van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted
This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…
Lasenby, J.; Pelletier, J.
This paper reports on the developmental and psychometric properties of an early writing task. The study was carried out over four years in Toronto, Canada with L1 English-speaking children. Two cohorts of children who began in Nursery School were followed to the end of their Grade 1 year. Children were administered the same writing task at four time points along with standardized measures of early reading. The early writing task required children to write words and number and word combination...
Discusses the importance of teaching the interactional use of language in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) business writing classes, and addresses some common problems that result from inappropriate business communication. Highlights the interactional use of language as opposed to the transactional use of language. (Author/VWL)
Parviz Maftoon; Seyyed Hassan Seyyedrezaei
The search for the common features of “good language learners” has obsessed scholars such as Naiman et al. (1978), Rubin (1975), and Stevick (1989). Regarding those with good writing skill in particular, some (Angelova, 1999; Beare, 2000; Victori, 1995) list some features such as language proficiency, L1 writing competence, use of cohesive devices, meta cognitive knowledge about the writing task. The purpose of this study was to find the cognitive and metacognitive strategies of a...
Full Text Available This paper reports on the developmental and psychometric properties of an early writing task. The study was carried out over four years in Toronto, Canada with L1 English-speaking children. Two cohorts of children who began in Nursery School were followed to the end of their Grade 1 year. Children were administered the same writing task at four time points along with standardized measures of early reading. The early writing task required children to write words and number and word combinations; we examined how children move from understanding print as “objects” to understanding print as representation of sounds. We also examined how writing in Nursery School and Kindergarten related to later literacy skills. The methodology allowed us to examine the extent to which early writing in Nursery School (3 years old and Junior Kindergarten (4 years old predicted later literacy skills when children were in Grade 1 (6 years old and were receiving formal reading instruction. Results show characteristic features of children’s early writing of number and word combinations at each of the four grade levels and show that performance on the writing task in Kindergarten predicted reading skills at the end of Grade 1.
Rodriques, Marku Monis And M. V.
Writing, like all other aspects of language, is communicative. In our real life we write e-mails, notes, covering letters, reports, curriculums, assignments, essays and so on. Some of us write articles or work on forums and websites. A few write stories and poems. All of these writing tasks have a communicative purpose and a target audience. In the English language classroom, however, writing often lacks this. There are many reasons, as there are lots of ways to make the writing...
Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.
Kupatadze, Ketevan; Chiu, Scott C.
The advancement of Globalization has simultaneously diluted the need for writing in languages other then English and made us more aware of differences between diverse cultures. Hence, writing in a second/foreign language has acquired a new role. In order for individuals to compete on the international scale, they have to master a foreign language. Yet, the processes and elements of tasks involved in writing in L1 and L2 are far from identical. When writing in the L2, individual writers inevitably engage in the changing contexts between the language uses of L1 and L2 and apply their learned knowledge and principles to the writing situations they perceive as suitable or doable. Students’ perception about the role of language in Globalized world and language learning, as well as their self-perception plays an integral role in their ability to transfer knowledge when writing in a second/foreign language. This is particularly true when one teaches adult groups of students who have already formed distinct identities as academically and professionally successful L1 writers. The participants of our panel will look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest in finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writer’s identity. To further examine and understand the nature of writing across different contexts, the panel will consider how student attitudes and perceptions play into writer development and knowledge transfer from L1 to L2. The participants will explore the opportunities and problems of writing in L2, as well as the effects that second/foreign language writing has on writers’ identities, by asking the following guiding questions: 1). How do students develop identities and self-perceptions as L1 and L2 writers? How and to what degree, are their identities as L1 and L2 writers similar or different from each other? 2). How do students develop beliefs and attitudes towards L2 writing? How do their L1 writing experiences inform their L2 writing strategies? How do rhetorical and discursive strategies of L1 writing impact students’ learning of L2 writing and should such impact be viewed as an opportunity or as a problem when teaching second/foreign language writing? 3). What type of support do students need to become better L2 writers? What are their particular pedagogical needs? How can writing instructors or practitioners best support our students in achieving their goals as second/foreign language writers, and transferring their academic writing skills from one language into another, or from one context to another? Method: Through surveys, questionnaires, students feedback and analysis of students writing, the panel participants will look at the possibilities and problems of writing transfer from L1 to L2, as well as the effects that second language writing has on writers’ native identities, especially in the circumstances when they are already seeing the blurring frontiers between native and foreign cultural realms. Cross-context research into second/foreignlanguage writing is essential for a clearer and broader picture to emerge on L2 writing. To this end, the panel will bring together specialists from around the world, from different types of institutions, with different student bodies, who will present their research on teaching and learning L2 writing in diverse linguistic, cultural, institutional, and pedagogical contexts. We invite the audience to look at students from different backgrounds with the shared interest of finding out how writing in a second/foreign language shapes writers’ identities. This panel will also address the need for designing more successful approaches to supporting students’ writing skills and to teaching advanced level writing in the second/foreign language classroom by examining students’ perception of writing and, more specifically, the link between L1 and L2 writing experiences. References: Literacy-based language learning (Richard Kern 2000, Claire Krasch, 1993); Wiring assessment (Carl Bereiter, 1995); Learning and writing transfer (Greeno
Khaled Karim; Hossein Nassaji
First language (L1) transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA), and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2) writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed ov...
Full Text Available The search for the common features of “good language learners” has obsessed scholars such as Naiman et al. (1978, Rubin (1975, and Stevick (1989. Regarding those with good writing skill in particular, some (Angelova, 1999; Beare, 2000; Victori, 1995 list some features such as language proficiency, L1 writing competence, use of cohesive devices, meta cognitive knowledge about the writing task. The purpose of this study was to find the cognitive and metacognitive strategies of a successful learner in writing skill (considering those suggested by Arndt, 1987; Wenden, 1991. Tina, a 27 year old language learner with a BS degree in architecture, was found the most suitable case based on the teacher`s observation of her good writing and the analysis of Oxford's (1990 strategy inventory for language learning (SILL administered. The data collected from the observation of her writing, the think-aloud protocol and the interview showed that Tina made use of most of the cognitive and metacognitive strategies listed but there was no evidence of L1 reliance in her L2 writing. The data also revealed that she was highly good at using prefabricated phrases and sentences in her writing.
Koyama, MS; Stein, JF; Stoodley, CJ; Hansen, PC
In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of...
This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…
MARKU MONIS AND . M. V. RODRIQUES
Full Text Available Writing, like all other aspects of language, is communicative. In our real life we write e-mails, notes, covering letters, reports, curriculums, assignments, essays and so on. Some of us write articles or work on forums and websites. A few write stories and poems. All of these writing tasks have a communicative purpose and a target audience. In the English language classroom, however, writing often lacks this. There are many reasons, as there are lots of ways to make the writing, we do with learners more communicative. There are many areas in which language learners can benefit from creative writing. Students express themselves and their own ideas. Most teachers would agree that what we want to say, what comes from the heart, we are happier to work on. Creative Writing (CW can be very stimulating and a lot of fun. Creative writing involves playful but rigorous work with language. A lot of people seem to associate creative writing with an "anything goes" mentality. However, in order to produce a good text, poem, short story or dramatic scene, the language needs to be correct and it needs to work. Creative Writing requires greater precision in expression. In order to say precisely what they mean, students have to be very careful in their use of vocabulary and idioms. In this article, an effort is made to discuss the characteristics and difficulties of CW and similarly, a few ideas for CW writing, benefits of CW and solutions to simplify and make it interesting is presented.
Brouwer, Kyle L.
This study compared the writing motivation of students with language impairments (LI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. For the study 272 students (33 students with language impairments, 242 TD peers) aged 8-10 years, in 11 elementary schools, were sampled. The two groups completed self-report measures of writing motivation and 20…
Gholam Reza Zarei
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi and L2 (English writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of the framework provided by Johnson and Roen (1992, and Chafe and Danielwicz (1987. The results indicated that Iranian students (female and male did not make significantly different uses of L1 and L2 complimenting in terms of form and strategies. Also, the gender of the addressees was not accommodated to by the addressors differently as regards the use of form and strategies of complimenting in L1 and L2. The results suggest that L1 and L2, if used under some formal class based conditions, tend to become maximally similar, showing no transfer of L1 potentiality into L2.
Koyama, Maki S; Stein, John F; Stoodley, Catherine J; Hansen, Peter C
In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of Japanese (of syllabic Kana only) whose L1 was English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). During English reading, the L2 readers of English (Japanese-L1/English-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the left superior parietal lobule/supramarginal gyrus, relative to the L1 readers of English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). This is a region considered to be involved in phonological processing. The increased activation in the Japanese-L1/English-L2 group likely reflects the increased cognitive load associated with L2 English reading, possibly because L1 readers of Kana, which has an extremely regular orthography, may need to adjust to the greater phonological demands of the irregular L2 English orthography. In contrast, during Kana reading, the L2 readers of Japanese Kana (English-L1/Japanese-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the lingual gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres compared to the L1 readers of Kana (Japaese-L1/English-L2). This additional activation is likely to reflect the lower level of visual familiarity to the L2 symbols in the English-L1/Japanese-L2 group; Kana symbols are uniquely used only in Japan, whereas Roman alphabetic symbols are seen nearly everywhere. These findings, bolstered by significant relationships between the activation of the identified regions and cognitive competence, suggest that the cerebral mechanisms for L2 reading in late learners depends both on which language is their L1 and which language is to be learnt as their L2. Educational implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23938321
Sersen, William J.
The purpose of this research is to utilize an experimental-education technique for improving the writing skills of Thai EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students. This improvement of skills is sought by making the student-participants in this study consciously aware of those specific aspects of L1 (Language 1, meaning the mother tongue) to L2…
Somchai Watcharapunyawong; Siriluck Usaha
This study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Thai language, regarded as the first language (L1), in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast. 120 English paragraphs written by 40 second year English major students were analyzed by using Error Analysis (EA).The results revealed that the first language interference errors fell into 16 categories: verb tense, word choice, sentence structure, article, preposition, modal/auxilia...
Kalt, Susan E.
Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…
Background: It has been hypothesized that L2 (second language) readers are not able to draw on their L1 (first language) reading skills for the successful development of L2 reading skills until they develop a certain proficiency in L2 because a lack of proficiency blocks transfer of L1 reading skills to the reading of L2 texts. This minimum degree…
Pogner, Karl-Heinz, Ed.
This collection of articles deals with research on writing, didactics, mother-tongue writing (sociocognitive perspectives, writing profiles, writing strategies), and foreign language writing (a survey of empirical studies, an outline of different teaching methods, and a consideration of writing as a thinking tool). Following an introduction by the…
Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.
The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…
The notion of integrating reading and writing in L1 and L2 literacy education is not new; however, only until recently has the reading-writing connection received enough attention and been implemented in the teaching of L1 and L2. This paper aims to search for the most current, up-to-dated, approach that best incorporates the idea of…
Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Thai language, regarded as the first language (L1, in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast. 120 English paragraphs written by 40 second year English major students were analyzed by using Error Analysis (EA.The results revealed that the first language interference errors fell into 16 categories: verb tense, word choice, sentence structure, article, preposition, modal/auxiliary, singular/plural form, fragment, verb form, pronoun, run-on sentence, infinitive/gerund, transition, subject-verb agreement, parallel structure, and comparison structure, respectively, and the number of frequent errors made in each type of written tasks was apparently different. In narration, the five most frequent errors found were verb tense, word choice, sentence structure, preposition, and modal/auxiliary, respectively, while the five most frequent errors in description and comparison/contrast were article, sentence structure, word choice, singular/plural form, and subject-verb agreement, respectively. Interestingly, in the narrative and descriptive paragraphs, comparison structure was found to be the least frequent error, whereas it became the 10th frequent error in comparison/contrast writing. It was apparent that a genre did affect writing errors as different text types required different structural features. It could be concluded that to enhance students’ grammatical and lexical accuracy, a second language (L2 writing teacher should take into consideration L1 interference categories in different genres.
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…
Developing assessments within a program can create more useful measures of our students' language. This includes rating scales used in performance assessments such as writing or speaking tests. This article describes the process of development, use, and revision of a writing placement scale by teachers in an intensive English language program. To…
Higareda Sandra; López Georgina; Mugford Gerrard
Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students’ first language (l1) in English Language Teaching (elt ), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of l1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations...
