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Sample records for language l1 writing

  1. Modeling the Development of L1 and EFL Writing Proficiency of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonen, Rob; van Gelderen, Amos; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Hulstijn, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed several writing tasks in both languages in three…

  2. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  3. Early writing development in L1 English speaking children.

    OpenAIRE

    Lasenby, J.; Pelletier, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the developmental and psychometric properties of an early writing task. The study was carried out over four years in Toronto, Canada with L1 English-speaking children. Two cohorts of children who began in Nursery School were followed to the end of their Grade 1 year. Children were administered the same writing task at four time points along with standardized measures of early reading. The early writing task required children to write words and number and word combination...

  4. Study on L1 Transfer in English Writing of Chinese College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Qiu-juan

    2007-01-01

    Language transfer has long been a controversial topic in applied linguistics, second language acquisition, and language teaching for more than 100 years. The paper concentrates on several aspects that have an especially important bearing on tle study of L1 transfer in English writing of Chinese college students: causes , differences between English and Chinese discourse analysis and characteristics of English and Chinese syntactical structure.
    Key words: L1 transfer, English writi...

  5. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  6. Voice in High-Stakes L1 Academic Writing Assessment: Implications for L2 Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cecilia Guanfang; Llosa, Lorena

    2008-01-01

    Despite the debate among writing researchers about its viability as a pedagogical tool in writing instruction [e.g., Helms-Park, R., & Stapleton, P. (2003). "Questioning the importance of individualized voice in undergraduate L2 argumentative writing: An empirical study with pedagogical implications." "Journal of Second Language Writing," 12 (3),…

  7. Early writing development in L1 English speaking children.

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    Lasenby, J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the developmental and psychometric properties of an early writing task. The study was carried out over four years in Toronto, Canada with L1 English-speaking children. Two cohorts of children who began in Nursery School were followed to the end of their Grade 1 year. Children were administered the same writing task at four time points along with standardized measures of early reading. The early writing task required children to write words and number and word combinations; we examined how children move from understanding print as “objects” to understanding print as representation of sounds. We also examined how writing in Nursery School and Kindergarten related to later literacy skills. The methodology allowed us to examine the extent to which early writing in Nursery School (3 years old and Junior Kindergarten (4 years old predicted later literacy skills when children were in Grade 1 (6 years old and were receiving formal reading instruction. Results show characteristic features of children’s early writing of number and word combinations at each of the four grade levels and show that performance on the writing task in Kindergarten predicted reading skills at the end of Grade 1.

  8. Foreign Language Writing and Translation

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    Wuri Soedjatmiko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In LI writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose LI is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

  9. TEACHING CREATIVE WRITING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriques, Marku Monis And M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Writing, like all other aspects of language, is communicative. In our real life we write e-mails, notes, covering letters, reports, curriculums, assignments, essays and so on. Some of us write articles or work on forums and websites. A few write stories and poems. All of these writing tasks have a communicative purpose and a target audience. In the English language classroom, however, writing often lacks this. There are many reasons, as there are lots of ways to make the writing...

  10. First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research

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    Khaled Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.

  11. Creative Writing: Poetry for the Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Presents some suggestions for the writing of poetry to expand vocabulary in the target language. Since poetry demands preciseness, writing poetically helps students develop this language skill. (Author/CK)

  12. Panel: Opportunities and Challenges of Writing in a Second Language

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    Kupatadze, Ketevan; Chiu, Scott C.

    The advancement of Globalization has simultaneously diluted the need for writing in languages other then English and made us more aware of differences between diverse cultures. Hence, writing in a second/foreign language has acquired a new role. In order for individuals to compete on the international scale, they have to master a foreign language. Yet, the processes and elements of tasks involved in writing in L1 and L2 are far from identical. When writing in the L2, individual writers inevitably engage in the changing contexts between the language uses of L1 and L2 and apply their learned knowledge and principles to the writing situations they perceive as suitable or doable. Students’ perception about the role of language in Globalized world and language learning, as well as their self-perception plays an integral role in their ability to transfer knowledge when writing in a second/foreign language. This is particularly true when one teaches adult groups of students who have already formed distinct identities as academically and professionally successful L1 writers. The participants of our panel will look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest in finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writer’s identity. To further examine and understand the nature of writing across different contexts, the panel will consider how student attitudes and perceptions play into writer development and knowledge transfer from L1 to L2. The participants will explore the opportunities and problems of writing in L2, as well as the effects that second/foreign language writing has on writers’ identities, by asking the following guiding questions: 1). How do students develop identities and self-perceptions as L1 and L2 writers? How and to what degree, are their identities as L1 and L2 writers similar or different from each other? 2). How do students develop beliefs and attitudes towards L2 writing? How do their L1 writing experiences inform their L2 writing strategies? How do rhetorical and discursive strategies of L1 writing impact students’ learning of L2 writing and should such impact be viewed as an opportunity or as a problem when teaching second/foreign language writing? 3). What type of support do students need to become better L2 writers? What are their particular pedagogical needs? How can writing instructors or practitioners best support our students in achieving their goals as second/foreign language writers, and transferring their academic writing skills from one language into another, or from one context to another? Method: Through surveys, questionnaires, students feedback and analysis of students writing, the panel participants will look at the possibilities and problems of writing transfer from L1 to L2, as well as the effects that second language writing has on writers’ native identities, especially in the circumstances when they are already seeing the blurring frontiers between native and foreign cultural realms. Cross-context research into second/foreignlanguage writing is essential for a clearer and broader picture to emerge on L2 writing. To this end, the panel will bring together specialists from around the world, from different types of institutions, with different student bodies, who will present their research on teaching and learning L2 writing in diverse linguistic, cultural, institutional, and pedagogical contexts. We invite the audience to look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest of finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writers’ identities. This panel will also address the need for designing more successful approaches to supporting students’ writing skills and to teaching advanced level writing in the second/foreign language classroom by examining students’ perception of writing and, more specifically, the link between L1 and L2 writing experiences. References: Literacy-based language learning (Richard Kern 2000, Claire Krasch, 1993); Wiring assessment (Carl Bereiter, 1995); Learning and writing transfer (Greeno

  13. Cerebral mechanisms for different second language writing systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Ms; Stein, Jf; Stoodley, Cj; Hansen, Pc

    2013-01-01

    In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of...

  14. First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Karim; Hossein Nassaji

    2013-01-01

    First language (L1) transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA), and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2) writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed ov...

  15. Kanji Recognition by Second Language Learners: Exploring Effects of First Language Writing Systems and Second Language Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…

  16. Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters

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    Gholam Reza Zarei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi and L2 (English writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of the framework provided by Johnson and Roen (1992, and Chafe and Danielwicz (1987. The results indicated that Iranian students (female and male did not make significantly different uses of L1 and L2 complimenting in terms of form and strategies. Also, the gender of the addressees was not accommodated to by the addressors differently as regards the use of form and strategies of complimenting in L1 and L2. The results suggest that L1 and L2, if used under some formal class based conditions, tend to become maximally similar, showing no transfer of L1 potentiality into L2.

  17. Thai EFL Students’ Writing Errors in Different Text Types: The Interference of the First Language

    OpenAIRE

    Somchai Watcharapunyawong; Siriluck Usaha

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Thai language, regarded as the first language (L1), in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast. 120 English paragraphs written by 40 second year English major students were analyzed by using Error Analysis (EA).The results revealed that the first language interference errors fell into 16 categories: verb tense, word choice, sentence structure, article, preposition, modal/auxilia...

  18. Genre and Second-Language Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltridge, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…

  19. Breaking the Foreign Language Barrier with Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    1976-01-01

    Second language students are often discouraged in trying to acquire oral fluency skills. Four specific problem areas are: (1) timidity; (2) listening comprehension difficulties; (3) oral reading problems; and (4) difficulty in putting sentences together. An approach that emphasizes writing skills avoids these problem areas and uses skills the…

  20. Generation 1.5 Writing Compared to L1 and L2 Writing in First-Year Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have suggested that "second-language writers" are made up of two distinct groups: Generation 1.5 (long-term U.S.-resident language learners) and more traditional L2 students (e.g., international or recently arrived immigrants). To investigate that claim, this study compares the first-year composition writing of Generation 1.5…

  1. The Use of Online Corrective Feedback in Academic Writing by L1 Malay Learners

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    Soo Kum Yoke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional corrective feedback has been widely practiced but has been said to be tedious, stressful and time consuming. As such, the focus of this study is to investigate the use of an alternative method to giving corrective feedback namely, an online corrective feedback through e-mail. In order to examine if this innovative form of corrective feedback can be applied to the teaching and learning of academic writing, an experimental design was used with a control group and an experimental group of L1 Malay learners who were pursuing an academic writing course at the tertiary level. Interviews were also conducted on selected individuals to determine whether the use of online corrective feedback was practical in assisting learners improve their writing from the first draft to the final product. The statistical analysis applied to this research indicated that online corrective feedback may be an effective way to improve writing skills of learners and save time. Thus, the results showed that online corrective feedback should be potentially useful when integrated into the teaching and learning of academic writing.

  2. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  3. Writing processes, text quality, and task effects; empirical studies in first and second language writing

    OpenAIRE

    Weijen, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to advance our understanding of the writing process by linking process and product characteristics to each other. The underlying question was: how does the way in which writers use different cognitive activities, such as planning, generating ideas, and formulating, during the writing process influence the quality of the texts they produce? The main aim was to compare how writers write in L1 (Dutch) and L2 (English), in order to investigate the influence of ...

  4. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

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    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  5. Do First Language Writing and Second Language Reading Equal Second Language Reading Comprehension? An Assessment Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Judith E.

    A study focused on enhancing the validity of foreign language (L2) reading comprehension assessment measures. Subjects included 131 cadets (88 beginners and 43 non-beginners) enrolled in French courses at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. First language (L1) reading comprehension was measured using the…

  6. Effects of sentence writing in second language lexical acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Barcroft, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the effects of writing new words in sentences with word picture repetition learning alone. Second language (L2) Spanish learners attempted to learn 24 new Spanish words in one of two conditions while viewing word picture pairs. In Experiment 1, in the no sentence writing condition, the participants viewed 4 repetitions of each word for 6 seconds each. In the sentence writing con...

  7. Drawing to Support Writing Development in English Language Learners

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    Adoniou, Misty

    2013-01-01

    Writing is the dominant mode through which most learning and assessment is mediated in schools. It is through writing that learners are most often asked to demonstrate their understanding of learned concepts and share their understandings of these concepts. If English language learners are to succeed in English medium schools, they must become…

  8. Writing Between Languages How English Language Learners Make the Transition to Fluency, Grades 4-12

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    Fu, Danling

    2009-01-01

    With Writing Between Languages, Danling Fu shows that by beginning with the literacy students bring from their native language and putting writing at the center of the curriculum, we can help them transition to English and support academic literacy. You'll learn the crucial and helpful role native literacy plays in building written English fluency, assess where ELLs are in their development as writers, use movement between languages to scaffold writing—no matter whether you know a student's home language—and implement instructional strategies to support development in writing

  9. Effective Writing Assessment and Instruction for Young English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    The total number of English Language Learners in the American public schools is more than 4.5 million students or 9.6% of the total school population. This article focuses on instructional writing strategies and assessments for English Language Learners in the elementary classroom. This article provides early childhood education teachers with…

  10. Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

  11. Mutual Compensation between L1 Reading Ability and L2 Language Proficiency in L2 Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Junko

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the contribution of first language (L1) reading ability and second or foreign language (L2) proficiency to L2 reading comprehension, by focusing on the compensation between L1 reading ability and L2 proficiency among Japanese university students. Demonstrates the mutual compensation between L1 reading ability and L2 proficiency. (SG)

  12. Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms

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    Shagoury, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages

  13. Developing the Writing Ability of Intermediate Language Learners by Blogging

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    Mohsen Hajiannejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the widespread use of blogs during recent years, the present study explored how blogging can affect the writing skill of Iranian language learners. Besides, the learners' perception of blogging was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to see whether learners showed enthusiasm to blogging and how it motivated them to write. Two intermediate English classes were selected as the Control and Experimental Groups. Six writing topics were selected and were assigned to both groups. The writing activities in the Control Group were done on paper-based method while the Blogging Group used a selected website to do so. To evaluate the writing activities, four criteria were taken into account: a length of the writing activities, b use of verb forms, c use of articles, and d use of prepositions. Based on the results of the chi-square tests, in terms of the frequency of missed articles and prepositions the performances of both groups were significantly different. Also the compositions in the Blogging Group were longer than those of the Control Group. However, the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the learners' perception towards blogging revealed that students believed blogging had encouraged them to write more accurately. They also considered that blogging had remarkably improved their writing ability as compared to the time they did not use blogging.

  14. A Suggested Syllabus for Advanced Writing Skills at English Language Teaching Departments

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    Altay, Ismail Firat

    2010-01-01

    As is known, writing is an indispensable part of language education. As far as English Language Teaching Departments are concerned, writing courses, especially Advanced Writing Skills, are taken as a course of higher importance. However, forming a syllabus for Advanced Writing Course for English Language Teaching Departments is not an easy matter.…

  15. Enhancing Foreign Language Learning through Listening Strategies Delivered in L1: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hitendra Pillay; Hossein Bozorgian

    2013-01-01

    Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian) and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female p...

  16. Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals

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    George M. Jacobs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on doing the actual writing. Here, it is suggested that we connect ideas, delve deeply into the ideas we present, strive to write the reader friendly manner, use visuals, and improve our writing by noticing how other journal authors write. The third section concerns relations with editors. The advice given is that we choose carefully the journal to which we submit our work, follow that journal's directions to contributors, include a cover letter, be prepared to wait patiently, welcome critical feedback from editors and reviewers, and view editors as colleagues.

  17. Language and Corporate Values: Teaching Ethics in Business Writing Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, Kathryn C.; Debs, Mary Beth

    1987-01-01

    Argues that standard approaches to ethics in business writing do not adequately stress the inescapable power of language to perpetrate certain values. Claims that, as prospective writers within professions and organizations, students need to learn about this power in order to use and respond to it responsibly. (JD)

  18. FOR A DEFINITION OF THE TEACHING/LEARNING OF WRITING IN L1: RESEARCH AND ACTION

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    LUÍSA ÁLVARES PEREIRA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available With this article we hope to contribute towards the definition of the field of the Didactics ofWriting in Portugal, an area which has been developing, essentially, since the mid 90s, in order to defineboth the problems surrounding research in this area, as well as the contents used in the teaching and learningof writing which result from the former. It is not our objective to go into detail concerning the state ofthe art in this field in Portugal; our purpose is to present the main perspectives which have emergedthroughout recent years, defining an area which is currently beginning to show signs of greater definition.Thus, we shall attempt to provide some answers to the following research questions: what context encouragedthe emergence of this area of study, how has the configuration of this field been perceived, whattheoretical references sustain the empirical research underlying this development? In order to answerthese research questions, three analysis axes were considered which, from our viewpoint, aggregate theresearch themes within the Didactics of Writing. In the first analysis axis, the objective is to present a setof findings centred on the processes underlying students’ activity of writing texts, focusing more specificallyon the development of textual revision competence. In the second analysis axis, the aim is to validatethe emergence of a research line which is pertinent to the Didactics of Writing, focusing on the relevanceof teachers and students’ relationship with writing. In the third analysis axis, we present an illustrativelayout of a research line which demonstrates the relevance of understanding the teacher’s actionwhen working with text genres. Subsequently, we shall demonstrate the way in which these three axescan configure a referential in the definition of a global teaching and learning model for writing, capable ofproviding guidelines for classroom action. Finally, we shall discuss some research directions which sustainthe validity of this model.

  19. WRITING STRATEGIES IN L1 AND L2: ARE THERE DIFERENCES? Estratégias de escrita em L1 e L2: EXISTEM DIFEREN�AS? pesquisar

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    Dilys Karen Rees

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. pesquisar Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions.

  20. FOR A DEFINITION OF THE TEACHING/LEARNING OF WRITING IN L1: RESEARCH AND ACTION

    OpenAIRE

    LUÍSA ÁLVARES PEREIRA; INÊS CARDOSO; LUCIANA GRAÇA

    2009-01-01

    With this article we hope to contribute towards the definition of the field of the Didactics ofWriting in Portugal, an area which has been developing, essentially, since the mid 90s, in order to defineboth the problems surrounding research in this area, as well as the contents used in the teaching and learningof writing which result from the former. It is not our objective to go into detail concerning the state ofthe art in this field in Portugal; our purpose is to present the main perspectiv...

  1. Using Arabic (L1) in testing reading comprehension in English (L2) as a foreign language

    OpenAIRE

    Al-qudairy, Abdullah H. A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using Arabic (L1) as a language of questions and answers in testing reading comprehension in English (L2), and to explore student and teacher opinions about this. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. To collect the quantitative data, one hundred and forty-four students were given a reading comprehension test. Both multiple-choice and short-answer questions were used. The subjects were second-year English departm...

  2. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  3. Mastering Academic Language: Organization and Stance in the Persuasive Writing of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccelli, Paola; Dobbs, Christina L.; Scott, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Beyond mechanics and spelling conventions, academic writing requires progressive mastery of advanced language forms and functions. Pedagogically useful tools to assess such language features in adolescents' writing, however, are not yet available. This study examines language predictors of writing quality in 51 persuasive essays produced by high…

  4. Word Processing and Second Language Writing: A Longitudinal Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alister Cumming; Jiang Li

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2) leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 com...

  5. EFL Students’ Writing Strategies in Saudi Arabian ESP Writing Classes: Perspectives on Learning Strategies in Self-access Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Alnufaie; Michael Grenfell

    2012-01-01

    This study was part of a PhD research to explore the writing strategies of 121 second-year undergraduate Saudi student writers who are studying English as a foreign language and for specific purposes in one of the Saudi industrial colleges: Jubail Industrial College (JIC). The writing strategies under investigation had been classified into two categories (process-oriented writing strategies and product-oriented writing strategies) based on their instructional philosophies. A strategy question...

  6. Mastering Academic Language: Organization and Stance in the Persuasive Writing of High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Uccelli, Paola; Dobbs, Christina L.; Scott, Jessica Armytage

    2012-01-01

    Beyond mechanics and spelling conventions, academic writing requires progressive mastery of advanced language forms and functions. Pedagogically-useful tools to assess such language features in adolescents’ writing, however, are not yet available. This study examines language predictors of writing quality in 51 persuasive essays produced by high school students attending a linguistically and ethnically diverse inner-city school in the Northeastern U.S. Essays were scored for writing quality...

  7. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  8. The Second Language Acquisition of Past Tense Marker in English by L1 Speakers of Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Sharmini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is considered the L2 acquisition and underlying of past tense marker, focusing on whether or not L2 learners of English are successful in associating the grammatical properties with Chinese language. Although the dataset is small, the results showed that Chinese speakers are able to acquire the past-tense marker although Chinese language has none of this feature. The L1 Chinese speakers are able to acquire the regular past-tense marker better co mpared to the irregular form.
    Keywords: Second language acquisition; Past tense marker; L1 Chinese speakers; Irregular form
    Résumé: Cet article étudie l'acquisition d’une deuxième langue, et en particulier l’apprentissage du passé, en se concentrant sur le fait si les apprenants de l'anglais pouvaient réussir à associer les propriétés grammaticales de la langue anglaise avec la langue chinoise. Bien que l'ensemble des données est faible, les résultats montrent que les locuteurs du chinois sont capable de maîtriser le passé, même si la langue chinoise n'a pas cette fonctionnalité. Les locuteurs du chinois maîtrise mieux le passé en forme régulière par rapport en forme irrégulière.
    Mots-Clés: acquisition d’une deuxième langue; temps passér; les locuteurs du chinois; forme irrégulière

  9. Using a Genre-Based Approach for Writing Instruction in a Less-Commonly-Taught Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigitoglu, Nur; Reichelt, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Although a great majority of the L2 writing literature focuses on teaching English-language writing, scholars have begun to explore the teaching of writing in other second and foreign languages (FLs), including French, Spanish, German, Arabic, Japanese, and Chinese. However, to our knowledge, no work exists exploring the exigencies of teaching…

  10. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  11. Second Language Learners’ Performance and Strategies When Writing Direct and Translated Essays

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail; Negmeldin Omer Alsheikh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL students’ performance and strategies when writing direct and translated essays. The study also aimed at exploring students’ strategies when writing in L2 (English) and L1 (Arabic). The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative procedures for data collection and analysis. Adapted strategy questionnaires, writing essay prompts and follow-up questions were utilized for data gathering. Thirty six university students participated in w...

  12. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  13. Longitudinal Relations between Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Language and Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibbe, Lori E.; Bindman, Samantha W.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental writing support was examined over time and in relation to children's language and literacy skills. Seventy-seven parents and their preschoolers were videotaped writing an invitation together twice during one year. Parental writing support was coded at the level of the letter to document parents' graphophonemic support…

  14. Emergent Name-Writing Abilities of Preschool-Age Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q.; Justice, Laura M.; Zucker, Tricia A.; McGinty, Anita S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The 2 studies reported in this manuscript collectively address 3 aims: (a) to characterize the name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment (LI), (b) to identify those emergent literacy skills that are concurrently associated with name-writing abilities, and (c) to compare the name-writing abilities of…

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Writing and Their Relations to Language and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement--Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and…

  16. How Can the Use of Blog Software Facilitate the Writing Process of English Language Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Recep S.; Sahin-Kizil, Aysel

    2010-01-01

    Blog use may offer instructors a helpful tool for teaching writing at the tertiary level in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) classrooms. This article reports on a quasi-experimental study regarding the effect of blog-centered writing instruction on students' writing performance. Fifty intermediate English students at a Turkish…

  17. Mediation Strategies in L2 Writing Processes: A Case Study of Two Korean Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…

  18. THE EVOLUTION OF THE FRENCH FIELD OF LA DIDACTIQUE DE L’ÉCRIT (DIDACTICS OF LANGUAGE PRACTICES) Theorizing the Teaching Practices of Writing in the Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    BERTRAND DAUNAY

    2008-01-01

    The study of the role of language activity in higher education in France has been evolving, in the past few years, out of the larger field of ‘la didactique du français,’ the field of L1 teaching and theory across all grade levels. This larger frame has provided several themes that are now being explored in higher education writing: language activity as a mode of co-construction of knowledge in school settings rather than a transparent medium, writing, reading and speaking as intimately ...

  19. Motivating English language study among Master’s students: : The case for summary writing

    OpenAIRE

    Vang, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The internationalisation of university studies has resulted in an increasing use of English, a language which many students assume they master sufficiently well. This can lead to resistance to devoting time to language improvement. The motivation to work with language skills can be promoted by integrating language classes into discipline specific summary writing. This approach is showing some potential and incorporates reading skills with writing, grammar, peer critique and discussion. Summar...

  20. Comparing Factors Related to Reading Comprehension in Adolescents Who Speak English as a First (L1) or Second (L2) Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Gottardo, Alexandra; Grant, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors related to reading comprehension in adolescents who spoke English as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Measures of decoding, vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension were administered to 31 L1 and 44 L2 speakers. English L2 adolescents scored significantly lower than their L1 peers on…

  1. Comparability of TOEFL CBT Writing Prompts for Different Native Language Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Won; Breland, Hunter; Muraki, Eiji

    2005-01-01

    This study has investigated the comparability of computer-based testing writing prompts in the Test of English as a Foreign LanguageTM (TOEFL) for examinees of different native language backgrounds. A total of 81 writing prompts introduced from July 1998 through August 2000 were examined using a 3-step logistic regression procedure for ordinal…

  2. A FACETS Analysis of Rater Bias in Measuring Japanese Second Language Writing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2002-01-01

    Using FACETS, investigates how judgments of trained teacher raters are biased toward certain types of candidates and certain criteria in assessing Japanese second language writing. Explores the potential for using a modified version of a rating scale for norm-referenced decisions about Japanese second language writing ability. (Author/VWL)

  3. Creative Writing for Early Elementary. Spotlight: Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a weekly creative writing assignment for early elementary school students in a Montessori setting. Notes that students' writing reveals their social maturity and personality characteristics. Provides suggestions for starting a creative writing exercise, including brainstorming, a babbling activity, and a…

  4. Blog writing integration for academic language learning purposes: towards an assessment framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Murray

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006, then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming. The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expression, reflection and language acquisition in mandatory blog writings by students at a Third Level Institution. Previously in this research, students were asked, but not required, to keep a personal blog for up to five months; writing only about their language learning strategies and experiences with the declared aim of improving student language learning strategies through self-reflection and self-expression. Students are, this time, required to write and ‘complete’ their academic blog as it represents one compulsory element –with due weighting, given its importance– of a language module assessment. This compulsory blog writing task has raised a number of pedagogical questions which will be explored, such as: effective integration, assessing and rewarding student creative expression within the blog medium, self-reflection as a language learner and ultimately the role and value of academic blog writing in language acquisition.

  5. CIA-CIA LANGUAGE: FROM THE ERA OF ORAL TO THE ERA OF WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho, Tae-Young

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe the background of Cia-Cia language society's adoption and use of Hangeul (Korean alphabet as its writing system that was begun in July 2009. The issue has caused Indonesian society and neighborhood countries curious, since Latin alphabet is world widely used as the most common writing system at present time. On the other side, the historical background of writing system's development which has been implemented sustainably through borrowing and adapting process proves that any writing system can also be used in other language society in the 21st century. Similar to that of the most of minority language societies, Cia-Cia language has not had its own writing system. The transcription of Hangeul in Cia-Cia language was begun to support the preservation of minority language. Concern to this issue, if the spoken language of Cia-Cia is stabilly continued, Hangeul will be known as one of the writing systems which has preserved Cia-Cia language in world's development of writing system history.

  6. Providing Writing and Language Support for Students Who Have English as a Second Language--A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatley, Sue; Allibone, Lorraine; Ooms, Ann; Burke, Linda; Akroyd, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project which provided writing support for registered nurses undertaking Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and for pre-registration nursing students. Both groups of students have English as a second language (ESL). The aims of the project were to extend the scope of the available writing support within the…

  7. Second Language Learners’ Performance and Strategies When Writing Direct and Translated Essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL students’ performance and strategies when writing direct and translated essays. The study also aimed at exploring students’ strategies when writing in L2 (English and L1 (Arabic. The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative procedures for data collection and analysis. Adapted strategy questionnaires, writing essay prompts and follow-up questions were utilized for data gathering. Thirty six university students participated in writing three different essays (direct L2 essay, L1essay, and translated essay. Furthermore, the participants responded to strategy questionnaires and answered follow-up questions. The results revealed statistically significant differences between direct and translated writing in favor of the first one. No significant differences between direct and translated writing in the use of strategies were found. The study’s findings may have pedagogical implications for the fields of writing instruction, writing assessment and teacher training. Based on the results, the study ended with some recommendations to assist and direct future research.

  8. Language and Literacy : Some fundamental issues in research on reading and writing

    OpenAIRE

    Uppstad, Per Henning

    2005-01-01

    Mainstream research on reading and writing is based on the assumption, common in modern linguistics, that spoken language is primary to written language in most important respects. Unfortunately, the conceptual framework for the study of language and 'literacy' (encompassing both reading and writing skills) is built around this assumption. This is problematic with regard to the philosophy of science, since this framework lacks sufficient empirical support. It is claimed in the present...

  9. Longitudinal Outcomes for Preschool Dual Language Learners Receiving Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Carola

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzed data from a randomized, longitudinal study (Matera & Gerber, 2008) to measure the effectiveness of a writing intervention that provided clearly defined opportunities for Spanish-speaking preschool children in a Head Start program to develop their writing abilities in English. Results from this study indicate that children…

  10. Preparing Intensive English Course Participants with Limited English Language Proficiency to Qualify for Writing IELTS Test: The Writing Module Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Bazergan, Etty

    2013-01-01

    IELTS Preparatory English Language Course for lecturers of universities in the eastern part of Indonesia was conducted at Hasanuddin University in 2011. I was involved as one of the instructors responsible for Writing Module. 25 lecturers with disparate level of English attended my class. Most of them, however, were identified at the beginning of the course as ???weak???, i.e. having limited English Language Proficiency. The course lasted 3 months, with the intensity of 6 contact hours a week...

  11. Writing Our Lives: Reflections on Dialogue Journal Writing with Adults Learning English. Language in Education Series, No. 77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, Joy Kreft, Ed.; Staton, Jana, Ed.

    This monograph focuses on the use of dialogue journal writing for developing the literacy skills of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students. A rationale is presented for making open and continuing dialogue a central part of any work with adults, and various approaches are suggested for promoting this dialogue with students, tutors, and…

  12. Cross-linguistic influence of first language writing systems on brain responses to second language word reading in late bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Kim, Jungho; Uchida, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction How human brains acquire second languages (L2) is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience and language science. However, it is unclear whether the first language (L1) has a cross-linguistic influence on the processing of L2. Methods Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activities during L2 word reading tasks of phonographic Japanese Kana between two groups of learners of the Japanese language as their L2 and who had different orthographic ...

  13. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Writing and their Relations to Language and Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Defries, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement-Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (Phonological Awareness, Rapid Naming, and Vocabulary), and three different reading skills (Word Recognition, Spelling, and Reading Comprehension). Substantial genetic influence was found on ...

  14. Taiwanese Graduate Students’ Voices on Language Anxiety over Writing Academic Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined Taiwanese graduate students' language anxiety over writing academic papers utilizing an adapted version of the FLCAS and in-depth individual interviews.  The results suggested that the majority of these ten Taiwanese graduate students have experienced high anxiety over writing academic papers.  The anxiety they experience over writing stems primarily from grammatical errors, using Chinese English, lacking adequate vocabulary or misuse of English vocabulary, lack of personal opinions, and not understanding the instructions for assignments.

  15. Longitudinal Relations Between Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Language and Literacy Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibbe, Lori E; Bindman, Samantha W; Hindman, Annemarie H; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J

    2013-10-01

    Parental writing support was examined over time and in relation to children's language and literacy skills. Seventy-seven parents and their preschoolers were videotaped writing an invitation together twice during one year. Parental writing support was coded at the level of the letter to document parents' graphophonemic support (letter-sound correspondence), print support (letter formation), and demand for precision (expectation for correcting writing errors). Parents primarily relied on only a couple print (i.e., parent writing the letter alone) and graphophonemic (i.e., saying the word as a whole, dictating letters as children write) strategies. Graphophonemic and print support in preschool predicted children's decoding skills, and graphophonemic support also predicted children's future phonological awareness. Neither type of support predicted children's vocabulary scores. Demand for precision occurred infrequently and was unrelated to children's outcomes. Findings demonstrate the importance of parental writing support for augmenting children's literacy skills. PMID:25045186

  16. Aspects of Lexical Proficiency in Writing Summaries in a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kyoko

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of aspects of the lexical proficiency of EFL students on their summary writing in English (L2) by controlling for the impact of a range of linguistic abilities in English and Japanese (L1). Sixty-eight Japanese undergraduate students wrote two summaries of English texts in English. Their English lexical…

  17. Oral Language and Early Literacy in Preschool: Talking, Reading, and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskos, Kathleen A.; Tabors, Patton O.; Lenhart, Lisa A.

    2004-01-01

    Create a language-rich program that promotes children's talking, reading, and writing. This resource has the research, planning and assessment suggestions, and instructional approaches teachers need to determine: (1) What oral language skills children need to learn; (2)What kinds of language and literacy experiences to provide; (3) What to look…

  18. Developing Literary Reading Skills through Creative Writing in German as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlaub, Per

    2011-01-01

    Literary reading skills in a second language (L2) are essential for student success at the advanced levels of collegiate language instruction. This article introduces an instructional approach that fosters the development of L2 literary reading skills through creative writing activities. First, the article identifies those skills that language…

  19. Knowledge, Writing, and Language Outcomes for a Reading Comprehension and Writing Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Linda H.; Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miller, Carol A.; Glutting, J. James

    2013-01-01

    Many students struggle with gaining knowledge and writing about content text material and therefore require effective intervention. In a randomized controlled trial study, 77 low-achieving fourth-grade students received reading comprehension instruction or reading comprehension plus writing instruction or were assigned to a no-treatment control.…

  20. Second Language Writing Research and Written Corrective Feedback in SLA: Intersections and Practical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Dana R.

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade now, a great deal of research has been done on the topic of written corrective feedback (CF) in SLA and second language (L2) writing. Nonetheless, what those research efforts really have shown as well as the possible implications for practice remain in dispute. Although L2 writing and SLA researchers often examine similar…

  1. The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

  2. Thinking Allowed: Integrating Process and Genre into the Second Language Writing Classroom: Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racelis, Juval V.; Matsuda, Paul Kei

    2013-01-01

    The field of second language (L2) writing has moved beyond the false dichotomies between process- and genre-based pedagogies perpetuated in the 1980s and 1990s, but there has still been little research on how the two are actually reconciled in the classroom. Consequently, L2 writing instructors are left with an incomplete picture, unsure how to…

  3. Extending the Flipped Classroom Model: Developing Second Language Writing Skills through Student-Created Digital Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a project that aimed to leverage the students' interest and experience of technology and multimodal environments to develop their academic writing skills and second language learning. Students were expected to follow a model, research a topic, and craft a digital video tutorial on an aspect of academic writing which would…

  4. Integrating Feedback into Prospective English Language Teachers' Writing Process via Blogs and Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Recep Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of blogging and portfolio keeping on a group of pre-service teachers' writing skill in a compulsory writing course at a tertiary level English language teaching (ELT) programme in Turkey. The study specifically looked into to what extent receiving feedback from course instructor and…

  5. Capitalising on Learner Agency and Group Work in Learning Writing in English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of learner agency and group work in learning writing in English as a foreign language (EFL). Through exploratory and participatory action research, this study examines how learner agency and group work function amidst the activity system of task-based EFL writing, especially how they influence and are influenced…

  6. Enhancing ESL Writing Creativity via a Literature Based Language Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Angelina Subrayan Michael; Siti Norliana Ghazali; Faizah Mohamad; Chittra Muthusamy

    2010-01-01

    The notions of success in learning writing in English is associated with self-expressions, the flow of ideas, outsider expectations, growing confidence and enjoyment of L2 academic writing. The most common problem that confronts teachers of a writing class does not lie so much on what ...

