to highlight possible links. This comparison reveals that the teachers' expectations of the students' written explanations were seldom reflected in their oral questioning or made explicit during the instruction. The findings of this study suggest that a focus on conceptual development is not sufficient in itself to foster students' ability to construct explanations. Pedagogical implications involving the support needed by primary students to construct scientific explanations are discussed.

  6. The development of a CEFR-based scale for assessing young foreign language learners’ writing skills

    Karmen Pižorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR was designed with adults in mind, which is clearly reflected in the six levels encompassing a range of proficiency that represents lifelong learning. Therefore, any use of the CEFR levels as a basis for describing the ability of young learners requires adapting the content of each level, as well as identifying which levels on the scale are appropriate for children. The present article examines the contribution that feedback, in the form of an assessment scale, can make to valid classroom assessment of the writing of young learners, in the age group of 9–13 years. It shows that a scale of descriptors adapted from the CEFR can play a central role in this assessment. The article presents the AYLLIT (Assessment of Young Learner Literacy research project, which developed a CEFR-based writing scale and guidelines for teachers, enabling them to provide their students with feedback, and to gain a clearer insight into their students’ progress. After describing the procedures followed in the project, the article examines the extent to which its outcomes may enable teachers to give feedback that could contribute to valid classroom assessment.

  7. Building Languages

    ... family's native language) is taught as the child's second language through reading, writing, speech, and use of residual ... that parents can use to help their child learn language. There are many types of building blocks, and ...

  8. Reading and Writing Files of Case Teaching in C Language%C语言案例教学之文件读写

    林智勇

    2014-01-01

    鉴于C语言的重要性,许多高校都将它作为计算机相关专业的编程入门语言。文件读写是C语言的一个关键知识模块,针对该模块抽象难学的问题,提出运用案例教学法以帮助学生更好地掌握其中的原理和要点,给出完整的教学案例,讨论案例教学的实施过程。通过案例教学,学生能对文件读写有直观和深刻的理解。%Due to its importance, C language is taken as an introductory programming language for computer-related majors in numerous universities. File reading/writing is a key knowledge module of C language, and is most difficult to learn and grasp. To help students better understand and grasp the principles and key points respective to file reading/writing, proposes employ case teaching method. Designs a complete teaching case about file reading/writing, and discusses the process of implementing the case teaching. It is verified that case teaching facilitates the students to have an intuitive and in-depth understanding of file reading/writing.

  9. Contribution of L1 in EFL Teaching

    Wahjuningsih Usadiati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted in a classroom action research to improve the students’ achievement in writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense in Structure 1 lessons. The subject consisted of 20 Semester II students who took Structure I lessons in English Education Department of Palangka Raya University, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The data were taken from the results of pre test and post test after the action was done. The results show that in cycle 1, in which the explanations were fully in English, only 40% of the students got a good achievement; 5-7 out of 20 test items were correct. After cycle 2 was done using L1 interchangeably with English in the explanations, the students’ achievement of writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense increased to 75%, in which 15-18 out 20 test items were correct.

  10. The Facilitating Role of L1 in ESL Classes

    Çağrı Tuğrul Mart

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.

  11. The Facilitating Role of L1 in ESL Classes

    Çağrı Tuğrul Mart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.

  12. CALL versus Paper: In Which Context Are L1 Glosses More Effective?

    Taylor, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    CALL glossing in first language (L1) or second language (L2) texts has been shown by previous studies to be more effective than traditional, paper-and-pen L1 glossing. Using a pool of studies with much more statistical power and more accurate results, this meta-analysis demonstrates more precisely the degree to which CALL L1 glossing can be more…

  13. Considerations on Writing Test Construction

    王欣

    2005-01-01

    Writing test , wins its popularity in measuring the mastery of one's language ability. In view of the significant role writing playing in a test , some considerations on writing test construction are presented in this paper which anticipates the effective ways for measuring one's complex language ability of application.

  14. We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter

    Stephen Krashen

    2008-01-01

    My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from rea...

  15. Phraseology and Frequency of Occurrence on the Web: Native Speakers' Perceptions of Google-Informed Second Language Writing

    Geluso, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based theories of language learning suggest that native speakers of a language are acutely aware of formulaic language due in large part to frequency effects. Corpora and data-driven learning can offer useful insights into frequent patterns of naturally occurring language to second/foreign language learners who, unlike native speakers, are…

  16. Developing Cultural Awareness in English Writing

    邹强珍

    2014-01-01

    Language and culture have an intimate relationship,and cultural awareness plays an important role in language learning,involving aural comprehension,speaking,reading,writing and translation.This paper mainly discusses cultural awareness in English writing.

  17. Developing Cultural Awareness in English Writing

    邹强珍

    2014-01-01

    Language and culture have an intimate relationship, and cultural awareness plays an important role in language learning, involving aural comprehension, speaking, reading, writing and translation. This paper mainly discusses cultural awareness in English writing.

  18. The Effects of L2 Reading Skills on L1 Reading Skills through Transfer

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether transfer from L2 to L1 in reading occurs, and if so, which reading sub-skills are transferred into L1 reading. The aim is to identify the role of second language reading skills in L1 reading skills by means of transfer. In addition, the positive effects of the second language transfer to the first language in the…

  19. 语言学能对二语写作水平的影响%The Influence of Foreign Language Aptitude on the L2 Writing Skills

    尚建国

    2012-01-01

    In China, the results of the investigations of Chinese college students' foreign language aptitude and the relat- ed factors' influence on L2 writing skills show that only gender is highly correlated with foreign language aptitude, while the other individual difference factors, such as cognitive style, learning strategy and ambiguity tolerance are not obviously correlated with foreign language aptitude.%在中国语境下,对非英语专业学生的英语语言学能及其相关因素对二语写作水平的影响的调查结果显示,语言学能与只与性别相关,而与其它个体差异因素,如认知风格、学习策略、歧义容忍度等无明显相关。

  20. The Effect of Using Portfolio-based Writing Assessment on Language Learning: The Case of Young Iranian EFL Learners

    Saeed Taki; Maryam Heidari

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of portfolio-based writing assessment in EFL situations. Participants were 40 pre-intermediate young Iranian English learners. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 20 each. The experimental group wrote on five pre-established topics from their coursebook. Their writings were checked in terms of ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions of writing by two raters. They were given another oppo...

  1. We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter

    Stephen Krashen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982.

  2. The L2 Acquisition of Spanish Rhotics by L1 English Speakers: The Effect of L1 Articulatory Routines and Phonetic Context for Allophonic Variation

    Olsen, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a fine-grained investigation of how first-language (L1) phonetics involving English rhotics affect Spanish rhotic production by second-language (L2) learners. Specifically, this study investigates how different L1 English rhotic articulatory routines (retroflex-like and bunched-like) and the phonetic context that produces…

  3. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  4. The Effect of Using Portfolio-Based Writing Assessment on Language Learning: The Case of Young Iranian EFL Learners

    Taki, Saeed; Heidari, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of portfolio-based writing assessment in EFL situations. Participants were 40 pre-intermediate young Iranian English learners. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 20 each. The experimental group wrote on five pre-established topics from their coursebook. Their writings were…

  5. Writing Fluency and Quality in Kindergarten and First Grade: The Role of Attention, Reading, Transcription, and Oral Language

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language…

  6. Language as capital in international university education

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    that academic discourse skills are transferable from L1 to L2 and best acquired in L1, but it is not clear to what extent these skills represent usable capital in professional life. Graduates often report having to write in a very different style from the one they have been taught at university. There may...... strikingly across disciplines. This paper uses Bourdieu’s framework to assess the types of linguistic capital – academic discourse, foreign-language fluency, and more – to be acquired in the internationalized university, their utility in the personal advancement of graduates in various societies......, and the variation of these factors across disciplines....

  7. Research on the teaching of practical writing in teaching Chinese as a second language%对外汉语教学中写作的实用性教学研究

    徐娟娟

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the existing problems in the teaching of practical writing in teaching Chinese as a second language and comes up with the pragmatic teaching methods.The teaching of practical writing in teaching Chinese as a second language should be performed according to the learner's Chinese language level and different learning needs.A pragmatic textbook for writing is needed to be written and compiled.On one hand,the design of general writing books should be improved and,on the other hand,the writing of specialized writing books should be attached importance to so as to improve the level of teaching chinese as a second language.%分析目前对外汉语写作教学中存在的问题,提出实用性教学方法,根据不同汉语水平、不同学习需求进行教学,并从实用性角度对写作教材的编写提出设想,改进一般写作教材的设计,注重专业汉语写作教材的编写,选择合适的教材提高对外汉语写作教学水平。

  8. Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Language-Based Learning Disabilities (Reading, Spelling, and Writing) What ... a language-based learning disability ? What is a language-based learning disability? Language-based learning disabilities are ...

  9. Writing Music Therapy

    Mary Helena Rykov

    2011-01-01

    Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.

    Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many ...

  10. Learning the language of school history: the role of linguistics in mapping the writing demands of the secondary school curriculum

    Coffin, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study which used the tools of functional linguistics to illuminate the writing requirements of the history curriculum in the context of Australian secondary schools. It shows how the resulting linguistic description was integrated into a sequence of teaching and learning activities through collaboration between linguist specialists and content/pedagogic specialists. These activities were designed to facilitate students’ writing skills whilst simultaneously dev...

  11. Learning Strategies Under the Process Writing Approach

    肖青芝

    2008-01-01

    Learning strategies play an important role in second language writing.It is even believed by some linguists that experienced writers and novice writers differ mainly in their writing strategies instead of language proficiency.Within the theoretical framework of the process writing approach,this article introduces the writing strategies with all attempt to increase students'awareness of strategy use and improve their English writing.

  12. The Role of L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning

    张洁

    2014-01-01

    A native language can be learned effortlessly, while a second language is always difficult for people to learn. L1 literacy may impede or promote L2 literacy learning. This paper discusses the role L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning.

  13. The Relationship between L1 Fluency and L2 Fluency Development

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ronald I.; Rossiter, Marian J.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in the study of second language (L2) fluency is the extent to which temporal characteristics of speakers' first language (L1) productions predict the same characteristics in the L2. A close relationship between a speaker's L1 and L2 temporal characteristics would suggest that fluency is governed by an underlying trait. This…

  14. L2 Acquisition of Prosodic Properties of Speech Rhythm: Evidence from L1 Mandarin and German Learners of English

    Li, Aike; Post, Brechtje

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) learners of typologically different first languages (L1s) at different levels of proficiency. An empirical investigation of durational variation in L2 English productions by L1 Mandarin learners and L1 German learners compared to native control values in English and the…

  15. La evolución de modelos mentales de escritura en un contexto de lengua extranjera : dinámica de objetivos y creencias = Development of mental models of writing in a foreign language context : dynamics of goals and beliefs.

    Nicolás Conesa, Florentina

    2013-01-01

    The present study is a longitudinal investigation on EFL university learners’ mental models of writing (understood as a set of beliefs and goals) in an EAP course and their effects on performance. Data collection involved language proficiency tests, L2 compositions, interviews and self-reflective journals. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data were carried out. The findings indicate the development of a knowledge-transforming model of writing, the transformation of students’ multi...

  16. Writing Quality Predicts Chinese Learning

    Guan, Connie Qun; Perfetti, Charles A.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of…

  17. 浅谈规范公文写作语言的途径%On the Way to Standardize Document Writing Language

    代泽兰

    2014-01-01

    公文在政府工作中起着上传下达的桥梁作用,语言规范的公文更能准确地体现本级意图,达到发文目的。而本文主要论述了公文写作中,要从“抓住本质,表述准确”、“删繁就简,善于概括”、“平实质朴,谨慎修辞”、“庄重严肃,规范严谨”四个方面下手,有效规范公文写作语言。%Document plays a role as a bridge to upload in government work;the language specification documents more ac-curately reflect the intent of this level, to dispatch purposes. The article discusses the document writing, from"capturing the essence, accurate representation,""delete the complicated, good generalization","plain and simple, cautious rhetoric","seri-ous and solemn, strict norms,"four start, effectively regulate the document writing language.

