Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke
This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing. Subsequently, two empirical investigations of L1 writing in a Danish upper secondary school are presented. The first study is based on longitudinal interview data and analyses one student’s experience as an L1 writer in the transition from lower secondary to upper secondary school. A high-achieving student in lower secondary L1, she found that her previous writing strategies were not rewarded in upper secondary school. In the second empiri-cal study, two upper-secondary exam papers are investigated, with a focus on their approaches to exam genres and their use of narrative resources to address issues of voice and identity. In the first paper, the student writer is provoked by the text material to attempt a private narrative.In the second paper, the student provides a personal narrative framework for his argumentation. In conclusion, this paper argues that empirical cases document a need for explicit training of voice and narratives as a resource for academic writing, and that the Bildung potential of L1 writing may be tied to this issue.
van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted
This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…
Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana
Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…
Yu-Hua Chen; Paul Baker
This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., lexical bundles) in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively. Published academic writing was found to exhibit the widest range of lexical bundles whereas L2 student writing showed the smallest range. Furthermore, som...
Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul
This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…
Full Text Available This paper reports on the developmental and psychometric properties of an early writing task. The study was carried out over four years in Toronto, Canada with L1 English-speaking children. Two cohorts of children who began in Nursery School were followed to the end of their Grade 1 year. Children were administered the same writing task at four time points along with standardized measures of early reading. The early writing task required children to write words and number and word combinations; we examined how children move from understanding print as “objects” to understanding print as representation of sounds. We also examined how writing in Nursery School and Kindergarten related to later literacy skills. The methodology allowed us to examine the extent to which early writing in Nursery School (3 years old and Junior Kindergarten (4 years old predicted later literacy skills when children were in Grade 1 (6 years old and were receiving formal reading instruction. Results show characteristic features of children’s early writing of number and word combinations at each of the four grade levels and show that performance on the writing task in Kindergarten predicted reading skills at the end of Grade 1.
Since the first contrastive rhetoric study by Kaplan in 1966, many studies have been produced, and over several decades of development, there have been many contributions gained from previous contrastive rhetoric studies. In this article, many kinds of differences existing in L1 and L2 academic writing have been discussed. I will categorize the differences in three major parts as following: differences in the level of lexicon, differences in the level of sentence, and differences in the level...
Kupatadze, Ketevan; Chiu, Scott C.; Cozart, Stacey Marie; Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte
The advancement of Globalization has simultaneously diluted the need for writing in languages other then English and made us more aware of differences between diverse cultures. Hence, writing in a second/foreign language has acquired a new role. In order for individuals to compete on the international scale, they have to master a foreign language. Yet, the processes and elements of tasks involved in writing in L1 and L2 are far from identical. When writing in the L2, individual writers inevitabl...
MARKU MONIS AND . M. V. RODRIQUES
Writing, like all other aspects of language, is communicative. In our real life we write e-mails, notes, covering letters, reports, curriculums, assignments, essays and so on. Some of us write articles or work on forums and websites. A few write stories and poems. All of these writing tasks have a communicative purpose and a target audience. In the English language classroom, however, writing often lacks this. There are many reasons, as there are lots of ways to make the writing...
Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.
Kupatadze, Ketevan; Chiu, Scott C.
The advancement of Globalization has simultaneously diluted the need for writing in languages other then English and made us more aware of differences between diverse cultures. Hence, writing in a second/foreign language has acquired a new role. In order for individuals to compete on the international scale, they have to master a foreign language. Yet, the processes and elements of tasks involved in writing in L1 and L2 are far from identical. When writing in the L2, individual writers inevitably engage in the changing contexts between the language uses of L1 and L2 and apply their learned knowledge and principles to the writing situations they perceive as suitable or doable. Students’ perception about the role of language in Globalized world and language learning, as well as their self-perception plays an integral role in their ability to transfer knowledge when writing in a second/foreign language. This is particularly true when one teaches adult groups of students who have already formed distinct identities as academically and professionally successful L1 writers. The participants of our panel will look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest in finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writer’s identity. To further examine and understand the nature of writing across different contexts, the panel will consider how student attitudes and perceptions play into writer development and knowledge transfer from L1 to L2. The participants will explore the opportunities and problems of writing in L2, as well as the effects that second/foreign language writing has on writers’ identities, by asking the following guiding questions: 1). How do students develop identities and self-perceptions as L1 and L2 writers? How and to what degree, are their identities as L1 and L2 writers similar or different from each other? 2). How do students develop beliefs and attitudes towards L2 writing? How do their L1 writing experiences inform their L2 writing strategies? How do rhetorical and discursive strategies of L1 writing impact students’ learning of L2 writing and should such impact be viewed as an opportunity or as a problem when teaching second/foreign language writing? 3). What type of support do students need to become better L2 writers? What are their particular pedagogical needs? How can writing instructors or practitioners best support our students in achieving their goals as second/foreign language writers, and transferring their academic writing skills from one language into another, or from one context to another? Method: Through surveys, questionnaires, students feedback and analysis of students writing, the panel participants will look at the possibilities and problems of writing transfer from L1 to L2, as well as the effects that second language writing has on writers’ native identities, especially in the circumstances when they are already seeing the blurring frontiers between native and foreign cultural realms. Cross-context research into second/foreignlanguage writing is essential for a clearer and broader picture to emerge on L2 writing. To this end, the panel will bring together specialists from around the world, from different types of institutions, with different student bodies, who will present their research on teaching and learning L2 writing in diverse linguistic, cultural, institutional, and pedagogical contexts. We invite the audience to look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest of finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writers’ identities. This panel will also address the need for designing more successful approaches to supporting students’ writing skills and to teaching advanced level writing in the second/foreign language classroom by examining students’ perception of writing and, more specifically, the link between L1 and L2 writing experiences. References: Literacy-based language learning (Richard Kern 2000, Claire Krasch, 1993); Wiring assessment (Carl Bereiter, 1995); Learning and writing transfer (Greeno
The present study reports on the evidence of first language (L1) attrition in a population that may appear to be the most resistant to L1 changes. Russian monolinguals (n=3) and Russian-English bilinguals (n=10) participated in the study. The bilinguals were graduate students teaching Russian as a foreign language at a U.S. university. The data…
Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan
Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…
Full Text Available While the effects of L1 on L2 have been extensively investigated, the effects of L2 on L1 have been largely ignored. The present study attempted to address this issue by investigating the effects of L2 English on Iranian Bilinguals’ L1 writing ability. For this end, 61 participants, 30 bilinguals and 31 monolinguals, were assessed on an essay-writing test in their L1. The gathered data were analyzed using independent samples t-test in which the tobs (2.37 was higher than the critical value (2.00 at the significance level of 0.05. The bilinguals, as indicated by the results of the independent samples t-test, performed better than the monolinguals on their L1 writing ability indicating the positive effects bilingualism, here English, could have even on L1 writing ability, which provides more evidence for cross-linguistic influence.Keywords: Bilingualism, cross-linguistic influence, monolingualism
The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…
Marzluf, Phillip P.
Though diversity serves as a valuable source for rhetorical inquiry, expressivist instructors who privilege diversity writing may also overemphasize the essential authenticity of their students' vernaculars. This romantic and salvationist impulse reveals the troubling implications of eighteenth-century Natural Language Theory and may,…
Goodman, Barbara A.
Shakespeare molded language to meet his needs. Can students learn from his example? In this article, the author suggests studying Shakespeare's creative use of functional shift, spelling, and vocabulary to help students develop greater control of their own writing. The author is advocating that teachers approach Shakespeare as descriptive…
Full Text Available This study focused on the linguistic and rhetorical patterns of L1 and L2 writing samples of Iranian EFL learners and aimed to determine possible quantitative differences. For this purpose, an intact EFL class including 30 Iranian EFL learners at an English department (F=21, M=9 was selected and the participants were asked to write English and Persian compositions on the same topic in an argumentative style in two separate sessions. These tasks were then holistically scored according to the ESL Composition Profile (Jacobs et. al. 1981 by two expert scorers. The number of words, number of words per sentences, number of spelling errors and number of T-units were also manually counted for both the English and the Persian tasks. The collected data were used to compare and contrast the linguistic and rhetorical patterns of the L1 and L2 writing samples. The results of the study showed that: a there was a moderate positive correlation (r=0.47 p<0.05 between L1 and L2 writing total scores, b texts written in L1 were significantly longer than those written in L2, c L1 writing texts were more complex than L2 writing ones in terms of T-units, d T-units in texts written in L1 were more than those written in L2, and e the number of spelling errors in L2 writing samples were higher than those of L1 writing samples. These results were compared to those of similar studies comparing L1 and L2 writing. Implications arising from these findings were also explained.
Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip
Product-oriented analyses have shown that academic English (the predominant L2 in their environment: Phillipson and Skuttnab-Kongas 1995) written by Scandinavian writers differs from that of L1 English writers in ways that might work to the disadvantage of the writers in terms of recognition or publishability. Simultaneously language-policy scholars have problematised the predominance of English in many academic fields. There is of course a great deal of individual variation in terms of language choice and publication success. We investigated the writing practices of some 75 Danish academics in various fields of economics and business studies by means of a questionnaire, and then interviewed a proportion of the respondents to get a richer sense of their practices, the intertextuality that lies behind them, the factors that lead to differential language choice and success, and the academics´ attitude to the predominance of English. We identified : a wide range of attitudes to the difficulty of writing in L2; practices associated with successful writing; fields in which international publication was more or less important; and a general reliance on implicit knowledge and intuitive learning, in contrast to the current trend towards explicit teaching of genre and rhetoric.
Higareda Sandra; López Georgina; Mugford Gerrard
Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1) in English Language Teaching (elt ), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations o...
Zaretsky, Elena; Bar-Shalom, Eva G
This study looks at the relationship between L1 (Russian) attrition and L1 reading ability in Russian-English-speaking bilingual children. Ten Russian-English bilingual children and 10 adults participated in this study. Nine out of 10 children participants were born in the US and used L1 as their primary language of interaction within the family, but the intensity and the length of uninterrupted L1 exposure differed for each child. All participants were tested on perception (grammaticality judgement) and production (narrative) tasks to assess their sensitivity to and retention of the morphosyntactic structure of L1. All children showed some attrition of grammatical morphemes, specifically in the Russian systems of declension and conjugation; however, the degree of attrition correlated with reading ability in L1, i.e. children with L1 reading skills showed a lesser degree of attrition for some language-specific morphosyntactic structures. This finding shows interdependence of oral and reading skills and points to the role reading in language with shallow orthography may play in preservation of L1 grammatical structures in oral language. The implications for the clinical applications are also discussed. PMID:20345267
Full Text Available The use of social technologies, such as wikis and chats, has brought a renewed attention to L2 collaborative writing. Yet, a question that still remains to be answered is the extent to which learners’ writing is enhanced when using these tools. By analyzing learners’ individual and collaborative writing, this study (a explores L2 learners’ approaches to the writing task in the wikis, (b examines learners’ collaborative synchronous interactions when discussing content, structure and other aspects related to the elaboration of the writing task, and (c describes learners’ perceptions of individual and collaborative writing and their impressions of the use of social tools in the FL writing class. Analysis of the data showed that while statistically significant differences were not evident in terms of fluency, accuracy and complexity when comparing the individual and collaborative assignments, there were observable trends that inform us about how learners’ interactions with the text differ when working individually or collaboratively. Further, an analysis of learners’ approaches to collaborative writing through the use of social tools shows that wikis and chats allowed them to concentrate on writing components in a different, yet complementary, manner depending on whether they interacted in the wikis or in the chats.
Abbas ZARE-EE; FARVARDIN, Mohammad Taghi
This study focused on the linguistic and rhetorical patterns of L1 and L2 writing samples of Iranian EFL learners and aimed to determine possible quantitative differences. For this purpose, an intact EFL class including 30 Iranian EFL learners at an English department (F=21, M=9) was selected and the participants were asked to write English and Persian compositions on the same topic in an argumentative style in two separate sessions. These tasks were then holistically scored according to the ...
Fredy Orlando Salamanca González
Full Text Available In a public university in Tunja (Colombia, undergraduate language students mentioned that writing was important and yet, they kept at a distance from it due to its requirements. The aim of this pedagogical intervention was to find a strategy to encourage students to write and, more importantly, to feel an identity with their texts. For this pedagogical intervention, students were required to write narratives that allowed them to portray their experiences using the target language and to look for the most accurate words and descriptions. From a pedagogical perspective, writing the narratives provided the teacher with the possibility of knowing his students better and to feel an affiliation towards them.
Oganian, Yulia; Conrad, Markus; Aryani, Arash; Spalek, Katharina; Heekeren, Hauke R
A crucial aspect of bilingual communication is the ability to identify the language of an input. Yet, the neural and cognitive basis of this ability is largely unknown. Moreover, it cannot be easily incorporated into neuronal models of bilingualism, which posit that bilinguals rely on the same neural substrates for both languages and concurrently activate them even in monolingual settings. Here we hypothesized that bilinguals can employ language-specific sublexical (bigram frequency) and lexical (orthographic neighborhood size) statistics for language recognition. Moreover, we investigated the neural networks representing language-specific statistics and hypothesized that language identity is encoded in distributed activation patterns within these networks. To this end, German-English bilinguals made speeded language decisions on visually presented pseudowords during fMRI. Language attribution followed lexical neighborhood sizes both in first (L1) and second (L2) language. RTs revealed an overall tuning to L1 bigram statistics. Neuroimaging results demonstrated tuning to L1 statistics at sublexical (occipital lobe) and phonological (temporoparietal lobe) levels, whereas neural activation in the angular gyri reflected sensitivity to lexical similarity to both languages. Analysis of distributed activation patterns reflected language attribution as early as in the ventral stream of visual processing. We conclude that in language-ambiguous contexts visual word processing is dominated by L1 statistical structure at sublexical orthographic and phonological levels, whereas lexical search is determined by the structure of both languages. Moreover, our results demonstrate that language identity modulates distributed activation patterns throughout the reading network, providing a key to language identity representations within this shared network. PMID:26226076
Tarnanen, Mirja; Aalto, Eija
In this article, we report a case study on the Finnish as an L2 writing skill of weak writers in grades 7–9 of comprehensive school. The study is based on writing performances of 25 students who each completed four different writing tasks (i.e., 100 texts) and a questionnaire about their background information, self-assessment of writing and literacy practices. First, we discuss target language writing proficiency in the school context from the curriculum and pedagogical point of view. Then w...
Full Text Available Learning a second language (L2 with a script different from the learner’s first language (L1 presents unique challenges for both student and teacher. This paper looks at current theory and research examining issues of second language writing system (L2WS acquisition, particularly issues pertaining to decoding and word recognition1 by adult learners. I argue that the importance of word recognition and decoding in fluent L1 and L2 reading has been overshadowed for several decades by a focus on research looking at top-down reading processes. Although top-down reading processes and strategies are clearly components of successful L2 reading, I argue that more attention needs to be given to bottom-up processing skills, particularly for beginning learners of an L2 that uses a script that is different from their L1. I use the example of learning Lao as a second language writing system where possible and suggest preliminary pedagogical implications.
With Writing Between Languages, Danling Fu shows that by beginning with the literacy students bring from their native language and putting writing at the center of the curriculum, we can help them transition to English and support academic literacy. You'll learn the crucial and helpful role native literacy plays in building written English fluency, assess where ELLs are in their development as writers, use movement between languages to scaffold writing—no matter whether you know a student's home language—and implement instructional strategies to support development in writing
With Writing Between Languages, Danling Fu shows that by beginning with the literacy students bring from their native language and putting writing at the center of the curriculum, we can help them transition to English and support academic literacy. You'll learn the crucial and helpful role native literacy plays in building written English fluency, assess where ELLs are in their development as writers, use movement between languages to scaffold writing-no matter whether you know a student's home language-and implement instructional strategies to support development in writing.
Abstract This study compared the effects of writing new words in sentences with word picture repetition learning alone. Second language (L2) Spanish learners attempted to learn 24 new Spanish words in one of two conditions while viewing word picture pairs. In Experiment 1, in the no sentence writing condition, the participants viewed 4 repetitions of each word for 6 seconds each. In the sentence writing con...
George M. Jacobs
This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on...
Kroll, Barbara, Ed.
This book is addressed to those about to embark on the teaching of second language writing as well as to those already engaged in the field. Teachers are dedicated to postering growth in writing; researchers want to investigate the questions that shed the greatest light on the problem in the field. The concerns of both these groups are addressed…
Writing is the dominant mode through which most learning and assessment is mediated in schools. It is through writing that learners are most often asked to demonstrate their understanding of learned concepts and share their understandings of these concepts. If English language learners are to succeed in English medium schools, they must become…
Schulz, Melissa M.
The total number of English Language Learners in the American public schools is more than 4.5 million students or 9.6% of the total school population. This article focuses on instructional writing strategies and assessments for English Language Learners in the elementary classroom. This article provides early childhood education teachers with…
Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc
This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…
De Silva, Radhika
Writing for academic purposes in a second/foreign language is a major challenge faced by many students at both secondary and tertiary levels. This suggests that displaying content knowledge and understanding of a subject through a second language is a very complex process. This article discusses the findings of a longitudinal intervention study…
Researchers working on acquisition of written language by children are traditionally more interested in reading than in writing even if, today, spelling and writing have become common subjects of research and the themes of academic conferences.
This exploratory study investigated the development of speaking and writing skills of L1 Arabic EFL learners based on their level of perception and understanding of phonetic transcriptions through visualisation of letter-to-symbol representations using the International Phonetic Alphabet (henceforth IPA). The participants were 169 University-level Preparatory Year Program (PYP) male Saudi EFL students. The study was carried out as a pedagogical approach to improve university first year studen...
Hitendra Pillay; Hossein Bozorgian
Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian) and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female p...
Altay, Ismail Firat
As is known, writing is an indispensable part of language education. As far as English Language Teaching Departments are concerned, writing courses, especially Advanced Writing Skills, are taken as a course of higher importance. However, forming a syllabus for Advanced Writing Course for English Language Teaching Departments is not an easy matter.…
Bergmann, Christopher; Sprenger, Simone A; Schmid, Monika S
Fluent speech depends on the availability of well-established linguistic knowledge and routines for speech planning and articulation. A lack of speech fluency in late second-language (L2) learners may point to a deficiency of these representations, due to incomplete acquisition. Experiments on bilingual language processing have shown, however, that there are strong reasons to believe that multilingual speakers experience co-activation of the languages they speak. We have studied to what degree language co-activation affects fluency in the speech of bilinguals, comparing a monolingual German control group with two bilingual groups: 1) first-language (L1) attriters, who have fully acquired German before emigrating to an L2 English environment, and 2) immersed L2 learners of German (L1: English). We have analysed the temporal fluency and the incidence of disfluency markers (pauses, repetitions and self-corrections) in spontaneous film retellings. Our findings show that learners to speak more slowly than controls and attriters. Also, on each count, the speech of at least one of the bilingual groups contains more disfluency markers than the retellings of the control group. Generally speaking, both bilingual groups-learners and attriters-are equally (dis)fluent and significantly more disfluent than the monolingual speakers. Given that the L1 attriters are unaffected by incomplete acquisition, we interpret these findings as evidence for language competition during speech production. PMID:26298087
Ghobadi, Mehdi; Ghasemi, Hadi
Translation and language teaching techniques which take language learners' first language (L1) as point of reference for teaching the second language (L2) have been long discouraged on the ground that these teaching techniques would end in the fossilization of L2 structure forms in the learner's Interlanguage system. However, in recent years, the…
Full Text Available Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female participants came from two EFL classrooms in an English language institute. The experimental class (n = 30 who listened to their classroom activities performed better (t value = 10.083 than the control class using a methodology that led learners through five listening strategies in Persian. The same teacher taught the students in the control class (n = 30, who listened to the same classroom listening activities without any of the above listening strategies. A pre and post listening test made by a group of experts in the language institute assessed the effect of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1. Results gathered on the post intervention listening test revealed that listening strategies delivered in L1 led to a statistically significant improvement in their discrete listening scores compared with the control group.
Albrechtsen, Dorte; Haastrup, Kirsten; Henriksen, Birgit
Book description: Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language is based on a large-scale empirical study. The innovative feature of the research was that the same students were asked to do the same tasks in both languages while reporting their thinking as they went along. Furthermore , they had to undertake the same tasks even though they were of very different experience, ranging from young children at school to university students. Three areas of learners' competencies and skills were...
Full Text Available Considering the widespread use of blogs during recent years, the present study explored how blogging can affect the writing skill of Iranian language learners. Besides, the learners' perception of blogging was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to see whether learners showed enthusiasm to blogging and how it motivated them to write. Two intermediate English classes were selected as the Control and Experimental Groups. Six writing topics were selected and were assigned to both groups. The writing activities in the Control Group were done on paper-based method while the Blogging Group used a selected website to do so. To evaluate the writing activities, four criteria were taken into account: a length of the writing activities, b use of verb forms, c use of articles, and d use of prepositions. Based on the results of the chi-square tests, in terms of the frequency of missed articles and prepositions the performances of both groups were significantly different. Also the compositions in the Blogging Group were longer than those of the Control Group. However, the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the learners' perception towards blogging revealed that students believed blogging had encouraged them to write more accurately. They also considered that blogging had remarkably improved their writing ability as compared to the time they did not use blogging.
Kovalik, Doina L.; Kovalik, Ludovic M.
This article describes a language simulation involving six distinct phases: an in-class quick response, a card game, individual research, a classroom debate, a debriefing session, and an argumentative essay. An analysis of student artifacts--quick-response writings and final essays, respectively, both addressing the definition of liberty in a…
Hanauer, David I.
This paper develops the concept of meaningful literacy and offers a classroom methodology--poetry writing--that manifests this approach to ESL/EFL literacy instruction. The paper is divided into three sections. The first deals with the concept of meaningful literacy learning in second and foreign language pedagogy; the second summarizes empirical…
Lies Amin Lestari
Writing is a language skill which is relatively difficult to acquire. A number of efforts have been made to develop the students' writing skill, among others is by applying different approaches to the teaching of writing. This article discusses the interactional approach to the teaching of writing and its implications for second language acquisition. Â
Uccelli, Paola; Dobbs, Christina L.; Scott, Jessica
Beyond mechanics and spelling conventions, academic writing requires progressive mastery of advanced language forms and functions. Pedagogically useful tools to assess such language features in adolescents' writing, however, are not yet available. This study examines language predictors of writing quality in 51 persuasive essays produced by high…
LUÍSA ÁLVARES PEREIRA; INÊS CARDOSO; LUCIANA GRAÇA
With this article we hope to contribute towards the definition of the field of the Didactics ofWriting in Portugal, an area which has been developing, essentially, since the mid 90s, in order to defineboth the problems surrounding research in this area, as well as the contents used in the teaching and learningof writing which result from the former. It is not our objective to go into detail concerning the state ofthe art in this field in Portugal; our purpose is to present the main perspectiv...
George M. Jacobs
Full Text Available This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on doing the actual writing. Here, it is suggested that we connect ideas, delve deeply into the ideas we present, strive to write the reader friendly manner, use visuals, and improve our writing by noticing how other journal authors write. The third section concerns relations with editors. The advice given is that we choose carefully the journal to which we submit our work, follow that journal's directions to contributors, include a cover letter, be prepared to wait patiently, welcome critical feedback from editors and reviewers, and view editors as colleagues.
Soo Kum Yoke; Cecilia Bai Rajendran; Noridah Sain; Puteri Nur Hidayah Kamaludin; Sofwah Md Nawi; Suhaili Mohd Yusof
Conventional corrective feedback has been widely practiced but has been said to be tedious, stressful and time consuming. As such, the focus of this study is to investigate the use of an alternative method to giving corrective feedback namely, an online corrective feedback through e-mail. In order to examine if this innovative form of corrective feedback can be applied to the teaching and learning of academic writing, an experimental design was used with a control group and an experimental gr...
Ali Akbar Khansir
The purpose of the study is to compare and examine types of written errors by EFL and ESL learners at under graduate level in English Language and suggest remedial measures to overcome the committing of errors. The data for the study were 200 students in the age range of 20 to24 at under graduate level in Mysore, India as ESL learners and Bushehr, Iran as EFL learners participated in this study. The results of the study indicate that the total number of errors committed by the Iranian student...
This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…
Uccelli, Paola; Dobbs, Christina L.; Scott, Jessica Armytage
Beyond mechanics and spelling conventions, academic writing requires progressive mastery of advanced language forms and functions. Pedagogically-useful tools to assess such language features in adolescents’ writing, however, are not yet available. This study examines language predictors of writing quality in 51 persuasive essays produced by high school students attending a linguistically and ethnically diverse inner-city school in the Northeastern U.S. Essays were scored for writing quality b...
The case study has its source in the author's attempt to translate his novelette Alitshoni lingaphumi (Waiting for sunrise) into English. Current developments in the sociopolitical arena make it increasingly important for linguists to focus on the interchange between the indigenous languages and the two dominant languages, English and Afrikaans. This would break down the artificial baniers so enthusiastically maintained in the past. Secondly, such an exercise would also help to overcome preju...
Full Text Available This study is considered the L2 acquisition and underlying of past tense marker, focusing on whether or not L2 learners of English are successful in associating the grammatical properties with Chinese language. Although the dataset is small, the results showed that Chinese speakers are able to acquire the past-tense marker although Chinese language has none of this feature. The L1 Chinese speakers are able to acquire the regular past-tense marker better co mpared to the irregular form.
Keywords: Second language acquisition; Past tense marker; L1 Chinese speakers; Irregular form
Résumé: Cet article étudie l'acquisition d’une deuxième langue, et en particulier l’apprentissage du passé, en se concentrant sur le fait si les apprenants de l'anglais pouvaient réussir à associer les propriétés grammaticales de la langue anglaise avec la langue chinoise. Bien que l'ensemble des données est faible, les résultats montrent que les locuteurs du chinois sont capable de maîtriser le passé, même si la langue chinoise n'a pas cette fonctionnalité. Les locuteurs du chinois maîtrise mieux le passé en forme régulière par rapport en forme irrégulière.
Mots-Clés: acquisition d’une deuxième langue; temps passér; les locuteurs du chinois; forme irrégulière
Writing is often seen as having a minor role in second language learning. This article explores recent research that suggests that writing can have a facilitative role in language development. In particular, it focuses on three features of writing: (1) its slower pace, and (2) the enduring record that it leaves, both of which can encourage…
Liu, Meihua; Ni, Huiliuqian
This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners' foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured…
Introduction: With regard to the internal/external frame of reference model of academic self-concept development the present study aimed at testing its theoretical assumptions within the verbal domain--namely to analyze the relations between achievement and self-concept in the native language German (L1) and the foreign language English (L2). Due…
El Euch, Sonia
Several researchers have suggested that definitional skill explains academic success/failure (Gagne, 2004; Snow, 1987). The words used to investigate definitional skill have all been concrete words given in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) of the participants. This paper reports a study investigating the quality of the…
Full Text Available The case study has its source in the author's attempt to translate his novelette Alitshoni lingaphumi (Waiting for sunrise into English. Current developments in the sociopolitical arena make it increasingly important for linguists to focus on the interchange between the indigenous languages and the two dominant languages, English and Afrikaans. This would break down the artificial baniers so enthusiastically maintained in the past. Secondly, such an exercise would also help to overcome prejudicial ignorance.Some of the issues highlighted include culturastructural, lexicsyntactic, and semantic differences between Xhosa and English, as exemplified in the text in question. Die vertrekpunt vir die gevallestudie is die skrywer se poging om sy novelle Alitshoni lingaphumi (Wagtend op sonsopkoms in Engels te vertaal. In die lig van eietydse ontwikkelinge in die sosio-politiese arena, word dit vir linguiste toenemend belangrik om te fokus op die wisselwerking tussen die inheemse tale en die twee dominante tale, Engels en Afrikaans. Dit sou die kunsmatige skeiding wat in die verlede met soveel entoesiasme gehandhaaf is, ajbreek Dit sou ook die onkunde wat uit vooroordeel spruit, oorkom, Van die sake wat na aanleiding van die teks na vore gebring word, sluit die kulturele, strukturele, leksikale, sintaktiese en semantiese verskille tussen Xhosa en Engels in.
The study of the role of language activity in higher education in France has been evolving, in the past few years, out of the larger field of ‘la didactique du français,’ the field of L1 teaching and theory across all grade levels. This larger frame has provided several themes that are now being explored in higher education writing: language activity as a mode of co-construction of knowledge in school settings rather than a transparent medium, writing, reading and speaking as intimately disci...
McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod
The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system. PMID:23055164
The internationalisation of university studies has resulted in an increasing use of English, a language which many students assume they master sufficiently well. This can lead to resistance to devoting time to language improvement. The motivation to work with language skills can be promoted by integrating language classes into discipline specific summary writing. This approach is showing some potential and incorporates reading skills with writing, grammar, peer critique and discussion. Summar...
Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung
With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…
Cho, Hyonsuk; Brutt-Griffler, Janina
This study reports Korean English language learners' perceived needs concerning their learning of reading and writing and how the integrated reading and writing instruction impacts their reading comprehension and summary-writing abilities. The study also delineates teacher's challenges faced during the instruction. A total of 93 students in a…
Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.
Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement--Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and…
The Report of Chinese Students' English Writing Ability (2014) focuses on the Chinese students' English writing in the automated essay-evaluation context. The data and samples are primarily from a national-wide writing project involving 300,814 English as a Foreign Language participants from 452 schools in China during a period of April 10 to May…
Akinwamide, Timothy Kolade
This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students' performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control…
This paper reports on the development of complexity and accuracy in English as a Second Language (ESL) academic writing. Although research into complexity and accuracy development in second language (L2) writing has been well established, few studies have assumed the multidimensionality of these two constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2009) or…
This article is a synthesis of the scholarly literature on the post-process approach to teaching second language (L2) writing, particularly college and university composition in English as an additional language. This synthesis aims to offer a definition of post-process L2 writing that can readily lend itself to practice and be more accessible to…
Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen
This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141…
Bao, Rui; Du, Xiangyun
In the past two decades, strong theoretical and pedagogical arguments have been made advocating for task-based activities in the language-learning context. However, many teachers have been reluctant to in- corporate task-based activities into their teaching practices due to concerns about learners’ extensive L1 use and off-task talk. Informed by sociocultural theory, this study explored the extent to which L1s and their func- tions were used when performing tasks. The subjects were beginner-level lower-secondary school learners of Chinese. The data shows that learners have a high amount of L1 use, but with only a very small amount oc- curring for off-task talk across tasks. L1 use mainly occurred in learners’ efforts to mediate completion of the tasks. The findings highlight the role of L1 in foreign language learning and suggest that L1 use is associated with a number of factors, such as task types, learners’ proficiency, and learning context. Implications for lan- guage teachers and task designers are also discussed.
Full Text Available The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field. The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.
Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Bowers, Lisa M.; Dostal, Hannah M.; Graham, Shannon C.