  7. English language writing centres in Japanese universities: What do students really need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McKinley

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The installation of English language writing centres in Japanese universities is a relatively recent event—the first ones established with funding from the Ministry of Education in 2004. Because of the EFL writing context, setting up a writing centre requires consideration of students’ needs and cultural expectations of writing and writing centres. In general, writing centres that have been established in Japanese universities follow a structure similar to those in the US. This raises the question as to whether or not this is appropriate for the particular needs of EFL students and the obstacles they face. For this study, in order to explore students’ attitudes toward writing centres and the role they play in writing education, interview data was collected from students of English composition in two different departments at a university in Japan well known for its English language education: the English department, which does not have a writing centre, and the liberal arts department, which has one of the first writing centres established in Japan.

  8. The Acquisition of Chinese as a third language by Japanese L1/English L2 speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Di, Danqi

    2005-01-01

    The role of language transfer in second language acquisition has long been the focus in the study of cross-linguistic influence. Much has been written about how the learner’s existing linguistic knowledge influences the course of second language development. In the last decade, however, there have been a considerable number of books and journal articles dealing with a relatively under-explored field: the role of language transfer during third language acquisition. The questio...

  9. Adolescents' Use of Academic Language in Historical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance of academic language, research on academic language is often limited to academic vocabulary and focused on the English language learners. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined adolescents' use of academic language and the relationships between its use and students' reading ability and…

  10. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  11. Notation systems for reading and writing sign language

    OpenAIRE

    Mccarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for developing written forms. These issues are considered from a behavioral perspective, and two sign language notation systems, Stokoe Notation and Sutton Si...

  12. Speed in cognitive tasks as an indicator of second/foreign language reading and writing skills

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna Olkkonen

    2013-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study 823 Finnish school children were tested to examine the relation between speed of performance in cognitive and linguistic tasks and second/foreign language reading and writing. Participants were Finnish-speakers with English as foreign language and Russian-speakers with Finnish as second language which made it possible to compare the results across these two language groups. The Finnish group was furthermore divided into three groups by age to see how speed develops ...

  13. Study on Effects of Chinese Thought and Culture on Japanese Writing:Research on the Second Language Writing by Think Aloud

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Qiu-juan; Wu, Shu-feng

    2009-01-01

    Think Aloud is one of the main research methods in psychological linguistic study. It plays an important role in foreign language teaching study. This thesis researches into the second language writing process of Japanese learners whose native language are Chinese and draws the conclusion that their writing process include the characteristics of two languages. It is the characteristics that cause Japanese learners are influenced by Chinese and culture, especially in sentence structure and voc...

  14. Concepts linguistiques en didactique des langues (Linguistic Concepts in Language Teaching). Publication L-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gerardo

    Intended for second language teachers and teacher trainees, the guide to linguistic concepts used in second language instruction outlines the applications of basic linguistic concepts to classroom practice and some classroom activities. Chapters address the following topics: (1) the relationship of language and linguistics; (2) human…

  15. From Novice to Expert: Implications of Language Skills and Writing-Relevant Knowledge for Memory during the Development of Writing Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Mccutchen, D.

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a theory of the development of writing expertise illustrated by a review of relevant research. An argument is made for two necessary (although not sufficient) components in the development of writing expertise: fluent language generation processes and extensive knowledge relevant to writing. Fluent language processes enable the developing writer (especially the young developing writer) to begin to manage the constraints imposed by working memory, whereas extensive knowle...

  16. English-Language Creative Writing in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the background, purpose and components of a creative writing course conducted in the Department of English at Sun Yat-sen University as part of the reform in the teaching of English in China. It explains and demonstrates the different components of the course and argues, drawing on evidence from students' work and reflections,…

  17. Rewriting and Paraphrasing Source Texts in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study is based on interviews with 48 students and 27 instructors in a North American university and explores whether students and professors across faculties share the same views on the use of paraphrased, summarized, and translated texts in four examples of L2 student writing. Participants' comments centered on whether the paraphrases…

  18. Bilingualism, Biliteracy, and Learning to Read: Interactions Among Languages and Writing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Kwan, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    Four groups of children in first grade were compared on early literacy tasks. Children in three of the groups were bilingual, each group representing a different combination of language and writing system, and children in the fourth group were monolingual speakers of English. All the bilingual children used both languages daily and were learning…

  19. Multilingual Dyslexia in University Students: Reading and Writing Patterns in Three Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional…

  20. The Effects of Late Acquisition of L2 and the Consequences of Immigration on L1 for Semantic and Morpho-Syntactic Language Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherag, Andre; Demuth, Lisa; Rosler, Frank; Neville, Helen J.; Roder, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that some aspects of a second language (L2) might be learned easier than others if a language is learned late. On the other hand, non-use might result in a loss of language skills in one's native, i.e. one's first language (L1) (language attrition). To study which, if any, aspects of language are affected by either late…

  1. Metadiscourse Repertoire of L1 Mandarin Undergraduates Writing in English: A Cross-Contextual, Cross-Disciplinary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wharton, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative, comparative study of metadiscourse in the academic writing of two groups of undergraduate students working in two different disciplines. The groups of students were: 1) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in China through the medium of English; 2) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in the UK through the…

  2. Creative Writing for Language, Content and Literacy Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa Fleta Guillén; María Luisa García Bermejo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on pedagogies that promote language, content and literacy in English by stimulating learners’ creativity. The starting point to promote creativity among learners was music and art. There seems to be a natural connection between music, language and thinking which suggests that incorporating musical experiences into daily instruction results in creative thinking. By being exposed to music and art, learners of different ages and from different language contexts developed vis...

  3. «The Write Stuff»: The importance of language for medical writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Langdon-Neuner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available «The Write Stuff (TWS» is the journal of the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA. It is a vibrant, well-read journal that has been published continuously for over 17 years. The journal publishes a balance of feature articles, regular columns, items to entertain, and reports on the association's activities. This article describes the journal and explains its success in meeting the needs of its readers, in particular by publishing articles on English grammar and style and devoting a section of the journal to translation. The article further discusses why there should be a need among medical writers to learn more about English and about translation. ---------------------------------- «The Write Stuff»: la importancia del lenguaje para los redactores médicos. «The Write Stuff (TWS», revista oficial de la European Medical Writers Association (EMWA, es una publicación muy vital que cuenta con numerosos lectores y se mantiene activa ininterrumpidamente desde hace más de 17 años. En ella se ofrece una equilibrada combinación de artículos de fondo, columnas habituales y elementos de carácter lúdico, y se informa de las actividades de la asociación. El presente artículo describe la revista y su capacidad para atender satisfactoriamente las necesidades de sus lectores, que radica en gran medida en la publicación de artículos sobre gramática y estilo del inglés y la existencia de una sección dedicada a la traducción. Asimismo, se comenta por qué los redactores médicos deberían sentir la necesidad de ampliar sus conocimientos de inglés y de traducción.

  4. A survey on approaches for writing precise natural language requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Denger, C.; Doerr, J.; Kamsties, E.

    2001-01-01

    Natural language is widely used in industry to state requirements for all types of systems, because it is flexible and universal. Even if a modeling technique such as the UML is used, the requirements are usually stated in natural lan-guage first. However, natural language has one major drawback, which is its inherent ambiguity. This report surveys the state of the practice and the state of the art in techniques that aim at making natural language more precise. Ten contributions to this probl...

  5. Multiple goals, writing strategies, and written outcomes for college students learning English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tung-Hsien; Chang, Shan-Mao; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen

    2011-04-01

    This study examined relations of achievement goals of writers who are speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL), the frequency of their writing strategy use, and the quality of their writing from a multiple goals perspective. The goal profiles of 57 EFL college students with similar writing proficiency were based on rating items of an unpublished scale; Group 1 had strong mastery and strong performance-approach goals, and two groups included students with only one strong mastery (Group 2) or performance (Group 3) goal. Think-aloud protocols indicated that the participants adopted 21 strategies in an argumentative writing task, classified into five categories. Group 1 was found to use writing strategies of monitoring or evaluating, revising, and compensating significantly more often than the other two groups, and produced better essays. Strong mastery and performance-approach goals might be beneficial for EFL college writers. PMID:21667751

  6. Anxiety over EFL speaking and writing: A view from language classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Gkonou, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom spe...

  7. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Written corrective feedback, referred to hereafter as "written CF" and also known as "grammar correction" or "error correction", has been a controversial topic in second language studies over the past fifteen years. Inspired by John Truscott's thought-provoking 1996 essay in "Language Learning", many different researchers have undertaken new…

  8. ZPD-Activated Languaging and Collaborative L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Eslami, Zohreh R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent second/foreign language (L2) research has witnessed the application of sociocultural tenets to L2 classrooms. This study aimed to probe whether Iranian L2 learners' engagement in ZPD-activated collaborative dialogue, or "languaging", mediates their learning process and, specifically, their appropriate use of metadiscourse to…

  9. An integrated approach to enhancing prospective English language teachers' writing skills

    OpenAIRE

    Recep Sahin Arslan

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the experience of a group of pre-service teachers of English in a compulsory writing coursein the preparatory program of an English language teaching department in the Turkish context. This studyspecifically attempts to investigate to what extent the writing course contributes to the acquisition of basicconventions of written discourse in English when prospective teachers of English are involved in an extensivewriting practice which is based upon integration of product, ...

  10. Making Rapid Gains in Second Language Writing: A Case Study of a Third-Year Russian Language Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N. Anthony; Bown, Jennifer; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    This research describes a method applied in a third-year Russian language course designed to push students' writing proficiency to the Intermediate/Advanced threshold and beyond and the findings associated therewith. The approach centered around argumentation and debate, a subject usually designed to improve students' command of logic and…

  11. Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Roberts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

  12. Writing Instruction and Assessment for English Language Learners K-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Susan; Verbruggen, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Many English language learners (ELLs) require extra support to become successful writers. This book helps teachers understand the unique needs of ELLs and promote their achievement by adapting the effective instructional methods they already know. Engaging and accessible, the book features standards-based lesson planning ideas, examples of student…

  13. Machine Translation-Assisted Language Learning: Writing for Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…

  14. EFL Learners’ L1 Conceptual Transfer and Its Relation to Their Language Proficiency and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bagherian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to scrutinize the possibility and extent of transfer at the level of concepts in parity and internal content based on Jarvis’ (2007 framework among Iranian EFL learners having the following in focus:  concepts in Persian that do not have counterparts in English, concepts that are broader than a corresponding concept in English or vice versa, and concepts in Persian and English that seem to be broadly equivalent but are still different. Also, it investigated to examine the role of the two learner-based variables of language proficiency and age in Iranian EFL learners’ possible conceptual transfer. To serve the purpose, the data were collected from 100 Iranian learners (70 females, 30 males studying English as a foreign language in an English Language School in Mobarakeh, Isfahan. With the data being submitted to statistical analyses, the findings revealed significant cases of conceptual transfer from Persian to English. It was also noticed that the participants’ level of English proficiency played a significant role in their transfer of concepts but their age did not.Keywords: cross linguistic influence, Conceptual Transfer Hypothesis (CTH, conceptual errors, concept transfer, conceptualization transfer

  15. Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language : Processes and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Dorte; Haastrup, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Book description: Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language is based on a large-scale empirical study. The innovative feature of the research was that the same students were asked to do the same tasks in both languages while reporting their thinking as they went along. Furthermore , they had to undertake the same tasks even though they were of very different experience, ranging from young children at school to university students. Three areas of learners' competencies and skills were explored: vocabulary knowledge, word guessing strategies and writing. The authors further explore the relationship between the skills and describe the level of development for individual learners within the three areas. In all cases, statistical and qualitative analyses are offered, the latter being based on the learners' own 'think-aloud' reports. Both researchers and teachers of language will find this in-depth approach useful in understanding the processes of both first and second language performance

  16. An integrated approach to enhancing prospective English language teachers' writing skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Sahin Arslan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the experience of a group of pre-service teachers of English in a compulsory writing coursein the preparatory program of an English language teaching department in the Turkish context. This studyspecifically attempts to investigate to what extent the writing course contributes to the acquisition of basicconventions of written discourse in English when prospective teachers of English are involved in an extensivewriting practice which is based upon integration of product, process and genre based approaches to writing. Thestudy lasted for a period of 28 weeks with fifty-nine pre-service teachers of English who participated in thestudy. The participants studied the basic genre types which included expository writing such as classification,process, argumentation, opinion, cause and effect, compare and contrast, and narrative paragraphs and essays.The participants specifically received instruction as to the basic constituents of paragraph and essays writing;namely, organization, process, unity, coherence, word choice, language use, grammar, and mechanics whichwere further put into 49 observable competencies. Data were collected through an analytic assessment rubricapplied to participants’ pre-study and post-study essays. In addition, participants were distributed a pre-study anda post-study self-perception questionnaire in order to evaluate any possible improvements in their writingcompetence. The results of the study suggest that exposing pre-service teachers of English to various genres byinvolving them in an extensive writing practice adds to their writing competency positively in learning theprocess of writing practice, organizing the text, including relevant content in the text, using languageappropriately, producing correct grammar, coming up with relevant vocabulary, and following correctmechanical conventions.

  17. Recognizing Syntactic Errors in the Writing of Second Language Learners

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, D A; Schneider, David A.; Coy, Kathleen F. Mc

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the recognition component of an intelligent tutoring system that is designed to help foreign language speakers learn standard English. The system models the grammar of the learner, with this instantiation of the system tailored to signers of American Sign Language (ASL). We discuss the theoretical motivations for the system, various difficulties that have been encountered in the implementation, as well as the methods we have used to overcome these problems. Our method of capturing ungrammaticalities involves using mal-rules (also called 'error productions'). However, the straightforward addition of some mal-rules causes significant performance problems with the parser. For instance, the ASL population has a strong tendency to drop pronouns and the auxiliary verb `to be'. Being able to account for these as sentences results in an explosion in the number of possible parses for each sentence. This explosion, left unchecked, greatly hampers the performance of the system. We discuss how this ...

  18. Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Hung-cheng

    2013-01-01

    This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ q...

  19. Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?

    OpenAIRE

    Lorna Bourke; Anne-Marie Adams

    2012-01-01

    Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females) (M age 57.30 months) participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP). Quantitative measures of writing: number of w...

  20. Fostering Reflective Writing and Interactive Exchange through Blogging in an Advanced Language Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lina

    2010-01-01

    Blog technology is a potential medium for encouraging reflective writing through self-expression and interactive exchange through social networking. This paper reports on a study using blogs as out-of-class assignments for the development of learners' language competence. The study involved seventeen university students at advanced level who kept…

  1. The Web as a Source of Unconventional Research Materials in Second Language Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Paul; Helms-Park, Rena; Radia, Pavlina

    2006-01-01

    This study examined 68 Web sources selected by 19 second-language (L2) students while preparing to write research papers. Students submitted an annotated bibliography consisting of ten sources from print or electronic media. Each Web source was classified according to type (e.g., news or advocacy). Of the 68 sites, 29 were considered conventional,…

  2. A Study of Students' Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad; Juan, Wu Xiao; Nazli, Saima

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students' competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural…

  3. The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Meta Cognitive Learning Strategies on Promoting Iranian Intermediate Language Learners' Writing Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Keramat Ahmadi; Saeed Ketabi; Mitra Rabiee

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempted to investigate the effect of explicit instruction of meta-cognitive learning strategies on promoting intermediate language learners' writing skill. To achieve this purpose, an Oxford Placement test (Allen, 2004) was administered to language learners in English language institution and ultimately 24 intermediate language learners were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups worked on the same writing tasks and ...

  4. INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF L1 GRAMMAR NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON L2 WRITING SKILL – REVISITED

    OpenAIRE

    ASGHAR BASTAMI BANDPAY

    2013-01-01

    This study was re-conducted after 2 years to a larger population to confirm the previous research findings and also to discover why some Persian learners (EFL) have still problems in learning certain structures of English language even in an academic level. To answer, a general proficiency test was administered to a total of 426 female and male university students of Payame-noor and Azad Universities in three different departments (Humanities, Basic Sciences and Technical Engi...

  5. INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF L1 GRAMMAR NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON L2 WRITING SKILL – REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASGHAR BASTAMI BANDPAY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was re-conducted after 2 years to a larger population to confirm the previous research findings and also to discover why some Persian learners (EFL have still problems in learning certain structures of English language even in an academic level. To answer, a general proficiency test was administered to a total of 426 female and male university students of Payame-noor and Azad Universities in three different departments (Humanities, Basic Sciences and Technical Engineering through homogenization. Out of which 220 participants whose scores ranged from 55-75 out of 100 were chosen as the upper-intermediate level and 46 participants were crossed out during the TOEFL test due to frustration and lack of self-confidence

  6. Improving EFL Writing Through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Schenck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to evaluate the influence of Asian EFL contexts on writing. Thus, formulaic language within academic texts from Korean university students was compared to that found in essays written by American university students. Results revealed that Korean EFL learners overused transitions to define the organization of academic texts at the expense of developing content. Moreover, they used repetition, general lists, and all-purpose formulaic language to “pad” content, neglecting to consider semantic or pragmatic purposes of the text. In contrast to their Korean EFL counterparts, American university students used formulaic language for a variety of pragmatic purposes such as involving the reader, putting examples into a larger perspective, adding connotation, and addressing the perspective of the reader. It appears that EFL contexts such as South Korea require pedagogical and curricular reforms which foster the development of writing composition for semantic and pragmatic purposes.

  7. The Use of L1 in the Foreign Language Classroom / El uso de la lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yi-chun, Pan; Yi-ching, Pan.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El uso de la lengua materna es una ocurrencia común en los contextos de la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, a pesar de que a veces reciba críticas por su interferencia en la adquisición de la Lengua meta. Mientras que los docentes deben maximizar el uso de la Lengua meta, sin duda, hay espacios pa [...] ra que el profesor utilice la lengua materna de los estudiantes en su pedagogía. En este trabajo se presenta un argumento basado en las perspectivas teóricas y la investigación empírica dentro de la literatura existente, apoyando el uso apropiado de la Lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera. El argumento se centra en tres cuestiones fundamentales-racionales para el uso de la lengua materna: Los efectos positivos que la lengua materna tiene tanto en el aprendizaje y la instrucción de una lengua extranjera, como en las formas en las que la lengua materna ayuda a los docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Abstract in english L1 use is a common occurrence in foreign language teaching contexts despite the fact that it often receives criticism for its interference with target language (TL) acquisition. While foreign language teachers should maximize their use of the TL, there is indeed a place for the teacher to use the st [...] udents' L1 in their pedagogy. In this paper, an argument derived from theoretical perspectives and empirical research within existing literature supporting the appropriate use of L1 in foreign language classrooms is presented. The argument addresses three key issues-rationales for L1 use, positive effects L1 has on both foreign language learning and instruction, and ways that L1 assists instructors on foreign languages.

  8. Online Interactional Feedback in Second Language Writing: Through Peer or Tutor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Motallebzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the implementation of e-collaboration and e-tutoring will have any effect on students’ writing proficiency. It is argued that interactional feedback (peer or tutor including negotiation and recasts can facilitate writing skill development in L2 (Lynch, 2002. 83 male and female EFL students, taking English courses in a language school in Bojnourd-Iran, formed the participants of this quasi-experimental intact-group study. The participants were assigned into experimental and control groups. A couple of instruments were employed to collect data: the TOEFL Writing Test, researchers-made pre and post tests, and an Information Technology Questionnaire (2009. Data analysis through one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between e-partnering and e-tutoring groups (p<0.05. The results also showed that though both e-partnering and e-tutoring enhanced writing proficiency, learners in e-partnering group outperformed those in e-tutoring group. The study findings indicate that e-collaboration/e-partnering can improve learners writing skill if integrated into the EFL curriculum designed for pre-intermediate level.

  9. A Study of Students’ Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Javed; Wu Xiao Juan; Saima Nazli

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40) Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampli...

  10. Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?

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    Lorna Bourke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females (M age 57.30 months participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP. Quantitative measures of writing: number of words, diversity of words, number of phrases/sentences and grammatical complexity of the phrases/sentences were also analysed. The children were also assessed on tasks measuring their language production and comprehension skills and the visuo-spatial, phonological, and central executive components of working memory. The results indicated that the boys were more likely to perform significantly less well than the girls on all measures of writing except the grammatical complexity of sentences. Initially, no significant differences were found on any of the measures of language ability. Further, no significant differences were found between the genders on the capacity and efficiency of their working memory functioning. However, hierarchical regressions revealed that the individual differences in gender and language ability, more specifically spoken language comprehension, predicted performance on the EYFSP writing scale. This finding accords well with the literature that suggests that language skills can mediate the variance in boys’ and girls’ writing ability.

  11. Utilizing the Analysis of Social Practices to Raise Critical Language Awareness in EFL Writing Courses

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    Parviz Maftoon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Language can be used as a means to control and influence people. EFL students need to realize that the language they interact with may contain ideological assumptions and propositional meanings. By increasing critical language awareness, students may come to recognize ideological assumptions within the language. Fairclough (2003 suggests that one of the ways to increase critical language awareness is to identify social practices, defined as rules and structures that limit human actions and interaction within a context. The elements of order of discourse– genre, discourse, and style—are the linguistic rules of social practices. The goal of this study was to provide a method for EFL teachers to increase students’ critical awareness through writing. The participants consisted of 16 teacher trainees and 10 university students who performed a journal-writing task over 10 sessions. Feedback, based on the elements of order of discourse, was provided after each session, and the participants were asked to consider the feedback for their next journal entry. After 10 sessions, the journals were quantified and regression analysis was used to calculate the slope polarity of the best fitting line. The results indicate that the scores of the majority of the participants increased.

  12. Second language writing anxiety, computer anxiety, and performance in a classroom versus a web-based environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dracopoulos, Effie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...

  13. Family Matters: The Influence of Applied Linguistics and Composition Studies on Second Language Writing Studies - Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tony; Leki, Ilona

    2004-01-01

    This intellectual history of the disciplinary roots of second language (L2) writing research and pedagogy in English examines the influences of its feeder disciplines, composition studies and applied linguistics, and their parent disciplines, rhetoric and linguistics. After a brief history of L2 writing's two grandparent disciplines (rhetoric and…

  14. Writing Fluency and Quality in Kindergarten and First Grade: The Role of Attention, Reading, Transcription, and Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language…

  15. Learner Characteristics and Writing Performance in a Community College English as a Second Language Course: Some Unexpected Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olga D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between individual learner characteristics and gain in writing performance as measured by a standardized writing assessment in a sample of community college academic English as a Second Language (ESL) students in the United States. The ethnically and linguistically diverse convenience sample included 76…

  16. SMS Language and College Writing :The languages of the College Texters

    OpenAIRE

    Norizul Azida Darus; Nazira Osman; Latisha Asmaak Shafie

    2010-01-01

    Many students have become avid texters and are seriously reinventing language to accommodate the 160-character limit of short messages. They are more interested in getting their messages across and thus becoming less concerned about correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. Since texting has become a way of life of many students, it is feared that the SMS language can affect students’ written performance. This research examines the effects of frequent usage of text messaging (SMS) on under...

  17. Students of the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra as Object of the Research Results in Developing Foreign Language Writing Skills

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    ?ubomíra MORAVCOVÁ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the foreign language is one of the most important language skills students develop and improve at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra. Strong writing skills are essential to their future success, whether they are related to writing general reports on agricultural issues at home or in the world as well as to working-out some research papers aimed at agriculture, but also at some other areas of the business world. We have to state that writing is perhaps one of the most difficult skills students can develop and improve at our University. They learn how to write effectively, they are encouraged to develop an awareness of themselves as students - writers and essay authors. This paper deals with the essay writing analysis in teaching foreign languages at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, particularly from the point of their final results. The research was carried out in the Department of Languages and we present in our paper the results students achieved in writing essays in the two compared years, 2007 and 2010.

  18. Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

  19. Comprehension of reflexives and pronouns in sequential bilingual children: do they pattern similarly to L1 children, L2 adults, or children with specific language impairment?

    OpenAIRE

    Marinis, Theodoros; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how sequential bilingual (L2) Turkish-English children comprehend English reflexives and pronouns and tests whether they pattern similarly to monolingual (L1) children, L2 adults, or children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Thirty nine 6- to 9-year-old L2 children with an age of onset of 30-48 months and exposure to English of 30-72 months and 33 L1 age-matched control children completed the Advanced Syntactic Test of Pronominal Reference-Revised (van der ...

  20. Second language writing classification system based on word-alignment distribution

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    Katsunori Kotani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an automatic classification system for assisting second language(L2 writing evaluation. This system, which classifies sentences written by L2 learners as eithernative speaker-like or learner-like sentences, is constructed by machine learning algorithmsusing word-alignment distributions as classification features for detecting word-bywordtranslated expressions. The experimental results demonstrated that our classificationsystem provided adequate classification results with respect to (i high classification accuracy,(ii classification results reflecting the properties of L2 learner sentences, and (iii identificationof learner-like expressions. These results suggest that our classification system can beused to evaluate L2 learner sentences.

  1. Cross-linguistic influence in multilingual language acquisition: The role of L1 and non-native languages in English and Catalan oral production / La influencia entre lenguas en su adquisición multilingüe: el papel de L1 y de lenguas no nativas en la producción oral en inglés y en catalán

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mireia, Ortega.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Gran parte de la investigación en la adquisición de terceras lenguas se ha centrado en los efectos que tienen factores como la distancia entre lenguas, la competencia, el uso reciente, o el estatus de la segunda lengua (L2) en la elección de la lengua origen (L1) desde el punto de vista de la influe [...] ncia interlingüística. Se presenta aquí un análisis de dichos factores, así como la influencia que tiene la L1 (español) en la producción oral en L2 (inglés) y L3 (catalán). Se analiza la transferencia léxica y sintáctica en la producción en catalán e inglés de dos hablantes plurilingües con conocimiento similar de lenguas extranjeras. Fueron entrevistados dos veces en un ambiente informal. Los resultados muestran que la L1 es la principal fuente de transferencia, tanto en la producción oral en L2, como en L3; pero su influencia disminuye a medida que la competencia en la lengua meta incrementa. La distancia entre lenguas también tiene un papel importante en la influencia interlingüística, especialmente si la competencia en la lengua de origen es buena, y si ha habido un contacto reciente con ella. Los resultados también sugieren que mientras que la transferencia sintáctica se basa exclusivamente en la L1, la transferencia léxica se puede basar en la lengua no nativa. Abstract in english Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2) status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1) in cross-linguistic influence (CLI). This paper presents a study of these factors, and of [...] the influence that the L1 (Spanish) has on L2 (English) and L3 (Catalan) oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.

  2. "Brilliant, Bright, Boiling Words": Literary Disability, Language and the Writing Body in the Work of Christopher Nolan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article uses theory on disability, embodiment and language to explore the production, context and presentation of two pieces of life-writing by Christopher Nolan. It examines Nolan's unusual use of language and form in his presentations of an experience of disability, and considers its literary and political significance. Consideration is…

  3. Cultural Transfer as an Obstacle for Writing Well in English: The Case of Arabic Speakers Writing in English

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    Ruwaida Abu Rass

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and strengthens the data on cultural transfer by Arab Muslim students writing in English and adds the significant element of the cultural impact of Islam on such writing. This qualitative study examines the writing of 18 teacher trainees at an Arab language teacher training college in Israel. Results point to a strong cultural influence appearing in the students' writing. It is suggested that greater consideration should be given to the first and the target culture when designing the curricula for writing classes for Arab L1 students in English writing instruction.

  4. Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Success and Failure in Second Language Writing – A Classroom-based Study

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    Hung-Cheng TAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.

  5. Writing Assessment and the Revolution in Digital Texts and Technologies. Language & Literacy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Writing and the teaching of writing is changing at a rapid pace. How can educators understand writing assessment "as" and "with" technology in the 21st-century classroom? Michael Neal contends that new technologies are neither the problem nor the solution. Instead, educators need to tap into digital resources only inasmuch as they promote writing…

  6. Politeness Strategies in Thai Graduate Research Paper Discussions: Implications for Second/Foreign Language Academic Writing

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    Kunyarut Getkham

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of politeness strategies in 32 discussion sections of research papers produced by Thai graduate students at Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA, Bangkok, Thailand. The study reported in this paper adopts Brown and Levinson’s (1978, 1987 and Myers’ (1989 models of politeness strategies. The project as a whole aims to identify what politeness strategies are most commonly used in the whole corpus, whether differences exist in the use of these politeness strategies and how politeness strategies are employed. The analysis of the data reveals that these student researchers rarely employed politeness strategies in their discussions. However, they used more negative politeness strategies than the positive ones and the differences in the use of these two strategies were highly significant. This study provides some pedagogical implications for ESL/EFL academic writing and syllabus designing.

  7. Hemingway’s Language Style and Writing Techniques in The Old Man and the Sea

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    Yaochen Xie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Among many great American writers, Hemingway is famous for his objective and terse prose style. As all the novels Hemingway published in his life, The Old Man and the Sea typically reflects his unique writing style. The language is simple and natural on the surface, but actually deliberate and artificial. Hemingway’s style is related to his experience as a journalist. The influence of his style is great all over the world. The Old Man and the Sea is full of facts, most of which comes from Hemingway own experience. In the forepart of the novel, they are used to show the quality of Santiago’s life, and are narrated simply and naturally; while in the latter part of the novel, they are used from inside Santiago’s own consciousness and form part of a whole scheme of the novel.

  8. The effects of late acquisition of L2 and the consequences of immigration on L1 for semantic and morpho-syntactic language aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherag, André; Demuth, Lisa; Rösler, Frank; Neville, Helen J; Röder, Brigitte

    2004-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that some aspects of a second language (L2) might be learned easier than others if a language is learned late. On the other hand, non-use might result in a loss of language skills in one's native, i.e. one's first language (L1) (language attrition). To study which, if any, aspects of language are affected by either late acquisition or non-use, long-term German immigrants to the US and English native speakers who are long-term immigrants to Germany as well as two additional control groups of native German speakers were tested with an auditory semantic and morpho-syntactic priming paradigm. German adjectives correctly or incorrectly inflected for gender and semantically associated or not associated with the target noun served as primes. Participants made a lexical decision on the target word. All groups of native German speakers gained from semantically and morpho-syntactically congruent primes. Evidence for language attrition was neither found for semantic nor morpho-syntactic priming effects in the German immigrants. In contrast, English native speakers did not gain from a morpho-syntactic congruent prime, whereas semantic priming effects were similar as for the remaining groups. The present data suggest that the full acquisition of at least some syntactic functions may be restricted to limited periods in life while semantic and morpho-syntactic functions seem to be relatively inured to loss due to non-use. PMID:15178380

  9. The Effectiveness of Using the Cooperative Language Learning Approach to Enhance EFL Writing Skills among Saudi University Students

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    Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative language learning (CLL approach was used to encourage second-year university students at the college of languages and translation, at Al-Imam University to learn from their peers so that they could develop their writing skills. Students in CLL-based groups were trained to be more responsible for their learning through developing their personal interaction as well as their linguistic competence in a more relaxed social context. This treatment included sophomore students enrolled in EN 211 course in the second semester of 2013 academic year. Two instruments were used in this study; a pre-post writing test, and an attitude questionnaire. The pre- and post- scores from the test were calculated for descriptive statistics and compared using a Wilcoxon Test. The process of evaluating students’ writings focused mainly on analyzing their mistakes with regard to spelling, using of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation as well as coherence. The findings revealed that the students’ scores in writing were higher for the post-test than the pre-test at the significance level of .001 after being subject to this kind of treatment. However, it must be stated that the degree of improvement was not extremely high as students still made some mistakes with regard to the previously mentioned points. As for the attitude scale, the results obtained proved that the students developed positive attitudes towards using the cooperative learning approach to develop language skills in general and to develop their writing skills in particular.

  10. The Effectiveness of Using the Cooperative Language Learning Approach to Enhance EFL Writing Skills among Saudi University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative language learning (CLL) approach was used to encourage second-year university students at the college of languages and translation, at Al-Imam University to learn from their peers so that they could develop their writing skills. Students in CLL-based groups were trained to be more responsible for their learning through developing their personal interaction as well as their linguistic competence in a more relaxed social context. This treatment included sophomore students enrolled i...