  18. Using Writing Activities to Reinforce Mathematics Instruction.

    Davison, David M.; Pearce, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Presents writing activities appropriate in the mathematics classroom in the five categories of direct use of language, linguistic translation, summarizing, applied use of language, and creative use of language. (PK)

  19. Using L1 in Teaching English to Advanced Students

    Khalid Al Hariri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using L1 in the English classroom has long been considered as an unforgivable wrongdoing. Many English teachers who use L1 in the classroom feel guilty about it and in many cases do not admit it. Recent researchers started to question the validity of this claim suggesting contexts and situations in which using L1 can be very helpful in ELT and refuting, on the other hand, the claims upon which the idea of using L2 solely were built.  My paper will examine the attitudes of advanced English language learners toward using L1 in the class of English where the students and the teacher speak the same first language and will also examine the attitudes of a group of EFL and ESL teachers toward the same practice. The same questionnaire given to the students will be redesigned and given to a number of teachers so that the study will look at the viewpoints from both perspectives.Keywords:  L1, Code Switching, Interference of L1, ELT, TESOL

  20. Conceptualising the Potential Role of L1 in CLIL

    Lin, Angel M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a rapidly growing area of both research and practice in all parts of the world, especially in Europe and Asia. As a young discipline, CLIL has a good potential of distinguishing itself from monolingual L2 immersion education models by becoming more flexible and balanced about the role of L1 in…

  1. Don't be afraid of writing

    This book deals with requirements of good writings, comprehension toward characters of language, understanding of subjects and materials, grasp of structure of writings, and reality of writing. It contains theoretical requirements of good writing such as creativity, clearness, probity, how to understand the right meanings of language by showing standard languages, dialects, foreign languages, loan words, newly coined words, in-words, slangs, jargon. It also introduces subjects, topics, materials, sentences, meaning, structure, type, requirement, length of paragraphs, diaries, letter writings, travel essays, descriptions, and essays.

  2. Language

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation of a...... company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  3. The Chinese Input Challenges for Chinese as Second Language Learners in Computer-Mediated Writing: An Exploratory Study

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching-Sing; Gao, Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an exploratory study on Singapore secondary and primary school students' perceptions and behaviors on using a variety of Chinese input methods for Chinese composition writing. Significant behavioral patterns were uncovered and mapped into a cognitive process, which are potentially critical to the training of students in…

  4. Teaching and Assessing Academic Writing via the Portfolio: Benefits for Learners of English as an Additional Language

    Romova, Zina; Andrew, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the use of portfolios as pedagogical tools for developing academic writing. In particular, it considers the value of multi-drafting, where learners reflect on the learning of a text type as well as focusing on micro and macro aspects. The paper outlines a situated pedagogical approach, where students come to understand their…

  5. Reading Skills and Strategies: Assessing Primary School Students’ Awareness in L1 and EFL Strategy Use

    Evdokimos Aivazoglou; Eleni Griva

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed and conducted with the purpose to assess primary school students’ awareness in GL1 (Greek as first language) and EFL (English as a foreign language) strategy use and investigate the relations between the reported reading strategies use in first (L1) and foreign language (FL).  The sample (455 students attending the fifth and sixth grades of primary schools in Northern Greece) was first categorized into skilled and less skilled L1 and EFL readers through screenin...

  6. WRITING ANXIETIES OF PEOPLE WHO LEARN TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE/TÜRKÇEYİ YABANCI DİL OLARAK ÖĞRENENLERİN YAZMA KAYGILARI

    Sedat MADEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Latin proverb “verba volant scripta manent” meaning “spoken words fly away, written words remain” best shows the importance of writing skill which is one of the basic language skills. When it comes to writing skills of foreign students, making plans in target language in regards to this skill and develop a habit of writing are more difficult and exhausting compared to those for native speakers of a language. The aim of the study is to investigate writing anxieties of foreign students in Turkish universities according to such variables; “their gender, nationality, academic department, other foreign language they speak, their aim of learning Turkish, their level of Turkish and their reading habits and to explore whether there are any significant differences between the students’ writing anxieties with respect to these variables. For the study, 172 foreign students who study in different departments of Giresun University in 2014-2015 education year participated. The study is a survey type research study. The data was gathered through “Writing Anxiety Scale” which was created by the researchers in order to determine writing anxieties of foreign students. It was found that foreign students usually felt anxiety about writing in Turkish and their level of anxiety differentiated according to such variables; nationality, alphabet of their native language and their reading habits. Temel dil becerilerinden birisi olan yazma becerisinin önemini “Söz uçar, yazı kalır.” atasözü en güzel şekilde ifade etmektedir. Yabancı uyruklu öğrencilere yazma becerisi kazandırma söz konusu olduğunda, bu becerinin hedef dilde planlanması ve alışkanlık hâline dönüştürülmesi zahmetli ve zor olmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ülkemizde öğrenim gören yabancı uyruklu üniversite öğrencilerinin yazma kaygılarını cinsiyet, uyruk, öğrenim gördüğü fakülte/yüksekokul, bildiği diğer yabancı diller, Türkçeyi

  7. Revisiting Plain Language.

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  8. Curriculum: Foreign language learning

    Lin, AMY

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various issues related to curriculum in foreign language learning, and in particular focuses on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Foreign language learning is taken to mean the learning of a language other than the learner’s first language (L1), and this language is not ordinarily used in the learner’s everyday life. Thus, foreign language learning contexts are very different from second language learning contexts, for in second language learni...

  9. Language Switching and Language Competition

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  10. The influence of instructional support and teaching practices on first raders reading and writing. A comparative study in whole language and phonics classes.

    Pasa., L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares first graders’ acquisition of literacy in two different instructional settings. One teacher used a traditional skill-based approach while the other one was identified as a whole language teacher using literature and writing experiences with incidental attention to phonics. During the school year, documentation collection about the pedagogy included questionnaires, field notes of monthly observations of reading and writing lessons, systematic collections of the activities, and analysis of the linguistic structures contained in the texts used for reading lessons in both classrooms. Data collection was conducted longitudinally and involved three tasks: invented spelling, oral reading and reading content recall. Various analyses indicate that both groups of children learnt the graphophonic system and were able to use it for encoding and decoding. Differences between the two groups were in the difficulties encountered in the three tasks. The influence of the way the teacher leads the reading lessons, the activities proposed and the reading supports used on first graders’ difficulties and the strategies used are discussed.

  11. Academic writing in a corpus of 4th grade science notebooks: An analysis of student language use and adult expectations of the genres of school science

    Esquinca, Alberto

    This is a study of language use in the context of an inquiry-based science curriculum in which conceptual understanding ratings are used split texts into groups of "successful" and "unsuccessful" texts. "Successful" texts could include known features of science language. 420 texts generated by students in 14 classrooms from three school districts, culled from a prior study on the effectiveness of science notebooks to assess understanding, in addition to the aforementioned ratings are the data sources. In science notebooks, students write in the process of learning (here, a unit on electricity). The analytical framework is systemic functional linguistics (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004), specifically the concepts of genre, register and nominalization. Genre classification involves an analysis of the purpose and register features in the text (Schleppegrell, 2004). The use of features of the scientific academic register, namely the use relational processes and nominalization (Halliday and Martin, 1993), requires transitivity analysis and noun analysis. Transitivity analysis, consisting of the identification of the process type, is conducted on 4737 ranking clauses. A manual count of each noun used in the corpus allows for a typology of nouns. Four school science genres, procedures, procedural recounts reports and explanations, are found. Most texts (85.4%) are factual, and 14.1% are classified as explanations, the analytical genre. Logistic regression analysis indicates that there is no significant probability that the texts classified as explanation are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, material process clauses predominate in the corpus, followed by relational process clauses. Results of a logistic regression analysis indicate that there is a significant probability (Chi square = 15.23, p physical materials, followed by references to abstract concepts (35.54%). Only two of the concept nouns were found to be nominalized referents in

  12. 浅析二语习得对大学生写作方式的影响%The Impact of the Second Language Acquisition on the Writing Styles of College Students

    杨晨

    2015-01-01

    College English Writing is the compulsory course for the learning level of English majors,which fundamentally deter-mines the quality of university students'English level.Improving the English writing ability of college students needs to combine the theory and practice and the students are required to not only have good language skills,but also a certain amount of theoret-ical knowledge of writing to strengthen learning and exercise of writing skills.In this regard speaking,second language acquisi-tion theory provides a good theoretical basis for improving writing skills and writing mode of the students.This passage will fo-cus on talking about the impact of second language acquisition theory on College Students'writing mode from this point.%大学英语写作是英语专业学习的必修课,写作水平的高低从根本决定了大学生英语素质的高低。提高大学生的英语写作能力,需要做到理论与实践相结合,要求学生不仅仅具备良好的语言功底,同时还要掌握一定的写作理论知识,强化写作技巧的学习和锻炼。在这方面上讲,二语习得理论为大学生写作能力和写作方式的提高提供了良好的理论依据,本文将重点从这个角度谈一谈二语习得理论对大学生写作方式的影响。

  13. Integrated Lyrical Writing: Addressing Writing via Ballads

    Lytle, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Using songs in a language class takes advantage of the natural connection between students and music. This article describes a project that develops writing and speaking through song, using technology to help build students' knowledge of U.S. culture as well as their ability to communicate using descriptive, narrative, and expository rhetorical…

  14. Improving the Ability of Writing Argumentative Essays of Iranian EFL Learners by Raising Awareness of Rhetoric Transfer

    SADEGHI, Bahador; Maleki, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of raising awareness about rhetoric transfer on the ability of writing argumentative essays of Iranian EFL learners. One of the most important issues in EFL mainstream has been the effect of L1 on L2. In discussion of Error analysis, one of the errors with high frequency in the EFL classroom is caused by the interference of first language. It seems that making comparison between L1 and L2 rhetoric can reveal the patterns of nega...

  15. Analyzing contrastive features in English and Persian argumentative writing

    Atiyeh Kamyabi Gol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Having the ability to write effectively is important to both achieve and also to demonstrate academic success. With the growing number of Iranian students studying overseas, it is necessary to see whether the Persian rhetorical culture influences students’ English writing. In this study, the researcher aimed to investigate the style differences between English and Persian writing and the possibility of transfer. A total of 65 university students took part in the study. Data was collected through two argumentative writing tasks and a 15-20 minute interview. A total of 130 argumentative essays (65 Persian and 65 English were analyzed according to the five contrastive features framework provided by Xing, Wang, and Spencer (2008. Inter-rater reliability was used in order to enhance the precision in essay correction. The results show that there is a great possibility of transfer from the participants’ L1 into L2 in the areas of number of topic sentences per paragraph, and also figurative language usage. Traces of backward transfer were also detected in inductive/deductive use of thesis statement in writing. Practical implications for teachers, professors and also students have been provided at the end of the paper.

  16. Educating Chinese Scientists to Write for International Journals: Addressing the Divide between Science and Technology Education and English Language Teaching

    Cargill, Margaret; O'Connor, Patrick; Li, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    As is the worldwide trend, scientists in China face strong and increasing pressure to publish their research in international peer-reviewed journals written in English. There is an acute need for graduate students to develop the required language skills alongside their scientific expertise, in spite of the distinct division currently existing…

  17. Differences between Academic and Business Writing

    Vásquez, Félix S.