Language transfer theory elucidates how first language (L1) knowledge and grammatical features are applied in second language (L2) writing. Deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh) students who use or are developing American Sign Language (ASL) as their L1 may demonstrate the use of ASL linguistic features in their writing of English. In this study, we…
Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe the background of Cia-Cia language society's adoption and use of Hangeul (Korean alphabet as its writing system that was begun in July 2009. The issue has caused Indonesian society and neighborhood countries curious, since Latin alphabet is world widely used as the most common writing system at present time. On the other side, the historical background of writing system's development which has been implemented sustainably through borrowing and adapting process proves that any writing system can also be used in other language society in the 21st century. Similar to that of the most of minority language societies, Cia-Cia language has not had its own writing system. The transcription of Hangeul in Cia-Cia language was begun to support the preservation of minority language. Concern to this issue, if the spoken language of Cia-Cia is stabilly continued, Hangeul will be known as one of the writing systems which has preserved Cia-Cia language in world's development of writing system history.
Per Henning UPPSTAD
Mainstream research on reading and writing is based on the assumption, common in modern linguistics, that spoken language is primary to written language in most important respects. Unfortunately, the conceptual framework for the study of language and 'literacy' (encompassing both reading and writing skills) is built around this assumption. This is problematic with regard to the philosophy of science, since this framework lacks sufficient empirical support. It is claimed in the present...
Dockrell, Julie E.; Ricketts, Jessie; Charman, Tony; Lindsay, Geoff
Oral language skills scaffold written text production; students with oral language difficulties often experience writing problems. The current study examines the ways in which oral language problems experienced by students with language impairment (LI) and students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) impact on their production of written text. One hundred and fifty seven participants (Mage = 10;2) with LI or ASD completed standardized measures of oral language, transcription, working memory,...
Yokoyama, Satoru; Kim, Jungho; Uchida, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta
Introduction How human brains acquire second languages (L2) is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience and language science. However, it is unclear whether the first language (L1) has a cross-linguistic influence on the processing of L2. Methods Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activities during L2 word reading tasks of phonographic Japanese Kana between two groups of learners of the Japanese language as their L2 and who had different orthographic ...
Klementina Juran?i? Petek
Full Text Available Wieden and Nemser (1991 carried out a study investigating the development of pronunciation of English as a foreign language in Austria. One of the main issues in this research was L1 dialect interference. Individual studies have proven that the pronunciation of a second (L2 or foreign language (FL is not influenced only by the standard variety of the first language (L1, but also by the L1 dialect of the speaker’s place of origin (Karpf et al. 1980. Wieden and Nemser’s study wished to prove this on a larger scale. A similar study was carried out also for Slovenia (Juran?i? Petek 2007. Contrastive analysis (CA of the Slovene Standard pronunciation and English was performed as well as that of the sound systems of individual Slovene dialects and the English one. Error analysis (EA of the obtained results showed that L1 dialect interference did not occur in the instances predicted by contrastive analysis; however the study in itself did prove the existence of such influence (“magnet effect” in vowels.
Scherag, Andre; Demuth, Lisa; Rosler, Frank; Neville, Helen J.; Roder, Brigitte
It has been hypothesized that some aspects of a second language (L2) might be learned easier than others if a language is learned late. On the other hand, non-use might result in a loss of language skills in one's native, i.e. one's first language (L1) (language attrition). To study which, if any, aspects of language are affected by either late…
Hubert, Michael D.
An important task for foreign language (FL) instructors and researchers is to understand how the development of each language skill affects other aspects of language acquisition. This case study seeks to determine if speaking and writing proficiencies develop at similar rates among FL learners. Seventeen students enrolled in beginning,…
Full Text Available Think Aloud is one of the main research methods in psychological linguistic study. It plays an important role in foreign language teaching study. This thesis researches into the second language writing process of Japanese learners whose native language are Chinese and draws the conclusion that their writing process include the characteristics of two languages. It is the characteristics that cause Japanese learners are influenced by Chinese and culture, especially in sentence structure and vocabulary. Key Words: Chinese thought; culture; Think Aloud; the second language writing
The role of language transfer in second language acquisition has long been the focus in the study of cross-linguistic influence. Much has been written about how the learner’s existing linguistic knowledge influences the course of second language development. In the last decade, however, there have been a considerable number of books and journal articles dealing with a relatively under-explored field: the role of language transfer during third language acquisition. The question ...
Qiu-juan ZHU; Shu-feng WU
Think Aloud is one of the main research methods in psychological linguistic study. It plays an important role in foreign language teaching study. This thesis researches into the second language writing process of Japanese learners whose native language are Chinese and draws the conclusion that their writing process include the characteristics of two languages. It is the characteristics that cause Japanese learners are influenced by Chinese and culture, especially in sentence structure and voc...
In a cross-sectional study 823 Finnish school children were tested to examine the relation between speed of performance in cognitive and linguistic tasks and second/foreign language reading and writing. Participants were Finnish-speakers with English as foreign language and Russian-speakers with Finnish as second language which made it possible to compare the results across these two language groups. The Finnish group was furthermore divided into three groups by age to see how speed develops ...
Full Text Available This study examined Taiwanese graduate students' language anxiety over writing academic papers utilizing an adapted version of the FLCAS and in-depth individual interviews. The results suggested that the majority of these ten Taiwanese graduate students have experienced high anxiety over writing academic papers. The anxiety they experience over writing stems primarily from grammatical errors, using Chinese English, lacking adequate vocabulary or misuse of English vocabulary, lack of personal opinions, and not understanding the instructions for assignments.
Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty
The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL) children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1) were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA) and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing f...
Recep Sahin Arslan
This study reports on the experience of a group of pre-service teachers of English in a compulsory writing course in the preparatory program of an English language teaching department in the Turkish context. This study specifically attempts to investigate to what extent the writing course contributes to the acquisition of basic conventions of written discourse in English when prospective teachers of English are involved in an extensive writing practice which is based upon integration of produ...
Wei, Michael; Zhou, Yalun
The impact of social dimensions (e.g., parental involvement) on second language literacy acquisition is not well studied in the field (August & Shanahan, 2008). Although quite a few studies report immigrant parents' belief and perspectives of their children's second language reading and writing, it remains unknown for school teachers…
This paper describes a project that aimed to leverage the students' interest and experience of technology and multimodal environments to develop their academic writing skills and second language learning. Students were expected to follow a model, research a topic, and craft a digital video tutorial on an aspect of academic writing which would…
Liam Murray; Tríona Hourigan; Catherine Jeanneau
This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006), then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming). The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expressi...
Theoretical and Practical Linguistic Shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and Recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in Teaching Writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners
Writing is a complex cognitive activity in which foreign language learners are required to pay attention simultaneously to content, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that an effective teaching method in one context would result in effective student learning in another. It is proved that Product/Guided Writing resulting in poor writers, and Process Writing dos not provide much care for metalinguistic feedback or eno...
Theoretical and Practical Linguistic Shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and Recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in Teaching Writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners
Full Text Available Writing is a complex cognitive activity in which foreign language learners are required to pay attention simultaneously to content, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that an effective teaching method in one context would result in effective student learning in another. It is proved that Product/Guided Writing resulting in poor writers, and Process Writing dos not provide much care for metalinguistic feedback or enough time for negotiation as well. Following the stages of Innovated Writing Process (IWP, the instructor may be able to teach students many skills that may improve the quality of their writing as well as speaking. This paper presents the theoretical and practical linguistic shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in teaching writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners. It is indicated that metalinguistic feedback, error/contrastive analysis and the communicative interaction negotiating of meaning and form provided by the teacher lead to remarkable improve in second/foreign language learners’ written accuracy and fluency as well.
Norizul Azida Darus
Full Text Available Many students have become avid texters and are seriously reinventing language to accommodate the 160-character limit of short messages. They are more interested in getting their messages across and thus becoming less concerned about correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. Since texting has become a way of life of many students, it is feared that the SMS language can affect students’ written performance. This research examines the effects of frequent usage of text messaging (SMS on undergraduates academic writing. For the purpose of the study, 264 Diploma students of UiTM Perlis were selected as participants. They were 94 male texters and 170 female texters aged between 18 – 22 years old who were taking three different English courses namely Preparatory English, Mainstream English 1 and Mainstream English 2. The data includes participants’ SMS messages, class assignments and examinations scripts which were analyzed in order to detect the existence of SMS language by using measuring instruments of Orthographic forms (Shortis, 2001. The findings reveal that there were few occurrences of SMS language in students’ examinations scripts among weak students.
Intended for second language teachers and teacher trainees, the guide to linguistic concepts used in second language instruction outlines the applications of basic linguistic concepts to classroom practice and some classroom activities. Chapters address the following topics: (1) the relationship of language and linguistics; (2) human…
Full Text Available The installation of English language writing centres in Japanese universities is a relatively recent event—the first ones established with funding from the Ministry of Education in 2004. Because of the EFL writing context, setting up a writing centre requires consideration of students’ needs and cultural expectations of writing and writing centres. In general, writing centres that have been established in Japanese universities follow a structure similar to those in the US. This raises the question as to whether or not this is appropriate for the particular needs of EFL students and the obstacles they face. For this study, in order to explore students’ attitudes toward writing centres and the role they play in writing education, interview data was collected from students of English composition in two different departments at a university in Japan well known for its English language education: the English department, which does not have a writing centre, and the liberal arts department, which has one of the first writing centres established in Japan.
This article outlines a theory of the development of writing expertise illustrated by a review of relevant research. An argument is made for two necessary (although not sufficient) components in the development of writing expertise: fluent language generation processes and extensive knowledge relevant to writing. Fluent language processes enable the developing writer (especially the young developing writer) to begin to manage the constraints imposed by working memory, whereas extensive knowle...
Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty
Full Text Available The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1 were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing fluency measure. Correlation and hierarchical regression results varied as a function of the writing tasks (procedural or generative and language status. Across language groups, writing tasks that captured children's developing graphophonemic knowledge were associated with a breadth of cognitive, linguistic, and early literacy skills. PA, reading, and transcription skills, but not oral vocabulary and syntactic knowledge contributed the most variance to writing irrespective of language status. The results suggest that parallel component skills and processes underlie ESL and EL1 children's early writing when formal literacy instruction begins in kindergarten even though ESL children are developing English oral and literacy proficiency simultaneously.
Turner, Kristen Hawley; Abrams, Sandra Schamroth; Katíc, Elvira; Donovan, Meredith Jeta
The language teens use in digital spaces--from social network posts to instant message chats to text messages--often does not adhere to Standard Written English (SWE). Their digital writing involves a combination of written and conversational languages and often has a digital thumbprint that distinguishes the writer. As a means to understand this…
Crossley, Scott A.
This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…
O'Donnell, Mary E.
This article contains results from an online survey that asked 66 college-level language program directors of French, German, and Spanish in (he United States about policies and procedures governing foreign language writing at their respective institutions. Survey categories included (1) general Information, (2) Information regarding practices and…
Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti
We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional…
Bamanger, Ebrahim Mohammed; Alhassan, Riyadh Abdulrahman
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether giving English as a foreign language learners podcast lectures in addition to the traditional lectures help them to enhance their English language writing, and to explore and discover useful information regarding the adoption of podcasting as a learning or training tool in order to better…
Maria Gené Gil
Full Text Available This case study explores the purposes for which the target language (TL and the L1s were used orally by students (N=60 and teachers (N=3 in a mainstream CLIL secondary education context compared to EFL instruction in the Balearic Islands (Spain. Data were gathered by means of questionnaires addressed to students and teachers, oral interviews to instructors and observations of class sessions. The findings show some differences in the languages chosen to speak according to pedagogical functions –i.e. planned subject-based discourse– and real functions –i.e. unplanned discourse such as disciplinary or organizational matters– (Chavez 2003, with the TL being much more spoken in the former and with much lesser presence of the TL in the latter, especially in the case of the pupils. Moreover, specialized subject-matter terminology was almost always used in the TL by both the students and the teachers, even when speaking in the L1.
Full Text Available The empirical studies reviewed in this article show that over the past two decades research on learning to write in second languages has expanded and refined conceptualizations of (a the qualities of texts that learners produce, (b the processes of students' composing, and, increasingly, (c the specific sociocultural contexts in which this learning occurs. Research has tended to treat each of these dimensions separately, though they are integrally interrelated. Certain recommendations for instruction follow from this inquiry, but the conclusiveness and comprehensiveness of such recommendations are constrained by the multi faceted nature of second-language writing and the extensive variability associated both with literacy and with languages internationally.
Apps, Linda; Mamchur, Carolyn
The task of writing about the process of making and contextualising art can be overwhelming for some graduate students. While the challenge may be due in part to limited time and attention to the practice of writing, in a practice-based arts thesis there is a deeper issue: how the visual and written components are attended to in a manner that…
Mason, Linda H.; Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miller, Carol A.; Glutting, J. James
Many students struggle with gaining knowledge and writing about content text material and therefore require effective intervention. In a randomized controlled trial study, 77 low-achieving fourth-grade students received reading comprehension instruction or reading comprehension plus writing instruction or were assigned to a no-treatment control.…
The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom spe...
Full Text Available The present study was concerned with eliciting information about the problems that bilingual or immigrant students’ encounter and the strategies that they employ whilst writing in Greek as a second language (GL2 and in English as a foreign language (EFL. The sample consisted of a total of 32 bilingual students, aged between 10 and 12 from Albanian, Russian and Georgian families. The study followed a qualitative and quantitative method of data collection and analysis: (1 a screening writing test was used for student selection and their categorisation into skilled and less skilled writers; (2 student think-aloud reports and retrospective interviews were used to collect data whilst students were writing in GL2 and EFL. The findings indicated that the skilled bilingual writers held a much broader and complex view of their own writing process and showed more strategic knowledge compared to less-skilled writers. In particular, they were more flexible in using both cognitive and metacognitive strategies and employed a wider range of more ‘elaborated’ strategies. In contrast, the less-skilled writers had a more limited knowledge of the writing task, and they adopted lower-level processes and strategies. However, they had adequate awareness of their own writing problems related to word level, and they employed certain compensation strategies to overcome writing weaknesses. Some suggestions are made about the creation of educational and teaching conditions for developing bilingual students’ linguistic cognitive and metacognitive skills and expanding opportunities for them to become autonomous writers.
Full Text Available In a cross-sectional study 823 Finnish school children were tested to examine the relation between speed of performance in cognitive and linguistic tasks and second/foreign language reading and writing. Participants were Finnish-speakers with English as foreign language and Russian-speakers with Finnish as second language which made it possible to compare the results across these two language groups. The Finnish group was furthermore divided into three groups by age to see how speed develops with age and education. Groups were tested with a number of cognitive instruments that included measures of speed of performance. Overall, performance on the speed measures improved with age; often, the second language learners outperformed their foreign language peers of the same age. Regression analyses indicated that speed measures could predict from 20% to over 40% of performance in second/foreign language reading and writing tasks. Prediction was somewhat stronger for writing than reading. The best predictors were also somewhat different for the foreign and second language learners, as well as for the different age groups.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.13
Full Text Available The last acquired skill is writing when it comes to basic language skills. Writing is a kind of skill that can be applied when the other skills are acquired. Thus, it is necessary to acquire listening, speaking and reading skills before teaching writing skills as it is fed on these skills. The task of native language teaching programmes is to enable learners to use these skills effectively in their lives. Because of the fact that other skills, especially listening and speaking, also partly reading are acquired in the family, only writing is acquired in formal education institutions. In this sense, it is assessed in a separate category in native language programmes. Research carried out both in Turkey and in the world shows that neither in our country, nor in the world is the writing skill at the desired level. These research focus on the reasons why the learners' creativity levels are low when writing is concerned. The reasons are thought to be learners, teachers, environment and the education system itself.
Denger, C.; Doerr, J.; Kamsties, E.
Natural language is widely used in industry to state requirements for all types of systems, because it is flexible and universal. Even if a modeling technique such as the UML is used, the requirements are usually stated in natural lan-guage first. However, natural language has one major drawback, which is its inherent ambiguity. This report surveys the state of the practice and the state of the art in techniques that aim at making natural language more precise. Ten contributions to this probl...
He, Tung-Hsien; Chang, Shan-Mao; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen
This study examined relations of achievement goals of writers who are speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL), the frequency of their writing strategy use, and the quality of their writing from a multiple goals perspective. The goal profiles of 57 EFL college students with similar writing proficiency were based on rating items of an unpublished scale; Group 1 had strong mastery and strong performance-approach goals, and two groups included students with only one strong mastery (Group 2) or performance (Group 3) goal. Think-aloud protocols indicated that the participants adopted 21 strategies in an argumentative writing task, classified into five categories. Group 1 was found to use writing strategies of monitoring or evaluating, revising, and compensating significantly more often than the other two groups, and produced better essays. Strong mastery and performance-approach goals might be beneficial for EFL college writers. PMID:21667751
Genc, Bilal; Bada, Erdogan
Language is a phenomenon which can hardly be viewed separate from its very inherent component, culture. This component does by all means play a significant role in enabling the language to gain a global status. No doubt, some prominent issues do contribute to this process: political, economic, and military supremacy, to name but a few. This study…
Albrechtsen, Dorte; Haastrup, Kirsten
Book description: Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language is based on a large-scale empirical study. The innovative feature of the research was that the same students were asked to do the same tasks in both languages while reporting their thinking as they went along. Furthermore , they had to undertake the same tasks even though they were of very different experience, ranging from young children at school to university students. Three areas of learners' competencies and skills were explored: vocabulary knowledge, word guessing strategies and writing. The authors further explore the relationship between the skills and describe the level of development for individual learners within the three areas. In all cases, statistical and qualitative analyses are offered, the latter being based on the learners' own 'think-aloud' reports. Both researchers and teachers of language will find this in-depth approach useful in understanding the processes of both first and second language performance
Isaki, Emi; Brown, Betty G.; Alemán, Sara; Hackstaff, Karla
This exploratory qualitative study investigated the use of therapeutic writing for counseling long-term caregivers of spouses with brain injury and neurogenic communication disorders. Three participants wrote an average of six single-spaced pages of text. After analysis of the written text, the common themes of onset of diagnosis, anger, grief,…
Klaas van Veen; Piet-Hein van de Ven
Against the background of the central dilemma in teacher education of the relationship between theory and practice, this article presents a teacher education approach that strongly emphasizes the use of theory in learning to teach, on the assumption that teaching is also an intellectual activity, and not simply 'practice'. We take the subject pedagogy, in this case of Dutch language and literature, as a starting point for our approach to teacher education, in an effort to align it as closely ...
Neda Ghabool; Mariann Edwina A/P Mariadass; Seyyed Hossein Kashef
This study aimed at investigating the challenges in three aspects of writing development process, namely conventions, punctuation, and language use (proper use of grammar) in secondary school level from students and teachers experiences. The data was collected from 30 ESL students as the student participants of this research, from the upper and lower secondary school, Form 1 to Form 5, and 10 teacher participants teaching English language for upper and lower secondary levels with dif...
This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ quest...
Schenck, Andrew D.; Choi, Wonkyung
Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to…
Bruton, Anthony S.; Marks, Emilia Alonso; Fernandez, Angeles Broca
A survey was conducted with public secondary school students of English as a foreign language in Spain and with similar public secondary school students of Spanish in the United States on their perceptions of writing likes and needs. Their teachers were surveyed as well. In general, the perceived needs outweigh the likes, and the students of…
Snow, Marianne; Eslami, Zohreh R.; Park, Jeong Hyun
Although growing numbers of young English language learners (ELLs) from low-income homes enroll in U.S. schools, there remains a lack of research on how they respond to common school literacy practices including a literacy-enriched play. This exploratory study aims to examine the writing behaviors of six kindergarteners in their classroom's…
Blog technology is a potential medium for encouraging reflective writing through self-expression and interactive exchange through social networking. This paper reports on a study using blogs as out-of-class assignments for the development of learners' language competence. The study involved seventeen university students at advanced level who kept…
Coletta, W. John
Explores how conventional classroom approaches to the discussion of the organization and theory of information can be expanded rather easily into full-scale explorations of the ideology of the language of scientific and technical writing. Uses technical descriptions from biology, engineering, and chemistry to provide examples of this ideological…
Dobbs, Christina L.
Effective academic writing is accessible to readers because writers follow shared conventions for organization and signal their stance on particular topics; however, few specifics are known about how middle graders might develop knowledge of and use these academic language forms and functions to signal their organization and stance in persuasive…
Rankin, Sherry L.
The language shortcuts used in text messages are becoming evident in students' academic writing assignments. This qualitative study sought to determine if the use of the shortcuts has an adverse impact on developmental students' spelling and grammar skills. This research was based on the constructivist theory, which rationalizes that students use…
Stapleton, Paul; Helms-Park, Rena; Radia, Pavlina
This study examined 68 Web sources selected by 19 second-language (L2) students while preparing to write research papers. Students submitted an annotated bibliography consisting of ten sources from print or electronic media. Each Web source was classified according to type (e.g., news or advocacy). Of the 68 sites, 29 were considered conventional,…
Full Text Available «The Write Stuff (TWS» is the journal of the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA. It is a vibrant, well-read journal that has been published continuously for over 17 years. The journal publishes a balance of feature articles, regular columns, items to entertain, and reports on the association's activities. This article describes the journal and explains its success in meeting the needs of its readers, in particular by publishing articles on English grammar and style and devoting a section of the journal to translation. The article further discusses why there should be a need among medical writers to learn more about English and about translation. ---------------------------------- «The Write Stuff»: la importancia del lenguaje para los redactores médicos. «The Write Stuff (TWS», revista oficial de la European Medical Writers Association (EMWA, es una publicación muy vital que cuenta con numerosos lectores y se mantiene activa ininterrumpidamente desde hace más de 17 años. En ella se ofrece una equilibrada combinación de artículos de fondo, columnas habituales y elementos de carácter lúdico, y se informa de las actividades de la asociación. El presente artículo describe la revista y su capacidad para atender satisfactoriamente las necesidades de sus lectores, que radica en gran medida en la publicación de artículos sobre gramática y estilo del inglés y la existencia de una sección dedicada a la traducción. Asimismo, se comenta por qué los redactores médicos deberían sentir la necesidad de ampliar sus conocimientos de inglés y de traducción.
Yi-chun, Pan; Yi-ching, Pan.
Full Text Available El uso de la lengua materna es una ocurrencia común en los contextos de la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, a pesar de que a veces reciba críticas por su interferencia en la adquisición de la Lengua meta. Mientras que los docentes deben maximizar el uso de la Lengua meta, sin duda, hay espacios pa [...] ra que el profesor utilice la lengua materna de los estudiantes en su pedagogía. En este trabajo se presenta un argumento basado en las perspectivas teóricas y la investigación empírica dentro de la literatura existente, apoyando el uso apropiado de la Lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera. El argumento se centra en tres cuestiones fundamentales-racionales para el uso de la lengua materna: Los efectos positivos que la lengua materna tiene tanto en el aprendizaje y la instrucción de una lengua extranjera, como en las formas en las que la lengua materna ayuda a los docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Abstract in english L1 use is a common occurrence in foreign language teaching contexts despite the fact that it often receives criticism for its interference with target language (TL) acquisition. While foreign language teachers should maximize their use of the TL, there is indeed a place for the teacher to use the st [...] udents' L1 in their pedagogy. In this paper, an argument derived from theoretical perspectives and empirical research within existing literature supporting the appropriate use of L1 in foreign language classrooms is presented. The argument addresses three key issues-rationales for L1 use, positive effects L1 has on both foreign language learning and instruction, and ways that L1 assists instructors on foreign languages.
Azkarai, Agurtzane; del Pilar García Mayo, María
This study examines whether task-modality (speaking vs. speaking+writing) influences first language (L1) use in task-based English as a foreign language (EFL) learner-learner interaction. Research on the topic has shown that different task-modality triggers different learning opportunities with collaborative speaking tasks drawing learners'…
Full Text Available With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...
Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel
The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…
Schneider, D A; Schneider, David A.; Coy, Kathleen F. Mc
This paper reports on the recognition component of an intelligent tutoring system that is designed to help foreign language speakers learn standard English. The system models the grammar of the learner, with this instantiation of the system tailored to signers of American Sign Language (ASL). We discuss the theoretical motivations for the system, various difficulties that have been encountered in the implementation, as well as the methods we have used to overcome these problems. Our method of capturing ungrammaticalities involves using mal-rules (also called 'error productions'). However, the straightforward addition of some mal-rules causes significant performance problems with the parser. For instance, the ASL population has a strong tendency to drop pronouns and the auxiliary verb `to be'. Being able to account for these as sentences results in an explosion in the number of possible parses for each sentence. This explosion, left unchecked, greatly hampers the performance of the system. We discuss how this ...
Seyed Yasin Yazdi Amirkhiz; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Arshad Abd. Samad; Roselan Baki; Leila Mahmoudi
This paper examined how the homogeneous dyads-- two EFL (i.e. Iranian) dyads and two ESL (i.e., Malaysian) dyads--consciously reflected on their language in the course of performing collaborative writing tasks. To this end, the dyads were asked to do fifteen writing tasks collaboratively. The pair talk was audio-recorded and transcribed for each dyad. It was revealed that EFL/ESL dyads had different orientations towards metatalk; EFL dyads tended to focus considerably more on meta-linguistic ...
The empirical studies reviewed in this article show that over the past two decades research on learning to write in second languages has expanded and refined conceptualizations of (a) the qualities of texts that learners produce, (b) the processes of students' composing, and, increasingly, (c) the specific sociocultural contexts in which this learning occurs. Research has tended to treat each of these dimensions separately, though they are integrally interrelated. Certain recommendations for ...
Teachers' understandings of second language learning influence their practices in the classroom. This paper analyzes interview and classroom data collected during a year-long ethnographic study of two high school English language development classes to identify (1) what the teachers understood about second language (L2) development and L2 academic…
Amir Sabzevar Qahfarokhi; Reza Biria
This study sought to investigate code-switching in the writing of Iranian EFL learners. Code switching can occur both in spoken and written discourse. In order to measure this behavior in the writing of Iranian EFL learners, a total of 30 participants (15 intermediate and 15 advanced learners) were randomly selected. An Oxford Placement Test was administered to determine their level of second language (L2) proficiency. For gathering the relevant data from the learners, two writing tasks with ...
This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...
Although the concepts of critical thinking and self-voice have been extensively discussed in a second language writing, little attention has been given, on the pedagogical level, to critical thinking and self-voice in college EFL writing instruction. To fill such a void, this paper attempts to propose some pedagogical tasks namely: persuasive writing tasks, draft workshops one-on-one mentoring approaches for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL classrooms. In doing so,...
Silva, Tony; Leki, Ilona
This intellectual history of the disciplinary roots of second language (L2) writing research and pedagogy in English examines the influences of its feeder disciplines, composition studies and applied linguistics, and their parent disciplines, rhetoric and linguistics. After a brief history of L2 writing's two grandparent disciplines (rhetoric and…
Lambert, Olga D.
This study investigates the relationships between individual learner characteristics and gain in writing performance as measured by a standardized writing assessment in a sample of community college academic English as a Second Language (ESL) students in the United States. The ethnically and linguistically diverse convenience sample included 76…
Barnawi, Osman Z.
Although the concepts of critical thinking and self-voice have been extensively discussed in a second language writing, little attention has been given, on the pedagogical level, to critical thinking and self-voice in college EFL writing instruction. To fill such a void, this paper attempts to propose some pedagogical tasks namely: persuasive…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the implementation of e-collaboration and e-tutoring will have any effect on students’ writing proficiency. It is argued that interactional feedback (peer or tutor including negotiation and recasts can facilitate writing skill development in L2 (Lynch, 2002. 83 male and female EFL students, taking English courses in a language school in Bojnourd-Iran, formed the participants of this quasi-experimental intact-group study. The participants were assigned into experimental and control groups. A couple of instruments were employed to collect data: the TOEFL Writing Test, researchers-made pre and post tests, and an Information Technology Questionnaire (2009. Data analysis through one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between e-partnering and e-tutoring groups (p<0.05. The results also showed that though both e-partnering and e-tutoring enhanced writing proficiency, learners in e-partnering group outperformed those in e-tutoring group. The study findings indicate that e-collaboration/e-partnering can improve learners writing skill if integrated into the EFL curriculum designed for pre-intermediate level.
Cross-linguistic influence in multilingual language acquisition: The role of L1 and non-native languages in English and Catalan oral production / La influencia entre lenguas en su adquisición multilingüe: el papel de L1 y de lenguas no nativas en la producción oral en inglés y en catalán
Full Text Available Gran parte de la investigación en la adquisición de terceras lenguas se ha centrado en los efectos que tienen factores como la distancia entre lenguas, la competencia, el uso reciente, o el estatus de la segunda lengua (L2) en la elección de la lengua origen (L1) desde el punto de vista de la influe [...] ncia interlingüística. Se presenta aquí un análisis de dichos factores, así como la influencia que tiene la L1 (español) en la producción oral en L2 (inglés) y L3 (catalán). Se analiza la transferencia léxica y sintáctica en la producción en catalán e inglés de dos hablantes plurilingües con conocimiento similar de lenguas extranjeras. Fueron entrevistados dos veces en un ambiente informal. Los resultados muestran que la L1 es la principal fuente de transferencia, tanto en la producción oral en L2, como en L3; pero su influencia disminuye a medida que la competencia en la lengua meta incrementa. La distancia entre lenguas también tiene un papel importante en la influencia interlingüística, especialmente si la competencia en la lengua de origen es buena, y si ha habido un contacto reciente con ella. Los resultados también sugieren que mientras que la transferencia sintáctica se basa exclusivamente en la L1, la transferencia léxica se puede basar en la lengua no nativa. Abstract in english Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2) status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1) in cross-linguistic influence (CLI). This paper presents a study of these factors, and of [...] the influence that the L1 (Spanish) has on L2 (English) and L3 (Catalan) oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.
This article uses theory on disability, embodiment and language to explore the production, context and presentation of two pieces of life-writing by Christopher Nolan. It examines Nolan's unusual use of language and form in his presentations of an experience of disability, and considers its literary and political significance. Consideration is…
Di Gennaro, Kristen K.
A growing body of research suggests that the writing ability of international second language learners (IL2) and US-resident second language learners, also referred to as Generation 1.5 (G1.5), differs, despite a dearth of substantial empirical evidence supporting such claims. The present study provides much-needed empirical evidence concerning…
¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera
Sandra Higareda; Georgina López; Gerrard Mugford
Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of ...
Norizul Azida Darus; Nazira Osman; Latisha Asmaak Shafie
Many students have become avid texters and are seriously reinventing language to accommodate the 160-character limit of short messages. They are more interested in getting their messages across and thus becoming less concerned about correct spelling, grammar and punctuation. Since texting has become a way of life of many students, it is feared that the SMS language can affect students’ written performance. This research examines the effects of frequent usage of text messaging (SMS) on undergr...
Among many great American writers, Hemingway is famous for his objective and terse prose style. As all the novels Hemingway published in his life, The Old Man and the Sea typically reflects his unique writing style. The language is simple and natural on the surface, but actually deliberate and artificial. Hemingway’s style is related to his experience as a journalist. The influence of his style is great all over the world. The Old Man and the Sea is full of facts, most of which comes from Hem...