  11. Adult English Language Learners Constructing and Sharing Their Stories and Experiences: The Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography Writing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This article is the culmination of the Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography (CLA) writing project, which details narrative descriptions of adult English language learners' (ELLs') cultural and linguistic experiences and how those experiences may have influenced the ways in which these learners constructed and reconstructed their identities.…

  12. Making Sense of Power Relations in a Malaysian English-as-a-Second-Language Academic Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The role of power in an English-as-a-second-language classroom has yet to be fully explored by an action research practitioner, especially in a Malaysian higher education setting. This study aims to contribute to this gap by working within an academic literacies perspective to teaching academic writing, which propagates the understanding of…

  13. Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

  14. On the development of a colloquial writing style: Examining the language of Indonesian teen literature

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    Dwi Noverini Djenar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have seen a boom in the publication of teen fiction in Indonesia. Particularly since the publication of the highly successful novel Eiffel ... I’m in love (Arunita 2001, numerous fiction works targeted at a youthful readership have appeared. This genre of popular literature has been so successful in attracting its audience that it currently constitutes the largest growing market in the Indonesian publishing industry (Simamora 2005. One of its striking characteristics is the predominant use of colloquial Indonesian, an informal variety of Indonesian that is closely identified with speakers from the capital Jakarta, particularly young people. Over a decade ago, scholars noted the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature (see for example Adelaar and Prentice 1996:678. The implication is that this language variety has spread into domains previously dominated by standard Indonesian, the formal variety used in government administration, formal education, and most printed mass media. Indeed, contemporary Indonesian written literature is largely associated with standard Indonesian, such that the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature has invited much criticism from language gatekeepers. Despite such criticism, however, teen fiction continues to flourish. The increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in teen fiction, though noted by scholars, has not been subject to any detailed linguistic study. Linguistic studies of colloquial Indonesian – at least those published in English – have focused so far on its use in speech, or in written texts intended to resemble speech, such as internet chatting and advice columns for young people. Prior to the recent surge in teen fiction, use of colloquial Indonesian in contemporary written literature was largely limited to dialogues. Writers such as Putu Wijaya, for example, are known to incorporate colloquialism to render dialogues more natural (Rafferty 1990:107. Teen fiction writers have extended the use of colloquialism into other parts of fiction such as the description of characters, settings, and inner thoughts. This development makes it interesting to look for a way to describe the increase of colloquialism. A useful approach is to examine the usage patterns of a term or a selection of terms in a number of teen fiction works published over time, with the purpose of observing changes in the patterns, and whether such changes can be shown to represent greater colloquialism. This study is a preliminary attempt in that direction. My purpose here is to demonstrate that in the last two decades during which colloquial Indonesian has been employed in teen fiction, there has been a shift in writing style from one that bears greater resemblance to standard Indonesian towards a style that is more colloquial. The term ‘style’ is commonly employed in sociolinguistics to refer to ways of speaking, which Bell (2001:139 defines in terms of the question ‘Why did the speaker say it this way on this occasion?’ (italics in original. Adapting this definition for teen fiction writing, I use ‘writing style’ here to refer to the characteristic manner in which an author writes fiction. This style is observed here by examining the use of the preposition pada ‘to, towards, on, in, at’ as compared to the use of three other prepositions, namely kepada ‘to, towards’, ke ‘to, towards’, and sama ‘to, towards, by, with’. The development towards increased colloquialism is shown through two indicators: a reduction in the range of prepositional meanings of pada along with the assignment of particular discourse functions to kepada, and an increased use of ke and sama. The data are drawn from ten works of fiction published between 1998 and 2005. Eight of these are written by the same author, Hilman. In four of them, Hilman collaborates with fellow writer Boim Lebon. The other two works are by Laire Siwi Mentari and Marthino Andries. This selection is motivated by the following considerations. Hilman’s works ha

  15. "It is certain that it can be argued a million times over" - expressions of epistemic modality in L1 and L2 writing

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Tina

    2008-01-01

    This corpus-based study analyzes different types of epistemic markers used in argumentative essays by University students. More specifically it compares Swedish L2 writers and English L1 writers. The scope of the analysis covers epistemic modal verbs, lexical verbs and adverbs. A number of markers are counted to see which expressions are preferred by L1 and L2 writers respectively and if the frequency rates differ between the two groups. Further, it discusses whether the non-native writers us...

  16. An Investigation of Four Writing Traits and Two Tasks across Two Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jungok; Bachman, Lyle F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of four theoretically motivated traits of writing ability across English and Korean, based on elementary school students' responses to letter- and story-writing tasks. Their responses were scored analytically and analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The findings include the following. A model of writing…

  17. The Acting in Group of Teachers as Possibility of Resignification of the Interpretation about the Writing Language

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    Claudia Regina Mosca Giroto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Front of the possibility of acting with the teachers who teach in schools of Early Childhood Education for children aged six years, about the re-siginification of the understanding of writing language and of the importance of the child in this age group establish a positive relationship with this mode of language, was developed in 2011, a project linked to the Teaching of UNESP titled “Depathologization learning of the writing and inclusive education: reflections and actions of the teacher of Early Childhood Education”. This project aims to identification of the actions, in the classroom, of the patologization and subsequent implementation of actions depathologization writing by teachers’ actions, considering the increasingly early systematization of formal education of this kind of language in kindergarten. To this end, procedures that characterize the collaborative methodology are adopted. Throughout the methodological course, the engagement of the teachers, of the coordination and of the direction was valued, which seemed to favor both the formation, as the maintenance of the group, were very important aspects to ensure the interaction between its members and the common interest in the reflection about the topic in question. This paper focuses attention on whether thematic axes highlight during the initial survey of the expectations of teachers subsequently addressed in theoretical and reflective meetings leading up to identification of actions the patologization and/or of the proposition of the actions despatologizadoras of the learning of the writing, and in what refers to the way they are addressed.

  18. Writing in science: Exploring teachers' and students' views of the nature of science in language enriched environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoito, Isha

    Writing in science can be used to address some of the issues relevant to contemporary scientific literacy, such as the nature of science, which describes the scientific enterprise for science education. This has implications for the kinds of writing tasks students should attempt in the classroom, and for how students should understand the rationale and claims of these tasks. While scientific writing may train the mind to think scientifically in a disciplined and structured way thus encouraging students to gain access to the public domain of scientific knowledge, the counter-argument is that students need to be able to express their thoughts freely in their own language. Writing activities must aim to promote philosophical and epistemological views of science that accurately portray contemporary science. This mixed-methods case study explored language-enriched environments, in this case, secondary science classrooms with a focus on teacher-developed activities, involving diversified writing styles, that were directly linked to the science curriculum. The research foci included: teachers' implementation of these activities in their classrooms; how the activities reflected the teachers' nature of science views; common attributes between students' views of science and how they represented science in their writings; and if, and how the activities influenced students' nature of science views. Teachers' and students' views of writing and the nature of science are illustrated through pre-and post-questionnaire responses; interviews; student work; and classroom observations. Results indicated that diversified writing activities have the potential to accurately portray science to students, personalize learning in science, improve students' overall attitude towards science, and enhance scientific literacy through learning science, learning about science, and doing science. Further research is necessary to develop an understanding of whether the choice of genre has an influence on meaning construction and understanding in science. Finally, this study concluded that the relationship between students' views of the nature of science and writing in science is complex and is dependent on several factors including the teachers' influence and attitude towards student writing in science.

  19. Perception of speech rhythm in second language: the case of rhythmically similar L1 and L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the perception of developmental changes in timing patterns that happen in the course of second language (L2) acquisition, provided that the native and the target languages of the learner are rhythmically similar (German and English). It was found that speech rhythm in L2 English produced by German learners becomes increasingly stress-timed as acquisition progresses. This development is captured by the tempo-normalized rhythm measures of durational variability. Advanced learners also deliver speech at a faster rate. However, when native speakers have to classify the timing patterns characteristic of L2 English of German learners at different proficiency levels, they attend to speech rate cues and ignore the differences in speech rhythm. PMID:25859228

  20. Japanese and English sentence reading comprehension and writing systems: An fMRI study of first and second language effects on brain activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Just, Marcel A.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation from Japanese readers reading hiragana (syllabic) and kanji (logographic) sentences, and English as a second language (L2). Kanji showed more activation than hiragana in right-hemisphere occipito-temporal lobe areas associated with visuospatial processing; hiragana, in turn, showed more activation than kanji in areas of the brain associated with phonological processing. L1 results underscore the difference in visuospatial and phonological processing demands between the systems. Reading in English as compared to either of the Japanese systems showed more activation in inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and angular gyrus. The additional activation in English in these areas may have been associated with an increased cognitive demand for phonological processing and verbal working memory. More generally, L2 results suggest more effortful reading comprehension processes. The study contributes to the understanding of differential brain responses to different writing systems and to reading comprehension in a second language. PMID:19946611

  1. Japanese and English sentence reading comprehension and writing systems: An fMRI study of first and second language effects on brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Just, Marcel A

    2009-01-28

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation from Japanese readers reading hiragana (syllabic) and kanji (logographic) sentences, and English as a second language (L2). Kanji showed more activation than hiragana in right-hemisphere occipito-temporal lobe areas associated with visuospatial processing; hiragana, in turn, showed more activation than kanji in areas of the brain associated with phonological processing. L1 results underscore the difference in visuospatial and phonological processing demands between the systems. Reading in English as compared to either of the Japanese systems showed more activation in inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and angular gyrus. The additional activation in English in these areas may have been associated with an increased cognitive demand for phonological processing and verbal working memory. More generally, L2 results suggest more effortful reading comprehension processes. The study contributes to the understanding of differential brain responses to different writing systems and to reading comprehension in a second language. PMID:19946611

  2. Adopting Social Networking Sites (SNSs as Interactive Communities among English Foreign Language (EFL Learners in Writing: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizan Abdul Razak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As most traditional classroom environments in English as Foreign Language (EFL still restrict learners’ collaboration and interaction in college writing classes, today, the majority of EFL learners are accessing Social Networking Sites (SNSs as online communities of practice (CoPs for adopting informal collaborative learning as a way of practicing English beyond the classroom. This study aimed to investigate the opportunities and challenges of SNSs as learning environment in writing in English. The study was conducted among 24 active and regular EFL learners joining the Only for English Learning Facebook (FB CoP – a group developed and maintained by a few instructors in English – for EFL learners coming from different EFL Arab countries. The data was collected from the learners’ interactional exchanges in the weekly posted writing activities as well as their responses to online open questions posted by the instructor. Based on the mixed analysis of the data, the quantity of the EFL learners’ participation in the writing activities highly increased in the second session. Moreover, the learners were motivated to generate ideas, write their paragraphs and scaffold each other in paragraph writing. The findings also revealed that the EFL participants perceived this CoP as an interactive learning environment that contributed to enhancing their writing by engaging in learner-learner and learner-instructor interaction, information sharing, communicating and socializing with friends and developing a sense of belonging. However, a few challenges faced by the participants in such an online CoP were identified by the participants, and therefore, some valuable assistive features are suggested to be involved in the FB CoP for achieving further EFL development in the future.

  3. Finding a Place for Critical Thinking and Self-voice in College English as a Foreign Language Writing Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Barnawi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the concepts of critical thinking and self-voice have been extensively discussed in a second language writing, little attention has been given, on the pedagogical level, to critical thinking and self-voice in college EFL writing instruction. To fill such a void, this paper attempts to propose some pedagogical tasks namely:  persuasive writing tasks, draft workshops one-on-one mentoring approaches for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL classrooms. In doing so, this paper provides the operational definitions of critical thinking and self-voice concepts. It then discusses how these two concepts are closely related to complement EFL writing learning. In what follows, it presents the rationale for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL writing. It then touches on some pedagogical practices for developing critical thinking and self-voice in classrooms. Lastly, it addresses some challenges related to implementing critical thinking and self-voice tasks in EFL classrooms.

  4. Linking Reading and Writing in An English-As-A-Second-Language (ESL Classroom for National Reorientation and Reconsruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Billy Olajide

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available How developed, integrated and focused a nation has been is partly a function of her level of literacy. Hence, every nation desires full literacy that involves the two skills of reading and writing. Both skills are as elusive as they are rewarding, especially if they have to be acquired from a Second position, such as occupied by English in Nigeria. Over the years in the country, learner performance in the language has been a source of worry to the school system and other stakeholders. Nevertheless, the mutual, complementary teaching of the skills could make them fairly easy to acquire. This paper canvases that reading and writing be taught interactively in the English as the Second Language (ESL context for effective learning.

  5. The Teaching of Reading, Writing and Language in a Clinical Speech and Language Setting: A Blended Therapy Intervention Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, Kerrie Allen

    2013-01-01

    With a growing body of research that supports a link between language and literacy, governing bodies in the field of speech and language pathology have recognized the need to reconsider the role of speech-language pathologists in addressing the emergent literacy needs of preschoolers who struggle with literacy and language concepts. This study…

  6. The Relations among L1 (Spanish) Literacy Skills, L2 (English) Language, L2 Text Reading Fluency, and L2 Reading Comprehension for Spanish-Speaking ELL First Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relations of L2 (i.e., English) oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, word reading automaticity, oral language skills, and L1 literacy skills (i.e., Spanish) to L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking English language learners in the first grade (N = 150). An analysis was conducted for the entire sample as well as…

  7. An Investigation into the Use of Cohesive Devices in Second Language Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghasemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As far as the communicative nature of writing is concerned, cohesion is regarded as an essential textual component both in creating organized texts and rendering the content comprehensible to the reader. Many researchers have explored the connection between the use of cohesive devices (CDs and the quality of the writing. To gain more insight into this area, this study reviewed some studies focusing on the use of CDs and the relationship between the number of CDs and writing quality. The analysis of collected data from different EFL/ESL researchers has shown that the learners were able to use various CDs in their writings. Additionally, the study highlighted some of the cohesive problems in writing and the possible pedagogical implications for teachers. The purpose of the present study is to investigate CDs used in different genres composed by learners from around the globe and the relationship between the use of CDs and quality of their essays. The findings also provide insight into the abilities of native and nonnative writers to convey their ideas into written forms. The results of this research will provide us with insights into the general pattern of CDs in EFL/ESL learners’ academic and nonacademic writing. This would help to identify students’ problems in using CDs, for instance, overuse or underuse of certain categories, and, thereby, modify teaching writing and incorporate a more precise plan for teaching the appropriate use of CDs.

  8. A Study of the Relationship between Persian and English Writing Skills among Adult EFL Learners in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Javadi-Safa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at investigating the relationship between writing skill and sub-skills of first language (Persian and foreign language (English. Therefore, 50 upper-intermediate EFL learners in Iran who were majoring in the English language were asked to write on two different topics in Persian and English. Then, the compositions were evaluated based on ESL Composition Profile. Subsequently, using Pearson product-moment correlation, the correlation between the compositions overall scores in L1 and L2, as well as the correlations between each of five major components of writing, including content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics in the two languages were examined. The results displayed large correlations between the compositions overall scores as well as between the four writing sub-skills in L1 and L2. The highest correlations were observed between writing sub-skills of vocabulary, mechanics, language use, and content respectively. These findings entail some pedagogical implications for effective language learning in both L1 and L2, utilizing the enhancing effect of cross-linguistic transfer of writing.Key words: L1-L2 Relationship, Cross-linguistic Transfer, Writing, Adult EFL Learners, Persian

  9. Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Bilingual Arabic-English Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were administered to the…

  10. Future directions in feedback on second language writing: Overview and research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Hyland

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn and Allen, it discusses how these papers situate written corrective feedback research in the wider area of second language acquisition research and contribute to the debate in feedback research on research design issues. This is followed by an examination of the major findings of the four situated empirical studies by Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary and Windeatt, and Martinez and Roca, which make up the second section. Echoing the authors of these papers, this article argues that we need more longitudinal naturalistic studies, adopting both cognitive and socio-cultural SLA frameworks to investigate the role of feedback and its impact on individual learners in more depth. Finally some pedagogic implications are discussed, including the need for feedback practices which facilitate students’ abilities to self regulate and evaluate their performance, and the need to raise teachers’ awareness of the different feedback sources and modes of delivery available to them.Este artículo ofrece una revisión de las siete aportaciones incluidas en este número especial sobre feedback, constatando cómo reflejan tanto el creciente interés por el tema en las distintas áreas de investigación como la continua búsqueda de técnicas más efectivas por parte del profesorado. Centrándose en primer lugar en las contribuciones de Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn y Allen, analiza cómo estos artículos sitúan la investigación sobre feedback en la corrección de trabajos escritos dentro del área más amplia de adquisición de segundas lenguas, contribuyendo al debate, dentro de la investigación sobre feedback, en torno a aspectos de diseño de la investigación. A continuación se examinan los resultados principales de los cuatro estudios empíricos realizados por Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary & Windeatt, y Martinez & Roca de Larios, que conforman la segunda sección. Siguiendo a estos autores, el artículo aboga por la realización de más estudios longitudinales de corte naturalista, que utilicen enfoques dentro del campo de la Adquisición de Segundas Lenguas tanto de carácter cognitivo como sociocultural, para investigar con más profundidad el papel del feedback y su impacto en perfiles concretos de aprendices. Finalmente, se tratan algunas implicaciones pedagógicas, incluyendo la necesidad de que las prácticas de feedback faciliten el desarrollo de habilidades de autocorrección y de evaluación del propio rendimiento por parte de los estudiantes, y la necesidad de incrementar el conocimiento que los docentes tienen acerca de las distintas fuentes y modos de implementación de feedback.

  11. Parental Writing Support and Preschoolers' Early Literacy, Language, and Fine Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindman, Samantha W; Skibbe, Lori E; Hindman, Annemarie H; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low-level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads (n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool. PMID:25284957

  12. The Development of Language and Reading Skills in the Second and Third Languages of Multilingual Children in French Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between first language (L1) typology, defined as the classification of languages according to their structural characteristics (e.g. phonological systems and writing systems), and the development of second (L2) and third (L3) language skills and literacy proficiency in multilingual children was investigated in this study. The…

  13. Linking Reading and Writing in An English-As-A-Second-Language (ESL) Classroom for National Reorientation and Reconsruction

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Billy Olajide

    2010-01-01

    How developed, integrated and focused a nation has been is partly a function of her level of literacy. Hence, every nation desires full literacy that involves the two skills of reading and writing. Both skills are as elusive as they are rewarding, especially if they have to be acquired from a Second position, such as occupied by English in Nigeria. Over the years in the country, learner performance in the language has been a source of worry to the school system and other stakeholders. Neverth...

  14. Visual Language: The Development of Format and Page Design in English Renaissance Technical Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebeaux, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Focuses on Renaissance English technical writing, which includes how-to books and legal, educational, and medical publications. Asserts that how-to books along with religious, classic, historical, and romance texts were popular in all sectors of society. Discusses the development of format and illustrations and contains examples of extant works.…

  15. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  16. Unconventional Internet Genres and Their Impact on Second Language Undergraduate Students' Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radia, Pavlina; Stapleton, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The Web has become a vast and appealing source of information for undergraduate students writing academic papers. While some online resources are comparable in quality to the materials housed in a library, newly accessible, Web-specific genres, such as interest groups, often undermine traditional expectations of scholarly authority, rigor, and…

  17. Discourse Markers in Composition Writings: The Case of Iranian Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Jalilifar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate discourse markers in descriptive compositions of 90 Iranian students who were selected from two universities. Without any instruction, they were given a topic to write a descriptive composition per week for 8 weeks. 598 compositions were collected, and they were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by three raters following Fraser's (1999) taxonomy of Discourse Markers. Findings showed that students employed discourse markers with different degree...

  18. Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal / Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida, Machado; Ana Paula, Berberian; Ana Paula, Santana.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressig [...] nificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da Rede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by using the written language and how this process can constitute an opportunity to recr [...] eate their meanings. The data for this clinical study was collected in a group therapy involving 9 teenager students from public schools of Curitiba, with the complaint of reading and writing disorders. The group therapy was realized during one year inside the Speech language therapy clinic in Tuiuti University of Paraná. The meetings occurred every week during two hours totalizing 48 meetings. All data were video recorded and also written in a session diary. Six episodes considered very expressive were selected in order to analyze this theme. RESULTS: the research indicated that these individuals had a suffering relation with the written language and that they assumed incapacity positions towards it. It could be possible to observe that the clinical practices inside the group helped to recreate these relations, so that the individuals began to feel capable and assume responsibility positions in reading and writing practices. CONCLUSION: the speech language therapy group was built as a place where the individuals could set up a significant relation with reading and writing, providing key conditions for the re-significance of the symptoms and for interacting with different written texts, promoting thus changes between the individual and his own language.

  19. Bilingualism, Language Proficiency, and Learning to Read in Two Writing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Luk, Gigi

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and four 5- and 6-year-olds who were monolingual English-, bilingual English-Chinese-, or Chinese-speaking children beginning to learn English (2nd-language learners) were compared on phonological awareness and word decoding tasks in English and Chinese. Phonological awareness developed in response to language exposure and instruction…

  20. Developing Language and Writing Skills of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students: A Simultaneous Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Hannah M.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    In school, deaf and hard of hearing students (d/hh) are often exposed to American Sign Language (ASL) while also developing literacy skills in English. ASL does not have a written form, but is a fully accessible language to the d/hh through which it is possible to mediate understanding, draw on prior experiences, and engage critical thinking and…

  1. Linguistic Contact Zones in the College Writing Classroom: An Examination of Ethnolinguistic Identity and Language Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kells, Michelle Hall

    2002-01-01

    In this examination of Mexican-American bilingual college writers, it is argued that implicit language ideologies, common misconceptions about bidialectalism/bilingualism, and the classroom attitudinal domain subvert the success of ethnolinguistic minority students. The author designed and conducted a randomized language attitude survey (N = 195)…

  2. Reading and Writing the World Using Beautiful Books: Language Experience Re-Envisioned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James V.; Roser, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Through this article, we describe an instructional strategy termed "Beautiful Books." This strategy involves the creation of images and texts to be used in the development of oral and literacy skills. We explore the historical roots of the strategy in Language Experience Approach (LEA) and Whole language and consider how dictation and early…

  3. The impact of science notebook writing on ELL and low-SES students' science language development and conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Margarita

    This quantitative study explored the impact of literacy integration in a science inquiry classroom involving the use of science notebooks on the academic language development and conceptual understanding of students from diverse (i.e., English Language Learners, or ELLs) and low socio-economic status (low-SES) backgrounds. The study derived from a randomized, longitudinal, field-based NSF funded research project (NSF Award No. DRL - 0822343) targeting ELL and non-ELL students from low-SES backgrounds in a large urban school district in Southeast Texas. The study used a scoring rubric (modified and tested for validity and reliability) to analyze fifth-grade school students' science notebook entries. Scores for academic language quality (or, for brevity, language ) were used to compare language growth over time across three time points (i.e., beginning, middle, and end of the school year) and to compare students across categories (ELL, former ELL, non-ELL, and gender) using descriptive statistics and mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA). Scores for conceptual understanding (or, for brevity, concept) were used to compare students across categories (ELL, former ELL, non-ELL, and gender) in three domains using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. A correlational analysis was conducted to explore the relationship, if any, between language scores and concept scores for each group. Students demonstrated statistically significant growth over time in their academic language as reflected by science notebook scores. While ELL students scored lower than former ELL and non-ELL students at the first two time points, they caught up to their peers by the third time point. Similarly, females outperformed males in language scores in the first two time points, but males caught up to females in the third time point. In analyzing conceptual scores, ELLs had statistically significant lower scores than former-ELL and non-ELL students, and females outperformed males in the first two domains. These differences, however, were not statistically significant in the last domain. Last, correlations between language and concept scores were overall, positive, large, and significant across domains and groups. The study presents a rubric useful for quantifying diverse students' science notebook entries, and findings add to the sparse research on the impact of writing in diverse students' language development and conceptual understanding in science.

  4. Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida Machado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressignificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da Rede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem.BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by using the written language and how this process can constitute an opportunity to recreate their meanings. The data for this clinical study was collected in a group therapy involving 9 teenager students from public schools of Curitiba, with the complaint of reading and writing disorders. The group therapy was realized during one year inside the Speech language therapy clinic in Tuiuti University of Paraná. The meetings occurred every week during two hours totalizing 48 meetings. All data were video recorded and also written in a session diary. Six episodes considered very expressive were selected in order to analyze this theme. RESULTS: the research indicated that these individuals had a suffering relation with the written language and that they assumed incapacity positions towards it. It could be possible to observe that the clinical practices inside the group helped to recreate these relations, so that the individuals began to feel capable and assume responsibility positions in reading and writing practices. CONCLUSION: the speech language therapy group was built as a place where the individuals could set up a significant relation with reading and writing, providing key conditions for the re-significance of the symptoms and for interacting with different written texts, promoting thus changes between the individual and his own language.

  5. 37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...by a typewriter or machine printer in permanent...application (including any translation submitted pursuant...statement that the translation is accurate, and the...an English language translation of the non-English...each compact disc the machine format...

  6. "I Was Born Full Deaf." Written Language Outcomes after 1 Year of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Dostal, Hannah M.; Bowers, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Nonstandard grammatical forms are often present in the writing of deaf students that are rarely, if ever, seen in the writing of hearing students. With the implementation of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) in previous studies, students have demonstrated significant gains in high-level writing skills (e.g., text structure) but…

  7. Investigation of Writing Strategies, Writing Apprehension, and Writing Achievement among Saudi EFL-Major Students

    OpenAIRE

    AbdulRahman Al Asmari

    2013-01-01

    The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students` writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the relationship between writing strategies that EFL university students employ and writing apprehension, relationship between writing strategies use and stud...

  8. Relocating Basic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    I frame the continuing value of basic writing as part of a long tradition in composition studies challenging dominant beliefs about literacy and language abilities, and I link basic writing to emerging--e.g."translingual"--approaches to language. I identify basic writing as vital to the field of composition in its rejection of simplistic notions…

  9. ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Higareda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1 in English Language Teaching (ELT, critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI , un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.

  10. Developing Critical Thinking Skills and Improving Expressive Language through Creative Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Harriet E.

    A practicum was conducted to develop critical thinking and improve expression through creative written language utilizing precision teaching as an evaluation of student performance. Six students (grades second through sixth) with low idea generation and few organization skills were trained by three teachers and a teacher advisor using…

  11. Exploring the Unknown: The Language Use of German Re-Students Writing Texts about God

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Language does not only play an active part "in all processes" of comprehension, recognition and learning, it is also essential for "specific religious learning processes." Religious experiences and traditions have their own characteristic linguistic forms, and religious education has come to realise the necessity for an…

  12. Rocking Your Writing Program: Integration of Visual Art, Language Arts, & Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldberg, Monique M.,; Trainin, Guy; Andrzejczak, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the integration of art, literacy and science in a second grade classroom, showing how an integrative approach has a positive and lasting influence on student achievement in art, literacy, and science. Ways in which art, science, language arts, and cognition intersect are reviewed. Sample artifacts are presented along with their…

  13. Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT) of Language Skills among Trilingual Arabic-Hebrew and English Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Salim Abu-Rabia; Wael Shakkour

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether helping poor readers improve their reading and writing language skills in English as a third language/foreign language (L3/FL) would also bring about an improvement in those same skills in Arabic (L1) and Hebrew (L2). Transferring linguistic skills from L3/FL to both L1 and L2 is termed “Cognitive Retroactive Transfer” (CRT). A battery of tests, administered to the experiment and control groups, assessed orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, morp...

  14. Alienation, language and freedom. A note on Bildung in Hegel's writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asger Sørensen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Bildung occupies a central place in the work of Hegel. In the Phenomenology of Spirit from 1807 it is clear that Bildung has a general meaning, which transcends educational contexts. Soon after the publication of the Phenomenology, however, Hegel became the rector of the humanistic Gymnasium in Nürnberg, and this position he kept until 1816. From this period we have some less well known writings, which explicitly discuss Bildung and relate it to educational use. These texts were written at the hight of his philosophical maturity from, when he was working on The Science of Logic and the Encyclopedia, and they therefore deserve being taken seriously. When all these sources are brought together, however, an idea of Bildung often associated with Hegel, namely that Bildung is the result of productive work, seems to be mistaken. I first give a brief account of the general argument, secondly add some details from the Phenomenology to support the argument, and finally conclude with a few general remarks.

  15. Investigation of Writing Strategies, Writing Apprehension, and Writing Achievement among Saudi EFL-Major Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulRahman Al Asmari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students` writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the relationship between writing strategies that EFL university students employ and writing apprehension, relationship between writing strategies use and students` writing achievement, and differences between high and low writing anxiety in their writing strategy use. Data were drawn from 198 (68 males and 130 females EFL-major university students. The participants were asked to respond to a Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI; Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (Cheng, 2004 and to complete a Writing Strategies Inventory (Petric & Czarl, 2003. Some interviews were also conducted with some students to explore salient effective writing strategies that they used and the difficulties they faced during writing composition. Correlation, t-test, and ANOVA analyses were used to determine relationships between writing strategies and writing achievement and between students of high and low anxiety. The results of the study calls into question the common assumption that some of the Saudi undergraduates’ writing apprehension is pertinent to writing achievement. The results indicated that students with low writing anxiety were more users of writing strategies than the high anxious ones. Moreover, a significant negative correlation was found between students’ writing apprehension and their writing achievement.

  16. Relationship among Iranian EFL Learners’ Self-efficacy in Writing, Attitude towards Writing, Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Sarkhoush

    2013-01-01

    The main trust of the present study was to investigate whether writing performance in students of English as a foreign language (EFL) was related to self-efficacy in writing, writing apprehension,  and attitude towards writing. Fifty IELTS students (30 females and 20 males) studying IELTS Writing participated in this study. In order to collect data, three instruments were used which were a writing apprehension test (WAT), a self-efficacy in writing scale (SWS), and a questionnaire on att...

  17. A Rasch measurement analysis of the use of cohesive devices in writing English as a foreign language by secondary students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Margaret Lai Fun; Waugh, Russell F

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigated the use of three types of cohesive devices, that is, reference, conjunction and lexis, used in writing the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) essays for students in secondary year 2, 4 and 6 in Hong Kong. Fifty students from each of the three forms (N = 150) provided narrative and descriptive essays for analysis which were marked by two competent English teachers by counting the frequency of writing devices used per 100 words. Initially, 14 cohesive devices (items) were counted as items for analysis, but two devices (items) were deleted as not fitting a Rasch measurement model. The RUMM2020 computer program with the partial credit model was used to create a linear scale of Writing Devices Used with twelve items: two for references, four for conjunctions, two for lexis, three for cohesive ties, and one for quality. There was good overall fit to the measurement model (item-trait chi-square = 56.81, df = 48, p = 0.18) but the Person Separation Index was very low at 0.08 mainly due to the small range of quality of essays in comparison to the difficulties of the writing devices (items). Students found that the three easiest writing devices used were remote cohesive ties, immediate cohesive ties and mediate cohesive ties. The three hardest writing devices used were temporal conjunctions, causal conjunctions and adversative conjunctions. PMID:19092228

  18. Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) offers over 100 handouts on English writing skills. The collection could be called an online grammar book or a basic writing course. Categories covered include sentences, punctuation, parts of speech, spelling, methods of citing sources in research paper writing, English as a second language, and general writing concerns such as writers block, proofreading, non-sexist language, resume writing, business and professional writing, and coping with writing anxiety. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/

  19. Spanish researchers’ perceived difficulty writing research articles for English-medium journals: the impact of proficiency in English versus publication experience

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Ana I.; Jesús Rey-Rocha; Sally Burgess; Irene López-Navarro; Itesh Sachdev

    2012-01-01

    Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs) for publication in English (as L2) is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA) writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured question...

  20. Signalling L2 Centrality, Maintaining L1 Dominance: Teacher Language Choice in an Ethnic Minority Primary Classroom in the Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose

    2011-01-01

    Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic has speakers of up to 230 different languages belonging to four ethnolinguistic families, the Lao Government's policy as stated in its Education Law is that Lao is the official language of education at all levels. This creates a challenging situation for teachers in ethnic minority villages throughout…

  1. Writing 302: Writing Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Farnham, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    WRT 302: Writing Culture is an upper-level elective in the Department of Writing and Rhetoric at the University of Rhode Island (URI). As part of a group of four 300-level courses, Writing 302 draws many junior and senior majors in Writing and Rhetoric, English, and other majors who are looking to add creativity and experience with design to their…

  2. Japanese and English sentence reading comprehension and writing systems: An fMRI study of first and second language effects on brain activation

    OpenAIRE

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Just, Marcel A.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation from Japanese readers reading hiragana (syllabic) and kanji (logographic) sentences, and English as a second language (L2). Kanji showed more activation than hiragana in right-hemisphere occipito-temporal lobe areas associated with visuospatial processing; hiragana, in turn, showed more activation than kanji in areas of the brain associated with phonological processing. L1 results underscore the difference in vi...

  3. The Effects of Language of Instruction on the Reading and Writing Achievement of First-Grade Hispanic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Beeman, Margaret M.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that (1) children taught in Spanish did not differ from those taught in English on English reading and writing but were significantly stronger on Spanish reading and writing; (2) being taught literacy in Spanish contributed to performance in Spanish reading comprehension; but (3) being taught in English did not have the same positive effect…

  4. Science Writing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    This reference provides students with assistance in writing assignments. It offers samples of Science and Language Arts materials that focus on the writing process. Examples include investigation charts, a science rubric, and graphic organizers. There are also lists of transition words and phrases and persuasive writing signal words, a set of instructions on how to write a persuasive essay, and a set of instructions on proofreading.

  5. Phraseology and Frequency of Occurrence on the Web: Native Speakers' Perceptions of Google-Informed Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluso, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based theories of language learning suggest that native speakers of a language are acutely aware of formulaic language due in large part to frequency effects. Corpora and data-driven learning can offer useful insights into frequent patterns of naturally occurring language to second/foreign language learners who, unlike native speakers, are…

  6. Teaching writing in a changing semiotic land-scape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon, H.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of L1–Educational Studies in Language and Literature focuses on what it means to teach writing in secondary schools in the age of new media. We approach this topic from the understanding that people worldwide are now operating within a ‘changing semiotic landscape’ (Kress & van Leeuwen, 1996 that is associated with social, economic and technological change. This changing landscape of communication is affecting not only how we read and write, but also is expanding the range of semiotic modes and media with we habitually engage in order to make meaning, communicate and get things done in the world.

  7. Self-expressions, Socialization and Learning in Dialogue Journals: Features of Beginner Writers in Second Language Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Mahani Mansor; Latisha Asmaak Shafie; Anis Maesin; Surina Nayan; Nazira Osman

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative learning involves learners working together as a group in maximizing their learning experience and in developing the learners’ sense of belonging to the group. This paper discusses the features of a collaborative writing activity, the dialogue journal, that exist during a writing activity. The features were discussed based on literature and a case study on a group of second-year ESL learners of Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis, Malaysia. The selections of the students’ dialo...