    2013-01-01

    Most upper-division courses taken by foreign language majors and minors in US colleges and universities involve some form of academic writing. Students who transpose this writing style to the business setting risk being unsuccessful. The purpose of this article is to highlight how these styles of writing differ so that language instructors teaching business courses in departments of modern languages can better prepare students for the needs of the twenty-first-century workplace. Our students ...

  18. Some issues for the teaching of writing

    Lombana Claudia Helena

    2009-01-01

    In this article the definition of writing as a means and as an end is analyzed in order to raise some concerns about the teaching of writing at different schools in general. From this definition I question other important issues that ultimately affect our students¿ writing production. These have to deal with the use of writing in the mother language, writing activities in the textbooks, the realistic nature of the writing tasks, the other language skills input, and the production of texts. Th...

  19. Self-reported use and perception of the L1 and L2 among maximally proficient bi- and multilinguals: a quantitative and qualitative investigation

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates language preferences and perceptions in the use of the native language (L1) and second language (L2) by 386 bi- and multilingual adults. Participants declared that they were maximally proficient in L1 and L2 and used both constantly. A quantitative analysis revealed that despite their maximal proficiency in the L1 and L2, participants preferred to use the L1 for communicating feelings or anger, swearing, addressing their children, performing mental ca...

  20. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  1. PD-L1-specific T cells

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Borch, Troels Holz; Hansen, Morten; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased focus on the immune checkpoint protein PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 due to the discovery that blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with monoclonal antibodies elicits striking clinical results in many different malignancies. We have described naturally occurring PD-L1......-specific T cells that recognize both PD-L1-expressing immune cells and malignant cells. Thus, PD-L1-specific T cells have the ability to modulate adaptive immune reactions by reacting to regulatory cells. Thus, utilization of PD-L1-derived T cell epitopes may represent an attractive vaccination strategy...... for targeting the tumor microenvironment and for boosting the clinical effects of additional anticancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes present information about PD-L1 as a T cell antigen, depicts the initial findings about the function of PD-L1-specific T cells in the adjustment of immune...

  2. Linguistic aspects of writing for professional purposes

    Greta Përgjegji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing for Professional Purposes is considered as a means of communication between professionals who belong to two communities that have different languages, but share the same knowledge or expertise. The article gives a hint on how writing for specific purposes evolved to give rise to the creation of Writing for Professional Purposes. The social, cultural and cognitive aspects are an essential part of Writing for Professional Purposes since the physical act of writing cannot be considered only a result or product of the knowledge the individual possesses but also a social and cultural act. Therefore, the social and cultural aspects of writing explains the specificities and the intricacies of the effects these aspects have on writing for it is considered as an inseparable part of social and cultural groups. On the other hand, the cognitive aspect of writing explains and emphasizes the mental activities of the individual during the decision-making process while he/she is writing planning and editing their material having in mind the audience. On the same line of reasoning, writing for professional purposes in a second language means that the writer has to consider the audience twice; first, there is an audience who shares the same knowledge or expertise and second, the audience does not have the same language. Consequently, writing in another language that is not the first language with a specific jargon as well as a specific grammatical structure brings about a lot of difficulties. Hence, writing in professional contexts in the mother tongue implies only writing in a specialized version of a language already known to the writer, but writing in a target language means that the writer has to learn the target language and the specialized version of that language.

  3. Main: L1DCPAL1 [PLACE

    Full Text Available L1DCPAL1 S000504 15-September-2006 (last modified) kehi L1 element, found in PAL1 promoter in ca ... rrot (Daucus ... carota), is a protoplastization (dilution) respons ... ACCC); see also S000492 (BOXL CORE of DC PAL1); L1 Daucus ... carota (carrot) ATTCACCTACCC ...

  4. Reference: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE

    Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 Abe M, Takahashi T, Komeda Y Identification of a cis-regulatory element for L1 la...yer-specific gene expression, which is targeted by an L1-specific homeodomain protein Plant J 26: 487-494 (2001) PubMed: 11439135; ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: L1 syndrome

    ... A, Gal A. Intronic mutations in the L1CAM gene may cause X-linked hydrocephalus by aberrant splicing. Hum Mutat. 2004 May;23(5):526. Citation on PubMed Kanemura Y, Okamoto N, Sakamoto H, Shofuda T, ... (L1 disease): Mutations in the L1CAM gene. Hum Mutat. 2001;18(1):1-12. Review. ...

  6. Writing for the web

    Ross, Susannah

    2007-01-01

    Enables you to organize the information on your site to create maximum impactLanguage-centred approach helps you to communicate effectively with usersClear and straightforward explanationsHandy checklists at the end of each section summarize the information Writing for the Web offers simple and effective advice for anyone who has to write copy for a website. It shows you how language works and how to select the right words and arrange them effectively to create a site that users can navigate easily and will visit again.

  7. University writing

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn) and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done). The article also discusses the contri...

  8. Collaborative Writing to Enhance Academic Writing Development Through Project Work

    Alma Milena Robayo Luna; Luz Stella Hernandez Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Advanced students at university level struggle with many aspects of academic writing in English as a foreign language. The purpose of this article is to report on an investigation aimed at analyzing what collaborative writing through project work tells us about students’ academic writing development at the tertiary level. The compositions written by students before the implementation of our research project showed that their command of written English was weak in form and content. The finding...

  9. A Brief Discussion on the Favorable Interaction between Reading and Writing Training in Chinese Language Teaching of Junior High School%浅谈初中语文阅读与写作训练的良性互动

    于春婷

    2014-01-01

    随着素质教学的不断深入,语文课程的教学内容不断拓展,阅读与写作训练在教材和练习题中以更加丰富的形式出现,考查比重也在逐步加大。因此,在初中语文教学中应该把握住阅读教学、写作训练两者之间的关系,在当下初中语文考核体系下,使学生的读写能力得到切实提升。本文在分析初中语文阅读和写作相互关系的基础上,对促进两者之间良性互动的方法进行分别探讨,以期对当前初中语文教学起到借鉴作用。%With the continuous deepening of quality-oriented teaching, the teaching content of the Chinese language course is also unceasingly expanding, and reading and writing training have appeared richer forms in textbooks and exercises and the proportion of test is also gradually increasing. Therefore, the rela-tionship between reading teaching and writing training should be grasped in junior high school Chinese language teaching, so as to feasibly improve students' reading and writing ability under the current Chinese language test system. Based on analyzing the in-terrelation between reading and writing in junior high school Chinese language course, this paper explores methods for their favorable interaction, hoping to provide a reference for the current Chinese language teaching in junior high school.

  10. Perception of Mandarin Tones: The Effect of L1 Background and Training

    Wang, Xinchun

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether native Hmong speakers' first language (L1) lexical tone experience facilitates or interferes with their perception of Mandarin tones and whether training is effective for perceptual learning of second (L2) tones. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of beginning level learners of Mandarin with different L1 prosodic background…

  11. L1 acquisition of noun ellipsis in French and in Dutch: Consequences for linguistic theory

    P. Sleeman; A. Hulk

    2011-01-01

    In the literature several theoretical analyses of nominal ellipsis of various languages have been proposed. In this exploratory and comparative study the L1 French and Dutch acquisition of noun ellipsis is analyzed. The L1 data suggest that a theoretical analysis of the licensing mechanisms of nomin

  12. Ubiquitous L1 Mosaicism in Hippocampal Neurons

    Upton, Kyle R.; Gerhardt, Daniel J.; Jesuadian, J. Samuel; Richardson, Sandra R.; Sánchez-Luque, Francisco J.; Bodea, Gabriela O.; Ewing, Adam D.; Salvador-Palomeque, Carmen; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Brennan, Paul M.; Vanderver, Adeline; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Somatic LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition during neurogenesis is a potential source of genotypic variation among neurons. As a neurogenic niche, the hippocampus supports pronounced L1 activity. However, the basal parameters and biological impact of L1-driven mosaicism remain unclear. Here, we performed single-cell retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) on individual human hippocampal neurons and glia, as well as cortical neurons. An estimated 13.7 somatic L1 insertions occurred per hippocampal neuron and carried the sequence hallmarks of target-primed reverse transcription. Notably, hippocampal neuron L1 insertions were specifically enriched in transcribed neuronal stem cell enhancers and hippocampus genes, increasing their probability of functional relevance. In addition, bias against intronic L1 insertions sense oriented relative to their host gene was observed, perhaps indicating moderate selection against this configuration in vivo. These experiments demonstrate pervasive L1 mosaicism at genomic loci expressed in hippocampal neurons. PMID:25860606

  13. Writing Anxiety: A Case Study on Students’ Reasons for Anxiety in Writing

    Kara, Selma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, the present study set out to investigate the learners‟ attitudes towards academic writing courses that they have to take as part of their curriculum, whether they experience second language writing anxiety and what reasons they report for their anxiety and failure in academic writing courses. Second, the study aimed to develop a selfreport measure of second language writing anxiety reasons

  14. Writing Excel Macros with VBA

    Roman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

  15. Application of Memetics Theory to English Writing

    许静

    2014-01-01

    Memetics also shed new light for linguists who begin to study the mechanism of language development from a brand new perspective:the combi-nation of language learning and language memes. The current essay attempts to apply the memetics to teaching of English writing,and to helping students con-struct knowledge and develop skills of writing by recitation and imitation of language memes.

  16. Writing Inspired

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  17. University writing

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  18. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061

  19. The Effect of Journal Writing on Students' Cognitive Critical Thinking Skills: "A Quasi-Experimental Research on an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Undergraduate Classroom in Egypt"

    Shaarawy, Hanaa Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Based on writing weekly academic journals and on Bloom's (1984) taxonomy of cognitive critical thinking skills, this article reports on a quasi-experiment where journal writing was an additional task to an academic writing course. The experiment was carried out with first year university students (semester two) in one of the Egyptian private…

  20. The Writing System of Modern Persian. American Council of Learned Societies Program in Oriental Languages, Publication Series B - Aids - Number 4.

    Paper, Herbert H.; Jazayery, Mohammad Ali

    This manual describes and illustrates the writing system of modern Persian. It is modelled after Frank A. Rice's "Classical Arabic: The Writing System." Five sections concerning the writing system are provided: (1) printed Persian, (2) typewritten Persian, (3) handwritten Persian, (4) the combination of words, and (5) punctuation. (RL)

  1. Writing a Thesis Differently

    Honan, Eileen; Bright, David

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore the contributions that Deleuze and Guattari have made to thinking/writing language and how these ideas can be put to work in producing a doctoral thesis. We contribute to the field of work within what Patti Lather and Elizabeth St Pierre have called the "post-qualitative" movement, where researchers attempt to…

  2. Looking, Writing, Creating.

    Katzive, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a middle school language arts teacher makes analyzing and creating visual art a partner to reading and writing in her classroom. Describes a project on art and Vietnam which shows how background information can add to and influence interpretation. Describes a unit on Greek mythology and Greek vases which leads to a related visual…

  3. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  4. On Cognitive Approach to Process Writing

    刘胤辛

    2014-01-01

    Based on its theoretical foundation of psychology, linguistics and pedagogy, cognitive approach aims to develop the practical and comprehensive ability of employing foreign language. Viewed as a complex process, writing can be regarded as a cognitive activity which focuses on the process of writing rather than its final product. This paper intends to discuss the effects of cognitive approach on English writing.

  5. Negative Transfer of L1 on English Grammar Learning in SLA

    马秀琳

    2015-01-01

    At present,many scholars pay more attention to the positive transfer of native language on the English learning,while ignoring the negative transfer of L1 on English grammar learning.Therefore native transfer of L1 often appears on English grammar learning.This paper aims to point out that the negative transfer of L1 has a profound and vast influence on the English grammar learning,to find out the countermeasures to reduce the influence of negative transfer of L1 and finally to bring the benefits to the following relative studies.