Tarnanen, Mirja; Aalto, Eija
In this article, we report a case study on the Finnish as an L2 writing skill of weak writers in grades 7–9 of comprehensive school. The study is based on writing performances of 25 students who each completed four different writing tasks (i.e., 100 texts) and a questionnaire about their background information, self-assessment of writing and literacy practices. First, we discuss target language writing proficiency in the school context from the curriculum and pedagogical point of view. Then...
With Writing Between Languages, Danling Fu shows that by beginning with the literacy students bring from their native language and putting writing at the center of the curriculum, we can help them transition to English and support academic literacy. You'll learn the crucial and helpful role native literacy plays in building written English fluency, assess where ELLs are in their development as writers, use movement between languages to scaffold writing—no matter whether you know a student's home language—and implement instructional strategies to support development in writing
Writing is the dominant mode through which most learning and assessment is mediated in schools. It is through writing that learners are most often asked to demonstrate their understanding of learned concepts and share their understandings of these concepts. If English language learners are to succeed in English medium schools, they must become…
A weblog (blog or Web log) has recently become one of the most widely used Internet applications. The current study concerns developing a blog specifically designed for learners learning English as a foreign language. The study investigated the effects of extensive writing by comparing the writing performance in the first three and the last three…
This paper is based on a qualitative inquiry that investigated the role of teachers' mediation in three different modes of coding in a kindergarten foreign language classroom in China (i.e. L2-coded intralinguistic mediation, L1-coded cross-lingual mediation, and L2-and-L1-mixed mediation). Through an exploratory examination of the varying effects…
Schulz, Melissa M.
The total number of English Language Learners in the American public schools is more than 4.5 million students or 9.6% of the total school population. This article focuses on instructional writing strategies and assessments for English Language Learners in the elementary classroom. This article provides early childhood education teachers with…
Avila, Judy; Pahuski, Linda; Perez, Linda
This report describes a program for the development of language arts skills through the reading and writing connection. The targeted population is a split third and fourth grade class, a third grade class, and a high school cross-categorical special education class. The difficulties in the area of language arts development and student…
Research on preparing language teachers for blended teaching of summary writing, a mix of on-site and online instruction for college students to grasp the gist of the texts, is scarce in higher education. This study examined the problems encountered and solutions proposed by six language teachers, who altogether instructed 214 college students on…
The present paper explores the issue of writing in a foreign language as a pedagogic process that may produce a radical subjective transformation. Drawing on Bernstein's notions of the "pedagogic device" and "discursive gap," the paper explores the epistemic make-up of language and the way it has been normalised by…
It has been argued that languaging plays a crucial role in learning a second language (L2). The effects of languaging, especially oral languaging (e.g., collaborative dialogue, private speech), have been tested on the learning of L2 knowledge domains. This study explored the effects of written languaging by asking 24 Japanese learners of English…
Rosa M. Manchon
Full Text Available Lexical access and retrieval are essential processes in fluent and efficient second language (L2 oral and written productive uses of language. In the case of L2 writing, attention to vocabulary is of paramount importance, although the retrieval of relevant lexis while composing in an L2 frequently entails different degrees of problem-solving activity given the lack of (automatic access to the necessary linguistic resources characteristic of L2 communication. When engaged in this problem-solving behaviour, L2 writers have been reported to deploy a range of L1-based and L2-based lexical retrieval strategies. After situating lexical retrieval processes in cognitive views of written production, the main part of this paper is devoted to a review of the available empirical evidence on lexical retrieval processes and strategies in L2 writing. The paper finishes with some conclusions at the levels of theory and research.
Full Text Available This article highlights the need to address the stylistics of scientific writing when teaching a foreign language to future scientists. The author presents a historical overview of the key stages of development of functional style theory and describes the modern perspective on scientific writing in the following aspects: field of use, topic and content, characteristics of the sender and recipient, purpose and forms of speech, and general properties, linguistic features, and types of texts.
Kovalik, Doina L.; Kovalik, Ludovic M.
This article describes a language simulation involving six distinct phases: an in-class quick response, a card game, individual research, a classroom debate, a debriefing session, and an argumentative essay. An analysis of student artifacts--quick-response writings and final essays, respectively, both addressing the definition of liberty in a…
Godo?, A?gnes M.
The paper presents the findings and implications of a contrastive rhetorical study of Hungarian and North American college students’ L1 argumentative writing. With the help of the refined version of Mann &Thompson’s Rhetorical Structure Analysis, the investigation highlights potentially culture-bound differences in the positioning and function of nuclear or thesis statements, logical organisation in terms of rhetorical structure relations on different levels of text and the representa...
This exploratory study investigated the development of speaking and writing skills of L1 Arabic EFL learners based on their level of perception and understanding of phonetic transcriptions through visualisation of letter-to-symbol representations using the International Phonetic Alphabet (henceforth IPA). The participants were 169 University-level Preparatory Year Program (PYP) male Saudi EFL students. The study was carried out as a pedagogical approach to improve university first year studen...
Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon
The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) has been challenged on the grounds that it may also assess language learning skills. In this study, 128 students who had been administered measures of first language (L1) skills in elementary school were followed from 1st to 10th grade. Fifty-three students had completed second language (L2)…
Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine
In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…
Full Text Available Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female participants came from two EFL classrooms in an English language institute. The experimental class (n = 30 who listened to their classroom activities performed better (t value = 10.083 than the control class using a methodology that led learners through five listening strategies in Persian. The same teacher taught the students in the control class (n = 30, who listened to the same classroom listening activities without any of the above listening strategies. A pre and post listening test made by a group of experts in the language institute assessed the effect of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1. Results gathered on the post intervention listening test revealed that listening strategies delivered in L1 led to a statistically significant improvement in their discrete listening scores compared with the control group.
Alister Cumming; Jiang Li
The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2) leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 com...
Al-Qudairy, Abdullah H. A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using Arabic (L1) as a language of questions and answers in testing reading comprehension in English (L2), and to explore student and teacher opinions about this. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. To collect the quantitative data, one hundred and forty-four students were given a reading comprehension test. Both multiple-choice and short-answer questions were used. The subjects were second-year English departm...
The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…
Writing is often seen as having a minor role in second language learning. This article explores recent research that suggests that writing can have a facilitative role in language development. In particular, it focuses on three features of writing: (1) its slower pace, and (2) the enduring record that it leaves, both of which can encourage…
This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…
Pogner, Karl-Heinz, Ed.
This collection of lectures, which is the viewpoint that considers writing not only as a thinking tool but also a communication tool, and thus, a tool of interaction. addresses the interactive view of writing. Also included in the collection are two articles by Danish and Turkish writing researchers on writing in English as a Foreign Language…
Ágnes M. Godó
Full Text Available The paper presents the findings and implications of a contrastive rhetorical study of Hungarian and North American college students’ L1 argumentative writing. With the help of the refined version of Mann &Thompson’s Rhetorical Structure Analysis, the investigation highlights potentially culture-bound differences in the positioning and function of nuclear or thesis statements, logical organisation in terms of rhetorical structure relations on different levels of text and the representation of alternative viewpoints. Differing argumentative schemata are related to different underlying intellectual traditions, and suggestions are made for the pedagogical integration of findings.
LUÍSA ÁLVARES PEREIRA; INÊS CARDOSO; LUCIANA GRAÇA
With this article we hope to contribute towards the definition of the field of the Didactics ofWriting in Portugal, an area which has been developing, essentially, since the mid 90s, in order to defineboth the problems surrounding research in this area, as well as the contents used in the teaching and learningof writing which result from the former. It is not our objective to go into detail concerning the state ofthe art in this field in Portugal; our purpose is to present the main perspectiv...
Watson, Annabel Mary
This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…
Full Text Available This study is considered the L2 acquisition and underlying of past tense marker, focusing on whether or not L2 learners of English are successful in associating the grammatical properties with Chinese language. Although the dataset is small, the results showed that Chinese speakers are able to acquire the past-tense marker although Chinese language has none of this feature. The L1 Chinese speakers are able to acquire the regular past-tense marker better co mpared to the irregular form.
Keywords: Second language acquisition; Past tense marker; L1 Chinese speakers; Irregular form
Résumé: Cet article étudie l'acquisition d’une deuxième langue, et en particulier l’apprentissage du passé, en se concentrant sur le fait si les apprenants de l'anglais pouvaient réussir à associer les propriétés grammaticales de la langue anglaise avec la langue chinoise. Bien que l'ensemble des données est faible, les résultats montrent que les locuteurs du chinois sont capable de maîtriser le passé, même si la langue chinoise n'a pas cette fonctionnalité. Les locuteurs du chinois maîtrise mieux le passé en forme régulière par rapport en forme irrégulière.
Mots-Clés: acquisition d’une deuxième langue; temps passér; les locuteurs du chinois; forme irrégulière
The study of the role of language activity in higher education in France has been evolving, in the past few years, out of the larger field of ‘la didactique du français,’ the field of L1 teaching and theory across all grade levels. This larger frame has provided several themes that are now being explored in higher education writing: language activity as a mode of co-construction of knowledge in school settings rather than a transparent medium, writing, reading and speaking as intimately ...
Argaman, Osnat; Abu-Rabia, Salim
Examined the influence of language anxiety as measured by a questionnaire on achievements in English writing and reading comprehension tasks. Subjects were native speakers of Hebrew, aged 12-13 years, learning English as a second language.(Author/VWL)
White, Ann S.; Caminero, Rosario
Discusses ways in which the process of composing may be integrated into the curriculum as part of the learning process. Group writing assignments, peer editing, and the multiple revisions allowed in process writing serve to demystify the task of writing in a foreign language and provide students with opportunities to learn from each other. (eight…
Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.
Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement--Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and…
Can online collaboration yield a positive effect on academic writing in a foreign language? If so, what exactly is the added value, compared to individual writing, and (how) does it translate to better output? These are the central questions addressed in this paper. L2 writing research has long highlighted the benefits of collaboration in terms of…
Arslan, Recep S.; Sahin-Kizil, Aysel
Blog use may offer instructors a helpful tool for teaching writing at the tertiary level in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) classrooms. This article reports on a quasi-experimental study regarding the effect of blog-centered writing instruction on students' writing performance. Fifty intermediate English students at a Turkish…
Littlemore, Jeannette; Krennmayr, Tina; Turner, James; Turner, Sarah
Recent studies in linguistics have shown that metaphor is ubiquitous. This has important consequences for language learners who need to use it appropriately in their speech and writing. This study aims to provide a preliminary measure of the amount and distribution of metaphor used by language learners in their writing across Common European…
This article makes the case for using activity theory to explore the learning and teaching of writing in a foreign language. I illustrate my argument by bringing this theory to bear on a re-examination of the different modes of engagement in writing by university-level students of Japanese as a foreign language that I identified in an earlier…
Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.
Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…
This article is a synthesis of the scholarly literature on the post-process approach to teaching second language (L2) writing, particularly college and university composition in English as an additional language. This synthesis aims to offer a definition of post-process L2 writing that can readily lend itself to practice and be more accessible to…
Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen
This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141…
Full Text Available This exploratory study investigated the development of speaking and writing skills of L1 Arabic EFL learners based on their level of perception and understanding of phonetic transcriptions through visualisation of letter-to-symbol representations using the International Phonetic Alphabet (henceforth IPA. The participants were 169 University-level Preparatory Year Program (PYP male Saudi EFL students. The study was carried out as a pedagogical approach to improve university first year students’ pronunciation, correct speech and writing skills. The students selected attended 6, 50-minute Integrated Pronunciation Teaching (IPT lessons which included IPA transcription codes using both audio and visual teaching methods in addition to one ICT aided lesson. Throughout those lessons, students were initially introduced to the IPA phonetic codes in gradual increase of difficulty and were encouraged to use the monolingual (English-English, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDCE. Two written tests and one oral test were conducted using a number of carefully selected IPA transcription codes related questions and results were analysed and interpreted. Results obtained showed slight variations between higher and lower ability students in understanding the IPA transcription codes. As a whole, however, the results indicated that students reached a high level of understanding of letter-to-symbol representations – the IPA system - and oral test results proved that phonological awareness can help Saudi students at tertiary level education improve their writing and speaking skills. Above all, learning the phonetic transcription codes helped them develop a sense of autonomy and competence when using monolingual dictionaries. The study concluded with a brief discussion of the ramifications of the study and the potential for further research.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.
Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail; Negmeldin Omer Alsheikh
The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL students’ performance and strategies when writing direct and translated essays. The study also aimed at exploring students’ strategies when writing in L2 (English) and L1 (Arabic). The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative procedures for data collection and analysis. Adapted strategy questionnaires, writing essay prompts and follow-up questions were utilized for data gathering. Thirty six university students participated in w...
Full Text Available This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006, then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming. The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expression, reflection and language acquisition in mandatory blog writings by students at a Third Level Institution. Previously in this research, students were asked, but not required, to keep a personal blog for up to five months; writing only about their language learning strategies and experiences with the declared aim of improving student language learning strategies through self-reflection and self-expression. Students are, this time, required to write and ‘complete’ their academic blog as it represents one compulsory element –with due weighting, given its importance– of a language module assessment. This compulsory blog writing task has raised a number of pedagogical questions which will be explored, such as: effective integration, assessing and rewarding student creative expression within the blog medium, self-reflection as a language learner and ultimately the role and value of academic blog writing in language acquisition.
Yokoyama, Satoru; Kim, Jungho; Uchida, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta
Introduction How human brains acquire second languages (L2) is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience and language science. However, it is unclear whether the first language (L1) has a cross-linguistic influence on the processing of L2. Methods Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activities during L2 word reading tasks of phonographic Japanese Kana between two groups of learners of the Japanese language as their L2 and who had different orthographic ...
Reading and writing are interrelated. What has been read provides material for writing. This paper focuses on reading endeavors that provide subject matter for writing. The paper first recommends reading poetry to the class and states that the teacher should have ready for use an anthology of children's literature. Children can write poems for…
Michael D. Hubert
Full Text Available Approaches to foreign language (FL instruction have changed a great deal in the past fifty years, the most fundamental change being the shift from a focus solely on language form to a focus on communicative competence (CC. Although most FL instructors now appear to focus on CC in the teaching of speaking, they do not necessarily apply CC to writing in the same way. The study reported here attempts to describe the role currently played by writing in the first and second-year FL curriculum by detailing the methods used by 10 professors working at 7 different universities across the United States to teach FL writing in these courses. Results indicate that writing-to-learn activities make up a large majority of the writing methods used, but that learning-to-write activities that foster CC in writing have also been successfully integrated into the beginning FL curriculum.
Hubert, Michael D.
An important task for foreign language (FL) instructors and researchers is to understand how the development of each language skill affects other aspects of language acquisition. This case study seeks to determine if speaking and writing proficiencies develop at similar rates among FL learners. Seventeen students enrolled in beginning,…
IELTS Preparatory English Language Course for lecturers of universities in the eastern part of Indonesia was conducted at Hasanuddin University in 2011. I was involved as one of the instructors responsible for Writing Module. 25 lecturers with disparate level of English attended my class. Most of them, however, were identified at the beginning of the course as ???weak???, i.e. having limited English Language Proficiency. The course lasted 3 months, with the intensity of 6 contact hours a week...
Bao, Rui; Du, Xiangyun
In the past two decades, strong theoretical and pedagogical arguments have been made advocating for task-based activities in the language-learning context. However, many teachers have been reluctant to in- corporate task-based activities into their teaching practices due to concerns about learners’ extensive L1 use and off-task talk. Informed by sociocultural theory, this study explored the extent to which L1s and their func- tions were used when performing tasks. The subjects were beginner-level lower-secondary school learners of Chinese. The data shows that learners have a high amount of L1 use, but with only a very small amount oc- curring for off-task talk across tasks. L1 use mainly occurred in learners’ efforts to mediate completion of the tasks. The findings highlight the role of L1 in foreign language learning and suggest that L1 use is associated with a number of factors, such as task types, learners’ proficiency, and learning context. Implications for lan- guage teachers and task designers are also discussed.
Wei, Michael; Zhou, Yalun
The impact of social dimensions (e.g., parental involvement) on second language literacy acquisition is not well studied in the field (August & Shanahan, 2008). Although quite a few studies report immigrant parents' belief and perspectives of their children's second language reading and writing, it remains unknown for school teachers…
Describes the implementation of a weekly creative writing assignment for early elementary school students in a Montessori setting. Notes that students' writing reveals their social maturity and personality characteristics. Provides suggestions for starting a creative writing exercise, including brainstorming, a babbling activity, and a…
Baumann, James F., Ed.; Johnson, Dale D., Ed.
Providing detailed information about the contexts, processes, and products of publishing, this book is divided into three major sections: writing for journals and other periodicals, writing for children and other adolescents, and writing instructional materials. Chapters in the book are: "Publishing Requirements for Research-Oriented Journals" (S.…
In a cross-sectional study 823 Finnish school children were tested to examine the relation between speed of performance in cognitive and linguistic tasks and second/foreign language reading and writing. Participants were Finnish-speakers with English as foreign language and Russian-speakers with Finnish as second language which made it possible to compare the results across these two language groups. The Finnish group was furthermore divided into three groups by age to see how speed develops ...
Qiu-juan ZHU; Shu-feng WU
Think Aloud is one of the main research methods in psychological linguistic study. It plays an important role in foreign language teaching study. This thesis researches into the second language writing process of Japanese learners whose native language are Chinese and draws the conclusion that their writing process include the characteristics of two languages. It is the characteristics that cause Japanese learners are influenced by Chinese and culture, especially in sentence structure and voc...
Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Bruce F. Pennington; Defries, John C.
Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement-Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (Phonological Awareness, Rapid Naming, and Vocabulary), and three different reading skills (Word Recognition, Spelling, and Reading Comprehension). Substantial genetic influence was found on ...
Liam Murray; Tríona Hourigan; Catherine Jeanneau
This article presents the results from ongoing research in the area of academic blog writing and language learning which began over four years ago. Initially, the research examined the area of micropublishing, virtual writing and blogs for academic purposes (Murray & Hourigan, 2006), then moved on to identify specific pedagogical roles for blogs in language teaching and learning (Murray & Hourigan, 2008 forthcoming). The third phase of this research now examines the areas of creative expressi...
Guðmundur Örn Leifsson 1984
There are no ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning) applications for second language learners of Icelandic. This project aims to build a web service that facilitates ICALL applications and a website that highlights grammatical errors in free written texts. The website, Writing Support, was created for this purpose. Writing Support utilises a module in the web service for analysing texts and marking grammatical errors in them. It analyses and annotates Icelandic texts with the...
Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine
We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…
This paper describes a project that aimed to leverage the students' interest and experience of technology and multimodal environments to develop their academic writing skills and second language learning. Students were expected to follow a model, research a topic, and craft a digital video tutorial on an aspect of academic writing which would…
Miller, Kristyan Spelman; Lindgren, Eva; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
This article discusses the use of computer logging as a means of investigating aspects of the second language (L2) writing process as writers are engaged in producing text at the keyboard. The observation of writing by means of this method provides researchers with detailed information concerning aspects of the planning, formulation, and revision…
Mikulski, Ariana; Elola, Idoia
This study brings together previous research on writing processes and Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners to obtain a clearer picture of these learners' writing behaviors in English and Spanish. Following a cognitive-oriented framework, the study explores planning time, execution time, monitoring time, accuracy, and fluency. Twelve SHL…
Theoretical and Practical Linguistic Shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and Recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in Teaching Writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners
Full Text Available Writing is a complex cognitive activity in which foreign language learners are required to pay attention simultaneously to content, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Therefore, there can be no guarantee that an effective teaching method in one context would result in effective student learning in another. It is proved that Product/Guided Writing resulting in poor writers, and Process Writing dos not provide much care for metalinguistic feedback or enough time for negotiation as well. Following the stages of Innovated Writing Process (IWP, the instructor may be able to teach students many skills that may improve the quality of their writing as well as speaking. This paper presents the theoretical and practical linguistic shifting from Product/Guided Writing to Process Writing and recently to the Innovated Writing Process Approach in teaching writing for Second/Foreign Language Learners. It is indicated that metalinguistic feedback, error/contrastive analysis and the communicative interaction negotiating of meaning and form provided by the teacher lead to remarkable improve in second/foreign language learners’ written accuracy and fluency as well.
Crossley, Scott A.
This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…
di Gennaro, Kristen
To effectively address the needs of second language (L2) learners in college writing courses, many postsecondary institutions, especially those located in cities with high concentrations of immigrants, offer college-level courses for L2 students. Such courses include noncredit English language courses in an intensive English program, developmental…
The assumption that foreign language learners experience a high level of anxiety mainly when faced with speaking activities implies that research should focus on those learners prone to anxiety over that skill. Despite not being widely investigated, foreign language writing anxiety also seems to be a concern for a large number of students. Drawing on questionnaire findings, the study reported in this article examined the nature of, and the connection between the English language classroom spe...
Mason, Linda H.; Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miller, Carol A.; Glutting, J. James
Many students struggle with gaining knowledge and writing about content text material and therefore require effective intervention. In a randomized controlled trial study, 77 low-achieving fourth-grade students received reading comprehension instruction or reading comprehension plus writing instruction or were assigned to a no-treatment control.…
Gunderson, Lee; Shapiro, Jon
Reports extensive observations of a whole language program in two first grade classrooms that support whole language instruction. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the approach for both students and teachers. (FL)
Plain language involves more than just a few simple techniques, such as using everyday words, short sentences, and active voice. Although there is no single definition, "plain language" basically stands for several dozen well-established principles of clear communication. In this article, the author discusses the significance of plain language…
Full Text Available In a cross-sectional study 823 Finnish school children were tested to examine the relation between speed of performance in cognitive and linguistic tasks and second/foreign language reading and writing. Participants were Finnish-speakers with English as foreign language and Russian-speakers with Finnish as second language which made it possible to compare the results across these two language groups. The Finnish group was furthermore divided into three groups by age to see how speed develops with age and education. Groups were tested with a number of cognitive instruments that included measures of speed of performance. Overall, performance on the speed measures improved with age; often, the second language learners outperformed their foreign language peers of the same age. Regression analyses indicated that speed measures could predict from 20% to over 40% of performance in second/foreign language reading and writing tasks. Prediction was somewhat stronger for writing than reading. The best predictors were also somewhat different for the foreign and second language learners, as well as for the different age groups.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.13
Intended for second language teachers and teacher trainees, the guide to linguistic concepts used in second language instruction outlines the applications of basic linguistic concepts to classroom practice and some classroom activities. Chapters address the following topics: (1) the relationship of language and linguistics; (2) human…
Examines the effect of knowledge about language on the learning of foreign language skills and grammar. Students (n=252) completed a questionnaire, metalinguistic awareness test, Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, a linguistic creativity test, and English tests. Hypothesized that students' knowledge about language would have a significant effect…
Khalil Motallebzadeh; Somaye Amirabadi
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the implementation of e-collaboration and e-tutoring will have any effect on students’ writing proficiency. It is argued that interactional feedback (peer or tutor) including negotiation and recasts can facilitate writing skill development in L2 (Lynch, 2002). 83 male and female EFL students, taking English courses in a language school in Bojnourd-Iran, formed the participants of this quasi-experimental intact-group study. The particip...
Denger, C.; Doerr, J.; Kamsties, E.
Natural language is widely used in industry to state requirements for all types of systems, because it is flexible and universal. Even if a modeling technique such as the UML is used, the requirements are usually stated in natural lan-guage first. However, natural language has one major drawback, which is its inherent ambiguity. This report surveys the state of the practice and the state of the art in techniques that aim at making natural language more precise. Ten contributions to this probl...
This article is an analysis of the dilemmas that confront an author who chooses to write in an African language. (Language choice remains a particularly vexing issue in African literature.) On the one hand a language that he is a master of gives him the freedom to assert himself and oppose the imperial way of thinking, which is liberating. On the other hand choice of language confines his work to a specific audience and a particular set of literary canons. Sometimes certain influential gateke...