  8. The Use Of First Language In Limited English Proficiency Classes: Good, Bad Or Ugly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hamin Stapa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an ongoing debate among language teachers on whether to use students’ first language (L1 in second language (L2 teaching. Nevertheless, the use of L1 in L2 teaching has been advocated with grounded theory as far as it merits the situation. This research article aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of L1 to generate ideas for second language writing among low proficiency ESL learners. The study employed the experimental research design where students in the experimental group used Bahasa Melayu in generating ideas before they resumed writing their essays in English. Students in the control group used English. Two independent raters graded the essays and the scores were analysed using the paired t-test. The findings showed a marked improvement in the writing performance of students who used their first language to generate ideas before using their second language for writing. Based on the findings, we recommend that teachers encourage the use of first language before writing or composing in English especially among low-level proficiency ESL learners.

  9. How to Cope with Spaghetti Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Damien

    1989-01-01

    Explores essay writing problems common to intermediate and advanced English-as-a-second-language students and suggests such remedies as pre-writing exercises and post-writing analysis to help students overcome these problems. (Author/CB)

  10. Phonological Awareness and Oral Language Proficiency in Learning to Read English among Chinese Kindergarten Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…

  11. Some Issues for the Teaching of Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Lombana Claudia Helena

    2002-01-01

    In this article the definition of writing as a means and as an end is analyzed in order to raise some concerns about the teaching of writing at different schools in general. From this definition I question other important issues that ultimately affect our students¿ writing production. These have to deal with the use of writing in the mother language, writing activities in the textbooks, the realistic nature of the writing tasks, the other language skills input, and the production of texts. T...

  12. We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Krashen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982.

  13. PDI: Science for English Language Learners (ELL): Integrating Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking, and Thinking into the K-8 Classroom, New Orleans, Louisiana; March 18, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    1900-01-01

    This Professional Development Institute (PDI) will focus on teaching strategies and methods that incorporate language acquisition with science instruction for English Language Learners (ELL) in the K-8 classroom. Specifically, this institute will begin with an overview of research on the ELL population, instruction, and programs available to teachers who have responsibilities for teaching science. The bulk of the 6 hours of instruction will provide guided inquiry activities that model integrated (Sheltered Instruction) strategies in science, reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking. The follow-up workshops will provide more in-depth research and instruction in each of the language skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking) as they apply to science instruction as well as working with specific populations of ELL students and available programs. Classrooms in the United States are becoming more diverse thus requiring regular classroom teachers to develop new skills in working with students whose first language is not English. Recent census data show that over the past twenty five years the number of ELL students (ages 5-17) grew from 3.8 million to 9.9 million or approximately 10% of the entire U.S. school population (NCES, 2006). With this incredible growth, regular classroom teachers are in need of learning new teaching skills in language acquisition to integrate into everyday classroom content instruction. Sheltered Instructional strategies or Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) involve teaching strategies used in developing language skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking and incorporates them into content area (Science) planning, instruction and assessment. These strategies include clearly defined language and content objectives, creating instruction that relates to students' prior knowledge, tailoring teacher talk to students' English language proficiency levels, allowing students to process material in a variety of formats including guided inquiry, scaffolding content instruction, and using assessment methods that allow students to display learning in a variety of ways (Becijos,1997; Echevarria, Vogt, and Short, 2008). This is especially important to teachers at the elementary and middle school as the majority of ELL students are entering schools at these levels. Of all ELL students entering school, 44% are in grades K-3 and 35% in grades 4-8 (Kindler, 2002). This Professional Development Institute will be conducted by David Crowther, a Professor of Science Education at the University of Nevada, Reno. Dr. Crowther is the coauthor/editor of Science for English Language Learners by NSTA Press. He has written several chapters in books and articles about science for ELLs; presented at NSTA workshops and TESOL on the subject; and teaches science methods using Sheltered Instruction strategies at the University of Nevada, Reno. Joaquin Vil? is a Professor of English and Second Language Acquisition at Salisbury University in Maryland. In his numerous years of experience he has conducted many workshops on teaching EL students, written chapters / articles, and led departments and programs for ELL within the English departments at several universities. Dr. Vil? is also a NCATE evaluator of TESOL programs and is the Special Assistant to the Vice President of the University for Diversity. Presenters are recognized as top researchers, authors, and workshop facilitators in the field of science and language acquisition.

  14. Teaching With Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Teaching writing can be a challenge, even for those who have been in front of a class full of students for years. The website of the Writing Center at Colorado State University is a great source of information for people who teach writing. A good place to start is the Teaching Guides area, which includes strategies on Planning & Conducting Classes, Teaching Specific Writing Skills, and Writing Across the Curriculum. Furthermore, the Teaching Activities section includes a range of compelling aides including Argument Quiz Discussion Starter, Evaluating Writing, and A Storyteller's Misguided Guide to Focus. Visitors also should also read the Across the Disciplines journal, which is "devoted to language, learning, and academic writing.� Other highlights include The Composition Archives and a crucial guide to dealing with plagiarism.

  15. Learning a Second Language Naturally the Voice Movement Icon Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Macedonia

    2013-01-01

    Second language (L2) instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1) acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI) approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI i...

  16. Using Language Learning Strategies to Improve the Writing Skills of Saudi EFL Students: Will It Really Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Maram George

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the use of language learning strategies (LLSs) by Saudi EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study determines if gender and academic major have any effect on that use and reveals the potential benefits for Saudi students in the area of strategy instruction. Data was collected…

  17. The Use of Narrative Analysis as a Research and Evaluation Method of Atypical Language: The Case of Deaf Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoubou, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper argues the use of "narratives" as the most appropriate evaluation method in cases of atypical language production. Narrative as a genre has an ecological validity that other genres used in language research and evaluation do not have. Narratives develop naturally from very early, they are independent of education and academic…

  18. La evolución de modelos mentales de escritura en un contexto de lengua extranjera : dinámica de objetivos y creencias = Development of mental models of writing in a foreign language context : dynamics of goals and beliefs.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola?s Conesa, Florentina

    2013-01-01

    The present study is a longitudinal investigation on EFL university learners’ mental models of writing (understood as a set of beliefs and goals) in an EAP course and their effects on performance. Data collection involved language proficiency tests, L2 compositions, interviews and self-reflective journals. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data were carried out. The findings indicate the development of a knowledge-transforming model of writing, the transformation of students’ m...

  19. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Scott

    2010-01-01

    This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, transla...

  20. Tracing Cultures behind the Struggling Experience of a Chinese High School Student Writing Application Letters in English

    OpenAIRE

    Liqiu Wei; Ji Liu

    2012-01-01

    By examining the affect, behavior and cognition (the ABCs) involved in the writing process of a Chinese high school student composing application essays in English (a foreign language) as a case study by means of ethnographic approach and under the notion of small culture, this study aims to illustrate how different cultural forces interact with one another and how they come to play in the shaping of rhetorical differences between learner's native language (L1/NL )and second or foreign langua...

  1. "Why Do You Write Your Name Long Like That?" Language and Literacy in a San Francisco Kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Helgesen, Espen

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate the role of language awareness in early literacy, and argue that skills acquired when becoming literate can provide resources for manipulating social as well as textual relations. Based on ethnographic research among a group of 5- and 6-year old kindergartners in a San Francisco public school, I describe how the kids' personal names provided them with stable landmarks with which to explore both oral and written language. The capacity of names to facilitate communi...

  2. DESCRIPTIVE VERSUS DIALOGIC REFLECTION AND POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE STANCE IN THE REFLECTIVE WRITING OF TURKISH PROSPECTIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    Yes?i?lbursa, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in thei...

  3. Teaching Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Z.; Kostka, I.; Mott-Smith, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of "Teaching Writing" draw on their years of teaching and their knowledge of theory and research to present major concepts in teaching L2 writing. These concepts encompass how cultural differences affect the writing class, planning instruction, text-based writing, writing strategies, modeling, and responding to student…

  4. We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Krashen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper. My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper.

  5. HOW DO WE LEARN ANOTHER LANGUAGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Behera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used by a social group. It may be either spoken or written. Every human being uses a language to communicate to other members of the society (she is a part of. While we acquire our mother tongues (L1, we learn the other language(s. Linguists talk of several approaches to language learning process, more prominent approaches being grammar-translation, direct, audio-lingual and contrastive analysis. Similarly, four of the major skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing (LSRW are also involved in language learning process. Our learning an additional language enriches and helps us build a communication rapport with a larger society or social group.

  6. Writing (from) Abroad: Italian Writing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the writing of literary works in languages other than English in the United States with a a particular focus on authors who write in Italian. Asks whether it is possible to talk about multiculturalism in the United States without multilingualism and whether or not texts written in languages other than English can be part of the American…

  7. Educating Chinese Scientists to Write for International Journals: Addressing the Divide between Science and Technology Education and English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Margaret; O'Connor, Patrick; Li, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    As is the worldwide trend, scientists in China face strong and increasing pressure to publish their research in international peer-reviewed journals written in English. There is an acute need for graduate students to develop the required language skills alongside their scientific expertise, in spite of the distinct division currently existing…

  8. The Spread of ‘Heavenly Writing’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina ZORMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuneiform is the name of various writing systems in use throughout the Middle East from the end of the fourth millennium BCE until the late first century CE. The wedge-shaped writing was used to write ten to fifteen languages from various language families: Sumerian, Elamite, Eblaite, Old Assyrian, Old Babylonian and other Akkadian dialects, Proto-Hattic, Hittite, Luwian, Palaic, Hurrian, Urartian, Ugaritic, Old Persian etc. Over the centuries it evolved from a pictographic to a syllabographic writing system and eventually became an alphabetic script, but most languages used a 'mixed orthography' which combined ideographic and phonetic elements, and required a rebus principle of reading.

  9. Academic writing in a corpus of 4th grade science notebooks: An analysis of student language use and adult expectations of the genres of school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinca, Alberto

    This is a study of language use in the context of an inquiry-based science curriculum in which conceptual understanding ratings are used split texts into groups of "successful" and "unsuccessful" texts. "Successful" texts could include known features of science language. 420 texts generated by students in 14 classrooms from three school districts, culled from a prior study on the effectiveness of science notebooks to assess understanding, in addition to the aforementioned ratings are the data sources. In science notebooks, students write in the process of learning (here, a unit on electricity). The analytical framework is systemic functional linguistics (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004), specifically the concepts of genre, register and nominalization. Genre classification involves an analysis of the purpose and register features in the text (Schleppegrell, 2004). The use of features of the scientific academic register, namely the use relational processes and nominalization (Halliday and Martin, 1993), requires transitivity analysis and noun analysis. Transitivity analysis, consisting of the identification of the process type, is conducted on 4737 ranking clauses. A manual count of each noun used in the corpus allows for a typology of nouns. Four school science genres, procedures, procedural recounts reports and explanations, are found. Most texts (85.4%) are factual, and 14.1% are classified as explanations, the analytical genre. Logistic regression analysis indicates that there is no significant probability that the texts classified as explanation are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, material process clauses predominate in the corpus, followed by relational process clauses. Results of a logistic regression analysis indicate that there is a significant probability (Chi square = 15.23, p genres and features science language, and relational processes are more prevalent in "successful" texts. However, the pervasive feature of science language, nominalization, is scarce.

  10. DESCRIPTIVE VERSUS DIALOGIC REFLECTION AND POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE STANCE IN THE REFLECTIVE WRITING OF TURKISH PROSPECTIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda YE??LBURSA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in their teacher education could be beneficial in helping them to develop their critical thinking skills and to make the most of their future teaching experiences. Thus, the current study was conducted to describe the individual reflective profiles emerging from the analysis of the written reflections of 28 Turkish prospective English Language teachers on a video-recorded microteaching experience carried out as part of a methodology course. A mixed method approach was adopted to this aim. First, qualitative analysis of the written reflections revealed reflective categories showing how the participants reflected on their teaching experience. Second, frequency analysis was used to reveal the distribution of these reflective categories for each participant. The data analysis showed that the individual participants displayed different patterns of reflection in terms of descriptive and dialogic reflection, and positive and negative stance.

  11. On psychoanalytic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2005-02-01

    Analytic writing constitutes a literary genre of its own. It involves the linking of an analytic idea (developed in a scholarly manner) with an analytic experience created in the medium of language. What makes this literary genre so demanding is that experience--including analytic experience--does not come to us in words. This fact generates a paradox that lies at the core of analytic writing: analytic experience (which cannot be said or written) must be transformed into 'fiction' (an imaginative rendering of experience in words) in order to convey to the reader something of what is true to the emotional experience that the analyst had with the patient. The author discusses a clinical passage from one of his recently published papers in an effort to demonstrate some of the conscious and unconscious thinking that goes into his writing. He then looks closely at the way the language works in a successful piece of theoretical analytic writing. The paper concludes with a discussion of a number of facets of the author s experience with analytic writing including the psychological 'state of writing', which is at once a meditation and a wrestling match with language; experimenting with the form (structure) of an analytic essay; and the question of originality in analytic writing. PMID:15859219

  12. Relationship among Iranian EFL Learners’ Self-efficacy in Writing, Attitude towards Writing, Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Sarkhoush

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main trust of the present study was to investigate whether writing performance in students of English as a foreign language (EFL was related to self-efficacy in writing, writing apprehension,  and attitude towards writing. Fifty IELTS students (30 females and 20 males studying IELTS Writing participated in this study. In order to collect data, three instruments were used which were a writing apprehension test (WAT, a self-efficacy in writing scale (SWS, and a questionnaire on attitude towards writing (WAQ. In order to make the questionnaires more comprehensible, they were adapted to Iranian context. This study conducted in two phases. First, the questionnaires were administered in the fist hour. In the second phase participants were given 45 minutes to write an argumentative essay on a given topic. The compositions were scored according to IELTS Writing Band Descriptive for public version by two raters. The obtained marks were taken to indicate the students’ overall writing performance. The findings of the study suggested that, self-efficacy in writing and writing apprehension was negatively correlated. Moreover there was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and attitude towards writing. Besides, the results showed that self-efficacy and writing performance were positively correlated. The correlation between writing apprehension and attitude towards writing was negative. Finally there was a negative correlation between writing apprehension and writing performance. The results of a three-way ANOVA revealed that those learners with positive attitudes performed significantly better than those with negative attitudes on writing task. In terms of self-efficacy and apprehension levels no significant differences were found.  

  13. "Visual Learning Is the Best Learning--It Lets You Be Creative while Learning": Exploring Ways to Begin Guided Writing in Second Language Learning through the Use of Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Marietta; Chiera-Macchia, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of comics (Cary, 2004) in a guided writing experience in secondary school Italian language learning. The main focus of the peer group interaction task included the exploration of visual sequencing and visual integration (Bailey, O'Grady-Jones, & McGown, 1995) using image and text to create a comic strip narrative in…

  14. Writing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richgels, Donald J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses four recent writing books: "Teaching to Write: Theory Into Practice" (Jane B. Hughey and Charlotte Slack); "The Writing Teacher's Handbook" (Jo Phenix); "Scaffolding Young Writers: A Writers' Workshop Approach" (Linda J. Dorn and Carla Soffos); and "Directing the Writing Workshop: An Elementary Teacher's Handbook" (Jean Wallace Gillet…

  15. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document presents writing samples that have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing--argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative--in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for…

  16. Model, Engage, Write, and Evaluate: A Model for Informative Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Moller

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Writing is regarded as a particularly demanding process involving complex higher level thinking processes combined with the demands of certain meta-cognitive skills. Since academic success may be predicted by the student’s level of reading comprehension and writing skills and with the recent adoption of the Common Core State Standards, it is an ideal time for conceptualizing how to improve writing instruction for elementary students.  This mixed-methods study investigated the effects of process writing instruction on the development of second and third grade students’ writing abilities focusing on wide reading and inquiry, writing frames, technology netbooks, and grammar/mechanics.  Results indicate that all students involved advanced at least two stages on Gunning’s scale of writing proficiency, increased in number of words written, addressed problems in writing mechanics, and improved selective language use.  Findings are relevant to classroom teachers, specialists, and administrators alike.

  17. University writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  18. Don't be afraid of writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with requirements of good writings, comprehension toward characters of language, understanding of subjects and materials, grasp of structure of writings, and reality of writing. It contains theoretical requirements of good writing such as creativity, clearness, probity, how to understand the right meanings of language by showing standard languages, dialects, foreign languages, loan words, newly coined words, in-words, slangs, jargon. It also introduces subjects, topics, materials, sentences, meaning, structure, type, requirement, length of paragraphs, diaries, letter writings, travel essays, descriptions, and essays.

  19. Contribution of L1 in EFL Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahjuningsih Usadiati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted in a classroom action research to improve the students’ achievement in writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense in Structure 1 lessons. The subject consisted of 20 Semester II students who took Structure I lessons in English Education Department of Palangka Raya University, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The data were taken from the results of pre test and post test after the action was done. The results show that in cycle 1, in which the explanations were fully in English, only 40% of the students got a good achievement; 5-7 out of 20 test items were correct. After cycle 2 was done using L1 interchangeably with English in the explanations, the students’ achievement of writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense increased to 75%, in which 15-18 out 20 test items were correct.

  20. Spanish Interference in EFL Writing Skills: A Case of Ecuadorian Senior High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Alexandra Cabrera Solano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies have been conducted regarding mother tongue (L1 interference and developing English writing skills. This study, however, aims to investigate the influence of the Spanish language on second language (L2 writing skills at several Ecuadorian senior high schools in Loja. To achieve this, 351 students and 42 teachers from second year senior high schools (public and private were asked to participate in this study. The instruments for data collection were student and teacher questionnaires, as well as a written test in which students were asked to write a narrative passage. The information gathered from the instruments was then organized and tabulated to determine the various interference variables. Afterwards, the most representative samples from the narrative texts were analyzed based on their semantic, morphological and syntactical features. The results from this study indicate that English grammar and vocabulary were the linguistic areas that suffered the highest level of L1 language interference. The most common Spanish interference errors were misuse of verbs, omission of personal and object pronouns, misuse of prepositions, overuse of articles, and inappropriate/ unnatural word order. Finally, some suggestions are given to teachers in order to help students prevent further Spanish interference problems during writing/composition classes.

  1. Out of a Writing Conference: Speaking Writing Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Utami Widiati

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value onl...

  2. Writing Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Helena Rykov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.

    Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many characteristics. It makes sense that we use poetry to write about music therapy.

    Writing is a crucial skill for music therapy professionals who must produce various notes, proposals, and reports. Writing poetically is a diminished stance compared to discursive prose writing. It is understandable that representing music therapy in experimental, tentative, and creative texts is risky. I invite music therapists to aspire towards poetry when writing music therapy to better address nonverbal, embodied, music therapy essence. I address this invitation to all writers of music therapy: undergraduate and graduate students, clinicians, and researchers.

  3. A Corpus-based Study on the Influence of L1 on EFL Learners’ Use of Prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Chun Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a corpus-based study which aims to investigate the occurrence of salient first language (Chinese features found in learners’ second language (English written productions. AntConc (version 3.2.4 was adopted to analyze the learners’ written data and to establish various categories of preposition misuses and L1 features. Tango  was employed to provide suggestions for correction. Essentially, findings demonstrate that EFL learners may unconsciously produce L2 writings with L1 characteristics in their sentence productions. Results showed that the ten most frequently misused prepositions were by, at, in, to, for, on, about, of, with, and as. According to the results, it is suggested that, in regard to writing, teachers and educators can teach the use of prepositions through collocations to facilitate learners’ knowledge and understanding for different prepositions through different contexts. The significance of the study is to raise learners’ awareness as well as to provide reference for instruction for language teachers and educators.

  4. The Facilitating Role of L1 in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ça?r? Tu?rul Mart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.

  5. The Facilitating Role of L1 in ESL Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Ça?r? Tu?rul Mart

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.

  6. Algumas considerações sobre a interface entre a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS e a Língua Portuguesa na construção inicial da escrita pela criança surda Considerations on the interface between the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS and Portuguese language in the initial construction of writing of deaf children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Castelo Peixoto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma reflexão psicolingüística sobre as construções conceituais de crianças surdas no que diz respeito à escrita. O trabalho revela, a partir de um diálogo com as idéias de Emília Ferreiro e Ana Teberosky, que a psicogênese da escrita vivenciada por crianças surdas, que têm a língua de sinais como primeira língua e língua de instrução, se desenrola de forma diferente ao que é vivido por crianças ouvintes em processo inicial de construção da escrita. As principais especificidades dessa aquisição relacionam-se: a não-fonetização da escrita, a uma intensa exploração dos aspectos viso-espaciais da escrita e ao uso dos parâmetros fonológicos da língua de sinais como elemento regulador e organizador da escrita. Tais peculiaridades exigem, portanto, que a escola e o professor alfabetizador revejam suas concepções sobre o processo de escrita no surdo, pensando em (novas práticas pedagógicas que considerem a realidade bilíngüe e sua relação não-sonora com a escrita.This paper proposes a psycholinguistic reflection on the conceptual constructions of deaf children in what regards writing. Based on a dialogue with the ideas of Emília Ferreiro and Ana Teberosky, this work reveals that the psychogenesis of writing experienced by deaf children who have sign language as their first and instruction language, occurs in a different way than that of hearing children in the initial process of constructing writing. The main specificities of this acquisition are related to the non-phonetization of writing, to an intense exploration of the visual-spatial aspects of writing and to the usage of the phonologic parameters of sign language as a regulating and organizing element of writing. Such peculiarities thus demand that school and alphabetizing teachers revise their conceptions on the process of writing of the deaf, thinking of (new pedagogical practices that take into account the bilingual reality and its soundless relationship to writing.

  7. Speaking and Writing, Strange Bedfellows: Some Strategies for Improving the Teaching of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Leroy

    1995-01-01

    Explores: (1) expression in talking, particularly as it expands the writing process; (2) spoken traces of culture filtering into writing; and (3) richness and color of expression as writing motivators. Describes four strategies for improving writing instruction that recognize the orality of composition and the duality of language. (SR)

  8. Writing Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The articles in this journal issue examine the characteristics of student writing apprehension, and teaching methods to alleviate it. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Writing Anxiety: Reasons and Reduction Techniques" (Helen R. Heaton and Pauline M. Pray); (2) "Writing Anxiety and the Gifted Student Writer" (De…

  9. RAFT Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This web page provides an overview of the RAFT writing strategy, a strategy that helps students understand their role as a writer, the audience they will address, the varied formats for writing, and the topic they'll be writing about. Sample RAFT prompts and references are provided.

  10. Shakespeare's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Flowers

    2009-10-21

    In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Use these sites to answer the following questions: Shakepeare s Language, Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. Describe ...

  11. Out of a Writing Conference: Speaking Writing Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Widiati

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value only `the product' but also `the process'. When translated into the classroom, one of the features of this new paradigm, the writing process approach, is `the conference', which occurs between teacher and students as well as between students. As Mol (1992 states, writing conference provides students with immediate, meaningful responses to their writing, developing students' ability to reflect upon their own writing and the writing of others in a critical and constructive way. Looking back at our own experience in teaching writing, the conference does not only scaffold the students in the process of meaning-making but also creates an atmosphere where they are actively engaged in a `more focused' talk. This is of paramount importance since our students tend to speak in their native language even in the classroom.

  12. Linguajamentos e contra-hegemonias epistêmicas sobre linguagem em produções escritas indígenas / Languaging and epistemic counter-hegemony on language in writings by Brazilian Indians / Modos de hablar y contrahegemonías epistémicas sobre lenguaje en producciones escritas indígenas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elismênnia Aparecida, Oliveira; Joana Plaza, Pinto.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, resultado de uma pesquisa qualitativa documental, discute práticas epistêmicas sobre linguagem de autoras e autores indígenas residentes no Brasil. Com base em autoras e autores indígenas e não indígenas - decolonialistas e pós-estruturalistas - confrontamos suas concepções de linguagem [...] , considerando a construção das sociedades indígenas como o outro/objeto, que está presente na produção hegemônica de saber sobre linguagem. Consideramos o processo de silenciamento a que as etnias indígenas foram sujeitadas, e também o processo de resistência e apropriação de práticas e conceitos dos não indígenas, assim como coexistência de conceitos como língua, escrita e identidade. Como conclusão, apontamos a necessidade de ampliar o olhar epistemológico para dar conta de práticas discursivas coexistentes às do não indígena. Abstract in spanish Este artículo, resultado de una investigación cualitativa documental, discute prácticas epistémicas sobre lenguaje de autoras y autores indígenas residentes en Brasil. Con base en autoras y autores indígenas y no indígenas - de colonialistas y posestructuralistas - confrontamos sus concepciones de l [...] eenguaje, considerando la construcción de las sociedades indígenas como el otro/objeto, que está presente en la producción hegemónica de saber sobre lenguaje. Consideramos el proceso de silenciamiento a que las etnias indígenas fueron sujetadas, y también el proceso de resistencia y apropriación de prácticas y conceptos de los no indígenas, así como coexistencia de conceptos como lengua, escritura e identidad. Como conclusión, apuntamos la necesidad de ampliar la observación epistemológica para dar cuenta de prácticas discursivas coexistentes a las de la no indígena. Abstract in english This paper presents the results of a qualitative documentary research which discusses epistemic practices on language by indigenous authors inhabiting Brazil. Based on indigenous authors, as well as on poststructuralist and decolonialist ones, this paper confronts theirs language concepts, consideri [...] ng the construction of indigenous societies as the other/object, which is part of the hegemonic production of knowledge about language. We make considerations on the process of silencing of the indigenous groups, and also the process of resistance and appropriation of concepts and practices by non-indigenous, as well as the coexistence of concepts such as language, writing and identity. As a conclusion, we point to the urgent need to expand epistemological perspectives in order to deal with the co-existing discursive practices of the indigenous and the non-indigenous.

  13. Business Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State University's website on Business Writing was designed as a tool for teachers creating new business writing courses. Included in the samples are class projects, student assignments, teaching philosophies, and multi-media suggestions for teaching writing to large groups. In addition to the syllabi provided, there are schedule breakdowns for classes held three times a week or two times per week, and assessment tips. This website could be valuable to any instructor of writing, but especially helpful for those designing business writing courses.

  14. Writing successful UX proposals

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Bringing new project funding and business opportunities to your organization is a vital part of UX professionals' growth and success. Writing Successful UX Proposals teaches the proven techniques for assessing proposal requests, writing successful commercial and government funding proposals, and enhancing your business development skills. This book will teach UX practitioners how to succeed in UX business development by mastering the following goals: * Understand how to assess a request for proposals* Understand the "anatomy" of a proposal response * Speak the business language of those who will be evaluating the proposed approach* Recognize the successes of others and build upon their advice Complete with case studies, tricks and tips, and real-world examples throughout, this is a must-have resource for UX professionals interested in honing their proposal writing skills and setting themselves up for success. * Provides unique sales and proposal writing insights tailored to the UX arena (including both resear...

  15. The Effect of Process Writing Practice on the Writing Quality of Form One Students: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Pour-Mohammadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Teachers who teach English as a second language are committed to develop an understanding and improvement of second language writing as learning to write in the second language is a complicated process. Despite the numerous research on second language writing, the phenomenon of writing is constantly under investigation as teachers want to share the findings of each study which provides knowledge that resonates with their teaching experience. This case study is a report about the effect of process writing practice on the writing quality of three Form one students. This study uses observation, interview, students’ drafts, and writing and examination scores as sources for data collection. The analyses show some effects on their writing pace and writing quality. The findings also reveal that students are able to attempt writing despite the difficulty of the given writing task.

  16. Thinking on the Write Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2007-01-01

    The present paper underscores the importance of the cognitive orientation of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in their success in writing courses. A few suggestions are made as to how EFL teachers can put their students on the right cognitive path in their writings.

  17. Editorial. Crossing cultural boundaries. A window into diverse issues and contexts in L1-Education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooy, M.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue of L1 – Educational Studies in Language and Literature is the largest single issue we have produced since our introduction in 2000. Containing seven articles, it covers a range of L1 issues: reform movements, the role of literature, culture and multiculturalism in L1, literacy, technology, reading comprehension and the role of oral and written language in L1 Teacher Education.

  18. El andamiaje docente en el desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura en lengua extranjera / Scaffolding in the development of foreing language reading and writing skills

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Lucía, Delmastro.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El andamiaje constituye una estructura provisional, aportada por el docente o los pares más capacitados, que sirve de apoyo al estudiante en la construcción de los nuevos aprendizajes, la cual es retirada una vez que el estudiante es capaz de funcionar de manera independiente. El propósito de este e [...] studio es explorar la naturaleza de los procesos de andamiaje docente que operan durante el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera (LE), con el objeto de constituir un soporte teorético-heurístico que fundamente la selección de procedimientos de trabajo de aula orientados a promover y regular dichos procesos. Para ello, se realiza una investigación de tipo teórico-documental con un abordaje epistemológico racionalista, a partir del análisis de diversas fuentes bibliográficas y cibergráficas. En primer lugar, se define y clarifica el concepto de andamiaje con el objeto de proceder a su caracterización y establecer las teorías que lo sustentan. En segundo lugar, se señalan orientaciones generales para un mejor andamiaje de los procesos de aprendizaje por parte del docente de LE. Finalmente, se sugieren estrategias docentes que resultan efectivas en la provisión de andamiaje durante el desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura en LE. La investigación aporta basamentos teóricos y orientaciones procedimentales que se espera contribuyan a mejorar la praxis pedagógica del docente de lenguas extranjeras, acorde con tendencias pedagógicas de la actualidad. Abstract in english Scaffolding is a provisional structure provided by a teacher, other highly skilled teachers or skilled students, to support learners during construction of new knowledge. Once students are able to work on their own, the structure is withdrawn. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of i [...] nstructional scaffolding processes during foreign language (FL) learning. The objective was to build a theoretical background to support selection of classroom procedures that promote and regulate these processes. A theoretical and bibliographical research was carried out from a rationalist epistemological perspective, through an analysis of a variety of bibliographical references. First, the concept of scaffolding was defined and clarified in order to outline its characteristics and establish underlying theories. Then, general guidelines were pointed out to improve teacher scaffolding during FL learning. Finally, effective teaching strategies were suggested for scaffolding the development of reading and writing skills in a FL. This study yields theoretical background and procedural guidelines that we hope will contribute to the improvement of FL teaching practice in accordance with present-day pedagogical trends.

  19. Handling L2 Input in Phonological STM: The Effect of Non-L1 Phonetic Segments and Non-L1 Phonotactics on Nonword Repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gabor; Racsmany, Mihaly

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment comparing the effects of three discrete types of deviance from native language (L1) phonetics and phonology on verbal short-term memory performance. A nonword repetition task was used to measure the recall of four stimulus types: (a) high-probability L1-sounding nonwords, (b) low-probability L1-sounding…

  20. Robert Frost on Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Elaine

    This book is a collection of Frost's letters, reviews, introductions, lectures, and interviews on writing dating back to 1913. It provides Frost's view of literature, and its relation to language and social order. Part one, "Frost as a Literary Critic," discusses the scope of Frost's criticism and Frost as both critical theorist and practical…

  1. Technology, Writing, & Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad Grout

    Three simple changes in this language arts instructor's teaching toolbox turned a class of reluctant writers into a class of enthusiastic authors. By sharing his passion and enthusiasm for writing, he became a role model and, at the same time, a better writer and teacher.

  2. The Effect of Process Writing Practice on the Writing Quality of Form One Students: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Pour-Mohammadi; Mohamad Jafre Zainol Abidin; Cheong Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Teachers who teach English as a second language are committed to develop an understanding and improvement of second language writing as learning to write in the second language is a complicated process. Despite the numerous research on second language writing, the phenomenon of writing is constantly under investigation as teachers want to share the findings of each study which provides knowledge that resonates with their teaching experience. This case study is a report about the effect of pro...

  3. Investigating and developing beginner learners' decoding proficiency in second language French: an evaluation of two programmes of instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Woore, Robert; Macaro, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Second language (L2) decoding – the sub-lexical process of mapping the graphemes of an alphabetic writing system onto the phonemes they represent – is argued to underpin various aspects of L2 learning, particularly vocabulary acquisition. Recently, second language acquisition research has shown increased interest in decoding, consistently finding evidence for L1-to-L2 transfer effects on learners’ processing mechanisms and outcomes. Correspondingly, studies conducted in Modern Foreign...