  6. Writing successful UX proposals

    Hass, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Bringing new project funding and business opportunities to your organization is a vital part of UX professionals' growth and success. Writing Successful UX Proposals teaches the proven techniques for assessing proposal requests, writing successful commercial and government funding proposals, and enhancing your business development skills. This book will teach UX practitioners how to succeed in UX business development by mastering the following goals: * Understand how to assess a request for proposals* Understand the "anatomy" of a proposal response * Speak the business language of those who will be evaluating the proposed approach* Recognize the successes of others and build upon their advice Complete with case studies, tricks and tips, and real-world examples throughout, this is a must-have resource for UX professionals interested in honing their proposal writing skills and setting themselves up for success. * Provides unique sales and proposal writing insights tailored to the UX arena (including both resear...

  7. Interlanguage and EST Writing: Some Syntactic Evidence.

    Ulijn, Jan M.; Strother, Judith B.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-eight American (L1) and 48 Dutch students (L2), half of whom had computer science backgrounds and half of whom did not, were tested for their use of either scientific text (ST) syntactic structures or the less difficult common syntax when writing technical discourse (in Appendix). Results indicate that both L1 and L2 technical writers wrote…

  8. Using Wikis to Promote Collaborative EFL Writing

    Aydin, Zelilha; Yildiz, Senem

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the use of wikis in collaborative writing projects in foreign language learning classrooms. A total of 34 intermediate level university students learning English as a foreign language (EFL) were asked to accomplish three different wiki-based collaborative writing tasks, (argumentative, informative and decision-making) working…

  9. LANGUAGE TEACHING STRATEGIES

    Bogdanchick, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some strategies of teaching English language. Special attention was paid to adult learning, writing problem and some others. The aim of the paper is to show advantages of intensive learning of English language

  10. Using L1 to Enhance the Grammar Learning and Having Only English Policy in EFL Classes

    Uyar, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the differences of grammar learning, if any, between the EFL classes in which native language (L1) is sometimes used and only target language (L2) is used. Participants were 42 prep year students from one of the universities in Turkey. They have been studying English for 9 months, and now they are in level…

  11. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  12. DNA Damage and L1 Retrotransposition

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Barbara McClintock was the first to suggest that transposons are a source of genome instability and that genotoxic stress assisted in their mobilization. The generation of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs is a severe form of genotoxic stress that threatens the integrity of the genome, activates cell cycle checkpoints, and, in some cases, causes cell death. Applying McClintock's stress hypothesis to humans, are L1 retrotransposons, the most active autonomous mobile elements in the modern day human genome, mobilized by DSBs? Here, evidence that transposable elements, particularly retrotransposons, are mobilized by genotoxic stress is reviewed. In the setting of DSB formation, L1 mobility may be affected by changes in the substrate for L1 integration, the DNA repair machinery, or the L1 element itself. The review concludes with a discussion of the potential consequences of L1 mobilization in the setting of genotoxic stress.

  13. Video Streaming for Creative Writing at International Elementary School

    Deni Darmawan; Tatat Hartati; Effy Mulyasari

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at overcoming difficulty in learning language, both in Indonesian Language and English at international elementary school, especially in creative writing. Creative writing as part of human activity is creativity with language medium as prose (narrative, description), poem (old, new and modern), as well as drama (dialogue, role play, and sosio drama). Specific target to be achieved is the design of Video Streaming for all kinds of creative writing in the language of Indonesian ...

  14. Enhancing Content Knowledge in Essay Writing Classes: A Multimedia Package for Iranian EFL Learners

    Marziyeh Tahmouresi Majelan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate empirically if promoting a multimedia package enhances content knowledge in essay writing of 80 junior English translation students at a University in Karaj, Iran; plus, whether the learners’ writing content improve due to the presence of the multimedia package or not. The multimedia was considered to be a CD, containing recordings both in first language (L1=Farsi and in second language (L2=English along with manipulative and task-based activities. A homogenizing test, the pre-posttests, and the material in a form of a CD (treatment including forty of the most common TOEFL essays both in L1 and L2 plus manipulative tasks to fulfill provided by the researcher, were the instruments in the study.  After 14 weeks, both the experimental and control groups sat for the posttest with exactly the same characteristics of pretest except for the topics. When the collected data was analyzed, a mean difference of t-test along with a paired t-test showed a significant difference between the performance of the control and the experimental groups, regarding the content. Consequently, the statistics proved that enhancing content knowledge by means of a multimedia package containing recordings plus manipulative and task-based activities would improve students’ writing ability while the control group in which a current traditional rhetoric approach was used, the placebo, did not show any statistically significant improvement regarding content.

  15. L1 Retrotransposons in Human Cancers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons like L1 are silenced in somatic cells by a variety of mechanisms acting at different levels. Protective mechanisms include DNA methylation and packaging into inactive chromatin to suppress transcription and prevent recombination, potentially supported by cytidine deaminase editing of RNA. Furthermore, DNA strand breaks arising during attempted retrotranspositions ought to activate cellular checkpoints, and L1 activation outside immunoprivileged sites may elicit immune responses. A number of observations indicate that L1 sequences nevertheless become reactivated in human cancer. Prominently, methylation of L1 sequences is diminished in many cancer types and full-length L1 RNAs become detectable, although strong expression is restricted to germ cell cancers. L1 elements have been found to be enriched at sites of illegitimate recombination in many cancers. In theory, lack of L1 repression in cancer might cause transcriptional deregulation, insertional mutations, DNA breaks, and an increased frequency of recombinations, contributing to genome disorganization, expression changes, and chromosomal instability. There is however little evidence that such effects occur at a gross scale in human cancers. Rather, as a rule, L1 repression is only partly alleviated. Unfortunately, many techniques commonly used to investigate genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer cells are not well suited to detect subtle effects elicited by partial reactivation of retroelements like L1 which are present as abundant, but heterogeneous copies. Therefore, effects of L1 sequences exerted on the local chromatin structure, on the transcriptional regulation of individual genes, and on chromosome fragility need to be more closely investigated in normal and cancer cells.

  16. How to Improve English Writing Ability

    关英菲

    2012-01-01

      Writing, among the four language skil s of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, is also becoming widely applied and demand-ing. However, most students in China are very poor in writing after they have been learning English for years. Through research on the stu-dents’compositions, the thesis finds out some glaring problems that should be paid special attention to in their writing. This thesis focuses on the problems as wel as the solutions to these problems.

  17. Writing Matters.

    Freedman, Sarah Warshauer; Hechinger, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes research being conducted by project directors under the auspices of the National Center for the Study of Writing and Literacy. Considers assessment of writing issues, the professionalization of teaching, and the teaching of nonnative speakers. (HB)

  18. Emotional Factors Influencing Students’ English Writing Competence

    聂勇伟

    2015-01-01

    As an international common language,English becomes more and more important.Students try their best to improve their English writing competence,especially as the social’s requirements for their English writing become higher and higher.However,students’English writing is very poor,fewer and fewer of them can write fluent English.Through the study of this topic,the author hopes it can remove students’emotional obstacles of English writing learning,master the direction of emotional factor,arouse students’interesting in learning oral English,make them practice English writing positively and obtain a better teaching effect

  19. A Reviewing on English Writing Researching in China

    吴军莉

    2015-01-01

    English writing is also a crucial means of evaluating the language proficiency of a learner of English as second language. As a result, it is essential to review English writing researching in terms of contents, number, methods, process, feedback and as⁃sessment which can guide our English writing teaching effectively.

  20. Thesis Writing Challenges for Non-Native MA Students

    Sadeghi, Karim; Shirzad Khajepasha, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Writing in a second (L2)/foreign language is generally a challenging activity, and writing an MA thesis, as an example of academic enterprise, can be daunting when done in a language in which the writer is not fully competent. The challenge such a genre of writing poses for L2 writers has not been properly addressed. To fill in the gap in this…

  1. A Study of the Plain Writing Act of 2010: Federal Agency, Writer, and User Appropriations of U.S. Plain Language Policy

    Kerr, Kathleen T.

    2014-01-01

    On October 13, 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Plain Writing Act of 2010 into law. It requires federal government agencies to use plain writing in all "covered" documents "the agency issues or substantially revises" (Sec. 4 (b)). The goal of the Plain Writing Act is to "enhance citizen access to Government information" (Introduction) and improve government operations and accountability "by promoting clear Government communication the public can understand and use (Sec. 2). This disser...

  2. Writing Wrongs.

    Jones, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    Researchers gave low ratings to 73% of fourth-graders' informative writing samples on NAEP's 1992 Writing Portfolio Study. Teachers blame changing demographics, science and math emphases, the self-esteem movement, standardized tests, and fast-paced lifestyles. Administrators must encourage student writing, support teachers, schedule more language…

  3. Responding to Literature Texts through Films in English and the L1 within a Multiliteracies Pedagogy

    Shakina Rajendram; Mallika V Govindarajoo

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study exploring the aesthetic and critical responses of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners when engaging in the multimodal design of literature texts through films in English and their first language (L1). Participants consisted of 25 culturally and linguistically heterogeneous first-year undergraduate students in a Literature in English Language Teaching program in a Malaysian public university. The participants engaged in a multi-modal design ...

  4. Writing Strategies Used by ESL Upper Secondary School Students

    Maarof, Nooreiny; Murat, Mazlin

    2013-01-01

    Writing is a great challenge whether performed in the mother tongue or in a second or foreign language (L2/FL). Studies in L2 writing show that writing is a complex cognitive activity comprising a number of processes which includes the use of various strategies. This study aimed to examine strategies used in essay writing among 50…

  5. The effect of computer-assisted translation on L2 learners’ mastery of writing

    Ahmad Ali Kazemzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT is an alternative approach to computer translation that integrates human expertise into the automatic translation process. In this realm, the few studies that deal with Computer Assisted Translation (CAT as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, not by beginners. Yet, freely available CAT engines (i.e. Google Translate position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a second language (L2. Anecdotal classroom evidence points to beginners availing themselves of CAT help, even against the advice of teachers. In order to find out whether CAT could help develop learners’ writing skills in L2, some tests were run asking participants to write directly into L2 in one instance and into L1 in another, while pre-editing the L1 and post-editing the L2 within the CAT’s Translate.google.com interface. The analysis of the output shows that CAT helps beginners to communicate more, particularly when they have a lesser mastery of the language. The less their mastery of the L2, the greater the difference between the number of words composed with the help of CAT and the number of those written directly into L2. It also helps them to communicate better, with blind marking indicating higher quality when writing with CAT mediation. Looking at the screen recordings, on the other hand, we found that writing directly into L2 requires more effort, as measured by number of pauses, and involves more engagement with the task, as measured by the number of editing interventions.

  6. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.

