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1

Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

2010-01-01

2

Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing  

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Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

2014-01-01

3

Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing  

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Full Text Available This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., lexical bundles in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2, were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively. Published academic writing was found to exhibit the widest range of lexical bundles whereas L2 student writing showed the smallest range. Furthermore, some high-frequency expressions in published texts, such as in the context of, were underused in both student corpora, while the L2 student writers overused certain expressions (e.g., all over the world which native academics rarely used. The findings drawn from structural and functional analyses of lexical bundles also have some pedagogical implications.

Yu-Hua Chen

2010-02-01

4

Writing in Recently Alphabetized Languages.  

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The teaching of writing in the American Indian-English bilingual classroom is hampered in that most Amerindian languages have only recently been alphabetized. There are two problems: (1) What standard or orthography will be adopted? (2) What standards of style will be developed? Usually, there are several different writing systems for any one…

Burnaby, Barbara

5

Language Skills Approach to Writing.  

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The writing course described in this paper is designed to utilize the existing listening, reading, and speaking skills of educationally disadvantaged students to teach writing skills on the college level. The paper discusses the rationale of the course, describes the content briefly, outlines the language skills employed in a typical week's…

Halloran, Karyn J.

6

Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters  

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The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi) and L2 (English) writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of t...

Gholam Reza Zarei

2011-01-01

7

TEACHING CREATIVE WRITING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM  

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Writing, like all other aspects of language, is communicative. In our real life we write e-mails, notes, covering letters, reports, curriculums, assignments, essays and so on. Some of us write articles or work on forums and websites. A few write stories and poems. All of these writing tasks have a communicative purpose and a target audience. In the English language classroom, however, writing often lacks this. There are many reasons, as there are lots of ways to make the writing...

Rodriques, Marku Monis And M. V.

2012-01-01

8

The Effect of L2 Writing Ability on L1 Writing Ability  

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Full Text Available This study was an attempt to examine the effect of L2 writing ability on L1 writing ability from a multilingual perspective. To this end, 120 students of Isfahan University, half English majors and half non-English majors, were assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 30 English major senior students, 30 English major freshman students, 30 non-English major senior students and 30 non-English major freshman students (Accounting and Management majors. All the participants were asked to write a paragraph of about 150 words on the topic “What are your plans for the future?” in Farsi. For analyzing the possible syntactic development in each participant’s writing ability, 2 measuring criteria were used: 1 Loban Index, and 2 T-unit. To summarize and analyze the data, both descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized. A one-way ANOVA was run to compare the means of the 4 groups on the Loban Index criterion to see whether their differences were statistically significant. In order to observe the real differences of the means of the 4 groups based on the T-unit criterion and also to specify the interaction between the levels of the independent variables, a one-way ANOVA was run. The results of the 4 groups who studied the L2 (i.e., English with different intensity indicated that the English major senior students outperformed the other 3 groups in the obtained F-value on the Loban Index criterion. The findings support the idea that intensive and successful L2 learning can have a beneficial influence on the development of L1 writing ability.

Mahmood Hashemian

2011-11-01

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First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research  

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Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.

Khaled Karim

2013-01-01

10

Panel: Opportunities and Challenges of Writing in a Second Language  

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The advancement of Globalization has simultaneously diluted the need for writing in languages other then English and made us more aware of differences between diverse cultures. Hence, writing in a second/foreign language has acquired a new role. In order for individuals to compete on the international scale, they have to master a foreign language. Yet, the processes and elements of tasks involved in writing in L1 and L2 are far from identical. When writing in the L2, individual writers inevitably engage in the changing contexts between the language uses of L1 and L2 and apply their learned knowledge and principles to the writing situations they perceive as suitable or doable. Students’ perception about the role of language in Globalized world and language learning, as well as their self-perception plays an integral role in their ability to transfer knowledge when writing in a second/foreign language. This is particularly true when one teaches adult groups of students who have already formed distinct identities as academically and professionally successful L1 writers. The participants of our panel will look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest in finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writer’s identity. To further examine and understand the nature of writing across different contexts, the panel will consider how student attitudes and perceptions play into writer development and knowledge transfer from L1 to L2. The participants will explore the opportunities and problems of writing in L2, as well as the effects that second/foreign language writing has on writers’ identities, by asking the following guiding questions: 1). How do students develop identities and self-perceptions as L1 and L2 writers? How and to what degree, are their identities as L1 and L2 writers similar or different from each other? 2). How do students develop beliefs and attitudes towards L2 writing? How do their L1 writing experiences inform their L2 writing strategies? How do rhetorical and discursive strategies of L1 writing impact students’ learning of L2 writing and should such impact be viewed as an opportunity or as a problem when teaching second/foreign language writing? 3). What type of support do students need to become better L2 writers? What are their particular pedagogical needs? How can writing instructors or practitioners best support our students in achieving their goals as second/foreign language writers, and transferring their academic writing skills from one language into another, or from one context to another? Method: Through surveys, questionnaires, students feedback and analysis of students writing, the panel participants will look at the possibilities and problems of writing transfer from L1 to L2, as well as the effects that second language writing has on writers’ native identities, especially in the circumstances when they are already seeing the blurring frontiers between native and foreign cultural realms. Cross-context research into second/foreignlanguage writing is essential for a clearer and broader picture to emerge on L2 writing. To this end, the panel will bring together specialists from around the world, from different types of institutions, with different student bodies, who will present their research on teaching and learning L2 writing in diverse linguistic, cultural, institutional, and pedagogical contexts. We invite the audience to look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest of finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writers’ identities. This panel will also address the need for designing more successful approaches to supporting students’ writing skills and to teaching advanced level writing in the second/foreign language classroom by examining students’ perception of writing and, more specifically, the link between L1 and L2 writing experiences. References: Literacy-based language learning (Richard Kern 2000, Claire Krasch, 1993); Wiring assessment (Carl Bereiter, 1995); Learning and writing transfer (Greeno

Kupatadze, Ketevan; Chiu, Scott C.

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Kanji Recognition by Second Language Learners: Exploring Effects of First Language Writing Systems and Second Language Exposure  

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This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…

Matsumoto, Kazumi

2013-01-01

12

L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer  

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This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

2013-01-01

13

Cerebral mechanisms for different second language writing systems.  

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In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of Japanese (of syllabic Kana only) whose L1 was English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). During English reading, the L2 readers of English (Japanese-L1/English-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the left superior parietal lobule/supramarginal gyrus, relative to the L1 readers of English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). This is a region considered to be involved in phonological processing. The increased activation in the Japanese-L1/English-L2 group likely reflects the increased cognitive load associated with L2 English reading, possibly because L1 readers of Kana, which has an extremely regular orthography, may need to adjust to the greater phonological demands of the irregular L2 English orthography. In contrast, during Kana reading, the L2 readers of Japanese Kana (English-L1/Japanese-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the lingual gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres compared to the L1 readers of Kana (Japaese-L1/English-L2). This additional activation is likely to reflect the lower level of visual familiarity to the L2 symbols in the English-L1/Japanese-L2 group; Kana symbols are uniquely used only in Japan, whereas Roman alphabetic symbols are seen nearly everywhere. These findings, bolstered by significant relationships between the activation of the identified regions and cognitive competence, suggest that the cerebral mechanisms for L2 reading in late learners depends both on which language is their L1 and which language is to be learnt as their L2. Educational implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23938321

Koyama, Maki S; Stein, John F; Stoodley, Catherine J; Hansen, Peter C

2013-09-01

14

Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher  

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Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

Kalt, Susan E.

2012-01-01

15

The Use of Online Corrective Feedback in Academic Writing by L1 Malay Learners  

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Full Text Available Conventional corrective feedback has been widely practiced but has been said to be tedious, stressful and time consuming. As such, the focus of this study is to investigate the use of an alternative method to giving corrective feedback namely, an online corrective feedback through e-mail. In order to examine if this innovative form of corrective feedback can be applied to the teaching and learning of academic writing, an experimental design was used with a control group and an experimental group of L1 Malay learners who were pursuing an academic writing course at the tertiary level. Interviews were also conducted on selected individuals to determine whether the use of online corrective feedback was practical in assisting learners improve their writing from the first draft to the final product. The statistical analysis applied to this research indicated that online corrective feedback may be an effective way to improve writing skills of learners and save time. Thus, the results showed that online corrective feedback should be potentially useful when integrated into the teaching and learning of academic writing.

Soo Kum Yoke

2013-11-01

16

Linguistic Audacity: Shakespeare's Language and Student Writing  

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Shakespeare molded language to meet his needs. Can students learn from his example? In this article, the author suggests studying Shakespeare's creative use of functional shift, spelling, and vocabulary to help students develop greater control of their own writing. The author is advocating that teachers approach Shakespeare as descriptive…

Goodman, Barbara A.

2011-01-01

17

Genre and Second-Language Academic Writing  

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The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…

Paltridge, Brian

2014-01-01

18

Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System  

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The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

2013-01-01

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A Think-aloud Protocols Investigation of Saudi English Major Students’ Writing Revision Strategies in L1 (Arabic and L2 (English  

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Full Text Available This study investigates the writing revision strategies used by 16 Saudi English as foreign language (EFL students. Two research methods were employed. First, think-aloud reporting was used to gain insightinto the thought processes utilized by the students, and to study the revision strategies that Saudi maleuniversity students make use of while writing compositions in L1 Arabic and L2 English. Second, a semi-structured interview was conducted with the aim of supporting the think-aloud data. Analysis of the think-aloud sessions and the interviews revealed that most of the time, strategies were used more frequently when students wrote in English rather than when they wrote in Arabic. In addition, it was found thatin general, specific strategies used when writing in Arabic were also used when writing and vice versa.

Eid Alhaisoni

2012-07-01

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Writing and Audio Cassette Evaluations: Enhancing Language Acquisition and Writing Skills for ESL Students.  

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This paper outlines the 4-tiered evaluation and classroom practices of one English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher related to writing abilities that involve the use of audiocassettes that integrate writing, reading, speaking, and listening from pre-writing to teacher evaluation and student remediation. Daily instruction includes writing,…

Smith, Linda E.

 
 
 
 
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Beliefs and Practices about Writing in a Foreign Language among Economists Working in Two Languages  

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Product-oriented analyses have shown that academic English (the predominant L2 in their environment: Phillipson and Skuttnab-Kongas 1995) written by Scandinavian writers differs from that of L1 English writers in ways that might work to the disadvantage of the writers in terms of recognition or publishability. Simultaneously language-policy scholars have problematised the predominance of English in many academic fields. There is of course a great deal of individual variation in terms of language choice and publication success. We investigated the writing practices of some 75 Danish academics in various fields of economics and business studies by means of a questionnaire, and then interviewed a proportion of the respondents to get a richer sense of their practices, the intertextuality that lies behind them, the factors that lead to differential language choice and success, and the academics´ attitude to the predominance of English. We identified : a wide range of attitudes to the difficulty of writing in L2; practices associated with successful writing; fields in which international publication was more or less important; and a general reliance on implicit knowledge and intuitive learning, in contrast to the current trend towards explicit teaching of genre and rhetoric.

Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

22

Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom  

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This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

Mori, Miki

2014-01-01

23

Error Analysis and Second Language Writing  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to compare and examine types of written errors by EFL and ESL learners at under graduate level in English Language and suggest remedial measures to overcome the committing of errors. The data for the study were 200 students in the age range of 20 to24 at under graduate level in Mysore, India as ESL learners and Bushehr, Iran as EFL learners participated in this study. The results of the study indicate that the total number of errors committed by the Iranian students was 3045 and that of their Indian peers’ was 3274.  The maximum errors made by the subjects were from the realm of 'punctuation' (1387. The number of errors made by the Indian students in the use of punctuation was 718 which came to 22% for errors in punctuation. The Iranian students committed 669 errors. They constituted 22% of errors for punctuation. Thus, the minimum number of errors recorded in writing in this study was ‘spelling.’ The total number of errors in the use of spelling was 1050. The number of errors committed by the Iranian students in the use of spelling was 578 which come to 19% for errors in spelling. The number of errors committed by the Indian students was 472. They constituted 14% of errors for spelling.

Ali Akbar Khansir

2013-02-01

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Thai EFL Students’ Writing Errors in Different Text Types: The Interference of the First Language  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Thai language, regarded as the first language (L1, in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast. 120 English paragraphs written by 40 second year English major students were analyzed by using Error Analysis (EA.The results revealed that the first language interference errors fell into 16 categories: verb tense, word choice, sentence structure, article, preposition, modal/auxiliary, singular/plural form, fragment, verb form, pronoun, run-on sentence, infinitive/gerund, transition, subject-verb agreement, parallel structure, and comparison structure, respectively, and the number of frequent errors made in each type of written tasks was apparently different. In narration, the five most frequent errors found were verb tense, word choice, sentence structure, preposition, and modal/auxiliary, respectively, while the five most frequent errors in description and comparison/contrast were article, sentence structure, word choice, singular/plural form, and subject-verb agreement, respectively. Interestingly, in the narrative and descriptive paragraphs, comparison structure was found to be the least frequent error, whereas it became the 10th frequent error in comparison/contrast writing. It was apparent that a genre did affect writing errors as different text types required different structural features. It could be concluded that to enhance students’ grammatical and lexical accuracy, a second language (L2 writing teacher should take into consideration L1 interference categories in different genres.

Somchai Watcharapunyawong

2013-01-01

25

Problem Solving and Report Writing for Second Language Engineering Students.  

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Describes a report writing unit that is part of a three-year language/communication course for second language engineering students at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa. States that the tasks motivated the students to develop their report writing and oral skills. (RS)

Kotecha, Piyushi

1991-01-01

26

Drama and Language Arts: Will Drama Improve Student Writing?  

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Describes a drama-based language arts unit taught to a fifth grade class. Provides empirical evidence that drama as a strategy of instruction embedded within a writing/language arts unit helps students improve their writing. Suggests continued research and development of drama as a strategy of instruction. (PM)

McKean, Barbara; Sudol, Peg

2002-01-01

27

Extensive Writing in Foreign-Language Classrooms: A Blogging Approach  

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A weblog (blog or Web log) has recently become one of the most widely used Internet applications. The current study concerns developing a blog specifically designed for learners learning English as a foreign language. The study investigated the effects of extensive writing by comparing the writing performance in the first three and the last three…

Sun, Yu-Chih

2010-01-01

28

Assessing Academic Writing in Foreign and Second Languages  

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Academic writing and education in foreign and second languages both have lengthy histories. Their histories have diverged but also intersected. Matsuda (2005), for example, described the convergence in policies that led to a distinctive discipline of "L2 writing" in higher education in the U.S.A. during the latter part of the 20th century.…

Cumming, Alister

2009-01-01

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WRITING STRATEGIES IN L1 AND L2: ARE THERE DIFERENCES? Estratégias de escrita em L1 e L2: EXISTEM DIFERENÃ?AS? pesquisar  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. pesquisar Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions.

Dilys Karen Rees

1994-01-01

30

CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC WRITING: A STUDY OF HUNGARIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS L1 ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAYS  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the findings and implications of a contrastive rhetorical study of Hungarian and North American college students’ L1 argumentative writing. With the help of the refined version of Mann &Thompson’s Rhetorical Structure Analysis, the investigation highlights potentially culture-bound differences in the positioning and function of nuclear or thesis statements, logical organisation in terms of rhetorical structure relations on different levels of text and the representation of alternative viewpoints. Differing argumentative schemata are related to different underlying intellectual traditions, and suggestions are made for the pedagogical integration of findings.

Ágnes M. Godó

2008-12-01

31

Writing Between Languages How English Language Learners Make the Transition to Fluency, Grades 4-12  

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With Writing Between Languages, Danling Fu shows that by beginning with the literacy students bring from their native language and putting writing at the center of the curriculum, we can help them transition to English and support academic literacy. You'll learn the crucial and helpful role native literacy plays in building written English fluency, assess where ELLs are in their development as writers, use movement between languages to scaffold writing—no matter whether you know a student's home language—and implement instructional strategies to support development in writing

Fu, Danling

2009-01-01

32

Developing the Writing Ability of Intermediate Language Learners by Blogging  

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Full Text Available Considering the widespread use of blogs during recent years, the present study explored how blogging can affect the writing skill of Iranian language learners. Besides, the learners' perception of blogging was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to see whether learners showed enthusiasm to blogging and how it motivated them to write. Two intermediate English classes were selected as the Control and Experimental Groups. Six writing topics were selected and were assigned to both groups. The writing activities in the Control Group were done on paper-based method while the Blogging Group used a selected website to do so. To evaluate the writing activities, four criteria were taken into account: a length of the writing activities, b use of verb forms, c use of articles, and d use of prepositions. Based on the results of the chi-square tests, in terms of the frequency of missed articles and prepositions the performances of both groups were significantly different. Also the compositions in the Blogging Group were longer than those of the Control Group. However, the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the learners' perception towards blogging revealed that students believed blogging had encouraged them to write more accurately. They also considered that blogging had remarkably improved their writing ability as compared to the time they did not use blogging.

Mohsen Hajiannejad

2012-01-01

33

Using Arabic (L1) in testing reading comprehension in English (L2) as a foreign language  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using Arabic (L1) as a language of questions and answers in testing reading comprehension in English (L2), and to explore student and teacher opinions about this. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. To collect the quantitative data, one hundred and forty-four students were given a reading comprehension test. Both multiple-choice and short-answer questions were used. The subjects were second-year English departm...

Al-qudairy, Abdullah H. A.

2011-01-01

34

Preparing Language Teachers for Blended Teaching of Summary Writing  

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Research on preparing language teachers for blended teaching of summary writing, a mix of on-site and online instruction for college students to grasp the gist of the texts, is scarce in higher education. This study examined the problems encountered and solutions proposed by six language teachers, who altogether instructed 214 college students on…

Yang, Yu-Fen

2014-01-01

35

Academic Language Socialization in High School Writing Conferences  

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This study examines multilingual high school writers' individual talk with their teachers in two advanced English language development classes to observe how such talk shapes linguistically diverse adolescents' writing. Addressing adolescent writers' language socialization through microethnographic discourse analysis, the author…

Gilliland, Betsy

2014-01-01

36

Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition  

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This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

2012-01-01

37

Schooled Language Competence: Linguistic Abilities in Reading and Writing.  

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The notion that a set of restricted-generalized abilities underlies both reading and writing is explored in this essay. Following a definition of schooled language competence (SLC), the first section asserts that knowledge and problem solving are insufficient and nonlinguistic approaches to language competence. The second section focuses on…

Perfetti, Charles A.; McCutchen, Deborah

38

Writing Profiles of Deaf Children Taught through British Sign Language  

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Congenitally, profoundly deaf children whose first language is British Sign Language (BSL) and whose speech is largely unintelligible need to be literate to communicate effectively in a hearing society. Both spelling and writing skills of such children can be limited, to the extent that no currently available assessment method offers an adequate…

Burman, Diana; Nunes, Terezinha; Evans, Deborah

2007-01-01

39

Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals  

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Full Text Available This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on doing the actual writing. Here, it is suggested that we connect ideas, delve deeply into the ideas we present, strive to write the reader friendly manner, use visuals, and improve our writing by noticing how other journal authors write. The third section concerns relations with editors. The advice given is that we choose carefully the journal to which we submit our work, follow that journal's directions to contributors, include a cover letter, be prepared to wait patiently, welcome critical feedback from editors and reviewers, and view editors as colleagues.

George M. Jacobs

1999-01-01

40

Reading ability, reading fluency and ortographic skills : the case of L1 Slovene English as a foreign language students  

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This study examined the difference between less-skilled and skilled L1 Slovene English as foreign language (EFL) students in foreign language (L2) fluency and L2 orthographic skills; 93 less-skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students and 102 skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students participated in the study. The results showed that skilled readers performed better in all fluency and orthographic skills tasks, as the differences between groups were statistically significant. The correlat...

Erbeli, Florina; Piz?orn, Karmen

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

The Second Language Acquisition of Past Tense Marker in English by L1 Speakers of Chinese  

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Full Text Available This study is considered the L2 acquisition and underlying of past tense marker, focusing on whether or not L2 learners of English are successful in associating the grammatical properties with Chinese language. Although the dataset is small, the results showed that Chinese speakers are able to acquire the past-tense marker although Chinese language has none of this feature. The L1 Chinese speakers are able to acquire the regular past-tense marker better co mpared to the irregular form.
Keywords: Second language acquisition; Past tense marker; L1 Chinese speakers; Irregular form
Résumé: Cet article étudie l'acquisition d’une deuxième langue, et en particulier l’apprentissage du passé, en se concentrant sur le fait si les apprenants de l'anglais pouvaient réussir à associer les propriétés grammaticales de la langue anglaise avec la langue chinoise. Bien que l'ensemble des données est faible, les résultats montrent que les locuteurs du chinois sont capable de maîtriser le passé, même si la langue chinoise n'a pas cette fonctionnalité. Les locuteurs du chinois maîtrise mieux le passé en forme régulière par rapport en forme irrégulière.
Mots-Clés: acquisition d’une deuxième langue; temps passér; les locuteurs du chinois; forme irrégulière

Sharon Sharmini

2009-06-01

42

Developing Speaking and Writing Skills of L1 Arabic EFL Learners through Teaching of IPA Phonetic Codes  

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Full Text Available This exploratory study investigated the development of speaking and writing skills of L1 Arabic EFL learners based on their level of perception and understanding of phonetic transcriptions through visualisation of letter-to-symbol representations using the International Phonetic Alphabet (henceforth IPA. The participants were 169 University-level Preparatory Year Program (PYP male Saudi EFL students. The study was carried out as a pedagogical approach to improve university first year students’ pronunciation, correct speech and writing skills. The students selected attended 6, 50-minute Integrated Pronunciation Teaching (IPT lessons which included IPA transcription codes using both audio and visual teaching methods in addition to one ICT aided lesson.  Throughout those lessons, students were initially introduced to the IPA phonetic codes in gradual increase of difficulty and were encouraged to use the monolingual (English-English, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDCE. Two written tests and one oral test were conducted using a number of carefully selected IPA transcription codes related questions and results were analysed and interpreted. Results obtained showed slight variations between higher and lower ability students in understanding the IPA transcription codes. As a whole, however, the results indicated that students reached a high level of understanding of letter-to-symbol representations – the IPA system - and oral test results proved that phonological awareness can help Saudi students at tertiary level education improve their writing and speaking skills. Above all, learning the phonetic transcription codes helped them develop a sense of autonomy and competence when using monolingual dictionaries. The study concluded with a brief discussion of the ramifications of the study and the potential for further research.

Hussam Rajab

2013-04-01

43

Meaningful Literacy: Writing Poetry in the Language Classroom  

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This paper develops the concept of meaningful literacy and offers a classroom methodology--poetry writing--that manifests this approach to ESL/EFL literacy instruction. The paper is divided into three sections. The first deals with the concept of meaningful literacy learning in second and foreign language pedagogy; the second summarizes empirical…

Hanauer, David I.

2012-01-01

44

The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language  

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The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

Babayigit, Selma

2014-01-01

45

English language writing centres in Japanese universities: What do students really need?  

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The installation of English language writing centres in Japanese universities is a relatively recent event—the first ones established with funding from the Ministry of Education in 2004. Because of the EFL writing context, setting up a writing centre requires consideration of students’ needs and cultural expectations of writing and writing centres. In general, writing centres that have been established in Japanese universities follow a structure similar to those in the US. This raises ...

Jim McKinley

2010-01-01

46

Concreteness and Language Effects in the Quality of Written Definitions in L1, L2 and L3  

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Several researchers have suggested that definitional skill explains academic success/failure (Gagne, 2004; Snow, 1987). The words used to investigate definitional skill have all been concrete words given in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) of the participants. This paper reports a study investigating the quality of the…

El Euch, Sonia

2007-01-01

47

Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom. Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom.  

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Full Text Available The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field. The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.

Madeleine Youmans

2008-04-01

48

EFL Students’ Writing Strategies in Saudi Arabian ESP Writing Classes: Perspectives on Learning Strategies in Self-access Language Learning  

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Full Text Available This study was part of a PhD research to explore the writing strategies of 121 second-year undergraduate Saudi student writers who are studying English as a foreign language and for specific purposes in one of the Saudi industrial colleges: Jubail Industrial College (JIC. The writing strategies under investigation had been classified into two categories (process-oriented writing strategies and product-oriented writing strategies based on their instructional philosophies. A strategy questionnaire was designed to collect data. Although JIC writing classes were assumed to be product-oriented as reported by the majority of the participants’ description of their teachers’ writing approach, the results showed that almost all of the participants (95.9% were mixing the two kinds of strategies. More surprisingly, the top five writing strategies used by the participants were process-oriented.

Mohammad Alnufaie

2012-12-01

49

Reading Ability, Reading Fluency and Orthographic Skills: The Case of L1 Slovene English as a Foreign Language Students  

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Full Text Available This study examined the difference between less-skilled and skilled L1Slovene English as foreign language (EFL students in foreign language(L2 fluency and L2 orthographic skills; 93 less-skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students and 102 skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students participated in the study. The results showed that skilled readers performed better in all fluency and orthographic skills tasks, as the differences between groups were statistically significant. The correlations among all variables showed that L2 fluency and L2 orthographic skills are positively interrelated among both groups, suggesting that higher L2 fluency scores are associated with higher L2 orthography scores. This outcome implies that less-skilled readersneed to be greatly exposed to L2 language and be ensured necessaryopportunities in- or outside the classroom in L2 learning.

Florina Erbeli

2012-01-01

50

Software Junctus: Joining Sign Language and Alphabetical Writing  

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The authors’ aim is to describe the workshops developed to test the use of an authorship program that allows the simultaneous use of sign language and alphabetical writing. The workshops were prepared and conducted by a Computer Science undergraduate, with the support of the Program of Students’ Integration and Mediation (Programa de Integração e Mediação do Acadêmico - PIMA) at the University of Caxias do Sul. Two sign language interpreters, two deaf students and one hearing student, who also teach at a special school for the deaf, participated in the workshops. The main characteristics of the software and the development of the workshops are presented with examples of educational projects created during their development. Possible improvements are also outlined.

Valentini, Carla Beatris; Bisol, Cláudia A.; Dalla Santa, Cristiane

51

Success with ELLs: We Are All Writers! Building Second Language Writing Skills in the ELA Classroom  

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Writing effectively in a second language can be one of the most challenging tasks second language learners must undertake and master. English teachers are in a good position to implement the types of supports that can move ELLs toward success in academic writing by providing exposure to and practice with different genres of academic writing,…

DelliCarpini, Margo

2012-01-01

52

Integrating Writing Into the Elementary Language Arts Curriculum: Let's Put Writing In Its Place.  

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Elementary school teachers acknowledge the need for better writing instruction, but seldom have time for it within their already crowded curricula. Writing instruction suffers from placing skills development before writing activities, from emphasis on reading, and because many teachers are not well prepared to teach writing. A low priority is…

Odum, Helen P.

53

WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

Alister Cumming

2001-12-01

54

Creative Writing for Early Elementary. Spotlight: Language Arts.  

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Describes the implementation of a weekly creative writing assignment for early elementary school students in a Montessori setting. Notes that students' writing reveals their social maturity and personality characteristics. Provides suggestions for starting a creative writing exercise, including brainstorming, a babbling activity, and a…

Johnstone, Susan

2001-01-01

55

Affordances of Web 2.0 Technologies for Collaborative Advanced Writing in a Foreign Language  

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Can online collaboration yield a positive effect on academic writing in a foreign language? If so, what exactly is the added value, compared to individual writing, and (how) does it translate to better output? These are the central questions addressed in this paper. L2 writing research has long highlighted the benefits of collaboration in terms of…

Strobl. Carola

2014-01-01

56

"Mind Your Language": High School Students Write Laboratory Reports  

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A case study approach was used to examine the potential knowledge-transforming role of writing with 27, Year 12 chemistry students'. The study was prompted by changes to external chemistry examinations that required students to write connected discourse, and supported by the chemistry teacher's belief in the instructional value of…

Whitehead, David; Murphy, Fiona

2014-01-01

57

Metadiscourse Repertoire of L1 Mandarin Undergraduates Writing in English: A Cross-Contextual, Cross-Disciplinary Study  

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This article presents a qualitative, comparative study of metadiscourse in the academic writing of two groups of undergraduate students working in two different disciplines. The groups of students were: 1) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in China through the medium of English; 2) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in the UK through the…

Li, Ting; Wharton, Sue

2012-01-01

58

Evaluating the Role of Writing in the First and Second Year University Foreign Language Curriculum  

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Full Text Available Approaches to foreign language (FL instruction have changed a great deal in the past fifty years, the most fundamental change being the shift from a focus solely on language form to a focus on communicative competence (CC. Although most FL instructors now appear to focus on CC in the teaching of speaking, they do not necessarily apply CC to writing in the same way. The study reported here attempts to describe the role currently played by writing in the first and second-year FL curriculum by detailing the methods used by 10 professors working at 7 different universities across the United States to teach FL writing in these courses. Results indicate that writing-to-learn activities make up a large majority of the writing methods used, but that learning-to-write activities that foster CC in writing have also been successfully integrated into the beginning FL curriculum.

Michael D. Hubert

2014-04-01

59

Knowledge, Writing, and Language Outcomes for a Reading Comprehension and Writing Intervention  

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Many students struggle with gaining knowledge and writing about content text material and therefore require effective intervention. In a randomized controlled trial study, 77 low-achieving fourth-grade students received reading comprehension instruction or reading comprehension plus writing instruction or were assigned to a no-treatment control.…

Mason, Linda H.; Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miller, Carol A.; Glutting, J. James

2013-01-01

60

An Academic Writing Needs Assessment of English-as-a-Second-Language Clinical Investigators  

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Introduction: Academic writing for publication is competitive and demanding for researchers. For the novice English-as-a-second-language (ESL) researcher, the pressure to publish compounds the difficulties of mastering the English language. Very few studies have used ESL graduate and post-graduate students as academic writing research subjects.…

Wang, Min-Fen; Bakken, Lori L.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Academic Vocabulary, Writing and English for Academic Purposes: Perspectives from Second Language Learners  

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This article focuses on vocabulary and writing at university level from the perspectives of 14 English as an additional language students studying at a New Zealand university. The students individually carried out an integrated reading and writing task and then participated in an interview which focused on their language learning background and…

Coxhead, Averil

2012-01-01

62

Comparability of TOEFL CBT Writing Prompts for Different Native Language Groups  

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This study has investigated the comparability of computer-based testing writing prompts in the Test of English as a Foreign LanguageTM (TOEFL) for examinees of different native language backgrounds. A total of 81 writing prompts introduced from July 1998 through August 2000 were examined using a 3-step logistic regression procedure for ordinal…

Lee, Yong-Won; Breland, Hunter; Muraki, Eiji

2005-01-01

63

CIA-CIA LANGUAGE: FROM THE ERA OF ORAL TO THE ERA OF WRITING  

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Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe the background of Cia-Cia language society's adoption and use of Hangeul (Korean alphabet as its writing system that was begun in July 2009. The issue has caused Indonesian society and neighborhood countries curious, since Latin alphabet is world widely used as the most common writing system at present time. On the other side, the historical background of writing system's development which has been implemented sustainably through borrowing and adapting process proves that any writing system can also be used in other language society in the 21st century. Similar to that of the most of minority language societies, Cia-Cia language has not had its own writing system. The transcription of Hangeul in Cia-Cia language was begun to support the preservation of minority language. Concern to this issue, if the spoken language of Cia-Cia is stabilly continued, Hangeul will be known as one of the writing systems which has preserved Cia-Cia language in world's development of writing system history.

Cho, Tae-Young

2012-10-01

64

Blog writing integration for academic language learning purposes: towards an assessment framework  

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Full Text Available This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006, then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming. The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expression, reflection and language acquisition in mandatory blog writings by students at a Third Level Institution. Previously in this research, students were asked, but not required, to keep a personal blog for up to five months; writing only about their language learning strategies and experiences with the declared aim of improving student language learning strategies through self-reflection and self-expression. Students are, this time, required to write and ‘complete’ their academic blog as it represents one compulsory element –with due weighting, given its importance– of a language module assessment. This compulsory blog writing task has raised a number of pedagogical questions which will be explored, such as: effective integration, assessing and rewarding student creative expression within the blog medium, self-reflection as a language learner and ultimately the role and value of academic blog writing in language acquisition.

Liam Murray

2007-10-01

65

Teaching Written Language: Points of Contact between Sophisticated Reading and Writing.  

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Reading and writing are both creative acts of communication that use written language as a vehicle for meaning. A strong theoretical case for teaching the two processes concurrently can be built by examining points of contact between reading and writing. One such point is context concerns. The Communication Triangle model (author/audience/…

Bratcher-Hoskins, Suzanne

66

Using Interactive Writing Instruction with Kindergarten and First-Grade English Language Learners  

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In this article, written primarily for early childhood educators of young children who are learning English as another language, the authors discuss the use and educational benefits of Interactive Writing, an approach to beginning writing instruction appropriate for kindergarten and first grade children.

Williams, Cheri; Pilonieta, Paola

2012-01-01

67

Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Allocation of Time to Writing Processes in English and Spanish  

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This study brings together previous research on writing processes and Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners to obtain a clearer picture of these learners' writing behaviors in English and Spanish. Following a cognitive-oriented framework, the study explores planning time, execution time, monitoring time, accuracy, and fluency. Twelve SHL…

Mikulski, Ariana; Elola, Idoia

2011-01-01

68

Theoretical and Practical Linguistic Shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and Recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in Teaching Writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners  

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Full Text Available Writing is a complex cognitive activity in which foreign language learners are required to pay attention simultaneously to content, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that an effective teaching method in one context would result in effective student learning in another. It is proved that Product/Guided Writing resulting in poor writers, and Process Writing dos not provide much care for metalinguistic feedback or enough time for negotiation as well. Following the stages of Innovated Writing Process (IWP, the instructor may be able to teach students many skills that may improve the quality of their writing as well as speaking. This paper presents the theoretical and practical linguistic shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in teaching writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners. It is indicated that metalinguistic feedback, error/contrastive analysis and the communicative interaction negotiating of meaning and form provided by the teacher lead to remarkable improve in second/foreign language learners’ written accuracy and fluency as well.

Anwar Mourssi

2013-05-01

69

Minna Vihla. Medical Writing. Modality in Focus, Language and Computers: Studies in Practical Linguistics [...  

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Recensão de: Minna Vihla. Medical Writing. Modality in Focus, Language and Computers: Studies in Practical Linguistics, Amsterdão / Atlanta, GA: Editions Rodopi B. V. 1999. vii + 170 pp. ISBN: 90-420-0708-7

Pinto, Maria Da Grac?a Lisboa Castro

2014-01-01

70

Investigating Malaysian ESL Students' Writing Problems on Conventions, Punctuation, and Language Use at Secondary School Level  

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Full Text Available

This study aimed at investigating the challenges in three aspects of writing development process, namely conventions, punctuation, and language use (proper use of grammar in secondary school level from students and teachers experiences. The data was collected from 30 ESL students as the student participants of this research, from the upper and lower secondary school, Form 1 to Form 5, and 10 teacher participants teaching English language for upper and lower secondary levels with different teaching experiences. A questionnaire and an essay examination were utilized as the instruments of the study. The findings revealed that Malaysian ESL students have problems in writing tasks, especially in language use (grammar and punctuation. The first language interference was also very tangible in their writings. The study suggests some practical methods in order to cope with writing difficulties.