  4. Writing Excel Macros with VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

  5. Drawing on Technical Writing Scholarship for the Teaching of Writing to Advanced ESL Students--A Writing Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Dorota

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the technical writing tutorial (TWT) that precedes an advanced English as a second language (ESL) writing course for students of English Philology at the Jagiellonian University, Poland. Finds a statistically significant increase in the performance of the students who had taken the TWT. Indicates that technical writing books and journals…

  6. Habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares / Oral and written language skills for reading and writing in preschool children Habilidades / Linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esperanza, Guarneros Reyes; Lizbeth, Vega Pérez.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As crianças pré-escolares já possuem noções de leitura e escritura porque têm desenvolvido habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas que se relacionam entre si, e por sua vez, com a aquisição da leitura e a escritura convencionais. Este artigo de revisão tem por objetivos: (a) Descrever as relações [...] existentes entre linguagem oral e escrita nos anos pré-escolares, e (b) Identificar as habilidades concretas da linguagem da criança pré-escolar que possibilitam a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais. Fez-se uma busca nas bases de dados ERIC e OVID de emergent literacy,phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, que contribuiu com os componentes da linguajem oral (habilidades fonológicas e semânticas) que se relacionam com a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais, assim como uma proposta de análise na que se enfatiza o processo das habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares. Abstract in spanish Los niños preescolares ya poseen nociones de lectura y escritura porque han desarrollado habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas que se relacionan entre sí y, a su vez, con la adquisición de la lectura y la escritura convencionales. Este artículo de revisión tiene como objetivos (a) Describir las [...] relaciones existentes entre lenguaje oral y escrito en los años preescolares, e (b) Identificar las habilidades concretas del lenguaje del niño preescolar que posibilitan la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales. Se hizo una búsqueda en las bases de datos ERIC y OVID de emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, la cual aportó los componentes del lenguaje oral -habilidades fonológicas y semánticas- que se relacionan con la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales, así como una propuesta de análisis en la que se enfatiza el proceso de las habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares. Abstract in english Preschool children already have notions of reading and writing because they have developed oral and written language skills that relate to each other, and in turn, with the acquisition of conventional reading and writing. This review article aims to: (a) identify the relationship between oral and wr [...] itten language in the preschool years, and (b) Identify the specific skills of the preschool child language enabling the acquisition of conventional literacy. A search in the databases ERIC and OVID for emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, and language skills preschoolers. This provided the oral-language components and semanti-cphonological skills that relate to the acquisition of conventional reading and writing, as well as a proposal for analysis that emphasizes the process of oral and written language skills for literacy in preschool children.

  7. Componential skills of beginning writing: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Wagner, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the components of end of kindergarten writing, using data from 242 kindergartners. Specifically of interest was the importance of spelling, letter writing fluency, reading, and word- and syntax-level oral language skills in writing. The results from structural equation modeling revealed that oral language, spelling, and letter writing fluency were positively and uniquely related to writing skill after accounting for reading skills. Reading skill was not uniquely rel...

  8. Some Issues for the Teaching of Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombana Claudia Helena

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the definition of writing as a means and as an end is analyzed in order to raise some concerns about the teaching of writing at different schools in general. From this definition I question other important issues that ultimately affect our students¿ writing production. These have to deal with the use of writing in the mother language, writing activities in the textbooks, the realistic nature of the writing tasks, the other language skills input, and the production of texts. The article pretends to raise awareness in the teaching of writing by taking into account what is implied in the writing skill so teachers can be more attentive in the selection of written tasks for their students.

  9. El andamiaje docente en el desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura en lengua extranjera Scaffolding in the development of foreing language reading and writing skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucía Delmastro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El andamiaje constituye una estructura provisional, aportada por el docente o los pares más capacitados, que sirve de apoyo al estudiante en la construcción de los nuevos aprendizajes, la cual es retirada una vez que el estudiante es capaz de funcionar de manera independiente. El propósito de este estudio es explorar la naturaleza de los procesos de andamiaje docente que operan durante el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera (LE, con el objeto de constituir un soporte teorético-heurístico que fundamente la selección de procedimientos de trabajo de aula orientados a promover y regular dichos procesos. Para ello, se realiza una investigación de tipo teórico-documental con un abordaje epistemológico racionalista, a partir del análisis de diversas fuentes bibliográficas y cibergráficas. En primer lugar, se define y clarifica el concepto de andamiaje con el objeto de proceder a su caracterización y establecer las teorías que lo sustentan. En segundo lugar, se señalan orientaciones generales para un mejor andamiaje de los procesos de aprendizaje por parte del docente de LE. Finalmente, se sugieren estrategias docentes que resultan efectivas en la provisión de andamiaje durante el desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura en LE. La investigación aporta basamentos teóricos y orientaciones procedimentales que se espera contribuyan a mejorar la praxis pedagógica del docente de lenguas extranjeras, acorde con tendencias pedagógicas de la actualidad.Scaffolding is a provisional structure provided by a teacher, other highly skilled teachers or skilled students, to support learners during construction of new knowledge. Once students are able to work on their own, the structure is withdrawn. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of instructional scaffolding processes during foreign language (FL learning. The objective was to build a theoretical background to support selection of classroom procedures that promote and regulate these processes. A theoretical and bibliographical research was carried out from a rationalist epistemological perspective, through an analysis of a variety of bibliographical references. First, the concept of scaffolding was defined and clarified in order to outline its characteristics and establish underlying theories. Then, general guidelines were pointed out to improve teacher scaffolding during FL learning. Finally, effective teaching strategies were suggested for scaffolding the development of reading and writing skills in a FL. This study yields theoretical background and procedural guidelines that we hope will contribute to the improvement of FL teaching practice in accordance with present-day pedagogical trends.

  10. Tools for College Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Created by Joseph McNeilly of Cabrillo College (Aptos, California), Tools for College Writing introduces beginning college students to the fundamentals of the writing process, providing them with the "skills that will enhance their chance of success as college writers." In addition, the site gives new students a general introduction to "college culture" and explains "how college works," enabling them to survive and thrive as college students. The site features a built-in dictionary to aid learning, and the text for each section is also available as a sound file to assist students who speak English as a second language and to help students who may have learning disabilities.

  11. Mathematical writing

    CERN Document Server

    Vivaldi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student.   The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition.   Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...

  12. Coesão textual na escrita de um grupo de adultos surdos usuários da língua de sinais Brasileira / Text cohesion in writing of a group of deaf adults users of Brazilian sign language

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth Oliveira Crepaldi de, Almeida; Carolina Ronqui, Filasi; Luiza Crepaldi de, Almeida.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: investigar a coesão textual em produções escritas por quatro adultos surdos usuários da Língua de Sinais Brasileira alfabetizados, integrantes de um grupo de discussão nessa língua, sobre o tema violência, coordenado por uma intérprete fluente. Verificar a possível interferência da Libras [...] na escrita em português. MÉTODOS: após terem participado de sessões de discussão sobre o tema violência, cada participante produziu um texto relacionado a algum tipo de violência. Seus textos foram analisados qualitativamente em termos de sua coesão. RESULTADOS: os textos produzidos faziam referência a situações de violência simbólica. O estudo dos textos evidenciou presença de coesão textual sequencial e referencial em todos os textos, embora comprometida. Houve interferência da Libras nas redações. Observou-se que os textos, por si sós, são difíceis de serem compreendidos sem a interação direta com o participante. Apesar da dificuldade na compreensão da língua escrita, que é diferente da estrutura da língua de sinais, o estudo evidenciou que esses surdos podem construir textos com sentido e coesão. CONCLUSÃO: a produção escrita dos surdos pesquisados apresenta coesão, porém com interferência da Libras, o que prejudica, em alguns casos, a compreensão por parte do leitor. Quanto menor a coesão textual, maior a necessidade de explicações do autor sobre o que quis dizer com seu texto. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to investigate text cohesion in written productions of four deaf male adults using Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) and write in Portuguese. Participants integrate a discussion group on violence using that language coordinated by a fluent interpreter. The study also verifies possible interf [...] erence of Libras on writing in Portuguese. METHODS: after a few sessions, a discussing the theme violence, each deaf participant wrote a text on a violence situation. These texts were analyzed qualitatively as for their cohesion. RESULTS: the study pointed out the existence of sequential and referential text cohesion in all the analyzed texts, although compromised. There was interference of Libras in their writing. The produced texts related in some way to symbolic violence. The texts per se were difficult to understand without direct interaction with the participant. Despite difficulties in comprehension of writing language whose structure is very different from the sign language, it became clear that these deaf persons could construct texts with sense and cohesion. CONCLUSION: the texts produced by the studied deafs have cohesion, although the interference of Libras was harmful in some cases as for the reader's comprehension. As text cohesion diminishes, there is more need for explanations by the author about the meaning of the said text.

  13. El oficio del escritor académico: un portal para promover el uso de la lengua escrita como práctica social / The Profession of Academic Writing: A Portal to Promote the Use of Written Language as a Social Practice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Manuel, Fernández-Cárdenas; Lorena, Piña-Gómez.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La escritura académica es un campo en creciente desarrollo debido al reconocimiento de que el uso de la lengua escrita y la socialización en las disciplinas académicas es indisoluble: la lengua no puede reducirse a la enseñanza de la ortografía y la gramática, ni la construcción de conocimiento pued [...] e entenderse sin la mediación de textos académicos en la educación superior. Sin embargo, existen aún muy pocas iniciativas institucionales para formalizar este tipo de acciones, y menos con un componente tecnológico. En este artículo presentamos el desarrollo de un portal de recursos para la escritura académica, el cual ilustra un conjunto de acciones y procesos constitutivos del oficio del escritor académico como una práctica social. Este modelaje de escritura académica se logra utilizando un paradigma sociocultural y uno de semiótica visual. Abstract in english Academic writing is a growing field due to the recognition that the use of written language and socialization in academic disciplines is indissoluble: language cannot be reduced to teaching spelling and grammar, nor can the construction of knowledge be understood without the mediation of academic te [...] xts in higher education. However, institutional initiatives for formalizing this type of actions are still very limited, especially in the case of technological components. In this article, we present the development of a portal of resources for academic writing, which illustrates a set of actions and processes that constitute the profession of academic writing as a social practice. This model of academic writing is achieved by using a sociocultural paradigm and a paradigm of visual semiotics.

  14. Teorías personales de docentes de lengua sobre la enseñanza de la escritura en sistema de educación pública chilena / Language teacher personal theories about teaching writing in the Chilean public educational system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roxanna Carolina Correa, Pérez; Mónica Tapia, Ladino; Angie Neira, Martinez; Mabel Ortiz, Navarrete.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Es sabido que las ideas que los docentes sostienen acerca de los procesos de enseñanza -aprendizaje de lenguas inciden en su quehacer pedagógico. Son escasos los estudios que explican las teorías personales de profesores de lenguas en torno a las habilidades lingüísticas de sus estudiantes. Por esta [...] razón, el objetivo de este trabajo es determinar cuáles son las teorías personales sobre escritura y su enseñanza en la educación media de seis profesores de inglés y de seis de Lenguaje y Comunicación que se desempeñan en establecimientos educacionales municipalizados de dos regiones de Chile. Para acceder a las teorías personales, los docentes fueron entrevistados con la finalidad de conocer sus ideas sobre diferentes aspectos de la enseñanza de la escritura. La metodología de análisis fue cualitativa y el procesamiento de los datos se realizó con el software NVivo. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los docentes asignan una alta importancia al desarrollo de la escritura, realizan actividades secuenciadas, se apoyan en textos modelos, favorecen el trabajo individual y promueven la escritura de textos breves. Abstract in english It is well known that the teachers' ideas about any area related to language teaching and learning processes impact on their pedagogical practice. There are not many studies, however, that explain language teachers' personal theories about linguistics abilities. The aim of this article is to present [...] the personal theories about writing of 6 English teachers and 6 Spanish teachers, who work in public schools in two regions of Chile. In order to find out the personal theories, we interviewed the teachers to deal with different aspects of the process of teaching writing. The methodology was qualitative and the data analysis was carried out with the support of NVivo software. The results indicate that the teachers assign great importance to the development of writing, carry out sequenced activities, support the process with model texts, foster individual work and promote the writing of brief texts.

  15. The vulnerability of gender on determiners in L1, 2L1 and L2 acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth van der Linden; Aafke Hulk

    2009-01-01

    The acquisition of gender has been reported to be problematic for some groups of learners acquiring Germanic or Romance languages. It has been shown that L1 learners do better in gender acquisition than others, like bilingual children, child L2 learners and adult L2 learners. The reason for these differences is however not always clear. In this paper, we study the acquisition of gender on determiners by different groups of learners. We concentrate on the acquisition of French, Italian, Spanis...

  16. Lexical bundles and L1 transfer effects

    OpenAIRE

    Paquot, Magali

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study makes use of Jarvis’s (2000) methodological framework to investigate transfer effects on French EFL learners’ use of lexical bundles. The study focuses on 3-word recurrent sequences that include a lexical verb in the French component of the International Corpus of Learner English as compared to nine other ICLE learner sub-corpora. Results are in line with a usage-based view of language that recognizes the active role that the L1 may play in the acquisition of a fore...

  17. Coesão textual na escrita de um grupo de adultos surdos usuários da língua de sinais Brasileira Text cohesion in writing of a group of deaf adults users of Brazilian sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Oliveira Crepaldi de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar a coesão textual em produções escritas por quatro adultos surdos usuários da Língua de Sinais Brasileira alfabetizados, integrantes de um grupo de discussão nessa língua, sobre o tema violência, coordenado por uma intérprete fluente. Verificar a possível interferência da Libras na escrita em português. MÉTODOS: após terem participado de sessões de discussão sobre o tema violência, cada participante produziu um texto relacionado a algum tipo de violência. Seus textos foram analisados qualitativamente em termos de sua coesão. RESULTADOS: os textos produzidos faziam referência a situações de violência simbólica. O estudo dos textos evidenciou presença de coesão textual sequencial e referencial em todos os textos, embora comprometida. Houve interferência da Libras nas redações. Observou-se que os textos, por si sós, são difíceis de serem compreendidos sem a interação direta com o participante. Apesar da dificuldade na compreensão da língua escrita, que é diferente da estrutura da língua de sinais, o estudo evidenciou que esses surdos podem construir textos com sentido e coesão. CONCLUSÃO: a produção escrita dos surdos pesquisados apresenta coesão, porém com interferência da Libras, o que prejudica, em alguns casos, a compreensão por parte do leitor. Quanto menor a coesão textual, maior a necessidade de explicações do autor sobre o que quis dizer com seu texto.PURPOSE: to investigate text cohesion in written productions of four deaf male adults using Brazilian Sign Language (Libras and write in Portuguese. Participants integrate a discussion group on violence using that language coordinated by a fluent interpreter. The study also verifies possible interference of Libras on writing in Portuguese. METHODS: after a few sessions, a discussing the theme violence, each deaf participant wrote a text on a violence situation. These texts were analyzed qualitatively as for their cohesion. RESULTS: the study pointed out the existence of sequential and referential text cohesion in all the analyzed texts, although compromised. There was interference of Libras in their writing. The produced texts related in some way to symbolic violence. The texts per se were difficult to understand without direct interaction with the participant. Despite difficulties in comprehension of writing language whose structure is very different from the sign language, it became clear that these deaf persons could construct texts with sense and cohesion. CONCLUSION: the texts produced by the studied deafs have cohesion, although the interference of Libras was harmful in some cases as for the reader's comprehension. As text cohesion diminishes, there is more need for explanations by the author about the meaning of the said text.

  18. The vulnerability of gender on determiners in L1, 2L1 and L2 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth van der Linden

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of gender has been reported to be problematic for some groups of learners acquiring Germanic or Romance languages. It has been shown that L1 learners do better in gender acquisition than others, like bilingual children, child L2 learners and adult L2 learners. The reason for these differences is however not always clear. In this paper, we study the acquisition of gender on determiners by different groups of learners. We concentrate on the acquisition of French, Italian, Spanish and Dutch. The picture from a literature survey shows that contradictory results have been found. We suggest that the ‘vulnerability’ of this particular domain of grammar has to do with interacting factors in the acquisition. Among them are the specific characteristics of the language or languages involved, like the semantic and morphophonological characteristics of the nouns in each language, but also the quantity and quality of input, and the cross-linguistic influence exercised by one language on the other in a 2L1 or L2 setting. Instruction also seems to play a role.

  19. Writing for Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Shannon Marie

    Scientific literacy is the foundation on which both California's currently adopted science standards and the recommended new standards for science are based (CDE, 2000; NRC, 2011). The Writing for Science Literacy (WSL) curriculum focuses on a series of writing and discussion tasks aimed at increasing students' scientific literacy. These tasks are based on three teaching and learning constructs: thought and language, scaffolding, and meta-cognition. To this end, WSL is focused on incorporating several strategies from the Rhetorical Approach to Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking to engage students in activities designed to increase their scientific literacy; their ability to both identify an author's claim and evidence and to develop their own arguments based on a claim and evidence. Students participated in scaffolded activities designed to strengthen their written and oral discourse, hone their rhetorical skills and improve their meta-cognition. These activities required students to participate in both writing and discussion tasks to create meaning and build their science content knowledge. Students who participated in the WSL curriculum increased their written and oral fluency and were able to accurately write an evidence-based conclusion all while increasing their conceptual knowledge. This finding implies that a discourse rich curriculum can lead to an increase in scientific knowledge.

  20. The Effects of Collaborative Writing Activity Using Google Docs on Students' Writing Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwantarathip, Ornprapat; Wichadee, Saovapa

    2014-01-01

    Google Docs, a free web-based version of Microsoft Word, offers collaborative features which can be used to facilitate collaborative writing in a foreign language classroom. The current study compared writing abilities of students who collaborated on writing assignments using Google Docs with those working in groups in a face-to-face classroom.…

  1. Use of L1 in L2 Reading Comprehension among Tertiary ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Goh Hock; Hashim, Fatimah

    2006-01-01

    This study is an attempt to provide insights into the extent of first language (L1) use while reading second language (L2) texts in a collaborative situation among tertiary ESL learners. Through the identification of reading strategies utilized by the subjects, the study is also aimed at discovering possible reasons for the use of L1 while…

  2. Reading Attitudes in L1 and L2, and Their Influence on L2 Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Junko

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between both first language (L1) and second language (L2) reading attitudes, and learners' performance in L2 extensive reading. Four reading attitude variables were identified (Comfort, Anxiety, Value, Self-perception), both in L1 and L2, according to learners' responses to a questionnaire. Results of analyses…

  3. La comprensión oral del lenguaje no literal y su relación con la producción escrita en escolares / Co-relation between oral comprehension of non-literal language and writing in elementary school students

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nina, Crespo; Ricardo, Benítez; Pablo, Cáceres.

    Full Text Available Un grupo considerable de niños y jóvenes chilenos escolarizados presenta problemas para producir textos escritos en forma autónoma. Las explicaciones de este fenómeno son diversas, pero este trabajo se focalizará en el desarrollo de la lengua oral que ocurre durante la edad escolar, a partir de los [...] seis años. Concretamente, se referirá aquí a la interpretación de ciertas formas orales de lo no literal: los actos de habla indirectos y las ironías. Teóricamente, la conexión escritura/comprensión oral de lo no literal se fundamenta en que ambas parecieran estar relacionadas con el desarrollo de la conciencia metalingüística y de la teoría de la mente. Empíricamente, se lleva a cabo un estudio con 141 estudiantes de 13 y 14 años cuya comprensión oral fue medida con el Instrumento de Medición de Inferencias Pragmáticas (IMIP) y su habilidad de escritura, con una Pauta de Evaluación Analítica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una correlación canónica y los resultados muestran, por una parte, un grado moderado de asociación entre las variables observables orales y escritas entre sí y, por otra parte, un grado de correlación canónica bajo pero significativo entre las dimensiones latentes comprensión oral y producción escrita (Rc = 0,26, p Abstract in english A substantial number of school children and youngsters encounters problems with the production of written texts in an autonomous fashion. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are various, it will hereby be focused on the development of the oral language occurring during the school age; that is, [...] from six years of age on. In particular, this study will refer to certain forms of non-literal language: indirect speech acts and ironies. Theoretically, the writing/oral comprehension of non-literal language connection is based on their seeming relationship with the development of a metalinguistic conscience and a theory of the mind. Empirically, this study involves the participation of 141 13-14-year-old students whose oral comprehension was measured by the Instrument for the Measurement of Pragmatic Inferences (IMIP, according to the Spanish acronym), and writing, by an Analytic Assessment Guide. Data were analyzed with the aid of canonical co-relation and the results reveal, on the one hand, a moderate degree of association in the observable oral and writing variables among themselves and, on the other, a low but significant degree of canonical co-relation between the latent oral and writing variables (Rc = 0,26, p

  4. Reading, Writing and Speaking Shakespeare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mr. McGuire

    2010-04-25

    In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. Task One What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Task Two Use these site to answer the following questions: Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. ...

  5. Literacy in a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, William

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of second-language literacy is discussed in light of first-language perspectives on literacy, reading, and writing, and expanding these perspectives into second-language contexts. The current perspectives on literacy are also identified and reviewed. (GLR)

  6. Main: L1DCPAL1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L1DCPAL1 S000504 15-September-2006 (last modified) kehi L1 element, found in PAL1 promoter in carrot ... S000492 (BOXL CORE of DC PAL1); L1 Daucus carota (carrot ) ATTCACCTACCC ...

  7. Precis Writing in the ESL Classroom (Open to Suggestion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Dwight

    1990-01-01

    Argues that summarizing, paraphrasing, and precis writing skills are important to the development of critical thinking and the ability to learn from text. Describes the use of precis writing in the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classroom. (RS)

  8. Exploring Pragmatic Failure into the Writing of Young EFL Learners: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Yunlin Muir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This present study provides overviews of the phenomenon in EFL writing instruction in basic education in mainland China, which in its natural sense never proceeds among young learners at high school level. Then it investigated 34 students’ short in-class compositions. Beyond many spelling and syntactic errors, their pragmatic failures are therefore categorized into pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic failures in accordance with Jenny Thomas (1983. It finds that pragmalinguistic failures are as follows: verbose appositions, combination of two subordinate clauses, misunderstandings of word meaning, Chinese construction of sentences, run-on sentences, independent subordinate clauses, the omission of relative pronouns and that sociopragmatic failure, considerably rare, lies in their perception and expression of specific Chinese-based pragmatic conventions. The author argues that the causes of pragmatic failure are their limited language proficiency and L1 pragmatic transfer. Based on the investigation and findings of the study, the author puts forward some tentative solutions to achieve pragmatic appropriateness in writing: (1 Appropriate in-class introduction of target language pragmatic knowledge and culture; (2 The awareness of distinguishing the target language with L1.

  9. "This english writing thing": students' perceptions of their writing experiences at an english-medium university

    OpenAIRE

    Petri, Bojana

    2007-01-01

    This article explores five students’ perceptions of their writing experiences at an English-medium post-graduate university in a non-English speaking country as compared to writing in their home country universities in their native languages. Three types of differences are found to be relevant: language and rhetorical differences, disciplinary differences, and differences in educational systems (such as the number of assignments required, the focus of writing instruction, and feedback...

  10. Theoretical Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G Glaser, Ph D.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical sorting has brought the analyst to the point of pent-up pressure to write: to see the months of work actualized in a “piece.” But this is only a personal pressure. The goal of grounded theory methodology, above all is to offer the results to the public, usually through one or more publications. We will focus on writing for publication, which is the most frequent way that the analyst can tell how people are “buying” what really matters in sociology, or in other fields.Both ...

  11. La comprensión oral del lenguaje no literal y su relación con la producción escrita en escolares Co-relation between oral comprehension of non-literal language and writing in elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Crespo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo considerable de niños y jóvenes chilenos escolarizados presenta problemas para producir textos escritos en forma autónoma. Las explicaciones de este fenómeno son diversas, pero este trabajo se focalizará en el desarrollo de la lengua oral que ocurre durante la edad escolar, a partir de los seis años. Concretamente, se referirá aquí a la interpretación de ciertas formas orales de lo no literal: los actos de habla indirectos y las ironías. Teóricamente, la conexión escritura/comprensión oral de lo no literal se fundamenta en que ambas parecieran estar relacionadas con el desarrollo de la conciencia metalingüística y de la teoría de la mente. Empíricamente, se lleva a cabo un estudio con 141 estudiantes de 13 y 14 años cuya comprensión oral fue medida con el Instrumento de Medición de Inferencias Pragmáticas (IMIP y su habilidad de escritura, con una Pauta de Evaluación Analítica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una correlación canónica y los resultados muestran, por una parte, un grado moderado de asociación entre las variables observables orales y escritas entre sí y, por otra parte, un grado de correlación canónica bajo pero significativo entre las dimensiones latentes comprensión oral y producción escrita (Rc = 0,26, p A substantial number of school children and youngsters encounters problems with the production of written texts in an autonomous fashion. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are various, it will hereby be focused on the development of the oral language occurring during the school age; that is, from six years of age on. In particular, this study will refer to certain forms of non-literal language: indirect speech acts and ironies. Theoretically, the writing/oral comprehension of non-literal language connection is based on their seeming relationship with the development of a metalinguistic conscience and a theory of the mind. Empirically, this study involves the participation of 141 13-14-year-old students whose oral comprehension was measured by the Instrument for the Measurement of Pragmatic Inferences (IMIP, according to the Spanish acronym, and writing, by an Analytic Assessment Guide. Data were analyzed with the aid of canonical co-relation and the results reveal, on the one hand, a moderate degree of association in the observable oral and writing variables among themselves and, on the other, a low but significant degree of canonical co-relation between the latent oral and writing variables (Rc = 0,26, p < 0.05, where the former would seem a factor variable and the latter, a criterion variable. The conclusion is that, even though the development of oral comprehension of non-literal language seems to influence writing abilities, such a co-relation is not strong enough to look at it as having practical significance.

  12. Invisible Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults seem to have lots of secrets. Why should they have all the fun? You can write secret messages to friends by using common household items to make invisible inks. And the neat part of it is, each one of these inks demonstrates that chemicals can interact with paper, with one another, and sometimes with heat.

  13. Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

  14. Using Translation Exercises in the Communicative EFL Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Young

    2011-01-01

    Implementing process pedagogy in an L2 writing classroom has its own limits for students with low English proficiency. Although L1 writers commonly benefit from writing multiple drafts, most of the low English level Korean college students in my English composition class did not benefit from the revisions. This article introduces an innovative…

  15. Self and Language Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses relationships between language anxiety and self. Self refers to an individual’s (a self-confidence, (b language ego, L2/FL self or identity developed during second or foreign language learning, or a combination of both L1 self and L2/FL self. Based on previous literature on language anxiety and L2 or FL learning, language learners’ self-confidence might imply a lack of language anxiety which enhances language achievement (e.g., Casado & Dereshiwsky, 2004; Clément, 1980; Liu & Chen, 2013; Matsuda & Gobel, 2004; Onwuegbuzie, Bailey, & Daley, 1999; Peng & Woodrow, 2010; Ro, 2013. Language anxiety is an experience unique to the language learning process, and this unique emotion or experience may be associated with the anxiety of feeling limited, broken, incompetent, having another self or a different personality in a target language. I believe that while learning target languages, L2 or FL identities are developing, and L1 identities are reconstructed. Language learners may feel the loss of L1 identities in a target language context or may feel that they are not able to express their thoughts in a target language. When learners feel the loss of L1 identities, feel limited or broken, this may be language anxiety arising.

  16. Writing In Math Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This webpage provides many ideas for teachers to help their students write in the elementary mathematics classroom. Sections include writing prompts, creative math writing, solution writing, and other pedagogical strategies.

  17. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of a methodology.

  18. THE EFFECT OF A FIGURE WHERE SYMMETRY USED IN TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IS APPLIED ON WRITING SKILLS OF TURKISH LANGUAGE AND PRIMARY MATHEMATICS TEACHING 1ST GRADE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine AKTA?

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With this study, it is aimed to afford an artistic development for science of mathematics with using literary language and learn with associating visual themes and imaginariness in essays. In the study, different written expression works, which are composed about same symmetric figure, of first grade preservice teachers of Turkish Language and Mathematics Teaching are compared.This study will put forth the grasp of communication skill of preservice students who are implementers of new program of Turkish and Mathematics lesson used from 2005 and in which the importance of this skill is emphasized. Also this study will contribute education of preservice students henceforwards.

  19. Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tèmít??p?? Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.

  20. The Role of L1 in L2 Idiom Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Taki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of first language (L1 transfer in Iranian EFL learners' second language (L2 idiom comprehension. It was also sought to understand whether there is any significant difference between learners of different proficiency levels and their use of L1 in decoding L2 idioms. To do this, the participants of different levels of language proficiency were asked to participate in this study. The L2 idioms were categorized based on their similarity to L1 into three groups of identical, similar and different. A think-aloud protocol analysis was performed and participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they read the target idioms in order to detect the strategies they used. The results showed that the most favoured strategy used by learners of different levels was translation. Translation to L1 (Persian was also the most-frequent strategy in decoding similar, identical and different types of idioms. It was also revealed that generally the participants of different levels were significantly different from each other in using strategies.

  1. Learning a Second Language Naturally the Voice Movement Icon Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Macedonia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Second language (L2 instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1 acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI is first performed by the language trainer andthen imitated by the learners. Behavioral experiments demonstrate that words encoded through VMIs are easierto memorize than audio-visually encoded words and that they are better retained over time. The reasons whygestures promote language learning are manifold. First, we focus on language as an embodied phenomenon ofcognition. Then we review evidence that gestures scaffold the acquisition of L1. Because VMIs reconnectlanguage learning with the body, they can be considered as a more natural tool for language instruction thanaudio-visual activities.

  2. Wikis in teaching and learning a foreign language: A case study of wiki usage in the course Academic reading and writing for teacher candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Kedziora, Beata

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of universities are providing the current generation of students, the socalled ‘digital natives’ (Prensky, 2001) - with more flexible and innovative language learning environments through the use of free Web 2.0 tools, such as wikis, blogs, social networking, Second Life and podcasting. However, still relatively little is known about wikis in the context of teaching English for Academic Purposes. My project aims to fill this research gap. I applied a case study strate...

  3. "Miss, How do you Write Hipotesis?" Learning to Teach Science to English Language Learners While Navigating Affordances and Constraints: A Longitudinal Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Irasema

    Early career science teachers are often assigned to classrooms with high numbers of English language learners (ELL students). As these teachers learn to become effective practitioners, the circumstances surrounding them merit a thorough examination. This study examines the longitudinal changes in Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and practices of six early career science teachers who taught in urban schools. The teachers participated in the Alternative Support for Induction Science Teachers (ASIST) program during their initial two years of teaching. Our research team followed the participants over a five-year period. This study focuses on data from Years 1, 3, and 5. The data collected included classroom observations and interviews. In addition, classroom artifacts were collected periodically for the purpose of triangulation. The analysis of the data revealed that with the support of the ASIST program, the teachers implemented inquiry lessons and utilized instructional materials that promoted academic language skills and science competencies among their ELL students. Conversely, standardized testing, teaching assignment, and school culture played a role in constraining the implementation of inquiry-based practices. The results of this study call for collaborative efforts among university science educators and school administrators to provide professional development opportunities and support for the implementation of inquiry and language practices among early career science teachers of ELL students.

  4. HABLA POÉTICA: LÍMITE DEL LENGUAJE Y ESCRITURA DE LA COSA / POETIC SPEECH: THE LIMIT OF LANGUAGE AND THE WRITING OF THE THING / FALA POÉTICA: LIMITE DA LINGUAGEM E ESCRITURA DA COISA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela, Milone.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda as frequentes preocupações sobre a fala poética no pensamento contemporâneo, principalmente com relação ao limite da linguagem e da escritura da coisa, em que se evidenciam perguntas-chave, tais como: como dizer o simples, como nomear a existência das coisas, de que maneira a voz [...] poética enfrenta o aí da certeza da matéria. Abstract in spanish El artículo aborda preocupaciones frecuentes sobre el habla poética en el pensamiento contemporáneo, principalmente en torno al límite del lenguaje y la escritura de la cosa, donde se evidencian preguntas claves, tales como: cómo decir lo simple, cómo nombrar el hay de las cosas, de qué manera la vo [...] z poética se enfrenta al ahí de la certidumbre de la materia. Abstract in english This article examines frequent concerns about poetic speech in contemporary thought, mainly concerning the limit of language and the writing of the thing. We aim to explore key questions such as: how to say the simple?, how to name the there-is of things?, how does the poetic voice face the there of [...] the certainty of matter?

  5. Getting Past "Just Because": Teaching Writing in Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymonpre, Kris; Cohn, Allison; Solomon, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    How many times do teachers assign writing in science class only to be exasperated by their students' lack of writing skills? They often have difficulty making claims and using evidence; instead of explaining their reasoning, they state, "Just because." But teaching writing isn't just for English/language arts (ELA) class. Over the past two years,…

  6. L1CAM/A0290

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-14

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), also known as neural cell adhesion molecule 1 or A0290, is a member of a subgroup of integral membrane proteins that belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules (CAM).

  7. Language as capital in international university education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    As Bourdieu and Passeron noted, academic discourse is never anyone’s ‘mother tongue’. Acquisition of this discourse in one’s first language is a prime aim of undergraduate education, but there is evidence that a substantial minority of students fail to acquire it. There is strong evidence that academic discourse skills are transferable from L1 to L2 and best acquired in L1, but it is not clear to what extent these skills represent usable capital in professional life. Graduates often report having to write in a very different style from the one they have been taught at university. There may be a trade-off between the fluency in a second language provided by its use as sole or parallel medium in education and educational depth in the discipline studied. This fluency may in some circumstances constitute greater capital than the disciplinary insights partially sacrificed. But this varies strikingly across disciplines. This paper uses Bourdieu’s framework to assess the types of linguistic capital – academic discourse, foreign-language fluency, and more – to be acquired in the internationalized university, their utility in the personal advancement of graduates in various societies, and the variation of these factors across disciplines.

  8. Traductor Writing System Web

    CERN Document Server

    Texier, Jose

    2012-01-01

    A compilator is a program which is development in a programming language that read a file known as source. After this file have to translate and have to convert in other program known as object or to generate a exit. The best way for to know any programming language is analizing a compilation process which is same in all programming paradigm existents. To like to generate a tool that permit a learning in university course. This course could explain in any plataform such as Linux o Windows. This goal is posible through development a Web aplication which is unite with a compilator, it is Traductor Writing System (Sistema de Escritura de Traductores). This system is complete and permit extend and modify the compilator. The system is a module in Moodle which is a Course Management System (CMS) that help teachers for to create comunities of learning in line. This software is in free software license (GPL).

