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1

Revising in Two Languages: A Multi-Dimensional Comparison of Online Writing Revisions in L1 and FL  

Science.gov (United States)

It has frequently been claimed that, in foreign language writing, attention to linguistic processes inhibits attention available for higher level conceptual processing [e.g., Chenoweth & Hayes, 2001; Whalen & Menard, 1995]. This study examines this hypothesis for foreign language revision processes by comparing online revisions made by 22 Dutch…

Stevenson, Marie; Schoonen, Rob; de Glopper, Kees

2006-01-01

2

Modeling the Development of L1 and EFL Writing Proficiency of Secondary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed several writing tasks in both languages in three…

Schoonen, Rob; van Gelderen, Amos; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Hulstijn, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

2011-01-01

3

Foreign Language Writing and Translation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In L1 writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose L1 is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they ...

2003-01-01

4

Business Writing: Using Interactional Language.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the importance of teaching the interactional use of language in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) business writing classes, and addresses some common problems that result from inappropriate business communication. Highlights the interactional use of language as opposed to the transactional use of language. (Author/VWL)

Jianmin, Ding

1999-01-01

5

The Effect of L2 Writing Ability on L1 Writing Ability  

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This study was an attempt to examine the effect of L2 writing ability on L1 writing ability from a multilingual perspective. To this end, 120 students of Isfahan University, half English majors and half non-English majors, were assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 30 English major senior students, 30 English major freshman students, 30 non-English major senior students and 30 non-English major freshman students (Accounting and Management majors). All the participants were asked to write a para...

Mahmood Hashemian

2011-01-01

6

Good Language Learner: A Case Study of Writing Strategies  

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The search for the common features of “good language learners” has obsessed scholars such as Naiman et al. (1978), Rubin (1975), and Stevick (1989). Regarding those with good writing skill in particular, some (Angelova, 1999; Beare, 2000; Victori, 1995) list some features such as language proficiency, L1 writing competence, use of cohesive devices, meta cognitive knowledge about the writing task. The purpose of this study was to find the cognitive and metacognitive strategies of a...

2012-01-01

7

Key Issues in Foreign Language Writing  

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In this article, four second language writing specialists address the following significant questions related to foreign language (FL) writing instruction: (1) How is FL writing different from English as a second language writing? (2) How does the sociolin-guistic role of a given FL influence how writing is employed in the overall curriculum for…

Reichelt, Melinda; Lefkowitz, Natalie; Rinnert, Carol; Schultz, Jean Marie

2012-01-01

8

English-Language Writing Instruction in Poland  

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Second language writing scholars have undertaken descriptions of English-language writing instruction in a variety of international settings, describing the role of various contextual factors in shaping English-language writing instruction. This article describes English-language writing instruction at various levels in Poland, noting how it is…

Reichelt, Melinda

2005-01-01

9

Writing in first and second language: empirical studies on text quality and writing processes  

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This thesis is about writing proficiency among students of secondary education. Due to globalization, the ability to express oneself in a language other than the first language (L1) is increasingly becoming a condition for educational success. In The Netherlands, this ‘other’ or second language (L2) is usually English. Although secondary school students are already quite able to express themselves in English, their L2 essays are often of lower quality than L1 essays, in terms of language ...

Tillema, M.

2012-01-01

10

Panel: Opportunities and Challenges of Writing in a Second Language  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The advancement of Globalization has simultaneously diluted the need for writing in languages other then English and made us more aware of differences between diverse cultures. Hence, writing in a second/foreign language has acquired a new role. In order for individuals to compete on the international scale, they have to master a foreign language. Yet, the processes and elements of tasks involved in writing in L1 and L2 are far from identical. When writing in the L2, individual writers inevitably engage in the changing contexts between the language uses of L1 and L2 and apply their learned knowledge and principles to the writing situations they perceive as suitable or doable. Studentsâ?? perception about the role of language in Globalized world and language learning, as well as their self-perception plays an integral role in their ability to transfer knowledge when writing in a second/foreign language. This is particularly true when one teaches adult groups of students who have already formed distinct identities as academically and professionally successful L1 writers. The participants of our panel will look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest in finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writerâ??s identity. To further examine and understand the nature of writing across different contexts, the panel will consider how student attitudes and perceptions play into writer development and knowledge transfer from L1 to L2. The participants will explore the opportunities and problems of writing in L2, as well as the effects that second/foreign language writing has on writersâ?? identities, by asking the following guiding questions: 1). How do students develop identities and self-perceptions as L1 and L2 writers? How and to what degree, are their identities as L1 and L2 writers similar or different from each other? 2). How do students develop beliefs and attitudes towards L2 writing? How do their L1 writing experiences inform their L2 writing strategies? How do rhetorical and discursive strategies of L1 writing impact studentsâ?? learning of L2 writing and should such impact be viewed as an opportunity or as a problem when teaching second/foreign language writing? 3). What type of support do students need to become better L2 writers? What are their particular pedagogical needs? How can writing instructors or practitioners best support our students in achieving their goals as second/foreign language writers, and transferring their academic writing skills from one language into another, or from one context to another? Method: Through surveys, questionnaires, students feedback and analysis of students writing, the panel participants will look at the possibilities and problems of writing transfer from L1 to L2, as well as the effects that second language writing has on writersâ?? native identities, especially in the circumstances when they are already seeing the blurring frontiers between native and foreign cultural realms. Cross-context research into second/foreignlanguage writing is essential for a clearer and broader picture to emerge on L2 writing. To this end, the panel will bring together specialists from around the world, from different types of institutions, with different student bodies, who will present their research on teaching and learning L2 writing in diverse linguistic, cultural, institutional, and pedagogical contexts. We invite the audience to look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest of finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writersâ?? identities. This panel will also address the need for designing more successful approaches to supporting studentsâ?? writing skills and to teaching advanced level writing in the second/foreign language classroom by examining studentsâ?? perception of writing and, more specifically, the link between L1 and L2 writing experiences. References: Literacy-based language learning (Richard Kern 2000, Claire Krasch, 1993); Wiring assessment (Carl Bereiter, 1995); Learning and

Kupatadze, Ketevan; Chiu, Scott C.

11

Study on L1 Transfer in English Writing of Chinese College Students  

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Full Text Available Language transfer has long been a controversial topic in applied linguistics, second language acquisition, and language teaching for more than 100 years. The paper concentrates on several aspects that have an especially important bearing on tle study of L1 transfer in English writing of Chinese college students: causes , differences between English and Chinese discourse analysis and characteristics of English and Chinese syntactical structure.
Key words: L1 transfer, English writing, Chinese students, discourse analysis
Résumé: 100 ans se sont passés depuis que le transfert linguistique est devenu un thème d’étude important dans la linguistique appliquée, l’acquisition de la deuxième langue et l’enseignement-apprentissage des langues. Commençant par les différences du texte et celles de la syntaxe entre l’anglais et le chinois, l’article présent analyse essentiellement les causes et les caractéristiques du phénomène de transfert de la langue maternelle dans la rédaction anglaise des étudiants chinois.
Mots-clés: transfert de la langue maternelle, rédaction en anglais, étudiants chinois, analyse du texte
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Qiu-juan ZHU

2007-06-01

12

Good Language Learner: A Case Study of Writing Strategies  

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Full Text Available The search for the common features of “good language learners” has obsessed scholars such as Naiman et al. (1978, Rubin (1975, and Stevick (1989. Regarding those with good writing skill in particular, some (Angelova, 1999; Beare, 2000; Victori, 1995 list some features such as language proficiency, L1 writing competence, use of cohesive devices, meta cognitive knowledge about the writing task. The purpose of this study was to find the cognitive and metacognitive strategies of a successful learner in writing skill (considering those suggested by Arndt, 1987; Wenden, 1991. Tina, a 27 year old language learner with a BS degree in architecture, was found the most suitable case based on the teacher`s observation of her good writing and the analysis of Oxford's (1990 strategy inventory for language learning (SILL administered. The data collected from the observation of her writing, the think-aloud protocol and the interview showed that Tina made use of most of the cognitive and metacognitive strategies listed but there was no evidence of L1 reliance in her L2 writing. The data also revealed that she was highly good at using prefabricated phrases and sentences in her writing.

Parviz Maftoon

2012-08-01

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TEACHING CREATIVE WRITING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM  

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Full Text Available Writing, like all other aspects of language, is communicative. In our real life we write e-mails, notes, covering letters, reports, curriculums, assignments, essays and so on. Some of us write articles or work on forums and websites. A few write stories and poems. All of these writing tasks have a communicative purpose and a target audience. In the English language classroom, however, writing often lacks this. There are many reasons, as there are lots of ways to make the writing, we do with learners more communicative. There are many areas in which language learners can benefit from creative writing. Students express themselves and their own ideas. Most teachers would agree that what we want to say, what comes from the heart, we are happier to work on. Creative Writing (CW can be very stimulating and a lot of fun. Creative writing involves playful but rigorous work with language. A lot of people seem to associate creative writing with an "anything goes" mentality. However, in order to produce a good text, poem, short story or dramatic scene, the language needs to be correct and it needs to work. Creative Writing requires greater precision in expression. In order to say precisely what they mean, students have to be very careful in their use of vocabulary and idioms. In this article, an effort is made to discuss the characteristics and difficulties of CW and similarly, a few ideas for CW writing, benefits of CW and solutions to simplify and make it interesting is presented.

MARKU MONIS AND . M. V. RODRIQUES

2012-11-01

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Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi and L2 (English writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of the framework provided by Johnson and Roen (1992, and Chafe and Danielwicz (1987. The results indicated that Iranian students (female and male did not make significantly different uses of L1 and L2 complimenting in terms of form and strategies. Also, the gender of the addressees was not accommodated to by the addressors differently as regards the use of form and strategies of complimenting in L1 and L2. The results suggest that L1 and L2, if used under some formal class based conditions, tend to become maximally similar, showing no transfer of L1 potentiality into L2.

Gholam Reza Zarei

2011-04-01

15

Foreign Language Writing and Translation  

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Abstract: In LI writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose LI is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or...

2002-01-01

16

Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher  

Science.gov (United States)

Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

Kalt, Susan E.

2012-01-01

17

Writing in English as a Second Language  

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The aim of this essay was to extend my knowledge of teaching writing and children's attitudes towards writing in English. I chose to focus my study on grade six, as I had the opportunity to work with two different classes in Linköping and Södertälje. I assigned them a free writing task as well as a questinnaire. In the literture study I intended to extend my knowledge of the process of writing in a second language. Throught the course of my research I have come to understand how important...

Heinonen, Elisabeth

2001-01-01

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Cerebral mechanisms for different second language writing systems.  

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In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of Japanese (of syllabic Kana only) whose L1 was English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). During English reading, the L2 readers of English (Japanese-L1/English-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the left superior parietal lobule/supramarginal gyrus, relative to the L1 readers of English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). This is a region considered to be involved in phonological processing. The increased activation in the Japanese-L1/English-L2 group likely reflects the increased cognitive load associated with L2 English reading, possibly because L1 readers of Kana, which has an extremely regular orthography, may need to adjust to the greater phonological demands of the irregular L2 English orthography. In contrast, during Kana reading, the L2 readers of Japanese Kana (English-L1/Japanese-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the lingual gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres compared to the L1 readers of Kana (Japaese-L1/English-L2). This additional activation is likely to reflect the lower level of visual familiarity to the L2 symbols in the English-L1/Japanese-L2 group; Kana symbols are uniquely used only in Japan, whereas Roman alphabetic symbols are seen nearly everywhere. These findings, bolstered by significant relationships between the activation of the identified regions and cognitive competence, suggest that the cerebral mechanisms for L2 reading in late learners depends both on which language is their L1 and which language is to be learnt as their L2. Educational implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23938321

Koyama, Maki S; Stein, John F; Stoodley, Catherine J; Hansen, Peter C

2013-09-01

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L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer  

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This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

2013-01-01

20

Generation 1.5 Writing Compared to L1 and L2 Writing in First-Year Composition  

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Recently, scholars have suggested that "second-language writers" are made up of two distinct groups: Generation 1.5 (long-term U.S.-resident language learners) and more traditional L2 students (e.g., international or recently arrived immigrants). To investigate that claim, this study compares the first-year composition writing of Generation 1.5…

Doolan, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Linguistic Audacity: Shakespeare's Language and Student Writing  

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Shakespeare molded language to meet his needs. Can students learn from his example? In this article, the author suggests studying Shakespeare's creative use of functional shift, spelling, and vocabulary to help students develop greater control of their own writing. The author is advocating that teachers approach Shakespeare as descriptive…

Goodman, Barbara A.

2011-01-01

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Computational Assessment of Lexical Differences in L1 and L2 Writing  

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The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of how lexical differences related to cohesion and connectionist models can distinguish first language (L1) writers of English from second language (L2) writers of English. Key to this analysis is the use of the computational tool Coh-Metrix, which measures cohesion and text difficulty at…

Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

2009-01-01

23

The Use of Online Corrective Feedback in Academic Writing by L1 Malay Learners  

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Full Text Available Conventional corrective feedback has been widely practiced but has been said to be tedious, stressful and time consuming. As such, the focus of this study is to investigate the use of an alternative method to giving corrective feedback namely, an online corrective feedback through e-mail. In order to examine if this innovative form of corrective feedback can be applied to the teaching and learning of academic writing, an experimental design was used with a control group and an experimental group of L1 Malay learners who were pursuing an academic writing course at the tertiary level. Interviews were also conducted on selected individuals to determine whether the use of online corrective feedback was practical in assisting learners improve their writing from the first draft to the final product. The statistical analysis applied to this research indicated that online corrective feedback may be an effective way to improve writing skills of learners and save time. Thus, the results showed that online corrective feedback should be potentially useful when integrated into the teaching and learning of academic writing.

Soo Kum Yoke

2013-11-01

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Comparison of University Level EFL Learners' Linguistic and Rhetorical Patterns as Reflected in Their L1 and L2 Writing  

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Full Text Available This study focused on the linguistic and rhetorical patterns of L1 and L2 writing samples of Iranian EFL learners and aimed to determine possible quantitative differences. For this purpose, an intact EFL class including 30 Iranian EFL learners at an English department (F=21, M=9 was selected and the participants were asked to write English and Persian compositions on the same topic in an argumentative style in two separate sessions. These tasks were then holistically scored according to the ESL Composition Profile (Jacobs et. al. 1981 by two expert scorers. The number of words, number of words per sentences, number of spelling errors and number of T-units were also manually counted for both the English and the Persian tasks. The collected data were used to compare and contrast the linguistic and rhetorical patterns of the L1 and L2 writing samples. The results of the study showed that: a there was a moderate positive correlation (r=0.47 p<0.05 between L1 and L2 writing total scores, b texts written in L1 were significantly longer than those written in L2, c L1 writing texts were more complex than L2 writing ones in terms of T-units, d T-units in texts written in L1 were more than those written in L2, and e the number of spelling errors in L2 writing samples were higher than those of L1 writing samples. These results were compared to those of similar studies comparing L1 and L2 writing. Implications arising from these findings were also explained.

Abbas ZARE-EE

2009-10-01

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Collaborative Writing: Fostering Foreign Language and Writing Conventions Development  

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The use of social technologies, such as wikis and chats, has brought a renewed attention to L2 collaborative writing. Yet, a question that still remains to be answered is the extent to which learners’ writing is enhanced when using these tools. By analyzing learners’ individual and collaborative writing, this study (a) explores L2 learners’ approaches to the writing task in the wikis, (b) examines learners’ collaborative synchronous interactions when discussing content, structure and ...

2010-01-01

26

A Think-aloud Protocols Investigation of Saudi English Major Students’ Writing Revision Strategies in L1 (Arabic and L2 (English  

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Full Text Available This study investigates the writing revision strategies used by 16 Saudi English as foreign language (EFL students. Two research methods were employed. First, think-aloud reporting was used to gain insightinto the thought processes utilized by the students, and to study the revision strategies that Saudi maleuniversity students make use of while writing compositions in L1 Arabic and L2 English. Second, a semi-structured interview was conducted with the aim of supporting the think-aloud data. Analysis of the think-aloud sessions and the interviews revealed that most of the time, strategies were used more frequently when students wrote in English rather than when they wrote in Arabic. In addition, it was found thatin general, specific strategies used when writing in Arabic were also used when writing and vice versa.

Eid Alhaisoni

2012-07-01

27

Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing

Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

2011-01-01

28

Beliefs and Practices about Writing in a Foreign Language among Economists Working in Two Languages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Product-oriented analyses have shown that academic English (the predominant L2 in their environment: Phillipson and Skuttnab-Kongas 1995) written by Scandinavian writers differs from that of L1 English writers in ways that might work to the disadvantage of the writers in terms of recognition or publishability. Simultaneously language-policy scholars have problematised the predominance of English in many academic fields. There is of course a great deal of individual variation in terms of language choice and publication success. We investigated the writing practices of some 75 Danish academics in various fields of economics and business studies by means of a questionnaire, and then interviewed a proportion of the respondents to get a richer sense of their practices, the intertextuality that lies behind them, the factors that lead to differential language choice and success, and the academics´ attitude to the predominance of English. We identified : a wide range of attitudes to the difficulty of writing in L2; practices associated with successful writing; fields in which international publication was more or less important; and a general reliance on implicit knowledge and intuitive learning, in contrast to the current trend towards explicit teaching of genre and rhetoric.

Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

29

Les prises de decision lors du processus d'ecriture en langue maternelle et en langue seconde chez les diplomes d'immersion francaise (The Decision-Making Processes in Native and Second Language Writing among French Immersion Graduates).  

Science.gov (United States)

The study described here attempted to shed light on decision-making during first language (English) and second language (French) writing processes of French immersion program graduates. It also replicated part of a previous study on the role of first language (L1) writing skills and second language (L2) competence when writing in L2. A think-aloud…

Vignola, Marie-Josee

30

Journalists' language awareness: inferences from writing strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What journalists want to do is not always what they actually do as they sit at their computer workstations writing news based on source texts. This article focuses on journalists' writing behavior and their writing strategies in a sample of 17 case studies. Data was collected with progression analysis, a multi method approach combining ethnographic observation and interviews with computer logging and retrospective verbalizations. With this approach, it is possible to make inferences about the...

Perrin, Daniel; Ehrensberger-dow, Maureen

2006-01-01

31

Error Analysis and Second Language Writing  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to compare and examine types of written errors by EFL and ESL learners at under graduate level in English Language and suggest remedial measures to overcome the committing of errors. The data for the study were 200 students in the age range of 20 to24 at under graduate level in Mysore, India as ESL learners and Bushehr, Iran as EFL learners participated in this study. The results of the study indicate that the total number of errors committed by the Iranian students was 3045 and that of their Indian peers’ was 3274.  The maximum errors made by the subjects were from the realm of 'punctuation' (1387. The number of errors made by the Indian students in the use of punctuation was 718 which came to 22% for errors in punctuation. The Iranian students committed 669 errors. They constituted 22% of errors for punctuation. Thus, the minimum number of errors recorded in writing in this study was ‘spelling.’ The total number of errors in the use of spelling was 1050. The number of errors committed by the Iranian students in the use of spelling was 578 which come to 19% for errors in spelling. The number of errors committed by the Indian students was 472. They constituted 14% of errors for spelling.

Ali Akbar Khansir

2013-02-01

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RESEARCH STUDIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING AND IN CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC  

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The major aim of this article is to review studies of second language writing. The first part deals mainly with the process of writing in the second and first languages. The second part concerns contrastive rhetoric. In this second part, the findings of research studies on the relationship of first and second language rhetoric will be presented. Included in the discussion are research studies on contrastive rhetoric in the Indonesian context. The last section of this article concludes the dis...

Bambang Yudi Cahyono

2001-01-01

33

Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals  

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This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on...

Jacobs, George M.

1999-01-01

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WRITING STRATEGIES IN L1 AND L2: ARE THERE DIFERENCES? Estratégias de escrita em L1 e L2: EXISTEM DIFERENÃ?AS? pesquisar  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. pesquisar Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions.

Dilys Karen Rees

1994-01-01

35

Writing Profiles of Deaf Children Taught through British Sign Language  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenitally, profoundly deaf children whose first language is British Sign Language (BSL) and whose speech is largely unintelligible need to be literate to communicate effectively in a hearing society. Both spelling and writing skills of such children can be limited, to the extent that no currently available assessment method offers an adequate…

Burman, Diana; Nunes, Terezinha; Evans, Deborah

2007-01-01

36

Using Reading and Writing to Improve Oral Language Skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of reading and writing to enhance oral communication skills requires analysis of the individual's performance; understanding of the interaction among auditory, oral, and written language disorders; integration of speech-language and educational services; and attention to skills of phonemic discrimination, auditory verbal comprehension, word…

Johnson, Doris J.

1985-01-01

37

¿Duermes mucho Tony? Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom  

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Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1 in English Language Teaching (elt , critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students’ mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English. Key words: First language, critical pedagogy, phatic communion Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (l1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (ei, un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (l1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Palabras clave: Lengua materna, pedagogía crítica, comunión fática

Higareda Sandra

2009-11-01

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The Use of Online Corrective Feedback in Academic Writing by L1 Malay Learners  

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Conventional corrective feedback has been widely practiced but has been said to be tedious, stressful and time consuming. As such, the focus of this study is to investigate the use of an alternative method to giving corrective feedback namely, an online corrective feedback through e-mail. In order to examine if this innovative form of corrective feedback can be applied to the teaching and learning of academic writing, an experimental design was used with a control group and an experimental...

Soo Kum Yoke; Cecilia Bai Rajendran; Noridah Sain; Puteri Nur Hidayah Kamaludin; Sofwah Md Nawi; Suhaili Mohd Yusof

2013-01-01

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Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms  

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The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…

Shagoury, Ruth

2009-01-01

40

Enhancing Foreign Language Learning through Listening Strategies Delivered in L1: An Experimental Study  

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Full Text Available Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female participants came from two EFL classrooms in an English language institute. The experimental class (n = 30 who listened to their classroom activities performed better (t value = 10.083 than the control class using a methodology that led learners through five listening strategies in Persian. The same teacher taught the students in the control class (n = 30, who listened to the same classroom listening activities without any of the above listening strategies. A pre and post listening test made by a group of experts in the language institute assessed the effect of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1. Results gathered on the post intervention listening test revealed that listening strategies delivered in L1 led to a statistically significant improvement in their discrete listening scores compared with the control group.

Hitendra Pillay

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals  

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Full Text Available This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on doing the actual writing. Here, it is suggested that we connect ideas, delve deeply into the ideas we present, strive to write the reader friendly manner, use visuals, and improve our writing by noticing how other journal authors write. The third section concerns relations with editors. The advice given is that we choose carefully the journal to which we submit our work, follow that journal's directions to contributors, include a cover letter, be prepared to wait patiently, welcome critical feedback from editors and reviewers, and view editors as colleagues.

George M. Jacobs

1999-01-01

42

The Second Language Acquisition of Past Tense Marker in English by L1 Speakers of Chinese  

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This study is considered the L2 acquisition and underlying of past tense marker, focusing on whether or not L2 learners of English are successful in associating the grammatical properties with Chinese language. Although the dataset is small, the results showed that Chinese speakers are able to acquire the past-tense marker although Chinese language has none of this feature. The L1 Chinese speakers are able to acquire the regular past-tense marker better co mpared to the irregular form.

Sharon Sharmini; Kelly Tee Pei Leng; Nallammai Singaram; Kamaruzaman Jusoff

2009-01-01

43

LEXICAL RETRIEVAL PROCESSES AND STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A SYNTHESIS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH  

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Full Text Available Lexical access and retrieval are essential processes in fluent and efficient second language (L2 oral and written productive uses of language. In the case of L2 writing, attention to vocabulary is of paramount importance, although the retrieval of relevant lexis while composing in an L2 frequently entails different degrees of problem-solving activity given the lack of (automatic access to the necessary linguistic resources characteristic of L2 communication. When engaged in this problem-solving behaviour, L2 writers have been reported to deploy a range of L1-based and L2-based lexical retrieval strategies. After situating lexical retrieval processes in cognitive views of written production, the main part of this paper is devoted to a review of the available empirical evidence on lexical retrieval processes and strategies in L2 writing. The paper finishes with some conclusions at the levels of theory and research.

Rosa M. Manchon

2007-12-01

44

Revision in Second Language Writing: What Teachers Need to Know  

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This article reviews theories and research on revision in second-language (L2) writing. It examines how and what L2 writers revise, compares the revision practices of skilled and unskilled L2 writers, and suggests instructional practices to help learners improve their L2 revision skills.

Barkaoui, Khaled

2007-01-01

45

Reading ability, reading fluency and orthographic skills: the case of L1 Slovene English as a foreign language students  

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This study examined the difference between less-skilled and skilled L1 Slovene English as foreign language (EFL) students in foreign language (L2) fluency and L2 orthographic skills; 93 less-skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students and 102 skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students participated in the study. The results showed that skilled readers performed better in all fluency and orthographic skills tasks, as the differences between groups were statistically significant. The correlations among all var...

Erbeli, Florina; Pizorn, Karmen

2012-01-01

46

Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?  

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In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

2013-01-01

47

The Second Language Acquisition of Past Tense Marker in English by L1 Speakers of Chinese  

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Full Text Available This study is considered the L2 acquisition and underlying of past tense marker, focusing on whether or not L2 learners of English are successful in associating the grammatical properties with Chinese language. Although the dataset is small, the results showed that Chinese speakers are able to acquire the past-tense marker although Chinese language has none of this feature. The L1 Chinese speakers are able to acquire the regular past-tense marker better co mpared to the irregular form.
Keywords: Second language acquisition; Past tense marker; L1 Chinese speakers; Irregular form
Résumé: Cet article étudie l'acquisition d’une deuxième langue, et en particulier l’apprentissage du passé, en se concentrant sur le fait si les apprenants de l'anglais pouvaient réussir à associer les propriétés grammaticales de la langue anglaise avec la langue chinoise. Bien que l'ensemble des données est faible, les résultats montrent que les locuteurs du chinois sont capable de maîtriser le passé, même si la langue chinoise n'a pas cette fonctionnalité. Les locuteurs du chinois maîtrise mieux le passé en forme régulière par rapport en forme irrégulière.
Mots-Clés: acquisition d’une deuxième langue; temps passér; les locuteurs du chinois; forme irrégulière

Sharon Sharmini

2009-06-01

48

Developing Speaking and Writing Skills of L1 Arabic EFL Learners through Teaching of IPA Phonetic Codes  

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Full Text Available This exploratory study investigated the development of speaking and writing skills of L1 Arabic EFL learners based on their level of perception and understanding of phonetic transcriptions through visualisation of letter-to-symbol representations using the International Phonetic Alphabet (henceforth IPA. The participants were 169 University-level Preparatory Year Program (PYP male Saudi EFL students. The study was carried out as a pedagogical approach to improve university first year students’ pronunciation, correct speech and writing skills. The students selected attended 6, 50-minute Integrated Pronunciation Teaching (IPT lessons which included IPA transcription codes using both audio and visual teaching methods in addition to one ICT aided lesson.  Throughout those lessons, students were initially introduced to the IPA phonetic codes in gradual increase of difficulty and were encouraged to use the monolingual (English-English, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDCE. Two written tests and one oral test were conducted using a number of carefully selected IPA transcription codes related questions and results were analysed and interpreted. Results obtained showed slight variations between higher and lower ability students in understanding the IPA transcription codes. As a whole, however, the results indicated that students reached a high level of understanding of letter-to-symbol representations – the IPA system - and oral test results proved that phonological awareness can help Saudi students at tertiary level education improve their writing and speaking skills. Above all, learning the phonetic transcription codes helped them develop a sense of autonomy and competence when using monolingual dictionaries. The study concluded with a brief discussion of the ramifications of the study and the potential for further research.

Hussam Rajab

2013-04-01

49

Chippewa Syllable Book. Reading and Writing Practice for Speakers of the Chippewa (Ojibwe) Language in Wisconsin.  

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This guide is intended for speakers of the Chippewa (Ojibwa) language who read and write in English but would like to develop their reading and writing skills in Chippewa. The writing system used is one developed by Charles Fiero and is only one of many possible standardized writing systems for Chippewa. It was selected by the Chippewa Language

Maulson, Hannah; And Others

50

Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills from Spanish L1 to English L2  

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Previous cross-language research has focused on L1 phonological processing and its relation to L2 reading. Less extensive is the research on the effect that L1 orthographic processing skill has on L2 reading and spelling. This study was designed to investigate how reading and spelling acquisition in English (L2) is influenced by phonological and…

Sun-Alperin, M. Kendra; Wang, Min

2011-01-01

51

Concreteness and Language Effects in the Quality of Written Definitions in L1, L2 and L3  

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Several researchers have suggested that definitional skill explains academic success/failure (Gagne, 2004; Snow, 1987). The words used to investigate definitional skill have all been concrete words given in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) of the participants. This paper reports a study investigating the quality of the…

El Euch, Sonia

2007-01-01

52

Software Junctus: Joining Sign Language and Alphabetical Writing  

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The authors’ aim is to describe the workshops developed to test the use of an authorship program that allows the simultaneous use of sign language and alphabetical writing. The workshops were prepared and conducted by a Computer Science undergraduate, with the support of the Program of Students’ Integration and Mediation (Programa de Integração e Mediação do Acadêmico - PIMA) at the University of Caxias do Sul. Two sign language interpreters, two deaf students and one hearing student, who also teach at a special school for the deaf, participated in the workshops. The main characteristics of the software and the development of the workshops are presented with examples of educational projects created during their development. Possible improvements are also outlined.

Valentini, Carla Beatris; Bisol, Cláudia A.; Dalla Santa, Cristiane

53

Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom. Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom.  

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Full Text Available The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field. The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.

Madeleine Youmans

2008-04-01

54

Reading Ability, Reading Fluency and Orthographic Skills: The Case of L1 Slovene English as a Foreign Language Students  

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Full Text Available This study examined the difference between less-skilled and skilled L1Slovene English as foreign language (EFL students in foreign language(L2 fluency and L2 orthographic skills; 93 less-skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students and 102 skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students participated in the study. The results showed that skilled readers performed better in all fluency and orthographic skills tasks, as the differences between groups were statistically significant. The correlations among all variables showed that L2 fluency and L2 orthographic skills are positively interrelated among both groups, suggesting that higher L2 fluency scores are associated with higher L2 orthography scores. This outcome implies that less-skilled readersneed to be greatly exposed to L2 language and be ensured necessaryopportunities in- or outside the classroom in L2 learning.

Florina Erbeli

2012-01-01

55

Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing  

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This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

Lu, Yanbin

2010-01-01

56

Comparing Factors Related to Reading Comprehension in Adolescents Who Speak English as a First (L1) or Second (L2) Language  

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This study examined factors related to reading comprehension in adolescents who spoke English as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Measures of decoding, vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension were administered to 31 L1 and 44 L2 speakers. English L2 adolescents scored significantly lower than their L1 peers on…

Pasquarella, Adrian; Gottardo, Alexandra; Grant, Amy

2012-01-01

57

How Can the Use of Blog Software Facilitate the Writing Process of English Language Learners?  