 

Neda Ghabool

2012-05-01

71

Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification  

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Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

Arthur, W. J.

1974-01-01

72

Differences of English and Chinese as Written Languages and Strategies in English Writing Teaching  

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Full Text Available The size of both the United States and China guarantees that many people will communicate in English and Chinese. But those two common languages do not guarantee perfect communication in writing practice for several reasons. This paper explores the factors resulting in non-understandable communication of English and Chinese as written language, and some strategies applied by English teachers when training students’ English writing.

Ying Wang

2013-04-01

73

Language, Violence, and the State: Writing Tamil Dalits  

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Full Text Available With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...

Nathaniel Roberts

2010-01-01

74

Linguistic, reading, and transcription influences on kindergarten writing in children with English as a second language  

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Full Text Available The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1 were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing fluency measure. Correlation and hierarchical regression results varied as a function of the writing tasks (procedural or generative and language status. Across language groups, writing tasks that captured children's developing graphophonemic knowledge were associated with a breadth of cognitive, linguistic, and early literacy skills. PA, reading, and transcription skills, but not oral vocabulary and syntactic knowledge contributed the most variance to writing irrespective of language status. The results suggest that parallel component skills and processes underlie ESL and EL1 children's early writing when formal literacy instruction begins in kindergarten even though ESL children are developing English oral and literacy proficiency simultaneously.

Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty

2013-06-01

75

INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF L1 GRAMMAR NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON L2 WRITING SKILL – REVISITED  

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This study was re-conducted after 2 years to a larger population to confirm the previous research findings and also to discover why some Persian learners (EFL) have still problems in learning certain structures of English language even in an academic level. To answer, a general proficiency test was administered to a total of 426 female and male university students of Payame-noor and Azad Universities in three different departments (Humanities, Basic Sciences and Technical Engi...

ASGHAR BASTAMI BANDPAY

2013-01-01

76

The Effect of Scaffolding Technique in Journal Writing among the Second Language Learners  

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Full Text Available It was noted that one of the most distressing challenges faced by the L2 college students was the poor presentation of their journal writing skills. The researcher noticed a prevailing pattern in their journal writing, where most of them were unable to construct proper sentences, making too many grammatical errors and also lacking in vocabulary. These factors have eventually restricted them from expressing their ideas clearly and effectively in their journal writing. Therefore, this study is primarily designed to look at how second language learners have acquired the use of English language through journal writing and how they have improved within a short time frame. The researcher scaffold a number of 3 undergraduate university college students by using several interactive writing techniques and instructions in writing a journal which showed their progress, daily activities and new experiences. The writing errors from the samples of written journals during week 1 were as it was written before and during the scaffolding period. Data were collected and the results of the progression were obtained based on the observation and comparison of written journals on week 1 and 5. The scaffolding technique presented in this study has helped remedy the challenges faced by the target students by further developing their effectiveness in journal writing.

Veeramuthu A/L Veerappan

2011-07-01

77

Writing Government Policies and Procedures in Plain Language  

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Plain language involves more than just a few simple techniques, such as using everyday words, short sentences, and active voice. Although there is no single definition, "plain language" basically stands for several dozen well-established principles of clear communication. In this article, the author discusses the significance of plain language

Byrne, Don

2008-01-01

78

INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF L1 GRAMMAR NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON L2 WRITING SKILL – REVISITED  

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Full Text Available This study was re-conducted after 2 years to a larger population to confirm the previous research findings and also to discover why some Persian learners (EFL have still problems in learning certain structures of English language even in an academic level. To answer, a general proficiency test was administered to a total of 426 female and male university students of Payame-noor and Azad Universities in three different departments (Humanities, Basic Sciences and Technical Engineering through homogenization. Out of which 220 participants whose scores ranged from 55-75 out of 100 were chosen as the upper-intermediate level and 46 participants were crossed out during the TOEFL test due to frustration and lack of self-confidence

ASGHAR BASTAMI BANDPAY

2013-01-01

79

English as a World Language in Academic Writing  

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Language is a phenomenon which can hardly be viewed separate from its very inherent component, culture. This component does by all means play a significant role in enabling the language to gain a global status. No doubt, some prominent issues do contribute to this process: political, economic, and military supremacy, to name but a few. This study…

Genc, Bilal; Bada, Erdogan

2010-01-01

80

Study on Effects of Chinese Thought and Culture on Japanese Writing:Research on the Second Language Writing by Think Aloud  

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Full Text Available Think Aloud is one of the main research methods in psychological linguistic study. It plays an important role in foreign language teaching study. This thesis researches into the second language writing process of Japanese learners whose native language are Chinese and draws the conclusion that their writing process include the characteristics of two languages. It is the characteristics that cause Japanese learners are influenced by Chinese and culture, especially in sentence structure and vocabulary. Key Words: Chinese thought; culture; Think Aloud; the second language writing

Qiu-juan ZHU

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Native Language Interference : A study of interference patterns in Swedish students' English writing  

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Abstract Titel: Native Language Interference: A study of interference patterns in Swedish students’ English writing. Författare: Skoog, Petra Engelska C, 2006 Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to find out if there are any patterns of native language interference in Swedish students’ written English. Extensive research has been carried out in the area of native language influence on the target language and a large number of terms are used when the influence of the native lan...

Skoog, Petra

2006-01-01

82

Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers: The Effects of Benchmarking on Writing Assessment in Hong Kong Schools.  

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Discusses an objective small-scale research project involving preservice student teachers of English in Hong Kong. Argues that language proficiency assessment for teachers (LPAT) in Hong Kong is likely to exert a detrimental influence on the assessment of student writing by reinforcing traditional conceptions of language, grammar, and pedagogy.…

Glenwright, Phil

2002-01-01

83

Writing, Ideology, and Politics: Orwell's "Politics and the English Language" and English Composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes George Orwell's 1946 essay, "Politics and the English Language," to develop an argument about compositional pedagogy and the nature of writing itself. Points out the dangers of promulgating only the "plain style" of language usage and the paradoxical advantages of combining classical rhetoric with radical politics. (RL)

Freedman, Carl

1981-01-01

84

Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

Crossley, Scott A.

2013-01-01

85

Machine Translation-Assisted Language Learning: Writing for Beginners  

Science.gov (United States)

The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…

Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel

2011-01-01

86

The Art of Persuasion: Logic and Language in Proposal Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggestions for preparing an effective proposal concern the following areas: selecting the granting agency; ascertaining the originality, clarity, and worth of the proposed activity on the basis of a bibliographic search; the central thesis, title, outline, and abstract; proposal drafting and revision; and choice of language, syntax, and grammar.…

DeBakey, Lois; DeBakey, Selma

1978-01-01

87

The Influence of Process Approach on English as Second Language Students’ Performances in Essay Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students’ performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control quasi-experimental research design. The sample consisted of 80 senior secondary school final year students. The research material included the senior secondary school English Language recommended textbook, National Examination Council (NECO and West Africa Examinations Council (WAEC English Language Syllabi, Federal Ministry of Education English Language Curriculum, English-Language Teachers’ Lesson Notes and Students Essay Writing Exercise books. The West African Examinations Council’s (WAEC English Language Essay Question as an adapted instrument was used to gather data.  The data generated were subjected to statistical analysis and the results of the analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the pre-test scores of both the Control and the Experimental group which indicated the homogenous state of both Control and Experimental groups. There was significant difference in the post-test scores of the Experimental and the Control groups. There was no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the students in Control group. As evident from the out-come of the research, the Process Approach (which presents writing in multiple drafts before the final writing had significant effect on students’ overall performance in essay writing.

AKINWAMIDE Timothy Kolade

2012-02-01

88

Recognizing Syntactic Errors in the Writing of Second Language Learners  

CERN Document Server

This paper reports on the recognition component of an intelligent tutoring system that is designed to help foreign language speakers learn standard English. The system models the grammar of the learner, with this instantiation of the system tailored to signers of American Sign Language (ASL). We discuss the theoretical motivations for the system, various difficulties that have been encountered in the implementation, as well as the methods we have used to overcome these problems. Our method of capturing ungrammaticalities involves using mal-rules (also called 'error productions'). However, the straightforward addition of some mal-rules causes significant performance problems with the parser. For instance, the ASL population has a strong tendency to drop pronouns and the auxiliary verb `to be'. Being able to account for these as sentences results in an explosion in the number of possible parses for each sentence. This explosion, left unchecked, greatly hampers the performance of the system. We discuss how this ...

Schneider, D A; Schneider, David A.; Coy, Kathleen F. Mc

1998-01-01

89

Language of Evaluation: How PLA Evaluators Write about Student Learning  

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Full Text Available Very few studies (e.g., Arnold, 1998; Joosten-ten Brinke, et al., 2009 have examined the ways in which evaluators assess students’ prior learning. This investigation explored the ways that evaluators described students’ prior learning in final assessment reports at a single, multiple-location institution. Results found four themes; audience, voice, presentation of the learning, and evaluation language. Within each theme, further sub-themes are defined. These results are significant for training evaluators on how to discuss student learning and for institutions to consider in relationship to the purpose behind the evaluations. Further research and implications are discussed.

Nan L. Travers

2011-01-01

90

An integrated approach to enhancing prospective English language teachers' writing skills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports on the experience of a group of pre-service teachers of English in a compulsory writing coursein the preparatory program of an English language teaching department in the Turkish context. This studyspecifically attempts to investigate to what extent the writing course contributes to the acquisition of basicconventions of written discourse in English when prospective teachers of English are involved in an extensivewriting practice which is based upon integration of product, process and genre based approaches to writing. Thestudy lasted for a period of 28 weeks with fifty-nine pre-service teachers of English who participated in thestudy. The participants studied the basic genre types which included expository writing such as classification,process, argumentation, opinion, cause and effect, compare and contrast, and narrative paragraphs and essays.The participants specifically received instruction as to the basic constituents of paragraph and essays writing;namely, organization, process, unity, coherence, word choice, language use, grammar, and mechanics whichwere further put into 49 observable competencies. Data were collected through an analytic assessment rubricapplied to participants’ pre-study and post-study essays. In addition, participants were distributed a pre-study anda post-study self-perception questionnaire in order to evaluate any possible improvements in their writingcompetence. The results of the study suggest that exposing pre-service teachers of English to various genres byinvolving them in an extensive writing practice adds to their writing competency positively in learning theprocess of writing practice, organizing the text, including relevant content in the text, using languageappropriately, producing correct grammar, coming up with relevant vocabulary, and following correctmechanical conventions.

Recep Sahin Arslan

2013-10-01

91

Literacy: reading and writing social practices in the teaching of additional languages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect on additional language teaching focusing on the development of literacy, i.e., on a pedagogical practice that beholds reading and writing as social actions. It is based on literacy studies that view literacy as a set of social-cultural practices involving the technology of writing (SCRIBNER; COLE, 1981; STREET, 1984; HEATH, 2001; GEE, 2004; BARTON, 2007 in their constitution. The article is divided in three sections: the first one discusses the concept of literacy; the second one advocates literacy as the educational aim of schools; finally, studies on literacy and additional language teaching are presented, and the concept of assessment is discussed.

Cláudia Helena Dutra da Silva

2012-06-01

92

The Use of L1 in the Foreign Language Classroom / El uso de la lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El uso de la lengua materna es una ocurrencia común en los contextos de la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, a pesar de que a veces reciba críticas por su interferencia en la adquisición de la Lengua meta. Mientras que los docentes deben maximizar el uso de la Lengua meta, sin duda, hay espacios pa [...] ra que el profesor utilice la lengua materna de los estudiantes en su pedagogía. En este trabajo se presenta un argumento basado en las perspectivas teóricas y la investigación empírica dentro de la literatura existente, apoyando el uso apropiado de la Lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera. El argumento se centra en tres cuestiones fundamentales-racionales para el uso de la lengua materna: Los efectos positivos que la lengua materna tiene tanto en el aprendizaje y la instrucción de una lengua extranjera, como en las formas en las que la lengua materna ayuda a los docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Abstract in english L1 use is a common occurrence in foreign language teaching contexts despite the fact that it often receives criticism for its interference with target language (TL) acquisition. While foreign language teachers should maximize their use of the TL, there is indeed a place for the teacher to use the st [...] udents' L1 in their pedagogy. In this paper, an argument derived from theoretical perspectives and empirical research within existing literature supporting the appropriate use of L1 in foreign language classrooms is presented. The argument addresses three key issues-rationales for L1 use, positive effects L1 has on both foreign language learning and instruction, and ways that L1 assists instructors on foreign languages.

Yi-chun, Pan; Yi-ching, Pan.

2010-07-01

93

A Study of Students' Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students' competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural…

Javed, Muhammad; Juan, Wu Xiao; Nazli, Saima

2013-01-01

94

Supplemental Learning Activity Package. Secondary. Language Arts--Writing. Volume III.  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing exercises and materials contained in this supplemental Learning Activity Package (LAP) for language arts were developed for use with high school students. A LAP is defined as a unit of activities involving print and nonprint media and is written in a specified format designed to meet specific student needs on an individual basis.…

Arredondo, Patricia

95

Signaling Organization and Stance: Academic Language Use in Middle Grade Persuasive Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective academic writing is accessible to readers because writers follow shared conventions for organization and signal their stance on particular topics; however, few specifics are known about how middle graders might develop knowledge of and use these academic language forms and functions to signal their organization and stance in persuasive…

Dobbs, Christina L.

2014-01-01

96

Issues of Cultural Appropriateness and Pedagogical Efficacy: Exploring Peer Review in a Second Language Writing Class  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a study designed to investigate (a) whether peer review is an effective pedagogical activity with adult Chinese students in the teaching of second language (L2) academic writing and (b) how factors such as perceptions of the influence of peer reviewers' L2 proficiency, previous experience with peer review, feedback…

Hu, Guangwei; Lam, Sandra Tsui Eu

2010-01-01

97

Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language : Processes and Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Book description: Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language is based on a large-scale empirical study. The innovative feature of the research was that the same students were asked to do the same tasks in both languages while reporting their thinking as they went along. Furthermore , they had to undertake the same tasks even though they were of very different experience, ranging from young children at school to university students. Three areas of learners' competencies and skills were explored: vocabulary knowledge, word guessing strategies and writing. The authors further explore the relationship between the skills and describe the level of development for individual learners within the three areas. In all cases, statistical and qualitative analyses are offered, the latter being based on the learners' own 'think-aloud' reports. Both researchers and teachers of language will find this in-depth approach useful in understanding the processes of both first and second language performance

Albrechtsen, Dorte; Haastrup, Kirsten

2008-01-01

98

Predicting Language Learners' Grades in the L1, L2, L3 and L4: The Effect of Some Psychological and Sociocognitive Variables  

Science.gov (United States)

This study of 89 Flemish high-school students' grades for L1 (Dutch), L2 (French), L3 (English) and L4 (German) investigates the effects of three higher-level personality dimensions (psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism), one lower-level personality dimension (foreign language anxiety) and sociobiographical variables (gender, social class) on…

Dewaele, Jean-Marc

2007-01-01

99

Online Interactional Feedback in Second Language Writing: Through Peer or Tutor?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the implementation of e-collaboration and e-tutoring will have any effect on students’ writing proficiency. It is argued that interactional feedback (peer or tutor including negotiation and recasts can facilitate writing skill development in L2 (Lynch, 2002. 83 male and female EFL students, taking English courses in a language school in Bojnourd-Iran, formed the participants of this quasi-experimental intact-group study. The participants were assigned into experimental and control groups. A couple of instruments were employed to collect data: the TOEFL Writing Test, researchers-made pre and post tests, and an Information Technology Questionnaire (2009. Data analysis through one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between e-partnering and e-tutoring groups (p<0.05. The results also showed that though both e-partnering and e-tutoring enhanced writing proficiency, learners in e-partnering group outperformed those in e-tutoring group. The study findings indicate that e-collaboration/e-partnering can improve learners writing skill if integrated into the EFL curriculum designed for pre-intermediate level.

Khalil Motallebzadeh

2011-05-01

100

Predicting language learners' grades in the L1, L2, L3 and L4: the effect of some psychological and sociocognitive variables  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study of 89 Flemish high-school students' grades for L1 (Dutch), L2 (French), L3 (English) and L4 (German) investigates the effects of three higher-level personality dimensions (psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism), one lower-level personality dimension (foreign language anxiety) and sociobiographical variables (gender, social class) on the participants' language grades. Analyses of variance revealed no significant effects of the higher-level personality dimensions on grades. Partici...

Dewaele, Jean-marc

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Students of the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra as Object of the Research Results in Developing Foreign Language Writing Skills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Writing in the foreign language is one of the most important language skills students develop and improve at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra. Strong writing skills are essential to their future success, whether they are related to writing general reports on agricultural issues at home or in the world as well as to working-out some research papers aimed at agriculture, but also at some other areas of the business world. We have to state that writing is perhaps one of the most diffi...

Moravcova?, L?ubomi?ra; Mad?arova?, L?udmila

2014-01-01

102

A Study of Students’ Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40) Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampli...

Muhammad Javed; Wu Xiao Juan; Saima Nazli

2013-01-01

103

An Insight to Students’ Perceptions on Teacher Feedback in Second Language Writing Classes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feedback is one of the crucial elements in language learning and teaching. In second language writing context, the effectiveness of feedback becomes even more important as it has an impact on the whole process of language learning. To increase the effectiveness of feedback, a teacher is expected to use any possible mean(s available to suit learners’ needs and concerns (Hamp-Lyons, 2001; Hyland, 2010. In this respect, rather than framing the feedback process based on the premises put forward in other teaching situations, the study attempts to bring into view the students’ perceptions and preferences on feedback in their writing classes to be able to shape the feedback process based on a specific teaching context. The data for the study were gathered utilizing a Likert-Type questionnaire and a semi-structured interview from students (n = 457 at preparatory level studying English at a state university in Turkey. The data were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS 17.0 and qualitatively following content analysis. The results of the study are meant to bring in-depth insights to students’ opinions regarding the scope of feedback in writing classes and to provide guidance to shape the process of giving feedback.

Meral Seker

2014-01-01

104

The relationship between writing and speaking in the U.S. university Spanish language classroom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most important tasks of SLA researchers is to describe the effect(s) that activity in one or more of the four language usage categories (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) may have on the overall acquisition of the target language by each learner population. Where this type of research is fairly plentiful, it is much less common for SLA researchers to compare learner development in one of these categories with concurrent development in any of the others. The present study i...

Hubert, Michael David

2008-01-01

105

Cross-linguistic influence in multilingual language acquisition: The role of L1 and non-native languages in English and Catalan oral production / La influencia entre lenguas en su adquisición multilingüe: el papel de L1 y de lenguas no nativas en la producción oral en inglés y en catalán  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Gran parte de la investigación en la adquisición de terceras lenguas se ha centrado en los efectos que tienen factores como la distancia entre lenguas, la competencia, el uso reciente, o el estatus de la segunda lengua (L2) en la elección de la lengua origen (L1) desde el punto de vista de la influe [...] ncia interlingüística. Se presenta aquí un análisis de dichos factores, así como la influencia que tiene la L1 (español) en la producción oral en L2 (inglés) y L3 (catalán). Se analiza la transferencia léxica y sintáctica en la producción en catalán e inglés de dos hablantes plurilingües con conocimiento similar de lenguas extranjeras. Fueron entrevistados dos veces en un ambiente informal. Los resultados muestran que la L1 es la principal fuente de transferencia, tanto en la producción oral en L2, como en L3; pero su influencia disminuye a medida que la competencia en la lengua meta incrementa. La distancia entre lenguas también tiene un papel importante en la influencia interlingüística, especialmente si la competencia en la lengua de origen es buena, y si ha habido un contacto reciente con ella. Los resultados también sugieren que mientras que la transferencia sintáctica se basa exclusivamente en la L1, la transferencia léxica se puede basar en la lengua no nativa. Abstract in english Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2) status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1) in cross-linguistic influence (CLI). This paper presents a study of these factors, and of [...] the influence that the L1 (Spanish) has on L2 (English) and L3 (Catalan) oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.

Mireia, Ortega.

2008-06-01

106

Utilizing the Analysis of Social Practices to Raise Critical Language Awareness in EFL Writing Courses  

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Full Text Available Language can be used as a means to control and influence people. EFL students need to realize that the language they interact with may contain ideological assumptions and propositional meanings. By increasing critical language awareness, students may come to recognize ideological assumptions within the language. Fairclough (2003 suggests that one of the ways to increase critical language awareness is to identify social practices, defined as rules and structures that limit human actions and interaction within a context. The elements of order of discourse– genre, discourse, and style—are the linguistic rules of social practices. The goal of this study was to provide a method for EFL teachers to increase students’ critical awareness through writing. The participants consisted of 16 teacher trainees and 10 university students who performed a journal-writing task over 10 sessions. Feedback, based on the elements of order of discourse, was provided after each session, and the participants were asked to consider the feedback for their next journal entry. After 10 sessions, the journals were quantified and regression analysis was used to calculate the slope polarity of the best fitting line. The results indicate that the scores of the majority of the participants increased.

Parviz Maftoon

2010-11-01

107

Learner Characteristics and Writing Performance in a Community College English as a Second Language Course: Some Unexpected Findings  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relationships between individual learner characteristics and gain in writing performance as measured by a standardized writing assessment in a sample of community college academic English as a Second Language (ESL) students in the United States. The ethnically and linguistically diverse convenience sample included 76…

Lambert, Olga D.

2015-01-01

108

Writing Fluency and Quality in Kindergarten and First Grade: The Role of Attention, Reading, Transcription, and Oral Language  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language

Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

2014-01-01

109

Is it differences in language skills and working memory that account for girls being better at writing than boys?  

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Full Text Available Girls are more likely to outperform boys in the development of writing skills. This study considered gender differences in language and working memory skills as a possible explanation for the differential rates of progress. Sixty-seven children (31 males and 36 females (M age 57.30 months participated. Qualitative differences in writing progress were examined using a writing assessment scale from the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP. Quantitative measures of writing: number of words, diversity of words, number of phrases/sentences and grammatical complexity of the phrases/sentences were also analysed. The children were also assessed on tasks measuring their language production and comprehension skills and the visuo-spatial, phonological, and central executive components of working memory. The results indicated that the boys were more likely to perform significantly less well than the girls on all measures of writing except the grammatical complexity of sentences. Initially, no significant differences were found on any of the measures of language ability. Further, no significant differences were found between the genders on the capacity and efficiency of their working memory functioning. However, hierarchical regressions revealed that the individual differences in gender and language ability, more specifically spoken language comprehension, predicted performance on the EYFSP writing scale. This finding accords well with the literature that suggests that language skills can mediate the variance in boys’ and girls’ writing ability.

Lorna Bourke

2012-03-01

110

Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

Yoon, Sae Yeol

111

Second language writing classification system based on word-alignment distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper introduces an automatic classification system for assisting second language(L2 writing evaluation. This system, which classifies sentences written by L2 learners as eithernative speaker-like or learner-like sentences, is constructed by machine learning algorithmsusing word-alignment distributions as classification features for detecting word-bywordtranslated expressions. The experimental results demonstrated that our classificationsystem provided adequate classification results with respect to (i high classification accuracy,(ii classification results reflecting the properties of L2 learner sentences, and (iii identificationof learner-like expressions. These results suggest that our classification system can beused to evaluate L2 learner sentences.

Katsunori Kotani

2010-01-01

112

Effects of First Language and Phonological Accessibility on Kanji Recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Study examined transfer of learners' first language (L1) orthographic processing strategies to second language processing. Two groups learning Japanese, differing by L1 writing system (phonographic vs. morphographic), were tested on ability to represent novel kanji characters in short-term memory. Results indicate learners with a morphographic L1

Mori, Yoshiko

1998-01-01

113

Adopting Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as Interactive Communities among English Foreign Language (EFL) Learners in Writing: Opportunities and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As most traditional classroom environments in English as Foreign Language (EFL) still restrict learners’ collaboration and interaction in college writing classes, today, the majority of EFL learners are accessing Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as online communities of practice (CoPs) for adopting informal collaborative learning as a way of practicing English beyond the classroom. This study aimed to investigate the opportunities and challenges of SNSs as learning environment in writing i...

Norizan Abdul Razak; Murad Saeed; Zulkifli Ahmad

2013-01-01

114

A Study of Students’ Assessment in Writing Skills of the English Language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40 Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampling. A sample consisting of 440 students (11students from each school was randomly selected using a table of random numbers. An achievement test consisting of different items was developed to assess the students’ competency and capability in sub-skills of writing such as word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/grammar and handwriting. Mean score and standard deviation were used to analyze the students’ proficiency in each sub-skill. The t-test was applied to make the comparison on the bases of gender, density and public and private sector. The overall performance of all the students was better in comprehension as compared to other sub-skills namely word completion, sentence making/syntax, tenses/grammar and handwriting. The analysis, based on t-value, revealed no significant difference between the performance of male and female students and the students of public and private schools, whereas there was a significant difference between the performance of urban and rural students.

Muhammad Javed

2013-07-01

115

Dyslexia in Two Languages : A Multiple Case Study of Spanish-Swedish Speaking Adolescents with Reading and Writing Difficulties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complicated task of deciding whether reading and writing difficulties in a second language learner stem from dyslexia or from problems associated with second language learning serves as the primary theme of this study. The theoretical framwork of dyslexia-related issues is a phonological cause model (Ramus, 2004). Generally, the study is based on psycholinguistically oriented research of reading in a second language (eg. Kulbrandstad, 1998) and dyslexia in second language learners (Freder...

Hedman, Christina

2009-01-01

116

"Brilliant, Bright, Boiling Words": Literary Disability, Language and the Writing Body in the Work of Christopher Nolan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article uses theory on disability, embodiment and language to explore the production, context and presentation of two pieces of life-writing by Christopher Nolan. It examines Nolan's unusual use of language and form in his presentations of an experience of disability, and considers its literary and political significance. Consideration is…

Coogan, Tom

2012-01-01

117

Does Language Input Matter in Bilingual Writing? Translation versus Direct Composition in Deaf School Students' Written Stories  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the findings of an experiment in which 20 Greek Deaf students produced written texts under two different conditions of language input: (1) a translation from a videotaped story in Greek sign language, and (2) a direct composition produced from a picture story--a neutral non-linguistic input. Placing Deaf writing within a…

Koutsoubou, Maria; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie

2007-01-01

118

Writing across the Curriculum in the Foreign Language Class: Developing a New Pedagogy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes several activities designed as part of La Salle University's Writing across the Curriculum project to improve advanced Spanish composition skills. Activities involved both formal and informal writing assignments such as notetaking, job application letters, and thesis support essays. (CB)

Morocco, Glenn; Soven, Margot

1990-01-01

119

The Relationship between Story Writing Skills and Achievement in Other Selected Language Skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effectiveness of the Story Writing Scales of the Personalized Progress Assessment set in determining the writing capabilities of fourth, sixth, and eighth graders and assessed the relationship between students' story-writing competencies and their achievements in reading comprehension, vocabulary, usage, and spelling.…

Vairo, Frank Marion, Jr.

120

Writing Is a Foreign Language, and a Senior Writing Workshop Is a Tower of Babel Whose Many Languages Need to Be Translated  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper, presented at the CCCC 2008 Senior Citizens Writing session, draws upon my experiences as a senior workshop member and past teacher. Addressing workshop leaders, it emphasizes the need for the many-faceted seniors' voices to be "translated" and tested within a workshop's microcosm before entering the outside world's macrocosm.

Barany, Michelle

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

On the development of a colloquial writing style: Examining the language of Indonesian teen literature  

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Full Text Available The last few years have seen a boom in the publication of teen fiction in Indonesia. Particularly since the publication of the highly successful novel Eiffel ... I’m in love (Arunita 2001, numerous fiction works targeted at a youthful readership have appeared. This genre of popular literature has been so successful in attracting its audience that it currently constitutes the largest growing market in the Indonesian publishing industry (Simamora 2005. One of its striking characteristics is the predominant use of colloquial Indonesian, an informal variety of Indonesian that is closely identified with speakers from the capital Jakarta, particularly young people. Over a decade ago, scholars noted the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature (see for example Adelaar and Prentice 1996:678. The implication is that this language variety has spread into domains previously dominated by standard Indonesian, the formal variety used in government administration, formal education, and most printed mass media. Indeed, contemporary Indonesian written literature is largely associated with standard Indonesian, such that the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature has invited much criticism from language gatekeepers. Despite such criticism, however, teen fiction continues to flourish. The increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in teen fiction, though noted by scholars, has not been subject to any detailed linguistic study. Linguistic studies of colloquial Indonesian – at least those published in English – have focused so far on its use in speech, or in written texts intended to resemble speech, such as internet chatting and advice columns for young people. Prior to the recent surge in teen fiction, use of colloquial Indonesian in contemporary written literature was largely limited to dialogues. Writers such as Putu Wijaya, for example, are known to incorporate colloquialism to render dialogues more natural (Rafferty 1990:107. Teen fiction writers have extended the use of colloquialism into other parts of fiction such as the description of characters, settings, and inner thoughts. This development makes it interesting to look for a way to describe the increase of colloquialism. A useful approach is to examine the usage patterns of a term or a selection of terms in a number of teen fiction works published over time, with the purpose of observing changes in the patterns, and whether such changes can be shown to represent greater colloquialism. This study is a preliminary attempt in that direction. My purpose here is to demonstrate that in the last two decades during which colloquial Indonesian has been employed in teen fiction, there has been a shift in writing style from one that bears greater resemblance to standard Indonesian towards a style that is more colloquial. The term ‘style’ is commonly employed in sociolinguistics to refer to ways of speaking, which Bell (2001:139 defines in terms of the question ‘Why did the speaker say it this way on this occasion?’ (italics in original. Adapting this definition for teen fiction writing, I use ‘writing style’ here to refer to the characteristic manner in which an author writes fiction. This style is observed here by examining the use of the preposition pada ‘to, towards, on, in, at’ as compared to the use of three other prepositions, namely kepada ‘to, towards’, ke ‘to, towards’, and sama ‘to, towards, by, with’. The development towards increased colloquialism is shown through two indicators: a reduction in the range of prepositional meanings of pada along with the assignment of particular discourse functions to kepada, and an increased use of ke and sama. The data are drawn from ten works of fiction published between 1998 and 2005. Eight of these are written by the same author, Hilman. In four of them, Hilman collaborates with fellow writer Boim Lebon. The other two works are by Laire Siwi Mentari and Marthino Andries. This selection is motivated by the following considerations. Hilman’s works ha

Dwi Noverini Djenar

2008-12-01

122

The Effectiveness of Using the Cooperative Language Learning Approach to Enhance EFL Writing Skills among Saudi University Students  

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Full Text Available Cooperative language learning (CLL approach was used to encourage second-year university students at the college of languages and translation, at Al-Imam University to learn from their peers so that they could develop their writing skills. Students in CLL-based groups were trained to be more responsible for their learning through developing their personal interaction as well as their linguistic competence in a more relaxed social context. This treatment included sophomore students enrolled in EN 211 course in the second semester of 2013 academic year. Two instruments were used in this study; a pre-post writing test, and an attitude questionnaire. The pre- and post- scores from the test were calculated for descriptive statistics and compared using a Wilcoxon Test. The process of evaluating students’ writings focused mainly on analyzing their mistakes with regard to spelling, using of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation as well as coherence. The findings revealed that the students’ scores in writing were higher for the post-test than the pre-test at the significance level of .001 after being subject to this kind of treatment. However, it must be stated that the degree of improvement was not extremely high as students still made some mistakes with regard to the previously mentioned points. As for the attitude scale, the results obtained proved that the students developed positive attitudes towards using the cooperative learning approach to develop language skills in general and to develop their writing skills in particular.

Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab Mahmoud

2014-05-01

123

THE WRITING PROBLEMS OF IRANIAN STUDENTS IN THE BASIC LEVEL WHO LEARNS TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE  

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Full Text Available At all levels of education as well as teaching Turkish to foreigners is an issue to be dealt with on the importance of input and output. In this respect, the work of writing and language learning that is possible to determine the level of their writing skills. In this context, at the end of term exams and courses, as well as on the data obtained, the detection and correction of errors, both in terms of the potential students and the teacher guiding the student is. In addition, the students already know their mistakes, to gain the ability to write in the future is important to minimize errors. At this work we identified the Iranian students writing problems and presented their recommendations for the solution. The study designed as a survey. The Data collected about the students problems on writing from the exams which the centre done on writing part and the students composition papers during the period. The mistakes of the students made in written expression, grouped audio information, morphology, the syntax and orthography.

Emrah Boylu

2014-08-01

124

''History of Theatre'' Web Sites: A Brief History of the Writing Process in a High School ESL Language Arts Class  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on how Quebec Francophone high school students, enrolled in a program which featured an environment rich in information and communication technologies (ICTs), appropriated the writing process over a four-year period (Grades 7-10) in the context of their ESL language arts courses. Data for the study were obtained using…

Parks, Susan; Huot, Diane; Hamers, Josiane; Lemonnier, France H.

2005-01-01

125

Making Sense of Power Relations in a Malaysian English-as-a-Second-Language Academic Writing Classroom  

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The role of power in an English-as-a-second-language classroom has yet to be fully explored by an action research practitioner, especially in a Malaysian higher education setting. This study aims to contribute to this gap by working within an academic literacies perspective to teaching academic writing, which propagates the understanding of…

Abraham, Alison

2014-01-01

126

An Investigation into the Use of Cohesive Devices in Second Language Writings  

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Full Text Available As far as the communicative nature of writing is concerned, cohesion is regarded as an essential textual component both in creating organized texts and rendering the content comprehensible to the reader. Many researchers have explored the connection between the use of cohesive devices (CDs and the quality of the writing. To gain more insight into this area, this study reviewed some studies focusing on the use of CDs and the relationship between the number of CDs and writing quality. The analysis of collected data from different EFL/ESL researchers has shown that the learners were able to use various CDs in their writings. Additionally, the study highlighted some of the cohesive problems in writing and the possible pedagogical implications for teachers. The purpose of the present study is to investigate CDs used in different genres composed by learners from around the globe and the relationship between the use of CDs and quality of their essays. The findings also provide insight into the abilities of native and nonnative writers to convey their ideas into written forms. The results of this research will provide us with insights into the general pattern of CDs in EFL/ESL learners’ academic and nonacademic writing. This would help to identify students’ problems in using CDs, for instance, overuse or underuse of certain categories, and, thereby, modify teaching writing and incorporate a more precise plan for teaching the appropriate use of CDs.