Full Text Available This study investigated two approaches to writing to learn Spanish as a second language. Eight undergraduate students were exposed to task-based language learning and a traditional approach in a counter-balanced manner to learn Spanish verbs from writing stories. While the participants made significant improvements in morphosyntactic accuracy over time, their performance with regard to syntactic complexity was deteriorated. When the two approaches were compared, no significant differences were found in accurate use of Spanish reflexive verbs or complexity of the stories. Although the number of language-related episodes and accurate use of reflexive verbs were positively related, the correlation did not reach a significant level. Due to the nature of this small-scale study, generalizability of these results is limited.Keywords: task, interaction, output, accuracy, complexity, language-related episode, second language acquisition, reflexive verb
Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.
Galloway, Emily Phillips; Uccelli, Paola
Learning to write in middle school requires the expansion of sentence-level and discourse-level language skills. In this study, we investigated later language development in the writing of a cross-sectional sample of 235 upper elementary and middle school students (grades 4-8) by examining the use of (1) lexico-grammatical forms that support…
Full Text Available This research aims at investigating the relationship between writing skill and sub-skills of first language (Persian and foreign language (English. Therefore, 50 upper-intermediate EFL learners in Iran who were majoring in the English language were asked to write on two different topics in Persian and English. Then, the compositions were evaluated based on ESL Composition Profile. Subsequently, using Pearson product-moment correlation, the correlation between the compositions overall scores in L1 and L2, as well as the correlations between each of five major components of writing, including content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics in the two languages were examined. The results displayed large correlations between the compositions overall scores as well as between the four writing sub-skills in L1 and L2. The highest correlations were observed between writing sub-skills of vocabulary, mechanics, language use, and content respectively. These findings entail some pedagogical implications for effective language learning in both L1 and L2, utilizing the enhancing effect of cross-linguistic transfer of writing.Key words: L1-L2 Relationship, Cross-linguistic Transfer, Writing, Adult EFL Learners, Persian
Eremina, Svetlana V.
The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.
The paper investigates the semantic area of Epistemic Modality in Modern Greek, by means ofa corpus-based research. A comparative, quantitative study was performed between writtencorpora (informal letter-writing) of non-native informants with various language backgroundsand Greek native speakers. A number of epistemic markers were selected for furtherqualitative investigation on the grounds of their high frequency. The qualitative studyrevealed the ways epistemic markers (grammatical and lexi...
Efstathiadi, Lia; ??????????, ???
The paper investigates the semantic area of Epistemic Modality in Modern Greek, by means of a corpus-based research. A comparative, quantitative study was performed between written corpora (informal letter-writing) of non-native informants with various language backgrounds and Greek native speakers. A number of epistemic markers were selected for further qualitative investigation on the grounds of their high frequency. The qualitative study revealed the ways epistemic markers (grammatical and...
Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab Mahmoud
Full Text Available Cooperative language learning (CLL approach was used to encourage second-year university students at the college of languages and translation, at Al-Imam University to learn from their peers so that they could develop their writing skills. Students in CLL-based groups were trained to be more responsible for their learning through developing their personal interaction as well as their linguistic competence in a more relaxed social context. This treatment included sophomore students enrolled in EN 211 course in the second semester of 2013 academic year. Two instruments were used in this study; a pre-post writing test, and an attitude questionnaire. The pre- and post- scores from the test were calculated for descriptive statistics and compared using a Wilcoxon Test. The process of evaluating students’ writings focused mainly on analyzing their mistakes with regard to spelling, using of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation as well as coherence. The findings revealed that the students’ scores in writing were higher for the post-test than the pre-test at the significance level of .001 after being subject to this kind of treatment. However, it must be stated that the degree of improvement was not extremely high as students still made some mistakes with regard to the previously mentioned points. As for the attitude scale, the results obtained proved that the students developed positive attitudes towards using the cooperative learning approach to develop language skills in general and to develop their writing skills in particular.
Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda
This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were administered to the…
Sacks, Renee K.
An exploration of the linguistic patterns and conversational strategies of adult learners was conducted to clarify the relationship between individuals' oral communicative ability and their levels of proficiency in the nonoral literate modes of reading and writing. The connection between social class and language development was also examined.…
Full Text Available This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40 Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampling. A sample consisting of 440 students (11students from each school was randomly selected using a table of random numbers. An achievement test consisting of different items was developed to assess the students’ competency and capability in sub-skills of writing such as word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/grammar and handwriting. Mean score and standard deviation were used to analyze the students’ proficiency in each sub-skill. The t-test was applied to make the comparison on the bases of gender, density and public and private sector. The overall performance of all the students was better in comprehension as compared to other sub-skills namely word completion, sentence making/syntax, tenses/grammar and handwriting. The analysis, based on t-value, revealed no significant difference between the performance of male and female students and the students of public and private schools, whereas there was a significant difference between the performance of urban and rural students.
Berube, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.
The relationship between first language (L1) typology, defined as the classification of languages according to their structural characteristics (e.g. phonological systems and writing systems), and the development of second (L2) and third (L3) language skills and literacy proficiency in multilingual children was investigated in this study. The…
Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.
The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…
We investigated the relations of L2 (i.e., English) oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, word reading automaticity, oral language skills, and L1 literacy skills (i.e., Spanish) to L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking English language learners in the first grade (N = 150). An analysis was conducted for the entire sample as well as…
Bishnu Paramguru Mahapatra
Full Text Available Writing a short or long piece of text effectively flawlessly, precisely, concisely, up to the point with out any ambiguity has been a major concern for the L2 learners of English in the professional world. Professional like engineers need to write business letters, reports, proposals etc as their desk as a part of their routine work. On most of these cases it has been observed that they fail to write the content of the task precisely an effectively, therefore they end up with long of piece of writing without any precision of the text and fail to communicate the core information through that to their boss or to their office.At this point of time it is highly essential for the professionals to equip themselves with excellent writing skills with out which they might not survive in their pursuits,because there is hardly any professional activity which does not require writing skills. This paper will look into the various causes of ineffective writing skills of the second language learners of English and suggests possible remedial measures to overcome it.
Writing and the teaching of writing is changing at a rapid pace. How can educators understand writing assessment "as" and "with" technology in the 21st-century classroom? Michael Neal contends that new technologies are neither the problem nor the solution. Instead, educators need to tap into digital resources only inasmuch as they promote writing…
Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona
We investigated the perception of developmental changes in timing patterns that happen in the course of second language (L2) acquisition, provided that the native and the target languages of the learner are rhythmically similar (German and English). It was found that speech rhythm in L2 English produced by German learners becomes increasingly stress-timed as acquisition progresses. This development is captured by the tempo-normalized rhythm measures of durational variability. Advanced learners also deliver speech at a faster rate. However, when native speakers have to classify the timing patterns characteristic of L2 English of German learners at different proficiency levels, they attend to speech rate cues and ignore the differences in speech rhythm. PMID:25859228
Dwi Noverini Djenar
Full Text Available The last few years have seen a boom in the publication of teen fiction in Indonesia. Particularly since the publication of the highly successful novel Eiffel ... I’m in love (Arunita 2001, numerous fiction works targeted at a youthful readership have appeared. This genre of popular literature has been so successful in attracting its audience that it currently constitutes the largest growing market in the Indonesian publishing industry (Simamora 2005. One of its striking characteristics is the predominant use of colloquial Indonesian, an informal variety of Indonesian that is closely identified with speakers from the capital Jakarta, particularly young people. Over a decade ago, scholars noted the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature (see for example Adelaar and Prentice 1996:678. The implication is that this language variety has spread into domains previously dominated by standard Indonesian, the formal variety used in government administration, formal education, and most printed mass media. Indeed, contemporary Indonesian written literature is largely associated with standard Indonesian, such that the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature has invited much criticism from language gatekeepers. Despite such criticism, however, teen fiction continues to flourish. The increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in teen fiction, though noted by scholars, has not been subject to any detailed linguistic study. Linguistic studies of colloquial Indonesian – at least those published in English – have focused so far on its use in speech, or in written texts intended to resemble speech, such as internet chatting and advice columns for young people. Prior to the recent surge in teen fiction, use of colloquial Indonesian in contemporary written literature was largely limited to dialogues. Writers such as Putu Wijaya, for example, are known to incorporate colloquialism to render dialogues more natural (Rafferty 1990:107. Teen fiction writers have extended the use of colloquialism into other parts of fiction such as the description of characters, settings, and inner thoughts. This development makes it interesting to look for a way to describe the increase of colloquialism. A useful approach is to examine the usage patterns of a term or a selection of terms in a number of teen fiction works published over time, with the purpose of observing changes in the patterns, and whether such changes can be shown to represent greater colloquialism. This study is a preliminary attempt in that direction. My purpose here is to demonstrate that in the last two decades during which colloquial Indonesian has been employed in teen fiction, there has been a shift in writing style from one that bears greater resemblance to standard Indonesian towards a style that is more colloquial. The term ‘style’ is commonly employed in sociolinguistics to refer to ways of speaking, which Bell (2001:139 defines in terms of the question ‘Why did the speaker say it this way on this occasion?’ (italics in original. Adapting this definition for teen fiction writing, I use ‘writing style’ here to refer to the characteristic manner in which an author writes fiction. This style is observed here by examining the use of the preposition pada ‘to, towards, on, in, at’ as compared to the use of three other prepositions, namely kepada ‘to, towards’, ke ‘to, towards’, and sama ‘to, towards, by, with’. The development towards increased colloquialism is shown through two indicators: a reduction in the range of prepositional meanings of pada along with the assignment of particular discourse functions to kepada, and an increased use of ke and sama. The data are drawn from ten works of fiction published between 1998 and 2005. Eight of these are written by the same author, Hilman. In four of them, Hilman collaborates with fellow writer Boim Lebon. The other two works are by Laire Siwi Mentari and Marthino Andries. This selection is motivated by the following considerations. Hilman’s works ha
Full Text Available At all levels of education as well as teaching Turkish to foreigners is an issue to be dealt with on the importance of input and output. In this respect, the work of writing and language learning that is possible to determine the level of their writing skills. In this context, at the end of term exams and courses, as well as on the data obtained, the detection and correction of errors, both in terms of the potential students and the teacher guiding the student is. In addition, the students already know their mistakes, to gain the ability to write in the future is important to minimize errors. At this work we identified the Iranian students writing problems and presented their recommendations for the solution. The study designed as a survey. The Data collected about the students problems on writing from the exams which the centre done on writing part and the students composition papers during the period. The mistakes of the students made in written expression, grouped audio information, morphology, the syntax and orthography.
Writing in science can be used to address some of the issues relevant to contemporary scientific literacy, such as the nature of science, which describes the scientific enterprise for science education. This has implications for the kinds of writing tasks students should attempt in the classroom, and for how students should understand the rationale and claims of these tasks. While scientific writing may train the mind to think scientifically in a disciplined and structured way thus encouraging students to gain access to the public domain of scientific knowledge, the counter-argument is that students need to be able to express their thoughts freely in their own language. Writing activities must aim to promote philosophical and epistemological views of science that accurately portray contemporary science. This mixed-methods case study explored language-enriched environments, in this case, secondary science classrooms with a focus on teacher-developed activities, involving diversified writing styles, that were directly linked to the science curriculum. The research foci included: teachers' implementation of these activities in their classrooms; how the activities reflected the teachers' nature of science views; common attributes between students' views of science and how they represented science in their writings; and if, and how the activities influenced students' nature of science views. Teachers' and students' views of writing and the nature of science are illustrated through pre-and post-questionnaire responses; interviews; student work; and classroom observations. Results indicated that diversified writing activities have the potential to accurately portray science to students, personalize learning in science, improve students' overall attitude towards science, and enhance scientific literacy through learning science, learning about science, and doing science. Further research is necessary to develop an understanding of whether the choice of genre has an influence on meaning construction and understanding in science. Finally, this study concluded that the relationship between students' views of the nature of science and writing in science is complex and is dependent on several factors including the teachers' influence and attitude towards student writing in science.
Broc, Lucie; Bernicot, Josie; Olive, Thierry; Favart, Monik; Reilly, Judy; Quémart, Pauline; Uzé, Joël
The goal of this study was to compare the lexical spelling performance of children and adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) in two contrasting writing situations: a dictation of isolated words (a classic evaluative situation) and a narrative of a personal event (a communicative situation). Twenty-four children with SLI and 48 typically developing children participated in the study, split into two age groups: 7-11 and 12-18 years of age. Although participants with SLI made more spelling errors per word than typically developing participants of the same chronological age, there was a smaller difference between the two groups in the narratives than in the dictations. Two of the findings are particularly noteworthy: (1) Between 12 and 18 years of age, in communicative narration, the number of spelling errors of the SLI group was not different from that of the typically developing group. (2) In communicative narration, the participants with SLI did not make specific spelling errors (phonologically unacceptable), contrary to what was shown in the dictation. From an educational perspective or that of a remediation program, it must be stressed that the communicative narration provides children-and especially adolescents-with SLI an opportunity to demonstrate their improved lexical spelling abilities. Furthermore, the results encourage long-term lexical spelling education, as adolescents with SLI continue to show improvement between 12 and 18 years of age. PMID:23891725
Julie Tzu-Ling Huang
The purpose of this research study is to discover the degree to which student acceptance of instructor feedback influences developing writing proficiency among Chinese speaking English Language Learners enrolled in an American middle school. This study was designed as a qualitative case study—an approach using in-depth inductive processes to observe and evaluate the receptivity of eighth-grade students to instructor feedback during an extended unit of instruction covering the five-paragraph e...
Hazel L. W. Chiu
This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development....
Ammons, Kerrie Allen
With a growing body of research that supports a link between language and literacy, governing bodies in the field of speech and language pathology have recognized the need to reconsider the role of speech-language pathologists in addressing the emergent literacy needs of preschoolers who struggle with literacy and language concepts. This study…
Broer van Arragon, Kathleen
The focus of this study will be on the intersection of the following domains: Second Language Acquisition research on cohesion and coherence, discourse acquisition of young children, the effect of text form-focused instruction on student non-fiction writing and the impact of schema theory on student decision-making during the writing process.
Yu, Shulin; Lee, Icy
While the last three decades have witnessed a growing body of research on peer feedback in first language (L1) and second language (L2) writing, research about students' motives for participating in group peer feedback has remained underexplored. In order to fill this important gap, this case study, guided by the constructs of activity and motive…
Sebba, Mark, Ed.; Mahootian, Shahrzad, Ed.; Jonsson, Carla, Ed.
"Code-switching," or the alternation of languages by bilinguals, has attracted an enormous amount of attention from researchers. However, most research has focused on spoken language, and the resultant theoretical frameworks have been based on spoken code-switching. This volume presents a collection of new work on the alternation of languages in…
Salim Abu-Rabia; Wael Shakkour
This study examined whether helping poor readers improve their reading and writing language skills in English as a third language/foreign language (L3/FL) would also bring about an improvement in those same skills in Arabic (L1) and Hebrew (L2). Transferring linguistic skills from L3/FL to both L1 and L2 is termed “Cognitive Retroactive Transfer” (CRT). A battery of tests, administered to the experiment and control groups, assessed orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, morpholo...
This study investigated the writing processes of first grade bilinguals from majority- and minority-language backgrounds who were in a two-way bilingual education (TWBE) program. The program integrated native English and native Spanish speakers for all or most of the day, promoting high academic achievement, dual language and literacy development,…
van Gelderen, Amos; Oostdam, Ron; van Schooten, Erik
We report a classroom experiment directed at increasing lexical fluency in writing. Participants were 107 Dutch students in bilingual (EFL) education (Grades 10 and 11). According to current theories of writing such fluency allows writers to devote more attention to higher order aspects of text production, such as idea generation, selection and…
Full Text Available The paper investigates the semantic area of Epistemic Modality in Modern Greek, by means ofa corpus-based research. A comparative, quantitative study was performed between writtencorpora (informal letter-writing of non-native informants with various language backgroundsand Greek native speakers. A number of epistemic markers were selected for furtherqualitative investigation on the grounds of their high frequency. The qualitative studyrevealed the ways epistemic markers (grammatical and lexical are used in order to expressthe speaker’s stance while they perform a number of discourse-pragmatic functions withoutviolating the societal norms of politeness. The present study made use of the literature onEpistemic Modality, the face-management theory of politeness and the interpersonalmetadiscoursal features known as hedges and boosters.
Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn and Allen, it discusses how these papers situate written corrective feedback research in the wider area of second language acquisition research and contribute to the debate in feedback research on research design issues. This is followed by an examination of the major findings of the four situated empirical studies by Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary and Windeatt, and Martinez and Roca, which make up the second section. Echoing the authors of these papers, this article argues that we need more longitudinal naturalistic studies, adopting both cognitive and socio-cultural SLA frameworks to investigate the role of feedback and its impact on individual learners in more depth. Finally some pedagogic implications are discussed, including the need for feedback practices which facilitate students’ abilities to self regulate and evaluate their performance, and the need to raise teachers’ awareness of the different feedback sources and modes of delivery available to them.Este artículo ofrece una revisión de las siete aportaciones incluidas en este número especial sobre feedback, constatando cómo reflejan tanto el creciente interés por el tema en las distintas áreas de investigación como la continua búsqueda de técnicas más efectivas por parte del profesorado. Centrándose en primer lugar en las contribuciones de Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn y Allen, analiza cómo estos artículos sitúan la investigación sobre feedback en la corrección de trabajos escritos dentro del área más amplia de adquisición de segundas lenguas, contribuyendo al debate, dentro de la investigación sobre feedback, en torno a aspectos de diseño de la investigación. A continuación se examinan los resultados principales de los cuatro estudios empíricos realizados por Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary & Windeatt, y Martinez & Roca de Larios, que conforman la segunda sección. Siguiendo a estos autores, el artículo aboga por la realización de más estudios longitudinales de corte naturalista, que utilicen enfoques dentro del campo de la Adquisición de Segundas Lenguas tanto de carácter cognitivo como sociocultural, para investigar con más profundidad el papel del feedback y su impacto en perfiles concretos de aprendices. Finalmente, se tratan algunas implicaciones pedagógicas, incluyendo la necesidad de que las prácticas de feedback faciliten el desarrollo de habilidades de autocorrección y de evaluación del propio rendimiento por parte de los estudiantes, y la necesidad de incrementar el conocimiento que los docentes tienen acerca de las distintas fuentes y modos de implementación de feedback.
de Haan, Pieter; van Esch, Kees
This article presents the first results of the study of argumentative essays in English as a foreign language and in Spanish as a foreign language and as a native language, carried out at Radboud University Nijmegen (formerly the University of Nijmegen) between 2002 and 2008. The aim of the project is to compare teachers' holistic assessments with…
Full Text Available The transformation of the education curriculum in the Malaysia Education Development Plan (PPPM 2013-2025 focuses on the Higher Order Thinking (HOT concept which aims to produce knowledgeable students who are critical and creative in their thinking and can compete at the international level. HOT skills encourage students to apply, analyse, evaluate and think creatively in and outside the classroom. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the impact of using HOT skills in a secondary ESL writing classroom. A total of 120 Form Two ESL students from three intact classes participated in this study. The students experienced project and group-based work both independently and collaboratively in groups during their writing lessons. The findings from the focus group interviews revealed the following student perceptions: felt engaged in active learning, experienced learner autonomy, developed their writing, researching and personal skills. The implications of this study suggest that using HOT skills in ESL writing lessons facilitate students’ writing ability and interest and it is recommended that HOT skills be explicitly infused in the teaching and learning of writing activities in ESL classrooms.
¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera
Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1 in English Language Teaching (ELT, critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI , un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.
AbdulRahman Al Asmari
The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students` writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the relationship between writing strategies that EFL university students employ and writing apprehension, relationship between writing strategies use and stud...
Hubert, Michael D.
Approaches to foreign language (FL) instruction have changed a great deal in the past fifty years, the most fundamental change being the shift from a focus solely on language form to a focus on communicative competence (CC). Although most FL instructors now appear to focus on CC in the teaching of speaking, they do not necessarily apply CC to…
Dixon, Gregory A.
This study gathered information on student engagement with Facebook, and described non-native English speakers' (NNS) expectations and experience. This also assessed the relationship this technology has with writing efficacy and compared NNS and native English speakers (NS) groups. Demographic data were collected and means were compared to…
Karatsolis, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.
Understanding and describing professional practice, especially in Engineering and the Sciences, has always been at the heart of research in Professional Communication. Several significant field research projects have showed us that content knowledge alone is not sufficient to claim disciplinary expertise; a rhetorical understanding of the discipline and its ways of thinking is essential in achieving full participation in the field. Most professionals would expect that such a sophisticated approach can only be learned through on-the-job training or opportunities to interact with practitioners within authentic disciplinary contexts. Although this can certainly be the case in many instances, we argue that a rhetorical understanding can be enacted even within a freshman writing classroom. The results of our content and rhetorical analyses of student work from the beginning and the end of a course on academic writing with the theme of sustainability show that students were able in one semester to write in discipline-appropriate ways and understand the rhetorical strategies necessary to become part of a disciplinary conversation. The implications of our findings can extend into the way we design courses in basic writing or professional communication and the ways we can use pre-assessment data to drive our course design decisions.
Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina
The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…
Radia, Pavlina; Stapleton, Paul
The Web has become a vast and appealing source of information for undergraduate students writing academic papers. While some online resources are comparable in quality to the materials housed in a library, newly accessible, Web-specific genres, such as interest groups, often undermine traditional expectations of scholarly authority, rigor, and…
This activity to meet the basic literacy goals of sixth-grade students shows how to incorporate language arts into the classroom while introducing the principles of technology. Includes a design brief with evaluation rubric. (JOW)
The main trust of the present study was to investigate whether writing performance in students of English as a foreign language (EFL) was related to self-efficacy in writing, writing apprehension, and attitude towards writing. Fifty IELTS students (30 females and 20 males) studying IELTS Writing participated in this study. In order to collect data, three instruments were used which were a writing apprehension test (WAT), a self-efficacy in writing scale (SWS), and a questionnaire on att...
The concept of Bildung occupies a central place in the work of Hegel. In the Phenomenology of Spirit from 1807 it is clear that Bildung has a general meaning, which transcends educational contexts. Soon after the publication of the Phenomenology, however, Hegel became the rector of the humanistic Gymnasium in Nürnberg, and this position he kept until 1816. From this period we have some less well known writings, which explicitly discuss Bildung and relate it to educational use. These texts wer...
Hazel L. W. Chiu
Full Text Available This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development. These learner-centred support sessions aim to develop awareness of different types of learning strategies to suit individual learning needs, and cultivate interest and ability for continuous self-learning. The benefits of a semi-structured scaffolding format with attention to individual learning differences and supported by technology will be highlighted.
Weshah, Hani A.; Tomok, Tamara N.
This study investigated the impact of a training program based on pedagogical knowledge on improving the speaking and writing skills teaching practices of female English language teachers. The participants consisted of 30 teachers: 10 as an experimental group and 20 as a control group. To answer the study questions, the researchers developed a…
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the influence of technologically-enhanced (i.e., NetSupport School self-regulated strategies (i.e., wrapper activity, think aloud and reciprocal teaching on learners' achievement in the writing section of the TOEFL iBT (TOEFL Internet-based Test and to explore the change in learners' self-regulated learning skill levels as a result of the technologically-enhanced self-regulated strategies training. Thirty-nine TOEFL iBT candidates who were studying TOEFL iBT writing preparation course were chosen as the participants of the study. The research design of this study is based on intervention in which pretests and posttests were administered before and after the technologically-enhanced self-regulated strategies training. Also, the Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire (OSLQ was used to assess the effect of the intervention on students' self-regulated learning skill levels. Based on the data obtained, it was found that students' scores in the TOEFL iBT Writing Task and their self-regulated learning skills considerably improved as a result of the technologically-enhanced self-regulated strategies training.
Tânia dos Santos Alvarez da, Silva; Maria Augusta, Bolsanello.
Full Text Available O artigo identifica orientações distintas presentes nas proposições metodológicas de ensino da escrita para surdos usuários de língua de sinais, assumidas na educação bilíngue. Assim, apresenta duas formas de interpretação e encaminhamento de proposições metodológicas de orientação bilíngue, em rela [...] ção ao ensino da escrita pelo surdo. O primeiro grupo de autores defende que o surdo deve aprender o português escrito tendo a língua de sinais como língua base. O segundo grupo, fundamentado em pesquisas da neuropsicologia cognitiva, defende que a escrita dos sinais, que deve ser a primeira língua escrita de aprendizes surdos sinalizadores. Conclui-se que as duas orientações sobre as possíveis relações entre o surdo e a escrita não devem ser tomadas como posições excludentes. Pelo contrário, sugere-se que a escrita dos sinais, enquanto um sistema simbólico repleto de significados, constitui-se como ferramenta eficiente para maximizar o desenvolvimento das funções psicológicas superiores dos aprendizes surdos, bem como para fornecer meios de aproximação com o sistema de escrita alfabética. Abstract in english This article identifies distinct guidelines on methodological propositions of the writing teaching for deaf users of sign language, which are assumed in bilingual education. So, it presents two forms of interpretation and routing of methodological propositions of bilingual orientation, in relation t [...] o the writing teaching by the deaf. The first group of authors defends that the deaf must learn written Portuguese having sign language as the base language. The second group, based on researches about cognitive neuropsychology, defends that SignWriting must be the first written language of deaf sign apprentices. We concluded that both orientations about the possible relations between the deaf and writing mustn't be taken as excluding positions. On the contrary, it is suggested that SignWriting, as a symbolic system full of meanings, is an efficient tool to maximize the development of higher psychological functions of the deaf apprentices, as well as to provide means of approximation with the system of alphabetic writing.
Seah, Lay Hoon
This study is an attempt to examine the use of linguistic resources by primary science students so as to understand the conceptual and language demands encountered by them when constructing written explanations. The students' written explanations and the instructional language (whole-class discussion and textbook) employed over the topic, the life cycle of plants, in four grade 4 classrooms (age 10) taught by three teachers constitute the data for this study. Students' written explanations were subjected to a combination of content and linguistic analysis. The linguistic analysis was conducted using selected analytical tools from the systemic functional linguistics framework. A diversity of linguistic resources and meanings were identified from the students' explanations, which reveal the extent to which the students were able to employ linguistic resources to construct written scientific explanations and the challenges involved. Both content and linguistic analyses also illuminate patterns of language use that are significant for realising scientific meanings. Finally, a comparison is made in the use of linguistic resources between the students' explanations and the instructional language to highlight possible links. This comparison reveals that the teachers' expectations of the students' written explanations were seldom reflected in their oral questioning or made explicit during the instruction. The findings of this study suggest that a focus on conceptual development is not sufficient in itself to foster students' ability to construct explanations. Pedagogical implications involving the support needed by primary students to construct scientific explanations are discussed.
Poldberg, Monique M.,; Trainin, Guy; Andrzejczak, Nancy
This paper explores the integration of art, literacy and science in a second grade classroom, showing how an integrative approach has a positive and lasting influence on student achievement in art, literacy, and science. Ways in which art, science, language arts, and cognition intersect are reviewed. Sample artifacts are presented along with their…
Language does not only play an active part "in all processes" of comprehension, recognition and learning, it is also essential for "specific religious learning processes." Religious experiences and traditions have their own characteristic linguistic forms, and religious education has come to realise the necessity for an…
Reports on a study of the development of literacy, bilingualism, and metalinguistic awareness. Subjects were speakers of Spanish and Nahuatl from Central Mexico. Assessments of metalinguistic awareness related to different aspects of the children's consciousness of the languages they spoke or understood were compared to a series of assessments of…
Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.
Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…
Full Text Available In recent years, the application of writing tasks has effectively shed lights on promoting learners' written production. Research on SLA stresses the importance of tasks in the case of complexity, fluency and accuracy (Foster, 1997, 2001; Givon, 1985; Robinson, 2001; Skehan, 1998, since they have had fluctuating impact on L2 learning. However, what is neglected in the literature is the impact of writing task on learners' first language written production that in most cases has paved the way for transmitting ideas in L2. Therefore, the essential aim in the present study is to investigate the effect of strategic planning time and on – line planning time on accuracy of first language learners' written production. To attain the goal, two classes of 6th grade school students (n = 32, n = 24 were selected. The students did the writing task in the first session which was considered as a pretest in the study. Following a weekly "time out", in the class A (n = 32 strategic planning time was presented to the students and in the class B (n = 24, on – line planning time was conducted for ten minutes proceeding writing task. Time limit to complete the writing production was 30 minutes in both classes. The collected written data was quantified in terms of accuracy measure. Paired sample T-tests and independent sample T-test were conducted to statistically analyze data. The obtained results revealed that strategic planning led to much accuracy in post task in terms of L1 written production compared to pre task. However, the result of statistical analysis in on – line planning time was not significant, since it didn't result in students' L1 writing progress. Keywords: strategic planning time, online planning time, written production, accuracy
Siti Hamin Stapa
Full Text Available There has been an ongoing debate among language teachers on whether to use students’ first language (L1 in second language (L2 teaching. Nevertheless, the use of L1 in L2 teaching has been advocated with grounded theory as far as it merits the situation. This research article aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of L1 to generate ideas for second language writing among low proficiency ESL learners. The study employed the experimental research design where students in the experimental group used Bahasa Melayu in generating ideas before they resumed writing their essays in English. Students in the control group used English. Two independent raters graded the essays and the scores were analysed using the paired t-test. The findings showed a marked improvement in the writing performance of students who used their first language to generate ideas before using their second language for writing. Based on the findings, we recommend that teachers encourage the use of first language before writing or composing in English especially among low-level proficiency ESL learners.
Full Text Available The concept of Bildung occupies a central place in the work of Hegel. In the Phenomenology of Spirit from 1807 it is clear that Bildung has a general meaning, which transcends educational contexts. Soon after the publication of the Phenomenology, however, Hegel became the rector of the humanistic Gymnasium in Nürnberg, and this position he kept until 1816. From this period we have some less well known writings, which explicitly discuss Bildung and relate it to educational use. These texts were written at the hight of his philosophical maturity from, when he was working on The Science of Logic and the Encyclopedia, and they therefore deserve being taken seriously. When all these sources are brought together, however, an idea of Bildung often associated with Hegel, namely that Bildung is the result of productive work, seems to be mistaken. I first give a brief account of the general argument, secondly add some details from the Phenomenology to support the argument, and finally conclude with a few general remarks.
DePalma, Michael-John; Ringer, Jeffrey M.
In this paper, we argue that discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition studies have focused primarily on the reuse of past learning and thus have not adequately accounted for the adaptation of learned writing knowledge in unfamiliar situations. In an effort to expand disciplinary discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition…
Usage-based theories of language learning suggest that native speakers of a language are acutely aware of formulaic language due in large part to frequency effects. Corpora and data-driven learning can offer useful insights into frequent patterns of naturally occurring language to second/foreign language learners who, unlike native speakers, are…
Latham Keh, Melissa Anne
It is well documented that ELLs face significant challenges as they develop literacy skills in their second language (NCES, 2007, 2011). This population is diverse and growing rapidly in Massachusetts and across the nation (Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013; NCELA, 2011; Orosco, De Schonewise, De Onis, Klingner,…
Second language (L2) instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1) acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI) approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI i...