He, Tung-Hsien; Chang, Shan-Mao; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen
This study examined relations of achievement goals of writers who are speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL), the frequency of their writing strategy use, and the quality of their writing from a multiple goals perspective. The goal profiles of 57 EFL college students with similar writing proficiency were based on rating items of an unpublished scale; Group 1 had strong mastery and strong performance-approach goals, and two groups included students with only one strong mastery (Group 2) or performance (Group 3) goal. Think-aloud protocols indicated that the participants adopted 21 strategies in an argumentative writing task, classified into five categories. Group 1 was found to use writing strategies of monitoring or evaluating, revising, and compensating significantly more often than the other two groups, and produced better essays. Strong mastery and performance-approach goals might be beneficial for EFL college writers. PMID:21667751
Maria Gené Gil
Full Text Available This case study explores the purposes for which the target language (TL and the L1s were used orally by students (N=60 and teachers (N=3 in a mainstream CLIL secondary education context compared to EFL instruction in the Balearic Islands (Spain. Data were gathered by means of questionnaires addressed to students and teachers, oral interviews to instructors and observations of class sessions. The findings show some differences in the languages chosen to speak according to pedagogical functions –i.e. planned subject-based discourse– and real functions –i.e. unplanned discourse such as disciplinary or organizational matters– (Chavez 2003, with the TL being much more spoken in the former and with much lesser presence of the TL in the latter, especially in the case of the pupils. Moreover, specialized subject-matter terminology was almost always used in the TL by both the students and the teachers, even when speaking in the L1.
Yanguas, Inigo; Lado, Beatriz
Critics argue that requiring subjects to verbalize their thoughts while completing certain language tasks increases the participants' cognitive load and impairs their final performance (e.g., Jourdenais, 2001). Despite the importance of this claim for language instructors, few studies have produced contradicting evidence after an empirical study…
Albrechtsen, Dorte; Haastrup, Kirsten
Book description: Vocabulary and Writing in a First and Second Language is based on a large-scale empirical study. The innovative feature of the research was that the same students were asked to do the same tasks in both languages while reporting their thinking as they went along. Furthermore , they had to undertake the same tasks even though they were of very different experience, ranging from young children at school to university students. Three areas of learners' competencies and skills were explored: vocabulary knowledge, word guessing strategies and writing. The authors further explore the relationship between the skills and describe the level of development for individual learners within the three areas. In all cases, statistical and qualitative analyses are offered, the latter being based on the learners' own 'think-aloud' reports. Both researchers and teachers of language will find this in-depth approach useful in understanding the processes of both first and second language performance
María Teresa Fleta Guillén
Full Text Available This paper reports on pedagogies that promote language, content and literacy in English by stimulating learners’ creativity. The starting point to promote creativity among learners was music and art. There seems to be a natural connection between music, language and thinking which suggests that incorporating musical experiences into daily instruction results in creative thinking. By being exposed to music and art, learners of different ages and from different language contexts developed visualization abilities and invented stories. According to many authors, stories are excellent vehicles for teaching and learning because they contain all the ingredients from which learners can benefit. The learners in this study moved from listening to music, to the word and sentence levels, to finally telling their stories in English, and the stories the learners created proved to be a vehicle for internalizing language and for literacy development.
With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there a...
Cook, Carolyn L.; Taylor, Megan E.
This qualitative study addresses the question "Does the use of storytelling motivate English language learners to engage in literacy practices more, or in a better way, and if so, how?". Storytelling of cultural tales related to fifth grade students' home cultures was introduced to provide a prompt for resultant student discussion and writing. All…
Krishnan, Lakshmy; Murphy, Noela
In a Singapore study of the evaluation of engineering students' writing, engineering lecturers and language lecturers marked scripts differently. Analysis showed that engineering lecturers placed more emphasis on students' understanding of a process rather than their expression of that understanding. (Contains 13 references.) (LB)
This study examined the effects of a collaborative creative writing project on identity formation and overall language proficiency development among advanced Hebrew students. In an exercise called "The Zoning Committee", college students created the fictional Israeli-American town of Beit Shemesh, located in northern Michigan. Qualitative data…
Full Text Available In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment of L2 writing since the results of such evaluations are used for a variety of administrative, instructional and research purposes. One of the primary issues pertaining the assessment of writing quality is the type of scoring procedure which will be used; admittedly a subject of a great deal of research and discussion in the language testing literature. The aim of the present paper is firstly, to briefly describe the type of scoring used in the Greek School of Foreign Languages for assessing L2 writing performance and secondly, to calculate the inter-rater reliability of five written samples. The results obtained indicate quite high correlations, thus demonstating the evaluators’ uniformity in the application of assessment criteria.
Garcia, Ignacio; Pena, Maria Isabel
The few studies that deal with machine translation (MT) as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines (i.e. Google Translate) and MT-related web initiatives (i.e. Gabble-on.com) position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a…
As was this author's usual habit at the university in Nebraska where she was teaching, she picked up a copy of the campus newspaper to read during her office hours. She was dismayed at a story entitled "Lakota May Appear on Sheridan County Polls." It read, in part: "Sheridan County's polls may have to add an unexpected language to the ballots this…
Full Text Available With the Dalit movement in Maharastra having grown stagnant, and Uttar Pradesh’s Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party possibly reaching the limits of its potential development, the vital forefront of Dalit politics has now shifted to Tamil Nadu. So writes Gail Omvedt in her introduction to Thol. Thirumavalan’s Talisman. Whether the recent upsurge of intellectual and political energy among Tamil Dalits shall indeed prove a model for Dalits elsewhere in India—or whether, on the contrary, there are not...
Schneider, D A; Schneider, David A.; Coy, Kathleen F. Mc
This paper reports on the recognition component of an intelligent tutoring system that is designed to help foreign language speakers learn standard English. The system models the grammar of the learner, with this instantiation of the system tailored to signers of American Sign Language (ASL). We discuss the theoretical motivations for the system, various difficulties that have been encountered in the implementation, as well as the methods we have used to overcome these problems. Our method of capturing ungrammaticalities involves using mal-rules (also called 'error productions'). However, the straightforward addition of some mal-rules causes significant performance problems with the parser. For instance, the ASL population has a strong tendency to drop pronouns and the auxiliary verb `to be'. Being able to account for these as sentences results in an explosion in the number of possible parses for each sentence. This explosion, left unchecked, greatly hampers the performance of the system. We discuss how this ...
In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment of L2 writing since the results of such evaluations are used for a variety of administrative, instructional and research purposes. One of the primary issues pertaining the assessment of writing quality is the type of scoring procedure which will be used; admittedly a subject of a great deal of research and discussion in the language testing literature. The aim of the present paper is firstly, to briefly describe t...
Andrew D. Schenck
Full Text Available Within Asian EFL contexts such as South Korea, large class sizes, poor sources of input and an overreliance on the Grammar-Translation Method may negatively impact semantic and pragmatic development of writing content. Since formulaic language is imbued with syntactic, semantic and pragmatic linguistic features, it represents an ideal means to evaluate the influence of Asian EFL contexts on writing. Thus, formulaic language within academic texts from Korean university students was compared to that found in essays written by American university students. Results revealed that Korean EFL learners overused transitions to define the organization of academic texts at the expense of developing content. Moreover, they used repetition, general lists, and all-purpose formulaic language to “pad” content, neglecting to consider semantic or pragmatic purposes of the text. In contrast to their Korean EFL counterparts, American university students used formulaic language for a variety of pragmatic purposes such as involving the reader, putting examples into a larger perspective, adding connotation, and addressing the perspective of the reader. It appears that EFL contexts such as South Korea require pedagogical and curricular reforms which foster the development of writing composition for semantic and pragmatic purposes.
Klaas van Veen; Piet-Hein van de Ven
Against the background of the central dilemma in teacher education of the relationship between theory and practice, this article presents a teacher education approach that strongly emphasizes the use of theory in learning to teach, on the assumption that teaching is also an intellectual activity, and not simply 'practice'. We take the subject pedagogy, in this case of Dutch language and literature, as a starting point for our approach to teacher education, in an effort to align it as closely ...
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to scrutinize the possibility and extent of transfer at the level of concepts in parity and internal content based on Jarvis’ (2007 framework among Iranian EFL learners having the following in focus: concepts in Persian that do not have counterparts in English, concepts that are broader than a corresponding concept in English or vice versa, and concepts in Persian and English that seem to be broadly equivalent but are still different. Also, it investigated to examine the role of the two learner-based variables of language proficiency and age in Iranian EFL learners’ possible conceptual transfer. To serve the purpose, the data were collected from 100 Iranian learners (70 females, 30 males studying English as a foreign language in an English Language School in Mobarakeh, Isfahan. With the data being submitted to statistical analyses, the findings revealed significant cases of conceptual transfer from Persian to English. It was also noticed that the participants’ level of English proficiency played a significant role in their transfer of concepts but their age did not.Keywords: cross linguistic influence, Conceptual Transfer Hypothesis (CTH, conceptual errors, concept transfer, conceptualization transfer
ASGHAR BASTAMI BANDPAY
This study was re-conducted after 2 years to a larger population to confirm the previous research findings and also to discover why some Persian learners (EFL) have still problems in learning certain structures of English language even in an academic level. To answer, a general proficiency test was administered to a total of 426 female and male university students of Payame-noor and Azad Universities in three different departments (Humanities, Basic Sciences and Technical Engi...
Katsunori Kotani; Takehiko Yoshimi
The present paper introduces an automatic classification system for assisting second language(L2) writing evaluation. This system, which classifies sentences written by L2 learners as eithernative speaker-like or learner-like sentences, is constructed by machine learning algorithmsusing word-alignment distributions as classification features for detecting word-bywordtranslated expressions. The experimental results demonstrated that our classificationsystem provided adequate classification res...
Yi-chun, Pan; Yi-ching, Pan.
Full Text Available El uso de la lengua materna es una ocurrencia común en los contextos de la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, a pesar de que a veces reciba críticas por su interferencia en la adquisición de la Lengua meta. Mientras que los docentes deben maximizar el uso de la Lengua meta, sin duda, hay espacios pa [...] ra que el profesor utilice la lengua materna de los estudiantes en su pedagogía. En este trabajo se presenta un argumento basado en las perspectivas teóricas y la investigación empírica dentro de la literatura existente, apoyando el uso apropiado de la Lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera. El argumento se centra en tres cuestiones fundamentales-racionales para el uso de la lengua materna: Los efectos positivos que la lengua materna tiene tanto en el aprendizaje y la instrucción de una lengua extranjera, como en las formas en las que la lengua materna ayuda a los docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Abstract in english L1 use is a common occurrence in foreign language teaching contexts despite the fact that it often receives criticism for its interference with target language (TL) acquisition. While foreign language teachers should maximize their use of the TL, there is indeed a place for the teacher to use the st [...] udents' L1 in their pedagogy. In this paper, an argument derived from theoretical perspectives and empirical research within existing literature supporting the appropriate use of L1 in foreign language classrooms is presented. The argument addresses three key issues-rationales for L1 use, positive effects L1 has on both foreign language learning and instruction, and ways that L1 assists instructors on foreign languages.
Although the concepts of critical thinking and self-voice have been extensively discussed in a second language writing, little attention has been given, on the pedagogical level, to critical thinking and self-voice in college EFL writing instruction. To fill such a void, this paper attempts to propose some pedagogical tasks namely: persuasive writing tasks, draft workshops one-on-one mentoring approaches for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL classrooms. In doing so...
This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...
Silva, Tony; Leki, Ilona
This intellectual history of the disciplinary roots of second language (L2) writing research and pedagogy in English examines the influences of its feeder disciplines, composition studies and applied linguistics, and their parent disciplines, rhetoric and linguistics. After a brief history of L2 writing's two grandparent disciplines (rhetoric and…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the implementation of e-collaboration and e-tutoring will have any effect on students’ writing proficiency. It is argued that interactional feedback (peer or tutor including negotiation and recasts can facilitate writing skill development in L2 (Lynch, 2002. 83 male and female EFL students, taking English courses in a language school in Bojnourd-Iran, formed the participants of this quasi-experimental intact-group study. The participants were assigned into experimental and control groups. A couple of instruments were employed to collect data: the TOEFL Writing Test, researchers-made pre and post tests, and an Information Technology Questionnaire (2009. Data analysis through one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between e-partnering and e-tutoring groups (p<0.05. The results also showed that though both e-partnering and e-tutoring enhanced writing proficiency, learners in e-partnering group outperformed those in e-tutoring group. The study findings indicate that e-collaboration/e-partnering can improve learners writing skill if integrated into the EFL curriculum designed for pre-intermediate level.