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Blog use may offer instructors a helpful tool for teaching writing at the tertiary level in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) classrooms. This article reports on a quasi-experimental study regarding the effect of blog-centered writing instruction on students' writing performance. Fifty intermediate English students at a Turkish…

Arslan, Recep S.; Sahin-Kizil, Aysel

2010-01-01

58

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Writing and Their Relations to Language and Reading  

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Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement--Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and…

Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

2013-01-01

59

Signaled Stopping and Cognitive, Language Principles Applied to Public Relations Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the hypothesis that cognitive rules govern writing behavior, Carter's signaled stopping technique was used to study language and cognitive effects in public relations messages. Principles from Grunig, et al (1985) Axiomatic Theory of Cognition and Writing, which proposed premises, axioms and definitions about writing, were applied…

Ramsey, Shirley A.

60

Writing through Retellings: An Exploratory Study of Language-Impaired and Dyslexic Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to examine differences and similarities in the writing of 15 language-impaired, 17 dyslexic and 15 typically developing control subjects matched on chronological age. Subjects ranging in age from 11 to 21 years were required to produce a written language sample using an expository text-retell procedure. The writing of these…

Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lombardino, Linda J.; Altmann, Lori J.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Second Language Writing Development in English and in Spanish in a Two-Way Immersion Programme  

Science.gov (United States)

Whereas most research on child second language acquisition has focused on the oral production of children, studies are needed to illuminate patterns of literacy development in a second language. This paper aims to shed some light on this process, focusing on the English writing development of a native Spanish speaker, and on the Spanish writing

Serrano, Raquel; Howard, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

62

Metadiscourse Repertoire of L1 Mandarin Undergraduates Writing in English: A Cross-Contextual, Cross-Disciplinary Study  

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This article presents a qualitative, comparative study of metadiscourse in the academic writing of two groups of undergraduate students working in two different disciplines. The groups of students were: 1) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in China through the medium of English; 2) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in the UK through the…

Li, Ting; Wharton, Sue

2012-01-01

63

The Role of the Monitor in Written Language Production of L1 Hungarian L2 English University Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the thesis was to investigate the role of the monitor, or more accurately the role of explicit knowledge of the TL in correcting errors generated by the acquired knowledge system in written language production of university level L1 Hungarian learners of L2 English. From this perspective I carried out a small-scale research analyzing argumentative essays randomly selected from the 2011 English Yardstick Examination. The theory underlying my investigation was Krashen’s...

Balogh, Ceci?lia

2012-01-01

64

Blog writing integration for academic language learning purposes: towards an assessment framework  

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Full Text Available This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006, then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming. The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expression, reflection and language acquisition in mandatory blog writings by students at a Third Level Institution. Previously in this research, students were asked, but not required, to keep a personal blog for up to five months; writing only about their language learning strategies and experiences with the declared aim of improving student language learning strategies through self-reflection and self-expression. Students are, this time, required to write and ‘complete’ their academic blog as it represents one compulsory element –with due weighting, given its importance– of a language module assessment. This compulsory blog writing task has raised a number of pedagogical questions which will be explored, such as: effective integration, assessing and rewarding student creative expression within the blog medium, self-reflection as a language learner and ultimately the role and value of academic blog writing in language acquisition.

Liam Murray

2007-10-01

65

CIA-CIA LANGUAGE: FROM THE ERA OF ORAL TO THE ERA OF WRITING  

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Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe the background of Cia-Cia language society's adoption and use of Hangeul (Korean alphabet as its writing system that was begun in July 2009. The issue has caused Indonesian society and neighborhood countries curious, since Latin alphabet is world widely used as the most common writing system at present time. On the other side, the historical background of writing system's development which has been implemented sustainably through borrowing and adapting process proves that any writing system can also be used in other language society in the 21st century. Similar to that of the most of minority language societies, Cia-Cia language has not had its own writing system. The transcription of Hangeul in Cia-Cia language was begun to support the preservation of minority language. Concern to this issue, if the spoken language of Cia-Cia is stabilly continued, Hangeul will be known as one of the writing systems which has preserved Cia-Cia language in world's development of writing system history.

Cho, Tae-Young

2012-10-01

66

Chinese Internet language: A sociolinguistic analysis of adaptations of the Chinese writing system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the adaptations of the writing system in Internet language in mainland China from a sociolinguistic perspective. A comparison is also made of the adaptations in mainland China with those that Su (2003) found in Taiwan. In Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC), writing systems are often adapted to compensate for their inherent inadequacies (such as difficulty in input). Su (2003) investigates the creative uses of the writing system on the electronic bulletin boards (BBS)...

Yang, Chunsheng

2007-01-01

67

English language writing centres in Japanese universities: What do students really need?  

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Full Text Available The installation of English language writing centres in Japanese universities is a relatively recent event—the first ones established with funding from the Ministry of Education in 2004. Because of the EFL writing context, setting up a writing centre requires consideration of students’ needs and cultural expectations of writing and writing centres. In general, writing centres that have been established in Japanese universities follow a structure similar to those in the US. This raises the question as to whether or not this is appropriate for the particular needs of EFL students and the obstacles they face. For this study, in order to explore students’ attitudes toward writing centres and the role they play in writing education, interview data was collected from students of English composition in two different departments at a university in Japan well known for its English language education: the English department, which does not have a writing centre, and the liberal arts department, which has one of the first writing centres established in Japan.

Jim McKinley

2010-06-01

68

The Psycholinguistic Dimension in Second Language Writing: Opportunities for Research and Pedagogy Using Computer Keystroke Logging  

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This article discusses the use of computer logging as a means of investigating aspects of the second language (L2) writing process as writers are engaged in producing text at the keyboard. The observation of writing by means of this method provides researchers with detailed information concerning aspects of the planning, formulation, and revision…

Miller, Kristyan Spelman; Lindgren, Eva; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.

2008-01-01

69

Second Language Writing Research and Written Corrective Feedback in SLA: Intersections and Practical Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

For more than a decade now, a great deal of research has been done on the topic of written corrective feedback (CF) in SLA and second language (L2) writing. Nonetheless, what those research efforts really have shown as well as the possible implications for practice remain in dispute. Although L2 writing and SLA researchers often examine similar…

Ferris, Dana R.

2010-01-01

70

The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

2008-01-01

71

Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Allocation of Time to Writing Processes in English and Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

This study brings together previous research on writing processes and Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners to obtain a clearer picture of these learners' writing behaviors in English and Spanish. Following a cognitive-oriented framework, the study explores planning time, execution time, monitoring time, accuracy, and fluency. Twelve SHL…

Mikulski, Ariana; Elola, Idoia

2011-01-01

72

Integrating Feedback into Prospective English Language Teachers' Writing Process via Blogs and Portfolios  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of blogging and portfolio keeping on a group of pre-service teachers' writing skill in a compulsory writing course at a tertiary level English language teaching (ELT) programme in Turkey. The study specifically looked into to what extent receiving feedback from course instructor and…

Arslan, Recep Sahin

2013-01-01

73

Using Interactive Writing Instruction with Kindergarten and First-Grade English Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, written primarily for early childhood educators of young children who are learning English as another language, the authors discuss the use and educational benefits of Interactive Writing, an approach to beginning writing instruction appropriate for kindergarten and first grade children.

Williams, Cheri; Pilonieta, Paola

2012-01-01

74

Computer Assisted Language Learning: Using L1 Software with L2 Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of two types of commercially available Apple computer educational software in English for the development of accuracy and fluency in students of English as a second language is described. One type of program is aimed at the drilling and practice of grammar in English. Some of these programs have interesting formats and allow the teacher to…

Baltra, Armando

75

Theoretical and Practical Linguistic Shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and Recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in Teaching Writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners  

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Full Text Available Writing is a complex cognitive activity in which foreign language learners are required to pay attention simultaneously to content, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that an effective teaching method in one context would result in effective student learning in another. It is proved that Product/Guided Writing resulting in poor writers, and Process Writing dos not provide much care for metalinguistic feedback or enough time for negotiation as well. Following the stages of Innovated Writing Process (IWP, the instructor may be able to teach students many skills that may improve the quality of their writing as well as speaking. This paper presents the theoretical and practical linguistic shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in teaching writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners. It is indicated that metalinguistic feedback, error/contrastive analysis and the communicative interaction negotiating of meaning and form provided by the teacher lead to remarkable improve in second/foreign language learners’ written accuracy and fluency as well.

Anwar Mourssi

2013-05-01

76

The Influence of Process Approach on English as Second Language Students’ Performances in Essay Writing  

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This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students’ performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control quasi-experimental research design. The sample consisted of 80 senior secondary school final year students. The research material included t...

Akinwamide, Timothy Kolade

2012-01-01

77

Differences of English and Chinese as Written Languages and Strategies in English Writing Teaching  

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The size of both the United States and China guarantees that many people will communicate in English and Chinese. But those two common languages do not guarantee perfect communication in writing practice for several reasons. This paper explores the factors resulting in non-understandable communication of English and Chinese as written language, and some strategies applied by English teachers when training students’ English writing.

Ying Wang; Jing Chen

2013-01-01

78

Linguistic, reading, and transcription influences on kindergarten writing in children with English as a second language  

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Full Text Available The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1 were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing fluency measure. Correlation and hierarchical regression results varied as a function of the writing tasks (procedural or generative and language status. Across language groups, writing tasks that captured children's developing graphophonemic knowledge were associated with a breadth of cognitive, linguistic, and early literacy skills. PA, reading, and transcription skills, but not oral vocabulary and syntactic knowledge contributed the most variance to writing irrespective of language status. The results suggest that parallel component skills and processes underlie ESL and EL1 children's early writing when formal literacy instruction begins in kindergarten even though ESL children are developing English oral and literacy proficiency simultaneously.

Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty

2013-06-01

79

Notation systems for reading and writing sign language  

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Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for developing written forms. These issues are considered from a behavioral perspective, and two sign language notation systems, Stokoe Notation and Sutton Si...

Mccarty, Amy L.

2004-01-01

80

Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits  

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With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there a...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

From Novice to Expert: Implications of Language Skills and Writing-Relevant Knowledge for Memory during the Development of Writing Skill  

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This article outlines a theory of the development of writing expertise illustrated by a review of relevant research. An argument is made for two necessary (although not sufficient) components in the development of writing expertise: fluent language generation processes and extensive knowledge relevant to writing. Fluent language processes enable the developing writer (especially the young developing writer) to begin to manage the constraints imposed by working memory, whereas extensive knowle...

2011-01-01

82

Cross-linguistic influence of first language writing systems on brain responses to second language word reading in late bilinguals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction How human brains acquire second languages (L2) is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience and language science. However, it is unclear whether the first language (L1) has a cross-linguistic influence on the processing of L2. Methods Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activities during L2 word reading tasks of phonographic Japanese Kana between two groups of learners of the Japanese language as their L2 and who had different orthographic backgrounds of their L1. For Chinese learners, a L1 of the Chinese language (Hanji) and a L2 of the Japanese Kana differed orthographically, whereas for Korean learners, a L1 of Korean Hangul and a L2 of Japanese Kana were similar. Results Our analysis revealed that, although proficiency and the age of acquisition did not differ between the two groups, Chinese learners showed greater activation of the left middle frontal gyrus than Korean learners during L2 word reading. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that strongly supported the hypothesis that cross-linguistic variations in orthography between L1 and L2 induce differential brain activation during L2 word reading, which has been proposed previously. PMID:24392274

Yokoyama, Satoru; Kim, Jungho; Uchida, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-09-01

83

Speed in cognitive tasks as an indicator of second/foreign language reading and writing skills  

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In a cross-sectional study 823 Finnish school children were tested to examine the relation between speed of performance in cognitive and linguistic tasks and second/foreign language reading and writing. Participants were Finnish-speakers with English as foreign language and Russian-speakers with Finnish as second language which made it possible to compare the results across these two language groups. The Finnish group was furthermore divided into three groups by age to see how speed develo...

Sanna Olkkonen

2013-01-01

84

Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

Nathaniel Roberts

2010-01-01

85

Multilingual Dyslexia in University Students: Reading and Writing Patterns in Three Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional…

Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

2011-01-01

86

Toward a Writing Pedagogy of Shuttling between Languages: Learning from Multilingual Writers  

Science.gov (United States)

The author suggests that models positioning the multilingual writer as passively conditioned by "interference" from his or her first language, as well as more correlative models of the interrelationships of multiple languages in writing, need to be revised. Analyzing works written to different audiences, in different contexts, and in different…

Canagarajah, A. Suresh

2006-01-01

87

The Heterogeneous Second-Language Population in US Colleges and the Impact on Writing Program Design  

Science.gov (United States)

To effectively address the needs of second language (L2) learners in college writing courses, many postsecondary institutions, especially those located in cities with high concentrations of immigrants, offer college-level courses for L2 students. Such courses include noncredit English language courses in an intensive English program, developmental…

di Gennaro, Kristen

2012-01-01

88

A survey on approaches for writing precise natural language requirements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural language is widely used in industry to state requirements for all types of systems, because it is flexible and universal. Even if a modeling technique such as the UML is used, the requirements are usually stated in natural lan-guage first. However, natural language has one major drawback, which is its inherent ambiguity. This report surveys the state of the practice and the state of the art in techniques that aim at making natural language more precise. Ten contributions to this probl...

Denger, C.; Doerr, J.; Kamsties, E.

2001-01-01

89

INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF L1 GRAMMAR NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON L2 WRITING SKILL – REVISITED  

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Full Text Available This study was re-conducted after 2 years to a larger population to confirm the previous research findings and also to discover why some Persian learners (EFL have still problems in learning certain structures of English language even in an academic level. To answer, a general proficiency test was administered to a total of 426 female and male university students of Payame-noor and Azad Universities in three different departments (Humanities, Basic Sciences and Technical Engineering through homogenization. Out of which 220 participants whose scores ranged from 55-75 out of 100 were chosen as the upper-intermediate level and 46 participants were crossed out during the TOEFL test due to frustration and lack of self-confidence

ASGHAR BASTAMI BANDPAY

2013-01-01

90

Online Interactional Feedback in Second Language Writing: Through Peer or Tutor?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the implementation of e-collaboration and e-tutoring will have any effect on students’ writing proficiency. It is argued that interactional feedback (peer or tutor) including negotiation and recasts can facilitate writing skill development in L2 (Lynch, 2002). 83 male and female EFL students, taking English courses in a language school in Bojnourd-Iran, formed the participants of this quasi-experimental intact-group study. The particip...

Khalil Motallebzadeh; Somaye Amirabadi

2011-01-01

91

Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Written corrective feedback, referred to hereafter as "written CF" and also known as "grammar correction" or "error correction", has been a controversial topic in second language studies over the past fifteen years. Inspired by John Truscott's thought-provoking 1996 essay in "Language Learning", many different researchers have undertaken new…

Ferris, Dana R.

2012-01-01

92

Peer Feedback in Second Language Writing Instruction: Boon or Bane?  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies investigated three questions: (1) Do second language learners provide mostly faulty feedback to their peers in evaluating written composition? (2) Is peer feedback more or less effective than teacher correction? and (3) Do second language learners welcome or resist peer feedback? The studies were done in Thailand and Hawaii with…

Jacobs, George; Zhang, Shuqiang

93

Anxiety over EFL speaking and writing: A view from language classrooms  

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The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom spe...

Gkonou, Christina

2011-01-01

94

Machine Translation-Assisted Language Learning: Writing for Beginners  

Science.gov (United States)

The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…

Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel

2011-01-01

95

Relationship between L1 and L2 Word-Level Reading and Phonological Processing in Adults Learning English as a Second Language  

Science.gov (United States)

Word-level reading and phonological processing measures were administered in English and Chinese to adult ESL students whose first language (L1) was Mandarin and whose second language (L2) was English. Instructors also identified students who may be at risk for L2 reading difficulties based on specific identification criteria. L2 phonological…

Harrison, Gina L.; Krol, Lisa

2007-01-01

96

Recognizing Syntactic Errors in the Writing of Second Language Learners  

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This paper reports on the recognition component of an intelligent tutoring system that is designed to help foreign language speakers learn standard English. The system models the grammar of the learner, with this instantiation of the system tailored to signers of American Sign Language (ASL). We discuss the theoretical motivations for the system, various difficulties that have been encountered in the implementation, as well as the methods we have used to overcome these problems. Our method of capturing ungrammaticalities involves using mal-rules (also called 'error productions'). However, the straightforward addition of some mal-rules causes significant performance problems with the parser. For instance, the ASL population has a strong tendency to drop pronouns and the auxiliary verb `to be'. Being able to account for these as sentences results in an explosion in the number of possible parses for each sentence. This explosion, left unchecked, greatly hampers the performance of the system. We discuss how this ...

Schneider, D A; Schneider, David A.; Coy, Kathleen F. Mc

1998-01-01

97

Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?  

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Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females) (M age 57.30 months) participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP). Quantitative measures of writing: number of w...

2012-01-01

98

L2 Writing Assessment in the Greek School of Foreign Languages  

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Full Text Available In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment of L2 writing since the results of such evaluations are used for a variety of administrative, instructional and research purposes. One of the primary issues pertaining the assessment of writing quality is the type of scoring procedure which will be used; admittedly a subject of a great deal of research and discussion in the language testing literature. The aim of the present paper is firstly, to briefly describe the type of scoring used in the Greek School of Foreign Languages for assessing L2 writing performance and secondly, to calculate the inter-rater reliability of five written samples. The results obtained indicate quite high correlations, thus demonstating the evaluators’ uniformity in the application of assessment criteria.

Despoina Panou

2013-07-01

99

Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language : Processes and Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Book description: Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language is based on a large-scale empirical study. The innovative feature of the research was that the same students were asked to do the same tasks in both languages while reporting their thinking as they went along. Furthermore , they had to undertake the same tasks even though they were of very different experience, ranging from young children at school to university students. Three areas of learners' competencies and skills were explored: vocabulary knowledge, word guessing strategies and writing. The authors further explore the relationship between the skills and describe the level of development for individual learners within the three areas. In all cases, statistical and qualitative analyses are offered, the latter being based on the learners' own 'think-aloud' reports. Both researchers and teachers of language will find this in-depth approach useful in understanding the processes of both first and second language performance

Albrechtsen, Dorte; Haastrup, Kirsten

2008-01-01

100

Predicting Second Language Writing Proficiency: The Roles of Cohesion and Linguistic Sophistication  

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This study addresses research gaps in predicting second language (L2) writing proficiency using linguistic features. Key to this analysis is the inclusion of linguistic measures at the surface, textbase and situation model level that assess text cohesion and linguistic sophistication. The results of this study demonstrate that five variables…

Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Effects of Planning on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy in Second Language Narrative Writing  

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Building on previous studies of the effects of planning on second language (L2) learners' oral narratives and drawing on Kellog's (1996) model of writing, this article reports a study of the effects of three types of planning conditions (pretask planning, unpressured on-line planning, and no planning) on 42 Chinese learners' written narratives…

Ellis, Rod; Yuan, Fangyuan

2004-01-01

102

Analyzing the Preparation of Second Language Writing Teachers: A Grounded Theory Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study aims at understanding how current student-teachers enrolled in MATESOL and its related fields programs are being prepared to teach college-level second language writing. Data collected for this study included course syllabi, member check questionnaires, Conference on College Composition and Communication's (CCCC) position…

Nihlawi, Amina M. B.

2011-01-01

103

The Use of L1 in the Foreign Language Classroom / El uso de la lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El uso de la lengua materna es una ocurrencia común en los contextos de la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, a pesar de que a veces reciba críticas por su interferencia en la adquisición de la Lengua meta. Mientras que los docentes deben maximizar el uso de la Lengua meta, sin duda, hay espacios pa [...] ra que el profesor utilice la lengua materna de los estudiantes en su pedagogía. En este trabajo se presenta un argumento basado en las perspectivas teóricas y la investigación empírica dentro de la literatura existente, apoyando el uso apropiado de la Lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera. El argumento se centra en tres cuestiones fundamentales-racionales para el uso de la lengua materna: Los efectos positivos que la lengua materna tiene tanto en el aprendizaje y la instrucción de una lengua extranjera, como en las formas en las que la lengua materna ayuda a los docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Abstract in english L1 use is a common occurrence in foreign language teaching contexts despite the fact that it often receives criticism for its interference with target language (TL) acquisition. While foreign language teachers should maximize their use of the TL, there is indeed a place for the teacher to use the st [...] udents' L1 in their pedagogy. In this paper, an argument derived from theoretical perspectives and empirical research within existing literature supporting the appropriate use of L1 in foreign language classrooms is presented. The argument addresses three key issues-rationales for L1 use, positive effects L1 has on both foreign language learning and instruction, and ways that L1 assists instructors on foreign languages.

Yi-chun, Pan; Yi-ching, Pan.

104

Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing. Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

Lexical errors are a determinant in gaining insight into vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary use and writing quality assessment. Lexical errors are very frequent in the written production of young EFL learners, but they decrease as learners gain proficiency. Misspellings are the most common category, but formal errors give way to semantic-based…

del Pilar Agustin Llach, Maria

2011-01-01

105

Online Interactional Feedback in Second Language Writing: Through Peer or Tutor?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the implementation of e-collaboration and e-tutoring will have any effect on students’ writing proficiency. It is argued that interactional feedback (peer or tutor including negotiation and recasts can facilitate writing skill development in L2 (Lynch, 2002. 83 male and female EFL students, taking English courses in a language school in Bojnourd-Iran, formed the participants of this quasi-experimental intact-group study. The participants were assigned into experimental and control groups. A couple of instruments were employed to collect data: the TOEFL Writing Test, researchers-made pre and post tests, and an Information Technology Questionnaire (2009. Data analysis through one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between e-partnering and e-tutoring groups (p<0.05. The results also showed that though both e-partnering and e-tutoring enhanced writing proficiency, learners in e-partnering group outperformed those in e-tutoring group. The study findings indicate that e-collaboration/e-partnering can improve learners writing skill if integrated into the EFL curriculum designed for pre-intermediate level.

Somaye Amirabadi

2011-05-01

106

Predicting Language Learners' Grades in the L1, L2, L3 and L4: The Effect of Some Psychological and Sociocognitive Variables  

Science.gov (United States)

This study of 89 Flemish high-school students' grades for L1 (Dutch), L2 (French), L3 (English) and L4 (German) investigates the effects of three higher-level personality dimensions (psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism), one lower-level personality dimension (foreign language anxiety) and sociobiographical variables (gender, social class) on…

Dewaele, Jean-Marc

2007-01-01

107

Future directions in feedback on second language writing: Overview and research agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn and Allen, it discusses how these papers situate written corrective feedback research in the wider area of second language a...

2010-01-01

108

An Insight to Students’ Perceptions on Teacher Feedback in Second Language Writing Classes  

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Full Text Available Feedback is one of the crucial elements in language learning and teaching. In second language writing context, the effectiveness of feedback becomes even more important as it has an impact on the whole process of language learning. To increase the effectiveness of feedback, a teacher is expected to use any possible mean(s available to suit learners’ needs and concerns (Hamp-Lyons, 2001; Hyland, 2010. In this respect, rather than framing the feedback process based on the premises put forward in other teaching situations, the study attempts to bring into view the students’ perceptions and preferences on feedback in their writing classes to be able to shape the feedback process based on a specific teaching context. The data for the study were gathered utilizing a Likert-Type questionnaire and a semi-structured interview from students (n = 457 at preparatory level studying English at a state university in Turkey. The data were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS 17.0 and qualitatively following content analysis. The results of the study are meant to bring in-depth insights to students’ opinions regarding the scope of feedback in writing classes and to provide guidance to shape the process of giving feedback.

Meral Seker

2014-01-01

109

Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females (M age 57.30 months participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP. Quantitative measures of writing: number of words, diversity of words, number of phrases/sentences and grammatical complexity of the phrases/sentences were also analysed. The children were also assessed on tasks measuring their language production and comprehension skills and the visuo-spatial, phonological, and central executive components of working memory. The results indicated that the boys were more likely to perform significantly less well than the girls on all measures of writing except the grammatical complexity of sentences. Initially, no significant differences were found on any of the measures of language ability. Further, no significant differences were found between the genders on the capacity and efficiency of their working memory functioning. However, hierarchical regressions revealed that the individual differences in gender and language ability, more specifically spoken language comprehension, predicted performance on the EYFSP writing scale. This finding accords well with the literature that suggests that language skills can mediate the variance in boys’ and girls’ writing ability.

Lorna Bourke

2012-03-01

110

Language style matching in writing: synchrony in essays, correspondence, and poetry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each relationship has its own personality. Almost immediately after a social interaction begins, verbal and nonverbal behaviors become synchronized. Even in asocial contexts, individuals tend to produce utterances that match the grammatical structure of sentences they have recently heard or read. Three projects explore language style matching (LSM) in everyday writing tasks and professional writing. LSM is the relative use of 9 function word categories (e.g., articles, personal pronouns) between any 2 texts. In the first project, 2 samples totaling 1,744 college students answered 4 essay questions written in very different styles. Students automatically matched the language style of the target questions. Overall, the LSM metric was internally consistent and reliable across writing tasks. Women, participants of higher socioeconomic status, and students who earned higher test grades matched with targets more than others did. In the second project, 74 participants completed cliffhanger excerpts from popular fiction. Judges' ratings of excerpt-response similarity were related to content matching but not function word matching, as indexed by LSM. Further, participants were not able to intentionally increase style or content matching. In the final project, an archival study tracked the professional writing and personal correspondence of 3 pairs of famous writers across their relationships. Language matching in poetry and letters reflected fluctuations in the relationships of 3 couples: Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning, and Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes. Implications for using LSM as an implicit marker of social engagement and influence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:20804263

Ireland, Molly E; Pennebaker, James W

2010-09-01

111

Language context elicits native-like stop voicing in early bilinguals’ productions in both L1 and L2  

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The way that bilinguals produce phones in each of their languages provides a window into the nature of the bilingual phonological space. For stop consonants, if early sequential bilinguals, whose languages differ in voice onset time (VOT) distinctions, produce native-like VOTs in each of their languages, it would imply that they have developed separate first and second language phones, that is, language-specific phonetic realisations for stop-voicing distinctions. Given the ambiguous phonolog...

Antoniou, Mark; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.; Kroos, Christian

2010-01-01

112

SMS Language and College Writing :The languages of the College Texters  

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Many students have become avid texters and are seriously reinventing language to accommodate the 160-character limit of short messages. They are more interested in getting their messages across and thus becoming less concerned about correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. Since texting has become a way of life of many students, it is feared that the SMS language can affect students’ written performance. This research examines the effects of frequent usage of text messaging (SMS) on under...

Latisha Asmaak Shafie; Norizul Azida Darus; Nazira Osman

2010-01-01

113

Cross-linguistic influence in multilingual language acquisition: The role of L1 and non-native languages in English and Catalan oral production / La influencia entre lenguas en su adquisición multilingüe: el papel de L1 y de lenguas no nativas en la producción oral en inglés y en catalán  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Gran parte de la investigación en la adquisición de terceras lenguas se ha centrado en los efectos que tienen factores como la distancia entre lenguas, la competencia, el uso reciente, o el estatus de la segunda lengua (L2) en la elección de la lengua origen (L1) desde el punto de vista de la influe [...] ncia interlingüística. Se presenta aquí un análisis de dichos factores, así como la influencia que tiene la L1 (español) en la producción oral en L2 (inglés) y L3 (catalán). Se analiza la transferencia léxica y sintáctica en la producción en catalán e inglés de dos hablantes plurilingües con conocimiento similar de lenguas extranjeras. Fueron entrevistados dos veces en un ambiente informal. Los resultados muestran que la L1 es la principal fuente de transferencia, tanto en la producción oral en L2, como en L3; pero su influencia disminuye a medida que la competencia en la lengua meta incrementa. La distancia entre lenguas también tiene un papel importante en la influencia interlingüística, especialmente si la competencia en la lengua de origen es buena, y si ha habido un contacto reciente con ella. Los resultados también sugieren que mientras que la transferencia sintáctica se basa exclusivamente en la L1, la transferencia léxica se puede basar en la lengua no nativa. Abstract in english Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2) status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1) in cross-linguistic influence (CLI). This paper presents a study of these factors, and of [...] the influence that the L1 (Spanish) has on L2 (English) and L3 (Catalan) oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.

Mireia, Ortega.

114

Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

Yoon, Sae Yeol

115

Revitalising and preserving endangered indigenous languages in South Africa through writing and publishing  

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Full Text Available Libraries and librarians play a central role in organising and communicating knowledge. They are an important part of theknowledge production and use chain. The development and sustenance of a knowledge-based economy hinges on theirability to facilitate the accessibility, retrievability and usability of the knowledge and information that permeates theinformation society. Writers and publishers as part and parcel of the knowledge chain are central to the production anddistribution of ideas. Language is fundamental to their ability to communicate and get their literal messages, expressionsand ideas through. Their preferred language of writing and publishing may mean a difference between the growth anddemise of a language of a society and its culture and civilisation. Many indigenous languages around the globe arestruggling to survive because of various reasons including neglect by writers and publishers. Publishers and writers as majorrole players in the knowledge production and reproduction chain may assist in promoting and preserving indigenouslanguages in general and in South Africa in particular. This may ensure that South Africa’s knowledge economy developswithout sidelining or discriminating against any culture or language. There are challenges and opportunities that writersand publishers are likely to face in attempting to revitalise and empower indigenous languages in South Africa, but theyare not insurmountable. Using a theoretical approach, the purpose of this article is to highlight the role that writers andpublishers may play in revitalising and preserving endangered indigenous languages in South Africa. Recommendations aremade on how the role players may deal with the challenges that have culminated in the neglect of the endangeredindigenous languages.

Patrick Ngulube

2012-12-01

116

An Exploration into the Writing Ability of Generation 1.5 and International Second Language Writers: A Mixed Methods Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing body of research suggests that the writing ability of international second language learners (IL2) and US-resident second language learners, also referred to as Generation 1.5 (G1.5), differs, despite a dearth of substantial empirical evidence supporting such claims. The present study provides much-needed empirical evidence concerning…

Di Gennaro, Kristen K.

2011-01-01

117

Adopting Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as Interactive Communities among English Foreign Language (EFL) Learners in Writing: Opportunities and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As most traditional classroom environments in English as Foreign Language (EFL) still restrict learners’ collaboration and interaction in college writing classes, today, the majority of EFL learners are accessing Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as online communities of practice (CoPs) for adopting informal collaborative learning as a way of practicing English beyond the classroom. This study aimed to investigate the opportunities and challenges of SNSs as learning environment in writing i...

Norizan Abdul Razak; Murad Saeed; Zulkifli Ahmad

2013-01-01

118

A Study of Students’ Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language  

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Full Text Available This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40 Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampling. A sample consisting of 440 students (11students from each school was randomly selected using a table of random numbers. An achievement test consisting of different items was developed to assess the students’ competency and capability in sub-skills of writing such as word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/grammar and handwriting. Mean score and standard deviation were used to analyze the students’ proficiency in each sub-skill. The t-test was applied to make the comparison on the bases of gender, density and public and private sector. The overall performance of all the students was better in comprehension as compared to other sub-skills namely word completion, sentence making/syntax, tenses/grammar and handwriting. The analysis, based on t-value, revealed no significant difference between the performance of male and female students and the students of public and private schools, whereas there was a significant difference between the performance of urban and rural students.

Muhammad Javed

2013-07-01

119

ACQUISITION OF EFFECTIVE WRITING SKILL – ISSUES AND CHALLENGESFOR THE SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNER OF THE ENGLISH – AN EXPLORATIVE STUDY.  