Saeed Taki; Maryam Heidari
This study investigated the effectiveness of portfolio-based writing assessment in EFL situations. Participants were 40 pre-intermediate young Iranian English learners. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 20 each. The experimental group wrote on five pre-established topics from their coursebook. Their writings were checked in terms of ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions of writing by two raters. They were given another oppo...
Ghabanchi, Zargham; Ayoubi, Elham Sadat
This study is an attempt to compare the effect of four reading conditions on incidental vocabulary learning and recall of intermediate EFL learners. A sample population of 120 Iranian intermediate students read two short passages in one of four reading conditions: 1) L1 Marginal Glosses (MG1--provision of L1 translations of unknown words), 2) L2…
Mary Helena Rykov
Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.
Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many ...
van Mulken, Margot; Hendriks, Berna
For multinational corporations, the need for efficiency and control has motivated the choice for a corporate language. However, increasing internationalisation has forced corporations to rethink their language policies to cater to the changing demands of the multicultural and multilingual workplace. This paper explores two related issues. First,…
In contrast to the traditional cognitive view of writing strategies, this study explores English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' writing strategy use within the Activity Theory framework, adding to the growing body of writing strategy research and sociocultural research on writing and second language acquisition (SLA). Drawing on data…
Luu Trong Tuan
“Frequently accepted as being the last language skill to be acquired for native speakers of the language as well as for foreign/second language learners” (Hamp-Lyons and Heasly, 2006: 2), English writing, for a number of EFL learners, appears to be challenging. This paper sought to investigate if learners can grow out of the writing difficulties by engaging in journal writing activity. 85 second-year students from the two writing classes, one treated as the experimental group (EG) and the oth...
Rafael Forteza Fernández
Full Text Available El notable incremento de la colaboración médica cubana en la arena internacional y la revolución en las ciencias informáticas ha generado la necesidad de una reconceptualización de del aprendizaje de la escritura en el estudio de las lenguas extranjeras, el inglés en particular, en la educación médica superior. Se exploran los beneficios que aporta este tipo de competencia al estudiante de lenguas extranjeras y se particulariza cuán necesario es esta habilidad para el profesional de la salud.The growing Cuban health sector collaboration with other countries as well as the revolution in information sciences has brought about the need to reconceptualize the role of learning how to write in foreign languages, English in particular, in Higher Medical Education. The present work explores the general contribution of this type of competence to the learner of foreign languages and gives particular attention to the usefulness of this skill to the health professional.
Mahani Mansor; Latisha Asmaak Shafie; Anis Maesin; Surina Nayan; Nazira Osman
Collaborative learning involves learners working together as a group in maximizing their learning experience and in developing the learners’ sense of belonging to the group. This paper discusses the features of a collaborative writing activity, the dialogue journal, that exist during a writing activity. The features were discussed based on literature and a case study on a group of second-year ESL learners of Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis, Malaysia. The selections of the students’ dialogue ...
ZHANG Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wagner, Richard K.; Chan, Shingfong
Longitudinal predictors of writing composition in Chinese and English written by the same 153 Hong Kong nine-year-old children were tested, and their production errors within the English essays across ten categories, focusing on punctuation, spelling, and grammar, were compared to errors made by ninety American nine-year-olds writing on the same topic. The correlation between quality of the compositions in Chinese and English was .53. In stepwise regression analyses examining early predictors...
Full Text Available Cuneiform is the name of various writing systems in use throughout the Middle East from the end of the fourth millennium BCE until the late first century CE. The wedge-shaped writing was used to write ten to fifteen languages from various language families: Sumerian, Elamite, Eblaite, Old Assyrian, Old Babylonian and other Akkadian dialects, Proto-Hattic, Hittite, Luwian, Palaic, Hurrian, Urartian, Ugaritic, Old Persian etc. Over the centuries it evolved from a pictographic to a syllabographic writing system and eventually became an alphabetic script, but most languages used a 'mixed orthography' which combined ideographic and phonetic elements, and required a rebus principle of reading.
Holiday, D. Alexander
The language of Black America is rich and diverse in its utterance, whether through music (Jazz, Blues, Soul, Gospel, and Rap), through street corner "shuckin''n jivin'," or through writing. This language is used as a means of survival, of getting from one day to the next. Blacks have developed a system of taking the fewest words and making them…
Luciana C. DE, OLIVEIRA.
Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma análise sistêmico-funcional de duas redações originadas do Exame de Redação Analítica da Universidade da Califórnia, escritas por aprendizes da lingua inglesa. A análise mostra as escolhas linguísticas utilizadas nessas duas redações, uma que recebeu uma nota alta e uma q [...] ue recebeu uma nota baixa no exame. O artigo descreve algumas das escolhas gramaticais que são funcionais para a redação expositiva, divididas em três categorias principais: escolhas textuais, interpessoais e ideacionais. Depois dessa breve descrição é apresentada a análise das duas redações em termos desses recursos. O artigo mostra as diferenças entre as redações em termos das escolhas linguísticas usadas pelos dois autores. Algumas conclusões para a prática educacional e recomendações para educadores baseados na análise serão incluídas. Abstract in english This article presents a systemic-functional linguistic analysis of two writing samples of the University of California Analytical Writing Placement (AWP) Examination written by English language learners (ELLs). The analysis shows the linguistic features utilized in the two writing samples, one that [...] received a passing score and one that received a failing score. The article describes some of the grammatical resources which are functional for expository writing, which are divided under three main categories: textual, interpersonal, and ideational resources. Following this brief description is the analysis of both essays in terms of these resources.. The configuration of grammatical features used in the essays make up the detached style of essay 1 and the more personal style of essay 2. These grammatical features include the textual resources of thematic choices and development, clause-combining strategies (connectors), and lexical cohesion; interpersonal resources of interpersonal metaphors of modality; and ideational resources of nominalization and abstractions as ideational metaphors. Implications for educational practice and recommendations for educators based on the analysis are provided.
Ça?r? Tu?rul Mart
Full Text Available It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.
Romova, Zina; Andrew, Martin
This paper examines the use of portfolios as pedagogical tools for developing academic writing. In particular, it considers the value of multi-drafting, where learners reflect on the learning of a text type as well as focusing on micro and macro aspects. The paper outlines a situated pedagogical approach, where students come to understand their…
Gauvin, Hanna S.; Hulstijn, Jan H.
Is it possible to tell whether bilinguals are able to read simple text in their two languages equally fluently? Is it thus possible to distinguish balanced bilinguals from unbalanced bilinguals with respect to reading fluency in their first language (L1) and second language (L2)? In this study, we avoided making direct comparisons between L1 and…
Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in thei...
Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun
Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production; (2) Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production. The two casestudies were conducted at two universities of two countries: University of Leuven (LU), Belgium, and University of Aarhus (AU), Denmark during the academic year 2014/2015. There were altogether 87 students (N= 54 students from LU; and N= 33 students from AU) participating in the studies, among them 44 are 2nd-year students (n=28 from LU and n=16 from AU) and 43 3rd-year students (n=26 from LU and n=17 from AU). Students’ writing samples were first collected and the errors on the use of comparative sentences were then identified and described. The study results from the two case studies reveal that the use of ‘b? - ?’ has a very high error rate regardless of task types, proficiency level and learners’ first languages. After analyzing all the learner errors, a categorization framework of the grammatical errors with using comparative sentences is developed, which include comparative item-related errors, comparative result-related errors and blend errors. The results further indicate that these errors could attribute to negative L1 transfer and overgeneralization of grammatical rule and structures. Finally, pedagogical implication of CFL is discussed and future research is suggested. Keywords: error analysis, comparative sentences, comparative structure ‘‘b? - ?’, Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), written production
Rossetto, Marietta; Chiera-Macchia, Antonella
This study investigated the use of comics (Cary, 2004) in a guided writing experience in secondary school Italian language learning. The main focus of the peer group interaction task included the exploration of visual sequencing and visual integration (Bailey, O'Grady-Jones, & McGown, 1995) using image and text to create a comic strip narrative in…
Full Text Available The main trust of the present study was to investigate whether writing performance in students of English as a foreign language (EFL was related to self-efficacy in writing, writing apprehension, and attitude towards writing. Fifty IELTS students (30 females and 20 males studying IELTS Writing participated in this study. In order to collect data, three instruments were used which were a writing apprehension test (WAT, a self-efficacy in writing scale (SWS, and a questionnaire on attitude towards writing (WAQ. In order to make the questionnaires more comprehensible, they were adapted to Iranian context. This study conducted in two phases. First, the questionnaires were administered in the fist hour. In the second phase participants were given 45 minutes to write an argumentative essay on a given topic. The compositions were scored according to IELTS Writing Band Descriptive for public version by two raters. The obtained marks were taken to indicate the students’ overall writing performance. The findings of the study suggested that, self-efficacy in writing and writing apprehension was negatively correlated. Moreover there was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and attitude towards writing. Besides, the results showed that self-efficacy and writing performance were positively correlated. The correlation between writing apprehension and attitude towards writing was negative. Finally there was a negative correlation between writing apprehension and writing performance. The results of a three-way ANOVA revealed that those learners with positive attitudes performed significantly better than those with negative attitudes on writing task. In terms of self-efficacy and apprehension levels no significant differences were found.
Chinese writing is one of the most difficult challenges for Chinese learners whose first language writing system is alphabetic letters. Chinese teachers have incorporated computer-based writing into their teaching in the attempt to reduce the difficulties of writing in Chinese, with a particular emphasis on composing (as opposed to simply writing…
Full Text Available This study compares first graders’ acquisition of literacy in two different instructional settings. One teacher used a traditional skill-based approach while the other one was identified as a whole language teacher using literature and writing experiences with incidental attention to phonics. During the school year, documentation collection about the pedagogy included questionnaires, field notes of monthly observations of reading and writing lessons, systematic collections of the activities, and analysis of the linguistic structures contained in the texts used for reading lessons in both classrooms. Data collection was conducted longitudinally and involved three tasks: invented spelling, oral reading and reading content recall. Various analyses indicate that both groups of children learnt the graphophonic system and were able to use it for encoding and decoding. Differences between the two groups were in the difficulties encountered in the three tasks. The influence of the way the teacher leads the reading lessons, the activities proposed and the reading supports used on first graders’ difficulties and the strategies used are discussed.
English, as an international language, takes such a position in foreign language teaching and learning in China. As we all know that the ultimate purpose of language teaching is to cultivate students’ communicative ability including not only the oral ability, but also the writing ability. However, teaching of English writing is far from satisfactory, and many students still have a great difficulty in writing English composition. They find it hard to express their ideas and feeling freely and ...
Majid Pour-Mohammadi; Mohamad Jafre Zainol Abidin; Cheong Lai Fong
Teachers who teach English as a second language are committed to develop an understanding and improvement of second language writing as learning to write in the second language is a complicated process. Despite the numerous research on second language writing, the phenomenon of writing is constantly under investigation as teachers want to share the findings of each study which provides knowledge that resonates with their teaching experience. This case study is a report about the effect of pro...
Enables you to organize the information on your site to create maximum impactLanguage-centred approach helps you to communicate effectively with usersClear and straightforward explanationsHandy checklists at the end of each section summarize the information Writing for the Web offers simple and effective advice for anyone who has to write copy for a website. It shows you how language works and how to select the right words and arrange them effectively to create a site that users can navigate easily and will visit again.
Full Text Available The study attempts to incorporate the Quality Function Deployment (QFD to be integrated strategically in designing and managing a writing course within an English learning system. Understanding the user`s needs in these communities has become the first priority of learning systems for designing, running and managing effective learning services to meet the increasing expectations of the users. To achieve this, the learning system strives to improve their quality of service by applying a wide range of such quality management approaches as QFD. QFD initially stresses on driving continuous improvement of the user-oriented services towards end-user satisfaction.
Cargill, Margaret; O'Connor, Patrick; Li, Yongyan
As is the worldwide trend, scientists in China face strong and increasing pressure to publish their research in international peer-reviewed journals written in English. There is an acute need for graduate students to develop the required language skills alongside their scientific expertise, in spite of the distinct division currently existing…
Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle
Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…
Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail
Writing has always been regarded as playing a prominent role in learning a second language. Research within this discipline has mainly focused on the development of writing skill, but in recent years, some researchers have examined students’ perceptions of writing. The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ perceptions about an academic writing course and writing in general. A total of 64 female students from an ESP program participated in the study. The general design of the stud...
Dyson, Anne Haas; Genishi, Celia
Presents case studies of two first-grade children, examining their writing as a linguistic and social process that involves the child in an exploration of both oral and written language within the social context of the classroom. (HTH)
Full Text Available Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in their teacher education could be beneficial in helping them to develop their critical thinking skills and to make the most of their future teaching experiences. Thus, the current study was conducted to describe the individual reflective profiles emerging from the analysis of the written reflections of 28 Turkish prospective English Language teachers on a video-recorded microteaching experience carried out as part of a methodology course. A mixed method approach was adopted to this aim. First, qualitative analysis of the written reflections revealed reflective categories showing how the participants reflected on their teaching experience. Second, frequency analysis was used to reveal the distribution of these reflective categories for each participant. The data analysis showed that the individual participants displayed different patterns of reflection in terms of descriptive and dialogic reflection, and positive and negative stance.
Miguel Zabalza Beraza
Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.
To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.
Silmara Carina Dornelas, Munhoz; Andréa Vieira, Zanella.
Full Text Available O processo de constituição do sujeito ocorre a partir de relações sociais, semioticamente mediadas. Assim, é via produção de sentidos que o ser humano produz cultura e, simultaneamente, constitui-se enquanto singularidade, o que caracteriza esse processo como criador. Ao reconhecer a linguagem como [...] constitutiva do sujeito e entender o processo de criação como característico do ser humano, o presente trabalho apresenta reflexões, à luz da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural, sobre os processos de criação na/com a linguagem escrita. Situações de uma pesquisa anteriormente desenvolvida são apresentadas para ilustrar as dicotomias existentes no processo de produção escrita, mais especificamente no que se refere às relações forma/conteúdo e técnica/sentido. Para a superação dessas dicotomias, necessário se faz estabelecer relações estéticas com a realidade, por cujo intermédio a pessoa pode distanciar-se e aproximar-se da produção escrita, seja esta produto de sua objetivação ou não. É este movimento que possibilita a organização de novos sentidos para a produção própria ou alheia e, por conseguinte, novas escritas. Abstract in spanish El proceso de constitución del sujeto ocurre a partir de relaciones sociales, semióticamente mediadas. Así, es vía producción de sentidos que el ser humano produce cultura y, simultáneamente, se constituye con singularidad, lo que caracteriza ese proceso como creador. Al reconocer el lenguaje como c [...] onstitutivo del sujeto y entender el de creación como característico del ser humano, el presente trabajo presenta reflexiones, a la luz de la Psicología Histórico-cultural, sobre los procesos de creación en el/con el lenguaje escrito. Situaciones de una encuesta anteriormente desarrollada son presentadas para ilustrar las dicotomías existentes en el proceso de producción escrita, más específicamente en lo que se refiere a las relaciones forma/contenido y técnica/sentido. Para la superación de esas dicotomías, se hace necesario establecer relaciones estéticas con la realidad, por cuyo intermedio la persona puede distanciarse y aproximarse de la producción escrita, sea ésta producto de su objetivación o no. Es este movimiento que posibilita la organización de nuevos sentidos para la producción propia o ajena y, por consiguiente nuevas escritas. Abstract in english The process of the constitution of the subject occurs through semiotically mediated social relationships. Through the production of meanings the human being produces culture and, simultaneously, constitutes its singularity, which characterizes the process as creative. While acknowledging language as [...] constitutive of the subject and the comprehension of the creative process as unique to humans, current analysis presents some considerations, based on historical-cultural psychology, on the creative processes with language writing. Situations from a previous research are shown to illustrate the dichotomies during the process of writing production, more specifically the relations between shape/content and technique/meaning. So that these dichotomies may be overcome, it is necessary to establish aesthetic relations with reality. Through reality the subject may distance him/herself from or approach the writing production whether or not it is his/her production. Such shifting permits the organization of new meanings for one’s own or for others’ production, or rather, for new writings.
Silmara Carina Dornelas Munhoz
Full Text Available O processo de constituição do sujeito ocorre a partir de relações sociais, semioticamente mediadas. Assim, é via produção de sentidos que o ser humano produz cultura e, simultaneamente, constitui-se enquanto singularidade, o que caracteriza esse processo como criador. Ao reconhecer a linguagem como constitutiva do sujeito e entender o processo de criação como característico do ser humano, o presente trabalho apresenta reflexões, à luz da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural, sobre os processos de criação na/com a linguagem escrita. Situações de uma pesquisa anteriormente desenvolvida são apresentadas para ilustrar as dicotomias existentes no processo de produção escrita, mais especificamente no que se refere às relações forma/conteúdo e técnica/sentido. Para a superação dessas dicotomias, necessário se faz estabelecer relações estéticas com a realidade, por cujo intermédio a pessoa pode distanciar-se e aproximar-se da produção escrita, seja esta produto de sua objetivação ou não. É este movimento que possibilita a organização de novos sentidos para a produção própria ou alheia e, por conseguinte, novas escritas.El proceso de constitución del sujeto ocurre a partir de relaciones sociales, semióticamente mediadas. Así, es vía producción de sentidos que el ser humano produce cultura y, simultáneamente, se constituye con singularidad, lo que caracteriza ese proceso como creador. Al reconocer el lenguaje como constitutivo del sujeto y entender el de creación como característico del ser humano, el presente trabajo presenta reflexiones, a la luz de la Psicología Histórico-cultural, sobre los procesos de creación en el/con el lenguaje escrito. Situaciones de una encuesta anteriormente desarrollada son presentadas para ilustrar las dicotomías existentes en el proceso de producción escrita, más específicamente en lo que se refiere a las relaciones forma/contenido y técnica/sentido. Para la superación de esas dicotomías, se hace necesario establecer relaciones estéticas con la realidad, por cuyo intermedio la persona puede distanciarse y aproximarse de la producción escrita, sea ésta producto de su objetivación o no. Es este movimiento que posibilita la organización de nuevos sentidos para la producción propia o ajena y, por consiguiente nuevas escritas.The process of the constitution of the subject occurs through semiotically mediated social relationships. Through the production of meanings the human being produces culture and, simultaneously, constitutes its singularity, which characterizes the process as creative. While acknowledging language as constitutive of the subject and the comprehension of the creative process as unique to humans, current analysis presents some considerations, based on historical-cultural psychology, on the creative processes with language writing. Situations from a previous research are shown to illustrate the dichotomies during the process of writing production, more specifically the relations between shape/content and technique/meaning. So that these dichotomies may be overcome, it is necessary to establish aesthetic relations with reality. Through reality the subject may distance him/herself from or approach the writing production whether or not it is his/her production. Such shifting permits the organization of new meanings for one’s own or for others’ production, or rather, for new writings.
Yeong, Stephanie H M; Rickard Liow, Susan J
Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1 (first language) and L2 (second language) syllable and phoneme awareness longitudinally in English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 prereaders (n=70, 4- and 5-year-olds) across three 6-month intervals. In English, the English-L1 children's performance was better in phoneme awareness at all three time points, but the Mandarin-L1 children's syllable awareness was equivalent to the English-L1 children's syllable awareness by Time 3. In Mandarin, the English-L1 children's phoneme awareness, but not their syllable awareness, was also significantly better than that of the Mandarin-L1 children at all three time points. Cross-lagged correlations revealed that only the English-L1 children applied their L1 syllable and phoneme awareness to their L2 (Mandarin) processing by Time 2 and that the Mandarin-L1 children seemed to require exposure to English (L2) before they developed phoneme awareness in either language. The data provide further evidence that phonological awareness is a language-general ability but that cross-language application depends on the similarity between the phonological structures of a child's L1 and L2. Implications for classroom teaching are briefly discussed. PMID:22382048
Algumas considerações sobre a interface entre a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS e a Língua Portuguesa na construção inicial da escrita pela criança surda Considerations on the interface between the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS and Portuguese language in the initial construction of writing of deaf children
Renata Castelo Peixoto
Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma reflexão psicolingüística sobre as construções conceituais de crianças surdas no que diz respeito à escrita. O trabalho revela, a partir de um diálogo com as idéias de Emília Ferreiro e Ana Teberosky, que a psicogênese da escrita vivenciada por crianças surdas, que têm a língua de sinais como primeira língua e língua de instrução, se desenrola de forma diferente ao que é vivido por crianças ouvintes em processo inicial de construção da escrita. As principais especificidades dessa aquisição relacionam-se: a não-fonetização da escrita, a uma intensa exploração dos aspectos viso-espaciais da escrita e ao uso dos parâmetros fonológicos da língua de sinais como elemento regulador e organizador da escrita. Tais peculiaridades exigem, portanto, que a escola e o professor alfabetizador revejam suas concepções sobre o processo de escrita no surdo, pensando em (novas práticas pedagógicas que considerem a realidade bilíngüe e sua relação não-sonora com a escrita.This paper proposes a psycholinguistic reflection on the conceptual constructions of deaf children in what regards writing. Based on a dialogue with the ideas of Emília Ferreiro and Ana Teberosky, this work reveals that the psychogenesis of writing experienced by deaf children who have sign language as their first and instruction language, occurs in a different way than that of hearing children in the initial process of constructing writing. The main specificities of this acquisition are related to the non-phonetization of writing, to an intense exploration of the visual-spatial aspects of writing and to the usage of the phonologic parameters of sign language as a regulating and organizing element of writing. Such peculiarities thus demand that school and alphabetizing teachers revise their conceptions on the process of writing of the deaf, thinking of (new pedagogical practices that take into account the bilingual reality and its soundless relationship to writing.
Algumas considerações sobre a interface entre a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS) e a Língua Portuguesa na construção inicial da escrita pela criança surda / Considerations on the interface between the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS) and Portuguese language in the initial construction of writing of deaf children
Renata Castelo, Peixoto.
Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma reflexão psicolingüística sobre as construções conceituais de crianças surdas no que diz respeito à escrita. O trabalho revela, a partir de um diálogo com as idéias de Emília Ferreiro e Ana Teberosky, que a psicogênese da escrita vivenciada por crianças surdas, que têm a língua d [...] e sinais como primeira língua e língua de instrução, se desenrola de forma diferente ao que é vivido por crianças ouvintes em processo inicial de construção da escrita. As principais especificidades dessa aquisição relacionam-se: a não-fonetização da escrita, a uma intensa exploração dos aspectos viso-espaciais da escrita e ao uso dos parâmetros fonológicos da língua de sinais como elemento regulador e organizador da escrita. Tais peculiaridades exigem, portanto, que a escola e o professor alfabetizador revejam suas concepções sobre o processo de escrita no surdo, pensando em (novas) práticas pedagógicas que considerem a realidade bilíngüe e sua relação não-sonora com a escrita. Abstract in english This paper proposes a psycholinguistic reflection on the conceptual constructions of deaf children in what regards writing. Based on a dialogue with the ideas of Emília Ferreiro and Ana Teberosky, this work reveals that the psychogenesis of writing experienced by deaf children who have sign language [...] as their first and instruction language, occurs in a different way than that of hearing children in the initial process of constructing writing. The main specificities of this acquisition are related to the non-phonetization of writing, to an intense exploration of the visual-spatial aspects of writing and to the usage of the phonologic parameters of sign language as a regulating and organizing element of writing. Such peculiarities thus demand that school and alphabetizing teachers revise their conceptions on the process of writing of the deaf, thinking of (new) pedagogical practices that take into account the bilingual reality and its soundless relationship to writing.
Bringing new project funding and business opportunities to your organization is a vital part of UX professionals' growth and success. Writing Successful UX Proposals teaches the proven techniques for assessing proposal requests, writing successful commercial and government funding proposals, and enhancing your business development skills. This book will teach UX practitioners how to succeed in UX business development by mastering the following goals: * Understand how to assess a request for proposals* Understand the "anatomy" of a proposal response * Speak the business language of those who will be evaluating the proposed approach* Recognize the successes of others and build upon their advice Complete with case studies, tricks and tips, and real-world examples throughout, this is a must-have resource for UX professionals interested in honing their proposal writing skills and setting themselves up for success. * Provides unique sales and proposal writing insights tailored to the UX arena (including both resear...
Seng, Goh Hock; Hashim, Fatimah
This study is an attempt to provide insights into the extent of first language (L1) use while reading second language (L2) texts in a collaborative situation among tertiary ESL learners. Through the identification of reading strategies utilized by the subjects, the study is also aimed at discovering possible reasons for the use of L1 while…
This study explores the effects that the age of onset (AO) of second language (L2) acquisition exerts on the attrition of first language (L1) event conceptualization patterns. The subjects studied are L1 Spanish-L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden. The specific research questions addressed in the study concern the role of AO in endpoint…
Hamid R. KARGOZARI; Hamed GHAEMI
The purpose of the present study is to determine whether Web-based Writing Instruction (WBWI) has any influence on the writing quality of Iranian EFL learners. Two groups of EFL learners who were studying English in an English Language Institute participated in the experiment. They were enrolled in an advanced writing course. Before instruction, both groups were pre-tested through writing essays. T-test results illustrated significant differences between two groups in writing ability. The ex...
Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010
This document presents writing samples that have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing--argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative--in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for…
Meisel, Jurgen M.
Past research demonstrates that first language (L1)-like competence in each language can be attained in simultaneous acquisition of bilingualism by mere exposure to the target languages. The question is whether this is also true for the "weaker" language (WL). The WL hypothesis claims that the WL differs fundamentally from monolingual L1 and…
Everett, Dan; Gross, Philip; Yueh, Linda; Mollett, Amy; Brumley, Cheryl
Professor Dan Everett, linguistic anthropologist and author of Language: The Cultural Tool, tells us how a language spoken by a tribe living deep in the Amazon jungle poses a direct challenge to the widely-held view that language is inherent. Prize-winning poet Philip Gross talks to us about his father’s loss of language and reads from his collections Deep Field and The Water Table. As part of our academic inspiration series we speak to LSE economist and Bloomberg TV broadcaster Linda Yueh ab...
Berber-Jimenez, Lola; Montelongo, Jose; Hernandez, Anita C.; Herter, Roberta; Hosking, David
Unlike the vocabulary used in language arts and social studies, knowledge of expository text (text written to inform) and the language of science are required for reading and writing in science (Carrier 2005). This vocabulary, along with expository text structures, often is not taught in middle and high school classrooms, thus hindering students,…
Full Text Available A Teoria de Sistemas Complexos (TSC) tem sido acionada em diversos campos, como forma de examinar os fenômenos de uma maneira que faz com que a interconectividade e emergência sejam centrais para pesquisa. Para a linguística aplicada, TSC oferece a possibilidade de englobar tanto a linguagm quanto a [...] aprendizagem. Ao fazer isso, a orientação teórica tem de ser totalmente integrada ao processo de pesquisa por meio da metodologia de pesquisa. Este artigo descreve um método qualitativo microetnográfico, Análise de Traços Lexicais, que se baseia no conceito de emergência. É um método analítico que nos permite ver o desenvolvimento longitudinal de palavras e de seus padrões. Ele é aplicado aqui em um estudo de caso sobre o desenvolvimento de padrões léxico-gramaticais (sequências formulaicas, colocações, expressões idiomáticas etc.) de uma usuária de uma segunda língua. Seus padrões de palavras são rastreados enquanto ela se prepara para o vestibular para a universidade e, posteriormente, assim que ela entra na universidade. Seu uso de padrões envolve imitação adaptativa, um processo complexo de percepção de padrões, imitação e adaptação para atender aos novos objetivos comunicativos. Abstract in english Complex Systems Theory (CST) has been called upon in many different fields as a means of examining phenomena in a way that makes interconnectivity and emergence central to research. For applied linguistics, CST offers the possibility of encompassing both language and learning. In doing so, the theor [...] etical orientation needs to be fully integrated into the research process through research methodology. This paper describes a qualitative microethnographic method, Lexical Trail Analysis, which draws on the concept of emergence. It is an analytic method that enables us to see the longitudinal development of words and their patterns. It is applied here in a case study of the development of one second language user's lexicogrammatical patterns (formulaic sequences, collocations, idioms, etc.). Her word patterns are traced as she prepares for a university entrance test and later, once she enters the university. Her use of patterns involves adaptive imitation, a complex process of perceiving, imitating and adapting patterns to suit new communicative goals.
Deni Darmawan; Tatat Hartati; Effy Mulyasari
This study aims at overcoming difficulty in learning language, both in Indonesian Language and English at international elementary school, especially in creative writing. Creative writing as part of human activity is creativity with language medium as prose (narrative, description), poem (old, new and modern), as well as drama (dialogue, role play, and sosio drama). Specific target to be achieved is the design of Video Streaming for all kinds of creative writing in the language of Indonesian ...
Marziyeh Tahmouresi Majelan
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate empirically if promoting a multimedia package enhances content knowledge in essay writing of 80 junior English translation students at a University in Karaj, Iran; plus, whether the learners’ writing content improve due to the presence of the multimedia package or not. The multimedia was considered to be a CD, containing recordings both in first language (L1=Farsi and in second language (L2=English along with manipulative and task-based activities. A homogenizing test, the pre-posttests, and the material in a form of a CD (treatment including forty of the most common TOEFL essays both in L1 and L2 plus manipulative tasks to fulfill provided by the researcher, were the instruments in the study. After 14 weeks, both the experimental and control groups sat for the posttest with exactly the same characteristics of pretest except for the topics. When the collected data was analyzed, a mean difference of t-test along with a paired t-test showed a significant difference between the performance of the control and the experimental groups, regarding the content. Consequently, the statistics proved that enhancing content knowledge by means of a multimedia package containing recordings plus manipulative and task-based activities would improve students’ writing ability while the control group in which a current traditional rhetoric approach was used, the placebo, did not show any statistically significant improvement regarding content.
Linguajamentos e contra-hegemonias epistêmicas sobre linguagem em produções escritas indígenas / Languaging and epistemic counter-hegemony on language in writings by Brazilian Indians / Modos de hablar y contrahegemonías epistémicas sobre lenguaje en producciones escritas indígenas
Elismênnia Aparecida, Oliveira; Joana Plaza, Pinto.