    Sunshine, Joel; Taube, Janis M

    2015-08-01

    Tumors may adopt normal physiologic checkpoints for immunomodulation leading to an imbalance between tumor growth and host surveillance. Antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint have shown dynamic and durable tumor regressions, suggesting a rebalancing of the host-tumor interaction. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab are the anti-PD-1 antibodies that are currently the furthest in clinical development, and anti-PD-L1 agents under investigation include MPDL3280A, MEDI4736, and BMS-936559. These agents have been used to treat advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma, amongst other tumor types. In this article, we review the updated response results for early clinical trials, note recent FDA actions regarding this class of agents, and summarize results across trials looking at PD-L1 status as a predictor of response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1. PMID:26047524

  7. An Analysis on Features of Spoken Language in Non-English Major Students' English Writing%非英语专业大学生英语书面写作中的口语化现象分析

    胡丁予

    2011-01-01

    College students' oral English communicative skills are gradually attached more attention but the important factors and skills in English writing are neglected relatively.Various problems exit in Chinese learners' English writing.Based on the strict distinction between the features of spoken and written English,the paper aims to analyze the spoken features in English writing and the possible reasons by collecting corpus from non-English major college students to guide the English writing,and enhance the practical ability of English language learners.%大学生在注重英语口语的同时却相对忽视了写作中的重要要素与技能。中国英语学习者的写作中常常出现各种各样的问题。在严格区分口语和书面语的特征的基础上,本文旨在通过收集语料来分析非英语专业大学生英语写作中的口语化特征及其产生的可能性原因来指导英语写作,增强英语学习者的语言实际应用能力。

  8. Effects of Web-Based Collaborative Writing on Individual L2 Writing Development

    Bikowski, Dawn; Vithanage, Ramyadarshanie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated in-class web-based collaborative writing tasks on second language writers' (L2) individual writing scores. A pre-test post-test research model was used in addition to participant surveys, class observations, and teacher interviews. Participants included 59 L2 writers in a writing class at a large U.S.…

  9. The Effects of Collaborative Writing Activity Using Google Docs on Students' Writing Abilities

    Suwantarathip, Ornprapat; Wichadee, Saovapa

    2014-01-01

    Google Docs, a free web-based version of Microsoft Word, offers collaborative features which can be used to facilitate collaborative writing in a foreign language classroom. The current study compared writing abilities of students who collaborated on writing assignments using Google Docs with those working in groups in a face-to-face classroom.…

  10. Long-Term Relationships among Early First Language Skills, Second Language Aptitude, Second Language Affect, and Later Second Language Proficiency

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-four students were followed over 10 years beginning in first grade to determine best predictors of oral and written second language (L2) proficiency. Predictor variables included measures of first language (L1) skill administered in first through fifth grades, L1 academic aptitude, L2 aptitude (Modern Language Aptitude Test), and L2 affect…

  11. L1 Control Theoretic Smoothing Splines

    Nagahara, Masaaki; Martin, Clyde F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose control theoretic smoothing splines with L1 optimality for reducing the number of parameters that describes the fitted curve as well as removing outlier data. A control theoretic spline is a smoothing spline that is generated as an output of a given linear dynamical system. Conventional design requires exactly the same number of base functions as given data, and the result is not robust against outliers. To solve these problems, we propose to use L1 optimality, that ...

  12. L1-norm minimization for quaternion signals

    Wu, Jiasong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong

    2012-01-01

    The l1-norm minimization problem plays an important role in the compressed sensing (CS) theory. We present in this letter an algorithm for solving the problem of l1-norm minimization for quaternion signals by converting it to second-order cone programming. An application example of the proposed algorithm is also given for practical guidelines of perfect recovery of quaternion signals. The proposed algorithm may find its potential application when CS theory meets the quaternion signal processing.

  13. External factors and the interference of L1 Estonian on L2 English pronunciation: An apparent-time study

    Kristiina Ader; Merilin Miljan

    2015-01-01

    This study focusses on external factors of second language learning (L2) and their effect on L2 sound production. The aim was to find out whether young adults whose first language (L1) is Estonian speak L2 English with less accent than older speakers of L1 Estonian. Prior studies have claimed that more exposure to the target language lessens the effect of L1 interference (internal factors) (e.g. Piske et al. 2001, Muñoz, Llanes 2014). An apparent-time study was imple- mented in order to test ...

  14. L2 Writing Practice: Game Enjoyment as a Key to Engagement

    Allen, Laura K.; Crossley, Scott A.; Snow, Erica L.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    The Writing Pal (W-Pal) is an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) designed to provide students with explicit writing strategy instruction and practice. W-Pal includes a suite of educational games developed to increase writing engagement and provide opportunities to practice writing strategies. In this study, first (L1) (n = 26) and second (L2)…

  15. A description of ASL features in writing

    Kimberly A. Wolbers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to second language students who embed features of their primary languages in the writing of their second languages, deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh writers utilize features of American Sign Language (ASL in their writing of English. The purpose of this study is to identify categories of language transfer, provide the prevalence of these transfer tendencies in the writings of 29 d/hh adolescents and describe whether language features are equally or differently responsive to instruction. Findings indicate six categories of language transfer in order of prevalence: unique glossing & substitution, adjectives, plurality & adverbs, topicalization, and conjunctions. ASL features, of both lexical and syntactical nature, appear to respond similarly to instruction.

  16. Acquisition of Japanese contracted sounds in L1 phonology

    Tsurutani, Chiharu

    2002-05-01

    Japanese possesses a group of palatalized consonants, known to Japanese scholars as the contracted sounds, [CjV]. English learners of Japanese appear to treat them initially as consonant + glide clusters, where there is an equivalent [Cj] cluster in English, or otherwise tend to insert an epenthetic vowel [CVjV]. The acquisition of the Japanese contracted sounds by first language (L1) learners has not been widely studied compared with the consonant clusters in English with which they bear a close phonetic resemblance but have quite a different phonological status. This is a study to investigate the L1 acquisition process of the Japanese contracted sounds (a) in order to observe how the palatalization gesture is acquired in Japanese and (b) to investigate differences in the sound acquisition processes of first and second language (L2) learners: Japanese children compared with English learners. To do this, the productions of Japanese children ranging in age from 2.5 to 3.5 years were transcribed and the pattern of misproduction was observed.

  17. Mirror Writing in Children

    Anderson, Eilidh

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Fischer (2011) found that children independently choose the direction that letters and digits face during literacy development when lacking explicit knowledge of directionality. In explanation of this finding, Fischer proposes an implicit right writing rule claims that the direction children choose is mainly biased rightward (drawing from left to right) because the majority of letters in the English language face this way. The purpose of this study was to test for the preval...

  18. How Might Pragmatic Language Skills Affect the Written Expression of Students with Language Learning Disabilities?

    Troia, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes ways in which pragmatic language abilities may play a role in the writing performance of children and adolescents with language learning disabilities. First, a brief overview is presented of how pragmatic language difficulties might negatively influence writing performance. Next, research on the writing performance of…

  19. Learner-Language Identities: Linguistic Instantiations of Identity in Additional-Language Student Texts

    Erdmann, Susan Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The study presented explores immigrant student identity construction in additional-language academic writing. Examining the English language academic writing of upper-secondary students in Norway, the project charts the relationship between the students’ linguistic choices and their attitudes towards textual authority, collective identifications and language retention and loss. The project unfolds within an Applied Linguistics framework, studying classroom writing for textual t...

  20. Analysis of four Chinese EFL classrooms: the use of L1 and L2

    Du, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been a large number of studies on the use of L1 and L2, there seem to be few on L1 use in Chinese university EFL classrooms, especially investigating the language use of those who teach English to students at different proficiency levels or teach different types of English courses. This thesis aims to analyze four Chinese EFL teachers’ actual use of L1 and L2, to understand their attitudes and beliefs regarding this issue, and their own perceptions of and re...

  1. Face recognition with L1-norm subspaces

    Maritato, Federica; Liu, Ying; Colonnese, Stefania; Pados, Dimitris A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of representing individual faces by maximum L1-norm projection subspaces calculated from available face-image ensembles. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to image variations, disturbances, and rank selection. Face recognition becomes then the problem of associating a new unknown face image to the "closest," in some sense, L1 subspace in the database. In this work, we also introduce the concept of adaptively allocating the available number of principal components to different face image classes, subject to a given total number/budget of principal components. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  2. A Profile of an Effective EFL Writing Teacher (A Technology-Based Approach)

    Seifoori, Zohreh; Mozaheb, Mohammad Amin; Beigi, Amir Biglar

    2012-01-01

    Teaching writing has always been a controversial issue in the field of Foreign Language Teaching. And while there are a number of approaches and techniques for teaching writing in an English as a Second Language or English as a Foreign Language (SL/EFL) setting, very few comprehensive frameworks exist for an ESL/EFL writing teacher. The present…

  3. THE EFFECT OF TEACHER TALK IN EFL CLASSROOMS: THE NONUSE OR USE OF LEARNERS' L1 BY AN INSTRUCTOR

    Chiyo Myojin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of the variation of teacher talk on EFL learners' performance, especially the one related to listening comprehension skills, by chronologically observing a Japanese first language (L1 instructor's classrooms at a university.

  4. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  5. Morphologically Complex Words in L1 and L2 Processing: Evidence from Masked Priming Experiments in English

    Silva, Renita; Clahsen, Harald

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from masked priming experiments investigating regular past-tense forms and deadjectival nominalizations with -ness and -ity in adult native (L1) speakers of English and in different groups of advanced adult second language (L2) learners of English. While the L1 group showed efficient priming for both inflected and…

  6. L1 Influence on the Use of English Deictic Motion Verbs for Chinese EFL Learners and French EFL Learners

    Ziyan, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Based on Sloin's (1996b) thinking for speaking approach, the study examines L1 influence on the use of English deictic Motion verbs for Chinese EFL learners and French EFL learners. The aim is to find out whether language learners will be influenced by the particular Thinking for Speaking acquired in L1 in the process of L2 acquisition. It is…

  7. INTEGRATION OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE WRITING AND PROCESS WRITING APPROACHES IN TEACHING EFL WRITING

    2000-01-01

    This paper adopts a pedagogical approach to theteaching of English writing to EFL learners of interme-diate or advanced level in China.The teaching ofwriting has been a problem to Chinese EFL teachers fora long time.On the one hand,they want to make anattempt to adopt fashionable and effective Englishwriting approaches,like process writing.On the otherhand,they are frustrated by the traditional Chinesewriting method.Some of our language educators arealways struggling against the influence of our tradi-tional Chinese writing method.A negative attitudetowards our mother tongue writing approach has beenestablished or accepted by most of our EFL teachers,which result in the EFL learners’panic in their Eng-lish writing course because they are afraid of being ac-cused of writing a Chinese composition in Englishwords.Needless to say,this kind of teaching stylecannot be effective and is frustrating instead.The au-thor presents an integrated and practical solution tothis problem and discusses the applicability of the ap-proach.The author discusses how we can effectivelyintegrate the traditional Chinese writing method andthe popular process writing approach in teaching Eng-lish writing.

  8. MOTHER TONGUE (L1 Vis-A-Vis OTHER TONGUE (L2?

    Arun Behera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2 for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b learning another language. Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process, similar to that used by a child to pick up the first language (L1; and the second is conscious learning, in which a learner is aware of his/her own learning process.

  9. Mind-Mapping as a Pre-Writing Tool in Teaching College-Level Writing Courses

    Ogawa, Ruby Toshimi

    2009-01-01

    Pre-writing exercises that incorporate the Mind Mapping concept can enhance a student's ability to integrate complex thoughts into a cohesive unit of text. The difficultly for most Japanese students who are learning English as a second language is not the language barrier itself, but the student's desire to maintain a comfort level that is most familiar to the learner. There is a natural reliance and tendency for students to write according to their first language structures. As an instructor...

  10. Building Regulations 1990 revisions: Pt. L1

    Burberry, Peter (Manchester Univ. (UK). Inst. of Science and Technology)

    1990-02-28

    The provisions of Building Regulations L1, ''Limitation of heat loss through the building fabric'', are summarised and discussed. Calculational procedures involving trade off of increased standards in one part of the building against lower standards in another and the setting of energy targets are discussed in relation to thermal insulation. (U.K.).

  11. Reference: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE

    Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 He nriksson E , Olsson AS, Johanne sson H, Johansson H, Hanson J, E ngstrom P, Sode rman ... E . Home odomain le ucine ... zippe r class I ge ne s in Arabidopsis ... . E xpre ssion patte rns and phyloge ne tic re ... Plant Physio ... l. 139: 509-518. (2005) PubMe d: 16055682 ...