Mohsen Ghasemi

2013-09-01

127

Finding a Place for Critical Thinking and Self-voice in College English as a Foreign Language Writing Classrooms  

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Full Text Available Although the concepts of critical thinking and self-voice have been extensively discussed in a second language writing, little attention has been given, on the pedagogical level, to critical thinking and self-voice in college EFL writing instruction. To fill such a void, this paper attempts to propose some pedagogical tasks namely:  persuasive writing tasks, draft workshops one-on-one mentoring approaches for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL classrooms. In doing so, this paper provides the operational definitions of critical thinking and self-voice concepts. It then discusses how these two concepts are closely related to complement EFL writing learning. In what follows, it presents the rationale for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL writing. It then touches on some pedagogical practices for developing critical thinking and self-voice in classrooms. Lastly, it addresses some challenges related to implementing critical thinking and self-voice tasks in EFL classrooms.

Osman Barnawi

2011-06-01

128

Analysis of factors that influence the learning of a foreign language writing  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of motivational variables, learning styles and learning strategies in the development of writing skills in English of students from first to second years at the University of Ciego de Avila. To achieve that objective was used the following questionnaires: R _SPQ_ 2 F to assess the level of motivation of the students towards the English, (CHAEA to determine the learning styles of the sample, the Assessment Questionnaire Learning Strategies for determine the strategies used in learning English, and a writing test where students wrote a letter to a foreign friend telling them about your country, to assess the level of writing skills. Our results confirm the hypothesis proposed earlier: when the deep motivation level is higher than the motivation level surface is achieved further development of writing skills, students with a balanced profile between four learning styles get a higher level of development in writing and, when all students develop learning strategies or more of them get further development in writing.

Mabel Anastasia Acosta García

2012-10-01

129

The Relations among L1 (Spanish) Literacy Skills, L2 (English) Language, L2 Text Reading Fluency, and L2 Reading Comprehension for Spanish-Speaking ELL First Grade Students  

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We investigated the relations of L2 (i.e., English) oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, word reading automaticity, oral language skills, and L1 literacy skills (i.e., Spanish) to L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking English language learners in the first grade (N = 150). An analysis was conducted for the entire sample as well as…

Kim, Young-Suk

2012-01-01

130

Periodicity and Its Use in Language Teaching  

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Writing in English is often a problem for EFL learners in part because students may translate literally from their L1, and also because they may organise their writing by focusing on the grammatical structure at the level of clause or sentence. However, many studies argue that language is meaningful at a unit larger than a clause or sentence…

Piriyasilpa, Yupaporn

2009-01-01

131

The Language of Sustainability: From Basic Writing Classroom to Professional Discourse  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Understanding and describing professional practice, especially in Engineering and the Sciences,  has always been at the heart of research in Professional Communication. Several significant field  research projects have showed us that content knowledge alone is not sufficient to claim disciplinary expertise; a rhetorical understanding of the discipline and its ways of thinking is essential in achieving full participation in the field. Most professionals would expect that such a sophisticated approach can only be learned through on-the-job training or opportunities to interact with practitioners within authentic disciplinary contexts. Although this can certainly be the case in many instances, we argue that a rhetorical understanding can be enacted even within a freshman writing classroom. The results of our content and rhetorical analyses of student work from the beginning and the end of a course on academic writing with the theme of sustainability show that students were able in one semester to write in discipline-appropriate ways and understand the rhetorical strategies necessary to become part of a disciplinary conversation.  The implications of our findings can extend into the way we design courses in basic writing or professional communication and the ways we can use pre-assessment data to drive our course design decisions. 

Karatsolis, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

132

Seeing How to Ask First: Photo Elicitation Motivates English Language Learners to Write  

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The authors have learned that using image-based methods to "ask" young adolescents about their relationships to school--instead of only "telling" them about school's importance--helps them to appreciate the writing tasks in which the authors ask them to engage. In this article, the authors discuss the positive effects these photo elicitation…

Zenkov, Kristien; Ewaida, Marriam; Bell, Athene; Lynch, Megan

2012-01-01

133

Verb-Noun Collocations in Second Language Writing: A Corpus Analysis of Learners' English  

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The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…

Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina

2011-01-01

134

Additional Strategies for Increasing the Use of Academic Content Language in the Writing of English Language Learners  

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This chapter describes additional strategies classroom teachers need to consider with English Language Learners to help them develop scientific content vocabulary. Several of these strategies are not unique to science, but are drawn from language arts and

Klentschy, Michael P.

2008-04-01

135

The use of epistemic markers as a means of hedging and boosting in the discourse of L1 and L2 speakers of Modern Greek: A corpus-based study in informal letter-writing  

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Full Text Available The paper investigates the semantic area of Epistemic Modality in Modern Greek, by means ofa corpus-based research. A comparative, quantitative study was performed between writtencorpora (informal letter-writing of non-native informants with various language backgroundsand Greek native speakers. A number of epistemic markers were selected for furtherqualitative investigation on the grounds of their high frequency. The qualitative studyrevealed the ways epistemic markers (grammatical and lexical are used in order to expressthe speaker’s stance while they perform a number of discourse-pragmatic functions withoutviolating the societal norms of politeness. The present study made use of the literature onEpistemic Modality, the face-management theory of politeness and the interpersonalmetadiscoursal features known as hedges and boosters.

Lia Efstathiadi

2010-01-01

136

Alienation, language and freedom. A note on Bildung in Hegel's writings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of Bildung occupies a central place in the work of Hegel. In the Phenomenology of Spirit from 1807 it is clear that Bildung has a general meaning, which transcends educational contexts. Soon after the publication of the Phenomenology, however, Hegel became the rector of the humanistic Gymnasium in Nürnberg, and this position he kept until 1816. From this period we have some less well known writings, which explicitly discuss Bildung and relate it to educational use. These texts we...

Asger Sørensen

2012-01-01

137

Utilizing the Analysis of Social Practices to Raise Critical Language Awareness in EFL Writing Courses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Language can be used as a means to control and influence people. EFL students need to realize that the language they interact with may contain ideological assumptions and propositional meanings. By increasing critical language awareness, students may come to recognize ideological assumptions within the language. Fairclough (2003) suggests that one of the ways to increase critical language awareness is to identify social practices, defined as rules and structures that limit human actions and i...

Soroush Sabbaghan; Parviz Maftoon

2010-01-01

138

Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing  

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Full Text Available Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learners’ written production after a year of intensive language instruction in the controlled conditions of a classroom. The objective of the study presented here is: 1. to determine the types of error produced in a short translation task at different levels of language (morphosyntactic, lexical 2. to observe manifestations of crosslinguistic influences between languages the subjects know (interlingual transfer as well as those related to the language learnt itself (intralingual transfer.The small sample of texts produced does not allow for any generalized observations and conclusions, however, at the level of elementary competence in any foreign language, as other research shows, the amount of individual variation is not the most significant factor. Thus the incorrect forms produced may testify to some more universally error-prone areas of language. The value of this kind of analysis lies in this direct application to the teaching of Polish as a synthetic language. The study also demonstrates the fact that communicative teaching has a limited contribution to make in the case of this family of languages. It suggests that overt and explicit teaching of a synthetic language will give a sounder basis for further development of language competence in its communicative dimension

Danuta Gabrys-Barker

2007-01-01

139

¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom / ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1) de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI ), un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argume [...] ntos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1) parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Abstract in english Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifica [...] tions favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.

Sandra, Higareda; Georgina, López; Gerrard, Mugford.

2009-10-01

140

Internet Tools for Language Learning: University Students Taking Control of Their Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Many excellent corpus-based language learning resources (e.g., concordancers) have been freely available on the Internet for some time. Google assisted language learning (GALL) is also gaining increasing acceptance. These tools are a potential resource for English as an additional language (EAL) university students who want to independently…

Conroy, Mark A.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

"I Was Born Full Deaf." Written Language Outcomes after 1 Year of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonstandard grammatical forms are often present in the writing of deaf students that are rarely, if ever, seen in the writing of hearing students. With the implementation of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) in previous studies, students have demonstrated significant gains in high-level writing skills (e.g., text structure) but…

Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Dostal, Hannah M.; Bowers, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

142

Discourse Markers in Composition Writings: The Case of Iranian Learners of English as a Foreign Language  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate discourse markers in descriptive compositions of 90 Iranian students who were selected from two universities. Without any instruction, they were given a topic to write a descriptive composition per week for 8 weeks. 598 compositions were collected, and they were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by three raters following Fraser's (1999 taxonomy of Discourse Markers. Findings showed that students employed discourse markers with different degrees of occurrence. Elaborative markers were the most frequently used, followed by inferential, contrastive, causative, and topic relating markers. There was a direct and positive relationship between the quality of the compositions and the number of well-functioned discourse markers. Results also revealed statistically significant differences between the use of discourse markers and composition quality in the groups. Graduate students used more discourse markers, and this led to more cohesive texts.

Alireza Jalilifar

2008-12-01

143

¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera  

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Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1 in English Language Teaching (ELT, critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI , un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.

Sandra Higareda

2009-10-01

144

A Language Analysis of the Writing of Deaf Children. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of written language were collected from 140 congenitally deaf children at grade levels 3, 5, 7, and 9. The samples were then subjected to error, quantitative, and transformational analysis. Findings suggested a relationship between the order in which the deaf child acquires the rules of his language and the ordering of rules in a…

Taylor, Louise Todd

145

Alienation, language and freedom. A note on Bildung in Hegel's writings  

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Full Text Available The concept of Bildung occupies a central place in the work of Hegel. In the Phenomenology of Spirit from 1807 it is clear that Bildung has a general meaning, which transcends educational contexts. Soon after the publication of the Phenomenology, however, Hegel became the rector of the humanistic Gymnasium in Nürnberg, and this position he kept until 1816. From this period we have some less well known writings, which explicitly discuss Bildung and relate it to educational use. These texts were written at the hight of his philosophical maturity from, when he was working on The Science of Logic and the Encyclopedia, and they therefore deserve being taken seriously. When all these sources are brought together, however, an idea of Bildung often associated with Hegel, namely that Bildung is the result of productive work, seems to be mistaken. I first give a brief account of the general argument, secondly add some details from the Phenomenology to support the argument, and finally conclude with a few general remarks.

Asger Sørensen

2012-03-01

146

37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.  

Science.gov (United States)

...by a typewriter or machine printer in permanent...application (including any translation submitted pursuant...statement that the translation is accurate, and the...an English language translation of the non-English...each compact disc the machine format...

2010-07-01

147

Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal / Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressig [...] nificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da Rede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by using the written language and how this process can constitute an opportunity to recr [...] eate their meanings. The data for this clinical study was collected in a group therapy involving 9 teenager students from public schools of Curitiba, with the complaint of reading and writing disorders. The group therapy was realized during one year inside the Speech language therapy clinic in Tuiuti University of Paraná. The meetings occurred every week during two hours totalizing 48 meetings. All data were video recorded and also written in a session diary. Six episodes considered very expressive were selected in order to analyze this theme. RESULTS: the research indicated that these individuals had a suffering relation with the written language and that they assumed incapacity positions towards it. It could be possible to observe that the clinical practices inside the group helped to recreate these relations, so that the individuals began to feel capable and assume responsibility positions in reading and writing practices. CONCLUSION: the speech language therapy group was built as a place where the individuals could set up a significant relation with reading and writing, providing key conditions for the re-significance of the symptoms and for interacting with different written texts, promoting thus changes between the individual and his own language.

Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida, Machado; Ana Paula, Berberian; Ana Paula, Santana.

148

The Effects of the Peabody Language Development Kits on the Intelligence, Reading, Listening, and Writing of Disadvantaged Children in the Primary Grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine (1) whether disadvantaged children using the Peabody Language Development Kit (PLDK) language lessons for 7 months performed significantly better on tests of intelligence, reading, listening, and writing than did similar children not experiencing these lessons, and (2) whether the performance of boys…

Beidler, Anne Elizabeth

149

Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model  

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This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language (L2)…

Chan, Alice Y. W.

2012-01-01

150

Signalling L2 Centrality, Maintaining L1 Dominance: Teacher Language Choice in an Ethnic Minority Primary Classroom in the Lao PDR  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic has speakers of up to 230 different languages belonging to four ethnolinguistic families, the Lao Government's policy as stated in its Education Law is that Lao is the official language of education at all levels. This creates a challenging situation for teachers in ethnic minority villages throughout…

Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose

2011-01-01

151

Supporting the Development of Autonomous Learning Skills in Reading and Writing in an Independent Language Learning Centre  

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Full Text Available This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development. These learner-centred support sessions aim to develop awareness of different types of learning strategies to suit individual learning needs, and cultivate interest and ability for continuous self-learning. The benefits of a semi-structured scaffolding format with attention to individual learning differences and supported by technology will be highlighted.

Hazel L. W. Chiu

2012-09-01

152

An Automated Method to Generate e-Learning Quizzes from Online Language Learner Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the entries of Lang-8, which is a Social Networking Site (SNS) site for learning and practicing foreign languages, were analyzed and found to contain similar rates of errors for most error categories reported in previous research. These similarly rated errors were then processed using an algorithm to determine corrections suggested…

Flanagan, Brendan; Yin, Chengjiu; Hirokawa, Sachio; Hashimoto, Kiyota; Tabata, Yoshiyuki

2013-01-01

153

Digital Networks in Language Learning: Instant Messaging and the Practice and Acquisition of Writing Skills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The advance of globalization and the information technology revolution call for fundamental changes in foreign language teaching and learning. However, according to Kern and Warschauer [1], “the computer, like any other technological tool used in teaching (…) does not in and of itself bring about improvements in learning.” Instead, they propose that we should “look to particular practices of use in particular contexts” so that we might be able to ascertain if the use of network-b...

Guerra, Luis

2012-01-01

154

The impact of science notebook writing on ELL and low-SES students' science language development and conceptual understanding  

Science.gov (United States)

This quantitative study explored the impact of literacy integration in a science inquiry classroom involving the use of science notebooks on the academic language development and conceptual understanding of students from diverse (i.e., English Language Learners, or ELLs) and low socio-economic status (low-SES) backgrounds. The study derived from a randomized, longitudinal, field-based NSF funded research project (NSF Award No. DRL - 0822343) targeting ELL and non-ELL students from low-SES backgrounds in a large urban school district in Southeast Texas. The study used a scoring rubric (modified and tested for validity and reliability) to analyze fifth-grade school students' science notebook entries. Scores for academic language quality (or, for brevity, language ) were used to compare language growth over time across three time points (i.e., beginning, middle, and end of the school year) and to compare students across categories (ELL, former ELL, non-ELL, and gender) using descriptive statistics and mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA). Scores for conceptual understanding (or, for brevity, concept) were used to compare students across categories (ELL, former ELL, non-ELL, and gender) in three domains using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. A correlational analysis was conducted to explore the relationship, if any, between language scores and concept scores for each group. Students demonstrated statistically significant growth over time in their academic language as reflected by science notebook scores. While ELL students scored lower than former ELL and non-ELL students at the first two time points, they caught up to their peers by the third time point. Similarly, females outperformed males in language scores in the first two time points, but males caught up to females in the third time point. In analyzing conceptual scores, ELLs had statistically significant lower scores than former-ELL and non-ELL students, and females outperformed males in the first two domains. These differences, however, were not statistically significant in the last domain. Last, correlations between language and concept scores were overall, positive, large, and significant across domains and groups. The study presents a rubric useful for quantifying diverse students' science notebook entries, and findings add to the sparse research on the impact of writing in diverse students' language development and conceptual understanding in science.

Huerta, Margarita

155

Investigation of Writing Strategies, Writing Apprehension, and Writing Achievement among Saudi EFL-Major Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students` writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the relationship between writing strategies that EFL university students employ and writing apprehension, relationship between writing strategies use and stud...

AbdulRahman Al Asmari

2013-01-01

156

e-Text Watermarking: Utilizing 'Kashida' Extensions in Arabic Language Electronic Writing  

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Full Text Available Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital signal. This work targets web applications that need to have hidden secure data within their Arabic e-text files. Many related watermarking techniques have been proposed as for text watermarking. However, most of them are suitable for English and cannot be generalized for different other languages such as Arabic. Arabic e-text watermarking is found having unique characteristics features that can be considered interestingly. In this paper, we are utilizing the extension Arabic character ‘Kashida’ to propose an improved method for Arabic e-text watermarking. We utilize all the extendable characters possibly fitted in words to represent some watermark bits. We embed bits within 'Kashida' characters in the cover text based on a secret key similar to classical cryptography. Our study showed that this watermarking scheme made the task of an attack much harder compared to previous similar and related methods. It also showed possibility to hide more secret data bits without degrading the security, which is believed to be attractive for web e-text data application such as preserving intellectual properties or copyright features.

Adnan Abdul-Aziz Gutub

2010-02-01

157

A Rasch measurement analysis of the use of cohesive devices in writing English as a foreign language by secondary students in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigated the use of three types of cohesive devices, that is, reference, conjunction and lexis, used in writing the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) essays for students in secondary year 2, 4 and 6 in Hong Kong. Fifty students from each of the three forms (N = 150) provided narrative and descriptive essays for analysis which were marked by two competent English teachers by counting the frequency of writing devices used per 100 words. Initially, 14 cohesive devices (items) were counted as items for analysis, but two devices (items) were deleted as not fitting a Rasch measurement model. The RUMM2020 computer program with the partial credit model was used to create a linear scale of Writing Devices Used with twelve items: two for references, four for conjunctions, two for lexis, three for cohesive ties, and one for quality. There was good overall fit to the measurement model (item-trait chi-square = 56.81, df = 48, p = 0.18) but the Person Separation Index was very low at 0.08 mainly due to the small range of quality of essays in comparison to the difficulties of the writing devices (items). Students found that the three easiest writing devices used were remote cohesive ties, immediate cohesive ties and mediate cohesive ties. The three hardest writing devices used were temporal conjunctions, causal conjunctions and adversative conjunctions. PMID:19092228

Ho, Margaret Lai Fun; Waugh, Russell F

2008-01-01

158

The Development of Language and Reading Skills in the Second and Third Languages of Multilingual Children in French Immersion  

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The relationship between first language (L1) typology, defined as the classification of languages according to their structural characteristics (e.g. phonological systems and writing systems), and the development of second (L2) and third (L3) language skills and literacy proficiency in multilingual children was investigated in this study. The…

Berube, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

2012-01-01

159

Paper Partners: A Peer-Led Talk-Aloud Academic Writing Program for Students Whose First Language of Academic Study Is Not English  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the Paper Partners program at Ryerson University, Toronto. This peer-mentoring program was developed to support the academic writing skills of students whose first language of academic study was not English. The program integrated a team of student-facilitators, a talk-aloud co-editing process, and a reflective feedback…

Vechter, Andrea; Brierley, Christopher

2009-01-01

160

Incidental Vocabulary Learning and Recall by Intermediate Foreign Language Students: The Influence of Marginal Glosses, Dictionary Use, and Summary Writing  

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This study is an attempt to compare the effect of four reading conditions on incidental vocabulary learning and recall of intermediate EFL learners. A sample population of 120 Iranian intermediate students read two short passages in one of four reading conditions: 1) L1 Marginal Glosses (MG1--provision of L1 translations of unknown words), 2) L2…

Ghabanchi, Zargham; Ayoubi, Elham Sadat

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Assessing Learners' Writing Skills in a SLA Study: Validating the Rating Process across Tasks, Scales and Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

There is still relatively little research on how well the CEFR and similar holistic scales work when they are used to rate L2 texts. Using both multifaceted Rasch analyses and qualitative data from rater comments and interviews, the ratings obtained by using a CEFR-based writing scale and the Finnish National Core Curriculum scale for L2 writing

Huhta, Ari; Alanen, Riikka; Tarnanen, Mirja; Martin, Maisa; Hirvelä, Tuija

2014-01-01

162

Relocating Basic Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

I frame the continuing value of basic writing as part of a long tradition in composition studies challenging dominant beliefs about literacy and language abilities, and I link basic writing to emerging--e.g."translingual"--approaches to language. I identify basic writing as vital to the field of composition in its rejection of simplistic notions…

Horner, Bruce

2011-01-01

163

Atribuição de significado à escrita, por crianças surdas usuárias de língua de sinais / Meaning assignment to writing by deaf children who are users of sign language  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo identifica orientações distintas presentes nas proposições metodológicas de ensino da escrita para surdos usuários de língua de sinais, assumidas na educação bilíngue. Assim, apresenta duas formas de interpretação e encaminhamento de proposições metodológicas de orientação bilíngue, em rela [...] ção ao ensino da escrita pelo surdo. O primeiro grupo de autores defende que o surdo deve aprender o português escrito tendo a língua de sinais como língua base. O segundo grupo, fundamentado em pesquisas da neuropsicologia cognitiva, defende que a escrita dos sinais, que deve ser a primeira língua escrita de aprendizes surdos sinalizadores. Conclui-se que as duas orientações sobre as possíveis relações entre o surdo e a escrita não devem ser tomadas como posições excludentes. Pelo contrário, sugere-se que a escrita dos sinais, enquanto um sistema simbólico repleto de significados, constitui-se como ferramenta eficiente para maximizar o desenvolvimento das funções psicológicas superiores dos aprendizes surdos, bem como para fornecer meios de aproximação com o sistema de escrita alfabética. Abstract in english This article identifies distinct guidelines on methodological propositions of the writing teaching for deaf users of sign language, which are assumed in bilingual education. So, it presents two forms of interpretation and routing of methodological propositions of bilingual orientation, in relation t [...] o the writing teaching by the deaf. The first group of authors defends that the deaf must learn written Portuguese having sign language as the base language. The second group, based on researches about cognitive neuropsychology, defends that SignWriting must be the first written language of deaf sign apprentices. We concluded that both orientations about the possible relations between the deaf and writing mustn't be taken as excluding positions. On the contrary, it is suggested that SignWriting, as a symbolic system full of meanings, is an efficient tool to maximize the development of higher psychological functions of the deaf apprentices, as well as to provide means of approximation with the system of alphabetic writing.

Tânia dos Santos Alvarez da, Silva; Maria Augusta, Bolsanello.

164

Writing and University Students  

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Full Text Available The article reports on the exploratory-descriptive investigation carried out to explain the writing behavior of the students of the Universidad Colegio Mayor of Cundinamarca. To this effect, it refers to the results of the project that are based on the state of the art of writing in higher education; it is supported by various conceptualizations about its technique throughout time, orality and writing at the University, the act of writing, and references about specific didactics. Furthermore, the article proposes theoretical approaches concerned with the process of writing, such as constructivism, meaningful learning, metacognition, social practices of language and new writing tendencies in information media. Through all this, the article present a profile of the University students on the level of writing and it evaluates their editing skills and the level of writing productiveness. This allows offering an academic proposal with possible guidelines for the institution to strengthen writing ability in their students.

Martha Cecilia Andrade Calderón

2009-07-01

165

Teaching and Assessing Academic Writing via the Portfolio: Benefits for Learners of English as an Additional Language  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the use of portfolios as pedagogical tools for developing academic writing. In particular, it considers the value of multi-drafting, where learners reflect on the learning of a text type as well as focusing on micro and macro aspects. The paper outlines a situated pedagogical approach, where students come to understand their…

Romova, Zina; Andrew, Martin

2011-01-01

166

Collaborative Writing Features  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a research study on collaborative writing, this paper discusses defining and facilitating features that occur during face-to-face collaboration, based on the literature and research. The defining features are mutual interaction, negotiations, conflict, and shared expertise. Facilitating features include affective factors, use of L1,…

Yong Mei Fung

2010-01-01

167

MATERIAL, EDUCATIONAL, AND IDEOLOGICAL CHALLENGES OF TEACHING EFL WRITING AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY  

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Full Text Available A great deal of literature on teaching English writing focuses primarily on English dominant contexts. The particular situation of writing instruction in non-English dominant countries has received insufficient attention, especially in light of some of the claims for the role of writing coming from the "center" countries. English language teachers, particularly those teaching in non-English dominant countries, who give substantial attention in their courses to teaching writing in English face a number of challenges. This article discusses two main categories of challenges. In the first group are challenges writing teachers face daily, such as class size, time constraints, accommodating local needs, and coping with problems connected to lack of both teacher experience in teaching L2 writing and student training in L1 writing. In the second group are challenges of a more ideological nature that are perhaps less obvious but more powerful and far-reaching, including the need to justify the large investment required on the part of institutions and individuals in order to teach L2 writing, the right to resist center imposed materials and methods, the need for dialogue with students about the role of writing in their lives, and the need to make L2 writing enhance learner options rather than limit them so that for learners, writing in L2 becomes not a pointless additional burden but a powerful means of accomplishing personal goals.

Ilona Leki

2001-12-01

168

Write, Johnny, Write  

Science.gov (United States)

The popular emphasis on expository writing is denigrating the place of literature, especially poetry, in the English curriculum. If unchallenged, this new wave will create students who are incapable of responding to the uncertainties and dreams of human existence. (KS)

Rouse, John

1977-01-01

169

PDI: Science for English Language Learners (ELL): Integrating Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking, and Thinking into the K-8 Classroom, New Orleans, Louisiana; March 18, 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

This Professional Development Institute (PDI) will focus on teaching strategies and methods that incorporate language acquisition with science instruction for English Language Learners (ELL) in the K-8 classroom. Specifically, this institute will begin with an overview of research on the ELL population, instruction, and programs available to teachers who have responsibilities for teaching science. The bulk of the 6 hours of instruction will provide guided inquiry activities that model integrated (Sheltered Instruction) strategies in science, reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking. The follow-up workshops will provide more in-depth research and instruction in each of the language skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking) as they apply to science instruction as well as working with specific populations of ELL students and available programs. Classrooms in the United States are becoming more diverse thus requiring regular classroom teachers to develop new skills in working with students whose first language is not English. Recent census data show that over the past twenty five years the number of ELL students (ages 5-17) grew from 3.8 million to 9.9 million or approximately 10% of the entire U.S. school population (NCES, 2006). With this incredible growth, regular classroom teachers are in need of learning new teaching skills in language acquisition to integrate into everyday classroom content instruction. Sheltered Instructional strategies or Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) involve teaching strategies used in developing language skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking and incorporates them into content area (Science) planning, instruction and assessment. These strategies include clearly defined language and content objectives, creating instruction that relates to students' prior knowledge, tailoring teacher talk to students' English language proficiency levels, allowing students to process material in a variety of formats including guided inquiry, scaffolding content instruction, and using assessment methods that allow students to display learning in a variety of ways (Becijos,1997; Echevarria, Vogt, and Short, 2008). This is especially important to teachers at the elementary and middle school as the majority of ELL students are entering schools at these levels. Of all ELL students entering school, 44% are in grades K-3 and 35% in grades 4-8 (Kindler, 2002). This Professional Development Institute will be conducted by David Crowther, a Professor of Science Education at the University of Nevada, Reno. Dr. Crowther is the coauthor/editor of Science for English Language Learners by NSTA Press. He has written several chapters in books and articles about science for ELLs; presented at NSTA workshops and TESOL on the subject; and teaches science methods using Sheltered Instruction strategies at the University of Nevada, Reno. Joaquin Vil� is a Professor of English and Second Language Acquisition at Salisbury University in Maryland. In his numerous years of experience he has conducted many workshops on teaching EL students, written chapters / articles, and led departments and programs for ELL within the English departments at several universities. Dr. Vil� is also a NCATE evaluator of TESOL programs and is the Special Assistant to the Vice President of the University for Diversity. Presenters are recognized as top researchers, authors, and workshop facilitators in the field of science and language acquisition.

1900-01-01

170

The Script-Writer's Dream: How to Write Great SQL in Your Own Language, and Be Sure It Will Succeed  

Science.gov (United States)

We show how to translate expressions in a higher-order programming language into SQL queries. Somewhat surprisingly, we show that any suitable expression translates to a single SQL query, where the suitability is determined by a type-and-effect check. Thus, unlike in Hollywood where a script-writer can never be sure a movie sequel will be popular, we show how to be sure that your SQL—written in your own language—will succeed (in being translated).

Cooper, Ezra

171

The influence of instructional support and teaching practices on first raders reading and writing. A comparative study in whole language and phonics classes.  

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Full Text Available This study compares first graders’ acquisition of literacy in two different instructional settings. One teacher used a traditional skill-based approach while the other one was identified as a whole language teacher using literature and writing experiences with incidental attention to phonics. During the school year, documentation collection about the pedagogy included questionnaires, field notes of monthly observations of reading and writing lessons, systematic collections of the activities, and analysis of the linguistic structures contained in the texts used for reading lessons in both classrooms. Data collection was conducted longitudinally and involved three tasks: invented spelling, oral reading and reading content recall. Various analyses indicate that both groups of children learnt the graphophonic system and were able to use it for encoding and decoding. Differences between the two groups were in the difficulties encountered in the three tasks. The influence of the way the teacher leads the reading lessons, the activities proposed and the reading supports used on first graders’ difficulties and the strategies used are discussed.

Pasa., L.

2001-01-01

172

DESCRIPTIVE VERSUS DIALOGIC REFLECTION AND POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE STANCE IN THE REFLECTIVE WRITING OF TURKISH PROSPECTIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS  

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Full Text Available Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in their teacher education could be beneficial in helping them to develop their critical thinking skills and to make the most of their future teaching experiences. Thus, the current study was conducted to describe the individual reflective profiles emerging from the analysis of the written reflections of 28 Turkish prospective English Language teachers on a video-recorded microteaching experience carried out as part of a methodology course. A mixed method approach was adopted to this aim. First, qualitative analysis of the written reflections revealed reflective categories showing how the participants reflected on their teaching experience. Second, frequency analysis was used to reveal the distribution of these reflective categories for each participant. The data analysis showed that the individual participants displayed different patterns of reflection in terms of descriptive and dialogic reflection, and positive and negative stance.

Amanda YE??LBURSA

2011-10-01

173

Lenguas extranjeras, escritura y desarrollo: un reto para el profesional de las ciencias médicas / Foreign languages, writing and development: a challenge for health professionals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El notable incremento de la colaboración médica cubana en la arena internacional y la revolución en las ciencias informáticas ha generado la necesidad de una reconceptualización de del aprendizaje de la escritura en el estudio de las lenguas extranjeras, el inglés en particular, en la educación médi [...] ca superior. Se exploran los beneficios que aporta este tipo de competencia al estudiante de lenguas extranjeras y se particulariza cuán necesario es esta habilidad para el profesional de la salud. Abstract in english The growing Cuban health sector collaboration with other countries as well as the revolution in information sciences has brought about the need to reconceptualize the role of learning how to write in foreign languages, English in particular, in Higher Medical Education. The present work explores the [...] general contribution of this type of competence to the learner of foreign languages and gives particular attention to the usefulness of this skill to the health professional.

Rafael, Forteza Fernández.

174

Linguagem escrita e relações estéticas: algumas considerações / Considerations on language writing and aesthetic relations / Lenguaje escrito y relaciones estéticas: algunas consideraciones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O processo de constituição do sujeito ocorre a partir de relações sociais, semioticamente mediadas. Assim, é via produção de sentidos que o ser humano produz cultura e, simultaneamente, constitui-se enquanto singularidade, o que caracteriza esse processo como criador. Ao reconhecer a linguagem como [...] constitutiva do sujeito e entender o processo de criação como característico do ser humano, o presente trabalho apresenta reflexões, à luz da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural, sobre os processos de criação na/com a linguagem escrita. Situações de uma pesquisa anteriormente desenvolvida são apresentadas para ilustrar as dicotomias existentes no processo de produção escrita, mais especificamente no que se refere às relações forma/conteúdo e técnica/sentido. Para a superação dessas dicotomias, necessário se faz estabelecer relações estéticas com a realidade, por cujo intermédio a pessoa pode distanciar-se e aproximar-se da produção escrita, seja esta produto de sua objetivação ou não. É este movimento que possibilita a organização de novos sentidos para a produção própria ou alheia e, por conseguinte, novas escritas. Abstract in spanish El proceso de constitución del sujeto ocurre a partir de relaciones sociales, semióticamente mediadas. Así, es vía producción de sentidos que el ser humano produce cultura y, simultáneamente, se constituye con singularidad, lo que caracteriza ese proceso como creador. Al reconocer el lenguaje como c [...] onstitutivo del sujeto y entender el de creación como característico del ser humano, el presente trabajo presenta reflexiones, a la luz de la Psicología Histórico-cultural, sobre los procesos de creación en el/con el lenguaje escrito. Situaciones de una encuesta anteriormente desarrollada son presentadas para ilustrar las dicotomías existentes en el proceso de producción escrita, más específicamente en lo que se refiere a las relaciones forma/contenido y técnica/sentido. Para la superación de esas dicotomías, se hace necesario establecer relaciones estéticas con la realidad, por cuyo intermedio la persona puede distanciarse y aproximarse de la producción escrita, sea ésta producto de su objetivación o no. Es este movimiento que posibilita la organización de nuevos sentidos para la producción propia o ajena y, por consiguiente nuevas escritas. Abstract in english The process of the constitution of the subject occurs through semiotically mediated social relationships. Through the production of meanings the human being produces culture and, simultaneously, constitutes its singularity, which characterizes the process as creative. While acknowledging language as [...] constitutive of the subject and the comprehension of the creative process as unique to humans, current analysis presents some considerations, based on historical-cultural psychology, on the creative processes with language writing. Situations from a previous research are shown to illustrate the dichotomies during the process of writing production, more specifically the relations between shape/content and technique/meaning. So that these dichotomies may be overcome, it is necessary to establish aesthetic relations with reality. Through reality the subject may distance him/herself from or approach the writing production whether or not it is his/her production. Such shifting permits the organization of new meanings for one’s own or for others’ production, or rather, for new writings.

Silmara Carina Dornelas, Munhoz; Andréa Vieira, Zanella.

2008-06-01

175

The Facilitating Role of L1 in ESL Classes  

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Full Text Available It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.

Ça?r? Tu?rul Mart

2013-01-01

176

Pupils with Portable Writing Machines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two sets of secondary students (n=26) were interviewed about attitudes toward writing after using laptop word processors. Handwriting remained popular and quicker for most writing tasks; neither planning nor constructive reflection on language were enhanced; typing speeds remained very slow; and the connotations of "writing" were beginning to…

Peacock, Michael; Breese, Chris

1990-01-01

177

Phonological Awareness and Oral Language Proficiency in Learning to Read English among Chinese Kindergarten Children in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…

Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

2013-01-01

178

Writing Music Therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.

Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many ...