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Full Text Available Writing a short or long piece of text effectively flawlessly, precisely, concisely, up to the point with out any ambiguity has been a major concern for the L2 learners of English in the professional world. Professional like engineers need to write business letters, reports, proposals etc as their desk as a part of their routine work. On most of these cases it has been observed that they fail to write the content of the task precisely an effectively, therefore they end up with long of piece of writing without any precision of the text and fail to communicate the core information through that to their boss or to their office.At this point of time it is highly essential for the professionals to equip themselves with excellent writing skills with out which they might not survive in their pursuits,because there is hardly any professional activity which does not require writing skills. This paper will look into the various causes of ineffective writing skills of the second language learners of English and suggests possible remedial measures to overcome it.

Bishnu Paramguru Mahapatra

2014-04-01

120

The use of epistemic markers as a means of hedging and boosting in the discourse of L1 and L2 speakers of Modern Greek: a corpus-based study in informal letter-writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates the semantic area of Epistemic Modality in Modern Greek, by means of a corpus-based research. A comparative, quantitative study was performed between written corpora (informal letter-writing) of non-native informants with various language backgrounds and Greek native speakers. A number of epistemic markers were selected for further qualitative investigation on the grounds of their high frequency. The qualitative study revealed the ways epistemic markers (grammatical and...

Efstathiadi, Lia; ???????????, ????

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Writing Is a Foreign Language, and a Senior Writing Workshop Is a Tower of Babel Whose Many Languages Need to Be Translated  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper, presented at the CCCC 2008 Senior Citizens Writing session, draws upon my experiences as a senior workshop member and past teacher. Addressing workshop leaders, it emphasizes the need for the many-faceted seniors' voices to be "translated" and tested within a workshop's microcosm before entering the outside world's macrocosm.

Barany, Michelle

2009-01-01

122

Automatically Detecting Authors' Native Language.  

Science.gov (United States)

When non-native speakers learn English, their first language influences how they learn. This is known as L1-L2 language transfer, and linguistic studies have shown that these language transfers can affect writing as well. If there were a model that exploi...

C. S. Ahn

2011-01-01

123

Adult English Language Learners Constructing and Sharing Their Stories and Experiences: The Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography Writing Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is the culmination of the Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography (CLA) writing project, which details narrative descriptions of adult English language learners' (ELLs') cultural and linguistic experiences and how those experiences may have influenced the ways in which these learners constructed and reconstructed their identities.…

Park, Gloria

2011-01-01

124

“Class”, “Race” and Language Imagining China and the Discourse on the Category “Han” in the Writing of Marxist Revolutionary Qu Qiubai (1899-1935)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the discursive peregrinations of the “Han” category in the writings of the Chinese revolutionary, theoretician and activist Qu Qiubai. In the papers he wrote at the beginning of the 1930s dealing with the questions of language and writing, the author made singular use of the concept “Han” to talk about the language/writing of the “Han” (Hanzi, Hanyu) as a racial or ethnic group (Hanzu). Narrating the history of the cultural hegemony of the “Han” in Asia...

Villard, Florent

2008-01-01

125

Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation  

Science.gov (United States)

We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

2009-01-01

126

Identity Manifestation in Second Language Writing through Notion of Voice: A Review of Literature  

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Full Text Available Voice, a discourse related notion, is a required criterion for writing acceptable English. However, L2 learners from cultures other than English might face problems in realizing it, or even ignore it all through their writing. In this connection, researchers seek to look at it through different angels. A well-known definition for it is given by Hyland (2008 as “the ways writers express their personal views, authoritativeness, and presence” (p.5. Also, researchers try to find the relationship between this notion and various aspects of writing like overall quality, identity manifestation and so on in order to improve the quality of writings produced by L2 writings. This is supposed to assist L2 writers to create more native like and smooth writings

Shiva Javdan

2014-03-01

127

Finding a Place for Critical Thinking and Self-voice in College English as a Foreign Language Writing Classrooms  

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Full Text Available Although the concepts of critical thinking and self-voice have been extensively discussed in a second language writing, little attention has been given, on the pedagogical level, to critical thinking and self-voice in college EFL writing instruction. To fill such a void, this paper attempts to propose some pedagogical tasks namely:  persuasive writing tasks, draft workshops one-on-one mentoring approaches for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL classrooms. In doing so, this paper provides the operational definitions of critical thinking and self-voice concepts. It then discusses how these two concepts are closely related to complement EFL writing learning. In what follows, it presents the rationale for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL writing. It then touches on some pedagogical practices for developing critical thinking and self-voice in classrooms. Lastly, it addresses some challenges related to implementing critical thinking and self-voice tasks in EFL classrooms.

Osman Barnawi

2011-06-01

128

An Investigation into the Use of Cohesive Devices in Second Language Writings  

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Full Text Available As far as the communicative nature of writing is concerned, cohesion is regarded as an essential textual component both in creating organized texts and rendering the content comprehensible to the reader. Many researchers have explored the connection between the use of cohesive devices (CDs and the quality of the writing. To gain more insight into this area, this study reviewed some studies focusing on the use of CDs and the relationship between the number of CDs and writing quality. The analysis of collected data from different EFL/ESL researchers has shown that the learners were able to use various CDs in their writings. Additionally, the study highlighted some of the cohesive problems in writing and the possible pedagogical implications for teachers. The purpose of the present study is to investigate CDs used in different genres composed by learners from around the globe and the relationship between the use of CDs and quality of their essays. The findings also provide insight into the abilities of native and nonnative writers to convey their ideas into written forms. The results of this research will provide us with insights into the general pattern of CDs in EFL/ESL learners’ academic and nonacademic writing. This would help to identify students’ problems in using CDs, for instance, overuse or underuse of certain categories, and, thereby, modify teaching writing and incorporate a more precise plan for teaching the appropriate use of CDs.

Mohsen Ghasemi

2013-09-01

129

The Relations among L1 (Spanish) Literacy Skills, L2 (English) Language, L2 Text Reading Fluency, and L2 Reading Comprehension for Spanish-Speaking ELL First Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the relations of L2 (i.e., English) oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, word reading automaticity, oral language skills, and L1 literacy skills (i.e., Spanish) to L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking English language learners in the first grade (N = 150). An analysis was conducted for the entire sample as well as…

Kim, Young-Suk

2012-01-01

130

The Effect of Student Receptivity to Instructional Feedback on Writing Proficiency among Chinese Speaking English Language Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this research study is to discover the degree to which student acceptance of instructor feedback influences developing writing proficiency among Chinese speaking English Language Learners enrolled in an American middle school. This study was designed as a qualitative case study—an approach using in-depth inductive processes to observe and evaluate the receptivity of eighth-grade students to instructor feedback during an extended unit of instruction covering the five-paragraph...

Julie Tzu-Ling Huang

2012-01-01

131

Analysis of factors that influence the learning of a foreign language writing  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of motivational variables, learning styles and learning strategies in the development of writing skills in English of students from first to second years at the University of Ciego de Avila. To achieve that objective was used the following questionnaires: R _SPQ_ 2 F to assess the level of motivation of the students towards the English, (CHAEA to determine the learning styles of the sample, the Assessment Questionnaire Learning Strategies for determine the strategies used in learning English, and a writing test where students wrote a letter to a foreign friend telling them about your country, to assess the level of writing skills. Our results confirm the hypothesis proposed earlier: when the deep motivation level is higher than the motivation level surface is achieved further development of writing skills, students with a balanced profile between four learning styles get a higher level of development in writing and, when all students develop learning strategies or more of them get further development in writing.

Mabel Anastasia Acosta García

2012-10-01

132

Future directions in feedback on second language writing: Overview and research agenda  

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Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn and Allen, it discusses how these papers situate written corrective feedback research in the wider area of second language acquisition research and contribute to the debate in feedback research on research design issues. This is followed by an examination of the major findings of the four situated empirical studies by Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary and Windeatt, and Martinez and Roca, which make up the second section. Echoing the authors of these papers, this article argues that we need more longitudinal naturalistic studies, adopting both cognitive and socio-cultural SLA frameworks to investigate the role of feedback and its impact on individual learners in more depth. Finally some pedagogic implications are discussed, including the need for feedback practices which facilitate students’ abilities to self regulate and evaluate their performance, and the need to raise teachers’ awareness of the different feedback sources and modes of delivery available to them.Este artículo ofrece una revisión de las siete aportaciones incluidas en este número especial sobre feedback, constatando cómo reflejan tanto el creciente interés por el tema en las distintas áreas de investigación como la continua búsqueda de técnicas más efectivas por parte del profesorado. Centrándose en primer lugar en las contribuciones de Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn y Allen, analiza cómo estos artículos sitúan la investigación sobre feedback en la corrección de trabajos escritos dentro del área más amplia de adquisición de segundas lenguas, contribuyendo al debate, dentro de la investigación sobre feedback, en torno a aspectos de diseño de la investigación. A continuación se examinan los resultados principales de los cuatro estudios empíricos realizados por Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary & Windeatt, y Martinez & Roca de Larios, que conforman la segunda sección. Siguiendo a estos autores, el artículo aboga por la realización de más estudios longitudinales de corte naturalista, que utilicen enfoques dentro del campo de la Adquisición de Segundas Lenguas tanto de carácter cognitivo como sociocultural, para investigar con más profundidad el papel del feedback y su impacto en perfiles concretos de aprendices. Finalmente, se tratan algunas implicaciones pedagógicas, incluyendo la necesidad de que las prácticas de feedback faciliten el desarrollo de habilidades de autocorrección y de evaluación del propio rendimiento por parte de los estudiantes, y la necesidad de incrementar el conocimiento que los docentes tienen acerca de las distintas fuentes y modos de implementación de feedback.

Fiona Hyland

2010-12-01

133

The Language of Sustainability: From Basic Writing Classroom to Professional Discourse  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Understanding and describing professional practice, especially in Engineering and the Sciences,  has always been at the heart of research in Professional Communication. Several significant field  research projects have showed us that content knowledge alone is not sufficient to claim disciplinary expertise; a rhetorical understanding of the discipline and its ways of thinking is essential in achieving full participation in the field. Most professionals would expect that such a sophisticated approach can only be learned through on-the-job training or opportunities to interact with practitioners within authentic disciplinary contexts. Although this can certainly be the case in many instances, we argue that a rhetorical understanding can be enacted even within a freshman writing classroom. The results of our content and rhetorical analyses of student work from the beginning and the end of a course on academic writing with the theme of sustainability show that students were able in one semester to write in discipline-appropriate ways and understand the rhetorical strategies necessary to become part of a disciplinary conversation.  The implications of our findings can extend into the way we design courses in basic writing or professional communication and the ways we can use pre-assessment data to drive our course design decisions. 

Karatsolis, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

134

Developing Legal Writing Materials for English Second Language Learners: Problems and Perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews currently available legal writing books in terms of their suitability for use in English for legal academic purposes. Concludes that, while certain aspects of the available books can be useful, most are generally not suitable for use in such contexts. (Author/VWL)

Candlin, C. N.; Bhatia, V. K.; Jensen, C. H.

2002-01-01

135

Verb-Noun Collocations in Second Language Writing: A Corpus Analysis of Learners' English  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…

Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina

2011-01-01

136

Seeing How to Ask First: Photo Elicitation Motivates English Language Learners to Write  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have learned that using image-based methods to "ask" young adolescents about their relationships to school--instead of only "telling" them about school's importance--helps them to appreciate the writing tasks in which the authors ask them to engage. In this article, the authors discuss the positive effects these photo elicitation…

Zenkov, Kristien; Ewaida, Marriam; Bell, Athene; Lynch, Megan

2012-01-01

137

Writing a New Self in the Third Place: Language Students and Identity Formation  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying a foreign language at university level is a multifaceted project entailing constant identity formation as a foreign language user--and simultaneously as a plurilingual subject. As far as the second language (L2) learner is concerned, the language learning process can be seen as a construction of a new "third place" between the source…

Huhtala, Anne; Lehti-Eklund, Hanna

2010-01-01

138

Transfer of L1 Cohesive Devices and Transition Words into L2 Academic Texts: The Case of Arab Students  

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This study claims that Arab ESL students writing in English transfer L1 rhetorical modes of text organization into their English compositions. Fifty academic research papers were analysed in terms of the transition words and cohesive devices used, on the assumption that differences at the level of these language forms reflect differences at the…

Mohamed-Sayidina, Aisha

2010-01-01

139

Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing  

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Full Text Available Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learners’ written production after a year of intensive language instruction in the controlled conditions of a classroom. The objective of the study presented here is: 1. to determine the types of error produced in a short translation task at different levels of language (morphosyntactic, lexical 2. to observe manifestations of crosslinguistic influences between languages the subjects know (interlingual transfer as well as those related to the language learnt itself (intralingual transfer.The small sample of texts produced does not allow for any generalized observations and conclusions, however, at the level of elementary competence in any foreign language, as other research shows, the amount of individual variation is not the most significant factor. Thus the incorrect forms produced may testify to some more universally error-prone areas of language. The value of this kind of analysis lies in this direct application to the teaching of Polish as a synthetic language. The study also demonstrates the fact that communicative teaching has a limited contribution to make in the case of this family of languages. It suggests that overt and explicit teaching of a synthetic language will give a sounder basis for further development of language competence in its communicative dimension

Danuta Gabrys-Barker

2007-01-01

140

¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom / ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1) de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI ), un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argume [...] ntos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1) parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Abstract in english Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifica [...] tions favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.

Sandra, Higareda; Georgina, López; Gerrard, Mugford.

 
 
 
 
141

Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Bilingual Arabic-English Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were administered to the…

Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda

2013-01-01

142

¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1 in English Language Teaching (ELT, critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI , un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.

Sandra Higareda

2009-10-01

143

Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal / Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressig [...] nificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da Rede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by using the written language and how this process can constitute an opportunity to recr [...] eate their meanings. The data for this clinical study was collected in a group therapy involving 9 teenager students from public schools of Curitiba, with the complaint of reading and writing disorders. The group therapy was realized during one year inside the Speech language therapy clinic in Tuiuti University of Paraná. The meetings occurred every week during two hours totalizing 48 meetings. All data were video recorded and also written in a session diary. Six episodes considered very expressive were selected in order to analyze this theme. RESULTS: the research indicated that these individuals had a suffering relation with the written language and that they assumed incapacity positions towards it. It could be possible to observe that the clinical practices inside the group helped to recreate these relations, so that the individuals began to feel capable and assume responsibility positions in reading and writing practices. CONCLUSION: the speech language therapy group was built as a place where the individuals could set up a significant relation with reading and writing, providing key conditions for the re-significance of the symptoms and for interacting with different written texts, promoting thus changes between the individual and his own language.

Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida, Machado; Ana Paula, Berberian; Ana Paula, Santana.

144

Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressignificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da Rede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem.BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by using the written language and how this process can constitute an opportunity to recreate their meanings. The data for this clinical study was collected in a group therapy involving 9 teenager students from public schools of Curitiba, with the complaint of reading and writing disorders. The group therapy was realized during one year inside the Speech language therapy clinic in Tuiuti University of Paraná. The meetings occurred every week during two hours totalizing 48 meetings. All data were video recorded and also written in a session diary. Six episodes considered very expressive were selected in order to analyze this theme. RESULTS: the research indicated that these individuals had a suffering relation with the written language and that they assumed incapacity positions towards it. It could be possible to observe that the clinical practices inside the group helped to recreate these relations, so that the individuals began to feel capable and assume responsibility positions in reading and writing practices. CONCLUSION: the speech language therapy group was built as a place where the individuals could set up a significant relation with reading and writing, providing key conditions for the re-significance of the symptoms and for interacting with different written texts, promoting thus changes between the individual and his own language.

Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida Machado

2009-12-01

145

Supporting the Development of Autonomous Learning Skills in Reading and Writing in an Independent Language Learning Centre  

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Full Text Available This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development. These learner-centred support sessions aim to develop awareness of different types of learning strategies to suit individual learning needs, and cultivate interest and ability for continuous self-learning. The benefits of a semi-structured scaffolding format with attention to individual learning differences and supported by technology will be highlighted.

Hazel L. W. Chiu

2012-09-01

146

The Development of Language and Reading Skills in the Second and Third Languages of Multilingual Children in French Immersion  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between first language (L1) typology, defined as the classification of languages according to their structural characteristics (e.g. phonological systems and writing systems), and the development of second (L2) and third (L3) language skills and literacy proficiency in multilingual children was investigated in this study. The…

Berube, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

2012-01-01

147

Reading Native and Foreign Language Texts and Tests: The Case of Arabic and Hebrew Native Speakers Reading L1 and English FL Texts and Tests.  

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A study investigated the effect of test item type (multiple-choice or open-ended) on performance reading comprehension tests given in both the student's native language and a second language. Subjects were 24 native Arabic-speaking and 38 native Hebrew-speaking students at Haifa University (Israel), all enrolled in a course in English as a second…

Elinor, Siaegh-Haddad

148

Evidence on the Effectiveness of Comprehensive Error Correction in Second Language Writing  

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This study investigated the effect of direct and indirect comprehensive corrective feedback (CF) on second language (L2) learners' written accuracy (N = 268). The study set out to explore the value of CF as a revising tool as well as its capacity to support long-term accuracy development. In addition, we tested Truscott's (e.g., 2001, 2007) claims…

Van Beuningen, Catherine G.; De Jong, Nivja H.; Kuiken, Folkert

2012-01-01

149

Rocking Your Writing Program: Integration of Visual Art, Language Arts, & Science  

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This paper explores the integration of art, literacy and science in a second grade classroom, showing how an integrative approach has a positive and lasting influence on student achievement in art, literacy, and science. Ways in which art, science, language arts, and cognition intersect are reviewed. Sample artifacts are presented along with their…

Poldberg, Monique M.,; Trainin, Guy; Andrzejczak, Nancy

2013-01-01

150

Toward a Theory of Adaptive Transfer: Expanding Disciplinary Discussions of "Transfer" in Second-Language Writing and Composition Studies  

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In this paper, we argue that discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition studies have focused primarily on the reuse of past learning and thus have not adequately accounted for the adaptation of learned writing knowledge in unfamiliar situations. In an effort to expand disciplinary discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition…

DePalma, Michael-John; Ringer, Jeffrey M.

2011-01-01

151

Relocating Basic Writing  

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I frame the continuing value of basic writing as part of a long tradition in composition studies challenging dominant beliefs about literacy and language abilities, and I link basic writing to emerging--e.g."translingual"--approaches to language. I identify basic writing as vital to the field of composition in its rejection of simplistic notions…

Horner, Bruce

2011-01-01

152

Language, Literacy, and the Institutional Dynamics of Racism: Late-1960s Writing Instruction for "High-Risk" African American Undergraduate Students at One Predominantly White University  

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This essay analyzes the ways in which subtly but powerfully racist ideologies of language and literacy shaped the institutional development of one writing program for "high-risk" African American college students during the late 1960s and early 1970s. It further theorizes the value of such institutional analysis for counteracting racism within…

Lamos, Steve

2008-01-01

153

Relationship among Iranian EFL Learners’ Self-efficacy in Writing, Attitude towards Writing, Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance  

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The main trust of the present study was to investigate whether writing performance in students of English as a foreign language (EFL) was related to self-efficacy in writing, writing apprehension,  and attitude towards writing. Fifty IELTS students (30 females and 20 males) studying IELTS Writing participated in this study. In order to collect data, three instruments were used which were a writing apprehension test (WAT), a self-efficacy in writing scale (SWS), and a questionnaire on ...

2013-01-01

154

On the Factors Influencing L1 Transfer  

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For decades, the phenomenon of language transfer has been a focus of second language acquisition. The study of language transfer has experienced three stages. It has long been noted that the linguistic differences between L1 and L2 will affect the acquisition of L2, both positively and negatively. This paper aims at sorting out factors that are facilitating to L1 transfer. Seven categories of factors have been examined: Linguistic factors, Psycholinguistic factors, Sociolinguistic factors, So...

Aisong Yi

2012-01-01

155

e-Text Watermarking: Utilizing 'Kashida' Extensions in Arabic Language Electronic Writing  

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Full Text Available Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital signal. This work targets web applications that need to have hidden secure data within their Arabic e-text files. Many related watermarking techniques have been proposed as for text watermarking. However, most of them are suitable for English and cannot be generalized for different other languages such as Arabic. Arabic e-text watermarking is found having unique characteristics features that can be considered interestingly. In this paper, we are utilizing the extension Arabic character ‘Kashida’ to propose an improved method for Arabic e-text watermarking. We utilize all the extendable characters possibly fitted in words to represent some watermark bits. We embed bits within 'Kashida' characters in the cover text based on a secret key similar to classical cryptography. Our study showed that this watermarking scheme made the task of an attack much harder compared to previous similar and related methods. It also showed possibility to hide more secret data bits without degrading the security, which is believed to be attractive for web e-text data application such as preserving intellectual properties or copyright features.

Jamil Hamodi

2010-02-01

156

The Effect of Using Portfolio-based Writing Assessment on Language Learning: The Case of Young Iranian EFL Learners  

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This study investigated the effectiveness of portfolio-based writing assessment in EFL situations. Participants were 40 pre-intermediate young Iranian English learners. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 20 each. The experimental group wrote on five pre-established topics from their coursebook. Their writings were checked in terms of ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions of writing by two raters. They were given another oppo...

Saeed Taki; Maryam Heidari

2011-01-01

157

Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue  

Science.gov (United States)

Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) offers over 100 handouts on English writing skills. The collection could be called an online grammar book or a basic writing course. Categories covered include sentences, punctuation, parts of speech, spelling, methods of citing sources in research paper writing, English as a second language, and general writing concerns such as writers block, proofreading, non-sexist language, resume writing, business and professional writing, and coping with writing anxiety. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/

158

Japanese and English Sentence Reading Comprehension and Writing Systems: An fMRI Study of First and Second Language Effects on Brain Activation  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation from native Japanese (L1) readers reading hiragana (syllabic) and kanji (logographic) sentences, and English as a second language (L2). Kanji showed more activation than hiragana in right-hemisphere occipito-temporal lobe areas associated with visuospatial…

Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Just, Marcel A.

2009-01-01

159

The location of speech and writing functions in the frontal language area. Results of extraoperative cortical stimulation.  

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In three patients stimulation of the frontal speech area resulted in one or more of the following symptoms: speech arrest, writing arrest, or impaired rapid alternating movements of the tongue, fingers or toes. Speech arrest could be altered at individual points either with or without impairment of rapid movements or writing, but writing was not impaired without concomitant difficulties with either speech or rapid finger movements. Our data suggest that the frontal speech area may function to integrate complex motor functions, some speech related and others not. We also confirm previous conclusions that Exner's writing centre is not separate from Broca's area and that the writing defect in Broca's aphasia can occur without involvement of the motor strip. PMID:6697159

Lesser, R P; Lueders, H; Dinner, D S; Hahn, J; Cohen, L

1984-03-01

160

Early development of language by hand: composing, reading, listening, and speaking connections; three letter-writing modes; and fast mapping in spelling.  

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The first findings from a 5-year, overlapping-cohorts longitudinal study of typical language development are reported for (a) the interrelationships among Language by Ear (listening), Mouth (speaking), Eye (reading), and Hand (writing) in Cohort 1 in 1st and 3rd grade and Cohort 2 in 3rd and 5th grade; (b) the interrelationships among three modes of Language by Hand (writing manuscript letters with pen and keyboard and cursive letters with pen) in each cohort in the same grade levels as (a); and (c) the ability of the 1st graders in Cohort 1 and the 3rd graders in Cohort 2 to apply fast mapping in learning to spell pseudowords. Results showed that individual differences in Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression are stable developmentally, but each functional language system is only moderately correlated with the others. Likewise, manuscript writing, cursive writing, and keyboarding are only moderately correlated, and each has a different set of unique neuropsychological predictors depending on outcome measure and grade level. Results support the use of the following neuropsychological measures in assessing handwriting modes: orthographic coding, rapid automatic naming, finger succession (grapho-motor planning for sequential finger movements), inhibition, inhibition/switching, and phonemes skills (which may facilitate transfer of abstract letter identities across letter formats and modes of production). Both 1st and 3rd graders showed evidence of fast mapping of novel spoken word forms onto written word forms over 3 brief sessions (2 of which involved teaching) embedded in the assessment battery; and this fast mapping explained unique variance in their spelling achievement over and beyond their orthographic and phonological coding abilities and correlated significantly with current and next-year spelling achievement. PMID:16390289

Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Jones, Janine; Wolf, Beverly J; Gould, Laura; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Apel, Kenn

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter  

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My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from rea...

Stephen Krashen

2008-01-01

162

EFFECTS OF CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFER IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION  

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This article concentrates on the impact that cross-linguistic influences have on second language acquisition. It investigates the importance of the learner's native language (L1) in written production of a second language (L2), particularly the use of L1 linguistic rules by Spanish speakers when they are writing in the target language (L2). This exploratory research focuses on the production errors made by students relative to specific subsystems such as semantic and syntactic areas. Errors a...

María del Mar Ramón Torrijos

2009-01-01

163

The Chinese Input Challenges for Chinese as Second Language Learners in Computer-Mediated Writing: An Exploratory Study  

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This paper reports an exploratory study on Singapore secondary and primary school students' perceptions and behaviors on using a variety of Chinese input methods for Chinese composition writing. Significant behavioral patterns were uncovered and mapped into a cognitive process, which are potentially critical to the training of students in…

Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching-Sing; Gao, Ping

2011-01-01

164

EFFECTS OF CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFER IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION EFFECTS OF CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFER IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article concentrates on the impact that cross-linguistic influences have on second language acquisition. It investigates the importance of the learner's native language (L1) in written production of a second language (L2), particularly the use of L1 linguistic rules by Spanish speakers when they are writing in the target language (L2). This exploratory research focuses on the production errors made by students relative to specific subsystems such as semantic and syntactic areas. Err...

María del Mar Ramón Torrijos

2009-01-01

165

On the Factors Influencing L1 Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For decades, the phenomenon of language transfer has been a focus of second language acquisition. The study of language transfer has experienced three stages. It has long been noted that the linguistic differences between L1 and L2 will affect the acquisition of L2, both positively and negatively. This paper aims at sorting out factors that are facilitating to L1 transfer. Seven categories of factors have been examined: Linguistic factors, Psycholinguistic factors, Sociolinguistic factors, Socio-psychological factors, Individual difference, Developmental factors, and Frequency of input. Giving the complexity of transfer phenomenon, though the above-mentioned factors are discussed separately, the need to investigate their co-influence on L1 transfer is suggested.

Aisong Yi

2012-11-01

166

Applying Quality Function Deployment Approach to Design an English as a Foreign Language Writing Course for Engineering Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study attempts to incorporate the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to be integrated strategically in designing and managing a writing course within an English learning system. Understanding the user`s needs in these communities has become the first priority of learning systems for designing, running and managing effective learning services to meet the increasing expectations of the users. To achieve this, the learning system strives to improve their quality of service by applying ...

Abdollahi-negar, S.; Yaqoobi, B.

2008-01-01

167

Teaching With Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching writing can be a challenge, even for those who have been in front of a class full of students for years. The website of the Writing Center at Colorado State University is a great source of information for people who teach writing. A good place to start is the Teaching Guides area, which includes strategies on Planning & Conducting Classes, Teaching Specific Writing Skills, and Writing Across the Curriculum. Furthermore, the Teaching Activities section includes a range of compelling aides including Argument Quiz Discussion Starter, Evaluating Writing, and A Storyteller's Misguided Guide to Focus. Visitors also should also read the Across the Disciplines journal, which is "devoted to language, learning, and academic writing.ââˆOther highlights include The Composition Archives and a crucial guide to dealing with plagiarism.

2012-01-01

168

An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop  

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The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

Miller, Carla

2012-01-01

169

We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982.

Stephen Krashen

2008-04-01

170

Contribution of L1 in EFL Teaching  

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Full Text Available This study is conducted in a classroom action research to improve the students’ achievement in writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense in Structure 1 lessons. The subject consisted of 20 Semester II students who took Structure I lessons in English Education Department of Palangka Raya University, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The data were taken from the results of pre test and post test after the action was done. The results show that in cycle 1, in which the explanations were fully in English, only 40% of the students got a good achievement; 5-7 out of 20 test items were correct. After cycle 2 was done using L1 interchangeably with English in the explanations, the students’ achievement of writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense increased to 75%, in which 15-18 out 20 test items were correct.

Wahjuningsih Usadiati

2009-01-01

171

Applying Quality Function Deployment Approach to Design an English as a Foreign Language Writing Course for Engineering Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study attempts to incorporate the Quality Function Deployment (QFD to be integrated strategically in designing and managing a writing course within an English learning system. Understanding the user`s needs in these communities has become the first priority of learning systems for designing, running and managing effective learning services to meet the increasing expectations of the users. To achieve this, the learning system strives to improve their quality of service by applying a wide range of such quality management approaches as QFD. QFD initially stresses on driving continuous improvement of the user-oriented services towards end-user satisfaction.

S. Abdollahi-Negar

2008-01-01

172

PDI: Science for English Language Learners (ELL): Integrating Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking, and Thinking into the K-8 Classroom, New Orleans, Louisiana; March 18, 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

This Professional Development Institute (PDI) will focus on teaching strategies and methods that incorporate language acquisition with science instruction for English Language Learners (ELL) in the K-8 classroom. Specifically, this institute will begin with an overview of research on the ELL population, instruction, and programs available to teachers who have responsibilities for teaching science. The bulk of the 6 hours of instruction will provide guided inquiry activities that model integrated (Sheltered Instruction) strategies in science, reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking. The follow-up workshops will provide more in-depth research and instruction in each of the language skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking) as they apply to science instruction as well as working with specific populations of ELL students and available programs. Classrooms in the United States are becoming more diverse thus requiring regular classroom teachers to develop new skills in working with students whose first language is not English. Recent census data show that over the past twenty five years the number of ELL students (ages 5-17) grew from 3.8 million to 9.9 million or approximately 10% of the entire U.S. school population (NCES, 2006). With this incredible growth, regular classroom teachers are in need of learning new teaching skills in language acquisition to integrate into everyday classroom content instruction. Sheltered Instructional strategies or Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) involve teaching strategies used in developing language skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking and incorporates them into content area (Science) planning, instruction and assessment. These strategies include clearly defined language and content objectives, creating instruction that relates to students' prior knowledge, tailoring teacher talk to students' English language proficiency levels, allowing students to process material in a variety of formats including guided inquiry, scaffolding content instruction, and using assessment methods that allow students to display learning in a variety of ways (Becijos,1997; Echevarria, Vogt, and Short, 2008). This is especially important to teachers at the elementary and middle school as the majority of ELL students are entering schools at these levels. Of all ELL students entering school, 44% are in grades K-3 and 35% in grades 4-8 (Kindler, 2002). This Professional Development Institute will be conducted by David Crowther, a Professor of Science Education at the University of Nevada, Reno. Dr. Crowther is the coauthor/editor of Science for English Language Learners by NSTA Press. He has written several chapters in books and articles about science for ELLs; presented at NSTA workshops and TESOL on the subject; and teaches science methods using Sheltered Instruction strategies at the University of Nevada, Reno. Joaquin Vil� is a Professor of English and Second Language Acquisition at Salisbury University in Maryland. In his numerous years of experience he has conducted many workshops on teaching EL students, written chapters / articles, and led departments and programs for ELL within the English departments at several universities. Dr. Vil� is also a NCATE evaluator of TESOL programs and is the Special Assistant to the Vice President of the University for Diversity. Presenters are recognized as top researchers, authors, and workshop facilitators in the field of science and language acquisition.