  12. L = 1 light quark mesons in QCD

    Using the Borel transformed QCD sum rule formalism, the masses of L = 1 light quark mesons with isospin I = 1 and I = 0 are calculated. Non-perturbative effects from higher dimensional operators up to dimension d = 6 in the operator product expansion are taken into account. (orig.)

  13. The Effect of Concept Mapping on L2 Writing Performance: Examining Possible Effects of Trait-Level Writing Anxiety

    Naoko Machida; David J. Dalsky

    2014-01-01

    Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students’ learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students’ writing anxiety. Participants completed writing anxiety scales and were randomly assigned to three groups before completing a writing task: concept mapping, idea listi...

  14. Mathematical writing

    Vivaldi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student.   The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition.   Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...

  15. Small Molecule Agonists of Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Mimic L1 Functions In Vivo.

    Kataria, Hardeep; Lutz, David; Chaudhary, Harshita; Schachner, Melitta; Loers, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Lack of permissive mechanisms and abundance of inhibitory molecules in the lesioned central nervous system of adult mammals contribute to the failure of functional recovery after injury, leading to severe disabilities in motor functions and pain. Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, particularly in cases where nerve gaps are large and chronic nerve injury ensues. Previous studies have indicated that the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration after acute injury. We screened libraries of known drugs for small molecule agonists of L1 and evaluated the effect of hit compounds in cell-based assays in vitro and in mice after femoral nerve and spinal cord injuries in vivo. We identified eight small molecule L1 agonists and showed in cell-based assays that they stimulate neuronal survival, neuronal migration, and neurite outgrowth and enhance Schwann cell proliferation and migration and myelination of neurons in an L1-dependent manner. In a femoral nerve injury mouse model, enhanced functional regeneration and remyelination after application of the L1 agonists were observed. In a spinal cord injury mouse model, L1 agonists improved recovery of motor functions, being paralleled by enhanced remyelination, neuronal survival, and monoaminergic innervation, reduced astrogliosis, and activation of microglia. Together, these findings suggest that application of small organic compounds that bind to L1 and stimulate the beneficial homophilic L1 functions may prove to be a valuable addition to treatments of nervous system injuries. PMID:26253722

  16. The evolution of language and languages

    Hurford, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Human languages, such as French, Cantonese or American Sign Language, are socio- cultural entities. Knowledge of them (`competence') is acquired by exposure to the ap- propriate environment. Languages are maintained and transmitted by acts of speaking and writing; and this is also the means by which languages evolve. The utterances of one generation are processed by their children to form mental grammars, which in some sense summarize, or generalize over, the children's linguistic experie...

  17. Metalinguistic Activity in Learning to Write

    Camps, Anna; Milian, Marta

    1999-01-01

    The volume presents empirical research on metalinguistic activity in the process of learning and teaching of writing. Contributions from educational psychologists, researchers in language education, and cognitive psychologists from different countries will address the incidence of metalinguistic act

  18. Virtual Classroom Management and Communicative Writing Pedagogy

    Mills, Jon

    1996-01-01

    Writing, essentially a social act, is concerned with cognition and is alliedto context. Most writing takes the form of dialogue and it is out of dialogic processes that language acquisition takes place. Writers andreaders convene in the cognitive and social space that is at the heart of adiscourse community. The social aspects of writing are diminished whenthere is a restriction on the social space where readers and writers cometogether. This is exemplified by the state of affairs in certain ...

  19. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  20. L1-norm packings from function fields

    LI; Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study some packings in a cube, namely, how to pack n points in a cube so as to maximize the minimal distance. The distance is induced by the L1-norm which is analogous to the Hamming distance in coding theory. Two constructions with reasonable parameters are obtained, by using some results from a function field including divisor class group, narrow ray class group, and so on. We also present some asymptotic results of the two packings.

  1. Writing to Persuade: A Systemic Functional View

    Schulze, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how a genre-based approach to writing instruction influenced by both genre theory and systemic functional linguistics supported the academic writing development of English language learners (ELLs) transitioning to middle school. Drawing on Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) as a tool for pedagogy and linguistic analysis, the…

  2. Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

  3. Online Peer Discourse in a Writing Classroom

    Choi, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to explore the interaction discourse of second language undergraduate learners in the online peer review process of a writing classroom in Hong Kong. Specifically, the writer sought to investigate the types of online discourse learners have in the peer discussions on their writing, and to examine the role of explicit…

  4. L1 Communicative-textual competence of Greek upper elementary school students.

    Spinthourakis, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses the findings of a research study on the issue of L1 communicative-textual competence (CTC. More specifically it examines the L1 CTC of 10–12-year-old Greek elementary school students, before and after the use of alternative communicative-text-oriented teaching material versus traditional language materials currently used in the schools. The CTC of the students was examined using a version of the test published by the French Ministry of Education revised and adapted to the Greek language and educational context. Analysis of the pre- and post-intervention data suggests that using appropriately designed communicative-text-oriented teaching materials can increase Greek school students’ level of written L1 CTC.

  5. Factors Influencing Pronunciation Accuracy: L1 Negative Transfer, Task Variables and Individual Aptitude

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of three factors on pronunciation accuracy of Chinese adult foreign language learners. Ten target sounds including phonemes and syllables are included in the pre-test, an analysis of which shows that the mispronunciation of the randomly chosen target sounds mainly results from L1 negative transfer. It is…

  6. Reading Skills and Strategies: Assessing Primary School Students’ Awareness in L1 and EFL Strategy Use

    Evdokimos Aivazoglou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed and conducted with the purpose to assess primary school students’ awareness in GL1 (Greek as first language and EFL (English as a foreign language strategy use and investigate the relations between the reported reading strategies use in first (L1 and foreign language (FL.  The sample (455 students attending the fifth and sixth grades of primary schools in Northern Greece was first categorized into skilled and less skilled L1 and EFL readers through screening reading comprehension tests, one in L1 and one in FL, before filling in the reading strategy questionnaires. The findings revealed participants’ preference for “problem solving” strategies, while “global strategies” coming next. Girls were proved to be more aware of their reading strategies use with the boys reporting a more frequent use in both languages. Also, skilled readers were found to use reading strategies more effectively, and appeared to be more flexible in transferring strategies from L1 to FL compared to less-skilled readers.Keywords: reading awareness, reading strategies, reading difficulties, primary school students

  7. Use of the Mother Tongue in Second Language Classrooms: An Experimental Investigation of Effects on the Attitudes and Writing Performance of Bilingual UK Schoolchildren.

    Garrett, Peter; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study of mother tongue (MT) use in second-language classrooms was conducted in United Kingdom primary schools in two bilingual settings: North Wales (Welsh/English) and Lancashire (Mirpur Punjabi/English). Prewriting activities were carried out with comparable pairs of classes (MT or English, second language). Although attitudes in the MT groups…

  8. Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends

    Tèmítọ́pẹ́ Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.

  9. Parsing Strategies in L1 and L2 Sentence Processing: A Study of Relative Clause Attachment in Greek

    Papadopoulou, Despina; Clahsen, Harald

    2003-01-01

    To contribute to a better understanding of second language (L2) sentence processing, the present study examines how L2 learners parse temporarily ambiguous sentences containing relative clauses. Results are reported from both off-line and on-line experiments with three groups of advanced learners of Greek whose native languages (L1s) were Spanish,…

  10. How Strategic Use of L1 in an L2-Medium Mathematics Classroom Facilitates L2 Interaction and Comprehension

    Tavares, Nicole Judith

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in and hence a growing number of research studies on content and language integrated learning (CLIL) over the past two decades. One of the on-going debates in CLIL is on bilingualism versus monolingualism, or the role of the first language (L1) in subject teaching. So far, very few research projects have been…

  11. Parent Attitudes to Children's L1 Maintenance. A Cross-Sectional Study of Immigrant Groups in the Nordic Countries.

    Holmen, Anne; And Others

    This paper focuses on parents' attitudes about their children's maintenance of their native language (L1). It is part of an inter-nordic study of immigrant languages between generation one and generation two, that interviewed 276 parents of North American, Finnish, Turkish, and Vietnamese origin, residing in Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Sweden.…

  12. L1 Use in EFL Classes with English-only Policy: Insights from Triangulated Data

    Seyyed Hatam Tamimi Sa’d

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of the use of the L1 in EFL classes from the perspective of EFL learners. The triangulated data were collected using class observations, focus group semi-structured interviews and the learners’ written reports of their perceptions and attitudes in a purpose-designed questionnaire. The participants consisted of sixty male Iranian EFL learners who constituted three classes. The results indicated a strong tendency among the participants toward L1 and its positive effects on language learning; while only a minority of the learners favoured an English-only policy, the majority supported the judicious, limited and occasional use of the L1, particularly on the part of the teacher. The participants mentioned the advantages as well as the disadvantages of the use/non-use of the L1. While the major advantage and the main purpose of L1 use was said to be the clarification and intelligibility of instructions, grammatical and lexical items, the main advantages of avoiding it were stated as being the improvement of speaking and listening skills, aximizing learners’ exposure to English and their becoming accustomed to it. The study concludes that, overall and in line with the majority of the previous research studies, a judicious, occasional and limited use of the L1 is a better approach to take in EFL classes than to include or exclude it totally. In conclusion, a re-examination of the English-only policy and a reconsideration of the role of the L1 are recommended. Finally, the commonly held assumption that L1 is a hindrance and an impediment to the learners’ language learning is challenged.

  13. A Short Take on Evaluation and Creative Writing

    James, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Creative writing has been the ugly stepsister in the English discipline for years. On one side, the literature scholars carry the torch for pure language, and, on the other side, the composition and rhetoric theorists approach writing like a science. Somewhere off in a dark corner, the creative writing staff loiters, getting paid to do nothing…

  14. FL Writing Plays a Significant Role in FL Learning

    HouTianzhen

    2004-01-01

    The view of writing as a tool for learning and not just a means to demonstrate learning is one of the major contributions of the research into the writing process (Emig1977). No matter what teaching approaches are applied, the four basic languages kills are interactive and cooperative. In our traditional FL teaching, however, FL writing was always regarded as the most

  15. The Write Stuff: Producing a "How-to" Book

    Mallia, Julie A.; Pawloski, Don; Daisey, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Writing allows students to clarify their thinking. Through the process of writing, students recognize what they know and what they still need to learn. This article describes how a middle school mathematics teacher and language arts teacher worked with a secondary content area literacy professor during a specific writing assignment. The "How-to"…

  16. Cultural Traditions and Writing Differences Between English and Chinese

    鲍甜美

    2014-01-01

    Writing in any language involves more than grammar, vocabulary and spelling. There are thought connections and or-ganization patterns that extend beyond sentences and go deeper than the surface meaning of sentences. This paper compares the differences between English writing and Chinese writing, and explores their cultural traditions.

  17. Scenario Generation via L1 Norm

    Kaňková, Vlasta

    Plzeň: University of West Bohemia, Plzeň, 2015, s. 331-336. ISBN 978-80-261-0539-8. [Mathematical Methods in Economics 2015 /33./. Cheb (CZ), 09.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14445S; GA ČR GA15-10331S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : One-stage stochastic programming problems * multistage stochastic problems * L_1 norm * Wasserstein metric Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/kankova-0454493.pdf

  18. MIND MAPPING: A BRAIN-BASED WRITING STRATEGY

    Ary Setya Budhi Ningrum

    2012-01-01

    In EFL context, it is believed that developing writing skills is more complicated than developing other language skills. In order to be able to write well, the foreign language learners need to be equipped with early and continued writing experiences. Thus, the teacher’s task to develop the students’ writing skill is more complicated than the other skills. One of the most current issues to deal with such phenomena is to ferret out the writing strategy that is able to enhance the students’ wri...