Mary Helena Rykov

2011-01-01

179

Emergence in second language writing: a methodological inroad / Emergência na escrita em segunda língua: uma incursão metodológica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Teoria de Sistemas Complexos (TSC) tem sido acionada em diversos campos, como forma de examinar os fenômenos de uma maneira que faz com que a interconectividade e emergência sejam centrais para pesquisa. Para a linguística aplicada, TSC oferece a possibilidade de englobar tanto a linguagm quanto a [...] aprendizagem. Ao fazer isso, a orientação teórica tem de ser totalmente integrada ao processo de pesquisa por meio da metodologia de pesquisa. Este artigo descreve um método qualitativo microetnográfico, Análise de Traços Lexicais, que se baseia no conceito de emergência. É um método analítico que nos permite ver o desenvolvimento longitudinal de palavras e de seus padrões. Ele é aplicado aqui em um estudo de caso sobre o desenvolvimento de padrões léxico-gramaticais (sequências formulaicas, colocações, expressões idiomáticas etc.) de uma usuária de uma segunda língua. Seus padrões de palavras são rastreados enquanto ela se prepara para o vestibular para a universidade e, posteriormente, assim que ela entra na universidade. Seu uso de padrões envolve imitação adaptativa, um processo complexo de percepção de padrões, imitação e adaptação para atender aos novos objetivos comunicativos. Abstract in english Complex Systems Theory (CST) has been called upon in many different fields as a means of examining phenomena in a way that makes interconnectivity and emergence central to research. For applied linguistics, CST offers the possibility of encompassing both language and learning. In doing so, the theor [...] etical orientation needs to be fully integrated into the research process through research methodology. This paper describes a qualitative microethnographic method, Lexical Trail Analysis, which draws on the concept of emergence. It is an analytic method that enables us to see the longitudinal development of words and their patterns. It is applied here in a case study of the development of one second language user's lexicogrammatical patterns (formulaic sequences, collocations, idioms, etc.). Her word patterns are traced as she prepares for a university entrance test and later, once she enters the university. Her use of patterns involves adaptive imitation, a complex process of perceiving, imitating and adapting patterns to suit new communicative goals.

Susy, Macqueen.

180

Emergence in second language writing: a methodological inroad / Emergência na escrita em segunda língua: uma incursão metodológica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Teoria de Sistemas Complexos (TSC) tem sido acionada em diversos campos, como forma de examinar os fenômenos de uma maneira que faz com que a interconectividade e emergência sejam centrais para pesquisa. Para a linguística aplicada, TSC oferece a possibilidade de englobar tanto a linguagm quanto a [...] aprendizagem. Ao fazer isso, a orientação teórica tem de ser totalmente integrada ao processo de pesquisa por meio da metodologia de pesquisa. Este artigo descreve um método qualitativo microetnográfico, Análise de Traços Lexicais, que se baseia no conceito de emergência. É um método analítico que nos permite ver o desenvolvimento longitudinal de palavras e de seus padrões. Ele é aplicado aqui em um estudo de caso sobre o desenvolvimento de padrões léxico-gramaticais (sequências formulaicas, colocações, expressões idiomáticas etc.) de uma usuária de uma segunda língua. Seus padrões de palavras são rastreados enquanto ela se prepara para o vestibular para a universidade e, posteriormente, assim que ela entra na universidade. Seu uso de padrões envolve imitação adaptativa, um processo complexo de percepção de padrões, imitação e adaptação para atender aos novos objetivos comunicativos. Abstract in english Complex Systems Theory (CST) has been called upon in many different fields as a means of examining phenomena in a way that makes interconnectivity and emergence central to research. For applied linguistics, CST offers the possibility of encompassing both language and learning. In doing so, the theor [...] etical orientation needs to be fully integrated into the research process through research methodology. This paper describes a qualitative microethnographic method, Lexical Trail Analysis, which draws on the concept of emergence. It is an analytic method that enables us to see the longitudinal development of words and their patterns. It is applied here in a case study of the development of one second language user's lexicogrammatical patterns (formulaic sequences, collocations, idioms, etc.). Her word patterns are traced as she prepares for a university entrance test and later, once she enters the university. Her use of patterns involves adaptive imitation, a complex process of perceiving, imitating and adapting patterns to suit new communicative goals.

Susy, Macqueen.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Linguagem escrita e relações estéticas: algumas considerações Lenguaje escrito y relaciones estéticas: algunas consideraciones Considerations on language writing and aesthetic relations  

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Full Text Available O processo de constituição do sujeito ocorre a partir de relações sociais, semioticamente mediadas. Assim, é via produção de sentidos que o ser humano produz cultura e, simultaneamente, constitui-se enquanto singularidade, o que caracteriza esse processo como criador. Ao reconhecer a linguagem como constitutiva do sujeito e entender o processo de criação como característico do ser humano, o presente trabalho apresenta reflexões, à luz da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural, sobre os processos de criação na/com a linguagem escrita. Situações de uma pesquisa anteriormente desenvolvida são apresentadas para ilustrar as dicotomias existentes no processo de produção escrita, mais especificamente no que se refere às relações forma/conteúdo e técnica/sentido. Para a superação dessas dicotomias, necessário se faz estabelecer relações estéticas com a realidade, por cujo intermédio a pessoa pode distanciar-se e aproximar-se da produção escrita, seja esta produto de sua objetivação ou não. É este movimento que possibilita a organização de novos sentidos para a produção própria ou alheia e, por conseguinte, novas escritas.El proceso de constitución del sujeto ocurre a partir de relaciones sociales, semióticamente mediadas. Así, es vía producción de sentidos que el ser humano produce cultura y, simultáneamente, se constituye con singularidad, lo que caracteriza ese proceso como creador. Al reconocer el lenguaje como constitutivo del sujeto y entender el de creación como característico del ser humano, el presente trabajo presenta reflexiones, a la luz de la Psicología Histórico-cultural, sobre los procesos de creación en el/con el lenguaje escrito. Situaciones de una encuesta anteriormente desarrollada son presentadas para ilustrar las dicotomías existentes en el proceso de producción escrita, más específicamente en lo que se refiere a las relaciones forma/contenido y técnica/sentido. Para la superación de esas dicotomías, se hace necesario establecer relaciones estéticas con la realidad, por cuyo intermedio la persona puede distanciarse y aproximarse de la producción escrita, sea ésta producto de su objetivación o no. Es este movimiento que posibilita la organización de nuevos sentidos para la producción propia o ajena y, por consiguiente nuevas escritas.The process of the constitution of the subject occurs through semiotically mediated social relationships. Through the production of meanings the human being produces culture and, simultaneously, constitutes its singularity, which characterizes the process as creative. While acknowledging language as constitutive of the subject and the comprehension of the creative process as unique to humans, current analysis presents some considerations, based on historical-cultural psychology, on the creative processes with language writing. Situations from a previous research are shown to illustrate the dichotomies during the process of writing production, more specifically the relations between shape/content and technique/meaning. So that these dichotomies may be overcome, it is necessary to establish aesthetic relations with reality. Through reality the subject may distance him/herself from or approach the writing production whether or not it is his/her production. Such shifting permits the organization of new meanings for one’s own or for others’ production, or rather, for new writings.

Silmara Carina Dornelas Munhoz

2008-06-01

182

Enhancing EFL Learners’ Writing Skill via Journal Writing  

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Full Text Available “Frequently accepted as being the last language skill to be acquired for native speakers of the language as well as for foreign/second language learners” (Hamp-Lyons and Heasly, 2006: 2, English writing, for a number of EFL learners, appears to be challenging. This paper sought to investigate if learners can grow out of the writing difficulties by engaging in journal writing activity. 85 second-year students from the two writing classes, one treated as the experimental group (EG and the other as the control group (CG, at the Faculty of English Linguistics and Literature of the University of Social Sciences and Humanities in Ho Chi Minh City (USSH-HCMC were invited to participate in the study, whose findings substantiated the benefits of journal writing as an extensive activity to foster learners' writing motivation and enhance their writing skill as well as to build a close bonding between teachers and learners.

Luu Trong Tuan

2010-08-01

183

We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter  

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Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper. My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper.

Stephen Krashen

2008-04-01

184

Book Review: Stop, Write!  

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Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

Hans Thulesius

2013-06-01

185

Learning a Second Language Naturally the Voice Movement Icon Approach  

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Second language (L2) instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1) acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI) approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an a...

Manuela Macedonia

2013-01-01

186

Model, Engage, Write, and Evaluate: A Model for Informative Writing  

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Writing is regarded as a particularly demanding process involving complex higher level thinking processes combined with the demands of certain meta-cognitive skills. Since academic success may be predicted by the student’s level of reading comprehension and writing skills and with the recent adoption of the Common Core State Standards, it is an ideal time for conceptualizing how to improve writing instruction for elementary students.  This mixed-methods study investigated the effects of process writing instruction on the development of second and third grade students’ writing abilities focusing on wide reading and inquiry, writing frames, technology netbooks, and grammar/mechanics.  Results indicate that all students involved advanced at least two stages on Gunning’s scale of writing proficiency, increased in number of words written, addressed problems in writing mechanics, and improved selective language use.  Findings are relevant to classroom teachers, specialists, and administrators alike.

Juanita Moller

2011-12-01

187

"Visual Learning Is the Best Learning--It Lets You Be Creative while Learning": Exploring Ways to Begin Guided Writing in Second Language Learning through the Use of Comics  

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This study investigated the use of comics (Cary, 2004) in a guided writing experience in secondary school Italian language learning. The main focus of the peer group interaction task included the exploration of visual sequencing and visual integration (Bailey, O'Grady-Jones, & McGown, 1995) using image and text to create a comic strip narrative in…

Rossetto, Marietta; Chiera-Macchia, Antonella

2011-01-01

188

Algumas considerações sobre a interface entre a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS) e a Língua Portuguesa na construção inicial da escrita pela criança surda / Considerations on the interface between the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS) and Portuguese language in the initial construction of writing of deaf children  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo propõe uma reflexão psicolingüística sobre as construções conceituais de crianças surdas no que diz respeito à escrita. O trabalho revela, a partir de um diálogo com as idéias de Emília Ferreiro e Ana Teberosky, que a psicogênese da escrita vivenciada por crianças surdas, que têm a língua d [...] e sinais como primeira língua e língua de instrução, se desenrola de forma diferente ao que é vivido por crianças ouvintes em processo inicial de construção da escrita. As principais especificidades dessa aquisição relacionam-se: a não-fonetização da escrita, a uma intensa exploração dos aspectos viso-espaciais da escrita e ao uso dos parâmetros fonológicos da língua de sinais como elemento regulador e organizador da escrita. Tais peculiaridades exigem, portanto, que a escola e o professor alfabetizador revejam suas concepções sobre o processo de escrita no surdo, pensando em (novas) práticas pedagógicas que considerem a realidade bilíngüe e sua relação não-sonora com a escrita. Abstract in english This paper proposes a psycholinguistic reflection on the conceptual constructions of deaf children in what regards writing. Based on a dialogue with the ideas of Emília Ferreiro and Ana Teberosky, this work reveals that the psychogenesis of writing experienced by deaf children who have sign language [...] as their first and instruction language, occurs in a different way than that of hearing children in the initial process of constructing writing. The main specificities of this acquisition are related to the non-phonetization of writing, to an intense exploration of the visual-spatial aspects of writing and to the usage of the phonologic parameters of sign language as a regulating and organizing element of writing. Such peculiarities thus demand that school and alphabetizing teachers revise their conceptions on the process of writing of the deaf, thinking of (new) pedagogical practices that take into account the bilingual reality and its soundless relationship to writing.

Renata Castelo, Peixoto.

189

Writing Music Therapy  

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Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.

Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many characteristics. It makes sense that we use poetry to write about music therapy.

Writing is a crucial skill for music therapy professionals who must produce various notes, proposals, and reports. Writing poetically is a diminished stance compared to discursive prose writing. It is understandable that representing music therapy in experimental, tentative, and creative texts is risky. I invite music therapists to aspire towards poetry when writing music therapy to better address nonverbal, embodied, music therapy essence. I address this invitation to all writers of music therapy: undergraduate and graduate students, clinicians, and researchers.

Mary Helena Rykov

2011-03-01

190

Academic writing in a corpus of 4th grade science notebooks: An analysis of student language use and adult expectations of the genres of school science  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a study of language use in the context of an inquiry-based science curriculum in which conceptual understanding ratings are used split texts into groups of "successful" and "unsuccessful" texts. "Successful" texts could include known features of science language. 420 texts generated by students in 14 classrooms from three school districts, culled from a prior study on the effectiveness of science notebooks to assess understanding, in addition to the aforementioned ratings are the data sources. In science notebooks, students write in the process of learning (here, a unit on electricity). The analytical framework is systemic functional linguistics (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004), specifically the concepts of genre, register and nominalization. Genre classification involves an analysis of the purpose and register features in the text (Schleppegrell, 2004). The use of features of the scientific academic register, namely the use relational processes and nominalization (Halliday and Martin, 1993), requires transitivity analysis and noun analysis. Transitivity analysis, consisting of the identification of the process type, is conducted on 4737 ranking clauses. A manual count of each noun used in the corpus allows for a typology of nouns. Four school science genres, procedures, procedural recounts reports and explanations, are found. Most texts (85.4%) are factual, and 14.1% are classified as explanations, the analytical genre. Logistic regression analysis indicates that there is no significant probability that the texts classified as explanation are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, material process clauses predominate in the corpus, followed by relational process clauses. Results of a logistic regression analysis indicate that there is a significant probability (Chi square = 15.23, p < .0001) that texts with a high rate of relational processes are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, 59.5% of 6511 nouns are references to physical materials, followed by references to abstract concepts (35.54%). Only two of the concept nouns were found to be nominalized referents in definition model sentences. In sum, the corpus has recognizable genres and features science language, and relational processes are more prevalent in "successful" texts. However, the pervasive feature of science language, nominalization, is scarce.

Esquinca, Alberto

191

Algumas considerações sobre a interface entre a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS e a Língua Portuguesa na construção inicial da escrita pela criança surda Considerations on the interface between the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS and Portuguese language in the initial construction of writing of deaf children  

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Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma reflexão psicolingüística sobre as construções conceituais de crianças surdas no que diz respeito à escrita. O trabalho revela, a partir de um diálogo com as idéias de Emília Ferreiro e Ana Teberosky, que a psicogênese da escrita vivenciada por crianças surdas, que têm a língua de sinais como primeira língua e língua de instrução, se desenrola de forma diferente ao que é vivido por crianças ouvintes em processo inicial de construção da escrita. As principais especificidades dessa aquisição relacionam-se: a não-fonetização da escrita, a uma intensa exploração dos aspectos viso-espaciais da escrita e ao uso dos parâmetros fonológicos da língua de sinais como elemento regulador e organizador da escrita. Tais peculiaridades exigem, portanto, que a escola e o professor alfabetizador revejam suas concepções sobre o processo de escrita no surdo, pensando em (novas práticas pedagógicas que considerem a realidade bilíngüe e sua relação não-sonora com a escrita.This paper proposes a psycholinguistic reflection on the conceptual constructions of deaf children in what regards writing. Based on a dialogue with the ideas of Emília Ferreiro and Ana Teberosky, this work reveals that the psychogenesis of writing experienced by deaf children who have sign language as their first and instruction language, occurs in a different way than that of hearing children in the initial process of constructing writing. The main specificities of this acquisition are related to the non-phonetization of writing, to an intense exploration of the visual-spatial aspects of writing and to the usage of the phonologic parameters of sign language as a regulating and organizing element of writing. Such peculiarities thus demand that school and alphabetizing teachers revise their conceptions on the process of writing of the deaf, thinking of (new pedagogical practices that take into account the bilingual reality and its soundless relationship to writing.

Renata Castelo Peixoto

2006-08-01

192

Handling L2 Input in Phonological STM: The Effect of Non-L1 Phonetic Segments and Non-L1 Phonotactics on Nonword Repetition  

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This article reports on an experiment comparing the effects of three discrete types of deviance from native language (L1) phonetics and phonology on verbal short-term memory performance. A nonword repetition task was used to measure the recall of four stimulus types: (a) high-probability L1-sounding nonwords, (b) low-probability L1-sounding…

Kovacs, Gabor; Racsmany, Mihaly

2008-01-01

193

Editorial. Crossing cultural boundaries. A window into diverse issues and contexts in L1-Education.  

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Full Text Available This issue of L1 – Educational Studies in Language and Literature is the largest single issue we have produced since our introduction in 2000. Containing seven articles, it covers a range of L1 issues: reform movements, the role of literature, culture and multiculturalism in L1, literacy, technology, reading comprehension and the role of oral and written language in L1 Teacher Education.

Kooy, M.

2007-07-01

194

A Model for Scaffolding Writing Instruction: IMSCI  

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The IMSCI model for teaching writing scaffolds the instruction so that students understand the features of a genre, see the teacher model writing a text in the target genre, participate in the creation of a text in the genre (through shared or collaborative writing), and independently write a text in the genre. This model is based on social learning theory and best practices in the instruction of English-language learners. An extended example of students writing historical fiction is p...

Read, Sylvia

2010-01-01

195

Spanish Interference in EFL Writing Skills: A Case of Ecuadorian Senior High Schools  

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Full Text Available Extensive studies have been conducted regarding mother tongue (L1 interference and developing English writing skills. This study, however, aims to investigate the influence of the Spanish language on second language (L2 writing skills at several Ecuadorian senior high schools in Loja. To achieve this, 351 students and 42 teachers from second year senior high schools (public and private were asked to participate in this study. The instruments for data collection were student and teacher questionnaires, as well as a written test in which students were asked to write a narrative passage. The information gathered from the instruments was then organized and tabulated to determine the various interference variables. Afterwards, the most representative samples from the narrative texts were analyzed based on their semantic, morphological and syntactical features. The results from this study indicate that English grammar and vocabulary were the linguistic areas that suffered the highest level of L1 language interference. The most common Spanish interference errors were misuse of verbs, omission of personal and object pronouns, misuse of prepositions, overuse of articles, and inappropriate/ unnatural word order. Finally, some suggestions are given to teachers in order to help students prevent further Spanish interference problems during writing/composition classes.

Paola Alexandra Cabrera Solano

2014-06-01

196

El andamiaje docente en el desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura en lengua extranjera / Scaffolding in the development of foreing language reading and writing skills  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El andamiaje constituye una estructura provisional, aportada por el docente o los pares más capacitados, que sirve de apoyo al estudiante en la construcción de los nuevos aprendizajes, la cual es retirada una vez que el estudiante es capaz de funcionar de manera independiente. El propósito de este e [...] studio es explorar la naturaleza de los procesos de andamiaje docente que operan durante el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera (LE), con el objeto de constituir un soporte teorético-heurístico que fundamente la selección de procedimientos de trabajo de aula orientados a promover y regular dichos procesos. Para ello, se realiza una investigación de tipo teórico-documental con un abordaje epistemológico racionalista, a partir del análisis de diversas fuentes bibliográficas y cibergráficas. En primer lugar, se define y clarifica el concepto de andamiaje con el objeto de proceder a su caracterización y establecer las teorías que lo sustentan. En segundo lugar, se señalan orientaciones generales para un mejor andamiaje de los procesos de aprendizaje por parte del docente de LE. Finalmente, se sugieren estrategias docentes que resultan efectivas en la provisión de andamiaje durante el desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura en LE. La investigación aporta basamentos teóricos y orientaciones procedimentales que se espera contribuyan a mejorar la praxis pedagógica del docente de lenguas extranjeras, acorde con tendencias pedagógicas de la actualidad. Abstract in english Scaffolding is a provisional structure provided by a teacher, other highly skilled teachers or skilled students, to support learners during construction of new knowledge. Once students are able to work on their own, the structure is withdrawn. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of i [...] nstructional scaffolding processes during foreign language (FL) learning. The objective was to build a theoretical background to support selection of classroom procedures that promote and regulate these processes. A theoretical and bibliographical research was carried out from a rationalist epistemological perspective, through an analysis of a variety of bibliographical references. First, the concept of scaffolding was defined and clarified in order to outline its characteristics and establish underlying theories. Then, general guidelines were pointed out to improve teacher scaffolding during FL learning. Finally, effective teaching strategies were suggested for scaffolding the development of reading and writing skills in a FL. This study yields theoretical background and procedural guidelines that we hope will contribute to the improvement of FL teaching practice in accordance with present-day pedagogical trends.

Ana Lucía, Delmastro.

197

Writing successful UX proposals  

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Bringing new project funding and business opportunities to your organization is a vital part of UX professionals' growth and success. Writing Successful UX Proposals teaches the proven techniques for assessing proposal requests, writing successful commercial and government funding proposals, and enhancing your business development skills. This book will teach UX practitioners how to succeed in UX business development by mastering the following goals: * Understand how to assess a request for proposals* Understand the "anatomy" of a proposal response * Speak the business language of those who will be evaluating the proposed approach* Recognize the successes of others and build upon their advice Complete with case studies, tricks and tips, and real-world examples throughout, this is a must-have resource for UX professionals interested in honing their proposal writing skills and setting themselves up for success. * Provides unique sales and proposal writing insights tailored to the UX arena (including both resear...

Hass, Chris

2014-01-01

198

Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group  

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Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

2011-01-01

199

Mathematical writing  

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This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student.   The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition.   Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...

Vivaldi, Franco

2014-01-01

200

Shakespeare's Language  

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In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Use these sites to answer the following questions: Shakepeare s Language, Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. Describe ...

Flowers, Ms.

2009-10-21

 
 
 
 
201

HOW DO WE LEARN ANOTHER LANGUAGE?  

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Full Text Available Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used by a social group. It may be either spoken or written. Every human being uses a language to communicate to other members of the society (she is a part of. While we acquire our mother tongues (L1, we learn the other language(s. Linguists talk of several approaches to language learning process, more prominent approaches being grammar-translation, direct, audio-lingual and contrastive analysis. Similarly, four of the major skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing (LSRW are also involved in language learning process. Our learning an additional language enriches and helps us build a communication rapport with a larger society or social group.

Arun Behera

2012-07-01

202

Out of a Writing Conference: Speaking Writing Connection  

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Full Text Available Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value only `the product' but also `the process'. When translated into the classroom, one of the features of this new paradigm, the writing process approach, is `the conference', which occurs between teacher and students as well as between students. As Mol (1992 states, writing conference provides students with immediate, meaningful responses to their writing, developing students' ability to reflect upon their own writing and the writing of others in a critical and constructive way. Looking back at our own experience in teaching writing, the conference does not only scaffold the students in the process of meaning-making but also creates an atmosphere where they are actively engaged in a `more focused' talk. This is of paramount importance since our students tend to speak in their native language even in the classroom.

Utami Widiati

1997-01-01

203

The vulnerability of gender on determiners in L1, 2L1 and L2 acquisition  

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Full Text Available The acquisition of gender has been reported to be problematic for some groups of learners acquiring Germanic or Romance languages. It has been shown that L1 learners do better in gender acquisition than others, like bilingual children, child L2 learners and adult L2 learners. The reason for these differences is however not always clear. In this paper, we study the acquisition of gender on determiners by different groups of learners. We concentrate on the acquisition of French, Italian, Spanish and Dutch. The picture from a literature survey shows that contradictory results have been found. We suggest that the ‘vulnerability’ of this particular domain of grammar has to do with interacting factors in the acquisition. Among them are the specific characteristics of the language or languages involved, like the semantic and morphophonological characteristics of the nouns in each language, but also the quantity and quality of input, and the cross-linguistic influence exercised by one language on the other in a 2L1 or L2 setting. Instruction also seems to play a role.

Elisabeth van der Linden

2009-01-01

204

El oficio del escritor académico: un portal para promover el uso de la lengua escrita como práctica social / The Profession of Academic Writing: A Portal to Promote the Use of Written Language as a Social Practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La escritura académica es un campo en creciente desarrollo debido al reconocimiento de que el uso de la lengua escrita y la socialización en las disciplinas académicas es indisoluble: la lengua no puede reducirse a la enseñanza de la ortografía y la gramática, ni la construcción de conocimiento pued [...] e entenderse sin la mediación de textos académicos en la educación superior. Sin embargo, existen aún muy pocas iniciativas institucionales para formalizar este tipo de acciones, y menos con un componente tecnológico. En este artículo presentamos el desarrollo de un portal de recursos para la escritura académica, el cual ilustra un conjunto de acciones y procesos constitutivos del oficio del escritor académico como una práctica social. Este modelaje de escritura académica se logra utilizando un paradigma sociocultural y uno de semiótica visual. Abstract in english Academic writing is a growing field due to the recognition that the use of written language and socialization in academic disciplines is indissoluble: language cannot be reduced to teaching spelling and grammar, nor can the construction of knowledge be understood without the mediation of academic te [...] xts in higher education. However, institutional initiatives for formalizing this type of actions are still very limited, especially in the case of technological components. In this article, we present the development of a portal of resources for academic writing, which illustrates a set of actions and processes that constitute the profession of academic writing as a social practice. This model of academic writing is achieved by using a sociocultural paradigm and a paradigm of visual semiotics.

Juan Manuel, Fernández-Cárdenas; Lorena, Piña-Gómez.

2014-03-01

205

El oficio del escritor académico: un portal para promover el uso de la lengua escrita como práctica social / The Profession of Academic Writing: A Portal to Promote the Use of Written Language as a Social Practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La escritura académica es un campo en creciente desarrollo debido al reconocimiento de que el uso de la lengua escrita y la socialización en las disciplinas académicas es indisoluble: la lengua no puede reducirse a la enseñanza de la ortografía y la gramática, ni la construcción de conocimiento pued [...] e entenderse sin la mediación de textos académicos en la educación superior. Sin embargo, existen aún muy pocas iniciativas institucionales para formalizar este tipo de acciones, y menos con un componente tecnológico. En este artículo presentamos el desarrollo de un portal de recursos para la escritura académica, el cual ilustra un conjunto de acciones y procesos constitutivos del oficio del escritor académico como una práctica social. Este modelaje de escritura académica se logra utilizando un paradigma sociocultural y uno de semiótica visual. Abstract in english Academic writing is a growing field due to the recognition that the use of written language and socialization in academic disciplines is indissoluble: language cannot be reduced to teaching spelling and grammar, nor can the construction of knowledge be understood without the mediation of academic te [...] xts in higher education. However, institutional initiatives for formalizing this type of actions are still very limited, especially in the case of technological components. In this article, we present the development of a portal of resources for academic writing, which illustrates a set of actions and processes that constitute the profession of academic writing as a social practice. This model of academic writing is achieved by using a sociocultural paradigm and a paradigm of visual semiotics.

Juan Manuel, Fernández-Cárdenas; Lorena, Piña-Gómez.

206

Teorías personales de docentes de lengua sobre la enseñanza de la escritura en sistema de educación pública chilena / Language teacher personal theories about teaching writing in the Chilean public educational system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es sabido que las ideas que los docentes sostienen acerca de los procesos de enseñanza -aprendizaje de lenguas inciden en su quehacer pedagógico. Son escasos los estudios que explican las teorías personales de profesores de lenguas en torno a las habilidades lingüísticas de sus estudiantes. Por esta [...] razón, el objetivo de este trabajo es determinar cuáles son las teorías personales sobre escritura y su enseñanza en la educación media de seis profesores de inglés y de seis de Lenguaje y Comunicación que se desempeñan en establecimientos educacionales municipalizados de dos regiones de Chile. Para acceder a las teorías personales, los docentes fueron entrevistados con la finalidad de conocer sus ideas sobre diferentes aspectos de la enseñanza de la escritura. La metodología de análisis fue cualitativa y el procesamiento de los datos se realizó con el software NVivo. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los docentes asignan una alta importancia al desarrollo de la escritura, realizan actividades secuenciadas, se apoyan en textos modelos, favorecen el trabajo individual y promueven la escritura de textos breves. Abstract in english It is well known that the teachers' ideas about any area related to language teaching and learning processes impact on their pedagogical practice. There are not many studies, however, that explain language teachers' personal theories about linguistics abilities. The aim of this article is to present [...] the personal theories about writing of 6 English teachers and 6 Spanish teachers, who work in public schools in two regions of Chile. In order to find out the personal theories, we interviewed the teachers to deal with different aspects of the process of teaching writing. The methodology was qualitative and the data analysis was carried out with the support of NVivo software. The results indicate that the teachers assign great importance to the development of writing, carry out sequenced activities, support the process with model texts, foster individual work and promote the writing of brief texts.

Roxanna Carolina Correa, Pérez; Mónica Tapia, Ladino; Angie Neira, Martinez; Mabel Ortiz, Navarrete.

2013-06-01

207

Writing with Carmen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how to enhance the benefits of using the Carmen Sandiego educational software programs by building in generous amounts of creative fun and writing activities. Discusses journal writing, character sketches, letter writing, writing a book, and report writing. (RS)

McCartney, Pat

1990-01-01

208

Online Pronoun Resolution in L2 Discourse: L1 Influence and General Learner Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates whether advanced second language (L2) learners of a nonnull subject language (Dutch) are influenced by their null subject first language (L1) (Turkish) in their offline and online resolution of subject pronouns in L2 discourse. To tease apart potential L1 effects from possible general L2 processing effects, we also tested a…

Roberts, Leah; Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

2008-01-01

209

Writing in Math  

Science.gov (United States)

Innovative teachers can make writing as an integral part while teaching math to students. The teachers will have to implement the math instruction that enables students to organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication, analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking of others, and use the language of mathematics to…

Burns, Marilyn

2004-01-01

210

Looking, Writing, Creating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how a middle school language arts teacher makes analyzing and creating visual art a partner to reading and writing in her classroom. Describes a project on art and Vietnam which shows how background information can add to and influence interpretation. Describes a unit on Greek mythology and Greek vases which leads to a related visual…

Katzive, Bonnie

1997-01-01

211

Habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares / Oral and written language skills for reading and writing in preschool children Habilidades / Linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese As crianças pré-escolares já possuem noções de leitura e escritura porque têm desenvolvido habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas que se relacionam entre si, e por sua vez, com a aquisição da leitura e a escritura convencionais. Este artigo de revisão tem por objetivos: (a) Descrever as relações [...] existentes entre linguagem oral e escrita nos anos pré-escolares, e (b) Identificar as habilidades concretas da linguagem da criança pré-escolar que possibilitam a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais. Fez-se uma busca nas bases de dados ERIC e OVID de emergent literacy,phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, que contribuiu com os componentes da linguajem oral (habilidades fonológicas e semânticas) que se relacionam com a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais, assim como uma proposta de análise na que se enfatiza o processo das habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares. Abstract in spanish Los niños preescolares ya poseen nociones de lectura y escritura porque han desarrollado habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas que se relacionan entre sí y, a su vez, con la adquisición de la lectura y la escritura convencionales. Este artículo de revisión tiene como objetivos (a) Describir las [...] relaciones existentes entre lenguaje oral y escrito en los años preescolares, e (b) Identificar las habilidades concretas del lenguaje del niño preescolar que posibilitan la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales. Se hizo una búsqueda en las bases de datos ERIC y OVID de emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, la cual aportó los componentes del lenguaje oral -habilidades fonológicas y semánticas- que se relacionan con la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales, así como una propuesta de análisis en la que se enfatiza el proceso de las habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares. Abstract in english Preschool children already have notions of reading and writing because they have developed oral and written language skills that relate to each other, and in turn, with the acquisition of conventional reading and writing. This review article aims to: (a) identify the relationship between oral and wr [...] itten language in the preschool years, and (b) Identify the specific skills of the preschool child language enabling the acquisition of conventional literacy. A search in the databases ERIC and OVID for emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, and language skills preschoolers. This provided the oral-language components and semanti-cphonological skills that relate to the acquisition of conventional reading and writing, as well as a proposal for analysis that emphasizes the process of oral and written language skills for literacy in preschool children.

Esperanza, Guarneros Reyes; Lizbeth, Vega Pérez.

212

Habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares / Oral and written language skills for reading and writing in preschool children Habilidades / Linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese As crianças pré-escolares já possuem noções de leitura e escritura porque têm desenvolvido habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas que se relacionam entre si, e por sua vez, com a aquisição da leitura e a escritura convencionais. Este artigo de revisão tem por objetivos: (a) Descrever as relações [...] existentes entre linguagem oral e escrita nos anos pré-escolares, e (b) Identificar as habilidades concretas da linguagem da criança pré-escolar que possibilitam a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais. Fez-se uma busca nas bases de dados ERIC e OVID de emergent literacy,phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, que contribuiu com os componentes da linguajem oral (habilidades fonológicas e semânticas) que se relacionam com a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais, assim como uma proposta de análise na que se enfatiza o processo das habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares. Abstract in spanish Los niños preescolares ya poseen nociones de lectura y escritura porque han desarrollado habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas que se relacionan entre sí y, a su vez, con la adquisición de la lectura y la escritura convencionales. Este artículo de revisión tiene como objetivos (a) Describir las [...] relaciones existentes entre lenguaje oral y escrito en los años preescolares, e (b) Identificar las habilidades concretas del lenguaje del niño preescolar que posibilitan la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales. Se hizo una búsqueda en las bases de datos ERIC y OVID de emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, la cual aportó los componentes del lenguaje oral -habilidades fonológicas y semánticas- que se relacionan con la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales, así como una propuesta de análisis en la que se enfatiza el proceso de las habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares. Abstract in english Preschool children already have notions of reading and writing because they have developed oral and written language skills that relate to each other, and in turn, with the acquisition of conventional reading and writing. This review article aims to: (a) identify the relationship between oral and wr [...] itten language in the preschool years, and (b) Identify the specific skills of the preschool child language enabling the acquisition of conventional literacy. A search in the databases ERIC and OVID for emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, and language skills preschoolers. This provided the oral-language components and semanti-cphonological skills that relate to the acquisition of conventional reading and writing, as well as a proposal for analysis that emphasizes the process of oral and written language skills for literacy in preschool children.

Esperanza, Guarneros Reyes; Lizbeth, Vega Pérez.

2014-04-01

213

Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory  

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Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

2012-06-01

214

Web-Writing 2.0: Enabling, Documenting, and Assessing Writing Online  

Science.gov (United States)

Trends in the use of the Internet in recent years, collectively coined Web 2.0, have precipitated changes in modes and uses of writing online. Blogs and social networking sites provide new opportunities and incentives for personal writing. This reading-to-write culture requires use and development of language skills. The challenge for language

Godwin-Jones, Robert

2008-01-01

215

Main: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE  

Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 S000386 05-November-2005 (last modified) kehi L1 box found in promoter of Arabidopsi ... omeodomain binding L1 box and a MYB binding motif (Wang ... et al., 2004); HDZip IV; See also S000371; PDF1; L ...

216

Main: L1DCPAL1 [PLACE  

Full Text Available L1DCPAL1 S000504 15-September-2006 (last modified) kehi L1 element, found in PAL1 promoter in ca ... rrot (Daucus carota), is a protoplastization (dilution ) responsive element; L1 contains Box L-like sequen ...

217

Some Issues for the Teaching of Writing  

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Full Text Available In this article the definition of writing as a means and as an end is analyzed in order to raise some concerns about the teaching of writing at different schools in general. From this definition I question other important issues that ultimately affect our students¿ writing production. These have to deal with the use of writing in the mother language, writing activities in the textbooks, the realistic nature of the writing tasks, the other language skills input, and the production of texts. The article pretends to raise awareness in the teaching of writing by taking into account what is implied in the writing skill so teachers can be more attentive in the selection of written tasks for their students.