Full Text Available Este artigo, resultado de uma pesquisa qualitativa documental, discute práticas epistêmicas sobre linguagem de autoras e autores indígenas residentes no Brasil. Com base em autoras e autores indígenas e não indígenas - decolonialistas e pós-estruturalistas - confrontamos suas concepções de linguagem [...] , considerando a construção das sociedades indígenas como o outro/objeto, que está presente na produção hegemônica de saber sobre linguagem. Consideramos o processo de silenciamento a que as etnias indígenas foram sujeitadas, e também o processo de resistência e apropriação de práticas e conceitos dos não indígenas, assim como coexistência de conceitos como língua, escrita e identidade. Como conclusão, apontamos a necessidade de ampliar o olhar epistemológico para dar conta de práticas discursivas coexistentes às do não indígena. Abstract in spanish Este artículo, resultado de una investigación cualitativa documental, discute prácticas epistémicas sobre lenguaje de autoras y autores indígenas residentes en Brasil. Con base en autoras y autores indígenas y no indígenas - de colonialistas y posestructuralistas - confrontamos sus concepciones de l [...] eenguaje, considerando la construcción de las sociedades indígenas como el otro/objeto, que está presente en la producción hegemónica de saber sobre lenguaje. Consideramos el proceso de silenciamiento a que las etnias indígenas fueron sujetadas, y también el proceso de resistencia y apropriación de prácticas y conceptos de los no indígenas, así como coexistencia de conceptos como lengua, escritura e identidad. Como conclusión, apuntamos la necesidad de ampliar la observación epistemológica para dar cuenta de prácticas discursivas coexistentes a las de la no indígena. Abstract in english This paper presents the results of a qualitative documentary research which discusses epistemic practices on language by indigenous authors inhabiting Brazil. Based on indigenous authors, as well as on poststructuralist and decolonialist ones, this paper confronts theirs language concepts, consideri [...] ng the construction of indigenous societies as the other/object, which is part of the hegemonic production of knowledge about language. We make considerations on the process of silencing of the indigenous groups, and also the process of resistance and appropriation of concepts and practices by non-indigenous, as well as the coexistence of concepts such as language, writing and identity. As a conclusion, we point to the urgent need to expand epistemological perspectives in order to deal with the co-existing discursive practices of the indigenous and the non-indigenous.
Sadeghi, Karim; Shirzad Khajepasha, Arash
Writing in a second (L2)/foreign language is generally a challenging activity, and writing an MA thesis, as an example of academic enterprise, can be daunting when done in a language in which the writer is not fully competent. The challenge such a genre of writing poses for L2 writers has not been properly addressed. To fill in the gap in this…
Habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares / Oral and written language skills for reading and writing in preschool children Habilidades / Linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares
Esperanza, Guarneros Reyes; Lizbeth, Vega Pérez.
Full Text Available As crianças pré-escolares já possuem noções de leitura e escritura porque têm desenvolvido habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas que se relacionam entre si, e por sua vez, com a aquisição da leitura e a escritura convencionais. Este artigo de revisão tem por objetivos: (a) Descrever as relações [...] existentes entre linguagem oral e escrita nos anos pré-escolares, e (b) Identificar as habilidades concretas da linguagem da criança pré-escolar que possibilitam a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais. Fez-se uma busca nas bases de dados ERIC e OVID de emergent literacy,phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, que contribuiu com os componentes da linguajem oral (habilidades fonológicas e semânticas) que se relacionam com a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais, assim como uma proposta de análise na que se enfatiza o processo das habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares. Abstract in spanish Los niños preescolares ya poseen nociones de lectura y escritura porque han desarrollado habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas que se relacionan entre sí y, a su vez, con la adquisición de la lectura y la escritura convencionales. Este artículo de revisión tiene como objetivos (a) Describir las [...] relaciones existentes entre lenguaje oral y escrito en los años preescolares, e (b) Identificar las habilidades concretas del lenguaje del niño preescolar que posibilitan la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales. Se hizo una búsqueda en las bases de datos ERIC y OVID de emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, la cual aportó los componentes del lenguaje oral -habilidades fonológicas y semánticas- que se relacionan con la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales, así como una propuesta de análisis en la que se enfatiza el proceso de las habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares. Abstract in english Preschool children already have notions of reading and writing because they have developed oral and written language skills that relate to each other, and in turn, with the acquisition of conventional reading and writing. This review article aims to: (a) identify the relationship between oral and wr [...] itten language in the preschool years, and (b) Identify the specific skills of the preschool child language enabling the acquisition of conventional literacy. A search in the databases ERIC and OVID for emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, and language skills preschoolers. This provided the oral-language components and semanti-cphonological skills that relate to the acquisition of conventional reading and writing, as well as a proposal for analysis that emphasizes the process of oral and written language skills for literacy in preschool children.
Suwantarathip, Ornprapat; Wichadee, Saovapa
Google Docs, a free web-based version of Microsoft Word, offers collaborative features which can be used to facilitate collaborative writing in a foreign language classroom. The current study compared writing abilities of students who collaborated on writing assignments using Google Docs with those working in groups in a face-to-face classroom.…
Steinlaug Sigríður Bjarnadóttir 1953
This study examines the nature of written feedback in English writing in 8th and 10th grades of the compulsory school in Iceland. It investigates the amount of feedback provided and which aspects of the writing the teachers address in their feedback. It also studies the teachers´views on their teaching of writing in English and their feedback practices. The data consists of two hundred and sixty-four copies of English writing samples from students in the 8th and 10th grades collected from th...
Kimberly A. Wolbers
Full Text Available Similar to second language students who embed features of their primary languages in the writing of their second languages, deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh writers utilize features of American Sign Language (ASL in their writing of English. The purpose of this study is to identify categories of language transfer, provide the prevalence of these transfer tendencies in the writings of 29 d/hh adolescents and describe whether language features are equally or differently responsive to instruction. Findings indicate six categories of language transfer in order of prevalence: unique glossing & substitution, adjectives, plurality & adverbs, topicalization, and conjunctions. ASL features, of both lexical and syntactical nature, appear to respond similarly to instruction.
Students often view science as a mechanical endeavor that--unlike art, music, and literature--involves little imagination or creativity. This is partly due to the inability of scientists to communicate in accessible language the creative nature of scientific discovery and the tradition in science education of minimizing the role of the individual. This paper describes a project that helps students appreciate the creative side of science by using scientists and scientific theories as the basis for creative writing assignments.
This article explores five students’ perceptions of their writing experiences at an English-medium post-graduate university in a non-English speaking country as compared to writing in their home country universities in their native languages. Three types of differences are found to be relevant: language and rhetorical differences, disciplinary differences, and differences in educational systems (such as the number of assignments required, the focus of writing instruction, and feedback p...
Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen
Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…
Chamberlin, Shannon Marie
Scientific literacy is the foundation on which both California's currently adopted science standards and the recommended new standards for science are based (CDE, 2000; NRC, 2011). The Writing for Science Literacy (WSL) curriculum focuses on a series of writing and discussion tasks aimed at increasing students' scientific literacy. These tasks are based on three teaching and learning constructs: thought and language, scaffolding, and meta-cognition. To this end, WSL is focused on incorporating several strategies from the Rhetorical Approach to Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking to engage students in activities designed to increase their scientific literacy; their ability to both identify an author's claim and evidence and to develop their own arguments based on a claim and evidence. Students participated in scaffolded activities designed to strengthen their written and oral discourse, hone their rhetorical skills and improve their meta-cognition. These activities required students to participate in both writing and discussion tasks to create meaning and build their science content knowledge. Students who participated in the WSL curriculum increased their written and oral fluency and were able to accurately write an evidence-based conclusion all while increasing their conceptual knowledge. This finding implies that a discourse rich curriculum can lead to an increase in scientific knowledge.
Teorías personales de docentes de lengua sobre la enseñanza de la escritura en sistema de educación pública chilena / Language teacher personal theories about teaching writing in the Chilean public educational system
Roxanna Carolina Correa, Pérez; Mónica Tapia, Ladino; Angie Neira, Martinez; Mabel Ortiz, Navarrete.
Full Text Available Es sabido que las ideas que los docentes sostienen acerca de los procesos de enseñanza -aprendizaje de lenguas inciden en su quehacer pedagógico. Son escasos los estudios que explican las teorías personales de profesores de lenguas en torno a las habilidades lingüísticas de sus estudiantes. Por esta [...] razón, el objetivo de este trabajo es determinar cuáles son las teorías personales sobre escritura y su enseñanza en la educación media de seis profesores de inglés y de seis de Lenguaje y Comunicación que se desempeñan en establecimientos educacionales municipalizados de dos regiones de Chile. Para acceder a las teorías personales, los docentes fueron entrevistados con la finalidad de conocer sus ideas sobre diferentes aspectos de la enseñanza de la escritura. La metodología de análisis fue cualitativa y el procesamiento de los datos se realizó con el software NVivo. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los docentes asignan una alta importancia al desarrollo de la escritura, realizan actividades secuenciadas, se apoyan en textos modelos, favorecen el trabajo individual y promueven la escritura de textos breves. Abstract in english It is well known that the teachers' ideas about any area related to language teaching and learning processes impact on their pedagogical practice. There are not many studies, however, that explain language teachers' personal theories about linguistics abilities. The aim of this article is to present [...] the personal theories about writing of 6 English teachers and 6 Spanish teachers, who work in public schools in two regions of Chile. In order to find out the personal theories, we interviewed the teachers to deal with different aspects of the process of teaching writing. The methodology was qualitative and the data analysis was carried out with the support of NVivo software. The results indicate that the teachers assign great importance to the development of writing, carry out sequenced activities, support the process with model texts, foster individual work and promote the writing of brief texts.
El oficio del escritor académico: un portal para promover el uso de la lengua escrita como práctica social / The Profession of Academic Writing: A Portal to Promote the Use of Written Language as a Social Practice
Juan Manuel, Fernández-Cárdenas; Lorena, Piña-Gómez.
Full Text Available La escritura académica es un campo en creciente desarrollo debido al reconocimiento de que el uso de la lengua escrita y la socialización en las disciplinas académicas es indisoluble: la lengua no puede reducirse a la enseñanza de la ortografía y la gramática, ni la construcción de conocimiento pued [...] e entenderse sin la mediación de textos académicos en la educación superior. Sin embargo, existen aún muy pocas iniciativas institucionales para formalizar este tipo de acciones, y menos con un componente tecnológico. En este artículo presentamos el desarrollo de un portal de recursos para la escritura académica, el cual ilustra un conjunto de acciones y procesos constitutivos del oficio del escritor académico como una práctica social. Este modelaje de escritura académica se logra utilizando un paradigma sociocultural y uno de semiótica visual. Abstract in english Academic writing is a growing field due to the recognition that the use of written language and socialization in academic disciplines is indissoluble: language cannot be reduced to teaching spelling and grammar, nor can the construction of knowledge be understood without the mediation of academic te [...] xts in higher education. However, institutional initiatives for formalizing this type of actions are still very limited, especially in the case of technological components. In this article, we present the development of a portal of resources for academic writing, which illustrates a set of actions and processes that constitute the profession of academic writing as a social practice. This model of academic writing is achieved by using a sociocultural paradigm and a paradigm of visual semiotics.
This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student. The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition. Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...
Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.
L1 has a significant influence on second language study. However, how L1 influence L2 is very complicated and abstract. But to study the mechanism of how L1 influence L2 is significant because L2 acquisition is making contribution on many fields like education and psychology. L1 is one of the central elements influencing SLA. In this course paper, we are going to overview what linguists have done about L1 and L2 and what approaches and theories they have made.
Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary
Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL
Ana Lucía Delmastro
Full Text Available El andamiaje constituye una estructura provisional, aportada por el docente o los pares más capacitados, que sirve de apoyo al estudiante en la construcción de los nuevos aprendizajes, la cual es retirada una vez que el estudiante es capaz de funcionar de manera independiente. El propósito de este estudio es explorar la naturaleza de los procesos de andamiaje docente que operan durante el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera (LE, con el objeto de constituir un soporte teorético-heurístico que fundamente la selección de procedimientos de trabajo de aula orientados a promover y regular dichos procesos. Para ello, se realiza una investigación de tipo teórico-documental con un abordaje epistemológico racionalista, a partir del análisis de diversas fuentes bibliográficas y cibergráficas. En primer lugar, se define y clarifica el concepto de andamiaje con el objeto de proceder a su caracterización y establecer las teorías que lo sustentan. En segundo lugar, se señalan orientaciones generales para un mejor andamiaje de los procesos de aprendizaje por parte del docente de LE. Finalmente, se sugieren estrategias docentes que resultan efectivas en la provisión de andamiaje durante el desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura en LE. La investigación aporta basamentos teóricos y orientaciones procedimentales que se espera contribuyan a mejorar la praxis pedagógica del docente de lenguas extranjeras, acorde con tendencias pedagógicas de la actualidad.Scaffolding is a provisional structure provided by a teacher, other highly skilled teachers or skilled students, to support learners during construction of new knowledge. Once students are able to work on their own, the structure is withdrawn. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of instructional scaffolding processes during foreign language (FL learning. The objective was to build a theoretical background to support selection of classroom procedures that promote and regulate these processes. A theoretical and bibliographical research was carried out from a rationalist epistemological perspective, through an analysis of a variety of bibliographical references. First, the concept of scaffolding was defined and clarified in order to outline its characteristics and establish underlying theories. Then, general guidelines were pointed out to improve teacher scaffolding during FL learning. Finally, effective teaching strategies were suggested for scaffolding the development of reading and writing skills in a FL. This study yields theoretical background and procedural guidelines that we hope will contribute to the improvement of FL teaching practice in accordance with present-day pedagogical trends.
Elizabeth Oliveira Crepaldi de, Almeida; Carolina Ronqui, Filasi; Luiza Crepaldi de, Almeida.
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar a coesão textual em produções escritas por quatro adultos surdos usuários da Língua de Sinais Brasileira alfabetizados, integrantes de um grupo de discussão nessa língua, sobre o tema violência, coordenado por uma intérprete fluente. Verificar a possível interferência da Libras [...] na escrita em português. MÉTODOS: após terem participado de sessões de discussão sobre o tema violência, cada participante produziu um texto relacionado a algum tipo de violência. Seus textos foram analisados qualitativamente em termos de sua coesão. RESULTADOS: os textos produzidos faziam referência a situações de violência simbólica. O estudo dos textos evidenciou presença de coesão textual sequencial e referencial em todos os textos, embora comprometida. Houve interferência da Libras nas redações. Observou-se que os textos, por si sós, são difíceis de serem compreendidos sem a interação direta com o participante. Apesar da dificuldade na compreensão da língua escrita, que é diferente da estrutura da língua de sinais, o estudo evidenciou que esses surdos podem construir textos com sentido e coesão. CONCLUSÃO: a produção escrita dos surdos pesquisados apresenta coesão, porém com interferência da Libras, o que prejudica, em alguns casos, a compreensão por parte do leitor. Quanto menor a coesão textual, maior a necessidade de explicações do autor sobre o que quis dizer com seu texto. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to investigate text cohesion in written productions of four deaf male adults using Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) and write in Portuguese. Participants integrate a discussion group on violence using that language coordinated by a fluent interpreter. The study also verifies possible interf [...] erence of Libras on writing in Portuguese. METHODS: after a few sessions, a discussing the theme violence, each deaf participant wrote a text on a violence situation. These texts were analyzed qualitatively as for their cohesion. RESULTS: the study pointed out the existence of sequential and referential text cohesion in all the analyzed texts, although compromised. There was interference of Libras in their writing. The produced texts related in some way to symbolic violence. The texts per se were difficult to understand without direct interaction with the participant. Despite difficulties in comprehension of writing language whose structure is very different from the sign language, it became clear that these deaf persons could construct texts with sense and cohesion. CONCLUSION: the texts produced by the studied deafs have cohesion, although the interference of Libras was harmful in some cases as for the reader's comprehension. As text cohesion diminishes, there is more need for explanations by the author about the meaning of the said text.
Naoko Machida; David J. Dalsky
Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students’ learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students’ writing anxiety. Participants completed writing anxiety scales and were randomly assigned to three groups before completing a writing task: concept mapping, idea listi...
Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of a methodology.
Bao, Rui; Du, Xiangyun
In the past two decades, strong theoretical and pedagogical arguments have been made advocating for task-based activities in the language-learning context. However, many teachers have been reluctant to in- corporate task-based activities into their teaching practices due to concerns about learners’ extensive L1 use and off-task talk. Informed by sociocultural theory, this study explored the extent to which L1s and their func- tions were used when performing tasks. The subjects were beginner-leve...
Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.
Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1…
This article reports on a psycholinguistic study of first language attrition in German first generation immigrants. On the basis of the individual variation in performance evidenced by the data, the study claims that first language (L1) attrition in late bilinguals is not only the consequence of a lack of use. A comparison of the performance of…
Change of first language (L1) status from the most stable language to a less accessible language over the life-span of a bilingual individual is termed "language attrition". Such a shift in ease of L1 access has been reported to affect the lexicon (Pelc, 2001) more than other aspects of language. However, whether L1 attrition is affected by…
Sharpe, Susan G.
Notes the prevalance of advertising language and personae in student writing. Includes exercises that evoke the advertising voice, suggesting that using these as a stepping stone to teaching advertising is preferable to a separate advertising unit. (HTH)
La comprensión oral del lenguaje no literal y su relación con la producción escrita en escolares / Co-relation between oral comprehension of non-literal language and writing in elementary school students
Nina, Crespo; Ricardo, Benítez; Pablo, Cáceres.
Full Text Available Un grupo considerable de niños y jóvenes chilenos escolarizados presenta problemas para producir textos escritos en forma autónoma. Las explicaciones de este fenómeno son diversas, pero este trabajo se focalizará en el desarrollo de la lengua oral que ocurre durante la edad escolar, a partir de los [...] seis años. Concretamente, se referirá aquí a la interpretación de ciertas formas orales de lo no literal: los actos de habla indirectos y las ironías. Teóricamente, la conexión escritura/comprensión oral de lo no literal se fundamenta en que ambas parecieran estar relacionadas con el desarrollo de la conciencia metalingüística y de la teoría de la mente. Empíricamente, se lleva a cabo un estudio con 141 estudiantes de 13 y 14 años cuya comprensión oral fue medida con el Instrumento de Medición de Inferencias Pragmáticas (IMIP) y su habilidad de escritura, con una Pauta de Evaluación Analítica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una correlación canónica y los resultados muestran, por una parte, un grado moderado de asociación entre las variables observables orales y escritas entre sí y, por otra parte, un grado de correlación canónica bajo pero significativo entre las dimensiones latentes comprensión oral y producción escrita (Rc = 0,26, p Abstract in english A substantial number of school children and youngsters encounters problems with the production of written texts in an autonomous fashion. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are various, it will hereby be focused on the development of the oral language occurring during the school age; that is, [...] from six years of age on. In particular, this study will refer to certain forms of non-literal language: indirect speech acts and ironies. Theoretically, the writing/oral comprehension of non-literal language connection is based on their seeming relationship with the development of a metalinguistic conscience and a theory of the mind. Empirically, this study involves the participation of 141 13-14-year-old students whose oral comprehension was measured by the Instrument for the Measurement of Pragmatic Inferences (IMIP, according to the Spanish acronym), and writing, by an Analytic Assessment Guide. Data were analyzed with the aid of canonical co-relation and the results reveal, on the one hand, a moderate degree of association in the observable oral and writing variables among themselves and, on the other, a low but significant degree of canonical co-relation between the latent oral and writing variables (Rc = 0,26, p
Wigglesworth, Gillian; Storch, Neomy
Writing is generally thought of as an activity which is carried out individually, often with feedback then provided by a teacher or colleague. While the use of pair or small group work in the second language classroom in relation to oral work has been extensively studied, and its benefits well documented, there are only a few studies which have…
Notes the relationship between thinking and playfulness. Demonstrates that playful language is a valuable way for adolescents from varied cultural backgrounds to express their thinking. Explores in depth four approaches to writing that encourage linguistic play: choosing playful topics; emphasizing characteristics of linguistic play; selecting…
A atenção fonoaudiólogica e a linguagem escrita de pessoas com baixa visão: estudo exploratório / Speech and language pathology therapy and the reading and writing of a person with visual disabilitie: exploratory study
Mayla Myrina Bianchim, Monteiro; Rita de Cássia Ietto, Montilha; Maria Elisabete Rodrigues Freire, Gasparetto.
Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: conhecer como as pessoas com baixa visão (visão subnormal) adquirida utilizavam a linguagem escrita no cotidiano e recomendar a atenção fonoaudiológica nesse processo. Foi realizado estudo descritivo exploratório para a construção do instrumento de coleta de dados. [...] A amostra foi constituída por pessoas com baixa visão que freqüentaram o Programa de Reabilitação de Adolescentes e Adultos do Cepre/FCM/Unicamp em 2008. Aplicou-se questionário por entrevista, onde foram investigadas as variáveis: características pessoais, uso de recursos de tecnologia assistiva na leitura e escrita, razões das atividades de leitura e escrita e frequência do uso após a perda visual. A amostra foi composta por 08 pessoas com baixa visão com média de idade de 47 anos e predominância do sexo masculino (75,0%). Os resultados indicaram que a maioria (62,5%) relatou utilizar auxílios ópticos nas atividades de leitura. Todos informaram utilizar auxílios não ópticos na leitura. Os sujeitos declararam utilizar a leitura para obter informações sobre assuntos que os interessavam e a escrita para se comunicarem com as outras pessoas. Verificou-se que a maioria (75,0%), relatou não utilizar a leitura e nem a escrita com a mesma freqüência que usava antes da perda visual e os motivos alegados foram a dificuldade para enxergar e o cansaço visual. A redução do uso da linguagem escrita no cotidiano por sujeitos com baixa visão adquirida compromete a autonomia e independência, fato este que demonstra necessidade de ênfase no trabalho com a linguagem escrita que poderá ser maximizado por meio da atenção fonoaudiológica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to: understand how people with acquired low vision (subnormal vision) used written language in daily living and to recommend speech and language pathology therapy during the process. A descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in order to build a data collection instrumen [...] t. The sample was composed of subjects with low vision who attended Cepre / FCM / Unicamp in 2008. A questionnaire was applied during an interview, during which time the following variables were investigated: personal characteristics, use of assistive technology in reading and writing, reasons for performing reading and writing activities and the frequency of reading and writing after having acquired the visual loss. The sample was made up of 8 subjects with acquired low vision. The mean age was 47 years, of which 75,0% were males. Most of the subjects (62,5%) declared they used optical aids to read. All reported they used non-optical aids to read. The results showed that the subjects reported that they used to read to get information on topics of interest and they write to communicate with other people. The majority (75,0%) reported they didn't read and write with the same frequency as before the emergence of the ophthalmic problem and the reason given was difficulty in seeing and eyestrain. The reduction of reading and writing for individuals with low vision justifies the need for greater emphasis on working with reading and writing during rehabilitation, and this can be enhanced by speech and language pathology therapy.
Funk, Gary D.; Funk, Hal D.
Research and theory on teaching the writing process is not being widely implemented in public school classrooms. Changes such as a greater emphasis on process in college composition classes and language arts methodology courses as well as careful selection of supervising teachers, inservice programs, and revamping of writing evaluation are needed.…
de Beaugrande, Robert
Recent developments in such fields as linguistics, logic, information theory, computer science, speech act theory, and psychology can lead to a greater interdisciplinary understanding of the process of writing (defined as purposeful activity involving language use in special modes). Purposes for writing, which may be correlated with the many…
Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris
Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…
Black, Rebecca W.
In this article, a spatial lens is used to look at a popular online culture-based writing website as a means of understanding how fan authors' literacy practices and the design features of the site interact to shape a writing space that engenders affiliation with and facilitates access to literacy and language learning. Discussion also focuses on…
Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.
The guide describes approaches and considerations involved in school psychologists' communication of information in reports. Following an initial tongue in cheek discussion ("On Skinning Cats, Choking Dogs, and Leaving Lovers") of principles of report writing (such as avoiding using the language of logic and not contaminating interpretations with…
Johnson, C. Michael
Mathematics proficiency of English language learners (ELLs) on the Maryland School Assessments (MSA) for mathematics continues to lag behind the proficiency level of students who are proficient English speakers. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between English language learner's…
Khalid Al Hariri
Full Text Available Using L1 in the English classroom has long been considered as an unforgivable wrongdoing. Many English teachers who use L1 in the classroom feel guilty about it and in many cases do not admit it. Recent researchers started to question the validity of this claim suggesting contexts and situations in which using L1 can be very helpful in ELT and refuting, on the other hand, the claims upon which the idea of using L2 solely were built. My paper will examine the attitudes of advanced English language learners toward using L1 in the class of English where the students and the teacher speak the same first language and will also examine the attitudes of a group of EFL and ESL teachers toward the same practice. The same questionnaire given to the students will be redesigned and given to a number of teachers so that the study will look at the viewpoints from both perspectives.Keywords: low case, comma, paper template, abstract, keywords, introduction
La comprensión oral del lenguaje no literal y su relación con la producción escrita en escolares Co-relation between oral comprehension of non-literal language and writing in elementary school students
Full Text Available Un grupo considerable de niños y jóvenes chilenos escolarizados presenta problemas para producir textos escritos en forma autónoma. Las explicaciones de este fenómeno son diversas, pero este trabajo se focalizará en el desarrollo de la lengua oral que ocurre durante la edad escolar, a partir de los seis años. Concretamente, se referirá aquí a la interpretación de ciertas formas orales de lo no literal: los actos de habla indirectos y las ironías. Teóricamente, la conexión escritura/comprensión oral de lo no literal se fundamenta en que ambas parecieran estar relacionadas con el desarrollo de la conciencia metalingüística y de la teoría de la mente. Empíricamente, se lleva a cabo un estudio con 141 estudiantes de 13 y 14 años cuya comprensión oral fue medida con el Instrumento de Medición de Inferencias Pragmáticas (IMIP y su habilidad de escritura, con una Pauta de Evaluación Analítica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una correlación canónica y los resultados muestran, por una parte, un grado moderado de asociación entre las variables observables orales y escritas entre sí y, por otra parte, un grado de correlación canónica bajo pero significativo entre las dimensiones latentes comprensión oral y producción escrita (Rc = 0,26, p A substantial number of school children and youngsters encounters problems with the production of written texts in an autonomous fashion. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are various, it will hereby be focused on the development of the oral language occurring during the school age; that is, from six years of age on. In particular, this study will refer to certain forms of non-literal language: indirect speech acts and ironies. Theoretically, the writing/oral comprehension of non-literal language connection is based on their seeming relationship with the development of a metalinguistic conscience and a theory of the mind. Empirically, this study involves the participation of 141 13-14-year-old students whose oral comprehension was measured by the Instrument for the Measurement of Pragmatic Inferences (IMIP, according to the Spanish acronym, and writing, by an Analytic Assessment Guide. Data were analyzed with the aid of canonical co-relation and the results reveal, on the one hand, a moderate degree of association in the observable oral and writing variables among themselves and, on the other, a low but significant degree of canonical co-relation between the latent oral and writing variables (Rc = 0,26, p < 0.05, where the former would seem a factor variable and the latter, a criterion variable. The conclusion is that, even though the development of oral comprehension of non-literal language seems to influence writing abilities, such a co-relation is not strong enough to look at it as having practical significance.
Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina
Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061
... speech-language disorders affect learning? Speech and language skills are essential to academic success and learning. Language is the basis of communication. Reading, writing, gesturing, listening, and speaking are all forms of language. Learning takes place ...
Describes three main uses of computers for writing as a social activity: networking, telecommunications, and project work. Examines advantages and disadvantages of teaching writing on a network. Argues that reports in the literature and the example of an English as a foreign language writing class show that project work shares most of the…
Examines a sociolinguistic thesis on language attrition illustrating first-language (L1) loss in a second-language (L2) environment via interviews conducted with two control groups and L1 German speakers living in Australia. Findings reveal that after 10 to 20 years in the L2 environment, the extent of L1 attrition was such that none of the…
Implementing process pedagogy in an L2 writing classroom has its own limits for students with low English proficiency. Although L1 writers commonly benefit from writing multiple drafts, most of the low English level Korean college students in my English composition class did not benefit from the revisions. This article introduces an innovative…
Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip
As Bourdieu and Passeron noted, academic discourse is never anyone’s ‘mother tongue’. Acquisition of this discourse in one’s first language is a prime aim of undergraduate education, but there is evidence that a substantial minority of students fail to acquire it. There is strong evidence that academic discourse skills are transferable from L1 to L2 and best acquired in L1, but it is not clear to what extent these skills represent usable capital in professional life. Graduates often report having to write in a very different style from the one they have been taught at university. There may be a trade-off between the fluency in a second language provided by its use as sole or parallel medium in education and educational depth in the discipline studied. This fluency may in some circumstances constitute greater capital than the disciplinary insights partially sacrificed. But this varies strikingly across disciplines. This paper uses Bourdieu’s framework to assess the types of linguistic capital – academic discourse, foreign-language fluency, and more – to be acquired in the internationalized university, their utility in the personal advancement of graduates in various societies, and the variation of these factors across disciplines.
A compilator is a program which is development in a programming language that read a file known as source. After this file have to translate and have to convert in other program known as object or to generate a exit. The best way for to know any programming language is analizing a compilation process which is same in all programming paradigm existents. To like to generate a tool that permit a learning in university course. This course could explain in any plataform such as Linux o Windows. This goal is posible through development a Web aplication which is unite with a compilator, it is Traductor Writing System (Sistema de Escritura de Traductores). This system is complete and permit extend and modify the compilator. The system is a module in Moodle which is a Course Management System (CMS) that help teachers for to create comunities of learning in line. This software is in free software license (GPL).
D.Vijaya Lakshmi*1; K. Ragini
This research paper focuses on the writing skills of the Engineering students of all the branches especially at the time of placements. Writing in English is almost a prerequisite for the job. Now- a-days testing the writing skills of the students is mandatory before going to attend the interviews. LSRW skills are essential in the acquisition of language. In order to help the students with these writing skills, teacher has to take the initiative to motivate them. Most of the students are ...
This article examines how learning an additional language can positively affect children's opinions and feelings about languages and how this process can be enriched when different languages--namely, the additional language and the children's L1s--are present and used in the classroom in an informed way. It is hypothesised that this will benefit…
Tessier, Anne-Michelle; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne
This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04-6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2…
Gabriele, Alison; Troseth, Erika; Martohardjono, Gita; Otheguy, Ricardo
The study examines emergent literacy skills in a group of young English Language Learners who are dominant in their native language, Spanish. We investigate the relative contribution of syntactic comprehension in the L1 and L2 to the development of emergent reading skills in English. Participants were bilingual kindergarteners from two public…
As an indispensable and most difficult part of language acquisition, the importance of English writing has been intensified by the economic globalization and internet revolution due to the special role of English as a universal language (Warshauer, 2000). However, writing teaching and learning has been long perplexing language teachers and learners even in the first language. Therefore many studies have been conducted on the revelation of the nature of writing and how to achieve it in pursuit...
This paper discusses relationships between language anxiety and self. Self refers to an individual’s (a) self-confidence, (b) language ego, L2/FL self or identity developed during second or foreign language learning, or a combination of both L1 self and L2/FL self. Based on previous literature on language anxiety and L2 or FL learning, language learners’ self-confidence might imply a lack of language anxiety which enhances language achievement (e.g., Casado & Dereshiwsky, 2004; Clément, 1...
Adriana da, Silva.