  9. L1 and L2 Strategy Use in Reading Comprehension of Chinese EFL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ernst, Cheryl; Talley, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This study revealed the relationship between L1 (Mandarin Chinese) and L2 (English) strategy use in L2 reading comprehension by focusing on the correlation of L1 reading ability, L2 proficiency and employed reading strategies. The participants, 222 undergraduates learning English as a foreign language (EFL), were classified into skilled and…

  10. Transfer or Threshold: The Relationship between L1 and FL Comprehension Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feifei

    2012-01-01

    A crucial area in FL reading research is the transfer of reading skills from L1 to FL. Among all the reading skills, comprehension monitoring plays an important role. This study examines relationship between comprehension monitoring outcomes in L1 and FL reading among Chinese learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) with different FL…

  11. Direction Asymmetries in Spoken and Signed Language Interpreting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…

  12. Reference: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 Abe M, Takahashi T, Komeda Y Identification of a cis-regulatory element for L1 layer ... an L1-specific homeodomain protein Plant J 26: 487-494 ... (2001) PubMed: 11439135; ...

  13. Mystery Box Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Straits

    2005-11-01

    Developing writing skills along with content by incorporating hands-on science experiences and related writing lessons provides students with a purpose for writing, which makes it more meaningful to students. The Mystery Box lesson discussed in this article is a fun science/writing activity which helps students to develop observation skills while also motivating students to write.

  14. [Slow brain potentials in writing: the correlation between writing hand and speech dominance in right-handed humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, R; Hufschmidt, A; Moschallski, W

    1982-01-01

    1. Slow cerebral potential shifts were recorded from the scalp over both cerebral hemispheres by retrograde summation while 23 right-handers were writing. Averaging included writing errors, but eliminated eye movements and other artifacts. Repeated writing of the same word or sentence was compared to writing different dictated words, to drawings, and to other control experiments. 2. Surface negative readiness potentials (Bereitschaftspotential) appeared about 1 s before writing, which was similar to those preceding other voluntary movements. 3. During writing, the writing potentials in different cortical regions began with a negative increase of the Bereitschaftspotential, usually followed by a plateau or positive waves. One or several biphasic potentials persisted for another 2 s after writing had ceased. 4. The writing potentials had rather constant forms in the same individual, but showed large interindividual variations of form and polarity. The largest initial negativity (with both ear lobes serving as reference) occurred at the vertex and the left motor region contralateral to the writing hand. 5. The left hemispheric preponderance of writing potentials, maximal at the precentral region contralateral to the writing hand, was less marked when writing with the left hand. An interaction of the writing hand and language dominance is assumed. 6. Writing the same word or short sentence repeatedly caused potentials of larger amplitude than the preceding readiness potentials. Writing dictated words or drawing figures after verbal stimuli that require language processing caused larger potentials in the left hemisphere than did repeated word writing. 7. The fact that negative potentials with larger left hemispheric amplitudes appear after verbal stimuli may indicate that language information is processed in the speech-dominant hemisphere before and during writing or drawing. 8. By variously combining bipolar leads, the lateral differences of the potential fields can be more clearly distinguished than by using only unipolar leads with ear reference. PMID:7171294

  15. Best practices in writing instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Steve; Fitzgerald, Jill

    2013-01-01

    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language le

  16. Written Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Larkin, Rebecca F.; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. Aims: To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with…

  17. Teaching Writing Skills for Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Vijaya Lakshmi*1

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper focuses on the writing skills of the Engineering students of all the branches especially at the time of placements. Writing in English is almost a prerequisite for the job. Now- a-days testing the writing skills of the students is mandatory before going to attend the interviews. LSRW skills are essential in the acquisition of language. In order to help the students with these writing skills, teacher has to take the initiative to motivate them. Most of the students are coming from rural areas and basically from regional medium background. So they require support at every step. Writing becomes a Herculean task to them. Triggering their requirement is a pivotal role of the teacher. Different perspectives of writing skills like free writing, mechanics of writing, vocabulary, grammar, description of a picture, paragraph, essay and summary writing and report, resume, letter and e-mail writings are discussed in this paper. Activities like pair work or group work of all the tasks are added benefit to the students. Interest and command on the identified topic of the student is not identical. Analysis and feedback of each and every activity is an added grace to the teacher and advantage to the student. If the students are trained logically from the beginning of their first year of Engineering they achieve their dream of getting a placement before completing their Bachelor’s degree.

  18. Reflective Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McDonald

    2009-03-01

    Your students successfully completed a lab session, correctly filled in all of the worksheets,and collected the required data. Yet, as a science teacher, you still find yourself wondering--what did my students actually learn? And, can they apply that learning to what is going on in their everyday lives? The process of critical thinking and knowledge application requires more than rote memorization and the ability to get answers correct on lab reports or multiple-choice tests. Purposeful, guided reflection may be an opportunity to gain insight into what students are thinking and learning in relation to science content. This article describes how to use guided reflective writing in the science classroom to provide a window into students' minds.

  19. Selected writings

    CERN Document Server

    Galilei, Galileo

    2012-01-01

    'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

  20. The Effects of Peer Feedback on The Writing Anxiety of Prospective Turkish Teachers of EFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe KURT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies done in L1/L2 English settings have revealed the negative effects of writing anxiety on both learner motivation and academic achievement and teachers’ attitudes towards writing and the practices they use in their own classes. The present study aims to find out the effects of peer feedback on the writing anxiety of Turkish prospective teachers (PTs of English. A total of 86 PTs of English participated in this study. During the eight-week study, PTs in the experimental group, who had been given a training on peer feedback, were asked to work in pairs in their writing class, give feedback on each other’s essays and discuss their feedback with each other before handing them to their instructors. On the other hand, PTs in the control group received only teacher feedback on their essays. Data were collected by means of the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 given at the beginning and end of the study and by means of interviews carried out with 20 experimental group PTs at the end of the term. Results of the quantitative data showed that the peer feedback group experienced significantly less writing anxiety than the teacher feedback group at the end of the study. The interview results revealed that the participating PTs benefited from the peer feedback process as with the feedback of their friends they became aware of their mistakes. Moreover, during the process they received opinions from their friends to elaborate on, and this collaboration helped them look at their essays from a different perspective.

  1. Recent Development of Wiki Applications in Collaborative Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufeh Ansarimoghaddam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wiki is increasingly gaining popularity in language learning. Some researchers suggest that wiki is a useful tool that enhances collaboration among students. Moreover, collaborative writing through wiki is an effective strategy for improving students’ writing skills. This review summarizes findings of empirical research studies on the application of wiki in collaborative writing from 2005 till 2011. Some directions for future research related to the use of wiki for collaborative writing are also suggested.

  2. Exploring Utterance and Cognitive Fluency of L1 and L2 English Speakers: Temporal Measures and Stimulated Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    Although fluency constitutes an essential component of second language (L2) proficiency, there are mixed results and gaps in the literature on how L2 speakers' fluency differs from fluent speech production in a first language (L1). The research reported in this article investigated utterance fluency and cognitive fluency of L1 English…

  3. Writing a Condolence Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writing a Condolence Note By Helen Fitzgerald, CT Focusing only on happy thoughts, it is usually easy ... to write an anniversary or birthday greeting. But writing a condolence note is something altogether different because, ...

  4. Ubiquitous L1 Mosaicism in Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Kyle R.; Gerhardt, Daniel J.; Jesuadian, J. Samuel; Richardson, Sandra R.; Sánchez-Luque, Francisco J.; Bodea, Gabriela O.; Ewing, Adam D.; Salvador-Palomeque, Carmen; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Brennan, Paul M.; Vanderver, Adeline; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Somatic LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition during neurogenesis is a potential source of genotypic variation among neurons. As a neurogenic niche, the hippocampus supports pronounced L1 activity. However, the basal parameters and biological impact of L1-driven mosaicism remain unclear. Here, we performed single-cell retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) on individual human hippocampal neurons and glia, as well as cortical neurons. An estimated 13.7 somatic L1 insertions occurred per hippocampal neuron and carried the sequence hallmarks of target-primed reverse transcription. Notably, hippocampal neuron L1 insertions were specifically enriched in transcribed neuronal stem cell enhancers and hippocampus genes, increasing their probability of functional relevance. In addition, bias against intronic L1 insertions sense oriented relative to their host gene was observed, perhaps indicating moderate selection against this configuration in vivo. These experiments demonstrate pervasive L1 mosaicism at genomic loci expressed in hippocampal neurons. PMID:25860606

  5. On Saying It Right (Write): "Fix-Its" in the Foundations of Learning to Write

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    2006-01-01

    The basics of child writing, as traditionally conceived, involve "neutral" conventions for organizing and encoding language. This "basic" notion of a solid foundation for child writing is itself situated in a fluid world of cultural and linguistic diversity and rapidly changing literacy practices. In this paper, I aim to theorize and problematize…

  6. Autobiographical Writing in the Technical Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Professionals in the workplace are rarely asked to write autobiographical essays. Such essays, however, are an excellent tool for helping students explore their growth as professionals. This article explores the use of such essays in a technical writing class.

  7. The Role of First Language Literacy and Second Language Proficiency in Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships of first language (L1) literacy, second language (L2) proficiency, and L2 reading comprehension with 246 Chinese college students learning English. L1 literacy and L2 proficiency were measured with college admission exams in Chinese and English. L2 reading comprehension was measured with the reading…

  8. The Excellence in Education Report: Connecting Reading, Writing, and Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarsky, Carolyn; Johnson, Clifford

    1983-01-01

    Addressing major themes of the commission's "Open Letter to the American People," this article discusses reading and writing skills development, and the cognitive skills involved in these processes. An effective teaching method, the Language Experience Approach based on aural/oral language with reading and writing combined, is detailed. (MBR)

  9. Process Approach to Teaching Writing Applied in Different Teaching Models

    OpenAIRE

    Chunling Sun; Guoping Feng

    2009-01-01

    English writing, as a basic language skill for second language learners, is being paid close attention to. How to achieve better results in English teaching and how to develop students’ writing competence remain an arduous task for English teachers. Based on the review of the concerning literature from other researchers as well as a summery of the author’s own experimental research, the author of this essay for the first time tries to give definitions of the process approach to writing, m...

  10. Brain Bases for First Language Lexical Attrition in Bengali-English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Hia

    2010-01-01

    Change of first language (L1) status from the most stable language to a less accessible language over the life-span of a bilingual individual is termed "language attrition". Such a shift in ease of L1 access has been reported to affect the lexicon (Pelc, 2001) more than other aspects of language. However, whether L1 attrition is affected by…

  11. A avaliação em foco: o que provam as provas de Língua Portuguesa e de Redaçao do exame vestibular? / Exams of Portuguese Language and Writing in entrance examinations: what do they prove?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Lúcia Péret, Dell' Isola.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As provas de Língua Portuguesa e de Redação dos vestibulares são instrumentos voltados para a seleção de candidatos aptos para ingressar no Ensino Superior. Espera-se que eles demonstrem ter conhecimentos linguísticos e textuais que lhes permitam interpretar e produzir textos da esfera acadêmica. Ma [...] s, essas provas evidenciam os conhecimentos necessários para a admissão dos melhores candidatos nos cursos de graduação? Com o objetivo de responder a essa pergunta, analisamos questões propostas em vestibulares da UFMG nos últimos dez anos. Constatamos que, entre 2000 e 2009, avaliam-se competências a serem demonstradas por meio de habilidades, como localizar informações explícitas, inferir as implícitas em um texto, reconhecer novos sentidos atribuídos às palavras dentro de uma produção textual. Constatamos também a presença de diversos gêneros textuais da mídia impressa que favorece a reflexão crítica, o exercício de formas de pensamento mais elaboradas. Concluímos que as provas desse concurso cumprem a meta a que se destinam. Abstract in english Exams of Portuguese Language and Writing in entrance examinations are instruments aiming at the selection of the candidates who are fit to start undergraduate studies. It is expected that they show the textual and linguistic knowledge that allow them to interpret and produce texts in the academic fi [...] eld. But do these texts elicit the necessary knowledge for the admission of the best candidates to undergraduate courses? With the purpose of answering this question we have analyzed the questions asked in the entrance examinations of UFMG in the last 10 years. We have found that, between the years 2000 and 2009, the competence is assessed through skills such as locating explicit information, deducing implicit information, recognizing new meanings of words, within a given text. We have also verified the presence of several text genres from press media which favor critical reflection, and the application of more elaborated forms of reasoning. We have concluded that these tests fulfill their intended goal.

  12. Process-Product Approach to Writing: the Effect of Model Essays on EFL Learners’ Writing Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastou Gholami Pasand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing is one the most important skills in learning a foreign language. The significance of being able to write in a second or foreign language has become clearer nowadays. Accordingly, different approaches to writing such as product approach, process approach and more recently process-product approach came into existence and they have been the concern of SL/FL researchers. The aim of this study is to answer the question that whether the use of an incomplete model text in process-product approach to writing and asking the learners to complete the text rather than copying it can have a positive impact on EFL learners’ accuracy in writing. After training a number of EFL learners on using process approach, we held a two-session writing class. In the first session students wrote in the process approach, and in the second one they were given a model text to continue in the process-product approach. The writing performance of the students in these two sessions was compared in term of accuracy. Based on the students’ writing performance, we came to the conclusion that completing the model text in process-product writing can have a rather positive influence in some aspects of their writing accuracy such as punctuation, capitalization, spelling, subject-verb agreement, tense, the use of connectors, using correct pronouns and possessives. Also the results of the paired t-test indicate that using a model text to continue increased students’ writing accuracy.Keywords: EFL writing, process-product approach, model text, writing accuracy

  13. Writing: Grammatical Adequacy and Reasoning

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    K.B. Mann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper discusses through a quantitative approach different text genres and through a qualitative approach, opinion essays written by students from the Portuguese Language Tutoring Project, with the purpose of engaging the learner so that he can enjoy the production process becoming the agent of his own learning. Given the performance of students, identified through corpus analysis, we found that the writings enabled the tutors to employ new methodological actions for teaching several genres, vocabulary and grammar skills. The analysis resulted in the finding of a greater involvement of the students in the proposed activities and a better linguistic performance at the end of this data collection.Keywords: Portuguese Language Tutoring, Writing, Speech Genre.

  14. Writing Workshop in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    Preschoolers may be novices in the area of writing but, as this article highlights, they are indeed writers. In a year-long ethnography of preschoolers during structured writing time the teacher/researcher explored how students adapted to a writing workshop format. Students participated in daily journal writing and sharing, and weekly conference…

  15. Using Writing in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Interested in incorporating writing into a math class? This article includes specific suggestions for managing journals, developing prompts for writing, and providing students with feedback on their writing. In addition, the site includes two sample lessons for introducing writing activities in a math classroom.

  16. Writing and Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Magasic, Coleen

    2012-01-01

    Writing activities are a sure way to assess and enhance students' science literacy. Sometimes the author's students use technical writing to communicate their lab experiences, just as practicing scientists do. Other times, they use creative writing to make connections to the topics they're learning. This article describes both types of writing…

  17. The Iranian Academicians' Strategies in Writing English Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Nekoueizadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Academicians are identified with their papers and expertise in writing scholarly articles, either for promotion or for satisfying their prestige. Iranian academic members are expected to win a justifiable stance by the quality and quantity of their publications and presentations. Regrettably through pervious studying about second language writing, any studies haven’t been dedicated to the style of writing articles, which are used by academic members. Former studies on second language writing indicate that style in academic paper writing is most likely ignored. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of mind translation strategy among Iranian academic members for expressing their own opinion through writing second language academic papers. The present paper has based its hypothesis on three levels of strategies, effective in writing academic papers, namely: 1-Do Iranian academicians follow specific strategies in writing their academic papers? 2-What role does translation play as a strategy in their writing academic papers? 3-Do they feel a need for a strategy shift in their academic paper writing? Data elicited based on survey and corpora analysis in form of CBDTS- on micro and macro levels, are put into matrices and their analyses are supportive of academicians’ reliance on different types of mental translation use and their shift toward authentic writing after receiving feedback from their reviewers.Keywords: CBDTS, micro level, macro level, mental translation, strategy shift

  18. Learning about science through writing.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaubert, M.; Rebiere, M.

    2005-01-01

    Using socio-historical theory as a frame, the authors analyse the use of written practice in the classroom as a powerful tool for building scientific concepts. The teacher’s use of oral language in the classroom introduces students to controversial issues on different topics – the example chosen is about the relationship between a pregnant woman and her foetus – and makes the students (10 –11 years old) react to her proposals as well as involving them in a scientific activity. Writing...

  19. Noticing in L2 writing

    OpenAIRE

    Geist, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the ways L2 learners of English reflect on their use of English while completing a writing task and the strategies learners apply in order to resolve their language-related problems. Factors which might have some influence on the learners' noticing and problem-solving behaviour were explored using a qualitative, inductive research approach involving the detailed analyses of ten participants. Think-aloud protocols and stimulated recall interviews were used to investigate...

  20. TARGETING L2 WRITING PROFICIENCIES: INSTRUCTION AND AREAS OF CHANGE IN STUDENTS' WRITING OVER TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Archibald

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Writing in a second language is a complex activity requiring proficiency in a number of different areas. l Writing programmes often focus on particular areas of skill and knowledge that are seen as important to the overall process. This study looks at the effects of the focus of teaching on student writing. Fifty students on an eight-week pre-sessional programme were asked to write a 250-word assignment at the start and the end of their courses. These were graded on a nineband scale using a seven-trait multiple-trait scoring system. The results show that discourse organisation and argumentation, which were the primary focus of classroom study, improved more than other areas. This suggests that tutors should look at writing proficiency in terms of an overall balance of proficiencies and that targeting aspects of student writing can affect this overall balance.

  1. 14 Writing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy Broemmel

    2006-01-01

    That a relatively small piece of writing such as Albert Einstein's three-page paper of relativity could be so important certainly illustrates the significance of writing to science. A science class is not complete unless it helps students learn to think like scientists, and writing is an essential part of such thinking. This article enumerates fourteen writing strategies that will encourage critical thinking skills and provide legitimate, purposeful writing practice by promoting solid science learning and review.

  2. Translation in Teaching a Foreign (Second Language: A Methodological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuki Machida

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the act of translating between mother tongue and second/foreign language as a potentially effective way to improve learners’ second/foreign language. The author first examines the history of ‘translation’ as a methodology in second/foreign language teaching. The author then provides arguments in favour of including the methodology in SL/FL teaching in the current post-cognitive paradigm. The paper limits its theoretical perspective of the methodology to advanced level learners, and emphasises that the act of translating can create ideal learning opportunities with positive L1 use in SL/FL learning. The act of translating is a holistic activity, which immediately compels the learners to pay more attention to the SL/FL text, which encourages their awareness of form and meaning in context and improves their reading and writing skills in SL/FL. The methodology further enhances learners’ general skills of noticing and observing details of the linguistic systems, cultures, and societies of L1 and SL/FL, in order to deliver the messages between the two languages. This can expand the SL/FL learning to beyond the classroom.

  3. Second Language Acquisition and Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Óskar Þráinsson 1975

    2012-01-01

    Current research on language development and bilingual development suggests that good proficiency in the first language (L1) is a prerequisite for acquiring a second language (L2). Documentation from the Icelandic State's Diagnostic and Counselling Centre seems to challenge this assumption, as a number of children who have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and that have delayed or impaired L1 development, seems to have very good proficiency in English, which is their L2. Th...

  4. L1CAM whole gene deletion in a child with L1 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidsey, Brandalyn A; Baldwin, Erin E; Toydemir, Reha; Ahles, Lauren; Hanson, Heather; Stevenson, David A

    2014-06-01

    L1 syndrome is a group of overlapping, X-linked disorders caused by mutations in L1CAM. Clinical phenotypes within L1 syndrome include X-linked hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius (HSAS); mental retardation, adducted thumbs, shuffling gait, and aphasia (MASA) syndrome; spastic paraplegia type 1; and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Over 200 mutations in L1CAM have been reported; however, only a few large gene deletions have been observed. We report on a 4-month-old male with a de novo whole gene deletion of L1CAM presenting with congenital hydrocephalus, aqueductal stenosis, and adducted thumbs. Initial failure of L1CAM gene sequencing suggested the possibility of a whole gene deletion of L1CAM. Further investigation through chromosome microarray analysis showed a 62Kb deletion encompassing the first exon of the PDZD4 gene and the entire L1CAM gene. Investigations into genotype-phenotype correlations have suggested that mutations leading to truncated or absent L1 protein cause more severe forms of L1 syndrome. Based on the presentation of the proband and other reported patients with whole gene deletions, we provide further evidence that L1CAM whole gene deletions result in L1 syndrome with a severe phenotype, deletions of PDZD4 do not cause additional manifestations, and that X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus reported in a subset of patients with large L1CAM deletions results from the loss of AVPR2. PMID:24668863

  5. Essay: Learning a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen Bialystok, York University

    2008-01-01

    What challenges face students who are learning a second language at the same time as they are learning science? This essay considers some of the difficulties associated with learning to speak, read, and write in a second language. Although the principles of language learning discussed here can be generalized across languages and contexts, this essay considers situations in which English is both the language of instruction and the language being learned.

  6. L1-norm-based 2DPCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelong; Pang, Yanwei; Yuan, Yuan

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we first present a simple but effective L1-norm-based two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA). Traditional L2-norm-based least squares criterion is sensitive to outliers, while the newly proposed L1-norm 2DPCA is robust. Experimental results demonstrate its advantages. PMID:20083461

  7. Planar Earthmover is not in $L_1$

    OpenAIRE

    Naor, Assaf; Schechtman, Gideon

    2005-01-01

    We show that any $L_1$ embedding of the transportation cost (a.k.a. Earthmover) metric on probability measures supported on the grid $\\{0,1,...,n\\}^2\\subseteq \\R^2$ incurs distortion $\\Omega(\\sqrt{\\log n})$. We also use Fourier analytic techniques to construct a simple $L_1$ embedding of this space which has distortion $O(\\log n)$.

  8. The Impact of Different Writing Tasks on Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Abdali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is academically believed that conventional methods of teaching writing could not provide satisfactorily the Iranian intermediate English as Foreign Language (EFL learners with being fully equipped to meet the demand of their authorities while preparing their reports, compositions, essays, papers, assignments, and projects. Therefore, to introduce a desirable approach to teaching writing, researchers usually introduce task based approaches to compensate for such flaws and end such kinds of concerns. So this experimental study tried to investigate the impact of four different pedagogic writing tasks, i.e., Topic Writing (TW, Summary Writing (SW, Graphic Writing (GW, and Picture Writing (PW on complexity and accuracy of writing performance of aforementioned learners. To this end, 120 subjects were selected as the participants of this experimental study to see which kinds of writing task can ameliorate the current condition well. For implementation the command of the study, altogether 960 written texts as documents of the pre and post test and also treatment were collected and analyzed to pinpoint meticulously the efficacy of these different kinds of writing tasks on subjects' accomplishment in their written production. The results of the study revealed the superiority of SW group for complexity and GW for accuracy of their written productions.

  9. Writing Hypertexts: Proposed effects on writing processes and knowledge acquisition.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, T.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Braaksma, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose that hypertext writing at school could have beneficial effects on the acquisition of content knowledge and the acquisition of writing skills compared to linear writing. We view the effects of hypertext writing on writing skills from the perspective of “shared” cognitive activities in writing linear texts and hypertexts. In a pilot study we examined the effects of hypertext writing on writing processes and we related the occurrence of writing processes to the quali...

  10. The Potential Influence of L1 (Chinese) on L2 (English) Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2010-01-01

    A major issue in the field of L2 acquisition is the role that language learners' L1 plays in the acquisition of an L2. This article shows some of the salient linguistic features of Chinese that may present communication challenges for Chinese-speaking learners of English as an additional language. Instructors' awareness of such features will…

  11. An Awareness of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Joel B.

    Historical incidents, photographs of sheet music, cartoons, and advertisements are employed to study language in this textbook. The text, suggestions, and quoted material in the book are to be used not only for the study of language but also as sources for writing. It is recommended that journal entries, more fresh and spontaneous than formal…

  12. L1 Retrotransposons in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons like L1 are silenced in somatic cells by a variety of mechanisms acting at different levels. Protective mechanisms include DNA methylation and packaging into inactive chromatin to suppress transcription and prevent recombination, potentially supported by cytidine deaminase editing of RNA. Furthermore, DNA strand breaks arising during attempted retrotranspositions ought to activate cellular checkpoints, and L1 activation outside immunoprivileged sites may elicit immune responses. A number of observations indicate that L1 sequences nevertheless become reactivated in human cancer. Prominently, methylation of L1 sequences is diminished in many cancer types and full-length L1 RNAs become detectable, although strong expression is restricted to germ cell cancers. L1 elements have been found to be enriched at sites of illegitimate recombination in many cancers. In theory, lack of L1 repression in cancer might cause transcriptional deregulation, insertional mutations, DNA breaks, and an increased frequency of recombinations, contributing to genome disorganization, expression changes, and chromosomal instability. There is however little evidence that such effects occur at a gross scale in human cancers. Rather, as a rule, L1 repression is only partly alleviated. Unfortunately, many techniques commonly used to investigate genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer cells are not well suited to detect subtle effects elicited by partial reactivation of retroelements like L1 which are present as abundant, but heterogeneous copies. Therefore, effects of L1 sequences exerted on the local chromatin structure, on the transcriptional regulation of individual genes, and on chromosome fragility need to be more closely investigated in normal and cancer cells.

  13. Online pronoun resolution in L2 discourse: L1 influence and general learner effects

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Leah; Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether advanced second language (L2) learners of a nonnull subject language (Dutch) are influenced by their null subject first language (L1) (Turkish) in their offline and online resolution of subject pronouns in L2 discourse. To tease apart potential L1 effects from possible general L2 processing effects, we also tested a group of German L2 learners of Dutch who were predicted to perform like the native Dutch speakers. The two L2 groups differed in their offline inte...

  14. Writing Center Handouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-quality materials on the art and craft of effective college-level writing are always in demand, and this website from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has a veritable cornucopia of such documents. The materials were created by the school's Writing Center, and they are divided into four areas: "Writing the Paper", "Citation, Style, and Sentence Level Concerns", "Specific Writing Assignments/Contexts", and "Writing for Specific Fields". The "Writing for Specific Fields" area is a great place for students who have declared a major, and each piece contains a bit of background on the nature of writing in each field, along with some information about the key units of analysis, assumptions, and so on. What is perhaps most impressive about this site are the multimedia writing demonstrations which cover "Developing Ideas", "Drafting", and two other key areas of the writing process.

  15. Programming Language and Artificial Intelligence Development.

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Rekha Purohit; Prof. Prabhat Mathur

    2013-01-01

    The term language means communication tool which is used to write Computer program and develop application, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. Computer programming languages are used to write programs that define the behavior of a computer system. They are based on certain syntactic and semantic rules, which define the meaning of each of the programming language constructs. The syntactic and the semantic rules of every programming language define the language imp...

  16. La producción de resúmenes en Inglés como Lengua Extranjera (ILE) / La rédaction de résumés en anglais langue étrangère (ALE) / Summary Writing in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) / A produção de resumos em inglês como língua estrangeira (ILE)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simón, Ruiz; Rebecca, Beke.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A escritura de resumos de textos em inglês como língua estrangeira é um tema que tem recebido mais atenção por parte dos especialistas no âmbito internacional do que no nacional. A partir da abordagem discursivo-funcional, e com base em um corpus de cem resumos redigidos em inglês, estabelecemos com [...] o intuito deste trabalho pesquisar como os estudantes incluem em seus textos as funções discursivas do texto origem e como utilizam as marcas discursivas para destacar essas funções. Para isso, foi utilizado o padrão textual Problema-Solução proposto por Hoey (2001). Os resultados desta análise demonstram que a maioria dos estudantes incluiu em seus resumos as funções hierarquicamente mais importantes do texto original. A estrutura to be about foi utilizada mais frequentemente para introduzir o tópico do texto origem e o verbo to evaluate para reportar o objetivo da pesquisa. Os resultados evidenciam que a maioria dos estudantes tem as aptidões necessárias não só para identificar as diferentes funções discursivas no texto original, mas também para reconstruir, com suas próprias palavras, um texto novo respeitando estas funções. Abstract in spanish La escritura de resúmenes de textos en inglés como lengua extranjera es un tema que ha recibido mayor atención de los expertos en el contexto internacional que en el nacional. Desde una perspectiva discursivo-funcional, y sobre la base de un corpus de cien resúmenes redactados en inglés, nos propusi [...] mos averiguar cómo los aprendices incluyen en sus textos las funciones discursivas del texto fuente y cómo utilizan las marcas discursivas para señalar estas funciones. Para ello se utilizó el patrón textual Problema-Solución propuesto por Hoey (2001). Los resultados del análisis muestran que la mayoría de los estudiantes incluyó en sus resúmenes las funciones jerárquicamente más importantes del texto original. La estructura to be about fue utilizada con mayor frecuencia para introducir el tópico del texto fuente y el verbo to evaluate para reportar el propósito de la investigación. Los resultados evidencian que la mayoría de los estudiantes tiene las habilidades necesarias para identificar las diferentes funciones discursivas en el texto original y para reconstruir, con sus propias palabras, un texto nuevo respetando estas funciones. Abstract in english Summary writing in English as a foreign language has been investigated internationally more than locally. From a discursive-functional perspective and on the basis of the problem-solution textual pattern (Hoey, 2001), we analyzed a corpus of one hundred summaries of a scientific news article, writte [...] n in English by Spanish speaking high school students. We aimed at finding out how the learners include the discursive functions of the source text in their writings and how these functions are linguistically signaled. The results show that the majority of students included in their summaries the hierarchically most important functions of the original text. To be about was the most common structure used to introduce the topic of the original text while the verb to evaluate was most widely used to report the purpose of the source text. These findings indicate that the majority of the participants are discursively and linguistically competent not only to identify the different discourse functions of the original text, but also to reconstruct, in their own words, a new and coherent text.

  17. Culture, cognition and language in the constitution of reading and writing practices in an adult literacy classroom Cultura, cognição e linguagem na constituição de práticas de leitura e escrita de adultos em processo de alfabetização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Cardoso Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze a discursive interaction between a researcher and an Youth and Adult Education student intending to show the meanings and uses of reading and writing taken by him. We take as our basis for discussion the theoretical-methodological contributions from Historical-Cultural Psychology and Paulo Freire's theories, which are combined with Bakhtin's concept of dialogue. This procedure allowed us, on one hand, getting into the other's perspective and, on the other hand, to make relations between cognition, language and culture to understand the adult students' metacognitive strategies, in the appropriation process of literacy practices of school culture. Thus, we could discuss the intimate relationship between doing and knowing and the importance of school in the transition from concrete thinking to the abstract thinking and vice-versa.Neste artigo analisamos uma interação discursiva entre uma pesquisadora e um estudante da Educação de Jovens e Adultos objetivando mostrar sentidos e usos da leitura e da escrita por ele mobilizados. Tomamos como base para nossa discussão os aportes teórico-metodológicos da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural e das teorizações de Paulo Freire, que conjugamos com a concepção de diálogo de Bakhtin. Tal procedimento nos possibilitou, por um lado, entrar na perspectiva do outro, e por outro, fazer relações entre cognição, linguagem e cultura para compreendermos as estratégias metacognitivas de alunos da EJA ao se apropriarem da cultura escolar. Pudemos também evidenciar a íntima relação entre fazer e saber e a importância da escola na transição do pensamento concreto para o abstrato e vice-versa.

  18. Fostering Writing and Critical Thinking through Dialogue Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Bhushan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Much like the regular physical exercise, having a regular writing workout is necessary for learners of English language. Dialogue journals provide the perfect means for this. Dialogue journal in an English classroom is an informal written conversation between the students and the teacher; in fact it can motivate a learner to write more in English. The language in a dialogue journal is closer to speech than to academic writing, so it promotes authentic, informal and lively conversation between the writers. As our learners need frequent opportunities to practice speaking English freely without fear of being corrected, in order to achieve oral fluency; similarly they need the chance to write freely without inhibition to promote fluency in writing. Often it is in the act of writing a response that actual learning takes place and this is how critical thinking develops. In fact, dialogue journal is the place where students explore their thinking before classroom discussion. It enables speaking and writing, referencing each other. The main objective of using dialogue journals in the English language classroom is to give students more time and opportunities for writing so that they can experience the pleasure of communication through the written word and at the same time become better writers and thinkers in English. With this background, the aim of this paper is to discuss the role of dialogue journals in developing the skills of writing and critical thinking of English language learners.

  19. Improving linguistic fluency for writing: Effects of explicitness and focus of instruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Gelderen, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In an explorative classroom experiment the effects of several instructional conditions for writing were compared. Studies on writing suggest that linguistic fluency is an important factor in writer’s abilities to manipulate sentence structures in order to produce comprehensible text. L1 writing theories indicate that working memory limitations play an important role in formulation. Therefore, improving linguistic fluency presumably frees working memory space and allows the writer to devote more attention to meaning-related problems. An important point of debate in language-learning theories is the role of explicit knowledge about linguistic structure. Some believe that explicit rule knowledge has an important role in acquiring fluency, while others maintain that explicit knowledge has no real influence on skill development, and that fluency develops on the basis of the implicit knowledge of linguistic structures. In recent L2 theories a focus solely on meaning appears insufficient for mastery of linguistic structures. Meaning-oriented language production should, in this view, be complemented by a focus on form(s. Four learning conditions for improving linguistic fluency were discriminated according to the dimensions “focus of instruction” (forms vs. meaning and “explicitness of instruction” (implicit vs. explicit. Students of elementary grades 5 and 6 (including both first- and advanced second-language learners of Dutch received four lessons involving the linguistic operations for adding information to sentences in meaningful contexts and avoiding unnecessary (repetition of information. Results of the experiment show significant positive effects of all four conditions on two post-test formulation tasks in comparison to a control group.