1900-01-01

173

Immediate Web-Based Essay Critiquing System Feedback and Teacher Follow-Up Feedback on Young Second Language Learners' Writings: An Experimental Study in a Hong Kong Secondary School  

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This article is an effort to add to computer-assisted language learning by extending a study on an essay critiquing system (ECS) feedback to secondary school language learners' writing. The study compared two groups of participants' performance, namely the treatment group which received both the system feedback and teacher feedback (i.e., blended…

Lee, Cynthia; Cheung, William Kwok Wai; Wong, Kelvin Chi Kuen; Lee, Fion Sau Ling

2013-01-01

174

The Use Of First Language In Limited English Proficiency Classes: Good, Bad Or Ugly?  

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Full Text Available There has been an ongoing debate among language teachers on whether to use students’ first language (L1 in second language (L2 teaching. Nevertheless, the use of L1 in L2 teaching has been advocated with grounded theory as far as it merits the situation. This research article aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of L1 to generate ideas for second language writing among low proficiency ESL learners. The study employed the experimental research design where students in the experimental group used Bahasa Melayu in generating ideas before they resumed writing their essays in English. Students in the control group used English. Two independent raters graded the essays and the scores were analysed using the paired t-test. The findings showed a marked improvement in the writing performance of students who used their first language to generate ideas before using their second language for writing. Based on the findings, we recommend that teachers encourage the use of first language before writing or composing in English especially among low-level proficiency ESL learners.

Siti Hamin Stapa

2006-01-01

175

La evolución de modelos mentales de escritura en un contexto de lengua extranjera : dinámica de objetivos y creencias = Development of mental models of writing in a foreign language context : dynamics of goals and beliefs.  

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The present study is a longitudinal investigation on EFL university learners’ mental models of writing (understood as a set of beliefs and goals) in an EAP course and their effects on performance. Data collection involved language proficiency tests, L2 compositions, interviews and self-reflective journals. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data were carried out. The findings indicate the development of a knowledge-transforming model of writing, the transformation of students’ m...

Nicola?s Conesa, Florentina

2013-01-01

176

"Why Do You Write Your Name Long Like That?" Language and Literacy in a San Francisco Kindergarten  

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In this thesis I investigate the role of language awareness in early literacy, and argue that skills acquired when becoming literate can provide resources for manipulating social as well as textual relations. Based on ethnographic research among a group of 5- and 6-year old kindergartners in a San Francisco public school, I describe how the kids' personal names provided them with stable landmarks with which to explore both oral and written language. The capacity of names to facilitate communi...

Helgesen, Espen

2008-01-01

177

Writing Music Therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.

Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many ...

2011-01-01

178

Enhancing EFL Learners’ Writing Skill via Journal Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Frequently accepted as being the last language skill to be acquired for native speakers of the language as well as for foreign/second language learners” (Hamp-Lyons and Heasly, 2006: 2, English writing, for a number of EFL learners, appears to be challenging. This paper sought to investigate if learners can grow out of the writing difficulties by engaging in journal writing activity. 85 second-year students from the two writing classes, one treated as the experimental group (EG and the other as the control group (CG, at the Faculty of English Linguistics and Literature of the University of Social Sciences and Humanities in Ho Chi Minh City (USSH-HCMC were invited to participate in the study, whose findings substantiated the benefits of journal writing as an extensive activity to foster learners' writing motivation and enhance their writing skill as well as to build a close bonding between teachers and learners.

Luu Trong Tuan

2010-08-01

179

Isomorphisms in l^1-homology  

CERN Document Server

Taking the l^1-completion and the topological dual of the singular chain complex gives rise to l^1-homology and bounded cohomology respectively. Unlike l^1-homology, bounded cohomology is very well understood by the work of Gromov and Ivanov. Based on an observation by Matsumoto and Morita, we derive a mechanism linking isomorphisms on the level of homology of Banach chain complexes to isomorphisms on the level of cohomology of the dual Banach cochain complexes and vice versa. Therefore, certain results on bounded cohomology can be transferred to l^1-homology. For example, we obtain a new proof of the fact that l^1-homology only depends on the fundamental group and that l^1-homology with twisted coefficients admits a description in terms of projective resolutions. The latter one in particular fills a gap in Park's approach.

L"oh, C

2006-01-01

180

Linguagem escrita e relações estéticas: algumas considerações / Considerations on language writing and aesthetic relations / Lenguaje escrito y relaciones estéticas: algunas consideraciones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O processo de constituição do sujeito ocorre a partir de relações sociais, semioticamente mediadas. Assim, é via produção de sentidos que o ser humano produz cultura e, simultaneamente, constitui-se enquanto singularidade, o que caracteriza esse processo como criador. Ao reconhecer a linguagem como [...] constitutiva do sujeito e entender o processo de criação como característico do ser humano, o presente trabalho apresenta reflexões, à luz da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural, sobre os processos de criação na/com a linguagem escrita. Situações de uma pesquisa anteriormente desenvolvida são apresentadas para ilustrar as dicotomias existentes no processo de produção escrita, mais especificamente no que se refere às relações forma/conteúdo e técnica/sentido. Para a superação dessas dicotomias, necessário se faz estabelecer relações estéticas com a realidade, por cujo intermédio a pessoa pode distanciar-se e aproximar-se da produção escrita, seja esta produto de sua objetivação ou não. É este movimento que possibilita a organização de novos sentidos para a produção própria ou alheia e, por conseguinte, novas escritas. Abstract in spanish El proceso de constitución del sujeto ocurre a partir de relaciones sociales, semióticamente mediadas. Así, es vía producción de sentidos que el ser humano produce cultura y, simultáneamente, se constituye con singularidad, lo que caracteriza ese proceso como creador. Al reconocer el lenguaje como c [...] onstitutivo del sujeto y entender el de creación como característico del ser humano, el presente trabajo presenta reflexiones, a la luz de la Psicología Histórico-cultural, sobre los procesos de creación en el/con el lenguaje escrito. Situaciones de una encuesta anteriormente desarrollada son presentadas para ilustrar las dicotomías existentes en el proceso de producción escrita, más específicamente en lo que se refiere a las relaciones forma/contenido y técnica/sentido. Para la superación de esas dicotomías, se hace necesario establecer relaciones estéticas con la realidad, por cuyo intermedio la persona puede distanciarse y aproximarse de la producción escrita, sea ésta producto de su objetivación o no. Es este movimiento que posibilita la organización de nuevos sentidos para la producción propia o ajena y, por consiguiente nuevas escritas. Abstract in english The process of the constitution of the subject occurs through semiotically mediated social relationships. Through the production of meanings the human being produces culture and, simultaneously, constitutes its singularity, which characterizes the process as creative. While acknowledging language as [...] constitutive of the subject and the comprehension of the creative process as unique to humans, current analysis presents some considerations, based on historical-cultural psychology, on the creative processes with language writing. Situations from a previous research are shown to illustrate the dichotomies during the process of writing production, more specifically the relations between shape/content and technique/meaning. So that these dichotomies may be overcome, it is necessary to establish aesthetic relations with reality. Through reality the subject may distance him/herself from or approach the writing production whether or not it is his/her production. Such shifting permits the organization of new meanings for one’s own or for others’ production, or rather, for new writings.

Silmara Carina Dornelas, Munhoz; Andréa Vieira, Zanella.

 
 
 
 
181

The Writing System of Modern Persian. American Council of Learned Societies Program in Oriental Languages, Publication Series B - Aids - Number 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual describes and illustrates the writing system of modern Persian. It is modelled after Frank A. Rice's "Classical Arabic: The Writing System." Five sections concerning the writing system are provided: (1) printed Persian, (2) typewritten Persian, (3) handwritten Persian, (4) the combination of words, and (5) punctuation. (RL)

Paper, Herbert H.; Jazayery, Mohammad Ali

182

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This document presents writing samples that have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing--argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative--in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for…

Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

2010-01-01

183

University writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

Miguel Zabalza Beraza

2013-01-01

184

DESCRIPTIVE VERSUS DIALOGIC REFLECTION AND POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE STANCE IN THE REFLECTIVE WRITING OF TURKISH PROSPECTIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS  

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Full Text Available Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in their teacher education could be beneficial in helping them to develop their critical thinking skills and to make the most of their future teaching experiences. Thus, the current study was conducted to describe the individual reflective profiles emerging from the analysis of the written reflections of 28 Turkish prospective English Language teachers on a video-recorded microteaching experience carried out as part of a methodology course. A mixed method approach was adopted to this aim. First, qualitative analysis of the written reflections revealed reflective categories showing how the participants reflected on their teaching experience. Second, frequency analysis was used to reveal the distribution of these reflective categories for each participant. The data analysis showed that the individual participants displayed different patterns of reflection in terms of descriptive and dialogic reflection, and positive and negative stance.

Amanda YE??LBURSA

2011-10-01

185

Book Review: Stop, Write!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

Hans Thulesius

2013-06-01

186

Linguagem escrita e relações estéticas: algumas considerações Lenguaje escrito y relaciones estéticas: algunas consideraciones Considerations on language writing and aesthetic relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O processo de constituição do sujeito ocorre a partir de relações sociais, semioticamente mediadas. Assim, é via produção de sentidos que o ser humano produz cultura e, simultaneamente, constitui-se enquanto singularidade, o que caracteriza esse processo como criador. Ao reconhecer a linguagem como constitutiva do sujeito e entender o processo de criação como característico do ser humano, o presente trabalho apresenta reflexões, à luz da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural, sobre os processos de criação na/com a linguagem escrita. Situações de uma pesquisa anteriormente desenvolvida são apresentadas para ilustrar as dicotomias existentes no processo de produção escrita, mais especificamente no que se refere às relações forma/conteúdo e técnica/sentido. Para a superação dessas dicotomias, necessário se faz estabelecer relações estéticas com a realidade, por cujo intermédio a pessoa pode distanciar-se e aproximar-se da produção escrita, seja esta produto de sua objetivação ou não. É este movimento que possibilita a organização de novos sentidos para a produção própria ou alheia e, por conseguinte, novas escritas.El proceso de constitución del sujeto ocurre a partir de relaciones sociales, semióticamente mediadas. Así, es vía producción de sentidos que el ser humano produce cultura y, simultáneamente, se constituye con singularidad, lo que caracteriza ese proceso como creador. Al reconocer el lenguaje como constitutivo del sujeto y entender el de creación como característico del ser humano, el presente trabajo presenta reflexiones, a la luz de la Psicología Histórico-cultural, sobre los procesos de creación en el/con el lenguaje escrito. Situaciones de una encuesta anteriormente desarrollada son presentadas para ilustrar las dicotomías existentes en el proceso de producción escrita, más específicamente en lo que se refiere a las relaciones forma/contenido y técnica/sentido. Para la superación de esas dicotomías, se hace necesario establecer relaciones estéticas con la realidad, por cuyo intermedio la persona puede distanciarse y aproximarse de la producción escrita, sea ésta producto de su objetivación o no. Es este movimiento que posibilita la organización de nuevos sentidos para la producción propia o ajena y, por consiguiente nuevas escritas.The process of the constitution of the subject occurs through semiotically mediated social relationships. Through the production of meanings the human being produces culture and, simultaneously, constitutes its singularity, which characterizes the process as creative. While acknowledging language as constitutive of the subject and the comprehension of the creative process as unique to humans, current analysis presents some considerations, based on historical-cultural psychology, on the creative processes with language writing. Situations from a previous research are shown to illustrate the dichotomies during the process of writing production, more specifically the relations between shape/content and technique/meaning. So that these dichotomies may be overcome, it is necessary to establish aesthetic relations with reality. Through reality the subject may distance him/herself from or approach the writing production whether or not it is his/her production. Such shifting permits the organization of new meanings for one’s own or for others’ production, or rather, for new writings.

Silmara Carina Dornelas Munhoz

2008-06-01

187

The Role of L1 in L2 Idiom Comprehension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study investigated the role of first language (L1) transfer in Iranian EFL learners' second language (L2) idiom comprehension. It was also sought to understand whether there is any significant difference between learners of different proficiency levels and their use of L1 in decoding L2 idioms. To do this, the participants of different levels of language proficiency were asked to participate in this study. The L2 idioms were categorized based on their similarity to L1 into thre...

Saeed Taki; Muhammad Reza Namy Soghady

2013-01-01

188

Tracing Cultures behind the Struggling Experience of a Chinese High School Student Writing Application Letters in English  

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By examining the affect, behavior and cognition (the ABCs) involved in the writing process of a Chinese high school student composing application essays in English (a foreign language) as a case study by means of ethnographic approach and under the notion of small culture, this study aims to illustrate how different cultural forces interact with one another and how they come to play in the shaping of rhetorical differences between learner's native language (L1/NL )and second or foreign langua...

Liqiu Wei; Ji Liu

2012-01-01

189

Algumas considerações sobre a interface entre a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS) e a Língua Portuguesa na construção inicial da escrita pela criança surda / Considerations on the interface between the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS) and Portuguese language in the initial construction of writing of deaf children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo propõe uma reflexão psicolingüística sobre as construções conceituais de crianças surdas no que diz respeito à escrita. O trabalho revela, a partir de um diálogo com as idéias de Emília Ferreiro e Ana Teberosky, que a psicogênese da escrita vivenciada por crianças surdas, que têm a língua d [...] e sinais como primeira língua e língua de instrução, se desenrola de forma diferente ao que é vivido por crianças ouvintes em processo inicial de construção da escrita. As principais especificidades dessa aquisição relacionam-se: a não-fonetização da escrita, a uma intensa exploração dos aspectos viso-espaciais da escrita e ao uso dos parâmetros fonológicos da língua de sinais como elemento regulador e organizador da escrita. Tais peculiaridades exigem, portanto, que a escola e o professor alfabetizador revejam suas concepções sobre o processo de escrita no surdo, pensando em (novas) práticas pedagógicas que considerem a realidade bilíngüe e sua relação não-sonora com a escrita. Abstract in english This paper proposes a psycholinguistic reflection on the conceptual constructions of deaf children in what regards writing. Based on a dialogue with the ideas of Emília Ferreiro and Ana Teberosky, this work reveals that the psychogenesis of writing experienced by deaf children who have sign language [...] as their first and instruction language, occurs in a different way than that of hearing children in the initial process of constructing writing. The main specificities of this acquisition are related to the non-phonetization of writing, to an intense exploration of the visual-spatial aspects of writing and to the usage of the phonologic parameters of sign language as a regulating and organizing element of writing. Such peculiarities thus demand that school and alphabetizing teachers revise their conceptions on the process of writing of the deaf, thinking of (new) pedagogical practices that take into account the bilingual reality and its soundless relationship to writing.

Renata Castelo, Peixoto.

190

Writing Music Therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.

Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many characteristics. It makes sense that we use poetry to write about music therapy.

Writing is a crucial skill for music therapy professionals who must produce various notes, proposals, and reports. Writing poetically is a diminished stance compared to discursive prose writing. It is understandable that representing music therapy in experimental, tentative, and creative texts is risky. I invite music therapists to aspire towards poetry when writing music therapy to better address nonverbal, embodied, music therapy essence. I address this invitation to all writers of music therapy: undergraduate and graduate students, clinicians, and researchers.

Mary Helena Rykov

2011-03-01

191

The Effect of Using the Reading for Writing Approach on Developing the Writing Ability of Egyptian EFL Learners and Their Attitudes Towards Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Research reveals that the division between reading and writing hinders the development of language learning in general and writing ability in specific. The study examined the effect of using the reading for writing approach on developing the writing ability of Egyptian EFL learners and their attitudes towards writing. Thirty, first year secondary…

Ibrahim, Hany

2006-01-01

192

Sidestepping Our "Scare Words": Genre as a Possible Bridge between L1 and L2 Compositionists  

Science.gov (United States)

In light of the increasing student diversity in U.S. university composition classrooms, there is a strong need for collaboration between L1 and L2 writing specialists. Differences in the lexicons of our two fields, however, as well as the philosophical differences embedded in our word choices, can hinder productive L1-L2 communication. The purpose…

Costino, Kimberly A.; Hyon, Sunny

2011-01-01

193

Algumas considerações sobre a interface entre a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS e a Língua Portuguesa na construção inicial da escrita pela criança surda Considerations on the interface between the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS and Portuguese language in the initial construction of writing of deaf children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma reflexão psicolingüística sobre as construções conceituais de crianças surdas no que diz respeito à escrita. O trabalho revela, a partir de um diálogo com as idéias de Emília Ferreiro e Ana Teberosky, que a psicogênese da escrita vivenciada por crianças surdas, que têm a língua de sinais como primeira língua e língua de instrução, se desenrola de forma diferente ao que é vivido por crianças ouvintes em processo inicial de construção da escrita. As principais especificidades dessa aquisição relacionam-se: a não-fonetização da escrita, a uma intensa exploração dos aspectos viso-espaciais da escrita e ao uso dos parâmetros fonológicos da língua de sinais como elemento regulador e organizador da escrita. Tais peculiaridades exigem, portanto, que a escola e o professor alfabetizador revejam suas concepções sobre o processo de escrita no surdo, pensando em (novas práticas pedagógicas que considerem a realidade bilíngüe e sua relação não-sonora com a escrita.This paper proposes a psycholinguistic reflection on the conceptual constructions of deaf children in what regards writing. Based on a dialogue with the ideas of Emília Ferreiro and Ana Teberosky, this work reveals that the psychogenesis of writing experienced by deaf children who have sign language as their first and instruction language, occurs in a different way than that of hearing children in the initial process of constructing writing. The main specificities of this acquisition are related to the non-phonetization of writing, to an intense exploration of the visual-spatial aspects of writing and to the usage of the phonologic parameters of sign language as a regulating and organizing element of writing. Such peculiarities thus demand that school and alphabetizing teachers revise their conceptions on the process of writing of the deaf, thinking of (new pedagogical practices that take into account the bilingual reality and its soundless relationship to writing.

Renata Castelo Peixoto

2006-08-01

194

Effective Ways of Teaching Writing in EFL Classes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes conventional ways of teaching writing in English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classes. Current theories on teaching writing are reviewed and practical writing activities and tasks applicable to the EFL classroom are presented. (Author/VWL)

Im, Byung-Bin; Chang, Kyung-Suk

1999-01-01

195

Exploring Students’ Perceptions of ESL Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Writing has always been regarded as playing a prominent role in learning a second language. Research within this discipline has mainly focused on the development of writing skill, but in recent years, some researchers have examined students’ perceptions of writing. The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ perceptions about an academic writing course and writing in general. A total of 64 female students from an ESP program participated in the study. The general desig...

Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail

2011-01-01

196

Out of a Writing Conference: Speaking Writing Connection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value onl...

Utami Widiati

1997-01-01

197

Spanish Interference in EFL Writing Skills: A Case of Ecuadorian Senior High Schools  

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Full Text Available Extensive studies have been conducted regarding mother tongue (L1 interference and developing English writing skills. This study, however, aims to investigate the influence of the Spanish language on second language (L2 writing skills at several Ecuadorian senior high schools in Loja. To achieve this, 351 students and 42 teachers from second year senior high schools (public and private were asked to participate in this study. The instruments for data collection were student and teacher questionnaires, as well as a written test in which students were asked to write a narrative passage. The information gathered from the instruments was then organized and tabulated to determine the various interference variables. Afterwards, the most representative samples from the narrative texts were analyzed based on their semantic, morphological and syntactical features. The results from this study indicate that English grammar and vocabulary were the linguistic areas that suffered the highest level of L1 language interference. The most common Spanish interference errors were misuse of verbs, omission of personal and object pronouns, misuse of prepositions, overuse of articles, and inappropriate/ unnatural word order. Finally, some suggestions are given to teachers in order to help students prevent further Spanish interference problems during writing/composition classes.

Paola Alexandra Cabrera Solano

2014-06-01

198

CALL versus Paper: In Which Context Are L1 Glosses More Effective?  

Science.gov (United States)

CALL glossing in first language (L1) or second language (L2) texts has been shown by previous studies to be more effective than traditional, paper-and-pen L1 glossing. Using a pool of studies with much more statistical power and more accurate results, this meta-analysis demonstrates more precisely the degree to which CALL L1 glossing can be more…

Taylor, Alan M.

2013-01-01

199

Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

2011-01-01

200

Language.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noninvasive focal brain stimulation by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively in the past 20 years to investigate normal language functions. The picture emerging from this collection of empirical works is that of several independent modular functions mapped on left-lateralized temporofrontal circuits originating dorsally or ventrally to the auditory cortex. The identification of sounds as language (i.e., phonological transformations) is modulated by TMS applied over the posterior-superior temporal cortex and over the caudal inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex complex. Conversely, attribution of semantics to words is modulated successfully by applying TMS to the rostral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech production is typically interfered with by TMS applied to the left inferior frontal gyrus, onto the same cortical areas that also contain phonological representations. The cortical mapping of grammatical functions has been investigated with TMS mainly regarding the category of verbs, which seem to be represented in the left middle frontal gyrus. Most TMS studies have investigated the cortical processing of single words or sublexical elements. Conversely, complex elements of language such as syntax have not been investigated extensively, although a few studies have indicated a left temporal, frontal, and parietal system also involving the neocerebellar cortex. Finally, both the perception and production of nonlinguistic communicative properties of speech, such as prosody, have been mapped by TMS in the peri-Silvian region of the right hemisphere. PMID:24112933

Cattaneo, Luigi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Handling L2 Input in Phonological STM: The Effect of Non-L1 Phonetic Segments and Non-L1 Phonotactics on Nonword Repetition  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on an experiment comparing the effects of three discrete types of deviance from native language (L1) phonetics and phonology on verbal short-term memory performance. A nonword repetition task was used to measure the recall of four stimulus types: (a) high-probability L1-sounding nonwords, (b) low-probability L1-sounding…

Kovacs, Gabor; Racsmany, Mihaly

2008-01-01

202

Writing Our Practice. Support Documents for the Reading & Writing and the Oral Communication Streams of the "Certificates of General Education for Adults within the Victorian Adult English Language, Literacy and Numeracy Accreditation Framework."  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of 14 articles focuses on the Reading and Writing and Oral Communication Streams of the Certificates of General Education (CGE) for Adults in the context of literacy teaching practices. Section 1 contains 11 case studies and articles with a practical focus. Practitioners discuss aspects of their curriculum development related to…

Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

203

Thinking on the Write Path  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper underscores the importance of the cognitive orientation of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in their success in writing courses. A few suggestions are made as to how EFL teachers can put their students on the right cognitive path in their writings.

Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2007-01-01

204

Robert Frost on Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is a collection of Frost's letters, reviews, introductions, lectures, and interviews on writing dating back to 1913. It provides Frost's view of literature, and its relation to language and social order. Part one, "Frost as a Literary Critic," discusses the scope of Frost's criticism and Frost as both critical theorist and practical…

Barry, Elaine

205

Pedagogical Implications to Teaching English Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

English, as an international language, takes such a position in foreign language teaching and learning in China. As we all know that the ultimate purpose of language teaching is to cultivate students’ communicative ability including not only the oral ability, but also the writing ability. However, teaching of English writing is far from satisfactory, and many students still have a great difficulty in writing English composition. They find it hard to express their ideas and feeling freely an...

Fushan Sun

2010-01-01

206

El oficio del escritor académico: un portal para promover el uso de la lengua escrita como práctica social / The Profession of Academic Writing: A Portal to Promote the Use of Written Language as a Social Practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La escritura académica es un campo en creciente desarrollo debido al reconocimiento de que el uso de la lengua escrita y la socialización en las disciplinas académicas es indisoluble: la lengua no puede reducirse a la enseñanza de la ortografía y la gramática, ni la construcción de conocimiento pued [...] e entenderse sin la mediación de textos académicos en la educación superior. Sin embargo, existen aún muy pocas iniciativas institucionales para formalizar este tipo de acciones, y menos con un componente tecnológico. En este artículo presentamos el desarrollo de un portal de recursos para la escritura académica, el cual ilustra un conjunto de acciones y procesos constitutivos del oficio del escritor académico como una práctica social. Este modelaje de escritura académica se logra utilizando un paradigma sociocultural y uno de semiótica visual. Abstract in english Academic writing is a growing field due to the recognition that the use of written language and socialization in academic disciplines is indissoluble: language cannot be reduced to teaching spelling and grammar, nor can the construction of knowledge be understood without the mediation of academic te [...] xts in higher education. However, institutional initiatives for formalizing this type of actions are still very limited, especially in the case of technological components. In this article, we present the development of a portal of resources for academic writing, which illustrates a set of actions and processes that constitute the profession of academic writing as a social practice. This model of academic writing is achieved by using a sociocultural paradigm and a paradigm of visual semiotics.

Juan Manuel, Fernández-Cárdenas; Lorena, Piña-Gómez.

207

Exploring a New Technique for Comparing Bilinguals' L1 and L2 Reading Speed  

Science.gov (United States)

Is it possible to tell whether bilinguals are able to read simple text in their two languages equally fluently? Is it thus possible to distinguish balanced bilinguals from unbalanced bilinguals with respect to reading fluency in their first language (L1) and second language (L2)? In this study, we avoided making direct comparisons between L1 and…

Gauvin, Hanna S.; Hulstijn, Jan H.

2010-01-01

208

Habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares / Oral and written language skills for reading and writing in preschool children Habilidades / Linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese As crianças pré-escolares já possuem noções de leitura e escritura porque têm desenvolvido habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas que se relacionam entre si, e por sua vez, com a aquisição da leitura e a escritura convencionais. Este artigo de revisão tem por objetivos: (a) Descrever as relações [...] existentes entre linguagem oral e escrita nos anos pré-escolares, e (b) Identificar as habilidades concretas da linguagem da criança pré-escolar que possibilitam a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais. Fez-se uma busca nas bases de dados ERIC e OVID de emergent literacy,phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, que contribuiu com os componentes da linguajem oral (habilidades fonológicas e semânticas) que se relacionam com a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais, assim como uma proposta de análise na que se enfatiza o processo das habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares. Abstract in spanish Los niños preescolares ya poseen nociones de lectura y escritura porque han desarrollado habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas que se relacionan entre sí y, a su vez, con la adquisición de la lectura y la escritura convencionales. Este artículo de revisión tiene como objetivos (a) Describir las [...] relaciones existentes entre lenguaje oral y escrito en los años preescolares, e (b) Identificar las habilidades concretas del lenguaje del niño preescolar que posibilitan la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales. Se hizo una búsqueda en las bases de datos ERIC y OVID de emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, la cual aportó los componentes del lenguaje oral -habilidades fonológicas y semánticas- que se relacionan con la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales, así como una propuesta de análisis en la que se enfatiza el proceso de las habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares. Abstract in english Preschool children already have notions of reading and writing because they have developed oral and written language skills that relate to each other, and in turn, with the acquisition of conventional reading and writing. This review article aims to: (a) identify the relationship between oral and wr [...] itten language in the preschool years, and (b) Identify the specific skills of the preschool child language enabling the acquisition of conventional literacy. A search in the databases ERIC and OVID for emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, and language skills preschoolers. This provided the oral-language components and semanti-cphonological skills that relate to the acquisition of conventional reading and writing, as well as a proposal for analysis that emphasizes the process of oral and written language skills for literacy in preschool children.

Esperanza, Guarneros Reyes; Lizbeth, Vega Pérez.

209

The L2 Acquisition of Spanish Rhotics by L1 English Speakers: The Effect of L1 Articulatory Routines and Phonetic Context for Allophonic Variation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article offers a fine-grained investigation of how first-language (L1) phonetics involving English rhotics affect Spanish rhotic production by second-language (L2) learners. Specifically, this study investigates how different L1 English rhotic articulatory routines (retroflex-like and bunched-like) and the phonetic context that produces…

Olsen, Michael K.

2012-01-01

210

Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

2013-01-01

211

The Effect of Process Writing Practice on the Writing Quality of Form One Students: A Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Teachers who teach English as a second language are committed to develop an understanding and improvement of second language writing as learning to write in the second language is a complicated process. Despite the numerous research on second language writing, the phenomenon of writing is constantly under investigation as teachers want to share the findings of each study which provides knowledge that resonates with their teaching experience. This case study is a report about the effect of pro...

Majid Pour-Mohammadi; Mohamad Jafre Zainol Abidin; Cheong Lai Fong

2012-01-01

212

Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

2012-06-01

213

Using tracking software for writing instruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

is what is often evaluated in the context of language teaching, the process of giving thought to linguistic form is fascinating. For almost forty years, language teachers have found it more effective to help learners in the writing process than in the written product; it is there that they could find sources of writing problems. Despite all controversy evoked by post-process approaches with respect to process writing, information technology has lately offered tools that can shed new light on ...

Yagi, Sane M.; Al-salman, Saleh

2011-01-01

214

Speech-Language Disorders and the Speech-Language Pathologist  

Science.gov (United States)

Speech-Language Disorders and the Speech-Language Pathologist What are speech and language disorders ? Speech and language disorders affect one's ability to talk, understand, read, and write. Such disorders ...

215

Hedging in Academic Writing and EAP Textbooks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines hedging in textbooks by focusing on the coverage of lexical items as markers of uncertainty and tentativeness. Tentative language continues to be a source of pragmatic failure in the writing of second-language science students. Hence, it is suggested that pedagogic writing materials would benefit from revisions based on authentic data.…

Hyland, Ken

1994-01-01

216

The Effects of Collaborative Writing Activity Using Google Docs on Students' Writing Abilities  

Science.gov (United States)

Google Docs, a free web-based version of Microsoft Word, offers collaborative features which can be used to facilitate collaborative writing in a foreign language classroom. The current study compared writing abilities of students who collaborated on writing assignments using Google Docs with those working in groups in a face-to-face classroom.…

Suwantarathip, Ornprapat; Wichadee, Saovapa

2014-01-01

217

THE EFFECT OF TEACHING WRITING STRATEGIES ON TURKISH LANGUAGE TEACHING DEPARTMENT FRESMAN STUDENTS’ WRITING ACHIEVEMENT/YAZMA STRATEJ?LER? Ö?RET?M?N?N TÜRKÇE Ö?RETMENL??? B?R?NC? SINIF Ö?RENC?LER?N?N YAZMA BA?ARISINA ETK?S?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the effect of writing strategies instruction on Turkish Language Teaching Department freshmen’s writing achievement. In accordance this aim, the pretest-posttest control group design was used to identify the effect of writing strategies instruction on freshmen’s writing achievement. As the quasi-experimental design was used in the study, population and sample was not defined. Instead, sample groups were taken based on the equality of the groups. The control group consisted of 18 girls and 6 boys, totally 24 students whereas the experimental group included 21 girls and 5 boys, totally 26 students. In the study, written expression evaluation scale was used as measurement device. At the end of the study, it was concluded that writing strategies instruction enhances writing achievement of the experimental group while the scores of pretest and posttest of the control group were not significantly changed. Bu ara?t?rman?n amac?, yazma stratejileri e?itiminin Türkçe ö?retmenli?i 1. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin yaz?l? anlat?m ba?ar?lar?na olan etkisini belirlemektir. Bu amaç do?rultulsunda, ön test-son test kontrol gruplu yar? deneysel desene ba?vurulmu?tur. Ara?t?rmada yar? deneysel desen kullan?ld???ndan dolay? evren ve örneklem seçilmemi?, bunun yerine çal??ma gruplar? al?n?p gruplar?n e?itli?i üzerinde durulmu?tur. Kontrol grubu 18 k?z, 6 erkek olmak üzere toplam 24 ki?iden, deney grubu ise 21 k?z, 5 erkek olmak üzere toplam 26 ki?iden olu?maktad?r. Çal??mada ölçme arac? olarak Yaz?l? Anlat?m De?erlendirme Ölçe?i kullan?lm??t?r. Ara?t?rman?n sonunda deney grubu ö?rencilerinin yazma ba?ar?s? ön test ve son test puanlar? aras?nda son test lehine anlaml? farkl?l?k oldu?u, kontrol grubu ö?rencilerinin yazma ba?ar?s? ön test ve son test puanlar? aras?nda anlaml? farkl?l?k olmad??? tespit edilmi?tir.