Full Text Available Verificamos as representações sociais de escrita de alunos de Mestrado em Letras. Procuramos usar a Teoria das Representações Sociais para investigarmos as representações da escrita de 10 alunos do Mestrado em Letras de uma Universidade Federal do interior de Minas Gerais. Associamos essas represent [...] ações aos discursos sobre a escrita difundidos na esfera acadêmica. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, baseado em narrativas elaboradas por esses alunos. Concluímos que, durante o maior período de escolarização desses alunos, as representações da escrita foram negativas, mas se transformaram em positivas com o passar do tempo. Isso demonstra que as representações são plásticas, flexíveis, pois antigas representações dão lugar a novas representações em função das experiências humanas, influenciadas por novos contextos. As narrativas sobre a história da escrita podem ser um caminho para professores conhecerem os percursos da escrita desenvolvidos por seus alunos, assim como permitem a identificação das representações sociais desses alunos. Abstract in spanish Verificamos las representaciones sociales de escritura de alumnos de Maestría en Letras. Procuramos usar la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales para investigar las representaciones de la escritura de 10 alumnos de la Maestría en Letras de una Universidad Federal del interior de Minas Gerais. Aso [...] ciamos esas representaciones a los discursos sobre la escritura difundidos en la esfera académica. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, basado en narrativas elaboradas por esos alumnos. Concluimos que, durante el mayor período de escolaridad de esos alumnos, las representaciones de la escritura fueron negativas, pero se transformaron en positivas con el paso del tiempo. Eso demuestra que las representaciones son plásticas, flexibles, pues antiguas representaciones dan lugar a nuevas representaciones en función de las experiencias humanas, influenciadas por nuevos contextos. Las narrativas sobre la historia de la escritura pueden ser un camino para que profesores conozcan los recorridos de la escritura desarrollados por sus alumnos, así como permiten la identificación de las representaciones sociales de esos alumnos. Abstract in english Here we examine the social representations in the writing of students of Masters in Languages. We used the Social Representation Theory to investigate the representations in the writings of 10 students of the Masters in Languages at a Federal University in upstate Minas Gerais. We associated these r [...] epresentations to the discourses spread in the academic sphere. The results obtained from the reading of the narratives written by the students will be presented. We concluded that throughout most of the period of these students' schooling the representations in their writing were negative, but became positive through the time. This demonstrates that the representations are plastic and flexible because old representations give place to new ones in function of human experiences influenced by new contexts. The narratives about the writing history may be a path for teachers to learn the routes of the writing developed by their students, as well as allowing an identification of the social representations and discourses of writing internalized by these students.
Full Text Available ORTHOLOGY: K19260 Entry K19260KO Name L1 Definition major capsid protein L1 Brite Glycosaminogly ... V127_gp7) Reference PMID:23800545 Authors Buck CB, Day ... PM, Trus BL Title The papillomavirus major capsid ...
Mitsch, Bernadette Volpe
Describes a collaborative project between instructors in language arts and social studies at the middle school level that produced a joint educational venture that made reading and writing more meaningful, challenging, and exciting for students and teachers. Describes a "Who's Who" thematic unit integrating reading, writing, and drama. (MG)
Wolbers, Kimberly A; Dostal, Hannah M; Graham, Steve; Cihak, David; Kilpatrick, Jennifer R; Saulsburry, Rachel
Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) has led to improved writing and language outcomes among deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) middle grades students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SIWI on the written expression of DHH elementary students across recount/personal narrative, information report, and persuasive…
Chen, Chi-Fen Emily
Though e-mail has become a common interpersonal communication medium, it does not mean that this medium is used without difficulty. While people can write e-mails to peers in any manner they like, writing e-mails to authority figures requires higher pragmatic competence and critical language awareness of how discourse shapes and reflects power…
Paradis, Johanne; Rice, Mabel L.; Crago, Martha; Marquis, Janet
This study reports on a comparison of the use and knowledge of tense-marking morphemes in English by first language (L1), second language (L2), and specific language impairment (SLI) children. The objective of our research was to ascertain whether the L2 children's tense acquisition patterns were similar or dissimilar to those of the L1 and SLI…
Graham, Steve; Fitzgerald, Jill
An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language le
Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 S000386 05-November-2005 (last modified) kehi L1 box found in promoter of Arabidopsi ... omeodomain binding L1 box and a MYB binding motif (Wang ... et al., 2004); HDZip IV; See also S000371; PDF1; L ...
Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching
English as Foreign Language (EFL) students face additional difficulties for academic writing largely due to their level of language competency. An appropriate structural process of writing can help students develop their academic writing skills. This study explored the use of the e-readers to facilitate EFL students' process-based academic…
Tan, Li Hai; Spinks, John A.; Eden, Guinevere F.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Siok, Wai Ting
Language development entails four fundamental and interactive abilities: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Over the past four decades, a large body of evidence has indicated that reading acquisition is strongly associated with a child's listening skills, particularly the child's sensitivity to phonological structures of spoken language. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the close relationship between reading and listening is manifested universally across languages and that b...
Full Text Available Studies done in L1/L2 English settings have revealed the negative effects of writing anxiety on both learner motivation and academic achievement and teachers’ attitudes towards writing and the practices they use in their own classes. The present study aims to find out the effects of peer feedback on the writing anxiety of Turkish prospective teachers (PTs of English. A total of 86 PTs of English participated in this study. During the eight-week study, PTs in the experimental group, who had been given a training on peer feedback, were asked to work in pairs in their writing class, give feedback on each other’s essays and discuss their feedback with each other before handing them to their instructors. On the other hand, PTs in the control group received only teacher feedback on their essays. Data were collected by means of the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 given at the beginning and end of the study and by means of interviews carried out with 20 experimental group PTs at the end of the term. Results of the quantitative data showed that the peer feedback group experienced significantly less writing anxiety than the teacher feedback group at the end of the study. The interview results revealed that the participating PTs benefited from the peer feedback process as with the feedback of their friends they became aware of their mistakes. Moreover, during the process they received opinions from their friends to elaborate on, and this collaboration helped them look at their essays from a different perspective.
Yamashita, Junko; Jiang, Nan
This study investigated first language (L1) influence on the acquisition of second language (L2) collocations using a framework based on Kroll and Stewart (1994) and Jiang (2000), by comparing the performance on a phrase-acceptability judgment task among native speakers of English, Japanese English as a second language (ESL) users, and Japanese…
Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines
Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…
Taylor, Talbot J.
Asks what first-order language might be like if there were no way to talk, write, or sign about it--that is, what if there were no second-order metalanguage. By considering the consequences for writing, translation, pragmatics, semantics, and language acquisition and evolution, it is suggested that without second-order, reflexive properties,…
Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca; Fivela, Barbara Gili; Invitto, Sara; Resta, Donatella; Alku, Paava; Brattico, Elvira
According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by native listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naive listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well a...
Mohana Ram Murugiah
Full Text Available Writing is a complex task. The development of students’ writing skill depends on the teacher’s teaching strategy and also the materials used in the writing lesson. In the present study, the effectiveness of a creative writing module was examined that was designed to improve the writing skill of a group of excellent students. It was added with explicit teaching strategies. The selected group of students were students who were in the excellent group but lacked creativity and vocabulary in their writing. The creative writing module was designed to help these students. Students’ improvement was observed through observation in the classrooms during the lessons and through writing task as well as interviews. Two observations were made. One was before the creative writing project was started and another after the completion of the entire task of the module. The interview was carried out to learn about the students’ perception of the module and how do they find the module has helped them. The result of the research showed that students have shown a great level of improvement in their writing skills. The outcome of this present study could be useful to assist language instructors in helping proficient learners to undergo a more effective second language learning experience.
Murray, Rowena; Thow, Morag; Moore, Sarah; Murphy, Maura
This article describes and analyses a specific mechanism, the writing consultation, designed to help academics to prioritise, reconceptualise and improve their writing practices. It makes the case for its potential to stimulate consideration of writing practices and motivations, a possible precondition for creating time for writing in academic…
Jones, Nathan B.
Responds to Tony Silva's 1997 article, which asserted that English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing teachers should prevent themes and topics from dominating or controlling the curriculum. This paper argues that it is sometimes helpful for writing teachers to control why and what students write, focusing on university-level English writing in…
Cohen, Judy; And Others
The LEX [language experience] Process for English Reading Instruction, a pilot project of the Guadalupe Educational Programs, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah, during 1980-81, is presented in this 300-page manual that describes how the LEX Process model may be replicated by educational agencies seeking to provide survival and functional English as a…
Full Text Available This research paper focuses on the writing skills of the Engineering students of all the branches especially at the time of placements. Writing in English is almost a prerequisite for the job. Now- a-days testing the writing skills of the students is mandatory before going to attend the interviews. LSRW skills are essential in the acquisition of language. In order to help the students with these writing skills, teacher has to take the initiative to motivate them. Most of the students are coming from rural areas and basically from regional medium background. So they require support at every step. Writing becomes a Herculean task to them. Triggering their requirement is a pivotal role of the teacher. Different perspectives of writing skills like free writing, mechanics of writing, vocabulary, grammar, description of a picture, paragraph, essay and summary writing and report, resume, letter and e-mail writings are discussed in this paper. Activities like pair work or group work of all the tasks are added benefit to the students. Interest and command on the identified topic of the student is not identical. Analysis and feedback of each and every activity is an added grace to the teacher and advantage to the student. If the students are trained logically from the beginning of their first year of Engineering they achieve their dream of getting a placement before completing their Bachelor’s degree.
Teaching technical writing to Native Americans contending with a second language and culture is addressed. Learning difficulties arising from differences between native and acquired language and cultural systems are examined. Compartmentalized teaching, which presents the ideals of technical writing in minimal units, and skills development are considered. Rhetorical problems treated include logic of arrangement, selection of support and scope of detail, and time and space. Specific problems selected include the concept of promptness, the contextualization of purpose, interpersonal relationships, wordiness, mixture of registers, and the problem of abstracting. Four inductive procedures for students having writing and perception problems are included. Four sample exercises and a bibliography of 13 references are also included.
In the Extrap scheme a Z-pinch is stabilized by imposing a strongly inhomogeneous octupole magnetic field. This field is generated by four conductor rods, each carrying equal currents Iv antiparallel to the plasma current Ip itself. Theoretically, interchange stability is improved by the magnetic field, as well as long-wavelength kinks due to induced currents in the plasma and in the rods. Short wavelength kinks are, as in the 1-D pinch, stabilized by FLR and viscous-resistive effects. We have performed a set of experiments in the linear Extrap L-1 device (length 40 cm, plasma radius a 2 cm, rod distance 3 cm) in order to determine optimal performance in terms of confined current (5-20 kA) and stability during the discharge length (80 ?s; of the order 100 Alfven times). In this paper we summarize our results from two types of experiments; with and without external axial magnetic field. The results are compared with theory in the final paragraph. (author) 5 figs
Mrs. Rekha Purohit; Prof. Prabhat Mathur
The term language means communication tool which is used to write Computer program and develop application, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. Computer programming languages are used to write programs that define the behavior of a computer system. They are based on certain syntactic and semantic rules, which define the meaning of each of the programming language constructs. The syntactic and the semantic rules of every programming language define the language imp...
Karl Óskar Þráinsson 1975
Current research on language development and bilingual development suggests that good proficiency in the first language (L1) is a prerequisite for acquiring a second language (L2). Documentation from the Icelandic State's Diagnostic and Counselling Centre seems to challenge this assumption, as a number of children who have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and that have delayed or impaired L1 development, seems to have very good proficiency in English, which is their L2. Th...
The study investigated the ways L2 learners of English reflect on their use of English while completing a writing task and the strategies learners apply in order to resolve their language-related problems. Factors which might have some influence on the learners' noticing and problem-solving behaviour were explored using a qualitative, inductive research approach involving the detailed analyses of ten participants. Think-aloud protocols and stimulated recall interviews were used to investigate...
Full Text Available Academicians are identified with their papers and expertise in writing scholarly articles, either for promotion or for satisfying their prestige. Iranian academic members are expected to win a justifiable stance by the quality and quantity of their publications and presentations. Regrettably through pervious studying about second language writing, any studies haven’t been dedicated to the style of writing articles, which are used by academic members. Former studies on second language writing indicate that style in academic paper writing is most likely ignored. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of mind translation strategy among Iranian academic members for expressing their own opinion through writing second language academic papers. The present paper has based its hypothesis on three levels of strategies, effective in writing academic papers, namely: 1-Do Iranian academicians follow specific strategies in writing their academic papers? 2-What role does translation play as a strategy in their writing academic papers? 3-Do they feel a need for a strategy shift in their academic paper writing? Data elicited based on survey and corpora analysis in form of CBDTS- on micro and macro levels, are put into matrices and their analyses are supportive of academicians’ reliance on different types of mental translation use and their shift toward authentic writing after receiving feedback from their reviewers.Keywords: CBDTS, micro level, macro level, mental translation, strategy shift
Bylund, Emanuel; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth
While language aptitude has been investigated actively within second language research, there is a current dearth of research on the effects of aptitude in cases of attrition. The aim of the present investigation was to explore the role of language aptitude for L1 proficiency in speakers who experienced a break with their L1 setting prior to…
Early career science teachers are often assigned to classrooms with high numbers of English language learners (ELL students). As these teachers learn to become effective practitioners, the circumstances surrounding them merit a thorough examination. This study examines the longitudinal changes in Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and practices of six early career science teachers who taught in urban schools. The teachers participated in the Alternative Support for Induction Science Teachers (ASIST) program during their initial two years of teaching. Our research team followed the participants over a five-year period. This study focuses on data from Years 1, 3, and 5. The data collected included classroom observations and interviews. In addition, classroom artifacts were collected periodically for the purpose of triangulation. The analysis of the data revealed that with the support of the ASIST program, the teachers implemented inquiry lessons and utilized instructional materials that promoted academic language skills and science competencies among their ELL students. Conversely, standardized testing, teaching assignment, and school culture played a role in constraining the implementation of inquiry-based practices. The results of this study call for collaborative efforts among university science educators and school administrators to provide professional development opportunities and support for the implementation of inquiry and language practices among early career science teachers of ELL students.
Parastou Gholami Pasand
Full Text Available Writing is one the most important skills in learning a foreign language. The significance of being able to write in a second or foreign language has become clearer nowadays. Accordingly, different approaches to writing such as product approach, process approach and more recently process-product approach came into existence and they have been the concern of SL/FL researchers. The aim of this study is to answer the question that whether the use of an incomplete model text in process-product approach to writing and asking the learners to complete the text rather than copying it can have a positive impact on EFL learners’ accuracy in writing. After training a number of EFL learners on using process approach, we held a two-session writing class. In the first session students wrote in the process approach, and in the second one they were given a model text to continue in the process-product approach. The writing performance of the students in these two sessions was compared in term of accuracy. Based on the students’ writing performance, we came to the conclusion that completing the model text in process-product writing can have a rather positive influence in some aspects of their writing accuracy such as punctuation, capitalization, spelling, subject-verb agreement, tense, the use of connectors, using correct pronouns and possessives. Also the results of the paired t-test indicate that using a model text to continue increased students’ writing accuracy.Keywords: EFL writing, process-product approach, model text, writing accuracy
Izquierdo, Jesus; Collins, Laura
English learners of French whose first language (L1) does not mark the perfective/imperfective distinction have shown verb semantic influence and an overall preference for perfective over imperfective in their use of second language (L2) tense-aspect markers. This study investigated whether learners whose L1 marks the perfective/imperfective…
Kawamura, M; Midorikawa, A; Kezuka, M
The mechanisms that underlie the ability to read and write music remain largely unclear compared to those involved in reading and writing language. We had the extremely rare opportunity to study the cerebral localization of the center for reading and writing music in the case of a professional trombonist. During rehearsal immediately before a concert, he suffered a hemorrhage that was localized to the left angular gyrus, the area that has long been known as the center for the ability to read and write. Detailed tests revealed that he showed symptoms of alexia with agraphia for both musical scores and language. PMID:11043568
Tsang, Wai Lan
This paper reports on a study examining the relationship between language learning and perceived language differences. Two groups of native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong, L1 Cantonese--L2 English (CE) and L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French (CEF), were asked to complete two tasks: a placement test in English (as well as in French for the CEF…
Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak
A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…
Much recent learner-centred research has addressed the role of direct and indirect learning strategies in second language acquisition and production, as well as the value of metacognitive awareness in writing skills development. We shall describe a longitudinal project carried out with first-year Canarian university students focusing on the effect of integrated training in metacognitive and socio-affective strategies applied to EFL writing skills instruction. The use of dialogu...
Whenever attending meetings on Commonwealth or postcolonial literature outside the sub continent, a Hindi writer will invariably be asked this ritual question, ‘why do you write in Hindi?', and similarly any other “regional” or “vernacular” writer, even if the name of these other languages may sometimes be confused with the name of the state (Malyalam and Kerala, Kannada and Karnataka, Oriya and Orissa). The wonder of the Western journalist or literature scholar at Indians writing in “regiona...
Van Gelderen, A.
Full Text Available In an explorative classroom experiment the effects of several instructional conditions for writing were compared. Studies on writing suggest that linguistic fluency is an important factor in writer’s abilities to manipulate sentence structures in order to produce comprehensible text. L1 writing theories indicate that working memory limitations play an important role in formulation. Therefore, improving linguistic fluency presumably frees working memory space and allows the writer to devote more attention to meaning-related problems. An important point of debate in language-learning theories is the role of explicit knowledge about linguistic structure. Some believe that explicit rule knowledge has an important role in acquiring fluency, while others maintain that explicit knowledge has no real influence on skill development, and that fluency develops on the basis of the implicit knowledge of linguistic structures. In recent L2 theories a focus solely on meaning appears insufficient for mastery of linguistic structures. Meaning-oriented language production should, in this view, be complemented by a focus on form(s. Four learning conditions for improving linguistic fluency were discriminated according to the dimensions “focus of instruction” (forms vs. meaning and “explicitness of instruction” (implicit vs. explicit. Students of elementary grades 5 and 6 (including both first- and advanced second-language learners of Dutch received four lessons involving the linguistic operations for adding information to sentences in meaningful contexts and avoiding unnecessary (repetition of information. Results of the experiment show significant positive effects of all four conditions on two post-test formulation tasks in comparison to a control group.
Sadri Mirdamadi, Farhad; De Jong, Nivja H.
This study investigates how syntactic complexity affects speaking performance in first (L1) and second language (L2) in terms of speaking fluency. Participants (30 Dutch native speakers with an average to advanced level of English) performed two speaking experiments, one in Dutch (L1) and one in English (L2). Syntactic complexity was…
'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...
Describes using meditation to write with greater concentration, continuity, and depth, at any level of writing skill. Describes how to consciously cultivate the ability to focus, follow, and trace ideas through writing. (SR)
Full Text Available Learning a second language in an EFL context requires both students and teachers to cooperate efficiently and resourcefully. By referring to the current theories of second language acquisition and reviewing the recent literature, it can be seen that the first language of learners (L1 has a necessary and facilitating role in all aspects of language instruction. This indicates that the ‘bilingual approach’ is gaining more support by incorporating the students’ L1 as a learning tool and also as a facilitator for an efficient communication. At the same time, advocacy for an English-only policy has been declining. Inspired by these views, this paper aims to explore the Iranian university students' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of L1. A well-known survey – Prodromou (2002 was employed and, surprisingly, the results were contradictory to the all previous similar studies. Iranian university students reported reluctance to use their L1. Finally, some pedagogical suggestions for a judicious use of L1 will be presented.
Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”, “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua. Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions. Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.
Full Text Available Much like the regular physical exercise, having a regular writing workout is necessary for learners of English language. Dialogue journals provide the perfect means for this. Dialogue journal in an English classroom is an informal written conversation between the students and the teacher; in fact it can motivate a learner to write more in English. The language in a dialogue journal is closer to speech than to academic writing, so it promotes authentic, informal and lively conversation between the writers. As our learners need frequent opportunities to practice speaking English freely without fear of being corrected, in order to achieve oral fluency; similarly they need the chance to write freely without inhibition to promote fluency in writing. Often it is in the act of writing a response that actual learning takes place and this is how critical thinking develops. In fact, dialogue journal is the place where students explore their thinking before classroom discussion. It enables speaking and writing, referencing each other. The main objective of using dialogue journals in the English language classroom is to give students more time and opportunities for writing so that they can experience the pleasure of communication through the written word and at the same time become better writers and thinkers in English. With this background, the aim of this paper is to discuss the role of dialogue journals in developing the skills of writing and critical thinking of English language learners.
In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…
Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer user...
Full Text Available Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2 for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b learning another language. Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process, similar to that used by a child to pick up the first language (L1; and the second is conscious learning, in which a learner is aware of his/her own learning process.
Summary writing has been considered an important aspect of academic writing. However, writing summaries can be a challenging task for the majority of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Research into teaching summary writing has focused on different processes to teach EFL learners. The present study adopted two methods – keyword and question generation – to guide Taiwanese university students in writing summaries in English. To decrease the students’ apprehension resulting from the ...
Full Text Available Retrotransposons like L1 are silenced in somatic cells by a variety of mechanisms acting at different levels. Protective mechanisms include DNA methylation and packaging into inactive chromatin to suppress transcription and prevent recombination, potentially supported by cytidine deaminase editing of RNA. Furthermore, DNA strand breaks arising during attempted retrotranspositions ought to activate cellular checkpoints, and L1 activation outside immunoprivileged sites may elicit immune responses. A number of observations indicate that L1 sequences nevertheless become reactivated in human cancer. Prominently, methylation of L1 sequences is diminished in many cancer types and full-length L1 RNAs become detectable, although strong expression is restricted to germ cell cancers. L1 elements have been found to be enriched at sites of illegitimate recombination in many cancers. In theory, lack of L1 repression in cancer might cause transcriptional deregulation, insertional mutations, DNA breaks, and an increased frequency of recombinations, contributing to genome disorganization, expression changes, and chromosomal instability. There is however little evidence that such effects occur at a gross scale in human cancers. Rather, as a rule, L1 repression is only partly alleviated. Unfortunately, many techniques commonly used to investigate genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer cells are not well suited to detect subtle effects elicited by partial reactivation of retroelements like L1 which are present as abundant, but heterogeneous copies. Therefore, effects of L1 sequences exerted on the local chromatin structure, on the transcriptional regulation of individual genes, and on chromosome fragility need to be more closely investigated in normal and cancer cells.
To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin
Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language…
Midgley, Katherine J.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan
ERPs were used to explore the different patterns of processing of cognate and noncognate words in the first (L1) and second (L2) language of a population of second language learners. L1 English students of French were presented with blocked lists of L1 and L2 words, and ERPs to cognates and noncognates were compared within each language block. For…
Interferência da língua falada na escrita de crianças: processos de apagamento da oclusiva dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/ / Interference of the spoken language on children's writing: cancellation processes of the dental occlusive /d/ and final vibrant /r/
Socorro Cláudia Tavares de, Sousa.
Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a influência da língua falada na escrita de crianças em relação aos fenômenos do cancelamento da dental /d/ e da vibrante final /r/. Elaboramos e aplicamos um instrumento de pesquisa em alunos do Ensino Fundamental em escolas de Fortaleza. Para a anál [...] ise dos dados obtidos, utilizamos o software SPSS. Os resultados nos revelaram que o sexo masculino e as palavras polissílabas são fatores que influenciam, de forma parcial, a realização da variável dependente /no/ e que os verbos e o nível de escolaridade são elementos condicionadores para o cancelamento da vibrante final /r/. Abstract in english The present study aims to investigate the influence of the spoken language in children's writing in relation to the phenomena of cancellation of dental /d/ and final vibrant /r/. We elaborated and applied a research instrument to children from primary school in Fortaleza. We used the software SPSS t [...] o analyze the data. The results showed that the male sex and the words which have three or more syllable are factors that influence, in part, the realization of the dependent variable /no/ and that verbs and level of education are conditioners elements for the cancellation of the final vibrant /r/.
??? Hui-Tzu Min
Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Kumaravadivelu???????????????????????????????????Kumaravadivelu, 2006: 69???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? For years non-native English as Foreign Language (EFT writing instructors have turned to scholars and researchers in English-speaking countries such as the United States, British, and Australia for appropriate approaches to teaching writing. Yet from language-based, product-based, to process-based, and genre-based approaches, mainstream writing approaches appear to address only part of the issues facing by EFL writers. According to the three parameters of Kumaravadivelu’s macrostrategic framework of post-method pedagogy ? particularity, practicality, and possibility (Kumaravadivelu, 2006: 69, the author proposed a principled eclectic pproach to teaching EFL writing. The features of this new method are adapting mainstream writing pedagogies to local needs, creating local pedagogies to address students’ difficulties, and critically examining and evaluating extant mainstream writing practices. Evidence is provided to illustrate this principled eclectic approach.
First language (L1) attrition research focuses on syntactic and morphological deterioration in environments where L1 "attriters" rarely have contact with their L1, such as immigrants. There is no study that investigates L1 attrition in tones and in contexts where L1 can still be often heard. This study examines this attrition type in…
Writing activities are a sure way to assess and enhance students' science literacy. Sometimes the author's students use technical writing to communicate their lab experiences, just as practicing scientists do. Other times, they use creative writing to make connections to the topics they're learning. This article describes both types of writing…
Ghadah Al Murshidi; Kholood Al Abd
Writing has always been regarded as playing a prominent role in learning a second language. UAE university writing center provides a key support service within the institution, and as such must find ways to evaluate the impact of the instruction they provide. However, many studies of tutorial effectiveness lack adequate analyses of tutorial services and of both student and tutor awareness and outcomes. The purpose of the study is to explore the effectiveness of the writing center and its prop...
Mobile agents represent a new model for network computing. Many different languages have been used to implement mobile agents. The characteristics that make a language useful for writing mobile agents are: (1) their support of agent migration, (2) their support for agent-to-agent communication, (3) how they allow agents to interact with local resources, (4) security mechanisms, (5) execution efficiency, (6) language implementation across multiple platforms, and (7) the langu...
Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat
Transfer has been discussed from different points of view since the advent of Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis , . Mishina-Mori  has defied transfer as merging grammatical properties from one language to another. The effect of transfer from a first language (L1) to a second language (L2) or a third language (L3) has been viewed…
Full Text Available This article focuses on the concept of knowledge with a view on L1 teachers. Influenced by Aristotle’s epistemology, it explores how teacher knowledge could be described and understood.The empirical foundation of the article is a case study of seven Icelandic L1 teachers.The article analyses the concept of teachers’ professional knowledge and discusses questions such as: What kind of knowledge do the teachers actually possess and value? How do L1 teachers deal with the complexity of their work? Does their knowledge cover the needs of their profession?The analysis indicates that the L1 subject in some respects is in a special position: It addition to being a school subject, it relates to cultural traditions and values. Moreover, the subject relates to pupils’ devel-opment both as individuals and citizens, and so even deals with citizenship in a fundamental way. Fur-thermore, L1 is a tool for any subject: pupils need to read and to express themselves both in writing and orally in all classes. Besides, the subject often treats themes which affect pupils’ personally, e.g. due to the close connection between language and identity. Therefore teachers’ knowledge should include morality, in addition to academic and pedagogic skills.
Friesen, Helen Lepp
To writing, painting, drawing, and photography as artistic media, the author would like to add teaching as a creative endeavor as well. Especially in a classroom where English is not the first language for many students, the writing teacher needs to be creative with assignments and activities that address nontraditional ways of learning. Her…
Turner, Kristen H.
Today's adolescents write to communicate--via text messaging, instant messaging, and social networking posts. They are skilled at manipulating their out-of-school digital language to communicate with an intended audience and to capture individual voice. Because the writing is informal, teens have the ability to break rules, and they can do so…
Rainey, Kenneth T.
Many essayists on writing believe that a student's level of cognitive development determines the organization of thought expressed by the student's writing and that an individual cannot use language at a level that goes beyond his or her stage of cognitive development. Without the maturation of formal operational structures, students cannot easily…
Numerous researchers have studied bilingual students' performance on word problems given that reading and writing these requires that they draw on linguistic and mathematical knowledge (Barwell, 2009a, 2009b). Some researchers have studied how bilinguals write word problems in the second language, but few have considered how bilinguals use their…
Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.
Writing is a very important skill that should be mastered properly by university students, especially pre-service language teachers (e.g. EFL student teachers). In order to present their ideas efficiently in the context of their academic study, they have to be trained well on how to write meaningful pieces (e.g. essays, academic reports,…
Waxler, Robert P
The book is interdisciplinary in focus and centers on enlarging teachers' understanding of how reading and writing can change lives and how the language arts can contribute significantly to and change educational processes in the twenty-first century. Implicit in its argument is that although the emphasis on science and math is crucial to education in the digital edge, it remains vitally important to keep reading and writing, language and story, at the heart of the educational process
Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C
This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w
This paper considers idea generation during the mathematical writing process. Two contrasting explanations of the creative potential in connection to writing is presented; writing as a process of setting and obtaining rhetorical goals and writing as a process of discovery. These views are then related to two empirically found categories of functions that writing serves researchers in the field of mathematics, concluding that both views contributes to understanding the creative potential in relat...
This article discusses issues related to oral assessment of school knowledge of L2-educated students. In particular, it examines benefits and disadvantages of students being tested in their L1 (their dominant language) and in their L2 (their language of instruction). The study draws on the data from 37 high school students studying in a content…
Tavares, Nicole Judith
There has been an increasing interest in and hence a growing number of research studies on content and language integrated learning (CLIL) over the past two decades. One of the on-going debates in CLIL is on bilingualism versus monolingualism, or the role of the first language (L1) in subject teaching. So far, very few research projects have been…
Although public wikis have proven to be successful for collaborative writing projects, very few studies have investigated their use in L2 classes. This study sets out to explore the use of wikis for collaborative writing in L2 academic writing workshops. The students were all adult EFL students at Intermediate level studying English at a language school in Edinburgh. Six students were observed as they worked on a wiki. Two students were interviewed to elicit their experience of...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L1: Northeast U.S. Canyons Exploration between 20130708 and...
Jafar Asgari Arani
Full Text Available Medical writing activities which may have a context and seem to be engaging may be perceived as demotivating by the students of medicine. This opinion was confirmed by the learners' responses to the open-ended question given to them prior to this study. In their responses students evaluated the writing section of English course negatively. The negative views about the writing course posed a problem to the class teacher. The computer technology and the Internet can easily be integrated into language classroom if activities are designed carefully, and carried out systematically. These attempts brought about a new understanding to teaching and learning: blended learning (BL. The purpose of this research was to investigate students of medicine attitude to blended writing classes. It was conducted with second year learners in the Faculty of Medicine at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. The first reflection aimed at finding out medical students' attitude toward blended writing lessons. Although learners' attitude to writing lessons was negative in the first reflections, they changed into positive in the latter ones. The findings indicated that blended writing class had changed students' perception of writing lessons positively. Therefore, this kind of classes may help students develop a positive attitude towards writing by providing meaningful writing opportunities. Like the student portfolio before it, the weblog faces challenges with practicality and security, but ultimately provides an alternative way to teach and assess authentic writing and reading skills. Blog Assisted Language Learning not only provides teachers with an exciting new way to approach communicative language learning, it also gives the students a new reason to enjoy writing! The paper concludes that Internet tools have the potential to be a transformational technology for teaching and learning writing, and teachers ought to give strong consideration to the setting up their facilities within their learning management system.