Lombana Claudia Helena

2002-08-01

218

Writing Excel Macros with VBA  

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To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

Roman, Steven

2008-01-01

219

Pedagogical Implications to Teaching English Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

English, as an international language, takes such a position in foreign language teaching and learning in China. As we all know that the ultimate purpose of language teaching is to cultivate students’ communicative ability including not only the oral ability, but also the writing ability. However, teaching of English writing is far from satisfactory, and many students still have a great difficulty in writing English composition. They find it hard to express their ideas and feeling freely an...

Fushan Sun

2010-01-01

220

A Survey of L-1 Regression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L1 regularization, or regularization with an L1 penalty, is a popular idea in statistics and machine learning. This paper reviews the concept and application of L1 regularization for regression. It is not our aim to present a comprehensive list of the utilities of the L1 penalty in the regression setting. Rather, we focus on what we believe is the set of most representative uses of this regularization technique, which we describe in some detail. Thus, we deal with a number of L1-regularized m...

Vidaurre, D.; Bielza, C.; Larran?aga, P.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Teismeea loovkirjutiste sõnavara ja selle hindamine / Teenage vocabulary and its assessment in creative writing  

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Full Text Available Within a study designed to find parameters of educated adult non-philologist L1-writings which give “ideal” benchmarks for assessing high-stakes L1 and L2 writing tests, students’ written vocabulary was targeted in grades 5, 7, 9, and 11 (age 12 to 18 to describe development towards those benchmarks (i.e., higher language cognition; see Hulstijn 2011. 159 students (90% of them native Estonians were tasked to write an age-appropriate argumentative text on individual and social values. All writings (see table 1 were holistically assessed by the participants’ mother tongue teachers and then analyzed individually for their LFP (lexical profile, measuring the frequency range of all tokens (Laufer, Nation 1995, Meara 2005; their LS (lexical sophistication, measuring the percentage of advanced tokens (see Laufer, Nation 1995; the Uber, Guiraud, and Advanced Guiraud indices, measuring the diversity of general and advanced vocabulary (van Hout, Vermeer 2007, Guiraud 1960, Daller et al. 2003; and the LD (lexical density, showing the proportion of content words to function words (Ure 1971. No significant difference was found between the vocabulary of grades 5 and 7, although individual values of parameters of the strongest writings may be up to ten times higher than those of the weakest ones. Differences between grades 9 and 11 were quite large and all statistically significant. From grade 5 to 11, variation of general vocabulary grows by 1.6 times and that of advanced vocabulary two times; the amount of sophisticated lexis grows by three times. The writings of the few non-native participants (80% of them being bilingual also at home were not typical of L2. The text length and vocabulary of this group did not differ from those of their age peers using L1. The lexical sophistication of this group was twice as big (17 as that of L2-speakers who had passed a C1-test (9.6; see Alp el al. 2013. There is an obvious need to test non-native writing in Estonian comparatively in two local school systems (with Russian or Estonian as the language of instruction. As supposed, teachers assessing writing holistically were not able to take into account vocabulary parameters. In grade 5, ratings correlated significantly with Guiraud; in grade 11, there was a weak significant correlation between ratings and advanced vocabulary measures. Despite having better late vocabulary (Figure 5, boys’ ratings were significantly lower. This seems to argue in favour of partial computer-scoring.

Krista Kerge

2014-04-01

222

A atenção fonoaudiólogica e a linguagem escrita de pessoas com baixa visão: estudo exploratório / Speech and language pathology therapy and the reading and writing of a person with visual disabilitie: exploratory study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: conhecer como as pessoas com baixa visão (visão subnormal) adquirida utilizavam a linguagem escrita no cotidiano e recomendar a atenção fonoaudiológica nesse processo. Foi realizado estudo descritivo exploratório para a construção do instrumento de coleta de dados. [...] A amostra foi constituída por pessoas com baixa visão que freqüentaram o Programa de Reabilitação de Adolescentes e Adultos do Cepre/FCM/Unicamp em 2008. Aplicou-se questionário por entrevista, onde foram investigadas as variáveis: características pessoais, uso de recursos de tecnologia assistiva na leitura e escrita, razões das atividades de leitura e escrita e frequência do uso após a perda visual. A amostra foi composta por 08 pessoas com baixa visão com média de idade de 47 anos e predominância do sexo masculino (75,0%). Os resultados indicaram que a maioria (62,5%) relatou utilizar auxílios ópticos nas atividades de leitura. Todos informaram utilizar auxílios não ópticos na leitura. Os sujeitos declararam utilizar a leitura para obter informações sobre assuntos que os interessavam e a escrita para se comunicarem com as outras pessoas. Verificou-se que a maioria (75,0%), relatou não utilizar a leitura e nem a escrita com a mesma freqüência que usava antes da perda visual e os motivos alegados foram a dificuldade para enxergar e o cansaço visual. A redução do uso da linguagem escrita no cotidiano por sujeitos com baixa visão adquirida compromete a autonomia e independência, fato este que demonstra necessidade de ênfase no trabalho com a linguagem escrita que poderá ser maximizado por meio da atenção fonoaudiológica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to: understand how people with acquired low vision (subnormal vision) used written language in daily living and to recommend speech and language pathology therapy during the process. A descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in order to build a data collection instrumen [...] t. The sample was composed of subjects with low vision who attended Cepre / FCM / Unicamp in 2008. A questionnaire was applied during an interview, during which time the following variables were investigated: personal characteristics, use of assistive technology in reading and writing, reasons for performing reading and writing activities and the frequency of reading and writing after having acquired the visual loss. The sample was made up of 8 subjects with acquired low vision. The mean age was 47 years, of which 75,0% were males. Most of the subjects (62,5%) declared they used optical aids to read. All reported they used non-optical aids to read. The results showed that the subjects reported that they used to read to get information on topics of interest and they write to communicate with other people. The majority (75,0%) reported they didn't read and write with the same frequency as before the emergence of the ophthalmic problem and the reason given was difficulty in seeing and eyestrain. The reduction of reading and writing for individuals with low vision justifies the need for greater emphasis on working with reading and writing during rehabilitation, and this can be enhanced by speech and language pathology therapy.

Mayla Myrina Bianchim, Monteiro; Rita de Cássia Ietto, Montilha; Maria Elisabete Rodrigues Freire, Gasparetto.

223

A atenção fonoaudiólogica e a linguagem escrita de pessoas com baixa visão: estudo exploratório / Speech and language pathology therapy and the reading and writing of a person with visual disabilitie: exploratory study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: conhecer como as pessoas com baixa visão (visão subnormal) adquirida utilizavam a linguagem escrita no cotidiano e recomendar a atenção fonoaudiológica nesse processo. Foi realizado estudo descritivo exploratório para a construção do instrumento de coleta de dados. [...] A amostra foi constituída por pessoas com baixa visão que freqüentaram o Programa de Reabilitação de Adolescentes e Adultos do Cepre/FCM/Unicamp em 2008. Aplicou-se questionário por entrevista, onde foram investigadas as variáveis: características pessoais, uso de recursos de tecnologia assistiva na leitura e escrita, razões das atividades de leitura e escrita e frequência do uso após a perda visual. A amostra foi composta por 08 pessoas com baixa visão com média de idade de 47 anos e predominância do sexo masculino (75,0%). Os resultados indicaram que a maioria (62,5%) relatou utilizar auxílios ópticos nas atividades de leitura. Todos informaram utilizar auxílios não ópticos na leitura. Os sujeitos declararam utilizar a leitura para obter informações sobre assuntos que os interessavam e a escrita para se comunicarem com as outras pessoas. Verificou-se que a maioria (75,0%), relatou não utilizar a leitura e nem a escrita com a mesma freqüência que usava antes da perda visual e os motivos alegados foram a dificuldade para enxergar e o cansaço visual. A redução do uso da linguagem escrita no cotidiano por sujeitos com baixa visão adquirida compromete a autonomia e independência, fato este que demonstra necessidade de ênfase no trabalho com a linguagem escrita que poderá ser maximizado por meio da atenção fonoaudiológica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to: understand how people with acquired low vision (subnormal vision) used written language in daily living and to recommend speech and language pathology therapy during the process. A descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in order to build a data collection instrumen [...] t. The sample was composed of subjects with low vision who attended Cepre / FCM / Unicamp in 2008. A questionnaire was applied during an interview, during which time the following variables were investigated: personal characteristics, use of assistive technology in reading and writing, reasons for performing reading and writing activities and the frequency of reading and writing after having acquired the visual loss. The sample was made up of 8 subjects with acquired low vision. The mean age was 47 years, of which 75,0% were males. Most of the subjects (62,5%) declared they used optical aids to read. All reported they used non-optical aids to read. The results showed that the subjects reported that they used to read to get information on topics of interest and they write to communicate with other people. The majority (75,0%) reported they didn't read and write with the same frequency as before the emergence of the ophthalmic problem and the reason given was difficulty in seeing and eyestrain. The reduction of reading and writing for individuals with low vision justifies the need for greater emphasis on working with reading and writing during rehabilitation, and this can be enhanced by speech and language pathology therapy.

Mayla Myrina Bianchim, Monteiro; Rita de Cássia Ietto, Montilha; Maria Elisabete Rodrigues Freire, Gasparetto.

2011-04-01

224

La comprensión oral del lenguaje no literal y su relación con la producción escrita en escolares / Co-relation between oral comprehension of non-literal language and writing in elementary school students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un grupo considerable de niños y jóvenes chilenos escolarizados presenta problemas para producir textos escritos en forma autónoma. Las explicaciones de este fenómeno son diversas, pero este trabajo se focalizará en el desarrollo de la lengua oral que ocurre durante la edad escolar, a partir de los [...] seis años. Concretamente, se referirá aquí a la interpretación de ciertas formas orales de lo no literal: los actos de habla indirectos y las ironías. Teóricamente, la conexión escritura/comprensión oral de lo no literal se fundamenta en que ambas parecieran estar relacionadas con el desarrollo de la conciencia metalingüística y de la teoría de la mente. Empíricamente, se lleva a cabo un estudio con 141 estudiantes de 13 y 14 años cuya comprensión oral fue medida con el Instrumento de Medición de Inferencias Pragmáticas (IMIP) y su habilidad de escritura, con una Pauta de Evaluación Analítica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una correlación canónica y los resultados muestran, por una parte, un grado moderado de asociación entre las variables observables orales y escritas entre sí y, por otra parte, un grado de correlación canónica bajo pero significativo entre las dimensiones latentes comprensión oral y producción escrita (Rc = 0,26, p Abstract in english A substantial number of school children and youngsters encounters problems with the production of written texts in an autonomous fashion. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are various, it will hereby be focused on the development of the oral language occurring during the school age; that is, [...] from six years of age on. In particular, this study will refer to certain forms of non-literal language: indirect speech acts and ironies. Theoretically, the writing/oral comprehension of non-literal language connection is based on their seeming relationship with the development of a metalinguistic conscience and a theory of the mind. Empirically, this study involves the participation of 141 13-14-year-old students whose oral comprehension was measured by the Instrument for the Measurement of Pragmatic Inferences (IMIP, according to the Spanish acronym), and writing, by an Analytic Assessment Guide. Data were analyzed with the aid of canonical co-relation and the results reveal, on the one hand, a moderate degree of association in the observable oral and writing variables among themselves and, on the other, a low but significant degree of canonical co-relation between the latent oral and writing variables (Rc = 0,26, p

Nina, Crespo; Ricardo, Benítez; Pablo, Cáceres.

225

A atenção fonoaudiólogica e a linguagem escrita de pessoas com baixa visão: estudo exploratório Speech and language pathology therapy and the reading and writing of a person with visual disabilitie: exploratory study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: conhecer como as pessoas com baixa visão (visão subnormal adquirida utilizavam a linguagem escrita no cotidiano e recomendar a atenção fonoaudiológica nesse processo. Foi realizado estudo descritivo exploratório para a construção do instrumento de coleta de dados. A amostra foi constituída por pessoas com baixa visão que freqüentaram o Programa de Reabilitação de Adolescentes e Adultos do Cepre/FCM/Unicamp em 2008. Aplicou-se questionário por entrevista, onde foram investigadas as variáveis: características pessoais, uso de recursos de tecnologia assistiva na leitura e escrita, razões das atividades de leitura e escrita e frequência do uso após a perda visual. A amostra foi composta por 08 pessoas com baixa visão com média de idade de 47 anos e predominância do sexo masculino (75,0%. Os resultados indicaram que a maioria (62,5% relatou utilizar auxílios ópticos nas atividades de leitura. Todos informaram utilizar auxílios não ópticos na leitura. Os sujeitos declararam utilizar a leitura para obter informações sobre assuntos que os interessavam e a escrita para se comunicarem com as outras pessoas. Verificou-se que a maioria (75,0%, relatou não utilizar a leitura e nem a escrita com a mesma freqüência que usava antes da perda visual e os motivos alegados foram a dificuldade para enxergar e o cansaço visual. A redução do uso da linguagem escrita no cotidiano por sujeitos com baixa visão adquirida compromete a autonomia e independência, fato este que demonstra necessidade de ênfase no trabalho com a linguagem escrita que poderá ser maximizado por meio da atenção fonoaudiológica.The aim of this study was to: understand how people with acquired low vision (subnormal vision used written language in daily living and to recommend speech and language pathology therapy during the process. A descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in order to build a data collection instrument. The sample was composed of subjects with low vision who attended Cepre / FCM / Unicamp in 2008. A questionnaire was applied during an interview, during which time the following variables were investigated: personal characteristics, use of assistive technology in reading and writing, reasons for performing reading and writing activities and the frequency of reading and writing after having acquired the visual loss. The sample was made up of 8 subjects with acquired low vision. The mean age was 47 years, of which 75,0% were males. Most of the subjects (62,5% declared they used optical aids to read. All reported they used non-optical aids to read. The results showed that the subjects reported that they used to read to get information on topics of interest and they write to communicate with other people. The majority (75,0% reported they didn't read and write with the same frequency as before the emergence of the ophthalmic problem and the reason given was difficulty in seeing and eyestrain. The reduction of reading and writing for individuals with low vision justifies the need for greater emphasis on working with reading and writing during rehabilitation, and this can be enhanced by speech and language pathology therapy.

Mayla Myrina Bianchim Monteiro

2011-04-01

226

THE EFFECT OF TEACHING WRITING STRATEGIES ON TURKISH LANGUAGE TEACHING DEPARTMENT FRESMAN STUDENTS’ WRITING ACHIEVEMENT/YAZMA STRATEJ?LER? Ö?RET?M?N?N TÜRKÇE Ö?RETMENL??? B?R?NC? SINIF Ö?RENC?LER?N?N YAZMA BA?ARISINA ETK?S?  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the effect of writing strategies instruction on Turkish Language Teaching Department freshmen’s writing achievement. In accordance this aim, the pretest-posttest control group design was used to identify the effect of writing strategies instruction on freshmen’s writing achievement. As the quasi-experimental design was used in the study, population and sample was not defined. Instead, sample groups were taken based on the equality of the groups. The control group consisted of 18 girls and 6 boys, totally 24 students whereas the experimental group included 21 girls and 5 boys, totally 26 students. In the study, written expression evaluation scale was used as measurement device. At the end of the study, it was concluded that writing strategies instruction enhances writing achievement of the experimental group while the scores of pretest and posttest of the control group were not significantly changed. Bu ara?t?rman?n amac?, yazma stratejileri e?itiminin Türkçe ö?retmenli?i 1. s?n?f ö?rencilerinin yaz?l? anlat?m ba?ar?lar?na olan etkisini belirlemektir. Bu amaç do?rultulsunda, ön test-son test kontrol gruplu yar? deneysel desene ba?vurulmu?tur. Ara?t?rmada yar? deneysel desen kullan?ld???ndan dolay? evren ve örneklem seçilmemi?, bunun yerine çal??ma gruplar? al?n?p gruplar?n e?itli?i üzerinde durulmu?tur. Kontrol grubu 18 k?z, 6 erkek olmak üzere toplam 24 ki?iden, deney grubu ise 21 k?z, 5 erkek olmak üzere toplam 26 ki?iden olu?maktad?r. Çal??mada ölçme arac? olarak Yaz?l? Anlat?m De?erlendirme Ölçe?i kullan?lm??t?r. Ara?t?rman?n sonunda deney grubu ö?rencilerinin yazma ba?ar?s? ön test ve son test puanlar? aras?nda son test lehine anlaml? farkl?l?k oldu?u, kontrol grubu ö?rencilerinin yazma ba?ar?s? ön test ve son test puanlar? aras?nda anlaml? farkl?l?k olmad??? tespit edilmi?tir.

Ersoy TOPUZKANAMI?

2014-06-01

227

L2 Acquisition of Prosodic Properties of Speech Rhythm: Evidence from L1 Mandarin and German Learners of English  

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This study examines the development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) learners of typologically different first languages (L1s) at different levels of proficiency. An empirical investigation of durational variation in L2 English productions by L1 Mandarin learners and L1 German learners compared to native control values in English and the…

Li, Aike; Post, Brechtje

2014-01-01

228

Review of the Influence of L1 in L2 Acquisition  

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Full Text Available L1 has a significant influence on second language study. However, how L1 influence L2 is very complicated and abstract. But to study the mechanism of how L1 influence L2 is significant because L2 acquisition is making contribution on many fields like education and psychology. L1 is one of the central elements influencing SLA. In this course paper, we are going to overview what linguists have done about L1 and L2 and what approaches and theories they have made.

Zhanming WANG

2014-10-01

229

Reading Attitudes in L1 and L2, and Their Influence on L2 Extensive Reading  

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This study examines the relationship between both first language (L1) and second language (L2) reading attitudes, and learners' performance in L2 extensive reading. Four reading attitude variables were identified (Comfort, Anxiety, Value, Self-perception), both in L1 and L2, according to learners' responses to a questionnaire. Results of analyses…

Yamashita, Junko

2004-01-01

230

The Role of L1 in L2 Idiom Comprehension  

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Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of first language (L1 transfer in Iranian EFL learners' second language (L2 idiom comprehension. It was also sought to understand whether there is any significant difference between learners of different proficiency levels and their use of L1 in decoding L2 idioms. To do this, the participants of different levels of language proficiency were asked to participate in this study. The L2 idioms were categorized based on their similarity to L1 into three groups of identical, similar and different. A think-aloud protocol analysis was performed and participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they read the target idioms in order to detect the strategies they used. The results showed that the most favoured strategy used by learners of different levels was translation. Translation to L1 (Persian was also the most-frequent strategy in decoding similar, identical and different types of idioms. It was also revealed that generally the participants of different levels were significantly different from each other in using strategies.

Saeed Taki

2013-07-01

231

Representações de escrita de alunos de Mestrado em Letras / Social representations in the writing of students of Masters in Languages / Representaciones de escritura de alumnos de maestría en Letras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Verificamos as representações sociais de escrita de alunos de Mestrado em Letras. Procuramos usar a Teoria das Representações Sociais para investigarmos as representações da escrita de 10 alunos do Mestrado em Letras de uma Universidade Federal do interior de Minas Gerais. Associamos essas represent [...] ações aos discursos sobre a escrita difundidos na esfera acadêmica. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, baseado em narrativas elaboradas por esses alunos. Concluímos que, durante o maior período de escolarização desses alunos, as representações da escrita foram negativas, mas se transformaram em positivas com o passar do tempo. Isso demonstra que as representações são plásticas, flexíveis, pois antigas representações dão lugar a novas representações em função das experiências humanas, influenciadas por novos contextos. As narrativas sobre a história da escrita podem ser um caminho para professores conhecerem os percursos da escrita desenvolvidos por seus alunos, assim como permitem a identificação das representações sociais desses alunos. Abstract in spanish Verificamos las representaciones sociales de escritura de alumnos de Maestría en Letras. Procuramos usar la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales para investigar las representaciones de la escritura de 10 alumnos de la Maestría en Letras de una Universidad Federal del interior de Minas Gerais. Aso [...] ciamos esas representaciones a los discursos sobre la escritura difundidos en la esfera académica. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, basado en narrativas elaboradas por esos alumnos. Concluimos que, durante el mayor período de escolaridad de esos alumnos, las representaciones de la escritura fueron negativas, pero se transformaron en positivas con el paso del tiempo. Eso demuestra que las representaciones son plásticas, flexibles, pues antiguas representaciones dan lugar a nuevas representaciones en función de las experiencias humanas, influenciadas por nuevos contextos. Las narrativas sobre la historia de la escritura pueden ser un camino para que profesores conozcan los recorridos de la escritura desarrollados por sus alumnos, así como permiten la identificación de las representaciones sociales de esos alumnos. Abstract in english Here we examine the social representations in the writing of students of Masters in Languages. We used the Social Representation Theory to investigate the representations in the writings of 10 students of the Masters in Languages at a Federal University in upstate Minas Gerais. We associated these r [...] epresentations to the discourses spread in the academic sphere. The results obtained from the reading of the narratives written by the students will be presented. We concluded that throughout most of the period of these students' schooling the representations in their writing were negative, but became positive through the time. This demonstrates that the representations are plastic and flexible because old representations give place to new ones in function of human experiences influenced by new contexts. The narratives about the writing history may be a path for teachers to learn the routes of the writing developed by their students, as well as allowing an identification of the social representations and discourses of writing internalized by these students.

Adriana da, Silva.

232

The Effects of Collaborative Writing Activity Using Google Docs on Students' Writing Abilities  

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Google Docs, a free web-based version of Microsoft Word, offers collaborative features which can be used to facilitate collaborative writing in a foreign language classroom. The current study compared writing abilities of students who collaborated on writing assignments using Google Docs with those working in groups in a face-to-face classroom.…

Suwantarathip, Ornprapat; Wichadee, Saovapa

2014-01-01

233

Theoretical Writing  

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Full Text Available Theoretical sorting has brought the analyst to the point of pent-up pressure to write: to see the months of work actualized in a “piece.” But this is only a personal pressure. The goal of grounded theory methodology, above all is to offer the results to the public, usually through one or more publications. We will focus on writing for publication, which is the most frequent way that the analyst can tell how people are “buying” what really matters in sociology, or in other fields.Both feedback on and use of publications will be the best evaluation of the analyst’s grounded theory. It will be his main source or criticism, constructive critique, and frequently of career rewards. In any case, he has to write to expand his audience beyond the limited number of close colleagues and students. Unless there is a publication, his work will be relegated to limited discussion, classroom presentation, or even private fantasy. The rigor and value of grounded theory work deserves publication. And many analysts have a stake in effecting wider publics, which makes their substantive grounded theory count.

Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

2009-11-01

234

DNA Damage and L1 Retrotransposition  

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Full Text Available Barbara McClintock was the first to suggest that transposons are a source of genome instability and that genotoxic stress assisted in their mobilization. The generation of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs is a severe form of genotoxic stress that threatens the integrity of the genome, activates cell cycle checkpoints, and, in some cases, causes cell death. Applying McClintock's stress hypothesis to humans, are L1 retrotransposons, the most active autonomous mobile elements in the modern day human genome, mobilized by DSBs? Here, evidence that transposable elements, particularly retrotransposons, are mobilized by genotoxic stress is reviewed. In the setting of DSB formation, L1 mobility may be affected by changes in the substrate for L1 integration, the DNA repair machinery, or the L1 element itself. The review concludes with a discussion of the potential consequences of L1 mobilization in the setting of genotoxic stress.

2006-01-01

235

Using Wikis to Promote Collaborative EFL Writing  

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This study focuses on the use of wikis in collaborative writing projects in foreign language learning classrooms. A total of 34 intermediate level university students learning English as a foreign language (EFL) were asked to accomplish three different wiki-based collaborative writing tasks, (argumentative, informative and decision-making) working…

Aydin, Zelilha; Yildiz, Senem

2014-01-01

236

Reading, Writing and Speaking Shakespeare  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. Task One What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Task Two Use these site to answer the following questions: Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. ...

Mcguire, Mr.

2010-04-25

237

L1 Retrotransposons in Human Cancers  

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Full Text Available Retrotransposons like L1 are silenced in somatic cells by a variety of mechanisms acting at different levels. Protective mechanisms include DNA methylation and packaging into inactive chromatin to suppress transcription and prevent recombination, potentially supported by cytidine deaminase editing of RNA. Furthermore, DNA strand breaks arising during attempted retrotranspositions ought to activate cellular checkpoints, and L1 activation outside immunoprivileged sites may elicit immune responses. A number of observations indicate that L1 sequences nevertheless become reactivated in human cancer. Prominently, methylation of L1 sequences is diminished in many cancer types and full-length L1 RNAs become detectable, although strong expression is restricted to germ cell cancers. L1 elements have been found to be enriched at sites of illegitimate recombination in many cancers. In theory, lack of L1 repression in cancer might cause transcriptional deregulation, insertional mutations, DNA breaks, and an increased frequency of recombinations, contributing to genome disorganization, expression changes, and chromosomal instability. There is however little evidence that such effects occur at a gross scale in human cancers. Rather, as a rule, L1 repression is only partly alleviated. Unfortunately, many techniques commonly used to investigate genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer cells are not well suited to detect subtle effects elicited by partial reactivation of retroelements like L1 which are present as abundant, but heterogeneous copies. Therefore, effects of L1 sequences exerted on the local chromatin structure, on the transcriptional regulation of individual genes, and on chromosome fragility need to be more closely investigated in normal and cancer cells.

2006-01-01

238

The Writing Consultation: Developing Academic Writing Practices  

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This article describes and analyses a specific mechanism, the writing consultation, designed to help academics to prioritise, reconceptualise and improve their writing practices. It makes the case for its potential to stimulate consideration of writing practices and motivations, a possible precondition for creating time for writing in academic…

Murray, Rowena; Thow, Morag; Moore, Sarah; Murphy, Maura

2008-01-01

239

Feedback in L2 Writing.  

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Most research in feedback has not found significant differences in error correcting approaches for L2 writing. This paper reviews research on error correction approaches used by second language instructors and reports on a survey of 50 French and American instructors of English as a Second Language (ESL). Although research over the last 35 years…

Ihde, Thomas W.

240

Topical Knowledge and ESL Writing  

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This study investigates the effects of topical knowledge on ESL (English as a Second Language) writing performance in the English Language Proficiency Index (LPI), a standardized English proficiency test used by many post-secondary institutions in western Canada. The participants were 50 students with different levels of English proficiency…

He, Ling; Shi, Ling

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

THE EFFECT OF A FIGURE WHERE SYMMETRY USED IN TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IS APPLIED ON WRITING SKILLS OF TURKISH LANGUAGE AND PRIMARY MATHEMATICS TEACHING 1ST GRADE STUDENTS  

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Full Text Available With this study, it is aimed to afford an artistic development for science of mathematics with using literary language and learn with associating visual themes and imaginariness in essays. In the study, different written expression works, which are composed about same symmetric figure, of first grade preservice teachers of Turkish Language and Mathematics Teaching are compared.This study will put forth the grasp of communication skill of preservice students who are implementers of new program of Turkish and Mathematics lesson used from 2005 and in which the importance of this skill is emphasized. Also this study will contribute education of preservice students henceforwards.

Mine AKTA?

2011-08-01

242

Componential Skills of Beginning Writing: An Exploratory Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the components of end of kindergarten writing, using data from 242 kindergartners. Specifically of interest was the importance of spelling, letter writing fluency, reading, and word- and syntax-level oral language skills in writing. The results from structural equation modeling revealed that oral language, spelling, and…

Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Wagner, Richard K.

2011-01-01

243

L1-norm minimization for quaternion signals  

CERN Document Server

The l1-norm minimization problem plays an important role in the compressed sensing (CS) theory. We present in this letter an algorithm for solving the problem of l1-norm minimization for quaternion signals by converting it to second-order cone programming. An application example of the proposed algorithm is also given for practical guidelines of perfect recovery of quaternion signals. The proposed algorithm may find its potential application when CS theory meets the quaternion signal processing.

Wu, Jiasong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong

2012-01-01

244

Perception of Mandarin Tones: The Effect of L1 Background and Training  

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This study investigates whether native Hmong speakers' first language (L1) lexical tone experience facilitates or interferes with their perception of Mandarin tones and whether training is effective for perceptual learning of second (L2) tones. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of beginning level learners of Mandarin with different L1 prosodic background…

Wang, Xinchun

2013-01-01

245

Dutch Gender in Specific Language Impairment and Second Language Acquisition  

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In this article we compare five groups of learners acquiring Dutch gender as marked on determiners and adjectival inflection. Groups of L1 (first language) children and L1-SLI (first-language specific-language-impairment) children are compared to three Turkish-Dutch L2 (second language) groups: adult L2, child L2 and child L2-SLI. Overall, our…

Orgassa, Antje; Weerman, Fred

2008-01-01

246

Texte et "Contretexte" dan les Pratiques d'Ecriture (Composition and Rewriting in Writing Exercises).  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of learning to write, particularly in a foreign language, is long and complex. There is a truth in the saying that the best method of learning to write is to read, and especially, to write. (Author)

Espinoza-Vera, Maria; Wheatley, James R.

1996-01-01

247

"This english writing thing": students' perceptions of their writing experiences at an english-medium university  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores five students’ perceptions of their writing experiences at an English-medium post-graduate university in a non-English speaking country as compared to writing in their home country universities in their native languages. Three types of differences are found to be relevant: language and rhetorical differences, disciplinary differences, and differences in educational systems (such as the number of assignments required, the focus of writing instruction, and feedback...

Petri, Bojana

2007-01-01

248

Selected writings  

CERN Document Server

'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

Galilei, Galileo

2012-01-01

249

Curriculum: Foreign language learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents an overview of various issues related to curriculum in foreign language learning, and in particular focuses on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Foreign language learning is taken to mean the learning of a language other than the learner’s first language (L1), and this language is not ordinarily used in the learner’s everyday life. Thus, foreign language learning contexts are very different from second language learning contexts, for in second language le...

Lin, Amy

2010-01-01

250

Description of the L1C signal  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed design of the modernized LI civil signal (L1C) signal has been completed, and the resulting draft Interface Specification IS-GPS-800 was released in Spring 2006. The novel characteristics of the optimized L1C signal design provide advanced capabilities while offering to receiver designers considerable flexibility in how to use these capabilities. L1C provides a number of advanced features, including: 75% of power in a pilot component for enhanced signal tracking, advanced Weilbased spreading codes, an overlay code on the pilot that provides data message synchronization, support for improved reading of clock and ephemeris by combining message symbols across messages, advanced forward error control coding, and data symbol interleaving to combat fading. The resulting design offers receiver designers the opportunity to obtain unmatched performance in many ways. This paper describes the design of L1C. A summary of LIC's background and history is provided. The signal description then proceeds with the overall signal structure consisting of a pilot component and a carrier component. The new L1C spreading code family is described, along with the logic used for generating these spreading codes. Overlay codes on the pilot channel are also described, as is the logic used for generating the overlay codes. Spreading modulation characteristics are summarized. The data message structure is also presented, showing the format for providing time, ephemeris, and system data to users, along with features that enable receivers to perform code combining. Encoding of rapidly changing time bits is described, as are the Low Density Parity Check codes used for forward error control of slowly changing time bits, clock, ephemeris, and system data. The structure of the interleaver is also presented. A summary of L 1C's unique features and their benefits is provided, along with a discussion of the plan for L1C implementation.

Betz, J.W.; Blanco, M.A.; Cahn, C.R.; Dafesh, P.A.; Hegarty, C.J.; Hudnut, K.W.; Kasemsri, V.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L.S.; Ma, H.H.; Rushanan, J.J.; Sklar, D.; Stansell, T.A.; Wang, C.C.; Yi, S.K.

2006-01-01

251

Noções de coesão textual na produção escrita de formandos do curso de Letras / Textual cohesion notions in writing production of undergraduate Language students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar como se manifesta o conceito de coesão textual na produção escrita de formandos do curso de Letras. O corpus sob análise é constituído de 210 textos de alunos de universidades públicas e particulares do Brasil ao responderem à questão de Linguística e Língua [...] Portuguesa da prova do Exame Nacional de Cursos de 2001. Apoia-se, para tanto, no conceito de interacionismo dialógico de Bakhtin e no conceito de heterogeneidade(s) enunciativa(s) de Authier-Revuz, partindo do pressuposto de que o discurso desses acadêmicos se realiza por sujeitos constituídos social e historicamente. De acordo com os resultados, as formas de manifestação de noções de coesão textual ocorrem por meio de marcas relacionadas com o conceito de heterogeneidade mostrada marcada e não marcada com ancoragem em uma concepção tradicional de linguagem. Abstract in english This work aims to verify how the concept of textual cohesion is manifested in the written production of undergraduate Language students. The corpus under analysis is constituted of 210 texts written by students from public and private Brazilian universities when answering the question of Linguistics [...] and Portuguese test from the National Courses Examination in 2001. It is theoretically supported by Bakhtinian’s concept of dialogic interactionism and by Authier-Revuz concept of enunciative heterogeneity, based on the idea that the students’ discourse is historically and socially constructed. The results reveal that the forms of manifestation of textual cohesion notions occur by means of marks related to the marked and unmarked heterogeneity concept based on a traditional view of language.

Orlando de, Paula.

252

First Language Composition Pedagogy in the Second Language Classroom: A Reassesment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluated the effectiveness of using native language (Japanese) based writing methods in English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. The methods compared included sentence combining and structural grammar instruction with journal writing, controlled composition writing with feedback on surface error, and peer reformulation. Journal writing, but…

Ross, Steven; And Others

1988-01-01

253

L1C signal design options  

Science.gov (United States)

Design activities for a new civil signal centered at 1575.42 MHz, called L1C, began in 2003, and the Phase 1 effort was completed in 2004. The L1C signal design has evolved and matured during a Phase 2 design activity that began in 2005. Phase 2 has built on the initial design activity, guided by responses to international user surveys conducted during Phase 1. A common core of signal characteristics has been developed to provide advances in robustness and performance. The Phase 2 activity produced five design options, all drawing upon the core signal characteristics, while representing different blends of characteristics and capabilities. A second round of international user surveys was completed to solicit advice concerning these design options. This paper provides an update of the L1C design process, and describes the current L1C design options. Initial performance estimates are presented for each design option, displaying trades between signal tracking robustness, the speed and robustness of clock and ephemeris data, and the rate and robustness of other data message contents. Planned remaining activities are summarized, leading to optimization of the L1C design.

Betz, J.W.; Cahn, C.R.; Dafesh, P.A.; Hegarty, C.J.; Hudnut, K.W.; Jones, A.J.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L.S.; Ma, H.H.; Rushanan, J.J.; Stansell, T.A.; Wang, C.C.; Yi, S.K.

2006-01-01

254

Self-reported use and perception of the L1 and L2 among maximally proficient bi- and multilinguals: a quantitative and qualitative investigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates language preferences and perceptions in the use of the native language (L1) and second language (L2) by 386 bi- and multilingual adults. Participants declared that they were maximally proficient in L1 and L2 and used both constantly. A quantitative analysis revealed that despite their maximal proficiency in the L1 and L2, participants preferred to use the L1 for communicating feelings or anger, swearing, addressing their children, performing mental ca...

Dewaele, Jean-marc

2011-01-01

255

Writing Through: Practising Translation  

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Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of a methodology.