Ersoy TOPUZKANAMI?

2014-06-01

218

Using Progressive I-Can Statements to Promote Learner Confidence in Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenges of teaching writing and encouraging students to write are many. However, one of the most difficult issues to deal with is students' reluctance to write in any language, even their home language. Because of this reluctance, being asked to write in English as a foreign or second language can feel like a double burden. Learners of…

MacDuff, Fife; AlHayki, Khadija; Linse, Caroline

2010-01-01

219

L1CAM/A0290  

Science.gov (United States)

L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), also known as neural cell adhesion molecule 1 or A0290, is a member of a subgroup of integral membrane proteins that belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules (CAM).

2009-04-14

220

Lexical Knowledge in L1 and L2 Third and Fifth Graders.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study investigated the lexical knowledge of 40 Turkish-Dutch bilingual children aged 9 and 11 years and living in the Netherlands. Results indicate important differences between available lexical knowledge in the first language (L1) and second language (L2); children allot to L1 words less extensive and less varied meaning aspects than to L2…

Verhallen, Marianne; Schoonen, Rob

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages...

Tèmít??p?? Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

2013-01-01

222

Helping Students Write Better Conclusions  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike the vocabulary used in language arts and social studies, knowledge of expository text (text written to inform) and the language of science are required for reading and writing in science (Carrier 2005). This vocabulary, along with expository text structures, often is not taught in middle and high school classrooms, thus hindering students,…

Berber-Jimenez, Lola; Montelongo, Jose; Hernandez, Anita C.; Herter, Roberta; Hosking, David

2008-01-01

223

Meeting the Writing Needs of Advanced ESL Learners.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multifaceted approach to meeting the target language writing needs of adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students was built on the learners' expertise and experience. The technique expanded learners' knowledge of the written code of government writing and developed their ability to analyze and edit their own writing. (Author/CB)

Bertoldi, Elizabeth

1986-01-01

224

Representações de escrita de alunos de Mestrado em Letras / Social representations in the writing of students of Masters in Languages / Representaciones de escritura de alumnos de maestría en Letras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Verificamos as representações sociais de escrita de alunos de Mestrado em Letras. Procuramos usar a Teoria das Representações Sociais para investigarmos as representações da escrita de 10 alunos do Mestrado em Letras de uma Universidade Federal do interior de Minas Gerais. Associamos essas represent [...] ações aos discursos sobre a escrita difundidos na esfera acadêmica. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, baseado em narrativas elaboradas por esses alunos. Concluímos que, durante o maior período de escolarização desses alunos, as representações da escrita foram negativas, mas se transformaram em positivas com o passar do tempo. Isso demonstra que as representações são plásticas, flexíveis, pois antigas representações dão lugar a novas representações em função das experiências humanas, influenciadas por novos contextos. As narrativas sobre a história da escrita podem ser um caminho para professores conhecerem os percursos da escrita desenvolvidos por seus alunos, assim como permitem a identificação das representações sociais desses alunos. Abstract in spanish Verificamos las representaciones sociales de escritura de alumnos de Maestría en Letras. Procuramos usar la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales para investigar las representaciones de la escritura de 10 alumnos de la Maestría en Letras de una Universidad Federal del interior de Minas Gerais. Aso [...] ciamos esas representaciones a los discursos sobre la escritura difundidos en la esfera académica. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, basado en narrativas elaboradas por esos alumnos. Concluimos que, durante el mayor período de escolaridad de esos alumnos, las representaciones de la escritura fueron negativas, pero se transformaron en positivas con el paso del tiempo. Eso demuestra que las representaciones son plásticas, flexibles, pues antiguas representaciones dan lugar a nuevas representaciones en función de las experiencias humanas, influenciadas por nuevos contextos. Las narrativas sobre la historia de la escritura pueden ser un camino para que profesores conozcan los recorridos de la escritura desarrollados por sus alumnos, así como permiten la identificación de las representaciones sociales de esos alumnos. Abstract in english Here we examine the social representations in the writing of students of Masters in Languages. We used the Social Representation Theory to investigate the representations in the writings of 10 students of the Masters in Languages at a Federal University in upstate Minas Gerais. We associated these r [...] epresentations to the discourses spread in the academic sphere. The results obtained from the reading of the narratives written by the students will be presented. We concluded that throughout most of the period of these students' schooling the representations in their writing were negative, but became positive through the time. This demonstrates that the representations are plastic and flexible because old representations give place to new ones in function of human experiences influenced by new contexts. The narratives about the writing history may be a path for teachers to learn the routes of the writing developed by their students, as well as allowing an identification of the social representations and discourses of writing internalized by these students.

Adriana da, Silva.

225

Exploring students’ perceptions of ESL writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;">Writing has always been regarded as playing a prominent role in second language acquisition. Research within this discipline has focused on the development of writing skill, but in recent years, some researchers have examined students’ perceptions of writing. The purpose of ...

Sadiq Abdulwahed Ismail

2010-01-01

226

Texte et "Contretexte" dan les Pratiques d'Ecriture (Composition and Rewriting in Writing Exercises).  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of learning to write, particularly in a foreign language, is long and complex. There is a truth in the saying that the best method of learning to write is to read, and especially, to write. (Author)

Espinoza-Vera, Maria; Wheatley, James R.

1996-01-01

227

The Role of L1 in L2 Idiom Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of first language (L1 transfer in Iranian EFL learners' second language (L2 idiom comprehension. It was also sought to understand whether there is any significant difference between learners of different proficiency levels and their use of L1 in decoding L2 idioms. To do this, the participants of different levels of language proficiency were asked to participate in this study. The L2 idioms were categorized based on their similarity to L1 into three groups of identical, similar and different. A think-aloud protocol analysis was performed and participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they read the target idioms in order to detect the strategies they used. The results showed that the most favoured strategy used by learners of different levels was translation. Translation to L1 (Persian was also the most-frequent strategy in decoding similar, identical and different types of idioms. It was also revealed that generally the participants of different levels were significantly different from each other in using strategies.

Saeed Taki

2013-07-01

228

La comprensión oral del lenguaje no literal y su relación con la producción escrita en escolares Co-relation between oral comprehension of non-literal language and writing in elementary school students  

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Full Text Available Un grupo considerable de niños y jóvenes chilenos escolarizados presenta problemas para producir textos escritos en forma autónoma. Las explicaciones de este fenómeno son diversas, pero este trabajo se focalizará en el desarrollo de la lengua oral que ocurre durante la edad escolar, a partir de los seis años. Concretamente, se referirá aquí a la interpretación de ciertas formas orales de lo no literal: los actos de habla indirectos y las ironías. Teóricamente, la conexión escritura/comprensión oral de lo no literal se fundamenta en que ambas parecieran estar relacionadas con el desarrollo de la conciencia metalingüística y de la teoría de la mente. Empíricamente, se lleva a cabo un estudio con 141 estudiantes de 13 y 14 años cuya comprensión oral fue medida con el Instrumento de Medición de Inferencias Pragmáticas (IMIP y su habilidad de escritura, con una Pauta de Evaluación Analítica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una correlación canónica y los resultados muestran, por una parte, un grado moderado de asociación entre las variables observables orales y escritas entre sí y, por otra parte, un grado de correlación canónica bajo pero significativo entre las dimensiones latentes comprensión oral y producción escrita (Rc = 0,26, p A substantial number of school children and youngsters encounters problems with the production of written texts in an autonomous fashion. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are various, it will hereby be focused on the development of the oral language occurring during the school age; that is, from six years of age on. In particular, this study will refer to certain forms of non-literal language: indirect speech acts and ironies. Theoretically, the writing/oral comprehension of non-literal language connection is based on their seeming relationship with the development of a metalinguistic conscience and a theory of the mind. Empirically, this study involves the participation of 141 13-14-year-old students whose oral comprehension was measured by the Instrument for the Measurement of Pragmatic Inferences (IMIP, according to the Spanish acronym, and writing, by an Analytic Assessment Guide. Data were analyzed with the aid of canonical co-relation and the results reveal, on the one hand, a moderate degree of association in the observable oral and writing variables among themselves and, on the other, a low but significant degree of canonical co-relation between the latent oral and writing variables (Rc = 0,26, p < 0.05, where the former would seem a factor variable and the latter, a criterion variable. The conclusion is that, even though the development of oral comprehension of non-literal language seems to influence writing abilities, such a co-relation is not strong enough to look at it as having practical significance.

Nina Crespo

2007-01-01

229

A Decision-Making Approach to the Extended Writing Lesson.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outlines the basic decisions the English as a Second Language teacher should make in planning the extended writing lesson. Decisions regarding objectives, teacher input, oral build-up procedures, types of writing exercises, correction, and marking are discussed. (PJM)

Bruton, A. S.

1981-01-01

230

Theoretical Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theoretical sorting has brought the analyst to the point of pent-up pressure to write: to see the months of work actualized in a “piece.” But this is only a personal pressure. The goal of grounded theory methodology, above all is to offer the results to the public, usually through one or more publications. We will focus on writing for publication, which is the most frequent way that the analyst can tell how people are “buying” what really matters in sociology, or in other fields.Both feedback on and use of publications will be the best evaluation of the analyst’s grounded theory. It will be his main source or criticism, constructive critique, and frequently of career rewards. In any case, he has to write to expand his audience beyond the limited number of close colleagues and students. Unless there is a publication, his work will be relegated to limited discussion, classroom presentation, or even private fantasy. The rigor and value of grounded theory work deserves publication. And many analysts have a stake in effecting wider publics, which makes their substantive grounded theory count.

Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

2009-11-01

231

Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing  

Science.gov (United States)

Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

2011-01-01

232

Writing Anxiety as a Predictor of Writing Self-Efficacy in English for Special Education Arab Learners  

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Full Text Available The study aimed at investigating the relationship between writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy in English for special education Arab learners of English. It also investigated the use of writing anxiety scores as a predictor of writing self-efficacy. In addition, it explored differences between males and females in both writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy in English. The sample of the study consisted of 90 intermediate school students in the state of Kuwait (47 males and 43 females; the mean age was 8.67 years and the standard deviation was 2.4 years. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The researchers used writing anxiety scale, writing self-efficacy scale and an achievement test in English writing skills. Results of the study showed that there is a positive relationship between students’ writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy for male students and the overall sample while no relationship was detected among these variables for female students. In addition, results revealed that writing anxiety scores could be used as a predictor of students’ writing self-efficacy in English for male students and the overall sample of the study whereas writing anxiety scores could not be used as a predictor of writing self-efficacy for female students. It was found that there were no statistically significant differences between male and female students in their scores of writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy in English Language.

Ashraf Atta M. S. Salem

2014-05-01

233

Developing Number Sense through Mathematical Diary Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The author advocates for writing as an essential communication skill for learning mathematics. Mathematical diary writing is cited as a good way for students to privately represent their thinking through pictures, language, or symbols, and also as a channel for children to communicate with themselves and with their teachers. Cited research…

Yang, Der-Ching

2005-01-01

234

$L^1$ cohomology of bounded subanalytic manifolds  

CERN Document Server

We prove some de Rham theorems on bounded subanalytic submanifolds of $\\R^n$ (not necessarily compact). We show that the $L^1$ cohomology of such a submanifold is isomorphic to its singular homology. In the case where the closure of the underlying manifold has only isolated singularities this implies that the $L^1$ cohomology is Poincar\\'e dual to $L^\\infty$ cohomology (in dimension $j L^1$ Stokes' Property. For oriented manifolds, we show that the $L^1$ Stokes' property holds if and only if integration realizes a nondegenerate pairing between $L^1$ and $L^\\infty$ forms. This is the counterpart of a theorem proved by Cheeger on $L^2$ forms.

Valette, Guillaume

2010-01-01

235

DNA Damage and L1 Retrotransposition  

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Full Text Available Barbara McClintock was the first to suggest that transposons are a source of genome instability and that genotoxic stress assisted in their mobilization. The generation of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs is a severe form of genotoxic stress that threatens the integrity of the genome, activates cell cycle checkpoints, and, in some cases, causes cell death. Applying McClintock's stress hypothesis to humans, are L1 retrotransposons, the most active autonomous mobile elements in the modern day human genome, mobilized by DSBs? Here, evidence that transposable elements, particularly retrotransposons, are mobilized by genotoxic stress is reviewed. In the setting of DSB formation, L1 mobility may be affected by changes in the substrate for L1 integration, the DNA repair machinery, or the L1 element itself. The review concludes with a discussion of the potential consequences of L1 mobilization in the setting of genotoxic stress.

2006-01-01

236

Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.

Tèmít??p?? Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

2013-06-01

237

Journal Writing in Adult ESL: Improving Practice through Reflective Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Journal writing is a useful technique for inservice and preservice education of teachers of English as a second language (ESL) as well as for teaching adult ESL learners. Journals help ESL teachers overcome isolation experienced in practice and help students acquire structural, communicative, and critical competence. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

Orem, Richard A.

2001-01-01

238

What Role for Collaboration in Writing and Writing Feedback  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing is generally thought of as an activity which is carried out individually, often with feedback then provided by a teacher or colleague. While the use of pair or small group work in the second language classroom in relation to oral work has been extensively studied, and its benefits well documented, there are only a few studies which have…

Wigglesworth, Gillian; Storch, Neomy

2012-01-01

239

Writing Tamang  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is directed to Tamang native speakers and educators who wish to develop an orthography for their language. Tamang, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nepal, was just starting to be written on a large scale in the 1990's. We discuss three plausible alphabets: roman, Devanagari and Tibetan, and the modifications which each of them would require to fulfill the distinctive needs of the Tamang language

Mazaudon, Martine

1993-01-01

240

L1CAM whole gene deletion in a child with L1 syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

L1 syndrome is a group of overlapping, X-linked disorders caused by mutations in L1CAM. Clinical phenotypes within L1 syndrome include X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius (HSAS); mental retardation, adducted thumbs, shuffling gait, and aphasia (MASA) syndrome; spastic paraplegia type 1; and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Over 200 mutations in L1CAM have been reported; however, only a few large gene deletions have been observed. We report on a 4-month-old male with a de novo whole gene deletion of L1CAM presenting with congenital hydrocephalus, aqueductal stenosis, and adducted thumbs. Initial failure of L1CAM gene sequencing suggested the possibility of a whole gene deletion of L1CAM. Further investigation through chromosome microarray analysis showed a 62Kb deletion encompassing the first exon of the PDZD4 gene and the entire L1CAM gene. Investigations into genotype-phenotype correlations have suggested that mutations leading to truncated or absent L1 protein cause more severe forms of L1 syndrome. Based on the presentation of the proband and other reported patients with whole gene deletions, we provide further evidence that L1CAM whole gene deletions result in L1 syndrome with a severe phenotype, deletions of PDZD4 do not cause additional manifestations, and that X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus reported in a subset of patients with large L1CAM deletions results from the loss of AVPR2. PMID:24668863

Chidsey, Brandalyn A; Baldwin, Erin E; Toydemir, Reha; Ahles, Lauren; Hanson, Heather; Stevenson, David A

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

A Study on Strategy Instruction and EFL Learners’ Writing Skill  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Writing in a second or foreign language seems to be the most difficult language skill for language learners to acquire in academic contexts. While explicit instruction of strategies is not a usual practice in foreign language classrooms, it could be beneficial for language learners. The present study aims at investigating the effect of concept mapping strategy on EFL learners' writing performance. To this end, sixty Iranian students at the intermediate level of language proficiency participat...

Giti Mousapour Negari

2011-01-01

242

Wikis in teaching and learning a foreign language: A case study of wiki usage in the course Academic reading and writing for teacher candidates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An increasing number of universities are providing the current generation of students, the socalled ‘digital natives’ (Prensky, 2001) - with more flexible and innovative language learning environments through the use of free Web 2.0 tools, such as wikis, blogs, social networking, Second Life and podcasting. However, still relatively little is known about wikis in the context of teaching English for Academic Purposes. My project aims to fill this research gap. I applied a case study strate...

Kedziora, Beata

2012-01-01

243

Communicating Psychological Information in Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The guide describes approaches and considerations involved in school psychologists' communication of information in reports. Following an initial tongue in cheek discussion ("On Skinning Cats, Choking Dogs, and Leaving Lovers") of principles of report writing (such as avoiding using the language of logic and not contaminating interpretations with…

Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

244

Damage to the left ventral, arcuate fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus-related pathways induces deficits in object naming, phonological language function and writing, respectively.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anatomic localization of brain functions can be characterized via diffusion tensor imaging in patients with brain tumors and neurological symptoms. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the function of the ventral, arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)-related language pathways using these techniques by analyzing 9 patients treated in our hospital between 2007 and 2011. In cases 1-3, the left ventral pathways, namely, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus or inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, were mainly damaged, and the common dysfunction experienced by these patients was a deficit in object naming. In cases 4-6, the left SLF was mainly damaged, and the common deficit was dysgraphia. In cases 7-9, the left AF was mainly damaged, and almost all language functions related to phonology were abnormal. These results suggest that the left ventral, AF and SLF-related pathways are closely related to visual, auditory and hand-related language function, respectively. PMID:23311714

Shinoura, Nobusada; Midorikawa, Akira; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Tsukada, Masanobu; Yamada, Ryozi; Tabei, Yusuke; Itoi, Chisato; Saito, Seiko; Yagi, Kazuo

2013-07-01

245

Meditation through Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes using meditation to write with greater concentration, continuity, and depth, at any level of writing skill. Describes how to consciously cultivate the ability to focus, follow, and trace ideas through writing. (SR)

Costanzo, William

1990-01-01

246

Phonological and Spelling Mistakes among Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Children Learning Two Different Languages: Greek vs English  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of our study was to examine the phonological and spelling errors made by dyslexic and non-dyslexic children in two different languages, one (Greek, L1) much more transparent than the other (English, L2). For these purposes, our subjects (poor spellers officially diagnosed as dyslexics) composed two picture elicited narratives, one in Greek and one in English with the aid of Script Log, an online recording tool for experimental research on the process of writing. Our results showed tha...

Georgia Andreou; Julie Baseki

2012-01-01

247

Subcomponents of Second-Language Aptitude and Second-Language Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

A factor analysis of a test battery that included early first-language (L1) achievement, L1 cognitive ability, second-language (L2) aptitude, and L2 affective measures to predict oral and written L2 proficiency was conducted. The analysis yielded 4 factors that were labeled Language Analysis, composed of L1 and L2 language comprehension, grammar,…

Sparks, Richard L.; Humbach, Nancy; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore

2011-01-01

248

Selected writings  

CERN Multimedia

'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

Galilei, Galileo

2012-01-01

249

Interferência da língua falada na escrita de crianças: processos de apagamento da oclusiva dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/ / Interference of the spoken language on children's writing: cancellation processes of the dental occlusive /d/ and final vibrant /r/  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a influência da língua falada na escrita de crianças em relação aos fenômenos do cancelamento da dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/. Elaboramos e aplicamos um instrumento de pesquisa em alunos do Ensino Fundamental em escolas de Fortaleza. Para a anál [...] ise dos dados obtidos, utilizamos o software SPSS. Os resultados nos revelaram que o sexo masculino e as palavras polissílabas são fatores que influenciam, de forma parcial, a realização da variável dependente /no/ e que os verbos e o nível de escolaridade são elementos condicionadores para o cancelamento da vibrante final /r/. Abstract in english The present study aims to investigate the influence of the spoken language in children's writing in relation to the phenomena of cancellation of dental /d/ and final vibrant /r/. We elaborated and applied a research instrument to children from primary school in Fortaleza. We used the software SPSS t [...] o analyze the data. The results showed that the male sex and the words which have three or more syllable are factors that influence, in part, the realization of the dependent variable /no/ and that verbs and level of education are conditioners elements for the cancellation of the final vibrant /r/.

Socorro Cláudia Tavares de, Sousa.

250

Language Mosaic. Developing Literacy in a Second-New Language: A New Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a new approach to examining second language writing among young learners, which the author defines as "Language mosaic." Offers a new perspective on the process of writing development and examines how and what children do in the writing process while developing an additional language. Suggests that educators should view the process of new…

Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura

2002-01-01

251

How Might Pragmatic Language Skills Affect the Written Expression of Students with Language Learning Disabilities?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes ways in which pragmatic language abilities may play a role in the writing performance of children and adolescents with language learning disabilities. First, a brief overview is presented of how pragmatic language difficulties might negatively influence writing performance. Next, research on the writing performance of…

Troia, Gary A.

2011-01-01

252

Enhancing Sparsity by Reweighted L1 Minimization  

CERN Document Server

It is now well understood that (1) it is possible to reconstruct sparse signals exactly from what appear to be highly incomplete sets of linear measurements and (2) that this can be done by constrained L1 minimization. In this paper, we study a novel method for sparse signal recovery that in many situations outperforms L1 minimization in the sense that substantially fewer measurements are needed for exact recovery. The algorithm consists of solving a sequence of weighted L1-minimization problems where the weights used for the next iteration are computed from the value of the current solution. We present a series of experiments demonstrating the remarkable performance and broad applicability of this algorithm in the areas of sparse signal recovery, statistical estimation, error correction and image processing. Interestingly, superior gains are also achieved when our method is applied to recover signals with assumed near-sparsity in overcomplete representations--not by reweighting the L1 norm of the coefficient...

Candes, Emmanuel J; Boyd, Stephen P

2007-01-01

253

The L1 vs. L2 Acquisition of English Interrogation. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 15.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several recent reports on the untutored second language acquisition of English have suggested that the same developmental sequence holds for the acquisition of the interrogative structures irrespective of whether English is acquired as a first language (L1) or a second language (L2). These studies have been conducted within the Klima & Bellugi…

Wode, Henning

254

L1-norm minimization for quaternion signals  

CERN Document Server

The l1-norm minimization problem plays an important role in the compressed sensing (CS) theory. We present in this letter an algorithm for solving the problem of l1-norm minimization for quaternion signals by converting it to second-order cone programming. An application example of the proposed algorithm is also given for practical guidelines of perfect recovery of quaternion signals. The proposed algorithm may find its potential application when CS theory meets the quaternion signal processing.

Wu, Jiasong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong

2012-01-01

255

L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

2014-01-01

256

Too Nervous to Write? The Relationship between Anxiety and EFL Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the students’ anxiety in essay writing and their writing performance in EFL context. The subjects were chosen from among 75 Iranian EFL students who took part in TOFEL proficiency test. 27 students majoring in English have been selected. They studied either English translation or English literature. The instruments to collect data were: a) Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI) (Cheng, 2004) b) Open - ended ...

2012-01-01

257

Best practices in writing instruction  

CERN Document Server

An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language le

Graham, Steve; Fitzgerald, Jill

2013-01-01

258

COMPLEXITY AND INTERACTION: COMPARING THE DEVELOPMENT OF L1 AND L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In research into first and second language development,the focus has mainly been either on the formal features of learner language alone (both L1 and L2 or on the interaction between learners and their caretakers (L1 or native speaker peers (L2. These research traditions have been kept apart even though it has been widely acknowledged that both first and second languages are appropriated essentially in social interaction. This paper aims to strengthen the connection between social and formal approaches by combining interactional views with those focusing on the structural complexity of learner language.Some excerpts from L1 and L2 interaction data (in the Finnish language are discussed. It is suggested that segmentation of linguistic material occurs in everyday situations and serves as a link between interaction and the growth of structural complexity in learner language. To situate this argument into a broader theoretical framework, various socially oriented research paradigms are briefly discussed.

Lea Nieminen

2011-01-01

259

Cross-linguistic Transfer (from L1 to L2, L2 to L1, and L2 to L3 of Reading Strategies in a Multicompetent Mind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking a process and product view of reading, this paper attempts to explore the relationship between languages in one mind from Cook’s multi-competence perspective. According to multi-competence view, L1 and L2 (or L2s which are in one mind form a linguistic super-system (Cook, 2004 and not systems which are completely separate. In studies of language transfer, the general idea is that languages have effects on each other. To the purpose of this paper, three studies conducted by the author on the effects of L1 on L2, L2 on L1, and L2 on L3 will be provided. The common finding in all these studies is improvements in the process of reading in any given language will result in improvements in the process of reading in other languages. However, the same transferability power that can be conceived for the process of reading cannot be conceived for the product of reading as factors such as directionality of transfer and language proficiency interfere with this. It is recommended that since the process aspect of reading in different languages in one mind is transferable, native or foreign language teachers take this aspect of the relationship between languages as seriously as possible so that its effects can be witnessed both in the language of instruction and other languages that exist in the mind of the reader, be it L1, L2 or any further language.  An advantage of this is that an increase in the process or reading will also result in an increase in the product of reading both in the language of instruction and any other language in mind if other conditions are met.

Seyed Hassan Talebi

2013-03-01

260

Long-Term Relationships among Early First Language Skills, Second Language Aptitude, Second Language Affect, and Later Second Language Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty-four students were followed over 10 years beginning in first grade to determine best predictors of oral and written second language (L2) proficiency. Predictor variables included measures of first language (L1) skill administered in first through fifth grades, L1 academic aptitude, L2 aptitude (Modern Language Aptitude Test), and L2 affect…

Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Writing Strategies Used by ESL Upper Secondary School Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Writing is a great challenge whether performed in the mother tongue or in a second or foreign language (L2/FL).  Studies in L2 writing show that writing is a complex cognitive activity comprising a number of processes which includes the use of various strategies. This study aimed to examine strategies used in essay writing among 50 high-intermediate and low proficiency ESL upper secondary school students and to determine any significant differences in strategy use between the two groups. ...

Nooreiny Maarof; Mazlin Murat

2013-01-01

262

Recent Development of Wiki Applications in Collaborative Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wiki is increasingly gaining popularity in language learning. Some researchers suggest that wiki is a useful tool that enhances collaboration among students. Moreover, collaborative writing through wiki is an effective strategy for improving students’ writing skills. This review summarizes findings of empirical research studies on the application of wiki in collaborative writing from 2005 till 2011. Some directions for future research related to the use of wiki for collaborative writing...

2012-01-01

263

Mirror writing: neurological reflections on an unusual phenomenon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mirror writing is an unusual script, in which the writing runs in the opposite direction to normal, with individual letters reversed, so that it is most easily read using a mirror. This writing is seen in healthy individuals; it is also associated with various focal lesions that most commonly involve the left hemisphere, as well as with certain diffuse cerebral disorders. Mirror writing is nearly always undertaken with the left hand, and left?handers, and those whose languages are written l...

2007-01-01

264

Description of the L1C signal  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed design of the modernized LI civil signal (L1C) signal has been completed, and the resulting draft Interface Specification IS-GPS-800 was released in Spring 2006. The novel characteristics of the optimized L1C signal design provide advanced capabilities while offering to receiver designers considerable flexibility in how to use these capabilities. L1C provides a number of advanced features, including: 75% of power in a pilot component for enhanced signal tracking, advanced Weilbased spreading codes, an overlay code on the pilot that provides data message synchronization, support for improved reading of clock and ephemeris by combining message symbols across messages, advanced forward error control coding, and data symbol interleaving to combat fading. The resulting design offers receiver designers the opportunity to obtain unmatched performance in many ways. This paper describes the design of L1C. A summary of LIC's background and history is provided. The signal description then proceeds with the overall signal structure consisting of a pilot component and a carrier component. The new L1C spreading code family is described, along with the logic used for generating these spreading codes. Overlay codes on the pilot channel are also described, as is the logic used for generating the overlay codes. Spreading modulation characteristics are summarized. The data message structure is also presented, showing the format for providing time, ephemeris, and system data to users, along with features that enable receivers to perform code combining. Encoding of rapidly changing time bits is described, as are the Low Density Parity Check codes used for forward error control of slowly changing time bits, clock, ephemeris, and system data. The structure of the interleaver is also presented. A summary of L 1C's unique features and their benefits is provided, along with a discussion of the plan for L1C implementation.

Betz, J. W.; Blanco, M. A.; Cahn, C. R.; Dafesh, P. A.; Hegarty, C. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Kasemsri, V.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L. S.; Ma, H. H.; Rushanan, J. J.; Sklar, D.; Stansell, T. A.; Wang, C. C.; Yi, S. K.

2006-01-01

265

Self and Language Anxiety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses relationships between language anxiety and self. Self refers to an individual’s (a self-confidence, (b language ego, L2/FL self or identity developed during second or foreign language learning, or a combination of both L1 self and L2/FL self. Based on previous literature on language anxiety and L2 or FL learning, language learners’ self-confidence might imply a lack of language anxiety which enhances language achievement (e.g., Casado & Dereshiwsky, 2004; Clément, 1980; Liu & Chen, 2013; Matsuda & Gobel, 2004; Onwuegbuzie, Bailey, & Daley, 1999; Peng & Woodrow, 2010; Ro, 2013. Language anxiety is an experience unique to the language learning process, and this unique emotion or experience may be associated with the anxiety of feeling limited, broken, incompetent, having another self or a different personality in a target language. I believe that while learning target languages, L2 or FL identities are developing, and L1 identities are reconstructed. Language learners may feel the loss of L1 identities in a target language context or may feel that they are not able to express their thoughts in a target language. When learners feel the loss of L1 identities, feel limited or broken, this may be language anxiety arising.

Yi-Wen Huang

2014-05-01

266

Oral Interaction in Task-Based EFL Learning: The Use of the L1 as a Cognitive Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of the first language (L1) in the learning of a second language (L2) has been widely studied as a source of cross-linguistic influence from the native system (Gass and Selinker, "Language Transfer in Language Learning," John Benjamins, 1992). Yet, this perspective provides no room for an understanding of language as a cognitive tool…

de la Colina, Ana Alegria; Mayo, Maria del Pilar Garcia

2009-01-01

267

L1C signal design options  

Science.gov (United States)

Design activities for a new civil signal centered at 1575.42 MHz, called L1C, began in 2003, and the Phase 1 effort was completed in 2004. The L1C signal design has evolved and matured during a Phase 2 design activity that began in 2005. Phase 2 has built on the initial design activity, guided by responses to international user surveys conducted during Phase 1. A common core of signal characteristics has been developed to provide advances in robustness and performance. The Phase 2 activity produced five design options, all drawing upon the core signal characteristics, while representing different blends of characteristics and capabilities. A second round of international user surveys was completed to solicit advice concerning these design options. This paper provides an update of the L1C design process, and describes the current L1C design options. Initial performance estimates are presented for each design option, displaying trades between signal tracking robustness, the speed and robustness of clock and ephemeris data, and the rate and robustness of other data message contents. Planned remaining activities are summarized, leading to optimization of the L1C design.