Wu, Jiasong; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xiaoqing; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong
The l1-norm minimization problem plays an important role in the compressed sensing (CS) theory. We present in this letter an algorithm for solving the problem of l1-norm minimization for quaternion signals by converting it to second-order cone programming. An application example of the proposed algorithm is also given for practical guidelines of perfect recovery of quaternion signals. The proposed algorithm may find its potential application when CS theory meets the quaterni...
Orgassa, Antje; Weerman, Fred
Abstract In this article we compare five groups of learners acquiring Dutch gender as marked on determiners and adjectival inflection. Groups of L1 (first language) children and L1-SLI (first-language specific-language-impairment) children are compared to three Turkish-Dutch L2 (second language) groups: adult L2, child L2 and child L2-SLI. Overall, our findings show that gender is vulnerable in both SLI and L2 groups. More particularly, they suggest that all child groups basically ...
Cumming, Alister H., Ed.
A collection of essays on bilingualism and its relationship to development of reading and writing skills includes: "Awareness of Text Structure: Effects on Recall" (Patricia L. Carrell); "Second-Language Readers' Memory for Narrative Texts: Evidence for Structure-Preserving Top-Down Processing" (Yukie Horiba, Paul W. van den Broek, Charles R.…
KOHNERT, KATHRYN; Windsor, Jennifer; Ebert, Kerry Danahy
We review empirical findings from children with primary or “specific” language impairment (PLI) and children who learn a single language from birth (L1) and a second language (L2) beginning in childhood. The PLI profile is presented in terms of both language and nonlinguistic features. The discussion of L2 learners emphasizes variable patterns of growth and skill distribution in L1 and L2 which complicate the identification of PLI in linguistically diverse learners. We then introduce our rese...
Abstract This study compares the linguistic knowledge of adult second language (L2) learners, who learned the L2 after puberty, with the potentially ‘eroded’ first language (L1) grammars of adult early bilinguals who were exposed to the target language since birth and learned the other language simultaneously, or early in childhood (before age 5). I make two main claims: (1) that the L1 grammar of ...
Full Text Available The present study was designed and conducted with the purpose to assess primary school students’ awareness in GL1 (Greek as first language and EFL (English as a foreign language strategy use and investigate the relations between the reported reading strategies use in first (L1 and foreign language (FL. The sample (455 students attending the fifth and sixth grades of primary schools in Northern Greece was first categorized into skilled and less skilled L1 and EFL readers through screening reading comprehension tests, one in L1 and one in FL, before filling in the reading strategy questionnaires. The findings revealed participants’ preference for “problem solving” strategies, while “global strategies” coming next. Girls were proved to be more aware of their reading strategies use with the boys reporting a more frequent use in both languages. Also, skilled readers were found to use reading strategies more effectively, and appeared to be more flexible in transferring strategies from L1 to FL compared to less-skilled readers.Keywords: reading awareness, reading strategies, reading difficulties, primary school students
Full Text Available This article presents and discusses the findings of a research study on the issue of L1 communicative-textual competence (CTC. More specifically it examines the L1 CTC of 10–12-year-old Greek elementary school students, before and after the use of alternative communicative-text-oriented teaching material versus traditional language materials currently used in the schools. The CTC of the students was examined using a version of the test published by the French Ministry of Education revised and adapted to the Greek language and educational context. Analysis of the pre- and post-intervention data suggests that using appropriately designed communicative-text-oriented teaching materials can increase Greek school students’ level of written L1 CTC.
Kondyli, M.; Stellakis, N.
Learning to read and write constitutes a central part of becoming literate. From an emergent literacy perspective, learning to write starts during the first years of a child’s life, fostered by experiences that permit and promote meaningful interaction with oral and written language. Data from a research study that took place in 11 pre-primary education classes in the region of Achaia, Greece, is reported. The early children’s attempts to write are in the center of this paper. Written samples...
Full Text Available The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias, agraphias and acalculias are more frequent than verified in routine exam, not only in the less developed but also in large neurological departments. Alexia is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called word blindness, text blindness orvisual aphasia. Alexia refers to an acquired inability to read caused by brain damage and must be distinguished from dyslexia, a developmental abnormality in which the individual is unable to learn to read, and from illiteracy, which reflects a poor educational back-ground. Most aphasics are also alexic, but alexia may occur in the absence of aphasia and may occasionally be the soledisability resulting from specific brain lesions. There are different classifications of alexias. Traditionally, the alexias are divided into three categories: pure alexia with agraphia, pure alexia without agraphia, and alexia associated with aphasia (“aphasic alexia”. Agraphia is defined as the disruption of previously intact writing skills by brain damage. Writing involves several elements—language processing, spelling, visual perception, visual-spatial orientation for graphic symbols, motor planning, and motor control of writing. A disturbance of any of these processes can impair writing. Agraphia may occur by itself or as association with aphasias, alexia, agnosia and apraxia. Agraphia can also result from “peripheral” involvement of the motor act of writing. Like alexia, agraphia must be distinguished from illiteracy, where writing skills were never developed. Acalculia is a clinical syndrome of acquired deficits in mathematical calculation, either mentally or with paper and pencil. This language disturbances can be classified differently, but there are three principal types of acalculia: acalculia associated with language disturbances, including number paraphasia, number agraphia, or number alexia; acalculia secondary to visual-spatial dysfunction with malalignment of numbers and columns, and a primary anarithmetria entailing disruption of the computation process.
Elston-Güttler, Kerrie E.; Williams, John N
Abstract The present study investigates the influence of first language (L1) lexicalization patterns on the processing of second language (L2) words in sentential contexts by advanced German learners of English. The focus was on cases where a polysemous word in the L1 is realized by independent words in the L2, e.g. German Blase realized by English bubble and blister. An anomaly detection task ...
Full Text Available Peer evaluation and technology-based instruction as the various domains of language teaching perspectives might affect language development. Group work in a technology-based environment might be more successful when learners are involved in developing the assessment process particularly peer assessment. This study investigated the effectiveness of peer evaluation in technology-based language environment and its effects on English writing ability. To reach this goal, 70 Iranian learners were participated in English language writing context. They were divided into two groups, one group assigned to CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication language learning context and the other assigned to a traditional learning environment. Both groups were encouraged to evaluate their classmates’ writing tasks. In addition, interviews were conducted with two learners. Comparing these two groups provides comprehensive guidelines for teachers as well as curriculum designers to set adjusted writing language environment for more effective and creative language teaching and learning. E-collaboration classroom tasks have high intrinsic motivation as well as significant effects on learners’ outcomes. Cooperative tasks specifically in technology-based environment lead learners to group working and consequently group learning. Computer-Mediated Communication is meaningful, especially in contexts in which teachers stimulate group work activities.Keywords: Information communication technology (ICT, Computer-mediated communication (CMC, Technology-based environment, Writing skill, E-collaboration, Cooperative learning
Hamdorf, Matthias; Idica, Adam; Zisoulis, Dimitrios G; Gamelin, Lindsay; Martin, Charles; Sanders, Katie J; Pedersen, Irene M
Long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposons compose 17% of the human genome. Active L1 elements are capable of replicative transposition (mobilization) and can act as drivers of genetic diversity. However, this mobilization is mutagenic and may be detrimental to the host, and therefore it is under strict control. Somatic cells usually silence L1 activity by DNA methylation of the L1 promoter. In hypomethylated cells, such as cancer cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a window of opportunity for L1 reactivation emerges, and with it comes an increased risk of genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Here we show that miR-128 represses new retrotransposition events in human cancer cells and iPSCs by binding directly to L1 RNA. Thus, we have identified and characterized a new function of microRNAs: mediating genomic stability by suppressing the mobility of endogenous retrotransposons. PMID:26367248
Full Text Available This study was conducted to find the relationship between multiple intelligences and writing strategies among Iranian EFL learners. The participants in this study were 120 adult males and females studying at high and advanced levels of Iran Language Institute. They filled two questionnaires during the first sessions of spring semester of 2012. The first questionnaire was a multiple intelligences inventory surveying nine types of intelligences based on Gardner’s theory and the second one was a writing skills and strategies questionnaire checking the students’ use of general, before, during and after writing strategies. According to the results of a corelational analysis, “logical, existential, kinesthetic, verbal and visual intelligences” correlated with “general writing strategies”. Moreover, “naturalistic, logical, kinesthetic and visual intelligences” showed relationship with “before writing strategies”. The researcher found that some types of intelligences among females had relationship with some writing strategies while in the male group no relationships were found. Besides, the results of advanced levels showed more significant correlations than those of high levels. Regression analysis, on the other hand, proved that none of the intelligences could predict writing strategies separately.
This qualitative study examined code-switching patterns in the writing-related talk of 6 emergent Spanish-English bilingual first-grade children. Audio recordings, field notes, and writing artifacts documenting participant activities and language use in Spanish and English writing workshops were gathered over the course of 6 months and analyzed…
This article makes the argument that we need to situate student's academic writing as socially constructed pieces of writing that embody a writer's cultural identity and critical argument. In support, I present and describe a comprehensive model of an original English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing analytical framework. This article explains…
This study is designed to examine writing anxiety in three groups of EFL students who use English writing in their academic programs. The main purpose of this study is to determine the level and sources of anxiety that students experience while writing in English as a foreign language. To this end, 150 university students from Iranian EFL students…
Full Text Available As provas de Língua Portuguesa e de Redação dos vestibulares são instrumentos voltados para a seleção de candidatos aptos para ingressar no Ensino Superior. Espera-se que eles demonstrem ter conhecimentos linguísticos e textuais que lhes permitam interpretar e produzir textos da esfera acadêmica. Ma [...] s, essas provas evidenciam os conhecimentos necessários para a admissão dos melhores candidatos nos cursos de graduação? Com o objetivo de responder a essa pergunta, analisamos questões propostas em vestibulares da UFMG nos últimos dez anos. Constatamos que, entre 2000 e 2009, avaliam-se competências a serem demonstradas por meio de habilidades, como localizar informações explícitas, inferir as implícitas em um texto, reconhecer novos sentidos atribuídos às palavras dentro de uma produção textual. Constatamos também a presença de diversos gêneros textuais da mídia impressa que favorece a reflexão crítica, o exercício de formas de pensamento mais elaboradas. Concluímos que as provas desse concurso cumprem a meta a que se destinam. Abstract in english Exams of Portuguese Language and Writing in entrance examinations are instruments aiming at the selection of the candidates who are fit to start undergraduate studies. It is expected that they show the textual and linguistic knowledge that allow them to interpret and produce texts in the academic fi [...] eld. But do these texts elicit the necessary knowledge for the admission of the best candidates to undergraduate courses? With the purpose of answering this question we have analyzed the questions asked in the entrance examinations of UFMG in the last 10 years. We have found that, between the years 2000 and 2009, the competence is assessed through skills such as locating explicit information, deducing implicit information, recognizing new meanings of words, within a given text. We have also verified the presence of several text genres from press media which favor critical reflection, and the application of more elaborated forms of reasoning. We have concluded that these tests fulfill their intended goal.
Culture, cognition and language in the constitution of reading and writing practices in an adult literacy classroom Cultura, cognição e linguagem na constituição de práticas de leitura e escrita de adultos em processo de alfabetização
Maria de Fátima Cardoso Gomes
Full Text Available In this article we analyze a discursive interaction between a researcher and an Youth and Adult Education student intending to show the meanings and uses of reading and writing taken by him. We take as our basis for discussion the theoretical-methodological contributions from Historical-Cultural Psychology and Paulo Freire's theories, which are combined with Bakhtin's concept of dialogue. This procedure allowed us, on one hand, getting into the other's perspective and, on the other hand, to make relations between cognition, language and culture to understand the adult students' metacognitive strategies, in the appropriation process of literacy practices of school culture. Thus, we could discuss the intimate relationship between doing and knowing and the importance of school in the transition from concrete thinking to the abstract thinking and vice-versa.Neste artigo analisamos uma interação discursiva entre uma pesquisadora e um estudante da Educação de Jovens e Adultos objetivando mostrar sentidos e usos da leitura e da escrita por ele mobilizados. Tomamos como base para nossa discussão os aportes teórico-metodológicos da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural e das teorizações de Paulo Freire, que conjugamos com a concepção de diálogo de Bakhtin. Tal procedimento nos possibilitou, por um lado, entrar na perspectiva do outro, e por outro, fazer relações entre cognição, linguagem e cultura para compreendermos as estratégias metacognitivas de alunos da EJA ao se apropriarem da cultura escolar. Pudemos também evidenciar a íntima relação entre fazer e saber e a importância da escola na transição do pensamento concreto para o abstrato e vice-versa.
Culture, cognition and language in the constitution of reading and writing practices in an adult literacy classroom / Cultura, cognição e linguagem na constituição de práticas de leitura e escrita de adultos em processo de alfabetização
Maria de Fátima Cardoso, Gomes; Maria da Conceição Ferreira Reis, Fonseca; Maira Tomayno de Melo, Dias; Patricia Guimarães, Vargas.
Full Text Available Neste artigo analisamos uma interação discursiva entre uma pesquisadora e um estudante da Educação de Jovens e Adultos objetivando mostrar sentidos e usos da leitura e da escrita por ele mobilizados. Tomamos como base para nossa discussão os aportes teórico-metodológicos da Psicologia Histórico-Cult [...] ural e das teorizações de Paulo Freire, que conjugamos com a concepção de diálogo de Bakhtin. Tal procedimento nos possibilitou, por um lado, entrar na perspectiva do outro, e por outro, fazer relações entre cognição, linguagem e cultura para compreendermos as estratégias metacognitivas de alunos da EJA ao se apropriarem da cultura escolar. Pudemos também evidenciar a íntima relação entre fazer e saber e a importância da escola na transição do pensamento concreto para o abstrato e vice-versa. Abstract in english In this article we analyze a discursive interaction between a researcher and an Youth and Adult Education student intending to show the meanings and uses of reading and writing taken by him. We take as our basis for discussion the theoretical-methodological contributions from Historical-Cultural Psy [...] chology and Paulo Freire's theories, which are combined with Bakhtin's concept of dialogue. This procedure allowed us, on one hand, getting into the other's perspective and, on the other hand, to make relations between cognition, language and culture to understand the adult students' metacognitive strategies, in the appropriation process of literacy practices of school culture. Thus, we could discuss the intimate relationship between doing and knowing and the importance of school in the transition from concrete thinking to the abstract thinking and vice-versa.
This collection contains selected readings of Ccassical writings for linguistic theory, literature history, and applications of the English language in documents from the early beginnings to the 20th century.
Dobao, Ana Fernandez
This study investigates the benefits of collaborative writing tasks. Previous research from the perspective of the sociocultural theory of mind suggests that writing tasks completed in pairs offer learners an opportunity to collaborate in the solution of their language-related problems, co-construct new language knowledge, and produce…
Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian; Petit, Emily; Chen, Ching-Huei
This exploratory computer assisted-language learning (CALL) study used a computer-mediated communication (CMC) interface to allow English as a foreign language (EFL) writing students in classes at two universities to give each other anonymous peer feedback about essay-writing assignments reacting to selected news stories. Experts also provided…
Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.
Abstract In this article we investigate the effects of first language (L1) on second language (L2) neural processing for two grammatical constructions (verbal domain dependency and grammatical gender), focusing on the event-related potential P600 effect, which has been found in both L1 and L2 processing. Native Dutch speakers showed a P600 effect for both constructions tested. However, in L2 Dutch (with German or a Romance language as L1) a P600 effect only occurred if L1 and L2 we...
This study compares the linguistic knowledge of adult second language (L2) learners, who learned the L2 after puberty, with the potentially "eroded" first language (L1) grammars of adult early bilinguals who were exposed to the target language since birth and learned the other language simultaneously, or early in childhood (before age 5). I make…
Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Yokoyama, Satoru; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Taira, Masato; Kawashima, Ryuta
The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the linguistic distance between a first language (L1) and a second language (L2) on neural activity during second language relative to first language processing. We compared different L1-L2 pairs in which different linguistic features characterize linguistic distance. Chinese and Korean native…
María del Mar Ramón Torrijos
Full Text Available This article concentrates on the impact that cross-linguistic influences have on second language acquisition. It investigates the importance of the learner's native language (L1 in written production of a second language (L2, particularly the use of L1 linguistic rules by Spanish speakers when they are writing in the target language (L2. This exploratory research focuses on the production errors made by students relative to specific subsystems such as semantic and syntactic areas. Errors are studied with respect to the differences between Spanish and English through a contrastive analysis between both languages in problematic linguistic areas. In this article only semantic errors will be considered as a first approximation to the study of transfer in written production. The results indicate that transfer is a reality and an important determinant in the process of second language acquisition. Teachers in an EFL context should be able to identify this phenomenon in order to prevent the errors which may arise from it.
Full Text Available This paper describes three different examples of the use of textographies in the researching and teaching of writing. The first is an examination of the exegeses that art and design students write in their masters degrees. In the second example, a group of teachers looked at the writing section of Chinese College English tests. The third example describes a course in which second language students carry out an analysis of the kinds of writing that is required of them in their academic studies. Each of the projects aims to go “beyond the text” (Freedman, 1999 in order to gain an understanding of why the texts are written as they are.
Examines similarities and differences between writing short, live-action narrative films and writing feature films. Examines market influence, budget, structure, and story factors. Describes useful procedures for inclusion in a scriptwriting class. (KEH)
Vidoli, Carol A.
This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.
There is growing evidence that the lack of competence of university ESL (English as a second language) students in academic writing affects their overall academic performance. Olivas and Li (2006) connected low second-language proficiency levels in English to poor academic performance of international students studying at both university and…
Functions, uniformly bounded in $BV$ norm in some bounded open set $U$ in $R^n$, are compact in $L_1(U)$. This result is known when $U$ has Lipschitz boundary [EG Th. 4 p. 176], [G 1.19 Th. p. 17], [Z 5.34 Cor. p. 227]; the proof for general $U$ here, after identifying the operator theoretic definition of bounded $BV$ norm with that of the Tonelli variation, appeals to the standard compactness criterion in $L_1$ [DS 21 TH. p. 301] [Y, p. 275] (For completeness, these two auxiliary results are also presented).
It is a heated discussion among researchers of foreign-language teaching on how to enhance the interest of study and teaching effect through the design, organization and implementation of classroom teaching of EFL writing, which is responsible for the enhancement of the student’s writing competence. This study is devoted to the systematic teaching design of communicative context in EFL writing within the paradigm of communicative language teaching, concentrating on the exploring of the cultiv...
This study investigated the effects of planning on second-language written production with regard to proficiency level, and task type. The participants were 157 Iranian learners of English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners attending a four-year university program in Iran. They were asked to complete two different types of writing tasks i.e., expository writing task and argumentative writing task in different planned conditions i.e. Individual Planned Condition and Collaborative Planned Condi...
Van Gelderen, A.; Oostdam, R.
In an explorative classroom experiment the effects of several instructional conditions for writing were compared. Studies on writing suggest that linguistic fluency is an important factor in writer’s abilities to manipulate sentence structures in order to produce comprehensible text. L1 writing theories indicate that working memory limitations play an important role in formulation. Therefore, improving linguistic fluency presumably frees working memory space and allows the writer to devote mo...
... day. Or maybe writing before bed helps you wind down and process all that has happened before you go to sleep. Or maybe writing every day seems too strict so you’d rather just journal whenever the mood strikes. Find what works for your personality and schedule. Write what's on ...
Lenhart, Amanda; Arafeh, Sousan; Smith, Aaron
Teenagers' lives are filled with writing. All teens write for school, and 93% of teens say they write for their own pleasure. Most notably, the vast majority of teens have eagerly embraced written communication with their peers as they share messages on their social network pages, in emails and instant messages online, and through fast-paced thumb…
Brand, Alice G.
Promotes writing as a counseling technique to enhance a child's psychological growth. Notes that writing enhances awareness by helping individuals organize their inner selves, contributing to personal integration and self-validation, and providing a cathartic emotional release. Describes current therapeutic writing practices and a therapeutic…
Tinker, John R., Jr.
A project for Writing Across the Curriculum at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire is described as a method to relate the process of writing to the process of learning hydrology. The project focuses on an actual groundwater contamination case and is designed to improve the technical writing skills of students. (JN)
Yagelski, Robert P.
In 2003, the National Commission on Writing released "The Neglected "R,"" its report on the state of writing instruction in the nation's schools. The report identified an apparent paradox: writing, which the Commission defines as an essential skill for the many that has helped transform the world, is nevertheless increasingly shortchanged…
The epistemic creative writer is not merely an expressive writer, a writer who writes for creative writing programs at diverse university colleges. Rather, the epistemic creative writer is the writer who understands that in order to say something useful you must step out of the space that engages your ego. Awareness of what really matters comes from the contemplation of the futility of words. Before the word there is silence. After the word there is silence. But during the word there is knowledge that can be made crystal clear. This book is about extracting what writing means to a few writers who formulate ideas about creative writing without, however, making claims to instruction. Can creative writing that produces knowledge be taught without a method? Samuel Beckett, Raymond Federman, Gertrude Stein, Jacques Lacan, Frank O'Hara, Douglas Hofstadter, Brian Rotman, Herman Melville, Kathy Acker, Friedrich Nietzsche, David Markson, Andrei Codrescu, and a host of others, gather here to offer an answer. --"Camelia Elias speaks to the reader from that place where the language of the birds becomes the language of silence." (Patrick Blackburn, Professor of Formal Logic, Roskilde University)
**C++** is one of the most **complex**, expressive and powerful languages out there. However, its complexity makes it hard to write **robust** code. When using C++ to code **critical** applications, ensuring **reliability** is one of the key topics. Testing, debugging and profiling are all a major part of this kind of work. In the BE department we use C++ to write a big part of the controls system for beam operation, which implies putting a big focus on system stability and ensuring smooth operation. This talk will try to: - Highlight potential problems when writing C++ code, giving guidelines on writing defensive code that could have avoided such issues - Explain how to avoid common pitfalls (both in writing C++ code and at the debugging & profiling phase) - Showcase some tools and tricks useful to C++ development The attendees' proficiency in C++ should not be a concern. Anyone is free to join, even people that do not know C++, if only to learn the pitfalls a language may have. This may benefit f...
Muhammad Afzal Awan
Full Text Available In the present study, the authors deliberate that there are no separate boxes in human brain to restrict two different languages to interact with each other. The practice on ground is strongly in favour of allowing L1 to support target language (TL. The paper contests the status quo of maximal input hypothesis and documents enough research in the field of human psychology, code-switching, bilingualism and Socio-Cultural Theory (SCT. The Canadian French Immersion Programme has also been referred to, in the article. The real life teaching and learning experiences have been shared and are connected to the latest theory and research, and it is concluded that this issue has serious socio-political and academic dimensions. The study postulates that the extent of L1 to be used is highly context-dependent. A ‘judicious’ use of L1 should, however, be practiced in target language (TL class without malign.Keywords: Judicious use, L1, code-switching, socio-political, psychological, functional dimensions
Heloísa Augusta Brito de, Mello.
Full Text Available Neste artigo procuro refletir sobre como a relação L1-L2 tem sido tratada nas teorias de aquisição de línguas, na política e na pedagogia de ensino de L2, em especial no ensino de inglês como segunda língua (ESL). Ao longo do estudo, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sa [...] la de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenário que deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil. Abstract in english This article seeks to reflect on how L1-L2 relationship has been treated in second language theories, policy and pedagogy, mainly in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL). It is argued that language teaching pedagogy would benefit by paying attention to the use of L1 in the L2 classroom [...] , especially in the case of whole schooling through L2, rather than concentrating primarily on the ideal monolingual model. The scenery that motivated these reflections is an ESL classroom of an English immersion school located in the central part of Brazil
Schmid, Monika S.; Fagersten, Kristy Beers
Based on an analysis of the speech of long-term emigres of German and Dutch origin, the present investigation discusses to what extent hesitation patterns in language attrition may be the result of the creation of an interlanguage system, on the one hand, or of language-internal attrition patterns on the other. We compare speech samples elicited…
Using the Borel transformed QCD sum rule formalism the masses of L = 1 light quark mesons with isospin I = 1 and I = 0 are calculated. Nonperturbative effects from higher dimensional operators up to dimension d = 6 in the operator product expansion are taken into account. (author)
Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 He nriksson E , Olsson AS, Johanne sson H, Johansson H, Hanson J, E ngstrom P, Sode rman ... E . Home odomain le ucine ... zippe r class I ge ne s in Arabidopsis ... . E xpre ssion patte rns and phyloge ne tic re ... Plant Physio ... l. 139: 509-518. (2005) PubMe d: 16055682 ...
Bergen, B K
The artificial language Esperanto is spoken not only as a second language, by its proponents, but also as a native language by children of some of those proponents. The present study is a preliminary description of some characteristics of the Native Esperanto (NE) of eight speakers, ranging in age from six to fourteen years. As such, it is the first of its kind--previous works on NE are either theoretical treatises or individual case studies. We find, at least for the eight subjects studied, both bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of the tense/aspect system, and pronominal cliticization. The theoretical ramifications are discussed, particularly with regard to universals of language acquisition and the effects of expressive requirements of language. PMID:11797540
The present study investigates backward transfer (the influence of L2 knowledge on L1 performance) at the lexical level through the semantic gap between Chinese and Japanese words sharing the same orthographic presentation. The Chinese (L1) competence of 79 Taiwanese students with or without experience of Japanese (L2) learning was recruited for a form-meaning mapping task with an exclusively native language context. The task asked the participants to rate the degree of semantic appropr...
This paper compares the development of tense morphology and verb-second in different learner populations. Three groups of Swedish pre-school children are investigated longitudinally; ten L1 children, ten L2 children and ten children diagnosed with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Data was collected twice, with an interval of six months. The results at Time I reveal a significant difference between normally developing L1 children on the one hand and L2 children and children with SLI on t...
Nancy Emilce Carvajal Medina
Full Text Available Academic writing in English in our context is a significant aspect that can be innovative when a convergence model of writing stages is used along with collaborative work. This article reports on a study aimed at analyzing how collaborative work relates to undergraduate electronics students’ academic writing development in English as a foreign language at a Colombian university, following some specific writing stages. Field notes, students’ artifacts, and semi-structured interviews were the instruments used to gather information. The results showed that writing is achievable if students can follow stages and receive feedback from the teacher. Additionally, collaborative work allowed students to write research articles in an easy and dynamic way.
Day, Robert A
Writing and publishing journal articles are crucial to scientific careers. Unfortunately, many young scientists find the process of communicating scientific information effectively a complete mystery. By providing practical, readable, and sometimes humorous guidance, this book helps researchers gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence to succeed in communicating about their work. This seventh edition of "How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper" contains 41 chapters focused upon two separate tasks: how to write the respective sections of a scientific paper and how to publish the paper. Other related topics include approaching a writing project, following ethical principles in scientific publishing, preparing oral presentations and poster presentations, writing grant proposals, and working with the popular media. The authors provide considerable guidance on appropriate scientific writing style as well as an extensive list of words and expressions to avoid - and supply the language to substitute for them.
La producción de resúmenes en Inglés como Lengua Extranjera (ILE) / La rédaction de résumés en anglais langue étrangère (ALE) / Summary Writing in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) / A produção de resumos em inglês como língua estrangeira (ILE)
Simón, Ruiz; Rebecca, Beke.
Full Text Available A escritura de resumos de textos em inglês como língua estrangeira é um tema que tem recebido mais atenção por parte dos especialistas no âmbito internacional do que no nacional. A partir da abordagem discursivo-funcional, e com base em um corpus de cem resumos redigidos em inglês, estabelecemos com [...] o intuito deste trabalho pesquisar como os estudantes incluem em seus textos as funções discursivas do texto origem e como utilizam as marcas discursivas para destacar essas funções. Para isso, foi utilizado o padrão textual Problema-Solução proposto por Hoey (2001). Os resultados desta análise demonstram que a maioria dos estudantes incluiu em seus resumos as funções hierarquicamente mais importantes do texto original. A estrutura to be about foi utilizada mais frequentemente para introduzir o tópico do texto origem e o verbo to evaluate para reportar o objetivo da pesquisa. Os resultados evidenciam que a maioria dos estudantes tem as aptidões necessárias não só para identificar as diferentes funções discursivas no texto original, mas também para reconstruir, com suas próprias palavras, um texto novo respeitando estas funções. Abstract in spanish La escritura de resúmenes de textos en inglés como lengua extranjera es un tema que ha recibido mayor atención de los expertos en el contexto internacional que en el nacional. Desde una perspectiva discursivo-funcional, y sobre la base de un corpus de cien resúmenes redactados en inglés, nos propusi [...] mos averiguar cómo los aprendices incluyen en sus textos las funciones discursivas del texto fuente y cómo utilizan las marcas discursivas para señalar estas funciones. Para ello se utilizó el patrón textual Problema-Solución propuesto por Hoey (2001). Los resultados del análisis muestran que la mayoría de los estudiantes incluyó en sus resúmenes las funciones jerárquicamente más importantes del texto original. La estructura to be about fue utilizada con mayor frecuencia para introducir el tópico del texto fuente y el verbo to evaluate para reportar el propósito de la investigación. Los resultados evidencian que la mayoría de los estudiantes tiene las habilidades necesarias para identificar las diferentes funciones discursivas en el texto original y para reconstruir, con sus propias palabras, un texto nuevo respetando estas funciones. Abstract in english Summary writing in English as a foreign language has been investigated internationally more than locally. From a discursive-functional perspective and on the basis of the problem-solution textual pattern (Hoey, 2001), we analyzed a corpus of one hundred summaries of a scientific news article, writte [...] n in English by Spanish speaking high school students. We aimed at finding out how the learners include the discursive functions of the source text in their writings and how these functions are linguistically signaled. The results show that the majority of students included in their summaries the hierarchically most important functions of the original text. To be about was the most common structure used to introduce the topic of the original text while the verb to evaluate was most widely used to report the purpose of the source text. These findings indicate that the majority of the participants are discursively and linguistically competent not only to identify the different discourse functions of the original text, but also to reconstruct, in their own words, a new and coherent text.
Kan, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn
Picture naming and picture identification tasks were used to investigate lexical-semantic skills in young children learning Hmong as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). A total of 19 children, ages 3;4 (years;months)-5;2, participated in this study. Performance on lexical tasks was analyzed as a function of development (older and younger participants), language (Hmong and English), modality (receptive and expressive skills), and the nature of total or "composite" vocabulary scores (translation equivalents or singles, reflecting comparable forms in both languages as compared to concepts lexicalized into only 1 language). Older participants outperformed younger participants in English, but not Hmong, indicating a relative stabilization of L1 skills, alongside more robust growth in L2. The difference between expressive and receptive performance was also much greater in Hmong than English. Composite scores were always greater than single language scores and the proportion of translation equivalents increased with age. PMID:15989399
Language plays a crucial role in the development of human society. It is the main means of communication between individuals, groups and countries. Nowadays in China, more and more people are learning English as a second language. What is the effective method of learning a foreign language becomes their chief concern. Basically speaking, four modules are involved in the process of second language acquisition. They are listening, reading, writing and speaking. In English language teaching and ...