Joel Scott

2010-01-01

256

Writing Through: Practising Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of a methodology.

Joel Scott

2010-05-01

257

Who Said Johnny Can't Write?  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the Weehawken, New Jersey, individualized language arts program to develop better ways of teaching writing and composition through diagnosing student writing needs, using prescriptive teaching techniques, and evaluating student progress. Validated by the Office of Education, the program has spread across the country. (MF)

Siegel, Dorothy

1979-01-01

258

Better Writing: Beyond Periods and Commas  

Science.gov (United States)

Using casual language and a straightforward approach, "Better Writing: Beyond Periods and Commas" provides students with an easy-to-read and effective guide for developing their writing skills. Rather than intimidate and overwhelm novice writers with vast sets of rules, Travis Koll utilizes simple and relatable explanations and examples to…

Koll, Travis J.

2012-01-01

259

Developing Number Sense through Mathematical Diary Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The author advocates for writing as an essential communication skill for learning mathematics. Mathematical diary writing is cited as a good way for students to privately represent their thinking through pictures, language, or symbols, and also as a channel for children to communicate with themselves and with their teachers. Cited research…

Yang, Der-Ching

2005-01-01

260

Initiating a Writing Revolution in Your School  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing instruction is central to the implementation of the Common Core State Standards. It is embedded across all curricula. Under the Common Core guidelines, students must produce writing that includes not only narrative and literary responses as part of the language arts curriculum but also argumentative and informative/explanatory texts in…

Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Dowell, Margaret-Mary Sulentic

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Communicating Psychological Information in Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The guide describes approaches and considerations involved in school psychologists' communication of information in reports. Following an initial tongue in cheek discussion ("On Skinning Cats, Choking Dogs, and Leaving Lovers") of principles of report writing (such as avoiding using the language of logic and not contaminating interpretations with…

Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

262

Writing a Movie.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains a reading and writing assignment called "Writing a Movie" in which students view a short film segment and write a script in which they describe the scene. Notes that this assignment uses films to develop fluency and helps students understand the reading and writing connections. Concludes that students learn to summarize a scene from film,…

Hoffner, Helen

2003-01-01

263

Reference: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE  

Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 Wang S, Wang JW, Yu N, Li CH, Luo B, Gou JY, Wang LJ, Chen XY. Control of plant tric ... development by a cotton fiber MYB gene. Plant Cell 16 : 2323-2334 (2004) PubMed: 15316 114 ...

264

Écrire la langue berbère au royaume de Mohamed VI Writing the Berber language in the Kingdom of Mohamed VI: the stakes involved in the use of Tifinagh in Morocco.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Never recognized as official languages, the Berber languages have borrowed their written scripts according to the various political systems and cultures they came in contact with. This paper explores the different scripts that have been used to write the Berber languages and tries to search for their underlying intellectual and political filiations. The appropriation of the Latin script, the acquisition or abandonment of the Arabic script stand out as landmarks in the history of these languages, often perceived as one language. Today in Morocco, the Berber identity claim - known as amazigh - tends to cut itself from the Muslim heritage by adopting a specific Berber script conceptualized as indigenous and pre-Islamic. By doing so, this movement refuses the ethnicization of Islam, i.e. its monopolization by one culture and one language: Arabic. This cultural choice is primarily a political stand : the opposition toward the presence of Islam through state policies and instiututions and the wish to restore cultural diversity denied by the post-colonial national construction. This new set-up allows the inscription of amazigh in the Libyc and African areas as well as in the Tamazgha territories (i.e. the whole Berber-speaking areas.Non instituées politiquement, les langues berbères ont emprunté leur système d’écriture au gré des régimes politiques et des différentes cultures qu’elles ont rencontrées. L’article tente de reconstituer les filiations politiques et intellectuelles qui ont sous-tendu le choix des différentes écritures utilisées pour transcrire les langues berbères. L’appropriation des signes latins, l’investissement ou l’éloignement de l’alphabet arabe jalonnent l’histoire de ces langues, souvent représentées comme une seule langue. Aujourd’hui, la revendication identitaire berbère - ou amazighe - au Maroc tend à se départir d’un héritage lié à l’Islam en adoptant une graphie qu’elle envisage autochtone et anté-islamique. Par là, elle opère un refus de l’ethnicisation de l’Islam, c’est-à-dire d’une religion monopolisée par une culture et une langue, l’arabe. Ce choix « culturel » traduit un positionnement qui se veut avant tout politique : celui d’une opposition à la présence étatique de l’Islam et celui de la restauration de la « diversité culturelle », envisagée bafouée par la construction nationale post-coloniale. Ce réajustement permet la réinscription dans l’aire libyque, africaine et sur le territoire de Tamazgha (ensemble des régions berbérophones.

Stéphanie Pouessel

2011-12-01

265

Writing in Higher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following article presents results from a research developed in Higher Education, focusing on the writing in university contents. Academic testimonials show some resistance to the act of writing, which often distances the writer from the written process. In this way, the parcial analyzed results show that: assumption 1 - there is a rupture in the idea of coherence between what we think, what wewrite and what our interlocutor understands; assumption 2 - the act of self-correcting written texts is essential for the writing improvement; assumption 3 -the class diaries represent a rich instrument for the writing improvement in theHigher Education; assumption 4 - there is a need for the student to write indifferent writing types, even though the university fullfills its role emphasizingacademic writing; assumption 5 - the work with writing in Higher Education should emphasize the basic components of written expression: writing code and writing composition.

Maria Inês Corte Vitória

2013-01-01

266

Student Playwriting for Language Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommends the use of a particular type of drama activity--playwriting and subsequent playreading--in English language teaching. Reviews the potential of play writing activities for language development as described in the literature. Describes how play writing and play reading activities were organized within the framework of a language

Elgar, Ann Gillian

2002-01-01

267

Traductor Writing System Web  

CERN Document Server

A compilator is a program which is development in a programming language that read a file known as source. After this file have to translate and have to convert in other program known as object or to generate a exit. The best way for to know any programming language is analizing a compilation process which is same in all programming paradigm existents. To like to generate a tool that permit a learning in university course. This course could explain in any plataform such as Linux o Windows. This goal is posible through development a Web aplication which is unite with a compilator, it is Traductor Writing System (Sistema de Escritura de Traductores). This system is complete and permit extend and modify the compilator. The system is a module in Moodle which is a Course Management System (CMS) that help teachers for to create comunities of learning in line. This software is in free software license (GPL).

Texier, Jose

2012-01-01

268

The Effects of Peer Feedback on The Writing Anxiety of Prospective Turkish Teachers of EFL  

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Full Text Available Studies done in L1/L2 English settings have revealed the negative effects of writing anxiety on both learner motivation and academic achievement and teachers’ attitudes towards writing and the practices they use in their own classes. The present study aims to find out the effects of peer feedback on the writing anxiety of Turkish prospective teachers (PTs of English. A total of 86 PTs of English participated in this study. During the eight-week study, PTs in the experimental group, who had been given a training on peer feedback, were asked to work in pairs in their writing class, give feedback on each other’s essays and discuss their feedback with each other before handing them to their instructors. On the other hand, PTs in the control group received only teacher feedback on their essays. Data were collected by means of the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 given at the beginning and end of the study and by means of interviews carried out with 20 experimental group PTs at the end of the term. Results of the quantitative data showed that the peer feedback group experienced significantly less writing anxiety than the teacher feedback group at the end of the study. The interview results revealed that the participating PTs benefited from the peer feedback process as with the feedback of their friends they became aware of their mistakes. Moreover, during the process they received opinions from their friends to elaborate on, and this collaboration helped them look at their essays from a different perspective.

Gökçe KURT

2007-01-01

269

Best practices in writing instruction  

CERN Document Server

An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language le

Graham, Steve; Fitzgerald, Jill

2013-01-01

270

Writing Is Part of Literacy, Too!  

Science.gov (United States)

Included are suggestions for ways to incorporate the teaching of language skills into middle school science courses. Listed are communication skills that overlap in English and science. Grading methods and writing assignment topics are described. (CS)

Licata, Kenneth

1980-01-01

271

Cross-linguistic Transfer (from L1 to L2, L2 to L1, and L2 to L3 of Reading Strategies in a Multicompetent Mind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking a process and product view of reading, this paper attempts to explore the relationship between languages in one mind from Cook’s multi-competence perspective. According to multi-competence view, L1 and L2 (or L2s which are in one mind form a linguistic super-system (Cook, 2004 and not systems which are completely separate. In studies of language transfer, the general idea is that languages have effects on each other. To the purpose of this paper, three studies conducted by the author on the effects of L1 on L2, L2 on L1, and L2 on L3 will be provided. The common finding in all these studies is improvements in the process of reading in any given language will result in improvements in the process of reading in other languages. However, the same transferability power that can be conceived for the process of reading cannot be conceived for the product of reading as factors such as directionality of transfer and language proficiency interfere with this. It is recommended that since the process aspect of reading in different languages in one mind is transferable, native or foreign language teachers take this aspect of the relationship between languages as seriously as possible so that its effects can be witnessed both in the language of instruction and other languages that exist in the mind of the reader, be it L1, L2 or any further language.  An advantage of this is that an increase in the process or reading will also result in an increase in the product of reading both in the language of instruction and any other language in mind if other conditions are met.

Seyed Hassan Talebi

2013-03-01

272

Seismic ray tomography using L1 integral norm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O alto consumo de tempo em processamento computacional é um problema que, geralmente, está associado aos métodos de tomografia sísmica. Isto ocorre porque, em cada passo do processo iterativo de inversão definido pelo método tomográfico, o problema da conexão de dois pontos, pela curva da trajetória [...] do raio sísmico, deve ser resolvido para cada par fonte-receptor. A fim de reduzir a gravidade deste tipo de problema, a norma Euclideana (norma L2de vetor), comumente empregada nas funções de erro a ser minimizado no processo de inversão, é substituída por uma norma L1 de função. Essa mudança permite estimar parâmetros do modelo através da minimização da área entre curvas de tempos observados e calculados que são interpoladas (ou ajustadas) aos pontos referentes aos dados. Desenvolvimentos matemáticos e experimentos numéricos relativamente simples, com modelos bidimensionais de campos de velocidade sísmica de ondas compressionais, mostram que a norma L1 de função permite poupar uma enorme quantidade de tempo de processamento sem uma importante perda de precisão. Às vezes, os parâmetros do modelo são estimados de modo mais acurado usando-se a norma L1 da integral em lugar da norma L2 de vetor, tradicionalmente usada na inversão tomográfica. Abstract in english Seismic ray tomography methods are usually associated with substantial computer processing time. The reason for this is that at each step of the iterative inversion process defined by the tomographic method the two-point ray tracing problem must be solved for each source-receiver pair. In order to r [...] esolve this, an Euclidean norm (L2 vector norm), commonly used in error functions which are to be minimized in inversion procedures, is substituted by an L1 integral norm, which enables the estimation of model parameters by minimizing the area between observed and calculated traveltime curves that are interpolated (or adjusted) to the data points. Relatively simple mathematical developments and numerical experiments with two-dimensional compressional seismic wave velocity field models showthat L1 integral norm saves an enormous amount of processing time with no significant loss of accuracy. Occasionally, parameters of the model can be better estimated using L1 integral norm than the L2 vector norm that is traditionally utilized in seismic inversion tomography.

Vânia G. de Brito dos, Santos; Wilson M., Figueiró.

2011-06-01

273

PROBING INTO ACADEMIC WRITING: BUILDING STUDENT’S CONFIDENCE TO WRITE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Student’s responses are usually negative when invited to write, in the L2, anything from a paragraph to an academic paper in tertiary education. This is due to many different factors including the fact that students attending an ESP/EAP language course are usually of different language levels. The most difficult part of an ESP/EAP language teacher is to persuade students of the need to write in the foreign language and more specifically to write using the terminology of their discipline.Providing students with a broad range of opportunities to write, thus facilitating their ability to discover the socially appropriate language structures necessary in their science, will aid students in their quest for more knowledge. One first step which should be taken by the ESP/EAP language teacher is to enable students to distinguish the different academic writing styles such as tentative, formal, informal and objective, etc. This presupposes, on the side of the students, a sound knowledge of grammar, syntax, spelling, etc, of the foreign language, and if students do not have this kind of knowledge then it is the teacher’s duty to make sure that she/he will start her teaching process with these basic language structures and that she/he will then move on to paragraph and summary writing, to processing, to interpreting and to synthesizing their material. This paper broaches the subject of writing and more specifically of academic writing in tertiary education, and probes into matters such as, for example, the techniques and approaches employed in the teaching of academic writing. It also looks at the techniques which are employed by ESP/EAP teachers to encourage their students to build their confidence in writing.

Evmorphia PANOURGIA

2012-06-01

274

Writing Precisely: Using Lipograms as a Revision Strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a writing exercise for middle schoolers to college students that encourages students to become more aware of language, especially word choice and audience in their writing, by writing lipograms (compositions from which all words containing a certain letter are omitted). Notes it can be used as a pre-revision activity, part of a poetry…

Razzano, Elaine

2000-01-01

275

Defining "Good Writing": A Cross-Cultural Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares evaluation criteria for writing held in two contexts; explores the criteria used to evaluate English-language student writing by German and United States secondary school teachers; and compares the rank ordering of three essays given by teachers from these three groups. Presents results that have important implications for writing

Reichelt, Melinda

2003-01-01

276

Preparing ESL Students for "Real" College Writing: A Glimpse of Common Writing Tasks ESL Students Encounter at One Community College  

Science.gov (United States)

The relevance of English as a Second Language (ESL) courses to the "real world" of college writing is an ongoing issue for those who teach ESL. Ideally, ESL composition classes should help students make connections between what they learn about writing and the ways they might need to write later on in their academic careers. Unfortunately, as with…

Carroll, Julia; Dunkelblau, Helene

2011-01-01

277

CMS L1 Trigger Control System  

CERN Document Server

The L1 Trigger Control System (TCS) is responsible to control the delivery of L1 Trigger Accepts depending on the status of the sub-detectors readout systems and the data acquisition system. This status is derived from information provided through the Trigger Throttling System (TTS) and from the status of front-end Emulators. TCS is also responsible for generating synchronization and fast reset commands, as well as to control the delivery of test and calibration triggers. TCS uses the TTC network to distribute information to the subsystems. TCS partitioning permits groups of subdetectors main components to operate independently during setting-up, test or calibration phases. Local trigger control is foreseen for the subdetector operation in standalone mode (test beam mode) This document provides an overall description of the TCS requirements and architecture, and a detailed description o f the TCS components. The main TCS components are the Central Trigger Controller (TCS), the Local Trigger Controller (LTC), ...

Varela, Joao

2002-01-01

278

$L^1$ bounds in normal approximation  

CERN Document Server

The zero bias distribution $W^*$ of $W$, defined though the characterizing equation $\\mathit{EW}f(W)=\\sigma^2Ef'(W^*)$ for all smooth functions $f$, exists for all $W$ with mean zero and finite variance $\\sigma^2$. For $W$ and $W^*$ defined on the same probability space, the $L^1$ distance between $F$, the distribution function of $W$ with $\\mathit{EW}=0$ and $Var(W)=1$, and the cumulative standard normal $\\Phi$ has the simple upper bound \\[\\Vert F-\\Phi\\Vert_1\\le2E|W^*-W|.\\] This inequality is used to provide explicit $L^1$ bounds with moderate-sized constants for independent sums, projections of cone measure on the sphere $S(\\ell_n^p)$, simple random sampling and combinatorial central limit theorems.

Goldstein, Larry

2007-01-01

279

Culture, cognition and language in the constitution of reading and writing practices in an adult literacy classroom / Cultura, cognição e linguagem na constituição de práticas de leitura e escrita de adultos em processo de alfabetização  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo analisamos uma interação discursiva entre uma pesquisadora e um estudante da Educação de Jovens e Adultos objetivando mostrar sentidos e usos da leitura e da escrita por ele mobilizados. Tomamos como base para nossa discussão os aportes teórico-metodológicos da Psicologia Histórico-Cult [...] ural e das teorizações de Paulo Freire, que conjugamos com a concepção de diálogo de Bakhtin. Tal procedimento nos possibilitou, por um lado, entrar na perspectiva do outro, e por outro, fazer relações entre cognição, linguagem e cultura para compreendermos as estratégias metacognitivas de alunos da EJA ao se apropriarem da cultura escolar. Pudemos também evidenciar a íntima relação entre fazer e saber e a importância da escola na transição do pensamento concreto para o abstrato e vice-versa. Abstract in english In this article we analyze a discursive interaction between a researcher and an Youth and Adult Education student intending to show the meanings and uses of reading and writing taken by him. We take as our basis for discussion the theoretical-methodological contributions from Historical-Cultural Psy [...] chology and Paulo Freire's theories, which are combined with Bakhtin's concept of dialogue. This procedure allowed us, on one hand, getting into the other's perspective and, on the other hand, to make relations between cognition, language and culture to understand the adult students' metacognitive strategies, in the appropriation process of literacy practices of school culture. Thus, we could discuss the intimate relationship between doing and knowing and the importance of school in the transition from concrete thinking to the abstract thinking and vice-versa.

Maria de Fátima Cardoso, Gomes; Maria da Conceição Ferreira Reis, Fonseca; Maira Tomayno de Melo, Dias; Patricia Guimarães, Vargas.

280

Automated Writing Evaluation: Defining the Classroom Research Agenda  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of English as a global language, the ability to write well in English across diverse settings and for different audiences has become an imperative in second language education programmes throughout the world. Yet the teaching of second language writing is often hindered by the great amount of time and skill needed to evaluate…

Warschauer, Mark; Ware, Paige

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Self and Language Anxiety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses relationships between language anxiety and self. Self refers to an individual’s (a self-confidence, (b language ego, L2/FL self or identity developed during second or foreign language learning, or a combination of both L1 self and L2/FL self. Based on previous literature on language anxiety and L2 or FL learning, language learners’ self-confidence might imply a lack of language anxiety which enhances language achievement (e.g., Casado & Dereshiwsky, 2004; Clément, 1980; Liu & Chen, 2013; Matsuda & Gobel, 2004; Onwuegbuzie, Bailey, & Daley, 1999; Peng & Woodrow, 2010; Ro, 2013. Language anxiety is an experience unique to the language learning process, and this unique emotion or experience may be associated with the anxiety of feeling limited, broken, incompetent, having another self or a different personality in a target language. I believe that while learning target languages, L2 or FL identities are developing, and L1 identities are reconstructed. Language learners may feel the loss of L1 identities in a target language context or may feel that they are not able to express their thoughts in a target language. When learners feel the loss of L1 identities, feel limited or broken, this may be language anxiety arising.

Yi-Wen Huang

2014-05-01

282

Proof Mining in L1-Approximation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed in Kohlenbach (Logic: from Foundations to Applications, European Logic Colloquium (Keele, 1993), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996, pp. 225-260) to analyze Cheney's simplification (Math. Mag. 38 (1965) 189) of Jackson's original proof (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 22 (1921) 320) of the uniqueness of the best L1-approximation of continuous functions f&unknown;C[0,1] by polynomials p&unknown;Pn of degree = -dependency as follows from Kroo (Acta Math. Acad. Sci. Hungar. 32 (1978) 331). The paper also describes how the uniform modulus of uniqueness can be used to compute the best L1-approximations of a fixed f&unknown;C[0,1] with arbitrary precision. The second author uses this result to give a complexity upper bound on the computation of the best L1-approximation in Oliva (Math. Logic Quart., 48 (S1) (2002) 66-77).

Oliva, Paulo Borges; Kohlenbach, Ulrich

2001-01-01

283

Language as capital in international university education  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As Bourdieu and Passeron noted, academic discourse is never anyone’s ‘mother tongue’. Acquisition of this discourse in one’s first language is a prime aim of undergraduate education, but there is evidence that a substantial minority of students fail to acquire it. There is strong evidence that academic discourse skills are transferable from L1 to L2 and best acquired in L1, but it is not clear to what extent these skills represent usable capital in professional life. Graduates often report having to write in a very different style from the one they have been taught at university. There may be a trade-off between the fluency in a second language provided by its use as sole or parallel medium in education and educational depth in the discipline studied. This fluency may in some circumstances constitute greater capital than the disciplinary insights partially sacrificed. But this varies strikingly across disciplines. This paper uses Bourdieu’s framework to assess the types of linguistic capital – academic discourse, foreign-language fluency, and more – to be acquired in the internationalized university, their utility in the personal advancement of graduates in various societies, and the variation of these factors across disciplines.

Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

284

Reading-writing Connections in EAP Courses: Cross-linguistic Summary Protocols  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At higher education settings, summarization skills are essential to academic success. However, research on summarization appear to have been relatively neglected, and consequently "many more are needed … [and] a re-examination of summarization from a reading-writing perspective merits more attention'' (Grabe, 2003, pp. 252-253. To this end, 120 EFL students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran were selected: the three experimental groups were subjected to the task-based language teaching principles in the treatment. Two reading comprehension texts (one as a pre-test, the other a post-testwere assigned to the four groups involved, and they were all required to write up two summary protocols for each text they read, one in English, and another in Persian. In the experimental groups, summary writing was mediated by a particular teaching task while for the control group there was no mediating task. Afterwards, the performance of all subject groups was evaluated based on a cross-linguistic evaluation scale to determine a if task-based language teaching had any significant effect on learners' reading comprehension and b if the L1 of the subjects contributed to a better comprehension of the texts they read. Finally, the conclusions and pedagogical implications of the research for EAP courses were highlighted.

Abbas Emam

2011-01-01

285

Preliminary Proficiency Guidelines--Writing Revised 2001.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides revisions of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) writing guidelines. The proficiency guidelines are presented in a top-down fashion, rather than in a bottom-up order, thereby allowing for more positive descriptive statements for each level and sublevel, stressing what language users can do with the language

Breiner-Sanders, Karen E.; Swender, Elvira; Terry, Robert M.

2002-01-01

286

Reading + Writing = Drama: Integrating Reading/Writing in a Thematic Unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a collaborative project between instructors in language arts and social studies at the middle school level that produced a joint educational venture that made reading and writing more meaningful, challenging, and exciting for students and teachers. Describes a "Who's Who" thematic unit integrating reading, writing, and drama. (MG)

Mitsch, Bernadette Volpe

1989-01-01

287

Writing beyond the Curriculum: Why Seventh Grade Boys Write.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the writing of 12-year-old boys who write daily. Presents case studies of five individual boys and describes their genre choices, individual writing strengths and weaknesses, and attitudes toward the writing process. (SKC)

Barbieri, Maureen

1987-01-01

288

Technical report writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

Vidoli, Carol A.

1992-01-01

289

Sequenced Writing Assignments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides eight sequential, process-oriented writing assignments: (1) diagnostic essay, (2) personal account, (3) ghost writing, (4) summary, (5) developing a thesis, (6) exploratory essay, (7) proposal, and (8) final paper. (HTH)

Pytlik, Betty P.; Bergdahl, David

1987-01-01

290

L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak

2009-01-01

291

Writing in Civil Engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

The Civil Engineering Writing Project website contains two kinds of information: (1) research findings about the ways in which student writing in civil engineering differs from practitioners' writing and (2) materials for civil engineering students who want to improve writing skills that are especially useful in the workplace (as well as in the classroom). The resource resulted from a project funded by the National Science Foundation.

Conrad, Susan

292

The CMS L1 Trigger emulation software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CMS L1 Trigger processes the muon and calorimeter detector data using a complex system of custom hardware processors. A bit-level emulation of the trigger data processing has been developed. This is used to validate and monitor the trigger hardware, to simulate the trigger response in monte-carlo data, and for some components, to seed higher-level triggers. The multiple-use cases are managed using a modular design, implemented within the modular CMS offline software framework. The requirements, design and performance of the emulators are described, as well as the iterative process required to bring the emulators and hardware into agreement.

293

La producción de resúmenes en Inglés como Lengua Extranjera (ILE) / La rédaction de résumés en anglais langue étrangère (ALE) / Summary Writing in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) / A produção de resumos em inglês como língua estrangeira (ILE)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A escritura de resumos de textos em inglês como língua estrangeira é um tema que tem recebido mais atenção por parte dos especialistas no âmbito internacional do que no nacional. A partir da abordagem discursivo-funcional, e com base em um corpus de cem resumos redigidos em inglês, estabelecemos com [...] o intuito deste trabalho pesquisar como os estudantes incluem em seus textos as funções discursivas do texto origem e como utilizam as marcas discursivas para destacar essas funções. Para isso, foi utilizado o padrão textual Problema-Solução proposto por Hoey (2001). Os resultados desta análise demonstram que a maioria dos estudantes incluiu em seus resumos as funções hierarquicamente mais importantes do texto original. A estrutura to be about foi utilizada mais frequentemente para introduzir o tópico do texto origem e o verbo to evaluate para reportar o objetivo da pesquisa. Os resultados evidenciam que a maioria dos estudantes tem as aptidões necessárias não só para identificar as diferentes funções discursivas no texto original, mas também para reconstruir, com suas próprias palavras, um texto novo respeitando estas funções. Abstract in spanish La escritura de resúmenes de textos en inglés como lengua extranjera es un tema que ha recibido mayor atención de los expertos en el contexto internacional que en el nacional. Desde una perspectiva discursivo-funcional, y sobre la base de un corpus de cien resúmenes redactados en inglés, nos propusi [...] mos averiguar cómo los aprendices incluyen en sus textos las funciones discursivas del texto fuente y cómo utilizan las marcas discursivas para señalar estas funciones. Para ello se utilizó el patrón textual Problema-Solución propuesto por Hoey (2001). Los resultados del análisis muestran que la mayoría de los estudiantes incluyó en sus resúmenes las funciones jerárquicamente más importantes del texto original. La estructura to be about fue utilizada con mayor frecuencia para introducir el tópico del texto fuente y el verbo to evaluate para reportar el propósito de la investigación. Los resultados evidencian que la mayoría de los estudiantes tiene las habilidades necesarias para identificar las diferentes funciones discursivas en el texto original y para reconstruir, con sus propias palabras, un texto nuevo respetando estas funciones. Abstract in english Summary writing in English as a foreign language has been investigated internationally more than locally. From a discursive-functional perspective and on the basis of the problem-solution textual pattern (Hoey, 2001), we analyzed a corpus of one hundred summaries of a scientific news article, writte [...] n in English by Spanish speaking high school students. We aimed at finding out how the learners include the discursive functions of the source text in their writings and how these functions are linguistically signaled. The results show that the majority of students included in their summaries the hierarchically most important functions of the original text. To be about was the most common structure used to introduce the topic of the original text while the verb to evaluate was most widely used to report the purpose of the source text. These findings indicate that the majority of the participants are discursively and linguistically competent not only to identify the different discourse functions of the original text, but also to reconstruct, in their own words, a new and coherent text.

Simón, Ruiz; Rebecca, Beke.

2012-12-01

294

La producción de resúmenes en Inglés como Lengua Extranjera (ILE) / La rédaction de résumés en anglais langue étrangère (ALE) / Summary Writing in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) / A produção de resumos em inglês como língua estrangeira (ILE)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A escritura de resumos de textos em inglês como língua estrangeira é um tema que tem recebido mais atenção por parte dos especialistas no âmbito internacional do que no nacional. A partir da abordagem discursivo-funcional, e com base em um corpus de cem resumos redigidos em inglês, estabelecemos com [...] o intuito deste trabalho pesquisar como os estudantes incluem em seus textos as funções discursivas do texto origem e como utilizam as marcas discursivas para destacar essas funções. Para isso, foi utilizado o padrão textual Problema-Solução proposto por Hoey (2001). Os resultados desta análise demonstram que a maioria dos estudantes incluiu em seus resumos as funções hierarquicamente mais importantes do texto original. A estrutura to be about foi utilizada mais frequentemente para introduzir o tópico do texto origem e o verbo to evaluate para reportar o objetivo da pesquisa. Os resultados evidenciam que a maioria dos estudantes tem as aptidões necessárias não só para identificar as diferentes funções discursivas no texto original, mas também para reconstruir, com suas próprias palavras, um texto novo respeitando estas funções. Abstract in spanish La escritura de resúmenes de textos en inglés como lengua extranjera es un tema que ha recibido mayor atención de los expertos en el contexto internacional que en el nacional. Desde una perspectiva discursivo-funcional, y sobre la base de un corpus de cien resúmenes redactados en inglés, nos propusi [...] mos averiguar cómo los aprendices incluyen en sus textos las funciones discursivas del texto fuente y cómo utilizan las marcas discursivas para señalar estas funciones. Para ello se utilizó el patrón textual Problema-Solución propuesto por Hoey (2001). Los resultados del análisis muestran que la mayoría de los estudiantes incluyó en sus resúmenes las funciones jerárquicamente más importantes del texto original. La estructura to be about fue utilizada con mayor frecuencia para introducir el tópico del texto fuente y el verbo to evaluate para reportar el propósito de la investigación. Los resultados evidencian que la mayoría de los estudiantes tiene las habilidades necesarias para identificar las diferentes funciones discursivas en el texto original y para reconstruir, con sus propias palabras, un texto nuevo respetando estas funciones. Abstract in english Summary writing in English as a foreign language has been investigated internationally more than locally. From a discursive-functional perspective and on the basis of the problem-solution textual pattern (Hoey, 2001), we analyzed a corpus of one hundred summaries of a scientific news article, writte [...] n in English by Spanish speaking high school students. We aimed at finding out how the learners include the discursive functions of the source text in their writings and how these functions are linguistically signaled. The results show that the majority of students included in their summaries the hierarchically most important functions of the original text. To be about was the most common structure used to introduce the topic of the original text while the verb to evaluate was most widely used to report the purpose of the source text. These findings indicate that the majority of the participants are discursively and linguistically competent not only to identify the different discourse functions of the original text, but also to reconstruct, in their own words, a new and coherent text.

Simón, Ruiz; Rebecca, Beke.

295

TARGETING L2 WRITING PROFICIENCIES: INSTRUCTION AND AREAS OF CHANGE IN STUDENTS' WRITING OVER TIME  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing in a second language is a complex activity requiring proficiency in a number of different areas. l Writing programmes often focus on particular areas of skill and knowledge that are seen as important to the overall process. This study looks at the effects of the focus of teaching on student writing. Fifty students on an eight-week pre-sessional programme were asked to write a 250-word assignment at the start and the end of their courses. These were graded on a nineband scale using a seven-trait multiple-trait scoring system. The results show that discourse organisation and argumentation, which were the primary focus of classroom study, improved more than other areas. This suggests that tutors should look at writing proficiency in terms of an overall balance of proficiencies and that targeting aspects of student writing can affect this overall balance.

Alasdair Archibald

2001-12-01

296

Comparison of Two Writing Processes: Direct versus Translated Composition  

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Full Text Available To explore the results of two different composing processes, one writing directly in English and the other writing first in Chinese and then translating into English, this study concerns itself with the essays resulting from the two composing processes performed by participants with different levels of proficiency. The results show that the quality the compositions is significantly influenced by the writing modes and this vary with students’ L2 proficiency. The lower-level learners benefit most from the translated writing, whereas there is no significant difference for the higher-level learners.
Key words: L2 writing, L1 influence, L2 proficiency, direct writing, translated writing
Résumé: Pour explorer les résultats des deux processus de composition différents, l’un consistant à écrire directement et l’autre à écrire d’abord en chinois et puis traduire en anglais, cette étude traite les essais résultant des deux processus de composition réalisés par des participants de différents niveaux. Les résultats montrent que la qualité de composition est largement influencée par le modèle d’écriture et que cela varie d’après le niveau de maîtrise de L2 des étudiants. Les apprenants de bas niveau bénéficient généralement de l’écriture traduite tandis qu’il n’y pas de différences signifiantes pour les étudiants de haut niveau.
Mots-Clés: écriture en L2, influence de L1, maîtrise de L2, écriture directe, écriture traduite
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Li-fang ZHAI

2008-03-01

297

Writing across the Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The writing across the curriculum movement is discussed in six articles. Barbara Leigh Smith's introductory article, "Writing Across the Curriculum: What's at Stake?" reviews the rationale for this movement, including the declining emphasis on writing in high schools and colleges. In the "Winds of Change: Thomas Kuhn and the Revolution in the…

Smith, Barbara Leigh, Ed.

1983-01-01

298

The Tactility of Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how the author asks students to turn off their monitors (literally and figuratively) and key into their "processors." Describes a tactile writing exercise to emphasize the sensation, the feel, that "writing with flow" generates. Notes that this experience of flow is vital to his vocation as a writer and as a writing instructor. (SG)

Akers, William T.

2002-01-01

299

The Write Stuff  

Science.gov (United States)

Deciding to enroll in a creative writing class, a quick web-search by this author revealed that there were classes in the local adult education college, run by an independent writing school. The author met one of the tutors, discussed his needs, and found himself enrolled in a short- story writing class. As it happened, so smitten was he that he…

Ewens, David

2008-01-01

300

Technical Writing in Hydrogeology.  

Science.gov (United States)

A project for Writing Across the Curriculum at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire is described as a method to relate the process of writing to the process of learning hydrology. The project focuses on an actual groundwater contamination case and is designed to improve the technical writing skills of students. (JN)

Tinker, John R., Jr.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

A avaliação em foco: o que provam as provas de Língua Portuguesa e de Redaçao do exame vestibular? Exams of Portuguese Language and Writing in entrance examinations: what do they prove?  

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Full Text Available As provas de Língua Portuguesa e de Redação dos vestibulares são instrumentos voltados para a seleção de candidatos aptos para ingressar no Ensino Superior. Espera-se que eles demonstrem ter conhecimentos linguísticos e textuais que lhes permitam interpretar e produzir textos da esfera acadêmica. Mas, essas provas evidenciam os conhecimentos necessários para a admissão dos melhores candidatos nos cursos de graduação? Com o objetivo de responder a essa pergunta, analisamos questões propostas em vestibulares da UFMG nos últimos dez anos. Constatamos que, entre 2000 e 2009, avaliam-se competências a serem demonstradas por meio de habilidades, como localizar informações explícitas, inferir as implícitas em um texto, reconhecer novos sentidos atribuídos às palavras dentro de uma produção textual. Constatamos também a presença de diversos gêneros textuais da mídia impressa que favorece a reflexão crítica, o exercício de formas de pensamento mais elaboradas. Concluímos que as provas desse concurso cumprem a meta a que se destinam.Exams of Portuguese Language and Writing in entrance examinations are instruments aiming at the selection of the candidates who are fit to start undergraduate studies. It is expected that they show the textual and linguistic knowledge that allow them to interpret and produce texts in the academic field. But do these texts elicit the necessary knowledge for the admission of the best candidates to undergraduate courses? With the purpose of answering this question we have analyzed the questions asked in the entrance examinations of UFMG in the last 10 years. We have found that, between the years 2000 and 2009, the competence is assessed through skills such as locating explicit information, deducing implicit information, recognizing new meanings of words, within a given text. We have also verified the presence of several text genres from press media which favor critical reflection, and the application of more elaborated forms of reasoning. We have concluded that these tests fulfill their intended goal.