Betz, J. W.; Cahn, C. R.; Dafesh, P. A.; Hegarty, C. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Jones, A. J.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L. S.; Ma, H. H.; Rushanan, J. J.; Stansell, T. A.; Wang, C. C.; Yi, S. K.

2006-01-01

268

Reading-writing Connections in EAP Courses: Cross-linguistic Summary Protocols  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At higher education settings, summarization skills are essential to academic success. However, research on summarization appear to have been relatively neglected, and consequently "many more are needed … [and] a re-examination of summarization from a reading-writing perspective merits more attention'' (Grabe, 2003, pp. 252-253. To this end, 120 EFL students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran were selected: the three experimental groups were subjected to the task-based language teaching principles in the treatment. Two reading comprehension texts (one as a pre-test, the other a post-testwere assigned to the four groups involved, and they were all required to write up two summary protocols for each text they read, one in English, and another in Persian. In the experimental groups, summary writing was mediated by a particular teaching task while for the control group there was no mediating task. Afterwards, the performance of all subject groups was evaluated based on a cross-linguistic evaluation scale to determine a if task-based language teaching had any significant effect on learners' reading comprehension and b if the L1 of the subjects contributed to a better comprehension of the texts they read. Finally, the conclusions and pedagogical implications of the research for EAP courses were highlighted.

Abbas Emam

2011-01-01

269

The $(L^{1},L^{1})$ bilinear Hardy-Littlewood function and Furstenberg averages  

CERN Document Server

Let $(X,\\mathcal{B}, \\mu, T)$ be an ergodic dynamical system on a non-atomic finite measure space. Consider the maximal function $\\dis R^*:(f, g) \\in L^1\\times L^1 \\to R^*(f, g)(x) = \\sup_{n} \\frac{f(T^nx)g(T^{2n}x)}{n}.$ We show that there exist $f$ and $g$ such that $R^*(f, g)(x)$ is not finite almost everywhere. Two consequences are derived. The bilinear Hardy--Littlewood maximal function fails to be a.e. finite for all functions $(f, g)\\in L^1\\times L^1.$ The Furstenberg averages do not converge for all pairs of $(L^{1},L^{1})$ functions, while by a result of J. Bourgain these averages converge for all pairs of $(L^{p},L^{q})$ functions with $\\frac{1}{p}+\\frac{1}{q}\\leq 1.$

Assani, Idris

2008-01-01

270

CULTURAL TRANSFER IN EFL WRITING: A LOOK AT CONTRASTIVE RHETORIC ON ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies in contrastive rhetoric since Kaplan's (1966) article have indicated the need of looking at L2 writing from different perspective by considering factors such as L2 learners' historical background in L1 writing, the development in their writing process, and the genres before we come to analyze the texts. By following such approaches, this study wants to see if there has been any cultural transfer in L2 writing of Indonesian writers. However, this has led to the probing of Indonesian L1...

Esther Kuntjara

2004-01-01

271

Written Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. Aims: To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with…

Williams, Gareth J.; Larkin, Rebecca F.; Blaggan, Samarita

2013-01-01

272

Writing requirements across nursing programs in Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected. PMID:23316890

Andre, Jo-Anne D; Graves, Roger

2013-02-01

273

EFFECTS OF CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFER IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION EFFECTS OF CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFER IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article concentrates on the impact that cross-linguistic influences have on second language acquisition. It investigates the importance of the learner's native language (L1 in written production of a second language (L2, particularly the use of L1 linguistic rules by Spanish speakers when they are writing in the target language (L2. This exploratory research focuses on the production errors made by students relative to specific subsystems such as semantic and syntactic areas. Errors are studied with respect to the differences between Spanish and English through a contrastive analysis between both languages in problematic linguistic areas. In this article only semantic errors will be considered as a first approximation to the study of transfer in written production. The results indicate that transfer is a reality and an important determinant in the process of second language acquisition. Teachers in an EFL context should be able to identify this phenomenon in order to prevent the errors which may arise from it.This article concentrates on the impact that cross-linguistic influences have on second language acquisition. It investigates the importance of the learner's native language (L1 in written production of a second language (L2, particularly the use of L1 linguistic rules by Spanish speakers when they are writing in the target language (L2. This exploratory research focuses on the production errors made by students relative to specific subsystems such as semantic and syntactic areas. Errors are studied with respect to the differences between Spanish and English through a contrastive analysis between both languages in problematic linguistic areas. In this article only semantic errors will be considered as a first approximation to the study of transfer in written production. The results indicate that transfer is a reality and an important determinant in the process of second language acquisition. Teachers in an EFL context should be able to identify this phenomenon in order to prevent the errors which may arise from it.

María del Mar Ramón Torrijos

2009-10-01

274

Interferência da língua falada na escrita de crianças: processos de apagamento da oclusiva dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/ Interference of the spoken language on children's writing: cancellation processes of the dental occlusive /d/ and final vibrant /r/  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a influência da língua falada na escrita de crianças em relação aos fenômenos do cancelamento da dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/. Elaboramos e aplicamos um instrumento de pesquisa em alunos do Ensino Fundamental em escolas de Fortaleza. Para a análise dos dados obtidos, utilizamos o software SPSS. Os resultados nos revelaram que o sexo masculino e as palavras polissílabas são fatores que influenciam, de forma parcial, a realização da variável dependente /no/ e que os verbos e o nível de escolaridade são elementos condicionadores para o cancelamento da vibrante final /r/.The present study aims to investigate the influence of the spoken language in children's writing in relation to the phenomena of cancellation of dental /d/ and final vibrant /r/. We elaborated and applied a research instrument to children from primary school in Fortaleza. We used the software SPSS to analyze the data. The results showed that the male sex and the words which have three or more syllable are factors that influence, in part, the realization of the dependent variable /no/ and that verbs and level of education are conditioners elements for the cancellation of the final vibrant /r/.

Socorro Cláudia Tavares de Sousa

2009-01-01

275

TARGETING L2 WRITING PROFICIENCIES: INSTRUCTION AND AREAS OF CHANGE IN STUDENTS' WRITING OVER TIME  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Writing in a second language is a complex activity requiring proficiency in a number of different areas. l Writing programmes often focus on particular areas of skill and knowledge that are seen as important to the overall process. This study looks at the effects of the focus of teaching on student writing. Fifty students on an eight-week pre-sessional programme were asked to write a 250-word assignment at the start and the end of their courses. These were graded on a nineband scale using a s...

Alasdair Archibald

2001-01-01

276

Language as capital in international university education  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As Bourdieu and Passeron noted, academic discourse is never anyoneâ??s â??mother tongueâ??. Acquisition of this discourse in oneâ??s first language is a prime aim of undergraduate education, but there is evidence that a substantial minority of students fail to acquire it. There is strong evidence that academic discourse skills are transferable from L1 to L2 and best acquired in L1, but it is not clear to what extent these skills represent usable capital in professional life. Graduates often report having to write in a very different style from the one they have been taught at university. There may be a trade-off between the fluency in a second language provided by its use as sole or parallel medium in education and educational depth in the discipline studied. This fluency may in some circumstances constitute greater capital than the disciplinary insights partially sacrificed. But this varies strikingly across disciplines. This paper uses Bourdieuâ??s framework to assess the types of linguistic capital â?? academic discourse, foreign-language fluency, and more â?? to be acquired in the internationalized university, their utility in the personal advancement of graduates in various societies, and the variation of these factors across disciplines.

Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

277

Culture, cognition and language in the constitution of reading and writing practices in an adult literacy classroom / Cultura, cognição e linguagem na constituição de práticas de leitura e escrita de adultos em processo de alfabetização  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo analisamos uma interação discursiva entre uma pesquisadora e um estudante da Educação de Jovens e Adultos objetivando mostrar sentidos e usos da leitura e da escrita por ele mobilizados. Tomamos como base para nossa discussão os aportes teórico-metodológicos da Psicologia Histórico-Cult [...] ural e das teorizações de Paulo Freire, que conjugamos com a concepção de diálogo de Bakhtin. Tal procedimento nos possibilitou, por um lado, entrar na perspectiva do outro, e por outro, fazer relações entre cognição, linguagem e cultura para compreendermos as estratégias metacognitivas de alunos da EJA ao se apropriarem da cultura escolar. Pudemos também evidenciar a íntima relação entre fazer e saber e a importância da escola na transição do pensamento concreto para o abstrato e vice-versa. Abstract in english In this article we analyze a discursive interaction between a researcher and an Youth and Adult Education student intending to show the meanings and uses of reading and writing taken by him. We take as our basis for discussion the theoretical-methodological contributions from Historical-Cultural Psy [...] chology and Paulo Freire's theories, which are combined with Bakhtin's concept of dialogue. This procedure allowed us, on one hand, getting into the other's perspective and, on the other hand, to make relations between cognition, language and culture to understand the adult students' metacognitive strategies, in the appropriation process of literacy practices of school culture. Thus, we could discuss the intimate relationship between doing and knowing and the importance of school in the transition from concrete thinking to the abstract thinking and vice-versa.

Maria de Fátima Cardoso, Gomes; Maria da Conceição Ferreira Reis, Fonseca; Maira Tomayno de Melo, Dias; Patricia Guimarães, Vargas.

278

Negative Transfer of Chinese to College Students? English Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In China, in the process of college students’ foreign language learning, English writing is the reflection of their integrating skills and it is also the process of rewriting based on gaining English knowledge. Meanwhile, Chinese college students’ English writing is a cross-language and cross-cultural communicative behavior, and also a behavior of the transformation of thinking and cultural model. However, in the process of English writing, the negative transfer of Chinese influen...

Zhiliang Liu

2011-01-01

279

Why Assign Themes and Topics To Teach Writing? A Reply to Tony Silva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responds to Tony Silva's 1997 article, which asserted that English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing teachers should prevent themes and topics from dominating or controlling the curriculum. This paper argues that it is sometimes helpful for writing teachers to control why and what students write, focusing on university-level English writing in…

Jones, Nathan B.

280

Effects of Word and Fragment Writing during L2 Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined how writing (copying) target words and word fragments affects intentional second language (L2) vocabulary learning. English-speaking first-semester learners of Spanish attempted to learn 24 Spanish nouns via word-picture repetition in three conditions: (1) word writing, (2) fragment writing, and (3) no writing. After the…

Barcroft, Joe

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Learning a Second Language Naturally the Voice Movement Icon Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Second language (L2 instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1 acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI is first performed by the language trainer andthen imitated by the learners. Behavioral experiments demonstrate that words encoded through VMIs are easierto memorize than audio-visually encoded words and that they are better retained over time. The reasons whygestures promote language learning are manifold. First, we focus on language as an embodied phenomenon ofcognition. Then we review evidence that gestures scaffold the acquisition of L1. Because VMIs reconnectlanguage learning with the body, they can be considered as a more natural tool for language instruction thanaudio-visual activities.

Manuela Macedonia

2013-09-01

282

L = 1 light quark mesons in QCD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the Borel transformed QCD sum rule formalism, the masses of L = 1 light quark mesons with isospin I = 1 and I = 0 are calculated. Non-perturbative effects from higher dimensional operators up to dimension d = 6 in the operator product expansion are taken into account. (orig.)

1982-03-01

283

Novel mutations in the L1CAM gene support the complexity of L1 syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

X-linked hydrocephalus, MASA syndrome, X-linked complicated Spastic Paraplegia Type I and X-linked partial agenesis of the corpus callosum are the four rare diseases usually referred to L1 syndrome, caused by mutations in the L1CAM gene. By direct sequencing of L1CAM in 16 patients, we were able to identify seven mutations, five of which were never described before. Patients' phenotype evaluation revealed a correlation between the number of clinical features typical of L1 syndrome and the chance to find causative mutation. Our findings support that L1CAM mutations are associated with widely heterogeneous phenotypes, however the occurrence of several clinical features remains the best criterion for planning molecular testing both in familial and apparently sporadic cases. PMID:20447653

Bertolin, Cinzia; Boaretto, Francesca; Barbon, Giovanni; Salviati, Leonardo; Lapi, Elisabetta; Divizia, Maria Teresa; Garavelli, Livia; Occhi, Gianluca; Vazza, Giovanni; Mostacciuolo, Maria Luisa

2010-07-15

284

Noticing in L2 writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigated the ways L2 learners of English reflect on their use of English while completing a writing task and the strategies learners apply in order to resolve their language-related problems. Factors which might have some influence on the learners' noticing and problem-solving behaviour were explored using a qualitative, inductive research approach involving the detailed analyses of ten participants. Think-aloud protocols and stimulated recall interviews were used to investigate...

2013-01-01

285

Writing: A Holistic or Atomistic Entity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines whether prerequisite relationships exist between five analytical components of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) composition: content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics. Finds the need for an approach to writing which recognizes that "separate skills" are actually highly interrelated. (MM)

Perkins, Kyle; Brutten, Sheila R.

1990-01-01

286

Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a teacher of EFL at UFSC since 1975, I have observed semester after semester the difficulties that students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature have in reading and especially inwriting not only at the beginning but at more advanced stages when they are close to graduating. I have also observed that these students have little interest in reading and writing in a foreign language either inside or outside the classroom. Conversations with my fellow teachers confirmed that they had observed the same weaknesses in their students and that they shared my concerns about this problem. Students who are preparing to be teachers of a foreign language should have a reasonable command of the four language skills—speaking, understanding, reading, writing—by the time they graduate. For those who wish to continue their training in English by doing graduate work, competence seems even more important as good reading and writing skills are the sine qua non for engaging in graduate work. As a teacher of EFL at UFSC since 1975, I have observed semester after semester the difficulties that students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature have in reading and especially inwriting not only at the beginning but at more advanced stages when they are close to graduating. I have also observed that these students have little interest in reading and writing in a foreign language either inside or outside the classroom. Conversations with my fellow teachers confirmed that they had observed the same weaknesses in their students and that they shared my concerns about this problem. Students who are preparing to be teachers of a foreign language should have a reasonable command of the four language skills—speaking, understanding, reading, writing—by the time they graduate. For those who wish to continue their training in English by doing graduate work, competence seems even more important as good reading and writing skills are the sine qua non for engaging in graduate work.

Loni Kreis Taglieber

2008-04-01

287

Technical report writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

Vidoli, Carol A.

1992-01-01

288

Sequenced Writing Assignments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides eight sequential, process-oriented writing assignments: (1) diagnostic essay, (2) personal account, (3) ghost writing, (4) summary, (5) developing a thesis, (6) exploratory essay, (7) proposal, and (8) final paper. (HTH)

Pytlik, Betty P.; Bergdahl, David

1987-01-01

289

Writing in Physics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is a physics course for satisfying the junior-year writing requirement. Gives nine assignment examples of the course. Discusses the use of the writing component as a teaching aid in junior level "Electricity and Magnetism" course. (YP)

Mullin, William J.

1989-01-01

290

Writing in preschool  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early writing has been found to be related to letter-word knowledge in preschool and predictive of children's academic success in primary grades. Results from two studies examining preschool children's writing development and preschool teachers' instructional supports for writing are reported. The results indicate that writing in preschool is significantly related to letter-word knowledge in preschool and kindergarten, and to handwriting in kindergarten. Preschool teachers attend to the relat...

2008-01-01

291

Writing in Civil Engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

The Civil Engineering Writing Project website contains two kinds of information: (1) research findings about the ways in which student writing in civil engineering differs from practitioners' writing and (2) materials for civil engineering students who want to improve writing skills that are especially useful in the workplace (as well as in the classroom). The resource resulted from a project funded by the National Science Foundation.

Conrad, Susan

292

Writing and University Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article reports on the exploratory-descriptive investigation carried out to explain the writing behavior of the students of the Universidad Colegio Mayor of Cundinamarca. To this effect, it refers to the results of the project that are based on the state of the art of writing in higher education; it is supported by various conceptualizations about its technique throughout time, orality and writing at the University, the act of writing, and references about specific didactics. Furthermore,...

2009-01-01

293

Cerebral localization of the center for reading and writing music.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms that underlie the ability to read and write music remain largely unclear compared to those involved in reading and writing language. We had the extremely rare opportunity to study the cerebral localization of the center for reading and writing music in the case of a professional trombonist. During rehearsal immediately before a concert, he suffered a hemorrhage that was localized to the left angular gyrus, the area that has long been known as the center for the ability to read and write. Detailed tests revealed that he showed symptoms of alexia with agraphia for both musical scores and language. PMID:11043568

Kawamura, M; Midorikawa, A; Kezuka, M

2000-09-28

294

Wh-Questions in Child L2 French: Derivational Complexity and Its Interactions with L1 Properties, Length of Exposure, Age of Exposure, and the Input  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates how derivational complexity interacts with first language (L1) properties, second language (L2) input, age of first exposure to the target language, and length of exposure in child L2 acquisition. We compared elicited production of "wh"-questions in French in two groups of 15 participants each, one with L1 English…

Prévost, Philippe; Strik, Nelleke; Tuller, Laurie

2014-01-01

295

The Role of First Language Literacy and Second Language Proficiency in Second Language Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the interrelationships of first language (L1) literacy, second language (L2) proficiency, and L2 reading comprehension with 246 Chinese college students learning English. L1 literacy and L2 proficiency were measured with college admission exams in Chinese and English. L2 reading comprehension was measured with the reading…

Jiang, Xiangying

2011-01-01

296

Comparison of Two Writing Processes: Direct versus Translated Composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To explore the results of two different composing processes, one writing directly in English and the other writing first in Chinese and then translating into English, this study concerns itself with the essays resulting from the two composing processes performed by participants with different levels of proficiency. The results show that the quality the compositions is significantly influenced by the writing modes and this vary with students’ L2 proficiency. The lower-level learners benefit most from the translated writing, whereas there is no significant difference for the higher-level learners.
Key words: L2 writing, L1 influence, L2 proficiency, direct writing, translated writing
Résumé: Pour explorer les résultats des deux processus de composition différents, l’un consistant à écrire directement et l’autre à écrire d’abord en chinois et puis traduire en anglais, cette étude traite les essais résultant des deux processus de composition réalisés par des participants de différents niveaux. Les résultats montrent que la qualité de composition est largement influencée par le modèle d’écriture et que cela varie d’après le niveau de maîtrise de L2 des étudiants. Les apprenants de bas niveau bénéficient généralement de l’écriture traduite tandis qu’il n’y pas de différences signifiantes pour les étudiants de haut niveau.
Mots-Clés: écriture en L2, influence de L1, maîtrise de L2, écriture directe, écriture traduite
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Li-fang ZHAI

2008-03-01

297

Writing and Speech Recognition : Observing Error Correction Strategies of Professional Writers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis we describe the organization of speech recognition based writing processes. Writing can be seen as a visual representation of spoken language: a combination that speech recognition takes full advantage of. In the field of writing research, speech recognition is a new writing instrument that may cause a shift in writing process research because the underlying processes are changing. In addition to this, we take advantage of on of the weak points of speech recognition, namely the...

Leijten, M. A. J. C.

2007-01-01

298

Reading depends on writing, in Chinese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Language development entails four fundamental and interactive abilities: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Over the past four decades, a large body of evidence has indicated that reading acquisition is strongly associated with a child's listening skills, particularly the child's sensitivity to phonological structures of spoken language. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the close relationship between reading and listening is manifested universally across languages and that b...

Tan, Li Hai; Spinks, John A.; Eden, Guinevere F.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Siok, Wai Ting

2005-01-01

299

GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

Rosaria Solarino

2011-02-01

300

The CMS L1 Trigger emulation software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CMS L1 Trigger processes the muon and calorimeter detector data using a complex system of custom hardware processors. A bit-level emulation of the trigger data processing has been developed. This is used to validate and monitor the trigger hardware, to simulate the trigger response in monte-carlo data, and for some components, to seed higher-level triggers. The multiple-use cases are managed using a modular design, implemented within the modular CMS offline software framework. The requirements, design and performance of the emulators are described, as well as the iterative process required to bring the emulators and hardware into agreement.

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

The CMS L1 Trigger Emulation Software  

CERN Multimedia

The CMS L1 Trigger processes the muon and calorimeter detector data using a complex system of custom hardware processors. A bit-level emulation of the trigger data processing has been developed. This is used to validate and monitor the trigger hardware, to simulate the trigger response in monte-carlo data, and for some components, to seed higher-level triggers. The multiple-use cases are managed using a modular design, implemented within the modular CMS offline software framework. The requirements, design and performance of the emulators are described, as well as the iterative process required to bring the emulators and hardware into agreement.

Ghete, V M

2009-01-01

302

Negative Transfer of Chinese to College Students? English Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In China, in the process of college students’ foreign language learning, English writing is the reflection of their integrating skills and it is also the process of rewriting based on gaining English knowledge. Meanwhile, Chinese college students’ English writing is a cross-language and cross-cultural communicative behavior, and also a behavior of the transformation of thinking and cultural model. However, in the process of English writing, the negative transfer of Chinese influences students’ writing. Here, according to the research to the students’ writing and the relative questionnaire survey in Beihai College of Beihang University, this paper is a systematic and objective analysis on the negative transfer of Chinese to college students’ English writing at the levels of lexis, sentence structure and discourse.

Zhiliang Liu

2011-09-01

303

Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Writing Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to find the relationship between multiple intelligences and writing strategies among Iranian EFL learners. The participants in this study were 120 adult males and females studying at high and advanced levels of Iran Language Institute. They filled two questionnaires during the first sessions of spring semester of 2012. The first questionnaire was a multiple intelligences inventory surveying nine types of intelligences based on Gardner’s theory and the second one was a writing skills and strategies questionnaire checking the students’ use of general, before, during and after writing strategies. According to the results of a corelational analysis, “logical, existential, kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences” correlated with “general writing strategies”. Moreover, “naturalistic, logical, kinesthetic and visual intelligences” showed relationship with “before writing strategies”. The researcher found that some types of intelligences among females had relationship with some writing strategies while in the male group no relationships were found. Besides, the results of advanced levels showed more significant correlations than those of high levels. Regression analysis, on the other hand, proved that none of the intelligences could predict writing strategies separately.

Narges Moheb

2013-07-01

304

L1 recombination-associated deletions generate human genomic variation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile elements have created structural variation in the human genome through their de novo insertions and post-insertional genomic rearrangements. L1 elements are a type of long interspersed element (LINE) that is dispersed at high copy numbers within most mammalian genomes. To determine the magnitude of L1 recombination-associated deletions (L1RADs), we computationally extracted L1RAD candidates by comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes and verified each of the L1RAD events by using wet...

Han, Kyudong; Lee, Jungnam; Meyer, Thomas J.; Remedios, Paul; Goodwin, Lindsey; Batzer, Mark A.

2008-01-01

305

Teaching English Medical Writing in a Blended Setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical writing activities which may have a context and seem to be engaging may be perceived as demotivating by the students of medicine. This opinion was confirmed by the learners' responses to the open-ended question given to them prior to this study. In their responses students evaluated the writing section of English course negatively. The negative views about the writing course posed a problem to the class teacher. The computer technology and the Internet can easily be integrated into language classroom if activities are designed carefully, and carried out systematically. These attempts brought about a new understanding to teaching and learning: blended learning (BL. The purpose of this research was to investigate students of medicine attitude to blended writing classes. It was conducted with second year learners in the Faculty of Medicine at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. The first reflection aimed at finding out medical students' attitude toward blended writing lessons. Although learners' attitude to writing lessons was negative in the first reflections, they changed into positive in the latter ones. The findings indicated that blended writing class had changed students' perception of writing lessons positively. Therefore, this kind of classes may help students develop a positive attitude towards writing by providing meaningful writing opportunities. Like the student portfolio before it, the weblog faces challenges with practicality and security, but ultimately provides an alternative way to teach and assess authentic writing and reading skills. Blog Assisted Language Learning not only provides teachers with an exciting new way to approach communicative language learning, it also gives the students a new reason to enjoy writing! The paper concludes that Internet tools have the potential to be a transformational technology for teaching and learning writing, and teachers ought to give strong consideration to the setting up their facilities within their learning management system.

Jafar Asgari Arani

2012-12-01

306

Translation in Teaching a Foreign (Second Language: A Methodological Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the act of translating between mother tongue and second/foreign language as a potentially effective way to improve learners’ second/foreign language. The author first examines the history of ‘translation’ as a methodology in second/foreign language teaching. The author then provides arguments in favour of including the methodology in SL/FL teaching in the current post-cognitive paradigm. The paper limits its theoretical perspective of the methodology to advanced level learners, and emphasises that the act of translating can create ideal learning opportunities with positive L1 use in SL/FL learning. The act of translating is a holistic activity, which immediately compels the learners to pay more attention to the SL/FL text, which encourages their awareness of form and meaning in context and improves their reading and writing skills in SL/FL. The methodology further enhances learners’ general skills of noticing and observing details of the linguistic systems, cultures, and societies of L1 and SL/FL, in order to deliver the messages between the two languages. This can expand the SL/FL learning to beyond the classroom.

Sayuki Machida

2011-07-01

307

Writing Teachers: What We Say about What We Do. Fifteen Essays for Teachers of Writing at the Secondary and College Levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prepared by college teachers of writing who are also teachers who write, the papers in this collection appear in a sequence that begins with theoretical issues and problems, moves through the stages of the writing process, and ends with a discussion of revision and evaluation. Specific topics covered in the papers include (1) language theory and…

Tchudi, Stephen, Comp.; McNabb, Scott, Ed.

308

An Investigation into the use of wikis for collaborative writing in L2 academic writing workshops. A pilot study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although public wikis have proven to be successful for collaborative writing projects, very few studies have investigated their use in L2 classes. This study sets out to explore the use of wikis for collaborative writing in L2 academic writing workshops. The students were all adult EFL students at Intermediate level studying English at a language school in Edinburgh. Six students were observed as they worked on a wiki. Two students were interviewed to elicit their experience of...

Chetty, Gillian

2006-01-01

309

THE EFFECT OF TEACHER TALK IN EFL CLASSROOMS: THE NONUSE OR USE OF LEARNERS' L1 BY AN INSTRUCTOR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the effect of the variation of teacher talk on EFL learners' performance, especially the one related to listening comprehension skills, by chronologically observing a Japanese first language (L1) instructor's classrooms at a university.

Chiyo Myojin

2007-01-01

310

THE EFFECT OF TEACHER TALK IN EFL CLASSROOMS: THE NONUSE OR USE OF LEARNERS' L1 BY AN INSTRUCTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the effect of the variation of teacher talk on EFL learners' performance, especially the one related to listening comprehension skills, by chronologically observing a Japanese first language (L1 instructor's classrooms at a university.

Chiyo Myojin

2007-01-01

311

Bovine papillomavirus type 4 L1 gene transfection in a Drosophila S2 cell expression system: absence of L1 protein expression / Transfecção em células de Drosophila S2 usando o gene L1 do Papilomavírus Bovino tipo 4: ausência de expressão da proteína L1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de uma vacina para papilomavirus bovino (BPV) consiste em grande desafio. A transfecção do gene codificante da proteína L1 de BPV em sistema de células S2 de Drosophila melanogaster não logrou sucesso, apesar da correta inserção da seqüência gênica em vetor apropriado.Graves altera [...] ções genéticas na linhagem celular S2, que incluem aberrações cromossômicas, provavelmente estão relacionadas à ausência da expressão da proteína desejada. Abstract in english The development of a bovine papillomavirus (BPV) vaccine is an outstanding challenge. BPV protein L1 gene transfection in the Drosophila melanogaster S2 cell expression system failed to produce L1 protein notwithstanding correct L1 gene insertion. Severe genetic inbalance in the host cell line, incl [...] uding cytogenetic alterations, may account for the lack of protein expression.

Luiz Gustavo Bentim, Góes; Antonio Carlos de, Freitas; Oilita Pereira, Ferraz; Tania Tassinari, Rieger; José Ferreira dos, Santos; Alexandre, Pereira; Willy, Beçak; Charles J., Lindsey; Rita de Cassia, Stocco.

312

Affecting factors in language learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In my thesis I intend to deal with personality and individual differences, language aptitude, family background, self-motivation and motivation, anxiety and creativity, and the difference between learning our mother language and the second language. An analysis will be taken through a questionnaire answered by language learners in my writing. These factors I think can lead us to the better understanding of language learning and that way help to become more successful in language t...

Orsza?gh, Vikto?ria

2009-01-01

313

L1: MADRINHA OU MADRASTA? – O PAPEL DA L1 NA AQUISIÇÃO DA L2*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste artigo discuto o papel da L1 no desenvolvimento da competência em L2 bem como na aquisição de conhecimentos. Ao longo de minhas reflexões, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sala de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenárioque deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil.

HELOÍSA AUGUSTA BRITO DE MELLO

2004-01-01

314

Writing apprehension: A critique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Writing apprehension is a problem because it has consequences for students' learning experience, and for the decisions they make about engaging in productive, fulfilling writing projects. It is also a problem for teachers and writing center specialists who recognize apprehension in the behaviors of students, but have no practical and reliable means of intervention.^ This lack of specific guidelines for treatment is tied to two related research issues: one, a lack of a clear and consistent ...

1994-01-01

315

Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

2011-01-01

316

Second Language Acquisition and Autism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current research on language development and bilingual development suggests that good proficiency in the first language (L1) is a prerequisite for acquiring a second language (L2). Documentation from the Icelandic State's Diagnostic and Counselling Centre seems to challenge this assumption, as a number of children who have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and that have delayed or impaired L1 development, seems to have very good proficiency in English, which is their L2. Th...

Karl Óskar Þráinsson 1975

2012-01-01

317

Mrs. Thorne's writing bureau  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Measured, detailed sketch of a decorative design for Mrs Thorne's writing bureau. Probably prepared for prof. Geoffrey Pearse's book "Eighteenth Century Furniture in South Africa", but never included.

Fassler, John

2006-01-01

318

Effects of Dynamic Corrective Feedback on ESL Writing Accuracy  

Science.gov (United States)

Though recent research has shown that written corrective feedback (WCF) may improve aspects of writing accuracy in some English as a second language (ESL) contexts, many teachers continue to be confused about the practical steps they should utilize to help their students improve their writing. Moreover, some have raised concerns as to whether…

Hartshorn, K. James; Evans, Norman W.; Merrill, Paul F.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Strong-Krause, Diane; Anderson, Neil J.

2010-01-01

319

Photography and Writing: Alternative Ways of Learning for ESL Students  

Science.gov (United States)

To writing, painting, drawing, and photography as artistic media, the author would like to add teaching as a creative endeavor as well. Especially in a classroom where English is not the first language for many students, the writing teacher needs to be creative with assignments and activities that address nontraditional ways of learning. Her…

Friesen, Helen Lepp

2012-01-01

320

Sacred Cows: Questioning Assumptions in Elementary Writing Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a series of e-mail conversations between the two authors as they debate some of the "sacred cows" of writing instruction in elementary language arts: (1) Do teachers need to be writers?; (2) Do students need to keep journals?; (3) Is writing a political act?; and (4) Do students need to publish their work? (SR)

Power, Brenda; Ohanian, Susan

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Teaching Writing in Rural Thailand: Considering New Perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a workshop for teachers in rural Thailand to consider new perspectives in teaching writing in English. Teachers were participants in a certificate in Teaching English as a Foreign language (TEFL) program course sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency. The genre approach to writing is proposed as a way of helping…

Toh, Glenn

2000-01-01

322

The Assessment of Writing Ability: Expert Readers versus Lay Readers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on three studies conducted in the Netherlands about the reading reliability of lay and expert readers in rating content and language usage of students' writing performances in three kinds of writing assignments. Findings reveal that expert readers are more reliable in rating usage, whereas both lay and expert readers are reliable raters of…

Schoonen, Rob; And Others

1997-01-01

323

Generalizability of Writing Scores: An Application of Structural Equation Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

The assessment of writing ability is notoriously difficult. Different facets of the assessment seem to influence its outcome. Besides the writer's writing proficiency, the topic of the assignment, the features or traits scored (e.g., content or language use) and even the way in which these traits are scored (e.g., holistically or analytically)…

Schoonen, Rob

2005-01-01

324

Teaching language arts to English language learners  

CERN Document Server

This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w

Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C

2013-01-01

325

Delimiting a Theory of Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on how to define "writing" that can account for the interplay between spoken and written expressions, among other things. Specific sections discuss the definition of "writing," the concept of writing and the future development of writing, "integrational semiology," closing in on writing or excluding its more recent developments, and a…

Pettersson, John Soren

1998-01-01

326

Reading, Writing, and Research: A Writing Center in the IMC.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the advantages of making the writing center part of the instructional media center in schools and provides some questions to consider in setting up a writing center. Offers three examples of popular writing assignments. (MG)

Pitel, Vonna J.