St?ncu?a Ramona DIMA-LAZA
Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.
Wolbers, Kimberly A; Dostal, Hannah M; Graham, Steve; Cihak, David; Kilpatrick, Jennifer R; Saulsburry, Rachel
Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) has led to improved writing and language outcomes among deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) middle grades students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SIWI on the written expression of DHH elementary students across recount/personal narrative, information report, and persuasive genres. Five multiple-probe case studies demonstrate a relationship between implementation of SIWI and improvements in genre-related writing performance. The effect of instruction was most immediately demonstrated with information reports and persuasive writing, whereas several sessions of recount instruction were needed for students to satisfy performance criteria. Additionally, pre- and post-data from a larger group of students (N = 31) were compared. Wilcoxon signed-rank test statistics were statistically significant for each genre with medium to high effect sizes. Data suggest SIWI as a promising practice with elementary students, and comments regarding further development and research are provided. PMID:26101210
Kartushina, Natalia; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.
The speech of late second language (L2) learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine...
Rodgers, Daryl M.
This study examined the extent to which 40 students enrolled in upper level foreign language literary/cultural studies content courses showed evidence of incidental language learning over the course of a semester. Students completed a cloze passage and provided both writing and speaking samples at the beginning and end of the semester. In…
Wilson, Kathleen; Trainin, Guy; Laughridge, Virginia; Brooks, David; Wickless, Mimi
This study examined first-grade students' journal writing to determine how placing live zoo animals in classrooms for science education links to students' emergent and early writing. Students were asked to write journal entries during the daily language arts period. Although no direct instruction in informational text writing was offered, teachers…
Full Text Available Language plays a crucial role in the development of human society. It is the main means of communication between individuals, groups and countries. Nowadays in China, more and more people are learning English as a second language. What is the effective method of learning a foreign language becomes their chief concern. Basically speaking, four modules are involved in the process of second language acquisition. They are listening, reading, writing and speaking. In English language teaching and learning, mastering these four modules means a lot. Speaking and writing skills, as the productive modules, are usually more difficult for learners. In this essay, from the origin and functions of language, the correlation and disparities between speaking and writing skills are analyzed and possible ways of improving these two skills in second language acquisition are explored and suggested.
Dich, Nadya; Pedersen, Bo
The study explores first language (L1) influences on the mechanisms of spelling in English as a foreign language (EFL). We hypothesized that the transparency of L1 orthography influences (a) the amount of hesitation associated with spelling irregular English words, and (b) the size of units EFL spellers operate. Participants were adult speakers of three languages differing by the degree of transparency, Danish, Russian, and Italian (n = 60), and a group of English native speakers (n = 20). We an...
Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson; John Adamson
This study investigates language advising in a self-access center (SAC) with the purpose of informing language policy. This center is located in a new Japanese university and has shifted from an initially teacher-imposed ‘English-only’ language policy into one which encourages “translanguaging” (Blackledge & Creese, 2010, p. 105) between the students’ and center advisors’ (termed as mentors in this center) L1 (Japanese) and their L2 (English). Data from audio-recordings of interaction with ad...
Yong Mei Fung
Full Text Available When writing an argumentative essay, writers develop and evaluate arguments to embody, initiate, or simulate various kinds of interpersonal and textual interaction for reader consideration (Wu & Allison, 2003. This is quite challenging for English as a second language (ESL learners. To improve the quality of their writing, students need to review their draft throughout the writing process. This study aimed to investigate the effect of self-assessment in group writing and how group work improves students’ writing ability. An intact class comprising 22 first-year undergraduates participated in the study. Data were collected from pre- and post-treatment writing tests, semi-structured interview and reflection entries. The results revealed that self-assessment has a significant effect on students’ writing performance. Group work also enhanced social and cognitive development of the students. This study provides insights into the use of self-assessment in writing class to develop learner autonomy and improve writing ability.Keywords: Argumentative essay, Self-assessment, Learner autonomy, Group writing, ESL learners
Cost, Gregory J; Golding, Amit; Schlissel, Mark S; Boeke, Jef D.
L1 elements are human transposons which replicate via an RNA intermediate. At least 15% of the human genome is composed of L1 sequence. An important initial step in the transposition reaction is nicking of the genomic DNA by L1 endonuclease (L1 EN). In vivo much of the genome exists in the form of chromatin or is undergoing biochemical transactions such as transcription, replication or repair, which may alter the accessibility of the L1 transposition machinery to DNA. ...
Leslie E. Seawright
Full Text Available Globalization of our modern economies requires a workforce that can move easily between time zones and cultures. Professors cannot ignore the drastic impact globalization has and will place upon engineering students. In order to be prepared for a competitive job market and the actual requirements of many engineering positions, students need to understand the constraints and challenges of working with colleagues that may live and work in different cultures, countries, languages, and contexts. However, engineering education rarely offers students an opportunity to practice the realities of our digital and intercultural working environments. This paper outlines one way to offer engineering students with collaborative, international, and intercultural writing projects. Students from a technical writing course in the United States were paired with engineering students in Qatar to develop a set of instructions using multimedia methods. Students learned a great deal from the real-world experience of writing and creating a project across two continents.
The effective use of writing in science instruction may open the way for students to grow in their ability to exercise higher order thinking skills (Bland & Koppel, 1988). Scinto (1986) makes a compelling case for writing as a means of stimulating thinking when he states: The production of written text demands more elaborate strategies of preplanning. Written language demands the conscious organization of ensembles of propositions to achieve its end. The need to manipulate linguistic means in such a conscious and deliberate fashion entails a level of linguistic self-reflection not called forth in oral discourse (p. 101). Science educators may find that the writing process is one technique to help them move away from the teacher-centered, textbook-driven science classroom of today, and move toward the realization of science education which will ensure that students are able to function as scientifically literate citizens in our contemporary society.
Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F
Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill. PMID:26351964
Verhoef, Kim; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J.
How are bilinguals able to switch from one language to another? The prevailing inhibition hypothesis takes larger reaction-time (RT) costs for switching to the first language (L1) than to the second language (L2) as evidence for suppression of the non-target language. Switch cost asymmetries can alternatively be explained by an L1-repeat-benefit,…
Consuelo, Orozco Giraldo.
Full Text Available A linguagem permite a comunicação, compartilhar interesses e cultura. É eficaz desenvolver processos de leitura e escrita convencional, em geral, e de bilinguismo, em particular, mediante a literatura infantil (contos). Os resultados da primeira fase do processo investigativo (três anos) abrangem os [...] aspectos-chave sobre o discurso e a prática pedagógica que favorecem a aquisição da leitura e da escrita da língua materna (L1) na primeira infância. A segunda fase aborda como as estratégias e os discursos eficazes na primeira fase, com algumas adaptações, conseguem deslocar-se aos mesmos processos em uma segunda língua (L2) e dão lugar a resultados inesperados. Abstract in spanish El lenguaje permite la comunicación, compartir intereses y cultura. Es eficaz desarrollar procesos de lectura y escritura convencional, en general, y de bilingüismo, en particular, mediante la literatura infantil (cuentos). Los resultados de la primera fase del proceso investigativo (3 años) dan cue [...] nta de los aspectos claves acerca del discurso y práctica pedagógica que favorecen la adquisición de la lectura y la escritura de la lengua materna (L1) en la primera infancia. La segunda fase aborda cómo las estrategias y los discursos eficaces en la primera fase, con algunas adaptaciones, logran trasladarse a los mismos procesos en una segunda lengua (L2), y dan lugar a resultados insospechados. Abstract in english Language makes it possible to communicate and share interests and culture. It is effective in developing conventional reading and writing processes, in general, and bilingualism, in particular, through children's literature (stories). The results of the first phase of the research process (3 years) [...] account for the key aspects of the pedagogical discourse and practice that fosters the acquisition of reading and writing skills in the native language (L1) during early childhood. The second phase addresses the way in which the strategies and discourses that were effective in the first phase can be transferred, with some adaptations, to the same processes in a second language (L2), producing surprising results.
Mojdeh Ebrahimi Dehkordi; Hamid Allami
Inevitability of using evidentials (EVs) and references in all academic writings signifies the importance of distinguishing and applying EVs for those who attempt to write in academic prose. With the aim of creating a unique model of EVs in academic texts, this study used well-established taxonomies of metadiscourse markers adapted by Hyland (2005) combined with Swales' (1990) classification of citations as well as Berkenkotter and Huckin's (1995) concept of intertexuality in academic writing...
Brentari, Diane; Nadolske, Marie A.; Wolford, George
In this paper the prosodic structure of American Sign Language (ASL) narratives is analyzed in deaf native signers (L1-D), hearing native signers (L1-H), and highly proficient hearing second language signers (L2-H). The results of this study show that the prosodic patterns used by these groups are associated both with their ASL language experience…
This book provides a practical approach to compiler implementation and shows how the different language features are handled and translated in the compilation process. Unlike most books in this area, The Theory and Practice of Compiler Writing thoroughly covers programming language design and error detection, and recovery techniques in compilation, enabling readers to get a firm grasp on compiler planning and programming. Traditional topics such as lexical analysis, syntactic analysis, symbol table handling, semantic analysis, code generation and code optimization are given balanced coverage,
Sanders, Tobie R.; And Others
A review of the literature concerning ethnographic studies of writing reveals a number of reasons for the writing that people do. Some studies of writing in the schools found that what is considered "writing" is not really writing at all and that the majority of students consider the teacher to be their sole audience. Other studies examining…
Swaggerty, Elizabeth A.; Atkinson, Terry S.; Faulconer, Johna L.; Griffith, Robin R.
The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of a three-day academic writing retreat on the writing lives of four female university faculty members. Goals of the retreat included rejuvenating their writing lives, focusing their research agendas, improving their writing, and engaging in concentrated blocks of writing and collaborative…
Fassler, John, 1910-1971
Measured, detailed sketch of a decorative design for Mrs Thorne's writing bureau. Probably prepared for prof. Geoffrey Pearse's book "Eighteenth Century Furniture in South Africa", but never included.
Black, Rebecca W.
This article draws on constructs in second-language acquisition, literacy, cultural, and media studies as theoretical bases for examining how networked technologies and fan culture provide a young English language learner (ELL) with a site for developing her English language and writing skills. During this process, she also develops an online…
Writers who do not speak English as a native language perennially have presented unique challenges to the writing center, for these writers, who study English as a second language (ESL), or even as a third or fourth foreign language (EFL), may also be unacquainted with American academic discourse. ESL/EFL writers may face unfamiliarity with…
This article describes the technologies in use for second language learning, in relation to the major language areas and skills. In order, these are grammar, vocabulary, reading, writing, pronunciation, listening, speaking, and culture. With each language area or skill, the relevant technologies are discussed with examples that illustrate how…
Samshad N. Sheikh
Full Text Available Language is the most vital aspect of our life. It is used for varied purposes. We use it to express our inner thoughts and emotions, make sense of complex and abstract thought, to learn to communicate with others, to fulfill our wants and needs, as well as to establish rules and maintain our culture. It is defined in myriad ways. Whatever may be the definition, the language is considered as ‘skill’rather than a ‘subject’. It has four basic skills namely, listening, speaking, reading and writing. Among these skills listening and reading are called receptive skills and speaking and writing are productive skills. All these skills are complementary to each other. Developing these skills is, no doubt, a hard nut to crack for the teachers of English. But writing skill needs extra initiation and exertion on the part of the learner. In such circumstances, it really becomes a challenge for the teachers, teaching specially in rural areas. The present paper proposes to highlight the barriers that come in the way of developing writing skill of such rural learners. It also suggests some remedial measures to overcome these obstacles.
Finlay, Chris; Tierney, Anne; McVey, Mary; Gray, Joseph
Students’ writing skills are subject to criticism, particularly in science subjects where there may be a lack of opportunity to practise. This is especially true in large classes, where assessments are often administered as multiple choice tests. In addition, the increasing number of students whose first language is not English makes the nuances and the conventions of scientific English particularly difficult to acquire. In the School of Life Sciences at the University of Glasgow, we have ...
Narges Moheb; Mohammad S. Bagheri
This study was conducted to find the relationship between multiple intelligences and writing strategies among Iranian EFL learners. The participants in this study were 120 adult males and females studying at high and advanced levels of Iran Language Institute. They filled two questionnaires during the first sessions of spring semester of 2012. The first questionnaire was a multiple intelligences inventory surveying nine types of intelligences based on Gardner’s theory and the second one...
Catherine Le; Lewis Cohen; Joyce Smith
Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam—mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror...
Listening comprehension is the primary channel of learning a language. Yet of the four dominant macro-skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), it is often difficult and inaccessible for second and foreign language learners due to its implicit process. The secondary skill, speaking, proceeds listening cognitively. Aural/oral skills precede the graphic skills, such as reading and writing, as they form the circle of language learning process. However, despite the significant relationsh...
Grami Mohammad Ali Grami; Mohammed Ghanim Alzughaibi
The study investigates common instances of incorrect usage of English sounds and words caused by interference. L1 interference research is an integral part of Applied Linguistics and its implications can be found in any foreign language classroom but we focus our attention here on Arab ESL students’ production of English. The study examines multiple examples of spoken and written interferences in light of recent theoretical framework. The paper recommends ESL teachers to explicitly addr...
Bagheri, Mohammad S.; Fazel, Ismaeil
Although translation in learning a foreign or second language is frowned upon by many language practitioners, it is nonetheless used by language learners as a viable strategy. To date, few studies have investigated the effect of translation on writing. This study explored the use of translation by Iranian university students, particularly with…
Ortega, Gerardo; Morgan, Gary
There is growing interest in learners' cognitive capacities to process a second language (L2) at first exposure to the target language. Evidence suggests that L2 learners are capable of processing novel words by exploiting phonological information from their first language (L1). Hearing adult learners of a sign language, however, cannot fall back…
Kohnert, Kathryn; Windsor, Jennifer; Ebert, Kerry Danahy
We review empirical findings from children with primary or “specific” language impairment (PLI) and children who learn a single language from birth (L1) and a second language (L2) beginning in childhood. The PLI profile is presented in terms of both language and nonlinguistic features. The discussion of L2 learners emphasizes variable patterns of growth and skill distribution in L1 and L2 which complicate the identification of PLI in linguistically diverse learners. We then introduce our research program, designed to map out common ground and potential fault lines between typically developing children learning one or two languages, as compared to children with PLI. PMID:18313136
Hatzidaki, Anna; Pothos, Emmanuel M.
A "text"-translation task and a recognition task investigated the hypothesis that "semantic memory" principally mediates translation from a bilingual's native first language (L1) to her second language (L2), whereas "lexical memory" mediates translation from L2 to L1. This has been held for word translation by the revised hierarchical model (RHM)…
Pitel, Vonna J.
Discusses the advantages of making the writing center part of the instructional media center in schools and provides some questions to consider in setting up a writing center. Offers three examples of popular writing assignments. (MG)
With the increasing use of integrated tasks in assessing writing, more and more research studies have been conducted to examine the construct validity of such tasks. Previous studies have largely focused on reading-writing tasks, while relatively little is known about graph-writing tasks. This study examines second language (L2) writers'…
Coelho, José; Branco, Fernando; Oliveira, Teresa
In our work we present a tool to write and simulate distributions. This tool allows to write mathematical expressions which can contain not only functions and variables, but also statistical distributions, including mixtures. Each time the expression is evaluated, for all inner distributions, is generated a value according to the distribution and is used for expression value determination. The inversion method can be used in this language, allowing to generate all distributions...
The purpose of this article is to share lessons learned in setting up three different peer online writing centers in three different contexts (EFL, Generation 1.5, and ESL). In each center the focus was on the language learner as a peer online writing advisor and their needs in maintaining centers “for and by” learners. Technology affordances and constraints for local contexts, which promote learner autonomy, are analyzed. The open-source platforms (Moodle, Drupal, and Google Apps) are compar...
Panovi?, Ivan; Holes, Clive D.
This thesis is an ethnographically grounded description and interpretation of a variety of writing practices observable in an Arabic speaking community, primarily on the Internet. Working with, or in reaction to, the concept of diglossia, of which Arabic sociolinguistic setting is often cited as a textbook example, the majority of scholars have focused their attention on speech as a major site of language variation and mixing. Writing has been largely neglected. This thesis is a contribution ...
Ghete, V M
The CMS L1 Trigger processes the muon and calorimeter detector data using a complex system of custom hardware processors. A bit-level emulation of the trigger data processing has been developed. This is used to validate and monitor the trigger hardware, to simulate the trigger response in monte-carlo data, and for some components, to seed higher-level triggers. The multiple-use cases are managed using a modular design, implemented within the modular CMS offline software framework. The requirements, design and performance of the emulators are described, as well as the iterative process required to bring the emulators and hardware into agreement.
di Gennaro, Kristen
A growing body of literature in second-language writing suggests that the writing ability of international second language (L2) learners, who attend post-secondary education abroad after having completed high school in their home countries, and the so-called Generation 1.5 population, that is, L2 learners who enter post-secondary education after…
Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger
This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…
Chi-Fen Emily Chen
Though e-mail has become a common interpersonal communication medium, it does not mean that this medium is used without difficulty. While people can write e-mails to peers in any manner they like, writing e-mails to authority figures requires higher pragmatic competence and critical language awareness of how discourse shapes and reflects power asymmetry in an institutional context. For L2 learners, the challenge of composing this type of e-mail can be greater due not only to their limited lin...
Rankins-Robertson, Sherry; Cahill, Lisa; Roen, Duane; Glau, Gregory R.
Narrow definitions of academic writing often do not serve students well because they ignore the rhetorically situated and social bases for writing and the potential role of writing to span the personal, professional, and civic areas of students' lives. Broadening school-sponsored writing to include writing about family can help students to see the…
Fatemeh Hemmati; Fatemeh Soltanpour
This study aimed at comparing the effects of reflective learning portfolio (RLP) and dialogue journal writing (DJW) on the Iranian EFL learners’ grammatical accuracy in writing as well as their overall writing performance. 60 Iranian EFL learners between the ages of 17 to 30 who were studying at general English courses were selected based on their performance on the Nelson English Language Test. They were assigned randomly into two experimental groups: DJW and RLP. Each group received 14-sess...
Riordan, Daniel G
"Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...
In this study, word knowledge and its relation to text comprehension was examined with 50 Chinese- and 20 Korean-speaking second language (L2) learners and 40 first language (L1) speakers of Japanese. Breadth and depth of word knowledge were assessed by a word-definition matching test and a word-associates selection test, respectively. Text…
Full Text Available This study aims at overcoming difficulty in learning language, both in Indonesian Language and English at international elementary school, especially in creative writing. Creative writing as part of human activity is creativity with language medium as prose (narrative, description, poem (old, new and modern, as well as drama (dialogue, role play, and sosio drama. Specific target to be achieved is the design of Video Streaming for all kinds of creative writing in the language of Indonesian and English. This investigation is a continuation of the previos investigation that has managed to make a video leaning in English for Math and Science as integrated learning to early class at international elementary school. The method used follow the principles of developmental reasearch. The firts stage is script writing video streaming through brainstorming with teachers, lecturers, teams of investigators Indonesia (UPI and Malaysia (USM. The second stage manuscript, making finalization Video Streaming, make the Web, media experts and creative writing material team investigators. The third stage, testing the Video Streaming, Web and dissemination of results into all the international elementary school in Indonesia and Malaysia.
McLean, Cheryl A.; Rowsell, Jennifer
The article examines high school students' writing composition practices in multimodal instructional environments. We use Rosenblatt's transactional theory to look across the findings of 2 studies that blend traditional and digital modes of instruction in order to explore how modal switching can support students' reading and…
Isabela de Freitas, Villas Boas.
Full Text Available Este estudo de caso analisou a aplicabilidade de uma pedagogia para o ensino da escrita como um processo em um contexto de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira e como os estudantes reagiram e responderam a essa metodologia de ensino. Um grupo de 16 adolescentes de nível intermediário em uma inst [...] ituição particular de ensino de inglês foi selecionado. Foi seguido um projeto pedagógico em torno da escrita como um processo e as reações e o desempenho dos alunos em cada um dos estágios do processo foi analisado. Ao mesmo tempo, investigou-se como se dá o ensino da escrita na língua materna nas escolas regulares dos alunos. Concluiu-se que o ensino de produção textual nas escolas regulares enfoca mais o processo do que o produto e que uma pedagogia voltada para o processo nas aulas de inglês pode preencher lacunas deixadas nas experiências dos alunos com a escrita na língua materna. Abstract in english This case study analyzed to what extent localized process writing pedagogy is applicable and effective in an EFL context and how students respond and react to it. A class of 16 intermediate-level teenage students in an ELT Institute in Brazil was selected. A carefully planned project on process-base [...] d writing was followed, and students' performance in and reactions to each stage of the process were analyzed. Concurrently, the study also investigated the teaching of writing in students' native language - Portuguese - in their regular schools. It could be concluded that the teaching of writing in the regular schools focuses more on the process than on the product and that a pedagogical approach focused on the process in the EFL classroom can serve to fill in the gaps left by the students' experiences with writing in L1.
Ana I. Moreno
Full Text Available Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs for publication in English (as L2 is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured questionnaire comprising thirty-seven questions about researchers’ publication experiences in scientific journals in English and in Spanish was designed and sent out to all (n = 8,794 Spanish postdoctoral researchers at one research-only institution and four universities in Spain, yielding responses from 1,717 researchers. Our first results show that the discussion is the section that is perceived as more difficult to write for English-medium journals, across the four broad knowledge areas in a way that cannot be fully explained by their lower level of proficiency in English (as L2. This article proposes the rhetorical transfer hypothesis as a possible explanation for their additional difficulty. Our results also reveal that their increased perceived difficulty writing RA discussions in English (as L2 does not decrease noticeably until Spanish researchers report high or very high levels of proficiency in English (as L2 for academic or general purposes or have published on average at least 37 RAs as corresponding author in English-medium journals over the last ten years. Implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP research and pedagogy are discussed.
Mabel Ortiz Navarrete
Full Text Available This paper aims at proposing a technique for students learning English as a foreign language when they collaboratively write an argumentative essay in a wiki environment. A wiki environment and collaborative work play an important role within the academic writing task. Nevertheless, an appropriate and systematic work assignment is required in order to make use of both. In this paper the proposed technique when writing a collaborative essay mainly attempts to provide the most effective way to enhance equal participation among group members by taking as a base computer mediated collaboration. Within this context, the students’ role is clearly defined and individual and collaborative tasks are explained.
Full Text Available The role of feedback on writing involves complex issues and needs to be considered within the total context in which the feedback is given. The reason studies examining feedback effects are so inconsistent may be a function of the fact that these studies consider feedback issue from a single perspective. To deal with this problem, feedback is first defined from different perspectives, then different aspects of feedback are discussed and after that a discussion of the factors that affect the influence of feedback on second language writing follows and finally a model where all the factors interact to influence feedback practices in second langue writing is presented.
Hickey, Tina M.; Lewis, Gwyn; Baker, Colin
A challenge noted in a number of endangered language contexts is the need to mix second-language (L2) learners of the target language with first-language (L1) speakers of that language in a less planned way than is found in the two-way immersion approach. Such mixing of L1 speakers of the target language with L2 learners arises from the difficulty…
HELOÍSA AUGUSTA BRITO DE MELLO
Full Text Available Neste artigo discuto o papel da L1 no desenvolvimento da competência em L2 bem como na aquisição de conhecimentos. Ao longo de minhas reflexões, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sala de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenárioque deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil.
Consciência fonológica e o processo de aprendizagem de leitura e escrita: implicações teóricas para o embasamento da prática fonoaudiológica / Phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing: theoretical implications for the basement of the Speech-Language pathologist practice
Cristiane, Nunes; Silvana, Frota; Renata, Mousinho.
Full Text Available TEMA: consciência fonológica e o aprendizado da leitura e escrita. OBJETIVO: realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca do tema com o objetivo de retomar conceitos dispostos recentemente na literatura e oferecer ao Fonoaudiólogo a possibilidade de revisão de suas práticas para (re)formulação de estra [...] tégias terapêuticas. CONCLUSÃO: é possível observar que os estudos convergem para a importante relação no desenvolvimento das habilidades de consciência fonológica com o desenvolvimento da leitura e escrita. Tal fato reforça a necessidade de revisão de nossa prática clínica e científica para a criação e difusão de estratégias preventivas e/ou de remediação envolvendo atividades lúdicas que englobam a consciência da criança na manipulação dos sons da fala. Uma importante área de pesquisa na Fonoaudiologia do Brasil deveria convergir para o estudo e criação de ferramentas facilitadoras ao Fonoaudiólogo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing. PURPOSE: to hold a review of the literature about this theme, in order to resume concepts recently published on technical literature and offer for the Speech-Language pathologist the possibility to review some of the [...] ir practices and formulate a therapeutic strategy. CONCLUSION: it is possible to observe that the studies point to the important relationship on the development of phonological awareness skills, including the increase of reading and writing. This fact reinforces the need for reviewing our clinical and scientific practice in order to approach the creation and to disseminate some preventive and remediate strategies involving recreational activities which include children awareness manipulation of the sounds of speech. One important area of the Speech Language research in Brazil should converge for the studies and creation on this subject toward the tools in order to help the Speech-Language Pathologist.
Consciência fonológica e o processo de aprendizagem de leitura e escrita: implicações teóricas para o embasamento da prática fonoaudiológica Phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing: theoretical implications for the basement of the Speech-Language pathologist practice
Full Text Available TEMA: consciência fonológica e o aprendizado da leitura e escrita. OBJETIVO: realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca do tema com o objetivo de retomar conceitos dispostos recentemente na literatura e oferecer ao Fonoaudiólogo a possibilidade de revisão de suas práticas para (reformulação de estratégias terapêuticas. CONCLUSÃO: é possível observar que os estudos convergem para a importante relação no desenvolvimento das habilidades de consciência fonológica com o desenvolvimento da leitura e escrita. Tal fato reforça a necessidade de revisão de nossa prática clínica e científica para a criação e difusão de estratégias preventivas e/ou de remediação envolvendo atividades lúdicas que englobam a consciência da criança na manipulação dos sons da fala. Uma importante área de pesquisa na Fonoaudiologia do Brasil deveria convergir para o estudo e criação de ferramentas facilitadoras ao Fonoaudiólogo.BACKGROUND: phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing. PURPOSE: to hold a review of the literature about this theme, in order to resume concepts recently published on technical literature and offer for the Speech-Language pathologist the possibility to review some of their practices and formulate a therapeutic strategy. CONCLUSION: it is possible to observe that the studies point to the important relationship on the development of phonological awareness skills, including the increase of reading and writing. This fact reinforces the need for reviewing our clinical and scientific practice in order to approach the creation and to disseminate some preventive and remediate strategies involving recreational activities which include children awareness manipulation of the sounds of speech. One important area of the Speech Language research in Brazil should converge for the studies and creation on this subject toward the tools in order to help the Speech-Language Pathologist.
"Zooming in" with a camera lens led students in Joan Berger's class to enrich their writing exponentially. Through class discussion of body language, along with the use of worksheets (provided), role-playing, modeling, and conferencing, one aspect of lively writing became a part of their writing repertoire. (Contains 5 figures.)
Full Text Available Cross-national, or cross-cultural, studies of academic writing have moved beyond contrastive rhetoric’s textual focus to broad concerns of students’ first-and second-language literacy development. However, we remain in the dark as to how, in a micro view, students initiate into academic discourses in cross-national contexts. Situating our study in first-year writing courses in a Taiwanese and a U.S. university, we examined students’ negotiation acts when they struggled to enter into social science discourses. Our study reveals that students in both institutions negotiated with academic writing at metacognitive, textual, and contextual levels. They brought rhetorical values, such as writing as a display of knowledge or writing grounded in evidential research, into their writing that they acquired in high school. Further, teachers’ expectations, their new perceptions of research and writing, and their dreams and experiences all came into play in their writing.
Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan
This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…
This note describes the application of general requirements to LHCb L1 front-end electronics  to the vertex detector L1 electronics, mainly system aspects like initialisation, resets, event identification, data formats and throttling.
Cost, Gregory J.; Golding, Amit; Schlissel, Mark S.; Boeke, Jef D.
L1 elements are human transposons which replicate via an RNA intermediate. At least 15% of the human genome is composed of L1 sequence. An important initial step in the transposition reaction is nicking of the genomic DNA by L1 endonuclease (L1 EN). In vivo much of the genome exists in the form of chromatin or is undergoing biochemical transactions such as transcription, replication or repair, which may alter the accessibility of the L1 transposition machinery to DNA. To investigate this possibility we have examined the effect of substrate chromatinization on the ability of L1 EN to nick DNA. We find that DNA incorporated into nucleosomes is generally refractory to nicking by L1 EN. Interestingly, nicking of a minority of DNA sequences is enhanced when included in chromatin. Thus, dynamic epigenetic factors such as chromatinization are likely to influence the relatively permanent placement of L1 and other retroelements in the human genome. PMID:11139628
Music education discourse is marked by frequent comparisons of music to language, and of music notation to written language. However, the role played by writing, as opposed to reading, is often overlooked in that discourse, as well as in classroom practices and workbooks. Consequently, far too many students can read music notation but not write…
Castro-Diaz, Nathaly; Ecco, Gabriela; Coluccio, Andrea; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Yazdanpanah, Benyamin; Friedli, Marc; Duc, Julien; Jang, Suk Min; Turelli, Priscilla; Trono, Didier
Mobile elements are important evolutionary forces that challenge genomic integrity. Long interspersed element-1 (L1/LINE-1) is the only autonomous transposon still active in the human genome. Here, Castro-Diaz et al. show that early embryonic control of L1 is an evolutionarily dynamic process. The data indicate that two transcriptional repression systems are engaged in repressing L1 in human embryonic stem cells. A model is proposed in which newly emerged L1 lineages are first suppressed by D...
This study investigates the scope of a kind of translation literacy involved in the interlingual translation, summarising and paraphrasing which take place when Danish university students write project reports in their native language about academic texts in English. The resulting changes in re-contexutalisation and the changes in the representation of various levels of voices in both source and target texts have serious implications for the reader's comprehension of the content as well as for the language and style of the students' writing.
Kieffer, Steven; Friedman, Harvey
We argue that the language of Zermelo Fraenkel set theory with definitions and partial functions provides the most promising bedrock semantics for communicating and sharing mathematical knowledge. We then describe a syntactic sugaring of that language that provides a way of writing remarkably readable assertions without straying far from the set-theoretic semantics. We illustrate with some examples of formalized textbook definitions from elementary set theory and point-set topology. We also present statistics concerning the complexity of these definitions, under various complexity measures.
This article describes a collaborative writing strategy when you are alone. It is the story of how I came to bring Phineas, the protagonist in A. S. Byatt’s The Biographer’s Tale, into my writing process as a third voice in my dialogue with my data. It is a self-reflective text that shows how co-writers are always present, even when you might feel that you are writing all alone. In The Biographer’s Tale, the academic Phineas renounces his post-structural dissertation project in literature to sea...