ASGHAR BASTAMI BANDPAY
Full Text Available This study was re-conducted after 2 years to a larger population to confirm the previous research findings and also to discover why some Persian learners (EFL have still problems in learning certain structures of English language even in an academic level. To answer, a general proficiency test was administered to a total of 426 female and male university students of Payame-noor and Azad Universities in three different departments (Humanities, Basic Sciences and Technical Engineering through homogenization. Out of which 220 participants whose scores ranged from 55-75 out of 100 were chosen as the upper-intermediate level and 46 participants were crossed out during the TOEFL test due to frustration and lack of self-confidence
Full Text Available Writing in the foreign language is one of the most important language skills students develop and improve at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra. Strong writing skills are essential to their future success, whether they are related to writing general reports on agricultural issues at home or in the world as well as to working-out some research papers aimed at agriculture, but also at some other areas of the business world. We have to state that writing is perhaps one of the most difficult skills students can develop and improve at our University. They learn how to write effectively, they are encouraged to develop an awareness of themselves as students - writers and essay authors. This paper deals with the essay writing analysis in teaching foreign languages at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, particularly from the point of their final results. The research was carried out in the Department of Languages and we present in our paper the results students achieved in writing essays in the two compared years, 2007 and 2010.
This article uses theory on disability, embodiment and language to explore the production, context and presentation of two pieces of life-writing by Christopher Nolan. It examines Nolan's unusual use of language and form in his presentations of an experience of disability, and considers its literary and political significance. Consideration is…
Full Text Available Libraries and librarians play a central role in organising and communicating knowledge. They are an important part of theknowledge production and use chain. The development and sustenance of a knowledge-based economy hinges on theirability to facilitate the accessibility, retrievability and usability of the knowledge and information that permeates theinformation society. Writers and publishers as part and parcel of the knowledge chain are central to the production anddistribution of ideas. Language is fundamental to their ability to communicate and get their literal messages, expressionsand ideas through. Their preferred language of writing and publishing may mean a difference between the growth anddemise of a language of a society and its culture and civilisation. Many indigenous languages around the globe arestruggling to survive because of various reasons including neglect by writers and publishers. Publishers and writers as majorrole players in the knowledge production and reproduction chain may assist in promoting and preserving indigenouslanguages in general and in South Africa in particular. This may ensure that South Africa’s knowledge economy developswithout sidelining or discriminating against any culture or language. There are challenges and opportunities that writersand publishers are likely to face in attempting to revitalise and empower indigenous languages in South Africa, but theyare not insurmountable. Using a theoretical approach, the purpose of this article is to highlight the role that writers andpublishers may play in revitalising and preserving endangered indigenous languages in South Africa. Recommendations aremade on how the role players may deal with the challenges that have culminated in the neglect of the endangeredindigenous languages.
Ruwaida Abu Rass
Full Text Available This paper reviews and strengthens the data on cultural transfer by Arab Muslim students writing in English and adds the significant element of the cultural impact of Islam on such writing. This qualitative study examines the writing of 18 teacher trainees at an Arab language teacher training college in Israel. Results point to a strong cultural influence appearing in the students' writing. It is suggested that greater consideration should be given to the first and the target culture when designing the curricula for writing classes for Arab L1 students in English writing instruction.
Cross-linguistic influence in multilingual language acquisition: The role of L1 and non-native languages in English and Catalan oral production / La influencia entre lenguas en su adquisición multilingüe: el papel de L1 y de lenguas no nativas en la producción oral en inglés y en catalán
Full Text Available Gran parte de la investigación en la adquisición de terceras lenguas se ha centrado en los efectos que tienen factores como la distancia entre lenguas, la competencia, el uso reciente, o el estatus de la segunda lengua (L2) en la elección de la lengua origen (L1) desde el punto de vista de la influe [...] ncia interlingüística. Se presenta aquí un análisis de dichos factores, así como la influencia que tiene la L1 (español) en la producción oral en L2 (inglés) y L3 (catalán). Se analiza la transferencia léxica y sintáctica en la producción en catalán e inglés de dos hablantes plurilingües con conocimiento similar de lenguas extranjeras. Fueron entrevistados dos veces en un ambiente informal. Los resultados muestran que la L1 es la principal fuente de transferencia, tanto en la producción oral en L2, como en L3; pero su influencia disminuye a medida que la competencia en la lengua meta incrementa. La distancia entre lenguas también tiene un papel importante en la influencia interlingüística, especialmente si la competencia en la lengua de origen es buena, y si ha habido un contacto reciente con ella. Los resultados también sugieren que mientras que la transferencia sintáctica se basa exclusivamente en la L1, la transferencia léxica se puede basar en la lengua no nativa. Abstract in english Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2) status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1) in cross-linguistic influence (CLI). This paper presents a study of these factors, and of [...] the influence that the L1 (Spanish) has on L2 (English) and L3 (Catalan) oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.
Norizan Abdul Razak; Murad Saeed; Zulkifli Ahmad
As most traditional classroom environments in English as Foreign Language (EFL) still restrict learners’ collaboration and interaction in college writing classes, today, the majority of EFL learners are accessing Social Networking Sites (SNSs) as online communities of practice (CoPs) for adopting informal collaborative learning as a way of practicing English beyond the classroom. This study aimed to investigate the opportunities and challenges of SNSs as learning environment in writing in E...
Full Text Available This article applies attribution theory to identify the factors that influence nursing students’ perceptions of success and failure in learning English writing skills. The study took place in a language classroom in southern Taiwan involving fifty-one female nursing students, a writing teacher, and the researcher. Teaching activities included five writing cycles based on an online writing platform, process approach, and multiple revisions. Evidence data has been collected from learners’ questionnaires and interviews, teacher’s interviews, classroom observations, teaching materials, and researcher’s diaries. The data has been analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively with the aid of QSR NVivo software. Results reveal the major factors given by learners involve the amount writing practice given and their perceptions of their competence in vocabulary and with grammar. The work is supported by observations made by the language teacher and the researcher on issues which have emerged on the students’ writing skills, psychology, language competence, and learning context. This article concludeswith the implications for teaching.
¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera
Sandra Higareda; Georgina López; Gerrard Mugford
Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of ...
Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine
We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…
Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab Mahmoud
Full Text Available Cooperative language learning (CLL approach was used to encourage second-year university students at the college of languages and translation, at Al-Imam University to learn from their peers so that they could develop their writing skills. Students in CLL-based groups were trained to be more responsible for their learning through developing their personal interaction as well as their linguistic competence in a more relaxed social context. This treatment included sophomore students enrolled in EN 211 course in the second semester of 2013 academic year. Two instruments were used in this study; a pre-post writing test, and an attitude questionnaire. The pre- and post- scores from the test were calculated for descriptive statistics and compared using a Wilcoxon Test. The process of evaluating students’ writings focused mainly on analyzing their mistakes with regard to spelling, using of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation as well as coherence. The findings revealed that the students’ scores in writing were higher for the post-test than the pre-test at the significance level of .001 after being subject to this kind of treatment. However, it must be stated that the degree of improvement was not extremely high as students still made some mistakes with regard to the previously mentioned points. As for the attitude scale, the results obtained proved that the students developed positive attitudes towards using the cooperative learning approach to develop language skills in general and to develop their writing skills in particular.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of politeness strategies in 32 discussion sections of research papers produced by Thai graduate students at Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA, Bangkok, Thailand. The study reported in this paper adopts Brown and Levinson’s (1978, 1987 and Myers’ (1989 models of politeness strategies. The project as a whole aims to identify what politeness strategies are most commonly used in the whole corpus, whether differences exist in the use of these politeness strategies and how politeness strategies are employed. The analysis of the data reveals that these student researchers rarely employed politeness strategies in their discussions. However, they used more negative politeness strategies than the positive ones and the differences in the use of these two strategies were highly significant. This study provides some pedagogical implications for ESL/EFL academic writing and syllabus designing.
Full Text Available Among many great American writers, Hemingway is famous for his objective and terse prose style. As all the novels Hemingway published in his life, The Old Man and the Sea typically reflects his unique writing style. The language is simple and natural on the surface, but actually deliberate and artificial. Hemingway’s style is related to his experience as a journalist. The influence of his style is great all over the world. The Old Man and the Sea is full of facts, most of which comes from Hemingway own experience. In the forepart of the novel, they are used to show the quality of Santiago’s life, and are narrated simply and naturally; while in the latter part of the novel, they are used from inside Santiago’s own consciousness and form part of a whole scheme of the novel.
Full Text Available This paper addresses to evaluate and assess the students’ competency in writing skills at Secondary school level in the English Language focusing five major content areas: word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/ grammar and handwriting. The target population was the male and female students of grade 10 of urban and rural Secondary schools from public and private sector. Forty (40 Secondary schools of District Bahawalnagar, Pakistan were taken using stratified sampling. A sample consisting of 440 students (11students from each school was randomly selected using a table of random numbers. An achievement test consisting of different items was developed to assess the students’ competency and capability in sub-skills of writing such as word completion, sentence making/syntax, comprehension, tenses/grammar and handwriting. Mean score and standard deviation were used to analyze the students’ proficiency in each sub-skill. The t-test was applied to make the comparison on the bases of gender, density and public and private sector. The overall performance of all the students was better in comprehension as compared to other sub-skills namely word completion, sentence making/syntax, tenses/grammar and handwriting. The analysis, based on t-value, revealed no significant difference between the performance of male and female students and the students of public and private schools, whereas there was a significant difference between the performance of urban and rural students.
Eremina, Svetlana V.
The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.
Full Text Available This research aims at investigating the relationship between writing skill and sub-skills of first language (Persian and foreign language (English. Therefore, 50 upper-intermediate EFL learners in Iran who were majoring in the English language were asked to write on two different topics in Persian and English. Then, the compositions were evaluated based on ESL Composition Profile. Subsequently, using Pearson product-moment correlation, the correlation between the compositions overall scores in L1 and L2, as well as the correlations between each of five major components of writing, including content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics in the two languages were examined. The results displayed large correlations between the compositions overall scores as well as between the four writing sub-skills in L1 and L2. The highest correlations were observed between writing sub-skills of vocabulary, mechanics, language use, and content respectively. These findings entail some pedagogical implications for effective language learning in both L1 and L2, utilizing the enhancing effect of cross-linguistic transfer of writing.Key words: L1-L2 Relationship, Cross-linguistic Transfer, Writing, Adult EFL Learners, Persian
Bishnu Paramguru Mahapatra
Full Text Available Writing a short or long piece of text effectively flawlessly, precisely, concisely, up to the point with out any ambiguity has been a major concern for the L2 learners of English in the professional world. Professional like engineers need to write business letters, reports, proposals etc as their desk as a part of their routine work. On most of these cases it has been observed that they fail to write the content of the task precisely an effectively, therefore they end up with long of piece of writing without any precision of the text and fail to communicate the core information through that to their boss or to their office.At this point of time it is highly essential for the professionals to equip themselves with excellent writing skills with out which they might not survive in their pursuits,because there is hardly any professional activity which does not require writing skills. This paper will look into the various causes of ineffective writing skills of the second language learners of English and suggests possible remedial measures to overcome it.
Abu-Rabia, Salim; Shakkour, Wael; Siegel, Linda
This study examined the effects of an intervention helping struggling readers improve their reading and writing skills in English as a foreign language (L2), and those same skills in Arabic, which was their first language (L1). Transferring linguistic skills from L2 to L1 is termed "cognitive retroactive transfer". Tests were administered to the…
Ijalba, Elizabeth; Obler, Loraine K.