  19. Responding to Literature Texts through Films in English and the L1 within a Multiliteracies Pedagogy

    Shakina Rajendram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study exploring the aesthetic and critical responses of English as a Second Language (ESL learners when engaging in the multimodal design of literature texts through films in English and their first language (L1. Participants consisted of 25 culturally and linguistically heterogeneous first-year undergraduate students in a Literature in English Language Teaching program in a Malaysian public university. The participants engaged in a multi-modal design of the novel Step by Wicked Step by Anne Fine in three phases over a period of eight weeks based on the four components of the multiliteracies approach: situated practice, overt instruction, critical framing, and transformed practice. The transformed practice component of this approach involved students making and presenting short films both in English and in a local Malaysian language or dialect. Data for the study came from six focal participants’ journal reflections throughout the project and semi-structured interviews with them. The findings showed that the multimodal design of texts through films in the L1 increased personal meaningfulness and intercultural understanding. It also allowed learners to function as language experts, take liberties with the text, and look beyond the text for inspiration from dramas and movies.Keywords: Multiliteracies, Multimodal, Literature, Reader Response, L1, ESL

  20. Using Translation Exercises in the Communicative EFL Writing Classroom

    Kim, Eun-Young

    2011-01-01

    Implementing process pedagogy in an L2 writing classroom has its own limits for students with low English proficiency. Although L1 writers commonly benefit from writing multiple drafts, most of the low English level Korean college students in my English composition class did not benefit from the revisions. This article introduces an innovative…

  1. Preparing ESL Students for "Real" College Writing: A Glimpse of Common Writing Tasks ESL Students Encounter at One Community College

    Carroll, Julia; Dunkelblau, Helene

    2011-01-01

    The relevance of English as a Second Language (ESL) courses to the "real world" of college writing is an ongoing issue for those who teach ESL. Ideally, ESL composition classes should help students make connections between what they learn about writing and the ways they might need to write later on in their academic careers. Unfortunately, as with…

  2. The Effect of Concept Mapping on L2 Writing Performance: Examining Possible Effects of Trait-Level Writing Anxiety

    Machida, Naoko; Dalsky, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students' learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students' writing anxiety.…

  3. The Application of TBA in English Writing Teaching

    LV Chun-hao

    2015-01-01

    The theory of Task-based Approach (TBA), an influential language teaching and learning theory, was put forward by lan⁃guage teaching scholars and the second language acquisition researchers based on long-period study and practice. They contend that it is important and useful to make full use of tasks in the classroom. The argument mentioned as above has had a great impact on the means of English teaching and studying in language learning. Nowadays, teaching English writing is becoming more and more important, but there are many problems existing in English writing teaching in Chinese junior middle school. How to improve the quality of English writing teaching and students’writing ability has become a focus in our education. In this study, TBA was tentatively applied in writing teaching as a way to help to improve the English writing teaching and students ’writing ability.

  4. In-Service Teachers' Perspectives on Adolescent ELL Writing Instruction

    Kibler, Amanda K.; Heny, Natasha A.; Andrei, Elena

    2016-01-01

    As writing has assumed increasing importance in discussions of pedagogy for diverse classrooms, attention to the contexts in which secondary teachers develop and implement writing instruction for adolescent English language learners (ELLs) is of great importance. Drawing on ecological language learning theories and situated teacher learning theory…

  5. Alternative Assessment: Directed Creative Writing for Intermediate Level Students.

    Fidalgo, Reyes I.

    Use of a directed creative writing exercise to assess intermediate language students' skills is discussed. The technique was developed for second-year college Spanish instruction as an alternative to conventional writing tests in which anxiety or lack of motivation may inhibit performance. Differences in the nature of language skills (listening,…

  6. L1 retrotransposition can occur early in human embryonic development

    J.A.J.M. van den Hurk (José); I.C. Meij (Iwan); M. del Carmen Seleme (Maria); H. Kano (Hiroki); K. Nikopoulos (Konstantinos); E.H. Hoefsloot (Lies); E.A. Sistermans (Erik); I.J. de Wijs (Ilse); A. Mukhopadhyay (Arijit); A. Plomp (Astrid); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); H.H. Kazazian (Haig); F.P.M. Cremers (Frans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractL1 elements are autonomous retrotransposons that can cause hereditary diseases. We have previously identified a full-length L1 insertion in the CHM (choroideremia) gene of a patient with choroideremia, an X-linked progressive eye disease. Because this L1 element, designated L1CHM, contai

  7. First language Influences in Second Language Reading

    董清

    2014-01-01

    The influence of L1 has been traditional y studied by SLA from the perspective of language transfer. Previous research has proved from different perspectives that the reliance on L1 is evitable in L2 reading process. The research provides an in-depth study of the actual role L1 played in L2 reading, which enriched the SLA study of L1 translation in the area of reading comprehension, al owed us to think the L1 influence from learner’s mental process. Understanding of the actual role L1 plays in L2 reading helps us to better study the L2 reading process, which wil in turn contribute greatly to improve learners L2 reading performance.

  8. Profiles of Japanese Writers in L1 and L2.

    Takagaki, Toshiyuki

    This study examined the writing profiles of three Japanese writers with distinctly different writing experiences, investigating participants' school writing experiences and attitudes toward writing, characteristics of the composing process, and teaching implications. The three Japanese participants included an experienced writer in both Japanese…

  9. Teaching writing in Arabic to raise students’ environmental awareness attitude

    Aceng Rahmat

    2015-01-01

    This model of material development for teaching writing is based on the genre approach. The aim of teaching, in addition to improving the ability of writing, is also to improve the students’ awareness attitude toward the environment. Learning Arabic through the genre approach gives the emphasis on the language use in accordance with the functions of language. The model of teaching material development integrates the knowledge of writing, written material and caring attitude. The techniques us...

  10. Penetrate Oral Communication Training in Secondary Vocational Chinese Language Reading and Writing Teaching%在中职语文阅读与写作教学中渗透口语交际训练

    乐艳

    2015-01-01

    近些年来,随着中职新大纲的发布,新课程改革的推进,人们越来越深刻地意识到,口语教学的成效直接影响着语文教学的成果,对提升教学质量形成一种制约。因此,提高口语交际教学的效率,力求建立起一套科学的教学体系,探寻能在语文教学中提高学生的口语交际能力的有效策略,就成为中职语文教学研究的重要课题。本文初步探讨了在中职语文阅读和写作教学中,如何渗透口语交际训练。%In recent years, with the release of new outline vocational, promote the new curriculum reform, people more and more deeply aware of the effectiveness of oral teaching of a direct impact on the outcome of language teaching, to enhance the quality of teaching to form a constraint. Therefore, improving the efficiency of teaching oral communication, and strive to establish a scientific system of teaching, exploring can improve students' oral communicative competence in language tea-ching effective strategies, it has become an important topic in the study of language teaching post. This article was discussed in vocational language teaching reading and writing, how to penetrate the oral communication training.

  11. 浅议曹禺对契诃夫戏剧语言的民族化探索%On the Nationalization of Chekhov’ s Dramatic Language in Cao Yu’ s Writing

    周海云

    2016-01-01

    不同于莎士比亚戏剧语言的华丽典雅,契诃夫擅长通过简洁凝练的语言,挖掘探索人物内心世界,使原本生活化的对白充满诗意,意味深长。生活在大变革时代下的曹禺,在吸收西方戏剧思想,进行创作的过程中,以自己对现实生活的深刻体验为基础,将中国古典文学中的意境表现手法融入到现实主义的创作风格中,形成其富于民族审美,独具特色的戏剧风格。试以戏剧语言为视角,展现曹禺在对西方戏剧艺术民族化探索过程中的大胆创新与辛苦付出,以此深化我们对其经典作品的理解。%Being different from the magnificent and elegant language in the drama of Shakespeare , Chekhov is expert in reflec-ting people's inner world with concise and poetic language which makes plain dialogues meaningful .CaoYu, a playwright gaining profound experience in the heavily transforming times , integrates artistic conception of Chinese classical literature and the thought of the western drama into his realistic drama writing .Thus his unique drama language is full of national aesthetic culture .The paper makes an illustration of Cao Yu ’ s innovative creation and hard work in nationalizing western drama from the perspective of dramatic language , so as to help the appreciation of his classical works .

  12. ‘If I has a lot of money…’: learner errors in foreign language writing1 | ‘Si yo tuvieras mucho dinero…’: errores del aprendiz en la escritura en lengua extranjera

    María Dolores García-Pastor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research explores Spanish Secondary Education students’ errors in English as a foreign language (EFL writing. More specifically, this study belongs to the field of second language acquisition, and adopts a product-oriented perspective on writing coupled with taking Error Analysis and Transfer Analysis as a starting point to deal with learner errors. The results of this study show that an analysis of learner errors in EFL can provide information that may help teachers plan future lessons, design class materials, and make decisions on correction techniques more attuned with learners’ needs. Resumen El presente trabajo explora los errores de estudiantes españoles de Educación Secundaria en sus producciones escritas en inglés como lengua extranjera (ILE. En concreto, este estudio se sitúa en el campo de adquisición de segundas lenguas, y adopta una perspectiva sobre la escritura orientada al producto, tomando el análisis de errores y el análisis de la transferencia como puntos de partida para examinar los errores de estos estudiantes. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que un análisis de los errores de los aprendices de lengua extranjera puede proporcionar información que ayude al profesorado a planificar futuras intervenciones didácticas, diseñar materiales para el aula, y tomar decisiones sobre técnicas de corrección que se ajusten en mayor medida a las necesidades de sus estudiantes.

  13. Report Writing

    Behnke, Eric

    In a short and precise way this compendium guides how to write an Engineering Report. The compendium is primarily targeting Engineering Students in thier first and second semester but it might as well be used by students at other technical bachelor educations......In a short and precise way this compendium guides how to write an Engineering Report. The compendium is primarily targeting Engineering Students in thier first and second semester but it might as well be used by students at other technical bachelor educations...

  14. Using Collateral Material To Improve Writing Performance.

    Taylor, Monica E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the extent to which the provision of selected collateral material can enhance students' enjoyment of their writing tasks, and their performance in a context where although English is the official language, it is little used and much resisted by students for whom the language of choice for social interaction is the local Creole.…

  15. Programming Language and Artificial Intelligence Development.

    Mrs. Rekha Purohit; Prof. Prabhat Mathur

    2013-01-01

    The term language means communication tool which is used to write Computer program and develop application, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. Computer programming languages are used to write programs that define the behavior of a computer system. They are based on certain syntactic and semantic rules, which define the meaning of each of the programming language constructs. The syntactic and the semantic rules of every programming language define the language imp...

  16. Traductor Writing System Web

    Texier, Jose

    2012-01-01

    A compilator is a program which is development in a programming language that read a file known as source. After this file have to translate and have to convert in other program known as object or to generate a exit. The best way for to know any programming language is analizing a compilation process which is same in all programming paradigm existents. To like to generate a tool that permit a learning in university course. This course could explain in any plataform such as Linux o Windows. This goal is posible through development a Web aplication which is unite with a compilator, it is Traductor Writing System (Sistema de Escritura de Traductores). This system is complete and permit extend and modify the compilator. The system is a module in Moodle which is a Course Management System (CMS) that help teachers for to create comunities of learning in line. This software is in free software license (GPL).

  17. Improving Undergraduates’ Argumentative Group Essay Writing through Self-assessment

    Yong Mei Fung; Hooi Chee Mei

    2015-01-01

    When writing an argumentative essay, writers develop and evaluate arguments to embody, initiate, or simulate various kinds of interpersonal and textual interaction for reader consideration (Wu & Allison, 2003). This is quite challenging for English as a second language (ESL) learners. To improve the quality of their writing, students need to review their draft throughout the writing process. This study aimed to investigate the effect of self-assessment in group writing and how group work ...