Regina Lúcia Péret Dell'Isola

2010-01-01

302

Preschoolers Learning Hmong and English: Lexical-Semantic Skills in L1 and L2  

Science.gov (United States)

Picture naming and picture identification tasks were used to investigate lexical-semantic skills in young children learning Hmong as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). A total of 19 children, ages 3; 4 (years; months)-5; 2, participated in this study. Performance on lexical tasks was analyzed as a function of development…

Kan, Pui Fong; Konert, Kathryn

2005-01-01

303

Reading Rate in L1 Mandarin Chinese and L2 English across Five Reading Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared first and second language (L1/L2) reading rate and task performance on five tasks (scanning, skimming, normal reading, learning, memorizing) in two groups of Mandarin speakers (Canada group, China group). A repeated measures ANOVA design was used with one between-subject factor (Group), two within-subject factors (Language,…

Fraser, Carol A.

2007-01-01

304

First Language Polysemy Affects Second Language Meaning Interpretation: Evidence for Activation of First Language Concepts during Second Language Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the influence of first language (L1) lexicalization patterns on the processing of second language (L2) words in sentential contexts by advanced German learners of English. The focus was on cases where a polysemous word in the L1 is realized by independent words in the L2, e.g. German "Blase" realized by English…

Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Williams, John N.

2008-01-01

305

Learning a Second Language Naturally the Voice Movement Icon Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Second language (L2 instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1 acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI is first performed by the language trainer andthen imitated by the learners. Behavioral experiments demonstrate that words encoded through VMIs are easierto memorize than audio-visually encoded words and that they are better retained over time. The reasons whygestures promote language learning are manifold. First, we focus on language as an embodied phenomenon ofcognition. Then we review evidence that gestures scaffold the acquisition of L1. Because VMIs reconnectlanguage learning with the body, they can be considered as a more natural tool for language instruction thanaudio-visual activities.

Manuela Macedonia

2013-09-01

306

Exploring Students’ Perceptions of ESL Writing  

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Full Text Available Writing has always been regarded as playing a prominent role in learning a second language. Research within this discipline has mainly focused on the development of writing skill, but in recent years, some researchers have examined students’ perceptions of writing. The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ perceptions about an academic writing course and writing in general. A total of 64 female students from an ESP program participated in the study. The general design of the study was quantitative and qualitative in nature as a questionnaire and a focus-group interview were implemented for data collection. A combination of quantitative and qualitative procedures was employed to analyze the data collected via the questionnaire and the focus group interview respectively. The overall results demonstrated the students’ positive views towards the Academic Writing Course (AWC in particular and ESL writing in general. The major findings demonstrated students’ awareness of their needs and ESL writing requirements. The study concluded with recommendations for future research.

Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail

2011-06-01

307

GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO  

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Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

Rosaria Solarino

2011-02-01

308

The problems inherent in teaching technical writing and report writing to native Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching technical writing to Native Americans contending with a second language and culture is addressed. Learning difficulties arising from differences between native and acquired language and cultural systems are examined. Compartmentalized teaching, which presents the ideals of technical writing in minimal units, and skills development are considered. Rhetorical problems treated include logic of arrangement, selection of support and scope of detail, and time and space. Specific problems selected include the concept of promptness, the contextualization of purpose, interpersonal relationships, wordiness, mixture of registers, and the problem of abstracting. Four inductive procedures for students having writing and perception problems are included. Four sample exercises and a bibliography of 13 references are also included.

Zukowski/faust, J.

1981-01-01

309

Contrastive Analysis of English and Japanese Demonstratives from the Perspective of L1 and L2 Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a contrastive analysis of English and Japanese demonstratives based on the first- (L1) and second-language (L2) data of an earlier study. First, the traditional explanations and their alternative models for English and Japanese are presented, then, all models are tested with the L1 and L2 data, which leads to a discussion of the different…

Niimura, Tomomi; Hayashi, Brenda

1996-01-01

310

Toward the Linguistic Study of Writing Systems: Aramaic Orthographies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of writing systems of the Aramaic languages is discussed, stressing the importance of looking beyond simple character forms as they occur in space and time to the interaction of scripts with languages, and the interactions of writing systems with minds and civilizations. First, the invention of the alphabet is discussed from a…

Daniels, Peter T.

311

Wh-Questions in Child L2 French: Derivational Complexity and Its Interactions with L1 Properties, Length of Exposure, Age of Exposure, and the Input  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates how derivational complexity interacts with first language (L1) properties, second language (L2) input, age of first exposure to the target language, and length of exposure in child L2 acquisition. We compared elicited production of "wh"-questions in French in two groups of 15 participants each, one with L1 English…

Prévost, Philippe; Strik, Nelleke; Tuller, Laurie

2014-01-01

312

Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a teacher of EFL at UFSC since 1975, I have observed semester after semester the difficulties that students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature have in reading and especially inwriting not only at the beginning but at more advanced stages when they are close to graduating. I have also observed that these students have little interest in reading and writing in a foreign language either inside or outside the classroom. Conversations with my fellow teachers confirmed that they had observed the same weaknesses in their students and that they shared my concerns about this problem. Students who are preparing to be teachers of a foreign language should have a reasonable command of the four language skills—speaking, understanding, reading, writing—by the time they graduate. For those who wish to continue their training in English by doing graduate work, competence seems even more important as good reading and writing skills are the sine qua non for engaging in graduate work. As a teacher of EFL at UFSC since 1975, I have observed semester after semester the difficulties that students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature have in reading and especially inwriting not only at the beginning but at more advanced stages when they are close to graduating. I have also observed that these students have little interest in reading and writing in a foreign language either inside or outside the classroom. Conversations with my fellow teachers confirmed that they had observed the same weaknesses in their students and that they shared my concerns about this problem. Students who are preparing to be teachers of a foreign language should have a reasonable command of the four language skills—speaking, understanding, reading, writing—by the time they graduate. For those who wish to continue their training in English by doing graduate work, competence seems even more important as good reading and writing skills are the sine qua non for engaging in graduate work.

Loni Kreis Taglieber

2008-04-01

313

Linking engineering students in Spain and technical writing students in the US as co-authors: The challenges and outcomes of subject-matter experts and language specialists collaborating internationally  

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Full Text Available In a first-of-its-kind international collaboration, technical writing classes in Spain and the US matched engineering students with international technical writing students to coauthor procedural instructions. These were then tested for usability by students in Finland and the US, and subsequently translated and localized by students in Belgium, France, and Italy. The coauthors faced challenges in gaining expertise, communicating clearly in a lingua franca, handling differing cultures, testing for usability, and managing differing semester schedules and time zones. Insights from these experiences yield recommendations for instructors who wish to replicate such collaborations.

Bruce Maylath

2013-08-01

314

Teaching Collaborative Feedback Strategies in Intermediate Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study at Hawaii Pacific University investigated the use of collaborative peer feedback to improve student performance in an intermediate English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing course. Subjects were 53 students of widely varying language backgrounds in three class sections. Each section received differential preparation for peer feedback: (1)…

Lane, Tess; Potter, Bill

315

The New Writing Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

It's been almost 40 years since the teaching of writing in schools had its last major shift, a move to an emphasis on the "writing process," which still holds sway in most classrooms today. But with the advent of Web-based social networking tools like blogs and wikis, YouTube and Facebook, it may be that the next revision of writing pedagogy is…

Pascopella, Angela; Richardson, Will

2009-01-01

316

Writing Argumentative Essays  

Science.gov (United States)

Bill Daly of the Victoria University of Technology has posted a unit of curriculum designed to teach students how to write short argumentative essays. Originally created for students taking English in a vocational school, it is also useful to upper level high school and university educators and students. The site uses examples and models to systematically guide users through the steps of writing an argumentative essay. Students in any discipline that requires persuasive writing will benefit from this well constructed lesson.

317

Ramp Up Your Writing!  

Science.gov (United States)

Use these great online resources to ramp up your writing. These tools will help you organize your thoughts and become a better writer. Use this Timeline Creator to help organize dates for your writing. Try out this Letter Writer to create the perfect letter. Don't let comparing and contrasting get you down, use this Compare and Contrasting Tool! Figure out the plot of the story with this Plot Diagram! Check out this Great Writing Resource!. ...

Cothran, Miss

2009-03-02

318

Academic Writing Retreat: A Time for Rejuvenated and Focused Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of a three-day academic writing retreat on the writing lives of four female university faculty members. Goals of the retreat included rejuvenating their writing lives, focusing their research agendas, improving their writing, and engaging in concentrated blocks of writing and collaborative…

Swaggerty, Elizabeth A.; Atkinson, Terry S.; Faulconer, Johna L.; Griffith, Robin R.

2011-01-01

319

ON TEACHERS’ KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND WISDOM – AND THE INEVITABILITY OF LANGUAGE  

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Full Text Available This article focuses on the concept of knowledge with a view on L1 teachers. Influenced by Aristotle’s epistemology, it explores how teacher knowledge could be described and understood.The empirical foundation of the article is a case study of seven Icelandic L1 teachers.The article analyses the concept of teachers’ professional knowledge and discusses questions such as: What kind of knowledge do the teachers actually possess and value? How do L1 teachers deal with the complexity of their work? Does their knowledge cover the needs of their profession?The analysis indicates that the L1 subject in some respects is in a special position: It addition to being a school subject, it relates to cultural traditions and values. Moreover, the subject relates to pupils’ devel-opment both as individuals and citizens, and so even deals with citizenship in a fundamental way. Fur-thermore, L1 is a tool for any subject: pupils need to read and to express themselves both in writing and orally in all classes. Besides, the subject often treats themes which affect pupils’ personally, e.g. due to the close connection between language and identity. Therefore teachers’ knowledge should include morality, in addition to academic and pedagogic skills.

KJERSTI LEA

2012-08-01

320

Multiple-Description l1-Compression  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Multiple descriptions (MDs) is a method to obtain reliable signal transmissions on erasure channels. An MD encoder forms several descriptions of the signal and each description is independently transmitted across an erasure channel. The reconstruction quality then depends on the set of received descriptions. In this paper, we consider the design of redundant descriptions in an MD setup using $l_{1}$-minimization with Euclidean distortion constraints. In this way we are able to obtain sparse descriptions using convex optimization. The proposed method allows for an arbitrary number of descriptions and supports both symmetric and asymmetric distortion design. We show that MDs with partial overlapping information corresponds to enforcing coupled constraints in the proposed convex optimization problem. To handle the coupled constraints, we apply dual decompositions which makes first-order methods applicable and thereby admit solutions for large-scale problems, e.g., coding entire images or image sequences. We showby examples that the proposed framework generates non-trivial sparse descriptions and non-trivial refinements. We finally show that the sparse descriptions can be quantized and encoded using off-the-shell encoders such as the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) encoder, however, the proposed method shows a rate-distortion loss compared to state-of-the-art image MD encoders.

Jensen, Tobias LindstrØm; Østergaard, Jan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Writing Strategies  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to find the relationship between multiple intelligences and writing strategies among Iranian EFL learners. The participants in this study were 120 adult males and females studying at high and advanced levels of Iran Language Institute. They filled two questionnaires during the first sessions of spring semester of 2012. The first questionnaire was a multiple intelligences inventory surveying nine types of intelligences based on Gardner’s theory and the second one was a writing skills and strategies questionnaire checking the students’ use of general, before, during and after writing strategies. According to the results of a corelational analysis, “logical, existential, kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences” correlated with “general writing strategies”. Moreover, “naturalistic, logical, kinesthetic and visual intelligences” showed relationship with “before writing strategies”. The researcher found that some types of intelligences among females had relationship with some writing strategies while in the male group no relationships were found. Besides, the results of advanced levels showed more significant correlations than those of high levels. Regression analysis, on the other hand, proved that none of the intelligences could predict writing strategies separately.

Narges Moheb

2013-07-01

322

Fitness cost of LINE-1 (L1) activity in humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The self-replicating LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon family is the dominant retrotransposon family in mammals and has generated 30–40% of their genomes. Active L1 families are present in modern mammals but the important question of whether these currently active families affect the genetic fitness of their hosts has not been addressed. This issue is of particular relevance to humans as Homo sapiens contains the active L1 Ta1 subfamily of the human specific Ta (L1Pa1) L1 family. Although DNA ins...

Boissinot, Stephane; Davis, Jerel; Entezam, Ali; Petrov, Dimitri; Furano, Anthony V.

2006-01-01

323

Fostering Writing and Critical Thinking through Dialogue Journal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much like the regular physical exercise, having a regular writing workout is necessary for learners of English language. Dialogue journals provide the perfect means for this. Dialogue journal in an English classroom is an informal written conversation between the students and the teacher; in fact it can motivate a learner to write more in English. The language in a dialogue journal is closer to speech than to academic writing, so it promotes authentic, informal and lively conversation between the writers. As our learners need frequent opportunities to practice speaking English freely without fear of being corrected, in order to achieve oral fluency; similarly they need the chance to write freely without inhibition to promote fluency in writing. Often it is in the act of writing a response that actual learning takes place and this is how critical thinking develops. In fact, dialogue journal is the place where students explore their thinking before classroom discussion. It enables speaking and writing, referencing each other. The main objective of using dialogue journals in the English language classroom is to give students more time and opportunities for writing so that they can experience the pleasure of communication through the written word and at the same time become better writers and thinkers in English. With this background, the aim of this paper is to discuss the role of dialogue journals in developing the skills of writing and critical thinking of English language learners.

Ravi Bhushan

2014-06-01

324

L1 Communicative-textual competence of Greek upper elementary school students.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents and discusses the findings of a research study on the issue of L1 communicative-textual competence (CTC. More specifically it examines the L1 CTC of 10–12-year-old Greek elementary school students, before and after the use of alternative communicative-text-oriented teaching material versus traditional language materials currently used in the schools. The CTC of the students was examined using a version of the test published by the French Ministry of Education revised and adapted to the Greek language and educational context. Analysis of the pre- and post-intervention data suggests that using appropriately designed communicative-text-oriented teaching materials can increase Greek school students’ level of written L1 CTC.

Spinthourakis, J.A.

2004-01-01

325

Providing a Sounding Board for Second Language Writers  

Science.gov (United States)

English as a second language (ESL) writing teachers face distinct challenges as they try to help students write in the language that is appropriate and natural to the native-English-speaking audience. It is disheartening when the writings of even advanced-level second language students often contain many awkward sentences and non-English-like…

Kim, E. Julia

2013-01-01

326

A Comparative Study on Strategies of the Children for L1 and L2 Reading Comprehension in K12  

Science.gov (United States)

In today's world it has long become a necessity to learn and communicate in another language other than one's mother tongue (L1). When the world is walking on the path of globalization people try to learn a second/foreign language (L2). In this study it's critically aimed to explore strategy use in L1 and L2 reading at K12 level. Subjects involved…

Belet, S. Dilek; Gursoy, Esim

2008-01-01

327

A Study of Relationships between L1 Pragmatic Transfer and L2 Proficiency  

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Full Text Available Studies in interlanguage pragmatics have shown that L2 learners’ proficiency has an influence on the occurrences of L1 pragmatic transfer. However, questions remain whether the relationship between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency is positive or negative. This paper is designed to study L1 pragmatic transfer in requests made by Chinese learners of English at low L2 proficiency level and at high L2 proficiency level and how L1 pragmatic transfer is related to their L2 proficiency. Ten low proficiency learners of English, ten high proficiency learners of English?ten native speakers of English and ten native speakers of Chinese participate in this study. Requests are collected by means of a discourse completion test questionnaire and are analysed in terms of requestive semantic formulas based on the taxonomy of request strategies, internal modifiers and external modifiers. The research results reveal that L1 pragmatic transfer decreases with the increase of L2 proficiency such as learners’ use of direct strategies, lexical and phrasal downgraders, imperatives and grounder and no clear relationship is found between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency in terms of the other request strategies, internal modifiers and external modifiers. These results provide partial support to negative correlation hypothesis —high proficiency L2 learners are less likely to transfer their native language pragmatic norms since they have enough control over L2.

Jiemin Bu

2012-01-01

328

L1 AND L2 GLOSSES: THEIR EFFECTS ON INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of L1 and L2 glosses on incidental vocabulary learning in a multimedia environment. The investigation included the effects of additional pictorial cues in L1 and L2 glosses, and how these additions affect vocabulary learning. The analyses of a mixed design repeated measures 2 (L1, L2 X 2 (picture, no picture X 2 (immediate test, delayed test analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated no significant differences between L1 and L2 glosses for definition-supply and recognition tasks and showed significant differences between picture (text-plus-picture and no-picture (text-only glosses for definition-supply test only. The results also revealed significant interaction effects between languages and tests indicating that L1 and L2 groups showed different patterns of vocabulary retention over time. Findings suggest that both L1 and L2 glosses are effective for incidental vocabulary learning, but long-term retention may differ between the two types; and that the effect of additional visual cues on vocabulary learning may rely on the nature of the tasks given.

Makoto Yoshii

2006-09-01

329

Translation in Teaching a Foreign (Second Language: A Methodological Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the act of translating between mother tongue and second/foreign language as a potentially effective way to improve learners’ second/foreign language. The author first examines the history of ‘translation’ as a methodology in second/foreign language teaching. The author then provides arguments in favour of including the methodology in SL/FL teaching in the current post-cognitive paradigm. The paper limits its theoretical perspective of the methodology to advanced level learners, and emphasises that the act of translating can create ideal learning opportunities with positive L1 use in SL/FL learning. The act of translating is a holistic activity, which immediately compels the learners to pay more attention to the SL/FL text, which encourages their awareness of form and meaning in context and improves their reading and writing skills in SL/FL. The methodology further enhances learners’ general skills of noticing and observing details of the linguistic systems, cultures, and societies of L1 and SL/FL, in order to deliver the messages between the two languages. This can expand the SL/FL learning to beyond the classroom.

Sayuki Machida

2011-07-01

330

Negative Transfer of Chinese to College Students? English Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In China, in the process of college students’ foreign language learning, English writing is the reflection of their integrating skills and it is also the process of rewriting based on gaining English knowledge. Meanwhile, Chinese college students’ English writing is a cross-language and cross-cultural communicative behavior, and also a behavior of the transformation of thinking and cultural model. However, in the process of English writing, the negative transfer of Chinese influences students’ writing. Here, according to the research to the students’ writing and the relative questionnaire survey in Beihai College of Beihang University, this paper is a systematic and objective analysis on the negative transfer of Chinese to college students’ English writing at the levels of lexis, sentence structure and discourse.

Zhiliang Liu

2011-09-01

331

Children's Advertisement Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

2010-01-01

332

Righting the Writing Process  

Science.gov (United States)

Prompted by the federal No Child Left Behind law and state mandates for improved proficiency in writing and other skills, district leaders have intensified their focus on writing in elementary and middle schools. Many are integrating word-processing software and other technology tools into their curricula to strengthen the instructional and…

Dessoff, Alan

2008-01-01

333

Teaching Technical Report Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

A high school electronics teacher describes the integration of technical report writing in the electronics program for trade and industrial students. He notes that the report writing rather than just recording data seemed to improve student laboratory experience but further improvements in the program are needed. A sample lab report is included.…

De Pasquale, Joseph A.

1977-01-01

334

Write around the Clock  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a day in the life of Charley Hoce, a teacher and poet. Hoce starts each day with at least an hour and a half of writing and revising before leaving for his teaching job at the National Trail Elementary School in New Paris, Ohio where he teaches reading and writing to first, second, and third graders, as well as Title I…

Rodia, Becky

2004-01-01

335

Writing across the Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper maintains that the best approach to writing across the curriculum is one that focuses on thinking and writing strategies that cut across a number of subject areas. The paper describes some methods and classroom tested activities found to be successful in teaching students the complex thinking skills involved in making and supporting…

Johannessen, Larry R.; Kahn, Elizabeth A.

336

Tolstoy, the Writing Teacher.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses Tolstoy's nearly lifelong career as a teacher. Quotes from Tolstoy's own writings about teaching: his accounts of his interactions with the peasant children at his school; his own theories about teaching; and how the teacher should follow the child. Draws parallels to the author's experiences teaching writing workshops at a soup kitchen…

Blaisdell, Bob

1998-01-01

337

Let Them Write.  

Science.gov (United States)

Day-by-day lesson ideas are given for an eight-day writing unit in which students study literary conventions and write their own short stories. Evaluation of the stories is continuous throughout the unit and partly done by other students. (SJL)

Carter, John Marshall

1978-01-01

338

The Write Combination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the issue of motivation as it applies to young adults in a rural school and their reading and writing habits and interests. Promotes the value of young adult literature and "buddy" journals. Notes that students in all four classes responded positively to the journal writing activity. (TB)

Main, Paula Y.

1997-01-01

339

Writing that Works.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended for use by nonprofessional writers who must use the written word to communicate and get results, this book offers practical suggestions on how to write business letters, memos, sales and fund raising letters, plans, and reports. The book covers general principles of good writing and emphasizes the importance of editing. In addition, it…

Roman, Kenneth; Raphaelson, Joel

340

RanBPM is an L1-interacting protein that regulates L1-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A yeast two-hybrid screen using the last 28 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 identified RanBPM as an L1-interacting protein. RanBPM associates with L1 in vivo and the N-terminal region of RanBPM (N-RanBPM), containing the SPRY domain, is sufficient for the interaction with L1 in a glutathione S-transferase pulldown assay. L1 antibody patching dramatically changes the subcellular localization of N-RanBPM in transfected COS cells. Overexpression of N...

Cheng, Ling; Lemmon, Sandra; Lemmon, Vance

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Too Nervous to Write? The Relationship between Anxiety and EFL Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the students’ anxiety in essay writing and their writing performance in EFL context. The subjects were chosen from among 75 Iranian EFL students who took part in TOFEL proficiency test. 27 students majoring in English have been selected. They studied either English translation or English literature. The instruments to collect data were: a Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 b Open - ended questionnaire and c Writing performance tests. The results suggested that the students felt less nervous in writing when the teacher assured them that their papers will not be scored in contrast to the time when their papers were to be scored by the teacher. In addition, the correlation between final writing test and anxiety were significantly high. The participants’ responses to the open-ended questionnaire revealed that during their first stage of writing experience (when the teacher assured them that their papers will not be scored, the students had less physiological and psychological changes than their final test. The results suggested that by taking advantage of the facilitative aspect of anxiety, the students’ writing performance will be improved. The study has some pedagogical implications that will be discussed in this paper.

Giti Mousapour Negari

2012-12-01

342

Expanding Definitions of Academic Writing: Family History Writing in the Basic Writing Classroom and Beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

Narrow definitions of academic writing often do not serve students well because they ignore the rhetorically situated and social bases for writing and the potential role of writing to span the personal, professional, and civic areas of students' lives. Broadening school-sponsored writing to include writing about family can help students to see the…

Rankins-Robertson, Sherry; Cahill, Lisa; Roen, Duane; Glau, Gregory R.

2010-01-01

343

LabWrite  

Science.gov (United States)

LabWrite is a website students can use to write better lab reports, which helps students learn to think scientifically. The main structure of the site is chronological, guiding students through the full lab experience: PreLab is a set of questions that initiates scientific inquiry; InLab helps students collect, organize, and analyze data during the lab; PostLab offers a step-by-step guide to writing the report; and LabCheck helps students revise their reports before handing them in. In addition to the standard hypothetical lab, LabWrite also provides full support for descriptive labs and labs that students design for themselves. LabWrite also includes an extensive set of resources, such as an Excel tutorial and guides for creating tables and graphs, which students can use on their own or teachers can use for in-class instruction. The website contains a guide for teachers.

Carter, Michael; Wiebe, Eric; Ferzli, Miriam

2005-09-15

344

Technical report writing today  

CERN Document Server

"Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...

Riordan, Daniel G

2014-01-01

345

Cognitive Transfer and English writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author examines the cognitive learning theory and cognitive transfer in English writing, tries to find out how it relates to English writing, and how it influences English writing.

Xinyan Li

2008-06-01

346

Examinando a relação L1-L2 na pedagogia de ensino de ESL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo procuro refletir sobre como a relação L1-L2 tem sido tratada nas teorias de aquisição de línguas, na política e na pedagogia de ensino de L2, em especial no ensino de inglês como segunda língua (ESL). Ao longo do estudo, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sa [...] la de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenário que deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil. Abstract in english This article seeks to reflect on how L1-L2 relationship has been treated in second language theories, policy and pedagogy, mainly in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL). It is argued that language teaching pedagogy would benefit by paying attention to the use of L1 in the L2 classroom [...] , especially in the case of whole schooling through L2, rather than concentrating primarily on the ideal monolingual model. The scenery that motivated these reflections is an ESL classroom of an English immersion school located in the central part of Brazil

Heloísa Augusta Brito de, Mello.

347

Improving linguistic fluency for writing: Effects of explicitness and focus of instruction.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an explorative classroom experiment the effects of several instructional conditions for writing were compared. Studies on writing suggest that linguistic fluency is an important factor in writer’s abilities to manipulate sentence structures in order to produce comprehensible text. L1 writing theories indicate that working memory limitations play an important role in formulation. Therefore, improving linguistic fluency presumably frees working memory space and allows the writer to devote more attention to meaning-related problems. An important point of debate in language-learning theories is the role of explicit knowledge about linguistic structure. Some believe that explicit rule knowledge has an important role in acquiring fluency, while others maintain that explicit knowledge has no real influence on skill development, and that fluency develops on the basis of the implicit knowledge of linguistic structures. In recent L2 theories a focus solely on meaning appears insufficient for mastery of linguistic structures. Meaning-oriented language production should, in this view, be complemented by a focus on form(s. Four learning conditions for improving linguistic fluency were discriminated according to the dimensions “focus of instruction” (forms vs. meaning and “explicitness of instruction” (implicit vs. explicit. Students of elementary grades 5 and 6 (including both first- and advanced second-language learners of Dutch received four lessons involving the linguistic operations for adding information to sentences in meaningful contexts and avoiding unnecessary (repetition of information. Results of the experiment show significant positive effects of all four conditions on two post-test formulation tasks in comparison to a control group.

Van Gelderen, A.

2002-01-01

348

Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

2011-01-01

349

POST-STROKE WRITING AND READING DISORDERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias, agraphias and acalculias are more frequent than verified in routine exam, not only in the less developed but also in large neurological departments. Alexia is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called word blindness, text blindness orvisual aphasia. Alexia refers to an acquired inability to read caused by brain damage and must be distinguished from dyslexia, a developmental abnormality in which the individual is unable to learn to read, and from illiteracy, which reflects a poor educational back-ground. Most aphasics are also alexic, but alexia may occur in the absence of aphasia and may occasionally be the soledisability resulting from specific brain lesions. There are different classifications of alexias. Traditionally, the alexias are divided into three categories: pure alexia with agraphia, pure alexia without agraphia, and alexia associated with aphasia (“aphasic alexia”. Agraphia is defined as the disruption of previously intact writing skills by brain damage. Writing involves several elements—language processing, spelling, visual perception, visual-spatial orientation for graphic symbols, motor planning, and motor control of writing. A disturbance of any of these processes can impair writing. Agraphia may occur by itself or as association with aphasias, alexia, agnosia and apraxia. Agraphia can also result from “peripheral” involvement of the motor act of writing. Like alexia, agraphia must be distinguished from illiteracy, where writing skills were never developed. Acalculia is a clinical syndrome of acquired deficits in mathematical calculation, either mentally or with paper and pencil. This language disturbances can be classified differently, but there are three principal types of acalculia: acalculia associated with language disturbances, including number paraphasia, number agraphia, or number alexia; acalculia secondary to visual-spatial dysfunction with malalignment of numbers and columns, and a primary anarithmetria entailing disruption of the computation process.

Sinanovi? Osman

2013-01-01

350

The Effect of Planning Sub-Processes on L2 Writing Fluency, Grammatical Complexity, and Lexical Complexity  

Science.gov (United States)

This study contributes to L2 writing research which seeks to tie predictions of the Limited Attentional Capacity Model (Skehan, 1998; Skehan & Foster, 2001) and Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2001, 2005, 2011a, 2011b) to models of working memory in L1 writing (Kellogg, 1996). The study uses a quasi-experimental research design to investigate…

Johnson, Mark D.; Mercado, Leonardo; Acevedo, Anthony

2012-01-01

351

L1 retrotransposons, cancer stem cells and oncogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retrotransposons have played a central role in human genome evolution. The accumulation of heritable L1, Alu and SVA retrotransposon insertions continues to generate structural variation within and between populations, and can result in spontaneous genetic disease. Recent works have reported somatic L1 retrotransposition in tumours, which in some cases may contribute to oncogenesis. Intriguingly, L1 mobilization appears to occur almost exclusively in cancers of epithelial cell origin. In this review, we discuss how L1 retrotransposition could potentially trigger neoplastic transformation, based on the established correlation between L1 activity and cellular plasticity, and the proven capacity of L1-mediated insertional mutagenesis to decisively alter gene expression and functional output. PMID:24286172

Carreira, Patricia E; Richardson, Sandra R; Faulkner, Geoffrey J

2014-01-01

352

LabWrite  

Science.gov (United States)

LabWrite is an online resource designed to help students learn science by writing better laboratory reports. It is organized into four major parts, reflecting the chronological experience of the lab. PreLab asks students to respond to a set of questions that lead them through a scientific understanding of the lab before they actually begin. InLab provides resources and help for students as they set up the lab and gather and organize data. PostLab guides students step by step in writing the lab report. LabCheck offers students a checklist to help them revise their reports and an evaluation guide to help them learn from a graded report so that they can improve their skills. LabWrite also provides an extensive set of resources for teaching students how to create tables and graphs. In addition, the LabWrite Tutor is an application that allows students to write their lab reports online. Published results of a control-group study show that LabWrite significantly improves students' understanding of the scientific concept of the lab and their ability to think scientifically about the lab.

Carter, Michael

2000-07-15

353

Asimmetrie L1/L2: una sfida nella didattica di “lingua e traduzione”.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Asymmetries Between L1 and L2: a Challenge in the Teaching of "Language and Translation" Language teaching is deeply connected to the cognitive and brain sciences. The attribution of meaning of linguistic messages depends on the interaction between the communicant’s brain and the external world. The interaction is based on the cognitive and emotional experience shared by a L-community. Competence in L2 is acquired by the development of an internal data base of contextu...

Laura Salmon

2004-01-01

354

Medical writing, revising and editing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic form. Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client

Pilegaard, Morten

2006-01-01

355

L1 Communicative-textual competence of Greek upper elementary school students.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents and discusses the findings of a research study on the issue of L1 communicative-textual competence (CTC). More specifically it examines the L1 CTC of 10–12-year-old Greek elementary school students, before and after the use of alternative communicative-text-oriented teaching material versus traditional language materials currently used in the schools. The CTC of the students was examined using a version of the test published by the French Ministry of Education revised ...

Spinthourakis, J. A.; Fterniati, A.

2004-01-01

356

Ireland Life-Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on the Ireland Life-Writing project which was conducted as part of the UCD Irish Virtual Research Library and Archive (IVRLA) series of demonstrator research projects. The project focused on the material that had been collected by an earlier and still ongoing project, the Ireland Life-Writing Archive, which is administered by the UCD School of English, Drama and Film. The scope of the IVRLA phase of the Ireland Life-Writing project was to take the material submitted to date...

Layden, Dervila

2010-01-01

357

Proton beam writing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proton beam writing (PBW) is a direct-write lithography process for microfabrication of two- or three-dimensional structures. It can be used to manufacture microfluidic channels, wave guides, biosensors and other devices. Due to the maskless writing technique and the high spatial resolution obtained by the usage of protons, this method allows for the fabrication of structures with high aspect ratio and small structure width. This makes PBW preferable to other lithographic techniques like electron beam- or photolithography. We will describe the newly installed PBW system at the Goettingen 3MV Pelletron accelerator and discuss its technical characteristics together with first proton beam written structures.

358

Brain Bases for First Language Lexical Attrition in Bengali-English Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

Change of first language (L1) status from the most stable language to a less accessible language over the life-span of a bilingual individual is termed "language attrition". Such a shift in ease of L1 access has been reported to affect the lexicon (Pelc, 2001) more than other aspects of language. However, whether L1 attrition is affected by…

Datta, Hia

2010-01-01

359

Writing: Sentence Structure, Usage, and Mechanics. GED Scoreboost.  

Science.gov (United States)

GED "Scoreboost" materials target exactly the skills one needs to pass the General Educational Development (GED) tests. This book focuses on the multiple choice portion of the GED writing test. The workbook targets topics directly on the multiple-choice section of the GED Language Arts, Writing Test. These include sentence structure, grammar and…

Evans, Karin; Landau, Julie

360

Photography and Writing: Alternative Ways of Learning for ESL Students  

Science.gov (United States)

To writing, painting, drawing, and photography as artistic media, the author would like to add teaching as a creative endeavor as well. Especially in a classroom where English is not the first language for many students, the writing teacher needs to be creative with assignments and activities that address nontraditional ways of learning. Her…

Friesen, Helen Lepp

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Singaporean Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness and English Writing Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

362

Thesis and Dissertation Writing: Preparing ESL Students for Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a program created to assist students of English as a Second Language in their preparation for thesis and dissertation writing by focusing on the thesis proposal as an important part of that process. Notes that they often experience difficulty meeting the demands of the kind of writing required at this level and often are unaware of the…

Paltridge, Brian

1997-01-01

363

Teaching language arts to English language learners  

CERN Document Server

This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w

Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C

2013-01-01

364

Examinando a relação L1-L2 na pedagogia de ensino de ESL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste artigo procuro refletir sobre como a relação L1-L2 tem sido tratada nas teorias de aquisição de línguas, na política e na pedagogia de ensino de L2, em especial no ensino de inglês como segunda língua (ESL. Ao longo do estudo, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sala de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenário que deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil.This article seeks to reflect on how L1-L2 relationship has been treated in second language theories, policy and pedagogy, mainly in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL. It is argued that language teaching pedagogy would benefit by paying attention to the use of L1 in the L2 classroom, especially in the case of whole schooling through L2, rather than concentrating primarily on the ideal monolingual model. The scenery that motivated these reflections is an ESL classroom of an English immersion school located in the central part of Brazil

Heloísa Augusta Brito de Mello

2005-01-01

365

Textographies and the researching and teaching of writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes three different examples of the use of textographies in the researching and teaching of writing. The first is an examination of the exegeses that art and design students write in their masters degrees. In the second example, a group of teachers looked at the writing section of Chinese College English tests. The third example describes a course in which second language students carry out an analysis of the kinds of writing that is required of them in their academic studies. Each of the projects aims to go “beyond the text” (Freedman, 1999 in order to gain an understanding of why the texts are written as they are.

Brian Paltridge

2008-04-01

366

Evidentiality in Academic Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inevitability of using evidentials (EVs and references in all academic writings signifies the importance of distinguishing and applying EVs for those who attempt to write in academic prose. With the aim of creating a unique model of EVs in academic texts, this study used well-established taxonomies of metadiscourse markers adapted by Hyland (2005 combined with Swales' (1990 classification of citations as well as Berkenkotter and Huckin's (1995 concept of intertexuality in academic writing. The proposed model yields at least two important advantages. First, it can develop a pattern of the uses of EVs in academic texts, thus deepening our understanding of the organization of such texts. Second, it has potential applications in pedagogy for those students who attempt to write in academic prose and for scholars, teachers, and material developers.