1991-01-01

327

Entre o dizer e o escrito: corpo e linguagem no ensino de Jacques Lacan/Between saying and the writing: body and language in the teaching of Jacques Lacan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No presente trabalho, pretendo mostrar o estatuto do dizer e do escrito no ensino do psicanalista Jacques Lacan. Lacan realizou, ao longo de 26 anos ininterruptos, atividades de ensino em regime de seminário; ele mesmo realizou a recopilação de seus textos fundamentais, lançados em 1966 sob o título: Escritos . Sabe-se também que um componente fundamental da sua doutrina é sua teoria sobre o estatuto do escrito na transmissão em psicanálise. Ao longo de seu ensino, também se preocupou por definir o estatuto do dizer. O dizer e o escrito aparecem enlaçados no ensino de Lacan em uma relação de temporalidade subjetiva, na qual a função essencial do dizer é a subjetivação do escrito, e isso se produz num tempo de espera no qual o corpo se vê comprometido pela própria inscrição da teoria no corpo (castração. In the present work, I intend to show the saying and the writing statute in the teaching of psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. Lacan carried throughout 26 years uninterrupted activities of teaching into the seminary regimen; he himself made the compilation of his basic texts, launched in 1966 under the heading: Writings. We also know that a basic component of his teaching is its theory on the writing statute in the psychoanalysis transmission. Throughout his teaching, he was also worried about defining the saying statute. Saying and the writing appear enlaced in the teaching of Lacan in a relation of subjective temporality, in which the essential function of saying (theory is the subjectivation of the theoretical writing, and it is produced in an open assembly time in which the body itself is engaged for the proper inscription of the theory in the body (castration.

José Guillermo Milán-Ramos

2007-01-01

328

Textographies and the researching and teaching of writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes three different examples of the use of textographies in the researching and teaching of writing. The first is an examination of the exegeses that art and design students write in their masters degrees. In the second example, a group of teachers looked at the writing section of Chinese College English tests. The third example describes a course in which second language students carry out an analysis of the kinds of writing that is required of them in their academic studies. Each of the projects aims to go “beyond the text” (Freedman, 1999 in order to gain an understanding of why the texts are written as they are.

Brian Paltridge

2008-04-01

329

Bilingual Performance in Reading and Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A collection of essays on bilingualism and its relationship to development of reading and writing skills includes: "Awareness of Text Structure: Effects on Recall" (Patricia L. Carrell); "Second-Language Readers' Memory for Narrative Texts: Evidence for Structure-Preserving Top-Down Processing" (Yukie Horiba, Paul W. van den Broek, Charles R.…

Cumming, Alister H., Ed.

330

Different Texts, Different Emergent Writing Forms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines young children's ability to vary the forms of emergent writing as they wrote a story, a shopping list, and a letter to a friend at three different times during the school year. Finds that children apply their emergent knowledge about written language differently. Indicates a considerable mismatch between written products and knowledge of…

Zecker, Liliana Barro

1999-01-01

331

Project SPARC: Kindling Writing in Science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes Project SPARC (Science Projects across the Regents Curriculum), a two-week summer workshop for middle and high school science teachers, who studied the ecology of wetlands with a biologist and participated in writing and reading activities with a language arts specialist. (SR)

Pottle, Jean L.

1992-01-01

332

Learning Strategies and Achievement in the Spanish Writing Classroom: A Case Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the effect of learning strategies on writing achievement in an intermediate-advanced college-level Spanish writing course and examines the influence of the students' native language and textbook on these strategies. Subjects were a class of 20 students that comprised nine first language and 11 foreign/second language speakers. The…

Olivares-Cuhat, Gabriela

2002-01-01

333

Teaching Technical Report Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

A high school electronics teacher describes the integration of technical report writing in the electronics program for trade and industrial students. He notes that the report writing rather than just recording data seemed to improve student laboratory experience but further improvements in the program are needed. A sample lab report is included.…

De Pasquale, Joseph A.

1977-01-01

334

Plato, Derrida, and Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book discusses and evaluates the implications of the theory of deconstruction for composition and pedagogy. The book analyzes the emerging field of composition studies within the epistemological and ontological debate over writing precipitated by Plato (who would abandon writing entirely) and continued by Jacques Derrida, who argues that all…

Neel, Jasper

335

Talking about Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

In fall 2000, Eastern Illinois University implemented an electronic writing portfolio (EWP) to assess students' writing skills. Students who were freshmen in fall 2000 and transfer students enrolling under the fall 2000 catalogue or subsequent catalogues must submit materials to the EWP. The EWP submissions come from each academic level as…

Hopgood, Debra C.

2004-01-01

336

The Cybernetic Writing Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper looks at the role of a Writing Program Administrator, and applies the idea of a cybernetic system to the administration of the program. In this cybernetic model, the Writing Program Administrator (WPA) works as both a problem solver and problem causer, with the responsibility of keeping the program in proper balance. A cybernetic…

Lowe, Kelly Fisher

337

Why read about writing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Academics tend to focus on how best to get their outputs read, rather than on the writing process itself. Pat Thomson argues writing itself deserves attention. If academics embrace their writer identity, there is much to be learned about the art from wider creative resources.

Thomson, Pat

2012-01-01

338

Yale College Writing Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yale College Writing Center "supports writers and writing teachers through the resources on this website" and consequently support an audience far beyond New Haven. First-time visitors should look at the Advice for Students to get started. Here, they will find areas that include "What Good Writers Know" and "Model Papers from the Disciplines.â The first area contains short and succinct advice with detailed explanations while the second area contains thoughtful works from Yale students in fields such as philosophy, natural science, and literature. Moving along, Writing at Yale includes information about the various writing programs and initiatives at Yale College, along with links to writing award programs from around the country.

339

University College Writing Centre  

Science.gov (United States)

Many universities have elaborate writing centers to assist students learn about the art of crafting wonderful and meaningful pieces of writing. The University College at the University of Toronto has collected over two dozen excellent resources designed to get undergraduates and others up to speed with the world of writing college-level papers. On the site, visitors will find resources like Organizing an Essay, Using Quotations, The Comparative Essay, Writing in the Sciences, and Dangling Modifiers. These short resources are designed as brief primers in each subject, and they are easily digestible by a range of users. The site also includes links to other high-quality writing centers, such as those at the University of Victoria and Purdue University.

340

DYSGRAPHIA IN FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IN SLOVENIAN PRIMARY SCHOOLS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis with the title “Dysgraphia in first language acquisition in Slovenian primary schools” consists of two parts. In the first theoretical part we defined different aspects of writing disorders. The studied literature helped us to write the definition of writing disorder and to define the classes, forms, types, causes, phases and the source of writing disorders. We divided the writing disorders into two main classes – dysgraphia, meaning the transcription disability, and dysorth...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

In Cite: Epistemologies of Creative Writing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The epistemic creative writer is not merely an expressive writer, a writer who writes for creative writing programs at diverse university colleges. Rather, the epistemic creative writer is the writer who understands that in order to say something useful you must step out of the space that engages your ego. Awareness of what really matters comes from the contemplation of the futility of words. Before the word there is silence. After the word there is silence. But during the word there is knowledge that can be made crystal clear. This book is about extracting what writing means to a few writers who formulate ideas about creative writing without, however, making claims to instruction. Can creative writing that produces knowledge be taught without a method? Samuel Beckett, Raymond Federman, Gertrude Stein, Jacques Lacan, Frank O'Hara, Douglas Hofstadter, Brian Rotman, Herman Melville, Kathy Acker, Friedrich Nietzsche, David Markson, Andrei Codrescu, and a host of others, gather here to offer an answer. --"Camelia Elias speaks to the reader from that place where the language of the birds becomes the language of silence." (Patrick Blackburn, Professor of Formal Logic, Roskilde University)

Elias, Camelia

2013-01-01

342

In Cite : Epistemologies of Creative Writing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The epistemic creative writer is not merely an expressive writer, a writer who writes for creative writing programs at diverse university colleges. Rather, the epistemic creative writer is the writer who understands that in order to say something useful you must step out of the space that engages your ego. Awareness of what really matters comes from the contemplation of the futility of words. Before the word there is silence. After the word there is silence. But during the word there is knowledge that can be made crystal clear. This book is about extracting what writing means to a few writers who formulate ideas about creative writing without, however, making claims to instruction. Can creative writing that produces knowledge be taught without a method? Samuel Beckett, Raymond Federman, Gertrude Stein, Jacques Lacan, Frank O'Hara, Douglas Hofstadter, Brian Rotman, Herman Melville, Kathy Acker, Friedrich Nietzsche, David Markson, Andrei Codrescu, and a host of others, gather here to offer an answer. --"Camelia Elias speaks to the reader from that place where the language of the birds becomes the language of silence." (Patrick Blackburn, Professor of Formal Logic, Roskilde University)

Elias, Camelia

2013-01-01

343

How to write and publish a scientific paper  

CERN Document Server

Writing and publishing journal articles are crucial to scientific careers. Unfortunately, many young scientists find the process of communicating scientific information effectively a complete mystery. By providing practical, readable, and sometimes humorous guidance, this book helps researchers gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence to succeed in communicating about their work. This seventh edition of "How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper" contains 41 chapters focused upon two separate tasks: how to write the respective sections of a scientific paper and how to publish the paper. Other related topics include approaching a writing project, following ethical principles in scientific publishing, preparing oral presentations and poster presentations, writing grant proposals, and working with the popular media. The authors provide considerable guidance on appropriate scientific writing style as well as an extensive list of words and expressions to avoid - and supply the language to substitute for them.

Day, Robert A

2011-01-01

344

Multi-Draft Composing: An Iterative Model for Academic Argument Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-secondary writing teachers in composition and English as a second language (ESL) writing programs are likely familiar with multi-draft composing. Both composition and ESL writing programs share nearly identical multi-draft models despite the very unique and different cultures of each group. We argue that multi-draft composing as it is…

Eckstein, Grant; Chariton, Jessica; McCollum, Robb Mark

2011-01-01

345

When a ''Sloppy Copy'' Is Good Enough: Results of a State Writing Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Students in grades 5 and 8 completed a state writing assessment, and their first and final drafts on the extended writing portion of the test were copied and scored using the state writing rubric. The rubric consisted of three primary traits: Content and Organization, Style and Fluency, and Language Use. Scorers were blind to the study purpose and…

Crawford, Lindy; Smolkowski, Keith

2008-01-01

346

The Traits of Effective Spanish Writing = Las caracteristicas de la buena escritura en espanol. Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This English-Spanish language report includes the rationale for creating an assessment model for Spanish writing, offering an overview of the components of high quality assessment for any subject area, particularly Spanish writing. It presents the characteristics of effective Spanish writing, rubrics for scoring student performance based on the…

Flores, Will A.; Arrasmith, Dean G.

347

L1 AND L2 GLOSSES: THEIR EFFECTS ON INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of L1 and L2 glosses on incidental vocabulary learning in a multimedia environment. The investigation included the effects of additional pictorial cues in L1 and L2 glosses, and how these additions affect vocabulary learning. The analyses of a mixed design repeated measures 2 (L1, L2 X 2 (picture, no picture X 2 (immediate test, delayed test analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated no significant differences between L1 and L2 glosses for definition-supply and recognition tasks and showed significant differences between picture (text-plus-picture and no-picture (text-only glosses for definition-supply test only. The results also revealed significant interaction effects between languages and tests indicating that L1 and L2 groups showed different patterns of vocabulary retention over time. Findings suggest that both L1 and L2 glosses are effective for incidental vocabulary learning, but long-term retention may differ between the two types; and that the effect of additional visual cues on vocabulary learning may rely on the nature of the tasks given.

Makoto Yoshii

2006-09-01

348

Automated characterization and identification of schizophrenia in writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prominent formal thought disorder, expressed as unusual language in speech and writing, is often a central feature of Schizophrenia. Since a more comprehensive understanding of phenomenology surrounding thought disorder is needed, this study investigates these processes by examining writing in Schizophrenia by novel computer-aided analysis. Thirty-six patients with DSM-IV criteria chronic Schizophrenia provided a page of writing (300-500 words) on a designated subject. Writing was examined by automated text categorization and compared with nonpsychiatrically ill individuals, investigating any differences with regards to lexical and syntactical features. Computerized methods used included extracting relevant text features, and utilizing machine learning techniques to induce mathematical models distinguishing between texts belonging to different categories. Observations indicated that automated methods distinguish schizophrenia writing with 83.3% accuracy. Results reflect underlying impaired processes including semantic deficit, independently establishing connection between primary pathology and language. PMID:19684495

Strous, Rael D; Koppel, Moshe; Fine, Jonathan; Nachliel, Smadar; Shaked, Ginette; Zivotofsky, Ari Z

2009-08-01

349

Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer user...

Annamalai, Muthiah

2009-01-01

350

Relationships among L1 Print Exposure and Early L1 Literacy Skills, L2 Aptitude, and L2 Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Authors examined the relationship between individual differences in L1 print exposure and differences in early L1 skills and later L2 aptitude, L2 proficiency, and L2 classroom achievement. Participants were administered measures of L1 word decoding, spelling, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, receptive vocabulary, and listening…

Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

2012-01-01

351

Writing-to-Learn  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the attitude of Omani nursing students towards writing-to-learn (WTL) and its relationship to demographic variables, self-efficacy and the writing process Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate attitudes towards WTL by Sultan Qaboos University nursing students. A convenience sample of 106 students was used and data collected between October 2009 and March 2010. A modified version of the WTL attitude scale developed by Dobie and Poirrier was used to collect the data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis. Results: Senior and junior students had more positive attitudes to WTL than mid-level students who tended to have negative attitudes towards writing. Although 52.8% students had negative attitudes towards the writing process, the median was higher for attitudes to the writing process compared to the median for self-efficacy. There was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and writing process scores. Conclusion: Overall, students had negative attitudes towards WTL. Attitudes are learnt or formed through previous experiences. The incorporation of WTL strategies into teaching can transform students’ negative attitudes towards writing into positive ones.

Balachandran, Shreedevi; Venkatesaperumal, Ramesh; Clara, Jothi; Shukri, Raghda K.

2014-01-01

352

Language as Information and the World  

Science.gov (United States)

Language attracts everyone on earth. That is because we have and use language. Although there are some minority languages that have limited expressions such as the lack of writing systems in "Aynu itak" and "Shona" languages, they can effectively express their emotion and thought with their languages. In addition, every human being can acquire…

Koga, Kant

2010-01-01

353

Graduate Research Writing: A Pedagogy of Possibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graduates often find conceptualizing and writing long research projects an arduous alienating process. This paper describes a research writing intervention conducted at Memorial University in Newfoundland with two groups of graduate students (Engineering and Arts. One small part of the workshop was devoted to creative “sentence activities.” Our argument is that these creative activities contributed to re-connecting students to themselves as researchers/writers and to others in the group. The activities engaged students in language literally, metaphorically, and performatively.

Cecile Badenhorst

2012-12-01

354

Ireland Life-Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on the Ireland Life-Writing project which was conducted as part of the UCD Irish Virtual Research Library and Archive (IVRLA) series of demonstrator research projects. The project focused on the material that had been collected by an earlier and still ongoing project, the Ireland Life-Writing Archive, which is administered by the UCD School of English, Drama and Film. The scope of the IVRLA phase of the Ireland Life-Writing project was to take the material submitted to date...

Layden, Dervila

2010-01-01

355

How We Write: Understanding Scholarly Writing through Metaphor  

Science.gov (United States)

This article introduces the "writing metaphor" and examines why political scientists should consider developing one to describe their own writing process. Drawing on the author's experience with writing accountability groups, it defines the components of the writing metaphor, provides an example, and discusses its advantages and disadvantages. The…

Boyd, Michelle

2012-01-01

356

The Effect of Planning Sub-Processes on L2 Writing Fluency, Grammatical Complexity, and Lexical Complexity  

Science.gov (United States)

This study contributes to L2 writing research which seeks to tie predictions of the Limited Attentional Capacity Model (Skehan, 1998; Skehan & Foster, 2001) and Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2001, 2005, 2011a, 2011b) to models of working memory in L1 writing (Kellogg, 1996). The study uses a quasi-experimental research design to investigate…

Johnson, Mark D.; Mercado, Leonardo; Acevedo, Anthony

2012-01-01

357

Examinando a relação L1-L2 na pedagogia de ensino de ESL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste artigo procuro refletir sobre como a relação L1-L2 tem sido tratada nas teorias de aquisição de línguas, na política e na pedagogia de ensino de L2, em especial no ensino de inglês como segunda língua (ESL. Ao longo do estudo, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sala de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenário que deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil.This article seeks to reflect on how L1-L2 relationship has been treated in second language theories, policy and pedagogy, mainly in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL. It is argued that language teaching pedagogy would benefit by paying attention to the use of L1 in the L2 classroom, especially in the case of whole schooling through L2, rather than concentrating primarily on the ideal monolingual model. The scenery that motivated these reflections is an ESL classroom of an English immersion school located in the central part of Brazil

Heloísa Augusta Brito de Mello

2005-01-01

358

Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2 reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1 reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after closely looking into the methods of data analysis of the current literature on a language threshold. Statistical analysis revealed that the contribution of L1 reading and L2 knowledge to L2 reading was significant and substantial in the main and interaction effects, accounting for 54 percent of variance of L2 reading comprehension in tandem. However, the correlation of L1 reading to L2 reading showed, in general, a decreasing trend in accordance with the improvement of L2 knowledge, which is in contrast with the notion of a threshold level. This result of a language threshold was discussed in terms of a broad construct of language transfer and the interactive approach to reading in an L2.

Gi-Pyo Park

2013-11-01

359

Writing instruction throughout the curriculum Writing instruction throughout the curriculum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past 25 years, Rhetoric and Composition Studies have joined together to create an interdisciplinary field whose theory and research have transformed our understanding of writing. New perspectives on the difference between process and product in writing combined with a deeper understanding of the relationship between thinking and writing have dramatically changed the way that writing is now taught. In addition, writing has become increasingly viewed as a means, not just an end,...

Betty Bamberg

2008-01-01

360

Does Narrative Writing Instruction Enhance the Benefits of Expressive Writing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined whether instructing participants to write in a narrative fashion about stressful life events would produce superior physical and psychological health benefits relative to standard expressive writing instructions that do not specify the essay’s structure. Undergraduates (N = 101) were randomly assigned to engage in two, 20-minute narrative writing, standard expressive writing, or control writing tasks. Follow-up data were obtained one month later. The essays of the narrative writ...

Danoff-burg, Sharon; Mosher, Catherine E.; Seawell, Asani H.; Agee, John D.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Evidentiality in Academic Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inevitability of using evidentials (EVs and references in all academic writings signifies the importance of distinguishing and applying EVs for those who attempt to write in academic prose. With the aim of creating a unique model of EVs in academic texts, this study used well-established taxonomies of metadiscourse markers adapted by Hyland (2005 combined with Swales' (1990 classification of citations as well as Berkenkotter and Huckin's (1995 concept of intertexuality in academic writing. The proposed model yields at least two important advantages. First, it can develop a pattern of the uses of EVs in academic texts, thus deepening our understanding of the organization of such texts. Second, it has potential applications in pedagogy for those students who attempt to write in academic prose and for scholars, teachers, and material developers.

Mojdeh Ebrahimi Dehkordi

2012-09-01

362

Physics, writing and attainment  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the examination scripts of A-level students in Malta reveals that a significant number of students lose marks because they fail to express themselves clearly. Practice in writing science is suggested.

Farrell, Martin Peter

2001-01-01

363

Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language  

CERN Document Server

Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer users. Grammar for Ezhil and a few example programs are reported here, from the initial proof-of-concept implementation using the Python programming language1. To the best of our knowledge, Ezhil language is the first freely available Tamil programming language.

Annamalai, Muthiah

2009-01-01

364

Naming Abilities in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Difficulties in second language (L2) learning are often associated with recognizable learning difficulties in native language (L1), such as in dyslexia. However, some individuals have low L2 proficiency but intact L1 reading skills. These L2 learners experience frequent tip-of-the-tongue states while naming in L1, which indicates that they have a…

Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

2014-01-01

365

Language, Communication and Style  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

St?ncu?a Ramona DIMA-LAZA

2011-01-01

366

Process writing in a product-oriented context: challenges and possibilities / Produção textual como um processo em um contexto centrado no produto: desafios e possibilidades  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo de caso analisou a aplicabilidade de uma pedagogia para o ensino da escrita como um processo em um contexto de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira e como os estudantes reagiram e responderam a essa metodologia de ensino. Um grupo de 16 adolescentes de nível intermediário em uma inst [...] ituição particular de ensino de inglês foi selecionado. Foi seguido um projeto pedagógico em torno da escrita como um processo e as reações e o desempenho dos alunos em cada um dos estágios do processo foi analisado. Ao mesmo tempo, investigou-se como se dá o ensino da escrita na língua materna nas escolas regulares dos alunos. Concluiu-se que o ensino de produção textual nas escolas regulares enfoca mais o processo do que o produto e que uma pedagogia voltada para o processo nas aulas de inglês pode preencher lacunas deixadas nas experiências dos alunos com a escrita na língua materna. Abstract in english This case study analyzed to what extent localized process writing pedagogy is applicable and effective in an EFL context and how students respond and react to it. A class of 16 intermediate-level teenage students in an ELT Institute in Brazil was selected. A carefully planned project on process-base [...] d writing was followed, and students' performance in and reactions to each stage of the process were analyzed. Concurrently, the study also investigated the teaching of writing in students' native language - Portuguese - in their regular schools. It could be concluded that the teaching of writing in the regular schools focuses more on the process than on the product and that a pedagogical approach focused on the process in the EFL classroom can serve to fill in the gaps left by the students' experiences with writing in L1.

Isabela de Freitas, Villas Boas.

367

Writing in the Science Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

There are a plethora of opportunities for pupils to write across the curriculum. Each academic discipline may well provide chances for pupils to develop skill in writing, science being no exception. The science teacher needs to develop pupil knowledge in science as well as using the contents in written work. Learning to write and writing to learn…

Ediger, Marlow

2012-01-01

368

A Recipe for Writing Motivation  

Science.gov (United States)

There is nothing worse than hearing moans and groans when writing time is announced to students. Motivation for writing begins when students' interests are mixed with opportunities for creativity. This article presents an idea shared by a writing coach who found a way to spark students' interest in writing by developing recipes for more…

Chakraborty, Basanti; Stone, Sandra

2008-01-01

369

The Ten Commandments of Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arguing that social scientists must write in an interesting and readable manner, Fine presents 11 propositions to lighten and brighten sociological writing. Suggests that sociologists write often, proofread their work, allow others to review it, make revisions, develop individual styles, use humor, and write for the readers. (GEA)

Fine, Gary Alan

1988-01-01

370

Medical Ghost-writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Any assistance an author receives with writing a scientific article that is not acknowledged in the article is described as ghost-writing. Articles ghost-written by medical writers engaged by pharmaceutical companies who have a vested interest in the content have caused concern after scandals revealed misleading content in some articles. A key criterion of authorship in medical journals is final approval of the article submitted for publication. Authors are responsible for the content of thei...

2008-01-01

371

Teachers' orientations towards writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study of 29 teachers from four states in the US investigated teachers' orientations towards writing and the influences on their beliefs. Through interviews about writing instruction, the researchers found significant differences between teachers in high and low-income schools. While teachers in high-income schools valued rhetorical style, developing voice, and reading-writing connections, teachers in low-income schools focused on grammar, mechanics and sentence structure. Teachers in high-income schools appear to be exercising more choice in curricular materials and valuing quality of writing beyond grammar and mechanics, whereas teachers in low-income schools are using specific curriculum mandated by the districts. Influences on teachers' orientations included school context, programs and materials, and assessments. The study raises concerns that students in low-income schools are missing out on authentic, challenging, and meaningful writing opportunities since the focus is on skills-based instruction. The findings point to the need for teachers to provide all students with opportunities to develop rhetorical style, voice, and reading-writing connections in addition to grammar, mechanics, and sentence structure.

Sarah J. McCarthey & Dumisile Mkhize

2013-06-01

372

An Exploration of the Relationship between Vietnamese Students' Knowledge of L1 Grammar and Their English Grammar Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…

Tran, Tammie M.

2010-01-01

373

Student perception of writing in the science classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors that shape four student's perceptions of writing tasks in their science classroom. This qualitative retrospective interview study focuses on four students concurrently enrolled in honors English and honors biology. This research employs a phenomenological perspective on writing, examining whether the writing strategies students acquire in the Language Arts classroom manifest in the content areas. I also adopt Bandura's theoretical perspective on self-efficacy as well as Hillock's notion of writing as inquiry and meaning making. This study concludes that students need ample opportunity to generate content and language that will help reveal a purpose and genre for writing tasks in the content areas. Although all four students approached the writing tasks differently in this study, the tasks set before them were opportunities for replication rather than inquiry Through the case studies of four students as well as current research on content writing, this project works to inform all content area teachers about student perceptions of writing in the content areas.

Deakin, Kathleen J.

374

Dutch gender in specific language impairment and second language acquisition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In this article we compare five groups of learners acquiring Dutch gender as marked on determiners and adjectival inflection. Groups of L1 (first language) children and L1-SLI (first-language specific-language-impairment) children are compared to three Turkish-Dutch L2 (second language) groups: adult L2, child L2 and child L2-SLI. Overall, our findings show that gender is vulnerable in both SLI and L2 groups. More particularly, they suggest that all child groups basically ...

2008-01-01

375

The Logic of Scientific Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, I describe a logical method for scientific writing. Any decision made in this type of writing should be based on the logic of science and the rules of communication, as part of a creative discourse. I present some logical flaws (regarding journal classification, academic vs. non-academic texts, and subjective inferences) and writing mistakes (in the structure of a paper and the writing style) that can undermine publication.Key Words:scientific writing, scientific communication, ...

2011-01-01

376

Presumption of Prefabricated Memes and Controllable Exploration of Meme Variations in the ESL Writing Teaching  

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Full Text Available The semantic entities which are able to exist independently may serve as language memes according to the user’s intention. As language memes, the imitation or variation are influenced by human values and may be controlled and designed according to human objective. This paper proposes supposition of prefabricated writing meme, considering English as a second language(referred to as ESL in the context of teaching writing, teacher as the authorities of meme spreading may construct with intended destination and spread the ESL writing memes with the characteristic of replication factor, which is constructed as the minimum unit of input, memory, storage and output. This paper also investigates the strategies of Attention, ‘i+1’ Input and Memeplexes to stabilize the variation of prefabricated writing memes and hence to avoid the negative impact of first language thinking in writing mode.Key words: ESL writing teaching; Meme; Imitation; Variation; Strategy

Xinrong XIA

2013-03-01

377

The L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We formalize an algorithm for solving the L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem derived using first principles and geometric insights about L1 projection and L1 regression. The procedure follows from a new proof of global optimality and relies on the solution of a small number of linear programs. The procedure is implemented for validation and testing. This analysis of the L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem makes the procedure accessible to applications in areas such as location theory, comput...

2012-01-01

378

On L1-convergence of Walsh-Fourier series  

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Full Text Available Let G denote the dyadic group, which has as its dual group the Walsh(-Paley functions. In this paper we formulate a condition for functions in L1(G which implies that their Walsh-Fourier series converges in L1(G-norm. As a corollary we obtain a Dini-Lipschitz-type theorem for L1(G convergence and we prove that the assumption on the L1(G modulus of continuity in this theorem cannot be weakened. Similar results also hold for functions on the circle group T and their (trigonometric Fourier series.

C. W. Onneweer

1978-03-01

379

An actively retrotransposing, novel subfamily of mouse L1 elements.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Retrotransposition of LINEs and other retroelements increases repetition in mammalian genomes and can cause deleterious mutations. Recent insertions of two full-length L1s, L1spa and L1Orl, caused the disease phenotypes of the spastic and Orleans reeler mice respectively. Here we show that these two recently retrotransposed L1s are nearly identical in sequence, have two open reading frames and belong to a novel subfamily related to the ancient F subfamily. We have named this new subfamily TF ...

Naas, T. P.; Deberardinis, R. J.; Moran, J. V.; Ostertag, E. M.; Kingsmore, S. F.; Seldin, M. F.; Hayashizaki, Y.; Martin, S. L.; Kazazian, H. H.

1998-01-01

380

Asimmetrie L1/L2: una sfida nella didattica di “lingua e traduzione”.  

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Full Text Available Asymmetries Between L1 and L2: a Challenge in the Teaching of "Language and Translation" Language teaching is deeply connected to the cognitive and brain sciences. The attribution of meaning of linguistic messages depends on the interaction between the communicant’s brain and the external world. The interaction is based on the cognitive and emotional experience shared by a L-community. Competence in L2 is acquired by the development of an internal data base of contextualised .units of living speech. (Lurija 1976. L2 teaching is particularly successful when the L2 units are inscribed in memory by means of the functionally equivalent L1 units. Selection of the L1/L2 correspondent units is due to the principle of markedness: each unit of L1 has a functional equivalent in one and only one unit of the L2. Because of the interlingual asymmetries (a set of Italian/Russian examples is given, functional equivalence differs from morphosyntactic and lexical equivalence. The competency in ascribing a degree of markedness to each linguistic unit needs the regular implicit acquisition of the L2 intonational and prosodic system; the processes of the metalinguistic conscious reflection are instead a .hindrance. to the procedural acting of a “living speaker”.

Laura Salmon

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Reading in Two Writing Systems: Accommodation and Assimilation of the Brain's Reading Network  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilingual reading can require more than knowing two languages. Learners must acquire also the writing conventions of their second language, which can differ in its deep mapping principles (writing system) and its visual configurations (script). We review ERP (event-related potential) and fMRI studies of both Chinese-English bilingualism and…

Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying; Fiez, Julie; Nelson, Jessica; Bolger, Donald J.; Tan, Li-Hai

2007-01-01

382

The Effect of Arabic Proficiency on the English Writing of Bilingual-Jordanian Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relationship between first language (Arabic) proficiency and second language (English) performance in the writing skills of Jordanian bilingual second secondary school students. Despite the linguistic distance between English and Arabic, it is postulated that Arabic writing skills can be transferred positively to the…

Dweik, Bader S.; Abu Al Hommos, Mustafa D.