  18. Look at the Impact of Two Paralinguistic Element On English Writing from the English Writing Test

    孙贻红

    2015-01-01

    By demonstrating the mistakes made by Chinese students in English writing test,this paper tends to explore the impact of two paralinguistic elements i.e.cultural background and stylistics on English writing so as to penetrate the important role of paralinguistic cognition in Foreign Language Teaching.

  19. The Effects of Peer Feedback on The Writing Anxiety of Prospective Turkish Teachers of EFL

    Gökçe KURT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies done in L1/L2 English settings have revealed the negative effects of writing anxiety on both learner motivation and academic achievement and teachers’ attitudes towards writing and the practices they use in their own classes. The present study aims to find out the effects of peer feedback on the writing anxiety of Turkish prospective teachers (PTs of English. A total of 86 PTs of English participated in this study. During the eight-week study, PTs in the experimental group, who had been given a training on peer feedback, were asked to work in pairs in their writing class, give feedback on each other’s essays and discuss their feedback with each other before handing them to their instructors. On the other hand, PTs in the control group received only teacher feedback on their essays. Data were collected by means of the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 given at the beginning and end of the study and by means of interviews carried out with 20 experimental group PTs at the end of the term. Results of the quantitative data showed that the peer feedback group experienced significantly less writing anxiety than the teacher feedback group at the end of the study. The interview results revealed that the participating PTs benefited from the peer feedback process as with the feedback of their friends they became aware of their mistakes. Moreover, during the process they received opinions from their friends to elaborate on, and this collaboration helped them look at their essays from a different perspective.

  20. The Effectiveness of Adopting E-Readers to Facilitate EFL Students' Process-Based Academic Writing

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    English as Foreign Language (EFL) students face additional difficulties for academic writing largely due to their level of language competency. An appropriate structural process of writing can help students develop their academic writing skills. This study explored the use of the e-readers to facilitate EFL students' process-based academic…

  1. Second Language Reading Research: A Critical Review

    Hazelrigg, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    Second language research and classroom practice have tended to sideline reading in favor of an emphasis on the oral language development of the English Language Learner (ELL). First-language (L1) reading research is well developed but has limited usefulness to the teacher or researcher interested in second-language (L2) reading. Developing L2…

  2. Cultural Transfer as an Obstacle for Writing Well in English: The Case of Arabic Speakers Writing in English

    Ruwaida Abu Rass

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews and strengthens the data on cultural transfer by Arab Muslim students writing in English and adds the significant element of the cultural impact of Islam on such writing. This qualitative study examines the writing of 18 teacher trainees at an Arab language teacher training college in Israel. Results point to a strong cultural influence appearing in the students' writing. It is suggested that greater consideration should be given to the first and the target culture when des...

  3. THE EFFECT OF A FIGURE WHERE SYMMETRY USED IN TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IS APPLIED ON WRITING SKILLS OF TURKISH LANGUAGE AND PRIMARY MATHEMATICS TEACHING 1ST GRADE STUDENTS

    Mine AKTAŞ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With this study, it is aimed to afford an artistic development for science of mathematics with using literary language and learn with associating visual themes and imaginariness in essays. In the study, different written expression works, which are composed about same symmetric figure, of first grade preservice teachers of Turkish Language and Mathematics Teaching are compared.This study will put forth the grasp of communication skill of preservice students who are implementers of new program of Turkish and Mathematics lesson used from 2005 and in which the importance of this skill is emphasized. Also this study will contribute education of preservice students henceforwards.

  4. Reflections on Native Language Use in Adult ESL Classrooms

    Huerta-Macias, Ana; Kephart, Kerrie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of native language (L1) use in adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes, re-examining the belief that use of the students' L1 is detrimental to target language learning. We discuss research that (a) documents language use in several adult ESL classes in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands, and (b) presents survey…

  5. So, What's Behind Adult English Second Language Reading?

    August, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) grammatical knowledge to English second language reading (ESLR), with the objective of understanding this relationship in the context of the transfer of L1 skills to second language (L2) academic processes. Fifty-five adult, native Spanish-speaking English-language learners were given…

  6. Best practices in writing instruction

    Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner

  7. Implementing Keyword and Question Generation Approaches in Teaching EFL Summary Writing

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Summary writing has been considered an important aspect of academic writing. However, writing summaries can be a challenging task for the majority of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Research into teaching summary writing has focused on different processes to teach EFL learners. The present study adopted two methods--keyword and…

  8. Impact of Writing Interventions Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics with a Focus on Tenor, on Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade English Language Learners

    Holmgren, Katherine Hayes

    2012-01-01

    This action research study examines the impact instruction informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) with a particular focus on tenor and socio-cultural theory has on sixth, seventh and eighth grade English language learners in an urban school. Over the course of seven and 1/2 months I used Systemic Functional Linguistics with a focus on…

  9. The Development of Oromo Writing System

    Degeneh Bijiga, Teferi

    2015-01-01

    The development and use of languages for official, education, religion, etc. purposes have been a major political issue in many developing multilingual countries. A number of these countries, including China and India, have recognised the issues and developed language policies that have provided some ethnic groups with the right to develop their languages and cultures by using writing systems based on scripts suitable for these purposes. On the other hand, other countries, such as Ethiopia (a...

  10. Improving the 5th Formers’ Continuous Writing Skills through the Creative Writing Module

    Mohana Ram Murugiah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a complex task. The development of students’ writing skill depends on the teacher’s teaching strategy and also the materials used in the writing lesson. In the present study, the effectiveness of a creative writing module was examined that was designed to improve the writing skill of a group of excellent students. It was added with explicit teaching strategies. The selected group of students were students who were in the excellent group but lacked creativity and vocabulary in their writing. The creative writing module was designed to help these students. Students’ improvement was observed through observation in the classrooms during the lessons and through writing task as well as interviews. Two observations were made. One was before the creative writing project was started and another after the completion of the entire task of the module. The interview was carried out to learn about the students’ perception of the module and how do they find the module has helped them.  The result of the research showed that students have shown a great level of improvement in their writing skills. The outcome of this present study could be useful to assist language instructors in helping proficient learners to undergo a more effective second language learning experience.

  11. English Major Students’ Perceptions of Academic Writing: A Struggle between Writing to Learn and Learning to Write

    Hasan Sağlamel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though writing as a language skill takes a back seat especially with reference to the natural order hypothesis, appreciation of writing in academic settings propel learners to challenge the validity of this order. It is not surprising therefore that writing deserves a higher priority in academic settings due much to its immediate practical application in a variety of academic tasks such as examination questions, essays, research reports, dissertation thesis and so on. In line with this constant practice with writing, English majoring students are quite usually subject to production of texts in the academic essay genre and desire to position themselves in academic discourse community through following the desired academic conventions. However, a considerable number of students fail to achieve the desired proficiency; cultural variations intrude into the language classrooms and differences in meaning learners attach to the writing activities are evident, which makes it necessary to explore students’ perceptions from academic writing courses. To this end, questionnaires on students’ writing efficacy were distributed to the freshman students enrolled in Academic Writing class, and interviews were carried out to have a broader understanding of the expectations from the course. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using the SPSS and content analysis was employed to analyze the interviews.

  12. Using a shared L1 to reduce cognitive overload and anxiety levels in the L2 classroom.

    Bruen, Jennifer; Kelly, Niamh

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the attitudes and behaviours of University language lecturers and their students regarding the use of the L1 in the higher education L2 classroom. A case-study of one Irish Higher Education Institution was carried out and qualitative interviews conducted with six lecturers in Japanese and six in German. The results indicated widespread support among the participants for the judicious use of the L1 in limited instances particularly where it can facilitate a reduction in co...

  13. The problems inherent in teaching technical writing and report writing to native Americans

    Zukowski/faust, J.

    1981-01-01

    Teaching technical writing to Native Americans contending with a second language and culture is addressed. Learning difficulties arising from differences between native and acquired language and cultural systems are examined. Compartmentalized teaching, which presents the ideals of technical writing in minimal units, and skills development are considered. Rhetorical problems treated include logic of arrangement, selection of support and scope of detail, and time and space. Specific problems selected include the concept of promptness, the contextualization of purpose, interpersonal relationships, wordiness, mixture of registers, and the problem of abstracting. Four inductive procedures for students having writing and perception problems are included. Four sample exercises and a bibliography of 13 references are also included.

  14. Theoretical Study of First Language Transfer in Second Language Learning

    邱达希

    2015-01-01

    The role and impact of first language knowledge and how it affects Chinese learners’ learning process are significant issues in second language learning.In discussing the role of first language transfer in second language learning,the theoretical understanding of first language transfer will be considered.The next section will go into further detail in the implications and suggestions for teaching and learning English writing and finally conclusions will be drawn from the reading and discussions within this paper.

  15. Theoretical Study of First Language Transfer in Second Language Learning

    邱达希

    2015-01-01

    The role and impact offirst language knowledge and how it affects Chinese learners' learning process are significant issues in second language learning.In discussing the role of first language transfer in second language learning,the theoretical understanding of first language transfer will be considered.The next section will go into further detail in the implications and suggestions for teaching and learning English writing and finally conclusions will be drawn from the reading and discussions within this paper.

  16. 基于创新教学理论的小学低年段母语课堂读写教学研究%Research on Native Language Classroom Reading and Writing Teaching Based on the Theory of Innovation Teaching in the Elementary School Low Section

    杨婷婷

    2014-01-01

    在小学低年段的母语教学中,阅读和写作在课堂教学中占据着重要的地位。在创新教学理论的背景下,构建以母语课堂为基础的小学低年段课堂读写教学,对当前的新课程教学改革来说具有十分显著的意义。基于此,将在小学课堂中提出构建母语课堂读写教学的构想,并观察读写教学的效果,从而提升小学低年段学生的读写质量以及母语教学质量。%In the elementary school low section of native language tea ching,reading and writing occupies the important position in the classroom teaching. Under the background of innovation of teaching theory,and build on the basis of the language classroom teaching in the elementary school low section of the classroom,speaking,reading and writing,and for the current new curriculum teaching reform has the significant significance. Based on this,the teacher will read and write the language classroom is proposed in the primary school classroom in the teaching idea,and observe the effect of the reading and writing teaching,to improve the quality of speaking,reading and writing of students in the elementary school low section as well as the native language teaching quality.

  17. The Writing Consultation: Developing Academic Writing Practices

    Murray, Rowena; Thow, Morag; Moore, Sarah; Murphy, Maura

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and analyses a specific mechanism, the writing consultation, designed to help academics to prioritise, reconceptualise and improve their writing practices. It makes the case for its potential to stimulate consideration of writing practices and motivations, a possible precondition for creating time for writing in academic…

  18. PD-L1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

    Schalper, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    Upon analysis of 636 primary breast carcinoma patient samples, we have found that programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) mRNA expression is associated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Furthermore, PD-L1 expression and elevated TILs were associated with longer recurrence-free survival. Thus, our findings indicate that PD-L1 is prognostic in breast cancer and suggests a functional link between TILs and tumor PD-L1 upregulation.

  19. GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO

    Rosaria Solarino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

  20. Talking and writing in a foreigner language in CLIL contexts: a linguistic analysis of secondary school learners of Geography and History

    Llinares García, Ana María; Dovey, Rachel Whittaker

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of spoken and written productions in English by early secondary school Spanish students (11-12 year olds), collected in two state schools which have just started introducing CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) in a number of disciplines. A topic selected from the curriculum for Geography and History was the focus of a class discussion in a revision session led by the teacher, which was recorded for the oral data. The written data consisted of a sho...