Mojdeh Ebrahimi Dehkordi

2012-09-01

367

The write stuff  

Science.gov (United States)

Michelle Francl suggests that students should be trained to write in a fashion similar to how they are taught the principles and practice of NMR spectroscopy -- by providing them with a limited set of patterns and parameters.

Francl, Michelle

2014-07-01

368

Instructions for Writing Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

This document provides instructions for writing reports for the technical fields. The document includes general instructions, guidelines on report structure, grading information and a grading sheet. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2013-06-17

369

In Cite : Epistemologies of Creative Writing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The epistemic creative writer is not merely an expressive writer, a writer who writes for creative writing programs at diverse university colleges. Rather, the epistemic creative writer is the writer who understands that in order to say something useful you must step out of the space that engages your ego. Awareness of what really matters comes from the contemplation of the futility of words. Before the word there is silence. After the word there is silence. But during the word there is knowledge that can be made crystal clear. This book is about extracting what writing means to a few writers who formulate ideas about creative writing without, however, making claims to instruction. Can creative writing that produces knowledge be taught without a method? Samuel Beckett, Raymond Federman, Gertrude Stein, Jacques Lacan, Frank O'Hara, Douglas Hofstadter, Brian Rotman, Herman Melville, Kathy Acker, Friedrich Nietzsche, David Markson, Andrei Codrescu, and a host of others, gather here to offer an answer. --"Camelia Elias speaks to the reader from that place where the language of the birds becomes the language of silence." (Patrick Blackburn, Professor of Formal Logic, Roskilde University)

Elias, Camelia

2013-01-01

370

In Cite: Epistemologies of Creative Writing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The epistemic creative writer is not merely an expressive writer, a writer who writes for creative writing programs at diverse university colleges. Rather, the epistemic creative writer is the writer who understands that in order to say something useful you must step out of the space that engages your ego. Awareness of what really matters comes from the contemplation of the futility of words. Before the word there is silence. After the word there is silence. But during the word there is knowledge that can be made crystal clear. This book is about extracting what writing means to a few writers who formulate ideas about creative writing without, however, making claims to instruction. Can creative writing that produces knowledge be taught without a method? Samuel Beckett, Raymond Federman, Gertrude Stein, Jacques Lacan, Frank O'Hara, Douglas Hofstadter, Brian Rotman, Herman Melville, Kathy Acker, Friedrich Nietzsche, David Markson, Andrei Codrescu, and a host of others, gather here to offer an answer. --"Camelia Elias speaks to the reader from that place where the language of the birds becomes the language of silence." (Patrick Blackburn, Professor of Formal Logic, Roskilde University)

Elias, Camelia

2013-01-01

371

Writing Groups: Cross-Cultural Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing groups, used in many English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) composition classrooms, pose problems for some students from collectivistic cultures such as Japan and China. Suggested reasons are the individual benefit goal, the need for feedback rather than group harmony, and strained group dynamics. (Contains 41 references.) (Author/LB)

Carson, Joan G.; Nelson, Gayle L.

1994-01-01

372

Teaching Writing Using Peer Feedback Checklists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses incorporation of peer feedback check lists in the English-as-a-Second-Language writing classroom. Highlights different types of check lists, including generic and text-specific, and how to use check lists for peer feedback. (Author/VWL)

Furneaux, Clare

2002-01-01

373

An Imaginative Approach to Teaching Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Mindful of the fact that one of the most important ingredients in learning to write in a foreign language is motivation, the authors have experimented in their classes with a wide range of exercises from a very useful source: Gianni Rodari's "Grammatico della Fantasia: lntroduzione all'arte di inventare storie" (Torino: Piccola Biblioteca Einandi,…

Cuenca, Carmen Manuel; Carmona, Rodrigo Fernandez

2012-01-01

374

Does Narrative Writing Instruction Enhance the Benefits of Expressive Writing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined whether instructing participants to write in a narrative fashion about stressful life events would produce superior physical and psychological health benefits relative to standard expressive writing instructions that do not specify the essay’s structure. Undergraduates (N = 101) were randomly assigned to engage in two, 20-minute narrative writing, standard expressive writing, or control writing tasks. Follow-up data were obtained one month later. The essays of the narrative writ...

Danoff-burg, Sharon; Mosher, Catherine E.; Seawell, Asani H.; Agee, John D.

2010-01-01

375

Writing Strategies Used by ESL Upper Secondary School Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing is a great challenge whether performed in the mother tongue or in a second or foreign language (L2/FL.  Studies in L2 writing show that writing is a complex cognitive activity comprising a number of processes which includes the use of various strategies. This study aimed to examine strategies used in essay writing among 50 high-intermediate and low proficiency ESL upper secondary school students and to determine any significant differences in strategy use between the two groups. Data from the Writing Strategy Questionnaire indicate that the ESL students were moderate writing strategies users. The while-writing strategies were most frequently used whereas the revising strategies were least used. All students displayed approximately similar frequency use of strategies. They differed only in the type of strategies used. An implication of the study is that students need to be encouraged to use various strategies in improving their writing. Strategy training for ESL students is important to help them write successfully in the target language.

Nooreiny Maarof

2013-03-01

376

UAE University Students’ Awareness of Using the Writing Center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing has always been regarded as playing a prominent role in learning a second language. UAE university writing center provides a key support service within the institution, and as such must find ways to evaluate the impact of the instruction they provide. However, many studies of tutorial effectiveness lack adequate analyses of tutorial services and of both student and tutor awareness and outcomes. The purpose of the study is to explore the effectiveness of the writing center and its proposed services to improve students’ academic writing skills. The study combined quantitative and qualitative strategies involving surveying 50 students followed by in-depth interview with the supervisor of the UAEU’s writing center. Some major findings are that the study indicated that some students who visit the writing center are not aware of how to use it effectively. The study shows that 76% of students stated that the role of the writing center is to edit their assignments. The study indicates that 32% of students who visited the writing center were encouraged by their instructors to visit the writing center. This study implies some strategies to raise the students’ awareness of the writing center purpose and services.

Ghadah Al Murshidi

2014-05-01

377

How to write and publish a scientific paper  

CERN Document Server

Writing and publishing journal articles are crucial to scientific careers. Unfortunately, many young scientists find the process of communicating scientific information effectively a complete mystery. By providing practical, readable, and sometimes humorous guidance, this book helps researchers gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence to succeed in communicating about their work. This seventh edition of "How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper" contains 41 chapters focused upon two separate tasks: how to write the respective sections of a scientific paper and how to publish the paper. Other related topics include approaching a writing project, following ethical principles in scientific publishing, preparing oral presentations and poster presentations, writing grant proposals, and working with the popular media. The authors provide considerable guidance on appropriate scientific writing style as well as an extensive list of words and expressions to avoid - and supply the language to substitute for them.

Day, Robert A

2011-01-01

378

Writing Intensive Courses in Theatre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the incorporation of writing into theater courses and ways of crafting engaging writing-intensive courses. Contends that in designing writing-intensive courses, theatre professors need to analyze the learning styles, strengths, and weaknesses of theatre majors. Concludes that writing can deepen students' learning experiences, encourage…

Roost, Alisa

2003-01-01

379

WEB-BASED WRITING INSTRUCTION AND ENHANCING EFL LEARNERS' WRITING QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to determine whether Web-based Writing Instruction (WBWI has any influence on the writing quality of Iranian EFL learners. Two groups of EFL learners who were studying English in an English Language Institute participated in the experiment. They were enrolled in an advanced writing course. Before instruction, both groups were pre-tested through writing essays. T-test results illustrated significant differences between two groups in writing ability. The experimental group made too many errors and had many writing problems. Both groups studied the same in-class material, and were given the same assignments and assessment. In addition, the experimental group used an online course, which was provided for them through establishing a so-called website, from home. Experimental students posted their points, wrote short essays and posted stories in the comment section of the so-called website. They located information in sites like “Yahoo Movies” and “webMD”. They processed their essays and checked their spelling through Microsoft Office Word (2007. At the end of the experiment, both groups were post-tested through writing an essay. ANCOVA results showed considerable differences between two groups. The experimental group made more gains as a result of web-based instruction. They became more proficient, and made few errors.

Hamid R. KARGOZARI

2011-07-01

380

Naming Abilities in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Difficulties in second language (L2) learning are often associated with recognizable learning difficulties in native language (L1), such as in dyslexia. However, some individuals have low L2 proficiency but intact L1 reading skills. These L2 learners experience frequent tip-of-the-tongue states while naming in L1, which indicates that they have a…

Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Programming Language and Artificial Intelligence Development.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term language means communication tool which is used to write Computer program and develop application, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. Computer programming languages are used to write programs that define the behavior of a computer system. They are based on certain syntactic and semantic rules, which define the meaning of each of the programming language constructs. The syntactic and the semantic rules of every programming language define the language imp...

Mrs. Rekha Purohit; Prof. Prabhat Mathur

2013-01-01

382

Essay: Learning a Second Language  

Science.gov (United States)

What challenges face students who are learning a second language at the same time as they are learning science? This essay considers some of the difficulties associated with learning to speak, read, and write in a second language. Although the principles of language learning discussed here can be generalized across languages and contexts, this essay considers situations in which English is both the language of instruction and the language being learned.

Ellen Bialystok, York U.

2008-01-01

383

First Language Acquisition. . .Second Language Acquisition: "What's Hecuba to Him or He to Hecuba?  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the possible and specific relationships between first language (L1) acquisition and second language (L2) acquisition to show that a number of assumptions warrant closer inspection. Explores problems in distinguishing L1 from L2 acquisition from three different perspectives: individual language learner histories, the data, and the…

Foster-Cohen, Susan

2001-01-01

384

Evolutionally dynamic L1 regulation in embryonic stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobile elements are important evolutionary forces that challenge genomic integrity. Long interspersed element-1 (L1, also known as LINE-1) is the only autonomous transposon still active in the human genome. It displays an unusual pattern of evolution, with, at any given time, a single active L1 lineage amplifying to thousands of copies before getting replaced by a new lineage, likely under pressure of host restriction factors, which act notably by silencing L1 expression during early embryogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that in human embryonic stem (hES) cells, KAP1 (KRAB [Krüppel-associated box domain]-associated protein 1), the master cofactor of KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) previously implicated in the restriction of endogenous retroviruses, represses a discrete subset of L1 lineages predicted to have entered the ancestral genome between 26.8 million and 7.6 million years ago. In mice, we documented a similar chronologically conditioned pattern, albeit with a much contracted time scale. We could further identify an L1-binding KRAB-ZFP, suggesting that this rapidly evolving protein family is more globally responsible for L1 recognition. KAP1 knockdown in hES cells induced the expression of KAP1-bound L1 elements, but their younger, human-specific counterparts (L1Hs) were unaffected. Instead, they were stimulated by depleting DNA methyltransferases, consistent with recent evidence demonstrating that the PIWI-piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA) pathway regulates L1Hs in hES cells. Altogether, these data indicate that the early embryonic control of L1 is an evolutionarily dynamic process and support a model in which newly emerged lineages are first suppressed by DNA methylation-inducing small RNA-based mechanisms before KAP1-recruiting protein repressors are selected. PMID:24939876

Castro-Diaz, Nathaly; Ecco, Gabriela; Coluccio, Andrea; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Yazdanpanah, Benyamin; Friedli, Marc; Duc, Julien; Jang, Suk Min; Turelli, Priscilla; Trono, Didier

2014-07-01

385

Learning Science through Writing: Associations with Prior Conceptions of Writing and Perceptions of a Writing Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Students in a large undergraduate biology course were expected to write a scientific report as a key part of their course design. This study investigates the quality of learning arising from the writing experience and how it relates to the quality of students' preconceptions of learning through writing and their perceptions of their writing

Ellis, Robert A.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Drury, Helen

2007-01-01

386

Teaching writing through genre-based approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is an endeavour to examine the impact of genre-based approach on students’ writing performance as well as students’ attitudes towards the implementation of genre-based approach in writing learning. Research findings reveal that most of the students gained the control over the key features of the required recount genre in terms of social purposes, language features and schematic structure. The necessity and usefulness of the application of teaching-learning cycle into learning the recount genre was predominantly recognized among students.

Luu, Tuan Trong

2011-01-01

387

Teaching Writing through Genre-based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is an endeavour to examine the impact of genre-based approach on students’ writing performance as well as students’ attitudes towards the implementation of genre-based approach in writing learning. Research findings reveal that most of the students gained the control over the key features of the required recount genre in terms of social purposes, language features and schematic structure. The necessity and usefulness of the application of teaching-learning cycle into learning the recount genre was predominantly recognized among students. 

Luu Trong Tuan

2011-11-01

388

Multi-Draft Composing: An Iterative Model for Academic Argument Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-secondary writing teachers in composition and English as a second language (ESL) writing programs are likely familiar with multi-draft composing. Both composition and ESL writing programs share nearly identical multi-draft models despite the very unique and different cultures of each group. We argue that multi-draft composing as it is…

Eckstein, Grant; Chariton, Jessica; McCollum, Robb Mark

2011-01-01

389

Adolescent Multilingual Writers' Transitions across in- and out-of-School Writing Contexts  

Science.gov (United States)

Within a social view of literacy, this paper reports a two-year ethnographic case study of an adolescent multilingual writer, with respect to her transitions across in-school (i.e., Creative Writing class) and out-of-school writing contexts. This study was aimed to address two specific gaps in the fields of second language (L2) writing and…

Yi, Youngjoo

2010-01-01

390

Examining the Intangible Process: Lotus ScreenCam as an Aid to Investigating Student Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the changes adult English as a Second Language learners made to a text when writing collaboratively, how learners initiated change, what reasons learners gave for changes they made when writing collaboratively, and the effectiveness of Lotus ScreenCam for researching collaborative computer based writing tasks. Analysis of data…

Glendinning, Eric; Howard, Ron

2001-01-01

391

"Why Am I Paraphrasing?": Undergraduate ESL Writers' Engagement with Source-Based Academic Writing and Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most common and vital areas of coverage in second language (L2) writing instruction is writing from sources, that is, the process of reading source text material and transferring content from that reading to writing. Research as well as everyday practice in the classroom has long shown that working with source texts is one of the most…

Hirvela, Alan; Du, Qian

2013-01-01

392

The Traits of Effective Spanish Writing = Las caracteristicas de la buena escritura en espanol. Second Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This English-Spanish language report includes the rationale for creating an assessment model for Spanish writing, offering an overview of the components of high quality assessment for any subject area, particularly Spanish writing. It presents the characteristics of effective Spanish writing, rubrics for scoring student performance based on the…

Flores, Will A.; Arrasmith, Dean G.

393

High School Teachers Use of Writing to Support Students' Learning: A National Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

A random sample of language arts, social studies, science, and math high school teachers from across the United States were surveyed about their use of writing to support student learning. Four out of every five teachers reported they used writing to support student learning, applying on average 24 different writing activities across the school…

Gillespie, Amy; Graham, Steve; Kiuhara, Sharlene; Hebert, Michael

2014-01-01

394

Code-Switching Patterns in the Writing-Related Talk of Young Emergent Bilinguals  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study examined code-switching patterns in the writing-related talk of 6 emergent Spanish-English bilingual first-grade children. Audio recordings, field notes, and writing artifacts documenting participant activities and language use in Spanish and English writing workshops were gathered over the course of 6 months and analyzed…

Gort, Mileidis

2012-01-01

395

Teaching Technical Writing - Towards Technical Writing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm that used to govern what the quality of an LSP text should be as opposed to the standpoint, which I advocate. By way of summing up, I will show how a university curriculum is designed so that - upon graduation - the technical translator could also be methodological quite well suited to take on the challenge of technical writing.

Kastberg, Peter

2000-01-01

396

Transforming Literacy Changing Lives Through Reading and Writing  

CERN Document Server

The book is interdisciplinary in focus and centers on enlarging teachers' understanding of how reading and writing can change lives and how the language arts can contribute significantly to and change educational processes in the twenty-first century. Implicit in its argument is that although the emphasis on science and math is crucial to education in the digital edge, it remains vitally important to keep reading and writing, language and story, at the heart of the educational process

Waxler, Robert P

2011-01-01

397

FIP1L1/PDGFR alpha-associated systemic mastocytosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the identification of the FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion gene as a pathogenic cause of the hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), the importance of the molecular classification of HES leading to the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) has been recognized. As a result, a new category, 'myeloid and lymphoid neoplasm with eosinophilia and abnormalities in PDGFRA, PDGFRB or FGFR1', has recently been added to the new WHO criteria for myeloid neoplasms. FIP1L1/PDGFR alpha-positive disorders are characterized by clonal hypereosinophilia, multiple organ dysfunctions due to eosinophil infiltration, systemic mastocytosis (SM) and a dramatic response to treatment with imatinib mesylate. A murine HES/CEL model by the introduction of FIP1L1/PDGFR alpha and IL-5 overexpression also shows SM, representing patients with FIP1L1/PDGFR alpha-positive HES/CEL/SM. The murine model and the in vitro development system of FIP1L1/PDGFR alpha-positive mast cells revealed the interaction between FIP1L1/PDGFR alpha, IL-5 and stem cell factor in the development of HES/CEL/SM. Current findings of FIP1L1/PDGFR alpha-positive HES/CEL are reviewed focusing on aberrant mast cell development leading to SM. PMID:20523072

Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Cancelas, Jose A

2010-01-01

398

Process writing in a product-oriented context: challenges and possibilities / Produção textual como um processo em um contexto centrado no produto: desafios e possibilidades  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo de caso analisou a aplicabilidade de uma pedagogia para o ensino da escrita como um processo em um contexto de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira e como os estudantes reagiram e responderam a essa metodologia de ensino. Um grupo de 16 adolescentes de nível intermediário em uma inst [...] ituição particular de ensino de inglês foi selecionado. Foi seguido um projeto pedagógico em torno da escrita como um processo e as reações e o desempenho dos alunos em cada um dos estágios do processo foi analisado. Ao mesmo tempo, investigou-se como se dá o ensino da escrita na língua materna nas escolas regulares dos alunos. Concluiu-se que o ensino de produção textual nas escolas regulares enfoca mais o processo do que o produto e que uma pedagogia voltada para o processo nas aulas de inglês pode preencher lacunas deixadas nas experiências dos alunos com a escrita na língua materna. Abstract in english This case study analyzed to what extent localized process writing pedagogy is applicable and effective in an EFL context and how students respond and react to it. A class of 16 intermediate-level teenage students in an ELT Institute in Brazil was selected. A carefully planned project on process-base [...] d writing was followed, and students' performance in and reactions to each stage of the process were analyzed. Concurrently, the study also investigated the teaching of writing in students' native language - Portuguese - in their regular schools. It could be concluded that the teaching of writing in the regular schools focuses more on the process than on the product and that a pedagogical approach focused on the process in the EFL classroom can serve to fill in the gaps left by the students' experiences with writing in L1.

Isabela de Freitas, Villas Boas.

2014-06-01

399

Influence of Additional Language Learning on First Language Learning in Children with Language Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language

To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

2012-01-01

400

Consciência fonológica e o processo de aprendizagem de leitura e escrita: implicações teóricas para o embasamento da prática fonoaudiológica / Phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing: theoretical implications for the basement of the Speech-Language pathologist practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese TEMA: consciência fonológica e o aprendizado da leitura e escrita. OBJETIVO: realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca do tema com o objetivo de retomar conceitos dispostos recentemente na literatura e oferecer ao Fonoaudiólogo a possibilidade de revisão de suas práticas para (re)formulação de estra [...] tégias terapêuticas. CONCLUSÃO: é possível observar que os estudos convergem para a importante relação no desenvolvimento das habilidades de consciência fonológica com o desenvolvimento da leitura e escrita. Tal fato reforça a necessidade de revisão de nossa prática clínica e científica para a criação e difusão de estratégias preventivas e/ou de remediação envolvendo atividades lúdicas que englobam a consciência da criança na manipulação dos sons da fala. Uma importante área de pesquisa na Fonoaudiologia do Brasil deveria convergir para o estudo e criação de ferramentas facilitadoras ao Fonoaudiólogo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing. PURPOSE: to hold a review of the literature about this theme, in order to resume concepts recently published on technical literature and offer for the Speech-Language pathologist the possibility to review some of the [...] ir practices and formulate a therapeutic strategy. CONCLUSION: it is possible to observe that the studies point to the important relationship on the development of phonological awareness skills, including the increase of reading and writing. This fact reinforces the need for reviewing our clinical and scientific practice in order to approach the creation and to disseminate some preventive and remediate strategies involving recreational activities which include children awareness manipulation of the sounds of speech. One important area of the Speech Language research in Brazil should converge for the studies and creation on this subject toward the tools in order to help the Speech-Language Pathologist.

Cristiane, Nunes; Silvana, Frota; Renata, Mousinho.

 
 
 
 
401

Medical Ghost-writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Any assistance an author receives with writing a scientific article that is not acknowledged in the article is described as ghost-writing. Articles ghost-written by medical writers engaged by pharmaceutical companies who have a vested interest in the content have caused concern after scandals revealed misleading content in some articles. A key criterion of authorship in medical journals is final approval of the article submitted for publication. Authors are responsible for the content of their articles and for acknowledging any assistance they receive. Action taken by some journals and medical writer associations to encourage acknowledgement is an uphill task in the light of disinterest from the pharmaceutical industry and ignorance or similar lack of interest by those who agree to be named authors. However, acknowledgment alone is not sufficient to resolve medical ghost-writing; issues of how the acknowledgement is formulated, permission to acknowledge and access to raw data also need to be tackled.

Elise Langdon-Neuner

2008-01-01

402

Language, Communication and Style  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

St?ncu?a Ramona DIMA-LAZA

2011-01-01

403

Cortical activation in the processing of passive sentences in L1 and L2: an fMRI study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The question of whether the bilingual brain processes a first and second language (L1 and L2, respectively) differently is a central issue in many psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic studies. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether late bilinguals process structurally complex sentences in L1 and L2 in different cortical networks. For this purpose, we directly compared brain activity during the processing of active and passive sentences in both L1 and L2. We asked 36 healthy subjects to judge whether or not a presented sentence was semantically plausible. Both L1 and L2 activated the left hemispheric language-related regions such as the left inferior frontal, superior/middle temporal, and parietal cortices. However, we found different activation patterns between L1 and L2 in the processing of passive sentences. Passive sentences elicited greater activation than their active counterparts in the left pars triangularis, the premotor area, and the superior parietal lobule in Japanese, but not in English. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between sentence type (active versus passive) and language (Japanese versus English) in the left pars orbitalis. The results of this study indicate that late bilinguals use similar cortical regions to comprehend both L1 and L2. However, when late bilinguals are presented with structurally complex sentences, the involvement of these regions differs between L1 and L2. These results suggest that, in addition to age of L2 acquisition and L2 proficiency, differences in grammatical construction affect cortical representation during the comprehension of L1 and L2. PMID:16300965

Yokoyama, Satoru; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kim, Jungho; Iwata, Kazuki; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Uchida, Shinya; Ikuta, Naho; Sassa, Yuko; Nakamura, Wataru; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

2006-04-01

404

The Write Stuff: Teaching the Introductory Public Relations Writing Course.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outlines an introductory public relations writing course. Presents course topics and objectives, and assignments designed to meet them. Provides a sample grading rubric and evaluates major public relations writing textbooks. Discusses learning and assessment strategies. (SR)

King, Cynthia M.

2001-01-01

405

On Trigonometric Series with Monotonic Coefficients in $L^1_{mu}$  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we consider the question of a representations of functions from weighed class $L^1_{mu}[0,2pi]$ by series with monotonic coefficients concerning trigonometric systems .

Tigran M. Grigorian

2011-12-01

406

L1 track triggering at CMS for High Luminosity LHC  

Science.gov (United States)

The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver luminosities of 5 × 1034 c -2 -1, with an average number of overlapping proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing (pileup) of about 140. These extreme pileup conditions place stringent requirements on the experiments' trigger systems to cope with the resulting event rates. For the CMS experiment, a key component of the detector upgrade for the HL-LHC is a track-trigger system which would identify tracks with transverse momentum above 2 GeV already at the first-level (L1) trigger. Here, a proposal for implementing L1 tracking using ``tracklets" is presented. The expected performance of the L1 tracking from simulation studies and the use of L1 tracks to define trigger objects are discussed.

Skinnari, L.

2014-10-01

407

L1 Track Triggering at CMS for High Luminosity LHC  

CERN Document Server

The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver luminosities of $5 \\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, with an average number of overlapping proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing (pileup) of about 140. These extreme pileup conditions place stringent requirements on the experiments' trigger systems to cope with the resulting event rates. For the CMS experiment, a key component of the detector upgrade for the HL-LHC is a track-trigger system which would identify tracks with transverse momentum above 2 GeV already at the first-level (L1) trigger. Here, a proposal for implementing L1 tracking using "tracklets" is presented. The expected performance of the L1 tracking from simulation studies and the use of L1 tracks to define trigger objects are discussed.

Skinnari, Louise

2014-01-01

408

Reflections on Native Language Use in Adult ESL Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the issue of native language (L1) use in adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes, re-examining the belief that use of the students' L1 is detrimental to target language learning. We discuss research that (a) documents language use in several adult ESL classes in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands, and (b) presents survey…

Huerta-Macias, Ana; Kephart, Kerrie

2009-01-01

409

L1 Transfer among Arab ESL Learners: Theoretical Framework and Practical Implications for ESL Teaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigates common instances of incorrect usage of English sounds and words caused by interference. L1 interference research is an integral part of Applied Linguistics and its implications can be found in any foreign language classroom but we focus our attention here on Arab ESL students’ production of English. The study examines multiple examples of spoken and written interferences in light of recent theoretical framework. The paper recommends ESL teachers to explicitly addr...

Grami Mohammad Ali Grami; Mohammed Ghanim Alzughaibi

2012-01-01

410

Gold nanoparticles functionalized with a fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 stimulate L1-mediated functions  

Science.gov (United States)

The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1 sequence of the third fibronectin type III domain of murine L1 was identified and conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain constructs that interact homophilically with the extracellular domain of L1 and trigger the cognate beneficial L1-mediated functions. Covalent conjugation was achieved by reacting mixtures of two cysteine-terminated forms of this L1 peptide and thiolated poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) ligands (~2.1 kDa) with citrate stabilized AuNPs of two different sizes (~14 and 40 nm in diameter). By varying the ratio of the L1 peptide-PEG mixtures, an optimized layer composition was achieved that resulted in the expected homophilic interaction of the AuNPs. These AuNPs were stable as tested over a time period of 30 days in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and interacted with the extracellular domain of L1 on neurons and Schwann cells, as could be shown by using cells from wild-type and L1-deficient mice. In vitro, the L1-derivatized particles promoted neurite outgrowth and survival of neurons from the central and peripheral nervous system and stimulated Schwann cell process formation and proliferation. These observations raise the hope that, in combination with other therapeutic approaches, L1 peptide-functionalized AuNPs may become a useful tool to ameliorate the deficits resulting from acute and chronic injuries of the mammalian nervous system.The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1 sequence of the third fibronectin type III domain of murine L1 was identified and conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain constructs that interact homophilically with the extracellular domain of L1 and trigger the cognate beneficial L1-mediated functions. Covalent conjugation was achieved by reacting mixtures of two cysteine-terminated forms of this L1 peptide and thiolated poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) ligands (~2.1 kDa) with citrate stabilized AuNPs of two different sizes (~14 and 40 nm in diameter). By varying the ratio of the L1 peptide-PEG mixtures, an optimized layer composition was achieved that resulted in the expected homophilic interaction of the AuNPs. These AuNPs were stable as tested over a time period of 30 days in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and interacted with the extracellular domain of L1 on neurons and Schwann cells, as could be shown by using cells from wild-type and L1-deficient mice. In vitro, the L1-derivatized particles promoted neurite outgrowth and survival of neurons from the central and peripheral nervous system and stimulated Schwann cell process formation and proliferation. These observations raise the hope that, in combination with other therapeutic approaches, L1 peptide-functionalized AuNPs may become a useful tool to ameliorate the deficits resulting from acute and chronic injuries of the mammalian nervous system. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: In vitro assays of the stimulatory activity of the L1-peptide, in vitro assays comparing the stimulatory activity of the L1-peptide coupled and not coupled to AuNPs, TEM characterization of AuNPs, additional results of aggregation experiments including an explanatory figure, UV-vis data proving the stability of AuNP@L1/PEGMUA-conjugates in relevant buffers, simple structure modeling of a L1-peptide and PEGMUA on AuNPs, and structure modeling of L1-peptides. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02707d

Schulz, Florian; Lutz, David; Rusche, Norman; Bastús, Neus G.; Stieben, Martin; Höltig, Michael; Grüner, Florian; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Loers, Gabriele

2013-10-01

411

GOCE PDGS L1b processing status and data access  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper three topics are discussed and described: (i) the processing steps necessary to transform the raw gradiometer measurements into gravity field gradients (L0 to L1b processing), (ii) the current status of the data processing in terms of completeness and availability, (iii) the modalities of the data access for users. In addition an outlook is given on planned evolutions of the processing algorithms for the L1b data generation.

Frommknecht, B.; Floberghagen, R.; Gilles, P.; Bigazzi, A.; Meloni, M.

2010-12-01

412

An $L^1$-type estimate for Riesz potentials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we establish new $L^1$-type estimates for the classical Riesz potentials of order $1/2<\\alpha< 1$. One can alternatively view this as a sharpening of a result of Stein and Weiss on the mapping properties of Riesz potentials on the real Hardy space $\\mathcal{H}^1(\\mathbb{R}^N)$ or a new family of $L^1$-Sobolev inequalities for the Riesz fractional gradient.

Schikorra, Armin; Spector, Daniel

2014-01-01

413

Important role of effective toroidal curvature in L=1 torsatron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Negatively pitch-modulated L=1 torsatron, in which the helically trapped collisionless particles are completely confined, is described. It has been reported that the favorable confinement properties can be explained by the smallness of the effective toroidal curvature {epsilon}{sub T} for the localized helically trapped particles. Here, we show that the L=1 torsatron having the small {epsilon}{sub T} is in magnetic configuration near omnigeneity and leads to good particle confinement. (author)

Aizawa, Masamitsu; Kawakami, Ichiro; Shiina, Shoichi [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Science and Technology; Yamazaki, Hideki; Saito, Katsuhiko

1998-12-31

414

Important role of effective toroidal curvature in L=1 torsatron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Negatively pitch-modulated L=1 torsatron, in which the helically trapped collisionless particles are completely confined, is described. It has been reported that the favorable confinement properties can be explained by the smallness of the effective toroidal curvature ?T for the localized helically trapped particles. Here, we show that the L=1 torsatron having the small ?T is in magnetic configuration near omnigeneity and leads to good particle confinement. (author)

415

Fast Turnover of L1 Adhesions in Neuronal Growth Cones Involving Both Surface Diffusion and Exo/Endocytosis of L1 Molecules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the interplay between surface trafficking and binding dynamics of the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule L1 at neuronal growth cones. Primary neurons were transfected with L1 constructs bearing thrombin-cleavable green fluorescent protein (GFP), allowing visualization of newly exocytosed L1 or labeling of membrane L1 molecules by Quantum dots. Intracellular L1–GFP vesicles showed preferential centrifugal motion, whereas surface L1–GFP diffused randomly, revealing two pa...

Dequidt, Caroline; Danglot, Lydia; Alberts, Philipp; Galli, Thierry; Choquet, Daniel; Thoumine, Olivier

2007-01-01

416

Adaptive Writing Strategy Based on Bit-Indexed Writing Parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

A new organization method for writing parameters is proposed, in which the writing parameters are indexed by the bit-patterns being recorded. An adaptive writing strategy based on these bit-indexed writing parameters is also proposed to automatically optimize recording for high-density Blu-ray Discs. The experimental results for a commercial Blu-ray Disc with a 40 Gbyte capacity verify the suitability of this method.

Zhao, Hui; Park, Hyunsoo; Hwang, Inoh; Lee, Kyunggeun; Park, Insik

2009-03-01

417

Why writing centers matter Why writing centers matter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past twenty-five years, most post-secondary institutions in the United States have established facilities known as writing centers, although sometimes they are called writing "labs," or writing "rooms." One writing center may he enclosed in a large glass building nestled in a redwood forest, where students and tutors confer with one another in spacious, well-lit study spaces. Another may be housed in a converted, under-sized classroom, furnished with only a battered table and a shabby sofa. Whatever their physical characteristics, writing centers are now recognized as playing a vital role in the teaching of writing, one that is as pedagogically significant as that of the composition classroom. The following scenarios embody what I perceive as the essence of the writing center approach and provide a graphic representation of "why writing centers matter." Over the past twenty-five years, most post-secondary institutions in the United States have established facilities known as writing centers, although sometimes they are called writing "labs," or writing "rooms." One writing center may he enclosed in a large glass building nestled in a redwood forest, where students and tutors confer with one another in spacious, well-lit study spaces. Another may be housed in a converted, under-sized classroom, furnished with only a battered table and a shabby sofa. Whatever their physical characteristics, writing centers are now recognized as playing a vital role in the teaching of writing, one that is as pedagogically significant as that of the composition classroom. The following scenarios embody what I perceive as the essence of the writing center approach and provide a graphic representation of "why writing centers matter."

Irene Lurkis Clark

2008-04-01

418

LANGUAGE TRAINING  

CERN Multimedia

If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

2004-01-01

419

LANGUAGE TRAINING  

CERN Multimedia

If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

2004-01-01

420

Fitness cost of LINE-1 (L1) activity in humans  

Science.gov (United States)

The self-replicating LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon family is the dominant retrotransposon family in mammals and has generated 30–40% of their genomes. Active L1 families are present in modern mammals but the important question of whether these currently active families affect the genetic fitness of their hosts has not been addressed. This issue is of particular relevance to humans as Homo sapiens contains the active L1 Ta1 subfamily of the human specific Ta (L1Pa1) L1 family. Although DNA insertions generated by the Ta1 subfamily can cause genetic defects in current humans, these are relatively rare, and it is not known whether Ta1-generated inserts or any other property of Ta1 elements have been sufficiently deleterious to reduce the fitness of humans. Here we show that full-length (FL) Ta1 elements, but not the truncated Ta1 elements or SINE (Alu) insertions generated by Ta1 activity, were subject to negative selection. Thus, one or more properties unique to FL L1 elements constitute a genetic burden for modern humans. We also found that the FL Ta1 elements became more deleterious as the expansion of Ta1 has proceeded. Because this expansion is ongoing, the Ta1 subfamily almost certainly continues to decrease the fitness of modern humans. PMID:16766655

Boissinot, Stephane; Davis, Jerel; Entezam, Ali; Petrov, Dimitri; Furano, Anthony V.

2006-01-01