2007-01-01

383

Gender Effect on the Writing Quality of Pen-Paper and Computer Samples of EFL Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem Statement: While gender as a variable is a significant research and discussion area in foreign language learning, computers are not only common tools in EFL writing classes but also a research subject in foreign language learning. Previous research indicates that female learners have negative attitudes on writing on computers and there…

Aydin, Selami

2007-01-01

384

Optimizing literacy in English language learners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children in the United States who are English language learners characteristically do not exhibit the same levels of reading achievement as their peers. The article describes the development of English literacy in English language learners and the relationship between a child's second language (L2) and his or her native language (L1) in literacy development. It is organized first to consider the issue of language of instruction and language transfer, specifically the aspects of L1 literacy that appear to transfer to the second language (L2), English. It then discusses general principles for professionals working to optimize English literacy development in different models of literacy instruction for English language learners. We conclude that using the child's L1 provides the children with strong language and literacy skills in both languages. PMID:17340380

Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Gray, Shelley

2007-02-01

385

Programming for Language. PEN 69.  

Science.gov (United States)

This practical guide discusses the challenges teachers will face when programming for language--that is, in planning an effective language program for their students. The guide includes ways to meet the challenges; suggestions for what to read, attend to, observe, write, and who to talk to; points to ponder before programming; and a model for…

Brill, Rhondda

386

Medical Ghost-writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Any assistance an author receives with writing a scientific article that is not acknowledged in the article is described as ghost-writing. Articles ghost-written by medical writers engaged by pharmaceutical companies who have a vested interest in the content have caused concern after scandals revealed misleading content in some articles. A key criterion of authorship in medical journals is final approval of the article submitted for publication. Authors are responsible for the content of their articles and for acknowledging any assistance they receive. Action taken by some journals and medical writer associations to encourage acknowledgement is an uphill task in the light of disinterest from the pharmaceutical industry and ignorance or similar lack of interest by those who agree to be named authors. However, acknowledgment alone is not sufficient to resolve medical ghost-writing; issues of how the acknowledgement is formulated, permission to acknowledge and access to raw data also need to be tackled.

Elise Langdon-Neuner

2008-01-01

387

Implementing Keyword and Question Generation Approaches in Teaching EFL Summary Writing  

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Full Text Available Summary writing has been considered an important aspect of academic writing. However, writing summaries can be a challenging task for the majority of English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners. Research into teaching summary writing has focused on different processes to teach EFL learners. The present study adopted two methods – keyword and question generation – to guide Taiwanese university students in writing summaries in English. To decrease the students’ apprehension resulting from the difficulties in writing summaries, portfolios were used as a vehicle to help the students collect and reflect on the articles they read and the summaries they wrote. This paper investigated how much keyword methods and question generation helped Taiwanese EFL university students improve their English summary writing. The data showed that, with the help of keywords and question generation, the two approaches helped the majority of the participants increase their English reading and summary writing abilities.

Mu-hsuan Chou

2012-10-01

388

Teaching Style and the College Writing Class  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review questions the efficiency of the lecture method with particular reference to the teaching of English at the College of The Bahamas. Research studies and articles about current practice in college writing suggest that while the lecture method remains useful in subject areas dominated by transfer of large amounts of factual information, teaching methods in the English language arts have moved from product to process pedagogy, with a corresponding change from didactic to cooperative s...

1997-01-01

389

Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Writing Strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to find the relationship between multiple intelligences and writing strategies among Iranian EFL learners. The participants in this study were 120 adult males and females studying at high and advanced levels of Iran Language Institute. They filled two questionnaires during the first sessions of spring semester of 2012. The first questionnaire was a multiple intelligences inventory surveying nine types of intelligences based on Gardner’s theory and the second ...

Narges Moheb; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

2013-01-01

390

Mirror Writing and a Dissociative Identity Disorder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam—mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirr...

Catherine Le; Joyce Smith; Lewis Cohen

2009-01-01

391

End of the Line: A Poet's Postmodern Musings on Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

I invite and encourage students to take risks in their writing, to engage innovatively with a wide range of genre, to push limits in order to explore creatively how language and discourse are never ossified, but always organic, how language use is integrally and inextricably connected to identity, knowledge, subjectivity, and living. Informed by…

Leggo, Carl

2006-01-01

392

The Role of Individual Differences in L2 Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the role of individual differences in second language (L2) speech has been extensively studied, the impact of individual differences on the process of second language writing and the written product has been a neglected area of research. In this paper, I review the most important individual difference factors that might explain variations…

Kormos, Judit

2012-01-01

393

Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

Ortega, Lourdes

2012-01-01

394

Why writing centers matter Why writing centers matter  

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Full Text Available Over the past twenty-five years, most post-secondary institutions in the United States have established facilities known as writing centers, although sometimes they are called writing "labs," or writing "rooms." One writing center may he enclosed in a large glass building nestled in a redwood forest, where students and tutors confer with one another in spacious, well-lit study spaces. Another may be housed in a converted, under-sized classroom, furnished with only a battered table and a shabby sofa. Whatever their physical characteristics, writing centers are now recognized as playing a vital role in the teaching of writing, one that is as pedagogically significant as that of the composition classroom. The following scenarios embody what I perceive as the essence of the writing center approach and provide a graphic representation of "why writing centers matter." Over the past twenty-five years, most post-secondary institutions in the United States have established facilities known as writing centers, although sometimes they are called writing "labs," or writing "rooms." One writing center may he enclosed in a large glass building nestled in a redwood forest, where students and tutors confer with one another in spacious, well-lit study spaces. Another may be housed in a converted, under-sized classroom, furnished with only a battered table and a shabby sofa. Whatever their physical characteristics, writing centers are now recognized as playing a vital role in the teaching of writing, one that is as pedagogically significant as that of the composition classroom. The following scenarios embody what I perceive as the essence of the writing center approach and provide a graphic representation of "why writing centers matter."

Irene Lurkis Clark

2008-04-01

395

Feedback in ESL Writing: Toward an Interactional Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of feedback on writing involves complex issues and needs to be considered within the total context in which the feedback is given. The reason studies examining feedback effects are so inconsistent may be a function of the fact that these studies consider feedback issue from a single perspective. To deal with this problem, feedback is first defined from different perspectives, then different aspects of feedback are discussed and after that a discussion of the factors that affect the influence of feedback on second language writing follows and finally a model where all the factors interact to influence feedback practices in second langue writing is presented.

Abbas Eslami Rasekh

2011-09-01

396

Second Language Listening: Listening Ability or Language Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on a study exploring the respective contributions of first language (L1) listening comprehension ability and second language (L2) proficiency to L2 listening comprehension ability. The participants were 75 Grade 8 English-speaking students learning French. The students completed tests in French and in English that required…

Vandergrift, Larry

2006-01-01

397

Encouraging Good Mathematical Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a report on an attempt to teach students in their first and second year of university how to write mathematics. The problems faced by these students are outlined and the system devised to emphasize the importance of communicating mathematics is explained.

O'Shea, J.

2006-01-01

398

When Cyburgs (Cyborgs) Write.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an extended conversation two female writing instructors discuss the kind of discourse available in the academy, the way educators are trained to deploy its conventions, and the different ways that voices are authorized. They cite Harraway as an academic writer who bridges the various post-structuralist discourses without ever losing sight of…

Calderonello, Alice; Shaller, Deborah

399

Why NDNs Write  

Science.gov (United States)

Sinte Gleska University students are all ages. The author's class has an even mix of genders, and there are also non-Indians with various experiences and backgrounds, but they have one thing in common. They are eking out a living in the second poorest county in the nation. The class discusses why NDNs or Natives write. In "Winged Words: American…

Henson, Mary

2009-01-01

400

Testing Writing on Computers  

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Full Text Available Computer use has grown rapidly during the past decade. Within the educational community, interest in authentic assessment has also increased. To enhance the authenticity of tests of writing, as well as of other knowledge and skills, some assessments require students to respond in written form via paper-and-pencil. However, as increasing numbers of students grow accustomed to writing on computers, these assessments may yield underestimates of students' writing abilities. This article presents the findings of a small study examining the effect that mode of administration -- computer versus paper-and-pencil -- has on middle school students' performance on multiple-choice and written test questions. Findings show that, though multiple-choice test results do not differ much by mode of administration, for students accustomed to writing on computer, responses written on computer are substantially higher than those written by hand (effect size of 0.9 and relative success rates of 67% versus 30%. Implications are discussed in terms of both future research and test validity.

Michael Russell

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Holograms writing on glass  

Science.gov (United States)

Holographic gratings recorded in photoresist, are used by common techniques of lithography, for writing on glass. We present a study of the technique used to erode the glass using hydrofluoric acid and copy the holographic element on the glass. We observe that holograms written in glass are very strong and durable. The behavior of the dispersion caused by the glass erosion also is studied.

Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Fuentes-Tapia, Israel; Toxqui-López, Santa

2014-02-01

402

Writing a Research Paper  

Science.gov (United States)

The value of research and the career of a university lecturer depend heavily on the success in publishing scientific papers. This article reviews the guidelines for writing and submitting research papers. The three most important success criteria in publishing are as follows: the paper describes a good research, it is written according to the…

Mikk, Jaan

2006-01-01

403

Why Write Book Reviews?  

Science.gov (United States)

The pressure to publish or perish or, more recently, to be visible or vanish, marginalises a culture of critical reading and reflection that has historically been the province of book reviews. Today, book reviews are roundly rejected by academic bureaucrats as unimportant, easy to write and hence, easy to get published, mere summaries, uncritical…

Obeng-Odoom, Franklin

2014-01-01

404

Effects of Cognate Status on Word Comprehension in Second Language Learners: An ERP Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

ERPs were used to explore the different patterns of processing of cognate and noncognate words in the first (L1) and second (L2) language of a population of second language learners. L1 English students of French were presented with blocked lists of L1 and L2 words, and ERPs to cognates and noncognates were compared within each language block. For…

Midgley, Katherine J.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

2011-01-01

405

A Comparison of the Effects of Reflective Learning Portfolios and Dialogue Journal Writing on Iranian EFL Learners’ Accuracy in Writing Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at comparing the effects of reflective learning portfolio (RLP) and dialogue journal writing (DJW) on the Iranian EFL learners’ grammatical accuracy in writing as well as their overall writing performance. 60 Iranian EFL learners between the ages of 17 to 30 who were studying at general English courses were selected based on their performance on the Nelson English Language Test. They were assigned randomly into two experimental groups: DJW and RLP. Each group recei...

Fatemeh Hemmati; Fatemeh Soltanpour

2012-01-01

406

Challenges of Chinese Language Education in Multi-lingual Societies: Hong Kong and Singapore  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to study the current challenges of Chinese language education in the multilingual societies of Hong Kong and Singapore through policy documents. After the handover of Hong Kong to China in 1997, the role of Putonghua is far more important than before due to political and economic reasons. However, the medium of instruction for the Chinese Language subject in Hong Kong has long been Cantonese since the British colony days. A change in the medium of instruction from mother-tongue Cantonese to Putonghua is a shift from L1 to L2. This paper will discuss the feasibility of this long term policy of Hong Kong Education Bureau with reference to Singapore’s experience. Currently, Singapore faces the problem of declining standard of reading and writing in Huayu (Putonghua in China and this paper will investigate the reason for that and suggest possible remedies.

Ho-kin Tong

2008-02-01

407

Integrating Meaning and Structure in L1-L2 and L2-L1 Translations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examined the integration of semantic and morphosyntactic information by Korean learners of English as a second language (L2). In Experiment 1, L2 learners listened to English active or passive sentences that were either plausible or implausible and translated them into Korean. A significant number of Korean translations maintained the…

Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

2013-01-01

408

L1 and CHL1 Cooperate in Thalamocortical Axon Targeting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neural cell adhesion molecule close homolog of L1 (CHL1) is a regulator of topographic targeting of thalamic axons to the somatosensory cortex (S1) but little is known about its cooperation with other L1 class molecules. To investigate this, CHL1?/?/L1?/y double mutant mice were generated and analyzed for thalamocortical axon topography. Double mutants exhibited a striking posterior shift of axons from motor thalamic nuclei to the visual cortex (V1), which was not observed in single mut...

Demyanenko, Galina P.; Siesser, Priscila F.; Wright, Amanda G.; Brennaman, Leann H.; Bartsch, Udo; Schachner, Melitta; Maness, Patricia F.

2011-01-01

409

Robotic synthesis of L-[1-[sup 11]C]tyrosine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

L-[1-[sup 11]C]tyrosine promises to become an important tracer for determination of the protein synthesis rate (PSR) in tumor tissue and brain. The commercially available Anatech RB-86 robotic system is utilized for the automation of the L-[1-[sup 11]C]tyrosine production via the isocyanide method as reported by Bolster et al. (Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 12, 321-324, 1986). The total synthesis time, including HPLC-purification and enantiomeric separation is 60 min. With a practical yield of 20 mCi L-[1-[sup 11]C]tyrosine at a specific activity > 1000 Ci/mmol. (author).

Luurtsema, Gert; Medema, Jitze; Elsinga, P.H.; Visser, G.M.; Vaalburg, Willem (University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands). PET-Center)

1994-08-01

410

Written Language: When and Where to Begin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The values of learning to express oneself in writing are noted, major components of writing (psychological factors, content, and craftsmanship) are identified, and approaches to evaluating written language disorders through formal and informal methods are described. Intervention information focuses on hierarchial skills, motivation, content area…

Dagenais, Donna J.; Beadle, Kathryn R.

1984-01-01

411

Literacy Cafe: Making Writing Authentic  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Literacy Cafe," a celebration of genre study and student writing, offers students (and visitors!) a positive environment in which to engage in reading and discussion of writing without self-consciousness or fear of criticism. It works because students learn to recognize writing as a learning tool and a relevant, authentic skill in the real…

Daniels, Erika

2007-01-01

412

Resources for Graduate Writing Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of graduate writing courses offered at United States universities revealed two rationales for providing graduate level writing instruction: (1) students are underequipped by their undergraduate training for more advanced work, and (2) graduate work demands a different kind and level of writing which schools have a responsibility to teach.…

Jeske, Jeffrey M.

413

SemSignWriting: A Proposed Semantic System for Arabic Text-to-SignWriting Translation  

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Full Text Available Arabic Sign Language (ArSL is the native language for the Arab deaf community. ArSL allows deaf people to communicate among themselves and with non-deaf people around them to express their needs, thoughts and feelings. Opposite to spoken languages, Sign Language (SL depends on hands and facial expression to express the thought instead of sounds. In recent years, interest in translating sign language automatically for different languages has increased. However, a small set of these works are specialized in ArSL. Basically, these works translate word by word without taking care of the semantics of the translated sentence or the translation rules of Arabic text to Arabic sign language. In this paper we present a proposed system for semantically translating Arabic text to Arabic SignWriting in the jurisprudence of prayer domain. The system is designed to translate Arabic text by applying Arabic Sign Language (ArSL grammatical rules as well as semantically looking up the words in domain ontology. The results of qualitatively evaluating the system based on a SignWriting expert judgment proved the correctness of the translation results.

Ameera M. Almasoud

2012-08-01

414

Weblog Promotes ESL Learners’ Writing Autonomy  

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Full Text Available Today, we observe widespread application of the internet, both synchronous and asynchronous communication, by educators in many worldwide classes. Weblog (blog or web log can be one of the instructional and integral components for ESL instructors. By applying interview and observation, this study reports on ESL students’ experience and perceptions in applying weblog throughout a semester in a writing class in Malaysia. Besides, this study examined the effect of using Weblog on students’ writing autonomy. The findings revealed that students enjoyed the process of publishing their writings, and exchanging their experience in the weblog. Students also acknowledged weblog as a tool which provides more opportunities to publish their writing freely, extend their interaction with their peers outside the class setting, be able to publish and share interesting videos, have the chance to look for the appropriate materials in the World Wide Web (WWW and check their sentences in the Google simultaneously. Students enjoyed some features in weblog which cannot be found in conventional modes of teaching and learning, such as experiencing unlimited time and place, more independency and freedom in publishing and exchanging comments. With the empirical data presented in this study, weblog can be applied as a suitable instructional tool to promote autonomy among language learners.

Maryam Foroutan

2013-09-01

415

Effects of L1-ORF2 fragments on green fluorescent protein gene expression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The retrotransposon known as long interspersed nuclear element-1 (L1) is 6 kb long, although most L1s in mammalian and other eukaryotic cells are truncated. L1 contains two open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2, that code for an RNA-binding protein and a protein with endonuclease and reverse transcript [...] ase activities, respectively. In this work, we examined the effects of full length L1-ORF2 and ORF2 fragments on green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) expression when inserted into the pEGFP-C1 vector downstream of GFP. All of the ORF2 fragments in sense orientation inhibited GFP expression more than when in antisense orientation, which suggests that small ORF2 fragments contribute to the distinct inhibitory effects of this ORF on gene expression. These results provide the first evidence that different 280-bp fragments have distinct effects on the termination of gene transcription, and that when inserted in the antisense direction, fragment 280-9 (the 3' end fragment of ORF2) induces premature termination of transcription that is consistent with the effect of ORF2.

Wang, Xiu-Fang; Jin, Xia; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jing; Feng, Jingjing; Yang, QinQing; Mu, Wenli; Shi, Xiaojuan; Lu, Zhanjun.

416

On Trigonometric Series with Monotonic Coefficients in $L^1_{mu}$  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we consider the question of a representations of functions from weighed class $L^1_{mu}[0,2pi]$ by series with monotonic coefficients concerning trigonometric systems .

Tigran M. Grigorian

2011-12-01

417

L1-norm-based common spatial patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Common spatial patterns (CSP) is a commonly used method of spatial filtering for multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The formulation of the CSP criterion is based on variance using L2-norm, which implies that CSP is sensitive to outliers. In this paper, we propose a robust version of CSP, called CSP-L1, by maximizing the ratio of filtered dispersion of one class to the other class, both of which are formulated by using L1-norm rather than L2-norm. The spatial filters of CSP-L1 are obtained by introducing an iterative algorithm, which is easy to implement and is theoretically justified. CSP-L1 is robust to outliers. Experiment results on a toy example and datasets of BCI competitions demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method. PMID:22147288

Wang, Haixian; Tang, Qin; Zheng, Wenming

2012-03-01

418

Dyslexia and second language acquisition  

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the purpose of this paper is to introduce and present the definition of dyslexia, as the most common language disorder, and to show, how it relates to second language acquisition. After introducing dyslexia with some definition, I intend to study how other people approach their dyslectic mates. Then dyslexia is studied in what ways it is responsible for the difficulties and errors in second language learning from the point of view of the four main skills: reading, writing, listening and speak...

Va?go?, Orsolya

2010-01-01

419

Writing Well: Ten Commandments for Educators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Included among the 10 commandments for good writing are: (1) Write with verbs and nouns; (2) Write for yourself and other people; (3) Do not write in jargon; (4) Read aloud your writing; (5) Do not write cluttered sentences; and (6) Use concrete words and phrases. (JN)

Kirkman, Ralph E.; Darrell, Bob

1980-01-01

420

Linguistic Knowledge, Processing Speed, and Metacognitive Knowledge in First- and Second-Language Reading Comprehension: A Componential Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2. Findings indicate that regression weights of the L1 and…

van Gelderen, Amos; Schoonen, Rob; de Glopper, Kees; Hulstijn, Jan; Simis, Annegien; Snellings, Patrick; Stevenson, Marie

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Metric differentiation, monotonicity and maps to L^1  

CERN Document Server

We give a new approach to the infinitesimal structure of Lipschitz maps into L^1. As a first application, we give an alternative proof of the main theorem from an earlier paper, that the Heisenberg group does not admit a bi-Lipschitz embedding in L^1. The proof uses the metric differentiation theorem of Pauls and the cut metric decomposition to reduce the nonembedding argument to a classification of monotone subsets of the Heisenberg group.

Cheeger, Jeff

2009-01-01

422

The Relationship between Listening and Other Language Skills in International English Language Testing System  

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Listening comprehension is the primary channel of learning a language. Yet of the four dominant macro-skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), it is often difficult and inaccessible for second and foreign language learners due to its implicit process. The secondary skill, speaking, proceeds listening cognitively. Aural/oral skills precede the graphic skills, such as reading and writing, as they form the circle of language learning process. However, despite the significant relationsh...

Hossein Bozorgian

2012-01-01

423

Gold nanoparticles functionalized with a fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 stimulate L1-mediated functions  

Science.gov (United States)

The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1 sequence of the third fibronectin type III domain of murine L1 was identified and conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain constructs that interact homophilically with the extracellular domain of L1 and trigger the cognate beneficial L1-mediated functions. Covalent conjugation was achieved by reacting mixtures of two cysteine-terminated forms of this L1 peptide and thiolated poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) ligands (~2.1 kDa) with citrate stabilized AuNPs of two different sizes (~14 and 40 nm in diameter). By varying the ratio of the L1 peptide-PEG mixtures, an optimized layer composition was achieved that resulted in the expected homophilic interaction of the AuNPs. These AuNPs were stable as tested over a time period of 30 days in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and interacted with the extracellular domain of L1 on neurons and Schwann cells, as could be shown by using cells from wild-type and L1-deficient mice. In vitro, the L1-derivatized particles promoted neurite outgrowth and survival of neurons from the central and peripheral nervous system and stimulated Schwann cell process formation and proliferation. These observations raise the hope that, in combination with other therapeutic approaches, L1 peptide-functionalized AuNPs may become a useful tool to ameliorate the deficits resulting from acute and chronic injuries of the mammalian nervous system.The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1 sequence of the third fibronectin type III domain of murine L1 was identified and conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain constructs that interact homophilically with the extracellular domain of L1 and trigger the cognate beneficial L1-mediated functions. Covalent conjugation was achieved by reacting mixtures of two cysteine-terminated forms of this L1 peptide and thiolated poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) ligands (~2.1 kDa) with citrate stabilized AuNPs of two different sizes (~14 and 40 nm in diameter). By varying the ratio of the L1 peptide-PEG mixtures, an optimized layer composition was achieved that resulted in the expected homophilic interaction of the AuNPs. These AuNPs were stable as tested over a time period of 30 days in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and interacted with the extracellular domain of L1 on neurons and Schwann cells, as could be shown by using cells from wild-type and L1-deficient mice. In vitro, the L1-derivatized particles promoted neurite outgrowth and survival of neurons from the central and peripheral nervous system and stimulated Schwann cell process formation and proliferation. These observations raise the hope that, in combination with other therapeutic approaches, L1 peptide-functionalized AuNPs may become a useful tool to ameliorate the deficits resulting from acute and chronic injuries of the mammalian nervous system. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: In vitro assays of the stimulatory activity of the L1-peptide, in vitro assays comparing the stimulatory activity of the L1-peptide coupled and not coupled to AuNPs, TEM characterization of AuNPs, additional results of aggregation experiments including an explanatory figure, UV-vis data proving the stability of AuNP@L1/PEGMUA-conjugates in relevant buffers, simple structure modeling of a L1-peptide and PEGMUA on AuNPs, and structure modeling of L1-peptides. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02707d

Schulz, Florian; Lutz, David; Rusche, Norman; Bastús, Neus G.; Stieben, Martin; Höltig, Michael; Grüner, Florian; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Loers, Gabriele

2013-10-01

424

Si tous les telecopieurs du Monde...: Ecriture creative par telecopie (If All the Telecopiers in the World...: Creative Writing with the Fax).  

Science.gov (United States)

It is proposed that intercultural creative writing exercises can be conducted using the fax machine to communicate between schools, even in different countries. Specific themes and activities for French second-language writing projects are outlined. (MSE)

Bourdet, Jean-Francois; Lieutaud, Simone

1993-01-01

425

Writing Picture Books  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this interview Jane Yolen, award-winning author of children’s picture books, talks of how her books come into being and the sometimes long period between the first spark of an idea and the time writing begins. She explains the many types of research that can be required for different types of books, giving examples from her own work. She also provides insight as to the role of the writer, the illustrator and the editor in creating the final version of a children’s picture book. Finally, she reveals her own favourite children’s picture books and gives advice to those wishing to write in this genre.

Jane Yolen

2011-06-01

426

Improving writing through creativity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project is the result of an attempt to answer the question “Can Creative Writing Be Taught?” proposed by Francine Prose (2007), in the first chapter of her book Reading Like a Writer. It also aims to show the difficulties of implementing such a project in the classroom, due to factors such as lack of time, the pressure of teaching a very tight syllabus, and the working conditions students and teachers have in order to succeed.

Cacha?o, Margarida Adelaide Botelho

2010-01-01

427

Predictors of English Reading Comprehension: Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…

Uchikoshi, Yuuko

2013-01-01

428

A infância na pobreza urbana: linguagem oral e a escrita da história pelas crianças / The childhood of urban poverty: verbal language and the children?s writing of the history  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Através da convivência com um grupo de 14 crianças entre 3 e 9 anos, em um bairro da periferia de São Paulo, procurou-se verificar a tese de que essas crianças são portadoras de "deficiência de linguagem" devido à pobreza de seu ambiente verbal, da precariedade da linguagem dos adultos e de sua rela [...] ção verbal com os filhos. O contato com as crianças, com seus pais e com o bairro revelou a complexidade com que elas se utilizam da linguagem verbal; é através dela que elas conquistam seu lugar no mundo dos adultos e sobretudo expressam constantemente suas vivências em seu ambiente próximo. É através de interações verbais muito ricas, do recurso a músicas folclóricas e metáforas, da narrativa dos acontecimentos do bairro e da expressão verbal de suas fantasias e temores que elas se constituem como porta-vozes e como memória viva e coletiva de um bairro no qual a luta não só pela sobrevivência, mas pela vida digna é a principal tarefa que organiza a vida cotidiana. Abstract in english Through the experience of being with a group of children between 3 and 9 years old, in the outskirts of São Paulo, I wanted to verify the thesis that these children are "language impaired" as a consequence of their poor verbal environment, the precarious use of language by parents and the verbal rel [...] ationship with their children. The contact with the children, the parents and with the neighborhood revealed the complexity in which they use verbal language; it is through the language that the children determine their place in the adult world and above all constantly express their everyday experiences in their surrounding environment. It is through these rich verbal interactions, availability of popular and folklore music and metaphors, narrative occurrences in the neighborhood and the verbal expression of fantasies and fears, that the children become the "spokesmen" of a living and collective memory of the neighborhood. A neighborhood in which the struggle, not only for survival but also for the dignity of life, is the principal task that structures everyday life.

Sawaya, Sandra Maria.

429

Everyday academic language in German historiography  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present article investigates the use of everyday academic language in German history writing. The starting point is a brief discussion of the two conceptual tools used in this study: alltägliche Wissenschaftssprache and metadiscourse. The data for an empirical and contextual analysis of everyday academic language have been extracted from a parallel corpus of German history writing. The analysis confirms that the most frequent patterns found in historiographic metadiscourse belong to the ...

Skrandies, Peter

2011-01-01

430

A comparative assessment of the L1 and L2 reading performance of Grade 7 learners in English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of English and the indigenous languages in South African schooling is highly contested. Research endorses the mother tongue (L1 as the most appropriate language of learning and teaching (LoLT and the basis for the addition of a second language (L2. However, in South Africa English is the preferred LoLT and English proficiency is integral to academic achievement. This article reports on an investigation of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners’ reading performance in English and in Xitsonga. Based on a study of the literature on the link between language proficiency and academic success, an empirical inquiry assessed the reading performance of grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners using a standardised test in English and in Xitsonga. Learners’ reading performance in both Xitsonga, their L1, and English, their LoLT since grade 4, was poor.

Tintswalo V Manyike

2011-08-01

431

Process Approach to Teaching Writing Applied in Different Teaching Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

English writing, as a basic language skill for second language learners, is being paid close attention to. How to achieve better results in English teaching and how to develop students’ writing competence remain an arduous task for English teachers. Based on the review of the concerning l...

Chunling Sun; Guoping Feng

2009-01-01

432

Tutoring between Language with Comparative Multilingual Tutoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Writers who do not speak English as a native language perennially have presented unique challenges to the writing center, for these writers, who study English as a second language (ESL), or even as a third or fourth foreign language (EFL), may also be unacquainted with American academic discourse. ESL/EFL writers may face unfamiliarity with…

Brendel, Christian

2012-01-01

433

An Analysis of Spoken Language and Written Language and How They Affect English Language Learning and Teaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Language plays a crucial role in the development of human society. It is the main means of communication between individuals, groups and countries. Nowadays in China, more and more people are learning English as a second language. What is the effective method of learning a foreign language becomes their chief concern. Basically speaking, four modules are involved in the process of second language acquisition. They are listening, reading, writing and speaking. In English language teaching a...

Bei Zhang

2013-01-01

434

Writing Basis packages. [BASIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Basis Language is the user interface for programs using the Basis system. This language is a fully featured programming language with the additional property that the variables in the common blocks of the physics packages are accessible and can appear in user statements. Thus, statements of the Basis Language set or display the variables in the physics packages, plot them, save them to files, etc. This manual contains the documentation for the development system.

Dubois, P.F.

1986-11-18

435

Des haikus en classe de langue (Haikus in Language Class).  

Science.gov (United States)

A French writing workshop used at the university level in Japan to enhance French language instruction is described. The exercises, in which students write Haiku and minimalist poetry in French, stress such aspects of language use as associations, connotations, and creative word use. Several exercise types are described. (MSE)

Disson, Agnes

1996-01-01

436

Plain Language  

Science.gov (United States)

The Plain Writing Act of 2010 requires federal agencies to write "clear Government communication that the public can understand and use." President Obama also emphasized the importance of establishing "a system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration" in his January 21, 2009, Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government.

437

Efficacy and effects of various types of teacher feedback on student writing in Japanese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Teacher feedback on student writing has received considerable attention in the research of second language writing (Ferris, 2004; Silva & Matsuda, 2001). One of the frequently examined issues is the efficacy of feedback that has been actively discussed to date (Chandler, 2004; Ellis, 1998; Ferris, 1999; Truscott, 1996, 1999, 2004). The other concern is the effects of various types of feedback on accuracy of student writing (Silva & Brice, 2004). Despite the fact that a number of studies have ...

2006-01-01

438

Talking About Writing: What We Can Learn from Conversations between Parents and Their Young Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In six analyses using CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000), we explored whether and how parents and their 1.5 to 5-year-old children talk about writing. Parent speech might include information about the similarity between print and speech and about the difference between writing and drawing. Parents could convey similarity between print and speech by using the words say, name, and word to refer to both spoken and written language. Parents could differentiate writing and drawing by making syntactic and ...

2009-01-01

439

An Experimental Study of Interactive and Cooperative English Writing Strategy under Network Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The college English writing strategy and the students’ performance in English writing are two problems puzzling the foreign language researching and teaching staff in China. The paper aims to find some effective strategies to unravel this obsession. According to the successful practice of Experiencing English Writing Platform in Tsinghua University, and based on a series of theories of the Mediated Learning Experience, the Constructivism, and the structure creation, the author proposes ...

2013-01-01

440

A Study of College English Writing Classes through Consciousness-raising  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By consciousness-raising we mean the deliberate attempt to draw the learner’s attention specifically to the formal properties of the target language. It focuses its attention on teaching process and students’ activeness, so it can be well applied to teaching of college English writing. This study indicates that consciousness-raising provides a guideline for improving teaching of college English writing and plays a significant role in enhancing students’ writing ability.

Qi Pan

2011-03-01