The Spanish writing system has consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences (GPC), rendering it more transparent than English. We compared first-language (L1) orthographic transparency on how monolingual English- and Spanish-readers learned a novel writing system with a 1:1 (LT) and a 1:2 (LO) GPC. Our dependent variables were learning time,…
Dwi Noverini Djenar
Full Text Available The last few years have seen a boom in the publication of teen fiction in Indonesia. Particularly since the publication of the highly successful novel Eiffel ... I’m in love (Arunita 2001, numerous fiction works targeted at a youthful readership have appeared. This genre of popular literature has been so successful in attracting its audience that it currently constitutes the largest growing market in the Indonesian publishing industry (Simamora 2005. One of its striking characteristics is the predominant use of colloquial Indonesian, an informal variety of Indonesian that is closely identified with speakers from the capital Jakarta, particularly young people. Over a decade ago, scholars noted the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature (see for example Adelaar and Prentice 1996:678. The implication is that this language variety has spread into domains previously dominated by standard Indonesian, the formal variety used in government administration, formal education, and most printed mass media. Indeed, contemporary Indonesian written literature is largely associated with standard Indonesian, such that the increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in popular literature has invited much criticism from language gatekeepers. Despite such criticism, however, teen fiction continues to flourish. The increasing use of colloquial Indonesian in teen fiction, though noted by scholars, has not been subject to any detailed linguistic study. Linguistic studies of colloquial Indonesian – at least those published in English – have focused so far on its use in speech, or in written texts intended to resemble speech, such as internet chatting and advice columns for young people. Prior to the recent surge in teen fiction, use of colloquial Indonesian in contemporary written literature was largely limited to dialogues. Writers such as Putu Wijaya, for example, are known to incorporate colloquialism to render dialogues more natural (Rafferty 1990:107. Teen fiction writers have extended the use of colloquialism into other parts of fiction such as the description of characters, settings, and inner thoughts. This development makes it interesting to look for a way to describe the increase of colloquialism. A useful approach is to examine the usage patterns of a term or a selection of terms in a number of teen fiction works published over time, with the purpose of observing changes in the patterns, and whether such changes can be shown to represent greater colloquialism. This study is a preliminary attempt in that direction. My purpose here is to demonstrate that in the last two decades during which colloquial Indonesian has been employed in teen fiction, there has been a shift in writing style from one that bears greater resemblance to standard Indonesian towards a style that is more colloquial. The term ‘style’ is commonly employed in sociolinguistics to refer to ways of speaking, which Bell (2001:139 defines in terms of the question ‘Why did the speaker say it this way on this occasion?’ (italics in original. Adapting this definition for teen fiction writing, I use ‘writing style’ here to refer to the characteristic manner in which an author writes fiction. This style is observed here by examining the use of the preposition pada ‘to, towards, on, in, at’ as compared to the use of three other prepositions, namely kepada ‘to, towards’, ke ‘to, towards’, and sama ‘to, towards, by, with’. The development towards increased colloquialism is shown through two indicators: a reduction in the range of prepositional meanings of pada along with the assignment of particular discourse functions to kepada, and an increased use of ke and sama. The data are drawn from ten works of fiction published between 1998 and 2005. Eight of these are written by the same author, Hilman. In four of them, Hilman collaborates with fellow writer Boim Lebon. The other two works are by Laire Siwi Mentari and Marthino Andries. This selection is motivated by the following considerations. Hilman’s works ha
Writing in science can be used to address some of the issues relevant to contemporary scientific literacy, such as the nature of science, which describes the scientific enterprise for science education. This has implications for the kinds of writing tasks students should attempt in the classroom, and for how students should understand the rationale and claims of these tasks. While scientific writing may train the mind to think scientifically in a disciplined and structured way thus encouraging students to gain access to the public domain of scientific knowledge, the counter-argument is that students need to be able to express their thoughts freely in their own language. Writing activities must aim to promote philosophical and epistemological views of science that accurately portray contemporary science. This mixed-methods case study explored language-enriched environments, in this case, secondary science classrooms with a focus on teacher-developed activities, involving diversified writing styles, that were directly linked to the science curriculum. The research foci included: teachers' implementation of these activities in their classrooms; how the activities reflected the teachers' nature of science views; common attributes between students' views of science and how they represented science in their writings; and if, and how the activities influenced students' nature of science views. Teachers' and students' views of writing and the nature of science are illustrated through pre-and post-questionnaire responses; interviews; student work; and classroom observations. Results indicated that diversified writing activities have the potential to accurately portray science to students, personalize learning in science, improve students' overall attitude towards science, and enhance scientific literacy through learning science, learning about science, and doing science. Further research is necessary to develop an understanding of whether the choice of genre has an influence on meaning construction and understanding in science. Finally, this study concluded that the relationship between students' views of the nature of science and writing in science is complex and is dependent on several factors including the teachers' influence and attitude towards student writing in science.
Chen, M C; Lin, Huey-Ju
Questionnaires were administered to 120 students. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether specific groups could be described by a writing self-efficacy scale, English writing anxiety scale, and a written General English Proficiency Test. Three clusters were observed. Demographic variables were compared for each cluster, including age, sex, program of study, years of English instruction, native language, and number of English speaking acquaintances. Efforts to reduce writing anxiety and promote writing self-efficacy could enhance writing scores of participants. PMID:20037996
Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona
We investigated the perception of developmental changes in timing patterns that happen in the course of second language (L2) acquisition, provided that the native and the target languages of the learner are rhythmically similar (German and English). It was found that speech rhythm in L2 English produced by German learners becomes increasingly stress-timed as acquisition progresses. This development is captured by the tempo-normalized rhythm measures of durational variability. Advanced learner...
Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona
We investigated the perception of developmental changes in timing patterns that happen in the course of second language (L2) acquisition, provided that the native and the target languages of the learner are rhythmically similar (German and English). It was found that speech rhythm in L2 English produced by German learners becomes increasingly stress-timed as acquisition progresses. This development is captured by the tempo-normalized rhythm measures of durational variability. Advanced learner...
Efstathiadi, Lia; ??????????, ???
The paper investigates the semantic area of Epistemic Modality in Modern Greek, by means of a corpus-based research. A comparative, quantitative study was performed between written corpora (informal letter-writing) of non-native informants with various language backgrounds and Greek native speakers. A number of epistemic markers were selected for further qualitative investigation on the grounds of their high frequency. The qualitative study revealed the ways epistemic markers (grammatical and...
Ammons, Kerrie Allen
With a growing body of research that supports a link between language and literacy, governing bodies in the field of speech and language pathology have recognized the need to reconsider the role of speech-language pathologists in addressing the emergent literacy needs of preschoolers who struggle with literacy and language concepts. This study…
Gonzalez-Bueno, Manuela; Perez, Luisa C.
Observed effects of dialogue journaling through electronic mail on the language produced by learners of Spanish as a second language, compared with the paper-and-pencil version. The electronic version was found to have a positive effect on the amount of language generated and on students' attitudes towards learning the target language but did not…
Stephen Billy Olajide
Full Text Available How developed, integrated and focused a nation has been is partly a function of her level of literacy. Hence, every nation desires full literacy that involves the two skills of reading and writing. Both skills are as elusive as they are rewarding, especially if they have to be acquired from a Second position, such as occupied by English in Nigeria. Over the years in the country, learner performance in the language has been a source of worry to the school system and other stakeholders. Nevertheless, the mutual, complementary teaching of the skills could make them fairly easy to acquire. This paper canvases that reading and writing be taught interactively in the English as the Second Language (ESL context for effective learning.
This research investigates parsing attrition by L1 Spanish-L2 English bilinguals in a L2 environment. The aspect taken into consideration is the resolution of ambiguities in relative clauses such as Peter fell in love with the daughter of the psychologist who studied in California. These types of sentences have two possible interpretations: the local (LA) and non-local attachment (NLA). According to Cuetos and Mitchell (1988), monolingual Spanish speakers tend to use NLA for these constructio...
Hazel L. W. Chiu
This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development....
Bae, Jungok; Bachman, Lyle F.
This study investigated the validity of four theoretically motivated traits of writing ability across English and Korean, based on elementary school students' responses to letter- and story-writing tasks. Their responses were scored analytically and analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The findings include the following. A model of writing…
"Grammar is the sound, structure, and meaning system of language. All languages have grammar, and each language has its own grammar" (Beverly, 2007, p.1). People who speak the same language are able to communicate with each other because they all know the grammar system and structure of that language, that is, the meaningful rules of grammar.…
This corpus-based study analyzes different types of epistemic markers used in argumentative essays by University students. More specifically it compares Swedish L2 writers and English L1 writers. The scope of the analysis covers epistemic modal verbs, lexical verbs and adverbs. A number of markers are counted to see which expressions are preferred by L1 and L2 writers respectively and if the frequency rates differ between the two groups. Further, it discusses whether the non-native writers us...
Ahmed, Abdelhamid Mohamed Abdelhamid
Background: There is limited research on the FL composition writing of Egyptian experimental secondary students. Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of the Whole Language Approach on developing the required composition writing skills in English for experimental secondary students. Setting: Salah Salem…
Zhang, Haisen; Song, Wei; Shen, Suping; Huang, Ronghuai
This paper reported on a study of using blogs as out-of-class assignments for the development of learners' writing competence. There were 36 students of English majors from an intact second language (L2) writing class participating in this study. A mixed method design was employed to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. The results…
Full Text Available Although the concepts of critical thinking and self-voice have been extensively discussed in a second language writing, little attention has been given, on the pedagogical level, to critical thinking and self-voice in college EFL writing instruction. To fill such a void, this paper attempts to propose some pedagogical tasks namely: persuasive writing tasks, draft workshops one-on-one mentoring approaches for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL classrooms. In doing so, this paper provides the operational definitions of critical thinking and self-voice concepts. It then discusses how these two concepts are closely related to complement EFL writing learning. In what follows, it presents the rationale for finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in EFL writing. It then touches on some pedagogical practices for developing critical thinking and self-voice in classrooms. Lastly, it addresses some challenges related to implementing critical thinking and self-voice tasks in EFL classrooms.
Norizan Abdul Razak
Full Text Available As most traditional classroom environments in English as Foreign Language (EFL still restrict learners’ collaboration and interaction in college writing classes, today, the majority of EFL learners are accessing Social Networking Sites (SNSs as online communities of practice (CoPs for adopting informal collaborative learning as a way of practicing English beyond the classroom. This study aimed to investigate the opportunities and challenges of SNSs as learning environment in writing in English. The study was conducted among 24 active and regular EFL learners joining the Only for English Learning Facebook (FB CoP – a group developed and maintained by a few instructors in English – for EFL learners coming from different EFL Arab countries. The data was collected from the learners’ interactional exchanges in the weekly posted writing activities as well as their responses to online open questions posted by the instructor. Based on the mixed analysis of the data, the quantity of the EFL learners’ participation in the writing activities highly increased in the second session. Moreover, the learners were motivated to generate ideas, write their paragraphs and scaffold each other in paragraph writing. The findings also revealed that the EFL participants perceived this CoP as an interactive learning environment that contributed to enhancing their writing by engaging in learner-learner and learner-instructor interaction, information sharing, communicating and socializing with friends and developing a sense of belonging. However, a few challenges faced by the participants in such an online CoP were identified by the participants, and therefore, some valuable assistive features are suggested to be involved in the FB CoP for achieving further EFL development in the future.
Paola Alexandra Cabrera Solano; Paul Fernando Gonzalez Torres; Cesar Augusto Ochoa Cueva; Ana Lucia Quinonez Beltran; Luz Mercedes Castillo Cuesta; Lida Mercedes Solano Jaramillo; Franklin Oswaldo Espinosa Jaramillo; Maria Olivia Arias Cordova
Extensive studies have been conducted regarding mother tongue (L1) interference and developing English writing skills. This study, however, aims to investigate the influence of the Spanish language on second language (L2) writing skills at several Ecuadorian senior high schools in Loja. To achieve this, 351 students and 42 teachers from second year senior high schools (public and private) were asked to participate in this study. The instruments for data collection were student and teacher que...
Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona
We investigated the perception of developmental changes in timing patterns that happen in the course of second language (L2) acquisition, provided that the native and the target languages of the learner are rhythmically similar (German and English). It was found that speech rhythm in L2 English produced by German learners becomes increasingly stress-timed as acquisition progresses. This development is captured by the tempo-normalized rhythm measures of durational variability. Advanced learners also deliver speech at a faster rate. However, when native speakers have to classify the timing patterns characteristic of L2 English of German learners at different proficiency levels, they attend to speech rate cues and ignore the differences in speech rhythm. PMID:25859228
Zuidema, Leah A.