  20. The Impact of Text Genre on Iranian Intermediate EFL Students’ Writing Errors: An Error Analysis Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Moqimipour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Persian language, regarded as the first language (L1, in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast by Iranian EFL students. 65 English paragraphs written by the participants, who were at the intermediate level based on their performance on a quick placement test, were analyzed by using Error Analysis (EA. The ideas of 15 teachers with more than six years of teaching in the field of TEFL were also sought through interview to validate the collected data. The results revealed that the first language interference errors fell into 12 categories: singular/plural form, modal auxiliary, subject-verb agreement, verb tense, infinitive gerund, pronoun, article, verb form, prepositions, sentence structure, word choice, comparison structure, respectively, and the number of frequent errors made in each type of written tasks was apparently different with regard to text genres. In narration, the five most frequent errors found were singular/plural form, modal auxiliary, subject-verb agreement, verb tense, and infinitive gerund, respectively, while the five most frequent errors in description were article, subject-verb agreement, modal/auxiliary, verb tense, and prepositions. The category for that of comparison/contrast comprised verb tense, singular/plural form, preposition, and subject-verb agreement respectively. The three errors of singular/plural form, verb tense, subject-verb agreement were the most frequent errors. The results reveals that different structural features required in a genre influences the writing errors made in the genre. Moreover, some pedagogical implications are provided based on the results.

  1. Power of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mood strikes. Find what works for your personality and schedule. Write what's on your mind, not ... same outlet posting about their experiences on Twitter, Facebook, or Instagram. Whether you decide to write in ...

  2. Teaching language arts to English language learners

    CERN Document Server

    Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w

  3. Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gi-Pyo Park

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2) reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1) reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females) Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after closely looking into the methods of data analysis of the current literature on a language threshold. Statistical analysis revealed that the contributi...

  4. ON TEACHERS’ KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND WISDOM – AND THE INEVITABILITY OF LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KJERSTI LEA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the concept of knowledge with a view on L1 teachers. Influenced by Aristotle’s epistemology, it explores how teacher knowledge could be described and understood.The empirical foundation of the article is a case study of seven Icelandic L1 teachers.The article analyses the concept of teachers’ professional knowledge and discusses questions such as: What kind of knowledge do the teachers actually possess and value? How do L1 teachers deal with the complexity of their work? Does their knowledge cover the needs of their profession?The analysis indicates that the L1 subject in some respects is in a special position: It addition to being a school subject, it relates to cultural traditions and values. Moreover, the subject relates to pupils’ devel-opment both as individuals and citizens, and so even deals with citizenship in a fundamental way. Fur-thermore, L1 is a tool for any subject: pupils need to read and to express themselves both in writing and orally in all classes. Besides, the subject often treats themes which affect pupils’ personally, e.g. due to the close connection between language and identity. Therefore teachers’ knowledge should include morality, in addition to academic and pedagogic skills.

  5. Writing in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Conrad, Ph.D.

    The Civil Engineering Writing Project website contains two kinds of information: (1) research findings about the ways in which student writing in civil engineering differs from practitioners' writing and (2) materials for civil engineering students who want to improve writing skills that are especially useful in the workplace (as well as in the classroom). The resource resulted from a project funded by the National Science Foundation.

  6. Press Release Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    As expected, Press Release Writing, from Accurate Online Solutions, offers a helpful tutorial on the art of press release writing. The advice is broken into several easily digestible sections, covering the main themes of the advertising vs. public relations debate, essentials of writing press releases, templates, formats, and samples. The site also offers comprehensive distribution lists for all media formats including electronic media, magazines, newspapers, wire services, and television stations. Interested users will want to subscribe to the free Press Release Writing enewsletter.

  7. Negative Transfer of Chinese to College Students? English Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In China, in the process of college students’ foreign language learning, English writing is the reflection of their integrating skills and it is also the process of rewriting based on gaining English knowledge. Meanwhile, Chinese college students’ English writing is a cross-language and cross-cultural communicative behavior, and also a behavior of the transformation of thinking and cultural model. However, in the process of English writing, the negative transfer of Chinese influences students’ writing. Here, according to the research to the students’ writing and the relative questionnaire survey in Beihai College of Beihang University, this paper is a systematic and objective analysis on the negative transfer of Chinese to college students’ English writing at the levels of lexis, sentence structure and discourse.

  8. Technical Writing in Hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A project for Writing Across the Curriculum at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire is described as a method to relate the process of writing to the process of learning hydrology. The project focuses on an actual groundwater contamination case and is designed to improve the technical writing skills of students. (JN)

  9. Writing as Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Alice G.

    1987-01-01

    Promotes writing as a counseling technique to enhance a child's psychological growth. Notes that writing enhances awareness by helping individuals organize their inner selves, contributing to personal integration and self-validation, and providing a cathartic emotional release. Describes current therapeutic writing practices and a therapeutic…

  10. How Do I Write…? Scaffolding Preschoolers' Early Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.; Gerde, Hope K.

    2013-01-01

    Providing preschoolers with rich writing experiences can help to lay a foundation for their later reading and writing success. Early writing experiences can be greatly enhanced by how preschool teachers answer young children's questions about writing and engage them in productive writing instruction. With appropriate scaffolding, early writing…

  11. Second Language Reading Research: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelrigg, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    Second language research and classroom practice have tended to sideline reading in favor of an emphasis on the oral language development of the English Language Learner (ELL). First-language (L1) reading research is well developed but has limited usefulness to the teacher or researcher interested in second-language (L2) reading. Developing L2…

  12. Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Annamalai, Muthiah

    2009-01-01

    Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer user...

  13. Science Sampler: Science and literacy--Making connections through writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara Dorsey Cote

    2008-11-01

    In order to help students to make connections in science and literacy through writing, the authors present them with an open-ended question (OEQ), which is a divergent assessment in the form of a writing prompt (a situation), and directions for writing at the beginning of each major unit. Students complete this assessment by the end of the unit. Through the OEQ reports, students build competence in literacy skills in two curricular areas, science and language arts (Harris-Freedman 1994).

  14. L1 Influence on the Acquisition of L2 Collocations: Japanese ESL Users and EFL Learners Acquiring English Collocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Junko; Jiang, Nan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated first language (L1) influence on the acquisition of second language (L2) collocations using a framework based on Kroll and Stewart (1994) and Jiang (2000), by comparing the performance on a phrase-acceptability judgment task among native speakers of English, Japanese English as a second language (ESL) users, and Japanese…

  15. Comparing and Contrasting First and Second Language Acquisition: Implications for Language Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Ipek, Hulya

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to understand and explain first language (L1) acquisition and second language (L2) acquisition scholars have put forward many theories. These theories can aid language teachers to understand language learning and to assist their students in their language learning process. The current paper will first look at the similarities between the L1 and L2 acquisition. Then, the differences will be outlined. In the last part of the paper the implications of these findings for foreign lan...

  16. English Language Learners and Automated Scoring of Essays: Critical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigle, Sara Cushing

    2013-01-01

    This article presents considerations for using automated scoring systems to evaluate second language writing. A distinction is made between English language learners in English-medium educational systems and those studying English in their own countries for a variety of purposes, and between learning-to-write and writing-to-learn in a second…

  17. Whose Language Is It? Struggles for Language Ownership in an Irish Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Bernadette

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how struggles over language ownership are played out in a minority language setting, focusing on the case of Irish in the Republic of Ireland. The article examines the more or less serious struggles that emerge between so-called native, or L1, and nonnative, or L2, speakers of Irish in a language learning…

  18. First Language Attrition: An Investigation of Taiwanese Tones and Tone Sandhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yufen

    2012-01-01

    First language (L1) attrition research focuses on syntactic and morphological deterioration in environments where L1 "attriters" rarely have contact with their L1, such as immigrants. There is no study that investigates L1 attrition in tones and in contexts where L1 can still be often heard. This study examines this attrition type in…

  19. The Role of L1 in L2 Acquisition: Attitudes of Iranian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa NAZARY

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning a second language in an EFL context requires both students and teachers to cooperate efficiently and resourcefully. By referring to the current theories of second language acquisition and reviewing the recent literature, it can be seen that the first language of learners (L1 has a necessary and facilitating role in all aspects of language instruction. This indicates that the ‘bilingual approach’ is gaining more support by incorporating the students’ L1 as a learning tool and also as a facilitator for an efficient communication. At the same time, advocacy for an English-only policy has been declining. Inspired by these views, this paper aims to explore the Iranian university students' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of L1. A well-known survey – Prodromou (2002 was employed and, surprisingly, the results were contradictory to the all previous similar studies. Iranian university students reported reluctance to use their L1. Finally, some pedagogical suggestions for a judicious use of L1 will be presented.

  20. GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Solarino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

  1. The Effect of Concept Mapping on L2 Writing Performance: Examining Possible Effects of Trait-Level Writing Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Machida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students’ learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students’ writing anxiety. Participants completed writing anxiety scales and were randomly assigned to three groups before completing a writing task: concept mapping, idea listing, or an unrelated task. Results indicated that, especially for students with low trait-level writing anxiety, concept mapping positively influenced the quality of writing content. Teaching implications will be discussed in the light of the results of this study.

  2. Raising Critical Consciousness via Creative Writing in the EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillar, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses a method to promote raising critical consciousness in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom via creative writing activities by having students write journals and/or personal letters from the perspective of individuals from outside groups that have been marginalized or vilified in the students' dominant culture.…

  3. Effects of Dynamic Corrective Feedback on ESL Writing Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorn, K. James; Evans, Norman W.; Merrill, Paul F.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Strong-Krause, Diane; Anderson, Neil J.

    2010-01-01

    Though recent research has shown that written corrective feedback (WCF) may improve aspects of writing accuracy in some English as a second language (ESL) contexts, many teachers continue to be confused about the practical steps they should utilize to help their students improve their writing. Moreover, some have raised concerns as to whether…

  4. Singaporean Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness and English Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…

  5. Teaching Writing in Rural Thailand: Considering New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Glenn

    2000-01-01

    Describes a workshop for teachers in rural Thailand to consider new perspectives in teaching writing in English. Teachers were participants in a certificate in Teaching English as a Foreign language (TEFL) program course sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency. The genre approach to writing is proposed as a way of helping…

  6. Photography and Writing: Alternative Ways of Learning for ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Helen Lepp

    2012-01-01

    To writing, painting, drawing, and photography as artistic media, the author would like to add teaching as a creative endeavor as well. Especially in a classroom where English is not the first language for many students, the writing teacher needs to be creative with assignments and activities that address nontraditional ways of learning. Her…

  7. Misdirections in the Relation between Writing and Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Kenneth T.

    Many essayists on writing believe that a student's level of cognitive development determines the organization of thought expressed by the student's writing and that an individual cannot use language at a level that goes beyond his or her stage of cognitive development. Without the maturation of formal operational structures, students cannot easily…

  8. Human Apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1) in Cancer and Chronic Kidney Disease (Review Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chien-an A.; Klopfer, Edward I.; Ray, Patricio E.

    2012-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1) possesses both extra- and intra-cellular functions crucial in host defense and cellular homeostatic mechanisms. Alterations in ApoL1 function due to genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors have been associated with African sleeping sickness, atherosclerosis, lipid disorders, obesity, schizophrenia, cancer, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Importantly, two alleles of APOL1 carrying three coding-sequence variants have been linked to CKD, particularly in Su...

  9. POST-STROKE WRITING AND READING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinanovi? Osman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias, agraphias and acalculias are more frequent than verified in routine exam, not only in the less developed but also in large neurological departments. Alexia is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called word blindness, text blindness orvisual aphasia. Alexia refers to an acquired inability to read caused by brain damage and must be distinguished from dyslexia, a developmental abnormality in which the individual is unable to learn to read, and from illiteracy, which reflects a poor educational back-ground. Most aphasics are also alexic, but alexia may occur in the absence of aphasia and may occasionally be the soledisability resulting from specific brain lesions. There are different classifications of alexias. Traditionally, the alexias are divided into three categories: pure alexia with agraphia, pure alexia without agraphia, and alexia associated with aphasia (“aphasic alexia”. Agraphia is defined as the disruption of previously intact writing skills by brain damage. Writing involves several elements—language processing, spelling, visual perception, visual-spatial orientation for graphic symbols, motor planning, and motor control of writing. A disturbance of any of these processes can impair writing. Agraphia may occur by itself or as association with aphasias, alexia, agnosia and apraxia. Agraphia can also result from “peripheral” involvement of the motor act of writing. Like alexia, agraphia must be distinguished from illiteracy, where writing skills were never developed. Acalculia is a clinical syndrome of acquired deficits in mathematical calculation, either mentally or with paper and pencil. This language disturbances can be classified differently, but there are three principal types of acalculia: acalculia associated with language disturbances, including number paraphasia, number agraphia, or number alexia; acalculia secondary to visual-spatial dysfunction with malalignment of numbers and columns, and a primary anarithmetria entailing disruption of the computation process.

  10. First language polysemy affects second language meaning interpretation: evidence for activation of first language concepts during second language reading

    OpenAIRE

    Elston-gu?ttler, Kerrie E.; Williams, John N.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The present study investigates the influence of first language (L1) lexicalization patterns on the processing of second language (L2) words in sentential contexts by advanced German learners of English. The focus was on cases where a polysemous word in the L1 is realized by independent words in the L2, e.g. German Blase realized by English bubble and blister. An anomaly detection task ...

  11. Suggestions for Improving the Expressive Writing of Hearing Impaired Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckner, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a model for teaching written language to hearing impaired students on which curriculum can be based. In addition, activities, techniques, and resources are suggested that can be used when implementing the writing program. (Author/PB)

  12. Dutch gender in specific language impairment and second language acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Orgassa, Antje; Weerman, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this article we compare five groups of learners acquiring Dutch gender as marked on determiners and adjectival inflection. Groups of L1 (first language) children and L1-SLI (first-language specific-language-impairment) children are compared to three Turkish-Dutch L2 (second language) groups: adult L2, child L2 and child L2-SLI. Overall, our findings show that gender is vulnerable in both SLI and L2 groups. More particularly, they suggest that all child groups basically ...

  13. An Imaginative Approach to Teaching Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Carmen Manuel; Carmona, Rodrigo Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    Mindful of the fact that one of the most important ingredients in learning to write in a foreign language is motivation, the authors have experimented in their classes with a wide range of exercises from a very useful source: Gianni Rodari's "Grammatico della Fantasia: lntroduzione all'arte di inventare storie" (Torino: Piccola Biblioteca Einandi,…

  14. A Case Study on the Effects of an L2 Writing Instructional Model for Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Lee; Lee, Chung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This case study explores EFL (English as a foreign language) students' perceptions toward a prototype of an instructional model for second language (L2) writing in blended learning and the effects of the model on the development of L2 writing skills in higher education. This model is primarily founded on the process-oriented writing approach…

  15. Medical writing, revising and editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic form. Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client

  16. Too Nervous to Write? The Relationship between Anxiety and EFL Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Mousapour Negari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the students’ anxiety in essay writing and their writing performance in EFL context. The subjects were chosen from among 75 Iranian EFL students who took part in TOFEL proficiency test. 27 students majoring in English have been selected. They studied either English translation or English literature. The instruments to collect data were: a Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 b Open - ended questionnaire and c Writing performance tests. The results suggested that the students felt less nervous in writing when the teacher assured them that their papers will not be scored in contrast to the time when their papers were to be scored by the teacher. In addition, the correlation between final writing test and anxiety were significantly high. The participants’ responses to the open-ended questionnaire revealed that during their first stage of writing experience (when the teacher assured them that their papers will not be scored, the students had less physiological and psychological changes than their final test. The results suggested that by taking advantage of the facilitative aspect of anxiety, the students’ writing performance will be improved. The study has some pedagogical implications that will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Transforming Literacy Changing Lives Through Reading and Writing

    CERN Document Server

    Waxler, Robert P

    2011-01-01

    The book is interdisciplinary in focus and centers on enlarging teachers' understanding of how reading and writing can change lives and how the language arts can contribute significantly to and change educational processes in the twenty-first century. Implicit in its argument is that although the emphasis on science and math is crucial to education in the digital edge, it remains vitally important to keep reading and writing, language and story, at the heart of the educational process

  18. L1 Compactness of Bounded BV Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, I

    2002-01-01

    Functions, uniformly bounded in $BV$ norm in some bounded open set $U$ in $R^n$, are compact in $L_1(U)$. This result is known when $U$ has Lipschitz boundary [EG Th. 4 p. 176], [G 1.19 Th. p. 17], [Z 5.34 Cor. p. 227]; the proof for general $U$ here, after identifying the operator theoretic definition of bounded $BV$ norm with that of the Tonelli variation, appeals to the standard compactness criterion in $L_1$ [DS 21 TH. p. 301] [Y, p. 275] (For completeness, these two auxiliary results are also presented).

  19. Linking engineering students in Spain and technical writing students in the US as co-authors: The challenges and outcomes of subject-matter experts and language specialists collaborating internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Maylath

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a first-of-its-kind international collaboration, technical writing classes in Spain and the US matched engineering students with international technical writing students to coauthor procedural instructions. These were then tested for usability by students in Finland and the US, and subsequently translated and localized by students in Belgium, France, and Italy. The coauthors faced challenges in gaining expertise, communicating clearly in a lingua franca, handling differing cultures, testing for usability, and managing differing semester schedules and time zones. Insights from these experiences yield recommendations for instructors who wish to replicate such collaborations.

  20. Evidentiality in Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Mojdeh Ebrahimi Dehkordi; Hamid Allami

    2012-01-01

    Inevitability of using evidentials (EVs) and references in all academic writings signifies the importance of distinguishing and applying EVs for those who attempt to write in academic prose. With the aim of creating a unique model of EVs in academic texts, this study used well-established taxonomies of metadiscourse markers adapted by Hyland (2005) combined with Swales' (1990) classification of citations as well as Berkenkotter and Huckin's (1995) concept of intertexuality in academic writing...

  1. The Rewards of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmeyer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In "Bird by Bird", Anne Lamott compares writing to a tea ceremony: "That thing you had to force yourself to do--the actual act of writing, turns out to be the best part. It's like discovering that while you thought you needed the tea ceremony for the caffeine, what you really needed was the tea ceremony. The act of writing turns out to be its own…

  2. Academic Writing Retreat: A Time for Rejuvenated and Focused Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggerty, Elizabeth A.; Atkinson, Terry S.; Faulconer, Johna L.; Griffith, Robin R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of a three-day academic writing retreat on the writing lives of four female university faculty members. Goals of the retreat included rejuvenating their writing lives, focusing their research agendas, improving their writing, and engaging in concentrated blocks of writing and collaborative…

  3. Creating a Shared Definition of Good and Bad Writing through Revision Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Allison L.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the author, in an effort to build some common language about "good writing" and to teach effective revision strategies, involved her students in an action research project using the Worse/Better Writing Strategy developed by Andrews-Beck. In her dissertation, Andrews-Beck described a worse/better writing strategy that…

  4. Influence of Interlocutor/Reader on Utterance in Reflective Writing and Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Vivian M.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the Other on utterance is foundational to language study. This analysis contrasts this influence within two modes of communication: reflective writing and interview. The data source is derived from the reflective writings and interview transcripts of a twelfth-grade physics student. In this student's case, reflective writing…

  5. Understanding Writing Problems in Young Children: Contributions of Cognitive Skills to the Development of Written Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Amy

    2011-01-01

    While several models of adult writing have been proposed and studied, the development of writing skills in young children has only recently garnered attention. Using measures of fine-motor, language, working memory, and attention/executive functions, the current study explored motor and cognitive skills that may contribute to writing skill in…

  6. Towards an Eclectic Framework for Teaching EFL Writing in a Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The challenges of writing itself and lack of appropriate teaching methodology demotivate EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners in some Chinese universities to write more, especially as the only incentive for students to write is the compulsory tests. The main objectives of this article are: (1) to discuss the background of the EFL learners…

  7. Reference: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 Wang S, Wang JW, Yu N, Li CH, Luo B, Gou JY, Wang LJ, Chen XY. Control of plant tric ... development by a cotton fiber MYB gene. Plant Cell 16 : 2323-2334 (2004) PubMed: 15316 114 ...

  8. On weak compactness in L_1 spaces.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Marián; Montesinos, V.; Zizler, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 39, ?. 6 (2009), s. 1885-1893. ISSN 0035-7596 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA100190610; GA AV ?R IAA100190502; GA AV ?R IAA1019103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : weak compactness * subspace of L_1 * superreflexive space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.260, year: 2009

  9. Reference: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 Ohashi Y, Oka A, Rodrigues-Pousada R, Possenti M, Ruberti I, Morelli G, Aoyama T. Mo ... of phospholipid signaling by GLABRA2 in root-hair pattern ... formation. Science. 300: 1427-1430 (2003). PubMed: ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: L1 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome and may include treatment providers. Gene Review: Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Overview Gene Review: L1 Syndrome Genetic Testing Registry: ... syndrome spastic paraplegia 1 SPG1 X-linked complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia type 1 X-linked corpus callosum agenesis X- ...

  11. The Writing Suitcase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Susan J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses one teacher's method for encouraging young children's literacy developemnt. Offers practical suggestions for involving parents in stimulating their child's early reading and writing skills. (DT)

  12. In Cite : Epistemologies of Creative Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2013-01-01

    The epistemic creative writer is not merely an expressive writer, a writer who writes for creative writing programs at diverse university colleges. Rather, the epistemic creative writer is the writer who understands that in order to say something useful you must step out of the space that engages your ego. Awareness of what really matters comes from the contemplation of the futility of words. Before the word there is silence. After the word there is silence. But during the word there is knowledge that can be made crystal clear. This book is about extracting what writing means to a few writers who formulate ideas about creative writing without, however, making claims to instruction. Can creative writing that produces knowledge be taught without a method? Samuel Beckett, Raymond Federman, Gertrude Stein, Jacques Lacan, Frank O'Hara, Douglas Hofstadter, Brian Rotman, Herman Melville, Kathy Acker, Friedrich Nietzsche, David Markson, Andrei Codrescu, and a host of others, gather here to offer an answer. --"Camelia Elias speaks to the reader from that place where the language of the birds becomes the language of silence." (Patrick Blackburn, Professor of Formal Logic, Roskilde University)

  13. In Cite: Epistemologies of Creative Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2013-01-01

    The epistemic creative writer is not merely an expressive writer, a writer who writes for creative writing programs at diverse university colleges. Rather, the epistemic creative writer is the writer who understands that in order to say something useful you must step out of the space that engages your ego. Awareness of what really matters comes from the contemplation of the futility of words. Before the word there is silence. After the word there is silence. But during the word there is knowledge that can be made crystal clear. This book is about extracting what writing means to a few writers who formulate ideas about creative writing without, however, making claims to instruction. Can creative writing that produces knowledge be taught without a method? Samuel Beckett, Raymond Federman, Gertrude Stein, Jacques Lacan, Frank O'Hara, Douglas Hofstadter, Brian Rotman, Herman Melville, Kathy Acker, Friedrich Nietzsche, David Markson, Andrei Codrescu, and a host of others, gather here to offer an answer. --"Camelia Elias speaks to the reader from that place where the language of the birds becomes the language of silence." (Patrick Blackburn, Professor of Formal Logic, Roskilde University)

  14. Language, Communication and Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St?ncu?a Ramona DIMA-LAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

  15. A tale of two writing systems: double dissociation and metalinguistic transfer between chinese and english word reading among Hong Kong children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the rate of school-aged Chinese-English language learners at risk for reading difficulties in either Chinese or English only, or both, among second and fifth graders in Hong Kong. In addition, we examined the metalinguistic skills that distinguished those who were poor in reading Chinese from those who were poor in reading English. The prevalence of poor English readers among children identified to be poor in Chinese word recognition across the five participating schools was approximately 42% at Grade 2 and 57% at Grade 5. Across grades, children who were poor readers of both languages tended to have difficulties in phonological and morphological awareness. Poor readers of English only were found to manifest significantly poorer phonological awareness, compared to those who were poor readers of Chinese only; their average tone awareness score was also lower relative to normally developing controls. Apart from indicating possible dissociations between Chinese first language (L1) word reading and English second language (L2) word reading, these findings suggested that the degree to which different metalinguistic skills are important for reading in different writing systems may depend on the linguistic features of the particular writing system. PMID:23784785

  16. Second language processing: when are first and second languages processed similarly?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this article we investigate the effects of first language (L1) on second language (L2) neural processing for two grammatical constructions (verbal domain dependency and grammatical gender), focusing on the event-related potential P600 effect, which has been found in both L1 and L2 processing. Native Dutch speakers showed a P600 effect for both constructions tested. However, in L2 Dutch (with German or a Romance language as L1) a P600 effect only occurred if L1 and L2 we...

  17. L1 Communicative-textual competence of Greek upper elementary school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinthourakis, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses the findings of a research study on the issue of L1 communicative-textual competence (CTC. More specifically it examines the L1 CTC of 10–12-year-old Greek elementary school students, before and after the use of alternative communicative-text-oriented teaching material versus traditional language materials currently used in the schools. The CTC of the students was examined using a version of the test published by the French Ministry of Education revised and adapted to the Greek language and educational context. Analysis of the pre- and post-intervention data suggests that using appropriately designed communicative-text-oriented teaching materials can increase Greek school students’ level of written L1 CTC.

  18. How to write and publish a scientific paper

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Writing and publishing journal articles are crucial to scientific careers. Unfortunately, many young scientists find the process of communicating scientific information effectively a complete mystery. By providing practical, readable, and sometimes humorous guidance, this book helps researchers gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence to succeed in communicating about their work. This seventh edition of "How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper" contains 41 chapters focused upon two separate tasks: how to write the respective sections of a scientific paper and how to publish the paper. Other related topics include approaching a writing project, following ethical principles in scientific publishing, preparing oral presentations and poster presentations, writing grant proposals, and working with the popular media. The authors provide considerable guidance on appropriate scientific writing style as well as an extensive list of words and expressions to avoid - and supply the language to substitute for them.

  19. Predictors of English Reading Comprehension: Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…

  20. Process writing in a product-oriented context: challenges and possibilities / Produção textual como um processo em um contexto centrado no produto: desafios e possibilidades

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabela de Freitas, Villas Boas.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo de caso analisou a aplicabilidade de uma pedagogia para o ensino da escrita como um processo em um contexto de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira e como os estudantes reagiram e responderam a essa metodologia de ensino. Um grupo de 16 adolescentes de nível intermediário em uma inst [...] ituição particular de ensino de inglês foi selecionado. Foi seguido um projeto pedagógico em torno da escrita como um processo e as reações e o desempenho dos alunos em cada um dos estágios do processo foi analisado. Ao mesmo tempo, investigou-se como se dá o ensino da escrita na língua materna nas escolas regulares dos alunos. Concluiu-se que o ensino de produção textual nas escolas regulares enfoca mais o processo do que o produto e que uma pedagogia voltada para o processo nas aulas de inglês pode preencher lacunas deixadas nas experiências dos alunos com a escrita na língua materna. Abstract in english This case study analyzed to what extent localized process writing pedagogy is applicable and effective in an EFL context and how students respond and react to it. A class of 16 intermediate-level teenage students in an ELT Institute in Brazil was selected. A carefully planned project on process-base [...] d writing was followed, and students' performance in and reactions to each stage of the process were analyzed. Concurrently, the study also investigated the teaching of writing in students' native language - Portuguese - in their regular schools. It could be concluded that the teaching of writing in the regular schools focuses more on the process than on the product and that a pedagogical approach focused on the process in the EFL classroom can serve to fill in the gaps left by the students' experiences with writing in L1.

  1. Peer Evaluation in CMC Learning Environment and Writing Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mellati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Peer evaluation and technology-based instruction as the various domains of language teaching perspectives might affect language development. Group work in a technology-based environment might be more successful when learners are involved in developing the assessment process particularly peer assessment. This study investigated the effectiveness of peer evaluation in technology-based language environment and its effects on English writing ability. To reach this goal, 70 Iranian learners were participated in English language writing context. They were divided into two groups, one group assigned to CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication language learning context and the other assigned to a traditional learning environment. Both groups were encouraged to evaluate their classmates’ writing tasks. In addition, interviews were conducted with two learners. Comparing these two groups provides comprehensive guidelines for teachers as well as curriculum designers to set adjusted writing language environment for more effective and creative language teaching and learning. E-collaboration classroom tasks have high intrinsic motivation as well as significant effects on learners’ outcomes. Cooperative tasks specifically in technology-based environment lead learners to group working and consequently group learning. Computer-Mediated Communication is meaningful, especially in contexts in which teachers stimulate group work activities.Keywords: Information communication technology (ICT, Computer-mediated communication (CMC, Technology-based environment, Writing skill, E-collaboration, Cooperative learning

  2. Reading Skills and Strategies: Assessing Primary School Students’ Awareness in L1 and EFL Strategy Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimos Aivazoglou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed and conducted with the purpose to assess primary school students’ awareness in GL1 (Greek as first language and EFL (English as a foreign language strategy use and investigate the relations between the reported reading strategies use in first (L1 and foreign language (FL.  The sample (455 students attending the fifth and sixth grades of primary schools in Northern Greece was first categorized into skilled and less skilled L1 and EFL readers through screening reading comprehension tests, one in L1 and one in FL, before filling in the reading strategy questionnaires. The findings revealed participants’ preference for “problem solving” strategies, while “global strategies” coming next. Girls were proved to be more aware of their reading strategies use with the boys reporting a more frequent use in both languages. Also, skilled readers were found to use reading strategies more effectively, and appeared to be more flexible in transferring strategies from L1 to FL compared to less-skilled readers.Keywords: reading awareness, reading strategies, reading difficulties, primary school students

  3. MOTHER TONGUE (L1 Vis-A-Vis OTHER TONGUE (L2?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Behera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2 for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b learning another language. Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process, similar to that used by a child to pick up the first language (L1; and the second is conscious learning, in which a learner is aware of his/her own learning process.

  4. Context affects L1 but not L2 during bilingual word recognition: An MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellikka, Janne; Helenius, Päivi; Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Lehtonen, Minna

    2015-03-01

    How do bilinguals manage the activation levels of the two languages and prevent interference from the irrelevant language? Using magnetoencephalography, we studied the effect of context on the activation levels of languages by manipulating the composition of word lists (the probability of the languages) presented auditorily to late Finnish-English bilinguals. We first determined the upper limit time-window for semantic access, and then focused on the preceding responses during which the actual word recognition processes were assumedly ongoing. Between 300 and 500ms in the temporal cortices (in the N400m response) we found an asymmetric language switching effect: the responses to L1 Finnish words were affected by the presentation context unlike the responses to L2 English words. This finding suggests that the stronger language is suppressed in an L2 context, supporting models that allow auditory word recognition to be affected by contextual factors and the language system to be subject to inhibitory influence. PMID:25656318

  5. Writing with Mentors (DVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lynne; Cappelli, Rose

    2010-01-01

    When learning how to write well, there is nothing more powerful than examining the work of the writers we admire. Real writers need mentors--those writers who inspire us and demonstrate through their style and craft how we, too, can be successful writers. In "Writing with Mentors", Lynne Dorfman and Rose Cappelli, authors of "Mentor Texts" and…

  6. The Cybernetic Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kelly Fisher

    This paper looks at the role of a Writing Program Administrator, and applies the idea of a cybernetic system to the administration of the program. In this cybernetic model, the Writing Program Administrator (WPA) works as both a problem solver and problem causer, with the responsibility of keeping the program in proper balance. A cybernetic…

  7. Children's Advertisement Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  8. Writing Technical Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    In this lesson, students walk through the process of creating technical instructions by first analyzing existing instructions. They then select an item and an audience for which they will write technical instructions. After writing their own instructions, students conduct usability tests of each other’s instructions, providing user feedback. Finally, students use this user feedback to revise their instructions before publishing them.

  9. Reading, Writing, and Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This educators guide blends space exploration with reading and writing. The materials are divided into two units. One unit is designed for students in grades 1 and 2 while the other unit focuses on students in grades 3 and 4. Each includes a series of lessons that take students on a path of exploration of Saturn using reading and writing prompts.

  10. Writing to Learn Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denise

    2007-08-21

    This blog entry provides links to resources and teaching strategies for implementing journal writing in the mathematics classroom. It includes a section entitled "How to Get Elementary Students Writing About Math." The author links to a follow-up page of additional resources.

  11. Writing Better Physics Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stith, James H.; Costantine, Alfred G.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines a method to write multiple (four) versions of each examination. Reviews some advantages and disadvantages of multiple-choice and open-ended problems. Considers the writing and grading techniques used. Reports that the examination met the consistency requirement and received a good evaluation from students. (YP)

  12. The Developmental Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jacklyn; Turner, Susan Douglas

    1987-01-01

    The Developmental Writing Program process curriculum model was developed to teach writing to elementary students. It combines prewriting, drafting, editing/revising, and publishing/sharing. A staff development model has also been developed and includes three components: administrator and staff orientation, teacher training, and on-site program…

  13. Relationships between Writing Motivation, Writing Activity, and Writing Performance: Effects of Grade, Sex, and Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Gary A.; Harbaugh, Allen G.; Shankland, Rebecca K.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Lawrence, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    A convenience sample of 618 children and adolescents in grades 4 through 10, excluding grade 8, were asked to complete a writing motivation and activity scale and to provide a timed narrative writing sample to permit an examination of the relationships between writing motivation, writing activity, writing performance, and the student…

  14. WEB-BASED WRITING INSTRUCTION AND ENHANCING EFL LEARNERS' WRITING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. KARGOZARI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to determine whether Web-based Writing Instruction (WBWI has any influence on the writing quality of Iranian EFL learners. Two groups of EFL learners who were studying English in an English Language Institute participated in the experiment. They were enrolled in an advanced writing course. Before instruction, both groups were pre-tested through writing essays. T-test results illustrated significant differences between two groups in writing ability. The experimental group made too many errors and had many writing problems. Both groups studied the same in-class material, and were given the same assignments and assessment. In addition, the experimental group used an online course, which was provided for them through establishing a so-called website, from home. Experimental students posted their points, wrote short essays and posted stories in the comment section of the so-called website. They located information in sites like “Yahoo Movies” and “webMD”. They processed their essays and checked their spelling through Microsoft Office Word (2007. At the end of the experiment, both groups were post-tested through writing an essay. ANCOVA results showed considerable differences between two groups. The experimental group made more gains as a result of web-based instruction. They became more proficient, and made few errors.