In this "prosumer" era in which people seem always to be producing and consuming texts, words matter as much as--or more than--they ever have. Learning how grammar works in the texts they read and write is essential to students' literacy. It is time to reframe English teachers' view to include both writing "and" reading as contexts for grammar…
Meyer, Tom; Young, Martha; Lieberstein-Solera, Fabiola
One of the most challenging aspects of the teaching profession, at all levels, is to identify and illuminate assumptions--one's students' and one's own. This article describes how three members of the Hudson Valley Writing Project (HVWP) at the State University of New York (SUNY) at New Paltz worked closely with the National Writing Project's…
Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the contributions made to this special issue on feedback by the seven papers, examining how they reflect both the growing interest in different areas of research into feedback on writing and the continuing search by teachers for more effective feedback practices. Focusing first on the papers by Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn and Allen, it discusses how these papers situate written corrective feedback research in the wider area of second language acquisition research and contribute to the debate in feedback research on research design issues. This is followed by an examination of the major findings of the four situated empirical studies by Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary and Windeatt, and Martinez and Roca, which make up the second section. Echoing the authors of these papers, this article argues that we need more longitudinal naturalistic studies, adopting both cognitive and socio-cultural SLA frameworks to investigate the role of feedback and its impact on individual learners in more depth. Finally some pedagogic implications are discussed, including the need for feedback practices which facilitate students’ abilities to self regulate and evaluate their performance, and the need to raise teachers’ awareness of the different feedback sources and modes of delivery available to them.Este artículo ofrece una revisión de las siete aportaciones incluidas en este número especial sobre feedback, constatando cómo reflejan tanto el creciente interés por el tema en las distintas áreas de investigación como la continua búsqueda de técnicas más efectivas por parte del profesorado. Centrándose en primer lugar en las contribuciones de Van Beuningen, Storch, Evans, Hartshorn y Allen, analiza cómo estos artículos sitúan la investigación sobre feedback en la corrección de trabajos escritos dentro del área más amplia de adquisición de segundas lenguas, contribuyendo al debate, dentro de la investigación sobre feedback, en torno a aspectos de diseño de la investigación. A continuación se examinan los resultados principales de los cuatro estudios empíricos realizados por Bitchener, Ma, El-ebyary & Windeatt, y Martinez & Roca de Larios, que conforman la segunda sección. Siguiendo a estos autores, el artículo aboga por la realización de más estudios longitudinales de corte naturalista, que utilicen enfoques dentro del campo de la Adquisición de Segundas Lenguas tanto de carácter cognitivo como sociocultural, para investigar con más profundidad el papel del feedback y su impacto en perfiles concretos de aprendices. Finalmente, se tratan algunas implicaciones pedagógicas, incluyendo la necesidad de que las prácticas de feedback faciliten el desarrollo de habilidades de autocorrección y de evaluación del propio rendimiento por parte de los estudiantes, y la necesidad de incrementar el conocimiento que los docentes tienen acerca de las distintas fuentes y modos de implementación de feedback.
de Haan, Pieter; van Esch, Kees
This article presents the first results of the study of argumentative essays in English as a foreign language and in Spanish as a foreign language and as a native language, carried out at Radboud University Nijmegen (formerly the University of Nijmegen) between 2002 and 2008. The aim of the project is to compare teachers' holistic assessments with…
Stephen Billy Olajide
How developed, integrated and focused a nation has been is partly a function of her level of literacy. Hence, every nation desires full literacy that involves the two skills of reading and writing. Both skills are as elusive as they are rewarding, especially if they have to be acquired from a Second position, such as occupied by English in Nigeria. Over the years in the country, learner performance in the language has been a source of worry to the school system and other stakeholders. Neverth...
Full Text Available The transformation of the education curriculum in the Malaysia Education Development Plan (PPPM 2013-2025 focuses on the Higher Order Thinking (HOT concept which aims to produce knowledgeable students who are critical and creative in their thinking and can compete at the international level. HOT skills encourage students to apply, analyse, evaluate and think creatively in and outside the classroom. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the impact of using HOT skills in a secondary ESL writing classroom. A total of 120 Form Two ESL students from three intact classes participated in this study. The students experienced project and group-based work both independently and collaboratively in groups during their writing lessons. The findings from the focus group interviews revealed the following student perceptions: felt engaged in active learning, experienced learner autonomy, developed their writing, researching and personal skills. The implications of this study suggest that using HOT skills in ESL writing lessons facilitate students’ writing ability and interest and it is recommended that HOT skills be explicitly infused in the teaching and learning of writing activities in ESL classrooms.
This quantitative study explored the impact of literacy integration in a science inquiry classroom involving the use of science notebooks on the academic language development and conceptual understanding of students from diverse (i.e., English Language Learners, or ELLs) and low socio-economic status (low-SES) backgrounds. The study derived from a randomized, longitudinal, field-based NSF funded research project (NSF Award No. DRL - 0822343) targeting ELL and non-ELL students from low-SES backgrounds in a large urban school district in Southeast Texas. The study used a scoring rubric (modified and tested for validity and reliability) to analyze fifth-grade school students' science notebook entries. Scores for academic language quality (or, for brevity, language ) were used to compare language growth over time across three time points (i.e., beginning, middle, and end of the school year) and to compare students across categories (ELL, former ELL, non-ELL, and gender) using descriptive statistics and mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA). Scores for conceptual understanding (or, for brevity, concept) were used to compare students across categories (ELL, former ELL, non-ELL, and gender) in three domains using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. A correlational analysis was conducted to explore the relationship, if any, between language scores and concept scores for each group. Students demonstrated statistically significant growth over time in their academic language as reflected by science notebook scores. While ELL students scored lower than former ELL and non-ELL students at the first two time points, they caught up to their peers by the third time point. Similarly, females outperformed males in language scores in the first two time points, but males caught up to females in the third time point. In analyzing conceptual scores, ELLs had statistically significant lower scores than former-ELL and non-ELL students, and females outperformed males in the first two domains. These differences, however, were not statistically significant in the last domain. Last, correlations between language and concept scores were overall, positive, large, and significant across domains and groups. The study presents a rubric useful for quantifying diverse students' science notebook entries, and findings add to the sparse research on the impact of writing in diverse students' language development and conceptual understanding in science.
I frame the continuing value of basic writing as part of a long tradition in composition studies challenging dominant beliefs about literacy and language abilities, and I link basic writing to emerging--e.g."translingual"--approaches to language. I identify basic writing as vital to the field of composition in its rejection of simplistic notions…
AbdulRahman Al Asmari
The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students` writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the relationship between writing strategies that EFL university students employ and writing apprehension, relationship between writing strategies use and stud...
Zenkov, Kristien; Ewaida, Marriam; Bell, Athene; Lynch, Megan
The authors have learned that using image-based methods to "ask" young adolescents about their relationships to school--instead of only "telling" them about school's importance--helps them to appreciate the writing tasks in which the authors ask them to engage. In this article, the authors discuss the positive effects these photo elicitation…
Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina
The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…
Karatsolis, Andreas; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.
Understanding and describing professional practice, especially in Engineering and the Sciences, has always been at the heart of research in Professional Communication. Several significant field research projects have showed us that content knowledge alone is not sufficient to claim disciplinary expertise; a rhetorical understanding of the discipline and its ways of thinking is essential in achieving full participation in the field. Most professionals would expect that such a sophisticated approach can only be learned through on-the-job training or opportunities to interact with practitioners within authentic disciplinary contexts. Although this can certainly be the case in many instances, we argue that a rhetorical understanding can be enacted even within a freshman writing classroom. The results of our content and rhetorical analyses of student work from the beginning and the end of a course on academic writing with the theme of sustainability show that students were able in one semester to write in discipline-appropriate ways and understand the rhetorical strategies necessary to become part of a disciplinary conversation. The implications of our findings can extend into the way we design courses in basic writing or professional communication and the ways we can use pre-assessment data to drive our course design decisions.
Heitmann, Patricia; Hecht, Martin; Schwanewedel, Julia; Schipolowski, Stefan
The ability to build arguments is a crucial skill and a central educational goal in all school subjects including science as it enables students to formulate reasoned opinions and thus to cope with the increasing complexity of knowledge. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the domain-specificity of argumentative writing in science by…
Dixon, Gregory A.
This study gathered information on student engagement with Facebook, and described non-native English speakers' (NNS) expectations and experience. This also assessed the relationship this technology has with writing efficacy and compared NNS and native English speakers (NS) groups. Demographic data were collected and means were compared to…
Candlin, C. N.; Bhatia, V. K.; Jensen, C. H.
Reviews currently available legal writing books in terms of their suitability for use in English for legal academic purposes. Concludes that, while certain aspects of the available books can be useful, most are generally not suitable for use in such contexts. (Author/VWL)
Kessler, Greg; Bikowski, Dawn; Boggs, Jordan
This study investigates Web-based, project oriented, many-to-many collaborative writing for academic purposes. Thirty-eight Fulbright scholars in an orientation program at a large Midwestern university used a Web-based word processing tool to collaboratively plan and report on a research project. The purpose of this study is to explore and…
Graves, Donald H.
Describes how to become a better writing teacher, discussing strategies for students who do not finish their work, how to help children from other cultures write in their first language and in English, and how to help children with good ideas but poor writing and spelling skills. A game to help children understand conventions is included. (SM)
Full Text Available The paper investigates the semantic area of Epistemic Modality in Modern Greek, by means ofa corpus-based research. A comparative, quantitative study was performed between writtencorpora (informal letter-writing of non-native informants with various language backgroundsand Greek native speakers. A number of epistemic markers were selected for furtherqualitative investigation on the grounds of their high frequency. The qualitative studyrevealed the ways epistemic markers (grammatical and lexical are used in order to expressthe speaker’s stance while they perform a number of discourse-pragmatic functions withoutviolating the societal norms of politeness. The present study made use of the literature onEpistemic Modality, the face-management theory of politeness and the interpersonalmetadiscoursal features known as hedges and boosters.
The concept of Bildung occupies a central place in the work of Hegel. In the Phenomenology of Spirit from 1807 it is clear that Bildung has a general meaning, which transcends educational contexts. Soon after the publication of the Phenomenology, however, Hegel became the rector of the humanistic Gymnasium in Nürnberg, and this position he kept until 1816. From this period we have some less well known writings, which explicitly discuss Bildung and relate it to educational use. These texts we...
Hazel L. W. Chiu
Full Text Available This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development. These learner-centred support sessions aim to develop awareness of different types of learning strategies to suit individual learning needs, and cultivate interest and ability for continuous self-learning. The benefits of a semi-structured scaffolding format with attention to individual learning differences and supported by technology will be highlighted.
Weshah, Hani A.; Tomok, Tamara N.
This study investigated the impact of a training program based on pedagogical knowledge on improving the speaking and writing skills teaching practices of female English language teachers. The participants consisted of 30 teachers: 10 as an experimental group and 20 as a control group. To answer the study questions, the researchers developed a…
Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) offers over 100 handouts on English writing skills. The collection could be called an online grammar book or a basic writing course. Categories covered include sentences, punctuation, parts of speech, spelling, methods of citing sources in research paper writing, English as a second language, and general writing concerns such as writers block, proofreading, non-sexist language, resume writing, business and professional writing, and coping with writing anxiety. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom / ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera
Sandra, Higareda; Georgina, López; Gerrard, Mugford.
Full Text Available Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1) de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI ), un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argume [...] ntos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1) parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido. Abstract in english Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1) in English Language Teaching (ELT), critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifica [...] tions favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.
¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Interpersonal and Transactional Uses of L1 in the Foreign-Language Classroom ¿Duermes mucho Tony?: Usos interpersonales y transaccionales de la lengua materna en el aula de clase de lengua extranjera
Full Text Available Whilst communicative teaching approaches sanction, often grudgingly, the limited use of the students' first language (L1 in English Language Teaching (ELT, critical debate is now centred on a much more substantial and energetic role for the use of mother tongue in the language classroom. Justifications favouring the use of L1 currently range from ideological arguments to classroom teaching considerations. This paper contributes to this ongoing debate by examining how new generations of language teachers in Mexico are using the students' mother tongue, Spanish, not only as a pedagogical tool but to develop and reinforce interpersonal relationships in the language classroom in order to enhance the learning of English.Mientras que los métodos comunicativos de enseñanza autorizan, muchas veces con poco entusiasmo, el uso de la lengua materna (L1 de los estudiantes del idioma inglés (EI , un gran debate propone un papel más sustancial y activo para el uso del español en el salón de clases. Actualmente, los argumentos que se muestran a favor del uso de la lengua materna (L1 parten desde motivos ideológicos hasta factores pedagógicos en la enseñanza en el salón de aprendizaje de idiomas. El presente artículo contribuye a este debate en curso examinando la forma en que las nuevas generaciones de profesores de inglés en México están utilizando la lengua materna de sus estudiantes, el español, no sólo como una herramienta pedagógica sino para desarrollar y reforzar las relaciones interpersonales en el salón de idiomas, de forma que el aprendizaje del inglés se vea favorecido.