  15. LabWrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Michael Carter

    2005-09-15

    LabWrite is a website students can use to write better lab reports, which helps students learn to think scientifically. The main structure of the site is chronological, guiding students through the full lab experience: PreLab is a set of questions that initiates scientific inquiry; InLab helps students collect, organize, and analyze data during the lab; PostLab offers a step-by-step guide to writing the report; and LabCheck helps students revise their reports before handing them in. In addition to the standard hypothetical lab, LabWrite also provides full support for descriptive labs and labs that students design for themselves. LabWrite also includes an extensive set of resources, such as an Excel tutorial and guides for creating tables and graphs, which students can use on their own or teachers can use for in-class instruction. The website contains a guide for teachers.

  16. Technical report writing today

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    "Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...

  17. Yale College Writing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Yale College Writing Center "supports writers and writing teachers through the resources on this website" and consequently support an audience far beyond New Haven. First-time visitors should look at the Advice for Students to get started. Here, they will find areas that include "What Good Writers Know" and "Model Papers from the Disciplines.� The first area contains short and succinct advice with detailed explanations while the second area contains thoughtful works from Yale students in fields such as philosophy, natural science, and literature. Moving along, Writing at Yale includes information about the various writing programs and initiatives at Yale College, along with links to writing award programs from around the country.

  18. Material, Educational, and Ideological Challenges of Teaching EFL Writing at the Turn of the Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona Leki

    2001-01-01

    A great deal of literature on teaching English writing focuses primarily on English dominant contexts. The particular situation of writing instruction in non-English dominant countries has received insufficient attention, especially in light of some of the claims for the role of writing coming from the "center" countries. English language teachers, particularly those teaching in non-English dominant countries, who give substantial attention in their courses to teaching writing in English face...

  19. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  20. Creatively Developing Research Writing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    Details a lesson which facilitates the transition from writing narrative prose to writing more difficult expository structures by engaging students in writing a research report on a fantasy animal they create. (MM)

  1. Cognitive Retroactive Transfer (CRT of Language Skills among Trilingual Arabic-Hebrew and English Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Abu-Rabia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether helping poor readers improve their reading and writing language skills in English as a third language/foreign language (L3/FL would also bring about an improvement in those same skills in Arabic (L1 and Hebrew (L2. Transferring linguistic skills from L3/FL to both L1 and L2 is termed “Cognitive Retroactive Transfer” (CRT. A battery of tests, administered to the experiment and control groups, assessed orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension in English, Arabic, and Hebrew. The treatment group was provided with an intervention program in English, but not in Arabic or Hebrew, both before and after the experiment. Findings indicated a significant improvement in the treatment group’s achievements in all linguistic and meta-linguistic skills in all study languages after the intervention, except for orthographic knowledge in Arabic and Hebrew. The results are discussed in light of the international data.

  2. Consciência fonológica e o processo de aprendizagem de leitura e escrita: implicações teóricas para o embasamento da prática fonoaudiológica / Phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing: theoretical implications for the basement of the Speech-Language pathologist practice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane, Nunes; Silvana, Frota; Renata, Mousinho.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese TEMA: consciência fonológica e o aprendizado da leitura e escrita. OBJETIVO: realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca do tema com o objetivo de retomar conceitos dispostos recentemente na literatura e oferecer ao Fonoaudiólogo a possibilidade de revisão de suas práticas para (re)formulação de estra [...] tégias terapêuticas. CONCLUSÃO: é possível observar que os estudos convergem para a importante relação no desenvolvimento das habilidades de consciência fonológica com o desenvolvimento da leitura e escrita. Tal fato reforça a necessidade de revisão de nossa prática clínica e científica para a criação e difusão de estratégias preventivas e/ou de remediação envolvendo atividades lúdicas que englobam a consciência da criança na manipulação dos sons da fala. Uma importante área de pesquisa na Fonoaudiologia do Brasil deveria convergir para o estudo e criação de ferramentas facilitadoras ao Fonoaudiólogo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing. PURPOSE: to hold a review of the literature about this theme, in order to resume concepts recently published on technical literature and offer for the Speech-Language pathologist the possibility to review some of the [...] ir practices and formulate a therapeutic strategy. CONCLUSION: it is possible to observe that the studies point to the important relationship on the development of phonological awareness skills, including the increase of reading and writing. This fact reinforces the need for reviewing our clinical and scientific practice in order to approach the creation and to disseminate some preventive and remediate strategies involving recreational activities which include children awareness manipulation of the sounds of speech. One important area of the Speech Language research in Brazil should converge for the studies and creation on this subject toward the tools in order to help the Speech-Language Pathologist.

  3. Imagining Writing Futures: Photography, Writing, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Cheryl A.; Rowsell, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The article examines high school students' writing composition practices in multimodal instructional environments. We use Rosenblatt's transactional theory to look across the findings of 2 studies that blend traditional and digital modes of instruction in order to explore how modal switching can support students' reading and…

  4. $l_1$-regularized Outlier Isolation and Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sheng; Wang, Suzhen; Wu, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed a new regression model called $l_1$-regularized outlier isolation and regression (LOIRE) and a fast algorithm based on block coordinate descent to solve this model. Besides, assuming outliers are gross errors following a Bernoulli process, this paper also presented a Bernoulli estimate model which, in theory, should be very accurate and robust due to its complete elimination of affections caused by outliers. Though this Bernoulli estimate is hard to solve...

  5. L1 attrition and the mental lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Monika; Ko?pke, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Research on the bilingual mental lexicon has progressed considerably over the past 25 years. Two questions have received particular attention in this respect, namely organisational principles of a bilingual lexicon on the one hand and chronometrical aspects of on-line access in bilinguals on the other. A third important point that has been largely neglected so far is the long-term storage of both lemmas and word forms over time. Indirectly, however, this question has been addressed through L1...

  6. Multi-Level Languages are Generalized Arrows

    OpenAIRE

    Megacz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Multi-level languages and Arrows both facilitate metaprogramming, the act of writing a program which generates a program. The arr function required of all Arrows turns arbitrary host language expressions into guest language expressions; because of this, Arrows may be used for metaprogramming only when the guest language is a superset of the host language. This restriction is also present in multi-level languages which offer unlimited cross-level persistence. This paper intr...

  7. EFL Writing Revision with Blind Expert and Peer Review Using a CMC Open Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian; Petit, Emily; Chen, Ching-Huei

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory computer assisted-language learning (CALL) study used a computer-mediated communication (CMC) interface to allow English as a foreign language (EFL) writing students in classes at two universities to give each other anonymous peer feedback about essay-writing assignments reacting to selected news stories. Experts also provided…

  8. Preparing Writing Teachers to Teach the Vocabulary and Grammar of Academic Prose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxhead, Averil; Byrd, Pat

    2007-01-01

    Over the years, substantial shifts in theory, belief, and practice have occurred in the teaching of language, specifically vocabulary, grammar, or their combination in lexicogrammatical features of a language as part of the writing class or curriculum (Paltridge, 2004; Reid, 1993, 2006). Much of the instruction in L2 writing for adult learners who…

  9. Peer-Feedback and Revision Process in a Wiki Mediated Collaborative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Matsuko Mukumoto; Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Li, Xuanxi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a wiki for collaborative writing among primary levels five (P5) and six (P6) students (n = 119) in a Chinese primary school in Hong Kong where English is taught as a second language (L2). Three classes of students and their English subject teachers participated in a three-month English language writing programme…

  10. Systematic Teaching Design of Communicative Context in Business English Writing in Chinese Context

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiping

    2014-01-01

    It is a heated discussion among researchers of foreign-language teaching on how to enhance the interest of study and teaching effect through the design, organization and implementation of classroom teaching of EFL writing, which is responsible for the enhancement of the student’s writing competence. This study is devoted to the systematic teaching design of communicative context in EFL writing within the paradigm of communicative language teaching, concentrating on the exploring of the cult...

  11. Teaching Technical Writing: Opportunities for International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie E. Seawright

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of our modern economies requires a workforce that can move easily between time zones and cultures. Professors cannot ignore the drastic impact globalization has and will place upon engineering students. In order to be prepared for a competitive job market and the actual requirements of many engineering positions, students need to understand the constraints and challenges of working with colleagues that may live and work in different cultures, countries, languages, and contexts. However, engineering education rarely offers students an opportunity to practice the realities of our digital and intercultural working environments. This paper outlines one way to offer engineering students with collaborative, international, and intercultural writing projects. Students from a technical writing course in the United States were paired with engineering students in Qatar to develop a set of instructions using multimedia methods. Students learned a great deal from the real-world experience of writing and creating a project across two continents.

  12. LabWrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Carter

    2000-07-15

    LabWrite is an online resource designed to help students learn science by writing better laboratory reports. It is organized into four major parts, reflecting the chronological experience of the lab. PreLab asks students to respond to a set of questions that lead them through a scientific understanding of the lab before they actually begin. InLab provides resources and help for students as they set up the lab and gather and organize data. PostLab guides students step by step in writing the lab report. LabCheck offers students a checklist to help them revise their reports and an evaluation guide to help them learn from a graded report so that they can improve their skills. LabWrite also provides an extensive set of resources for teaching students how to create tables and graphs. In addition, the LabWrite Tutor is an application that allows students to write their lab reports online. Published results of a control-group study show that LabWrite significantly improves students' understanding of the scientific concept of the lab and their ability to think scientifically about the lab.

  13. KU Writing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Kansas has a number of fine academic programs, and they also provide writing support for students who might be having trouble getting started with their own assignments or term papers. While visitors may not be able to make the trek on over to Lawrence, they can certainly hop online here to take advantage of some of their writing tutorials and guide sheets. Most visitors will probably want to start at the "Students" section, where they can then click on sections specifically designed for undergraduates or graduate students. Some of these materials have been created specifically by the professionals at KU's Writing Center, including some very helpful guides to crafting an effective thesis statement and working on pre-writing strategies. Also, the "Writing Guides" section includes a sample writing gallery and an assignment planner. For a bit of fun, users can also check out their online photo gallery and also watch their short film, "A Week in the Life of the KU Writing Center".

  14. Student perception of writing in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Kathleen J.

    This study examines factors that shape four student's perceptions of writing tasks in their science classroom. This qualitative retrospective interview study focuses on four students concurrently enrolled in honors English and honors biology. This research employs a phenomenological perspective on writing, examining whether the writing strategies students acquire in the Language Arts classroom manifest in the content areas. I also adopt Bandura's theoretical perspective on self-efficacy as well as Hillock's notion of writing as inquiry and meaning making. This study concludes that students need ample opportunity to generate content and language that will help reveal a purpose and genre for writing tasks in the content areas. Although all four students approached the writing tasks differently in this study, the tasks set before them were opportunities for replication rather than inquiry Through the case studies of four students as well as current research on content writing, this project works to inform all content area teachers about student perceptions of writing in the content areas.

  15. Nativization processes in L1 Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, B K

    2001-10-01

    The artificial language Esperanto is spoken not only as a second language, by its proponents, but also as a native language by children of some of those proponents. The present study is a preliminary description of some characteristics of the Native Esperanto (NE) of eight speakers, ranging in age from six to fourteen years. As such, it is the first of its kind--previous works on NE are either theoretical treatises or individual case studies. We find, at least for the eight subjects studied, both bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of the tense/aspect system, and pronominal cliticization. The theoretical ramifications are discussed, particularly with regard to universals of language acquisition and the effects of expressive requirements of language. PMID:11797540

  16. Research Paper Writing Strategies of Professional Japanese EFL Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuko

    1995-01-01

    Four Japanese university professors were interviewed on their strategies for writing a research paper in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Results indicate that these writers use strategies similar to those used by skilled native English writers and proficient writers of English as a Second Language. (35 references) (Author/CK)

  17. Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Pyo Park

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2 reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1 reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after closely looking into the methods of data analysis of the current literature on a language threshold. Statistical analysis revealed that the contribution of L1 reading and L2 knowledge to L2 reading was significant and substantial in the main and interaction effects, accounting for 54 percent of variance of L2 reading comprehension in tandem. However, the correlation of L1 reading to L2 reading showed, in general, a decreasing trend in accordance with the improvement of L2 knowledge, which is in contrast with the notion of a threshold level. This result of a language threshold was discussed in terms of a broad construct of language transfer and the interactive approach to reading in an L2.

  18. Promoting Writing and Preventing Writing Failure in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the National Commission on Writing pleaded for a writing revolution in education. The plea included a call for increased attention on the subject of writing, considered the "most neglected" of the "three "Rs"". Although state tests dictate that schools take an intensive look at the writing of 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-grade students, studying…

  19. "Our Zoo to You": The Link between Zoo Animals in the Classroom and Science and Literacy Concepts in First-Grade Journal Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathleen; Trainin, Guy; Laughridge, Virginia; Brooks, David; Wickless, Mimi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined first-grade students' journal writing to determine how placing live zoo animals in classrooms for science education links to students' emergent and early writing. Students were asked to write journal entries during the daily language arts period. Although no direct instruction in informational text writing was offered, teachers…

  20. A language for mathematical language management

    CERN Document Server

    Kieffer, Steven; Friedman, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    We argue that the language of Zermelo Fraenkel set theory with definitions and partial functions provides the most promising bedrock semantics for communicating and sharing mathematical knowledge. We then describe a syntactic sugaring of that language that provides a way of writing remarkably readable assertions without straying far from the set-theoretic semantics. We illustrate with some examples of formalized textbook definitions from elementary set theory and point-set topology. We also present statistics concerning the complexity of these definitions, under various complexity measures.

  1. DEVELOPING ENGLISH WRITING SKILL OF RURAL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samshad N. Sheikh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language is the most vital aspect of our life. It is used for varied purposes. We use it to express our inner thoughts and emotions, make sense of complex and abstract thought, to learn to communicate with others, to fulfill our wants and needs, as well as to establish rules and maintain our culture. It is defined in myriad ways. Whatever may be the definition, the language is considered as ‘skill’rather than a ‘subject’. It has four basic skills namely, listening, speaking, reading and writing. Among these skills listening and reading are called receptive skills and speaking and writing are productive skills. All these skills are complementary to each other. Developing these skills is, no doubt, a hard nut to crack for the teachers of English. But writing skill needs extra initiation and exertion on the part of the learner. In such circumstances, it really becomes a challenge for the teachers, teaching specially in rural areas. The present paper proposes to highlight the barriers that come in the way of developing writing skill of such rural learners. It also suggests some remedial measures to overcome these obstacles.

  2. Technical writing in America: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The standard distinction between poetic and referential language, the gulf between science and the humanities, and the distress many teachers of English feel when faced for the first time with the prospect of teaching technical writing are discussed. In the introduction of many technical writing textbooks. Technical communication is divorced from other forms of linguistic experience by making language limiting and reductive rather than creative and expansive. The emphasis on technical/scientific writing as radically different had blinded people to those traits it has in common with all species of composition and has led to a neglect of research, on fundamental rhetorical issues. A complete rhetorical theory of technical discourse should include information about the attitudes and motives of writers, the situations which motivate (or coerce) them to write, definitive features of technical style and form, interrelationship of expression and creativity, and functions of communication in shaping and preserving scientific networds and institutions. The previous areas should be explored with respect to contemporary practice and within an historical perspective.

  3. L1 Communicative-textual competence of Greek upper elementary school students.

    OpenAIRE

    Spinthourakis, J. A.; Fterniati, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the findings of a research study on the issue of L1 communicative-textual competence (CTC). More specifically it examines the L1 CTC of 10–12-year-old Greek elementary school students, before and after the use of alternative communicative-text-oriented teaching material versus traditional language materials currently used in the schools. The CTC of the students was examined using a version of the test published by the French Ministry of Education revised ...

  4. The CMS L1 Trigger Emulation Software

    CERN Document Server

    Ghete, V M

    2009-01-01

    The CMS L1 Trigger processes the muon and calorimeter detector data using a complex system of custom hardware processors. A bit-level emulation of the trigger data processing has been developed. This is used to validate and monitor the trigger hardware, to simulate the trigger response in monte-carlo data, and for some components, to seed higher-level triggers. The multiple-use cases are managed using a modular design, implemented within the modular CMS offline software framework. The requirements, design and performance of the emulators are described, as well as the iterative process required to bring the emulators and hardware into agreement.

  5. Writing a PEMDAS Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembo, Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Presents a project that asks students to relate mathematical operations to real-world situations, communicate mathematical concepts in writing, share their ideas with their peers, and exercise their creativity. (ASK)

  6. Evidentiality in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Ebrahimi Dehkordi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inevitability of using evidentials (EVs and references in all academic writings signifies the importance of distinguishing and applying EVs for those who attempt to write in academic prose. With the aim of creating a unique model of EVs in academic texts, this study used well-established taxonomies of metadiscourse markers adapted by Hyland (2005 combined with Swales' (1990 classification of citations as well as Berkenkotter and Huckin's (1995 concept of intertexuality in academic writing. The proposed model yields at least two important advantages. First, it can develop a pattern of the uses of EVs in academic texts, thus deepening our understanding of the organization of such texts. Second, it has potential applications in pedagogy for those students who attempt to write in academic prose and for scholars, teachers, and material developers.

  7. Legal Writing Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    For those not familiar with its nuances and requirements, legal writing can be a taxing affair at first. Fortunately, the Legal Writing Institute's homepage is a good place to start learning more about the basics of legal writing. First-time visitors can begin by looking over the "About" section, which offers up a host of materials about the Institute, including a most useful FAQ guide and information about their listservs. After that, visitors will want to move to the "Resources" section. Here they will find a collection of syllabi, resources on plagiarism, and an "Idea Bank" which will be quite a boon to legal writing instructors. The site is rounded out by an "Employment Listings" area and information about the Institute's conferences.

  8. Writing Center: Vassar College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even if you can't make it to Poughkeepsie, you can still benefit from the resources offered by the writing center at Vassar College. On its site, visitors can learn how to become a more creative writer, compose a thesis, and also look over formal academic courses of study. In the Resources for Writers section, visitors will find writing guides, odes to the importance of good sentence structure, and the in-house journal, The Oak Door. Moving along, the Videos area contains remarks by professors, writing center staff, and others on how writing matters. The site also contains links to external resources from York University, Rio Solado College, and other institutions passionate about the written word.

  9. Translanguaging in Self-Access Language Advising: Informing Language Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson; John Adamson

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates language advising in a self-access center (SAC) with the purpose of informing language policy. This center is located in a new Japanese university and has shifted from an initially teacher-imposed ‘English-only’ language policy into one which encourages “translanguaging” (Blackledge & Creese, 2010, p. 105) between the students’ and center advisors’ (termed as mentors in this center) L1 (Japanese) and their L2 (English). Data from audio-recordings of interac...

  10. An Analysis of Spoken Language and Written Language and How They Affect English Language Learning and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Language plays a crucial role in the development of human society. It is the main means of communication between individuals, groups and countries. Nowadays in China, more and more people are learning English as a second language. What is the effective method of learning a foreign language becomes their chief concern. Basically speaking, four modules are involved in the process of second language acquisition. They are listening, reading, writing and speaking. In English language teaching and learning, mastering these four modules means a lot. Speaking and writing skills, as the productive modules, are usually more difficult for learners. In this essay, from the origin and functions of language, the correlation and disparities between speaking and writing skills are analyzed and possible ways of improving these two skills in second language acquisition are explored and suggested.

  11. Does Narrative Writing Instruction Enhance the Benefits of Expressive Writing?

    OpenAIRE

    Danoff-burg, Sharon; Mosher, Catherine E.; Seawell, Asani H.; Agee, John D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether instructing participants to write in a narrative fashion about stressful life events would produce superior physical and psychological health benefits relative to standard expressive writing instructions that do not specify the essay’s structure. Undergraduates (N = 101) were randomly assigned to engage in two, 20-minute narrative writing, standard expressive writing, or control writing tasks. Follow-up data were obtained one month later. The essays of the narrative writ...

  12. Writing analytic element programs in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Kelson, Victor A

    2009-01-01

    The analytic element method is a mesh-free approach for modeling ground water flow at both the local and the regional scale. With the advent of the Python object-oriented programming language, it has become relatively easy to write analytic element programs. In this article, an introduction is given of the basic principles of the analytic element method and of the Python programming language. A simple, yet flexible, object-oriented design is presented for analytic element codes using multiple inheritance. New types of analytic elements may be added without the need for any changes in the existing part of the code. The presented code may be used to model flow to wells (with either a specified discharge or drawdown) and streams (with a specified head). The code may be extended by any hydrogeologist with a healthy appetite for writing computer code to solve more complicated ground water flow problems. PMID:19473273

  13. Proton beam writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Watt

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Proton beam (p-beam writing is a new direct-writing process that uses a focused beam of MeV protons to pattern resist material at nanodimensions. The process, although similar in many ways to direct writing using electrons, nevertheless offers some interesting and unique advantages. Protons, being more massive, have deeper penetration in materials while maintaining a straight path, enabling p-beam writing to fabricate three-dimensional, high aspect ratio structures with vertical, smooth sidewalls and low line-edge roughness. Calculations have also indicated that p-beam writing exhibits minimal proximity effects, since the secondary electrons induced in proton/electron collisions have low energy. A further advantage stems from the ability of protons to displace atoms while traversing material, thereby increasing localized damage especially at the end of range. P-beam writing produces resistive patterns at depth in Si, allowing patterning of selective regions with different optical properties as well as the removal of undamaged regions via electrochemical etching.

  14. Dartmouth Writing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As students begin to return to college campuses across the country, they may be curious to know that there are a number of fine online resources that will help them develop their college-level writing skills. The first site offered here comes from the Dartmouth College Writing Program, and contains a number of helpful materials, such as some well-written essays that answer the question "What is an academic paper?" and also provide information on researching topics for papers. The site also includes information on such topics as writing about film, writing for sociology courses, and helpful suggestions on writing from fellow students. The second site is offered by the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Writing Center and contains material on how best to cite references and avoiding common grammar and punctuation mistakes. Taken together, these sites provide a host of materials that will allow students to become better writers in their various courses during their time in the world of higher education and beyond.

  15. Writing Lessons with Gavin Curtis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Danling; Lamme, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a literature-inspired model of teaching writing and two scenarios of reading and writing connections in the classroom. Presents several reading and writing lessons drawn from the children's book "The Bat Boy and His Violin" by Gavin Curtis. Discusses Curtis' craft and demonstrates how to use this book to teach writing. Includes brief…

  16. Teaching Writing through Reading Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Luu Trong Tuan

    2012-01-01

    There has not been a consensus among the researchers though the question whether writing teachers use reading activities in pre-writing phase in their writing class has been long posed. This paper is an endeavour to examine the extent to which reading integration approach is beneficial to EFL learners’ writing performance.

  17. $L_1$-uniqueness of degenerate elliptic operators

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Derek W

    2010-01-01

    Let $\\Omega$ be an open subset of $\\Ri^d$ with $0\\in \\Omega$. Further let $H_\\Omega=-\\sum^d_{i,j=1}\\partial_i\\,c_{ij}\\,\\partial_j$ be a second-order partial differential operator with domain $C_c^\\infty(\\Omega)$ where the coefficients $c_{ij}\\in W^{1,\\infty}_{\\rm loc}(\\bar\\Omega)$ are real, $c_{ij}=c_{ji}$ and the coefficient matrix $C=(c_{ij})$ satisfies bounds $00$ where $\\mu(s)=\\int^s_0dt\\,c(t)^{-1/2}$ then we establish that $H_\\Omega$ is $L_1$-unique, i.e.\\ it has a unique $L_1$-extension which generates a continuous semigroup, if and only if it is Markov unique, i.e.\\ it has a unique $L_2$-extension which generates a submarkovian semigroup. Moreover these uniqueness conditions are equivalent with the capacity of the boundary of $\\Omega$, measured with respect to $H_\\Omega$, being zero. We also demonstrate that the capacity depends on two gross features, the Hausdorff dimension of subsets $A$ of the boundary the set and the order of degeneracy of $H_\\Omega$ at $A$.

  18. EFFECTS OF CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCES ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFER IN WRITTEN PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Ramón Torrijos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on the impact that cross-linguistic influences have on second language acquisition. It investigates the importance of the learner's native language (L1 in written production of a second language (L2, particularly the use of L1 linguistic rules by Spanish speakers when they are writing in the target language (L2. This exploratory research focuses on the production errors made by students relative to specific subsystems such as semantic and syntactic areas. Errors are studied with respect to the differences between Spanish and English through a contrastive analysis between both languages in problematic linguistic areas. In this article only semantic errors will be considered as a first approximation to the study of transfer in written production. The results indicate that transfer is a reality and an important determinant in the process of second language acquisition. Teachers in an EFL context should be able to identify this phenomenon in order to prevent the errors which may arise from it.

  19. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  20. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  1. Mirror Writing and a Dissociative Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Le; Lewis Cohen; Joyce Smith

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam—mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirr...

  2. NLP for writing: What has changed?

    OpenAIRE

    Smedt, Koenraad

    2009-01-01

    Proceedings of the Workshop on NLP for Reading and Writing – Resources, Algorithms and Tools (SLTC 2008). Editors: Rickard Domeij, Sofie Johansson Kokkinakis, Ola Knutsson and Sylvana Sofkova Hashemi. NEALT Proceedings Series, Vol. 3 (2009), 1-11. © 2009 The editors and contributors. Published by Northern European Association for Language Technology (NEALT) http://omilia.uio.no/nealt . Electronically published at Tartu University Library (Estonia) http:...

  3. Elaboration: The Power Punch of "Body Language" Detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joan

    2003-01-01

    "Zooming in" with a camera lens led students in Joan Berger's class to enrich their writing exponentially. Through class discussion of body language, along with the use of worksheets (provided), role-playing, modeling, and conferencing, one aspect of lively writing became a part of their writing repertoire. (Contains 5 figures.)

  4. An Analysis of Spoken Language and Written Language and How They Affect English Language Learning and Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Bei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Language plays a crucial role in the development of human society. It is the main means of communication between individuals, groups and countries. Nowadays in China, more and more people are learning English as a second language. What is the effective method of learning a foreign language becomes their chief concern. Basically speaking, four modules are involved in the process of second language acquisition. They are listening, reading, writing and speaking. In English language teaching and ...

  5. The Logic of Scientific Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, I describe a logical method for scientific writing. Any decision made in this type of writing should be based on the logic of science and the rules of communication, as part of a creative discourse. I present some logical flaws (regarding journal classification, academic vs. non-academic texts, and subjective inferences) and writing mistakes (in the structure of a paper and the writing style) that can undermine publication.Key Words:scientific writing, scientific communication, ...

  6. The Relationship between Listening and Other Language Skills in International English Language Testing System

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Bozorgian

    2012-01-01

    Listening comprehension is the primary channel of learning a language. Yet of the four dominant macro-skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), it is often difficult and inaccessible for second and foreign language learners due to its implicit process. The secondary skill, speaking, proceeds listening cognitively. Aural/oral skills precede the graphic skills, such as reading and writing, as they form the circle of language learning process. However, despite the significant relationsh...

  7. Encouraging Second Language Use in Cooperative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Kimura, Harumi

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by discussing whether students of second and foreign languages (hereafter, "second language" will be used to refer to both foreign and second languages) should be encouraged to use their second language (L2) with classmates when doing group activities. Reasons for both L2 and L1 (first language) use are discussed with reference…

  8. Writing in the Junior Secondary Phase "Standard V"

    OpenAIRE

    Kaukuata, Naomy K.

    1990-01-01

    Writing is a very important skill in language acquisition, and as such it requires special attention. That is why the first chapter of this project gives the reader a clear picture of the English language situation in Namibia. The situation of the English language changed after independence and has become the main medium of instruction today. The second chapter deals with Teaching/Learning problems in the country. Indeed, it shows that learning is associated with learning in difficult circums...

  9. Writing and Reading Activities for Math Problem-Solving (WRAMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Yu-Chung Change of Pasadena City College developed this method in an inquiry project. Here is her description of the approach: The Writing and Reading Activities for Math Problem Solving (WRAMPS) is a nine-step process that requires students to break a word problem into small pieces by using reading and writing strategies. Students then work collaboratively and concentrate on language decoding and comprehension.

  10. Writing practices in contemporary Egypt: an ethnographic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Panovic?, Ivan; Holes, Clive D.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is an ethnographically grounded description and interpretation of a variety of writing practices observable in an Arabic speaking community, primarily on the Internet. Working with, or in reaction to, the concept of diglossia, of which Arabic sociolinguistic setting is often cited as a textbook example, the majority of scholars have focused their attention on speech as a major site of language variation and mixing. Writing has been largely neglected. This thesis is a contribution ...

  11. AN ANALYSIS OF TEXTUAL METAFUNCTION IN THAI EFL STUDENTS’ WRITING

    OpenAIRE

    Arunsirot, Sudrutai

    2013-01-01

    As teaching English as a foreign language, it has become obvious that an average Thai is considered to have very low English proficiency. As a result, Thailand may find herself at a disadvantage because of inferior English skills towards globalization and forming of ASEAN community. Thus, the study is devoted to the exploration of English writing skill which sets out to obtain some concrete information on the students’ problems in writing English supported by Systemic Functional Grammar. Th...

  12. Nurturing Writing Proficiency through Theme-based Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Rafizah Fatimah Osman; Erny Arniza Ahmad; Kamaruzaman Jusoff

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of theme-based instructional (TBI) method as a means of honing the writing skills and the motivation for writing of 36 pre-degree ESL learners in a Malaysian tertiary institution. The method which focused on development of language skills through discussion of themes provided the teacher a direct and effective way in guiding the learning processes the learners underwent in terms of how information was shared and kept and how the outcomes were ensued in pu...

  13. The Impact of Teachers? Belief on EFL Writing Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Khanalizadeh; Hamid Allami

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Iranian EFL teachers’ beliefs about writing instruction. A sample of 122 EFL teachers teaching at private language institutes were randomly selected, consisting of EFL teachers with different degrees of educational qualification, years of experience, and genders. Questionnaires were submitted to the participants and then analyzed to determine whether the participants hold a form-based, a process-based, or a social-based view of writing. The responses were then compar...

  14. Listeners Retune Phoneme Categories across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Eva; Weber, Andrea; Mitterer, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Native listeners adapt to noncanonically produced speech by retuning phoneme boundaries by means of lexical knowledge. We asked whether a second language lexicon can also guide category retuning and whether perceptual learning transfers from a second language (L2) to the native language (L1). During a Dutch lexical-decision task, German and Dutch…

  15. INCORPORATING SHORT STORIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkgo?z, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how short stories can be integrated into an English language curriculum in order to consolidate students’ knowledge of the English language - grammar and vocabulary - and to promote their creative writing skills. The study was conducted with 21 Turkish university students receiving an English language preparatory programme. A selection of short stories appropriate to students’ language requirements was incorporated into the English language curriculum. A three-stag...

  16. Smart Talk: Improving Children's Oral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Janie F.; Perkins, J. Helen

    2003-01-01

    Encourages caregivers to engage children in oral language activities that will help children develop skills necessary for reading and writing. Examines: (1) oral language as a predecessor to reading; (2) talking leading to learning; and (3) rich oral environment as a scaffold. Concludes with examples of oral-language activities for infants,…

  17. Guidelines for Nonsexist Language in APA Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychological Association

    1978-01-01

    Sexism in journal writing may be classified as problems of evaluation. Endeavors to change language is a difficult task. Few attempts exist to end sexist language. Careful rephrasing can often result in accurate, unbiased communication. The APA Guidelines attempt to develop awareness and competence in using non-sexist language. (Author/MFD)

  18. Tutoring between Language with Comparative Multilingual Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Writers who do not speak English as a native language perennially have presented unique challenges to the writing center, for these writers, who study English as a second language (ESL), or even as a third or fourth foreign language (EFL), may also be unacquainted with American academic discourse. ESL/EFL writers may face unfamiliarity with…

  19. Feedback in ESL Writing: Toward an Interactional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Ravand

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of feedback on writing involves complex issues and needs to be considered within the total context in which the feedback is given. The reason studies examining feedback effects are so inconsistent may be a function of the fact that these studies consider feedback issue from a single perspective. To deal with this problem, feedback is first defined from different perspectives, then different aspects of feedback are discussed and after that a discussion of the factors that affect the influence of feedback on second language writing follows and finally a model where all the factors interact to influence feedback practices in second langue writing is presented.

  20. Process Approach to Teaching Writing Applied in Different Teaching Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunling Sun

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available English writing, as a basic language skill for second language learners, is being paid close attention to. How to achieve better results in English teaching and how to develop students’ writing competence remain an arduous task for English teachers. Based on the review of the concerning literature from other researchers as well as a summery of the author’s own experimental research, the author of this essay for the first time tries to give definitions of the process approach to writing, make a comparison between product and process approach to teaching writing and accordingly make suggestions about the basic principles of teaching writing with the application of the process approach. With this understanding of the process approach to writing, the author focuses on a discussion about the two classroom teaching models by using the process approach, namely teaching models with minimal control and maximal control to different English level students. Experimental study shows that the subjects were all making significant progress in their writing skill.