Tânia dos Santos Alvarez da, Silva; Maria Augusta, Bolsanello.
Full Text Available O artigo identifica orientações distintas presentes nas proposições metodológicas de ensino da escrita para surdos usuários de língua de sinais, assumidas na educação bilíngue. Assim, apresenta duas formas de interpretação e encaminhamento de proposições metodológicas de orientação bilíngue, em rela [...] ção ao ensino da escrita pelo surdo. O primeiro grupo de autores defende que o surdo deve aprender o português escrito tendo a língua de sinais como língua base. O segundo grupo, fundamentado em pesquisas da neuropsicologia cognitiva, defende que a escrita dos sinais, que deve ser a primeira língua escrita de aprendizes surdos sinalizadores. Conclui-se que as duas orientações sobre as possíveis relações entre o surdo e a escrita não devem ser tomadas como posições excludentes. Pelo contrário, sugere-se que a escrita dos sinais, enquanto um sistema simbólico repleto de significados, constitui-se como ferramenta eficiente para maximizar o desenvolvimento das funções psicológicas superiores dos aprendizes surdos, bem como para fornecer meios de aproximação com o sistema de escrita alfabética. Abstract in english This article identifies distinct guidelines on methodological propositions of the writing teaching for deaf users of sign language, which are assumed in bilingual education. So, it presents two forms of interpretation and routing of methodological propositions of bilingual orientation, in relation t [...] o the writing teaching by the deaf. The first group of authors defends that the deaf must learn written Portuguese having sign language as the base language. The second group, based on researches about cognitive neuropsychology, defends that SignWriting must be the first written language of deaf sign apprentices. We concluded that both orientations about the possible relations between the deaf and writing mustn't be taken as excluding positions. On the contrary, it is suggested that SignWriting, as a symbolic system full of meanings, is an efficient tool to maximize the development of higher psychological functions of the deaf apprentices, as well as to provide means of approximation with the system of alphabetic writing.
Provided by Greater Dayton (Ohio) Public Television, this site is a powerful aid to middle school language arts teaching. It provides information on teaching and learning the basic skills of journalism. Features include the history of journalism and famous journalists, style tips, and pointers to relevant reference sites. Teachers can refer to the well-organized instructional guide, a guide that includes graphic organizers, task cards, and checklists (the last three available in Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). Though designed for middle schoolers in Ohio, there is a great deal of useful information at this site for any middle school language arts class.
Ramos, Kathleen Ann
A persistent achievement gap exists between the steadily growing population of adolescent English language learners (ELLs) in K-12 public schools and their native English-speaking peers. Unsurprisingly, the underachievement of this population of students is linked to an excessively high dropout rate among adolescent ELLs across the nation. Current…
Seah, Lay Hoon
This study is an attempt to examine the use of linguistic resources by primary science students so as to understand the conceptual and language demands encountered by them when constructing written explanations. The students' written explanations and the instructional language (whole-class discussion and textbook) employed over the topic, the life cycle of plants, in four grade 4 classrooms (age 10) taught by three teachers constitute the data for this study. Students' written explanations were subjected to a combination of content and linguistic analysis. The linguistic analysis was conducted using selected analytical tools from the systemic functional linguistics framework. A diversity of linguistic resources and meanings were identified from the students' explanations, which reveal the extent to which the students were able to employ linguistic resources to construct written scientific explanations and the challenges involved. Both content and linguistic analyses also illuminate patterns of language use that are significant for realising scientific meanings. Finally, a comparison is made in the use of linguistic resources between the students' explanations and the instructional language to highlight possible links. This comparison reveals that the teachers' expectations of the students' written explanations were seldom reflected in their oral questioning or made explicit during the instruction. The findings of this study suggest that a focus on conceptual development is not sufficient in itself to foster students' ability to construct explanations. Pedagogical implications involving the support needed by primary students to construct scientific explanations are discussed.
Lee, Okhee; Penfield, Randall D.; Buxton, Cory A.
Background/Context: While different instructional approaches have been proposed to integrate academic content and English proficiency for English language learning (ELL) students, studies examining the magnitude of the relationship are non-existent. This study examined the relationship between the "form" (i.e., conventions, organization, and…
Poldberg, Monique M.,; Trainin, Guy; Andrzejczak, Nancy
This paper explores the integration of art, literacy and science in a second grade classroom, showing how an integrative approach has a positive and lasting influence on student achievement in art, literacy, and science. Ways in which art, science, language arts, and cognition intersect are reviewed. Sample artifacts are presented along with their…
AbdulRahman Al Asmari
Full Text Available The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students` writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the relationship between writing strategies that EFL university students employ and writing apprehension, relationship between writing strategies use and students` writing achievement, and differences between high and low writing anxiety in their writing strategy use. Data were drawn from 198 (68 males and 130 females EFL-major university students. The participants were asked to respond to a Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI; Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (Cheng, 2004 and to complete a Writing Strategies Inventory (Petric & Czarl, 2003. Some interviews were also conducted with some students to explore salient effective writing strategies that they used and the difficulties they faced during writing composition. Correlation, t-test, and ANOVA analyses were used to determine relationships between writing strategies and writing achievement and between students of high and low anxiety. The results of the study calls into question the common assumption that some of the Saudi undergraduates’ writing apprehension is pertinent to writing achievement. The results indicated that students with low writing anxiety were more users of writing strategies than the high anxious ones. Moreover, a significant negative correlation was found between students’ writing apprehension and their writing achievement.
Alston, Chandra; Brown, Michelle T.
Background: Writing is an essential literacy skill; however, public school students often receive inadequate writing instruction, particularly as they move into middle and high school. However, research has shown that the nature of writing tasks assigned can impact writing development and student achievement measured by standardized assessments.…
This paper investigates the use of politeness strategies in 32 discussion sections of research papers produced by Thai graduate students at Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok, Thailand. The study reported in this paper adopts Brown and Levinson’s (1978, 1987) and Myers’ (1989) models of politeness strategies. The project as a whole aims to identify what politeness strategies are most commonly used in the whole co...
The advance of globalization and the information technology revolution call for fundamental changes in foreign language teaching and learning. However, according to Kern and Warschauer , “the computer, like any other technological tool used in teaching (…) does not in and of itself bring about improvements in learning.” Instead, they propose that we should “look to particular practices of use in particular contexts” so that we might be able to ascertain if the use of network-based langu...
Writing is often considered secondary to the spoken language, as it is only coded sound-by-sound. But other scholars have demonstrated that writing is similar to "arithmetic": a cognitive structuring, a shift to the meta-level ("for the eye"). "Handwriting" (referred to here as the cursive writing in the sense of…
Siti Hamin Stapa
Full Text Available There has been an ongoing debate among language teachers on whether to use students’ first language (L1 in second language (L2 teaching. Nevertheless, the use of L1 in L2 teaching has been advocated with grounded theory as far as it merits the situation. This research article aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of L1 to generate ideas for second language writing among low proficiency ESL learners. The study employed the experimental research design where students in the experimental group used Bahasa Melayu in generating ideas before they resumed writing their essays in English. Students in the control group used English. Two independent raters graded the essays and the scores were analysed using the paired t-test. The findings showed a marked improvement in the writing performance of students who used their first language to generate ideas before using their second language for writing. Based on the findings, we recommend that teachers encourage the use of first language before writing or composing in English especially among low-level proficiency ESL learners.
Tullock, Brandon D.
To shed light on the type of behavior which goes on in multilingual classrooms, this study aims to investigate the lexical search processes of 10 upper-intermediate level German/Spanish/Catalan(/French) multilinguals from the Deutsche Schule Barcelona while writing in English. The results show that multiple languages were activated during composition, and that these languages were not limited to the target language and the L1. Referral to previously learned languages was a comm...
Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.
Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…
Full Text Available The concept of Bildung occupies a central place in the work of Hegel. In the Phenomenology of Spirit from 1807 it is clear that Bildung has a general meaning, which transcends educational contexts. Soon after the publication of the Phenomenology, however, Hegel became the rector of the humanistic Gymnasium in Nürnberg, and this position he kept until 1816. From this period we have some less well known writings, which explicitly discuss Bildung and relate it to educational use. These texts were written at the hight of his philosophical maturity from, when he was working on The Science of Logic and the Encyclopedia, and they therefore deserve being taken seriously. When all these sources are brought together, however, an idea of Bildung often associated with Hegel, namely that Bildung is the result of productive work, seems to be mistaken. I first give a brief account of the general argument, secondly add some details from the Phenomenology to support the argument, and finally conclude with a few general remarks.
Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Hasegawa, Mihoko; Just, Marcel A.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation from Japanese readers reading hiragana (syllabic) and kanji (logographic) sentences, and English as a second language (L2). Kanji showed more activation than hiragana in right-hemisphere occipito-temporal lobe areas associated with visuospatial processing; hiragana, in turn, showed more activation than kanji in areas of the brain associated with phonological processing. L1 results underscore the difference in vi...
Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Jones, Janine; Wolf, Beverly J; Gould, Laura; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Apel, Kenn
The first findings from a 5-year, overlapping-cohorts longitudinal study of typical language development are reported for (a) the interrelationships among Language by Ear (listening), Mouth (speaking), Eye (reading), and Hand (writing) in Cohort 1 in 1st and 3rd grade and Cohort 2 in 3rd and 5th grade; (b) the interrelationships among three modes of Language by Hand (writing manuscript letters with pen and keyboard and cursive letters with pen) in each cohort in the same grade levels as (a); and (c) the ability of the 1st graders in Cohort 1 and the 3rd graders in Cohort 2 to apply fast mapping in learning to spell pseudowords. Results showed that individual differences in Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression are stable developmentally, but each functional language system is only moderately correlated with the others. Likewise, manuscript writing, cursive writing, and keyboarding are only moderately correlated, and each has a different set of unique neuropsychological predictors depending on outcome measure and grade level. Results support the use of the following neuropsychological measures in assessing handwriting modes: orthographic coding, rapid automatic naming, finger succession (grapho-motor planning for sequential finger movements), inhibition, inhibition/switching, and phonemes skills (which may facilitate transfer of abstract letter identities across letter formats and modes of production). Both 1st and 3rd graders showed evidence of fast mapping of novel spoken word forms onto written word forms over 3 brief sessions (2 of which involved teaching) embedded in the assessment battery; and this fast mapping explained unique variance in their spelling achievement over and beyond their orthographic and phonological coding abilities and correlated significantly with current and next-year spelling achievement. PMID:16390289
This reference provides students with assistance in writing assignments. It offers samples of Science and Language Arts materials that focus on the writing process. Examples include investigation charts, a science rubric, and graphic organizers. There are also lists of transition words and phrases and persuasive writing signal words, a set of instructions on how to write a persuasive essay, and a set of instructions on proofreading.
Usage-based theories of language learning suggest that native speakers of a language are acutely aware of formulaic language due in large part to frequency effects. Corpora and data-driven learning can offer useful insights into frequent patterns of naturally occurring language to second/foreign language learners who, unlike native speakers, are…
Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose
Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic has speakers of up to 230 different languages belonging to four ethnolinguistic families, the Lao Government's policy as stated in its Education Law is that Lao is the official language of education at all levels. This creates a challenging situation for teachers in ethnic minority villages throughout…
Martha Cecilia Andrade Calderón
Full Text Available The article reports on the exploratory-descriptive investigation carried out to explain the writing behavior of the students of the Universidad Colegio Mayor of Cundinamarca. To this effect, it refers to the results of the project that are based on the state of the art of writing in higher education; it is supported by various conceptualizations about its technique throughout time, orality and writing at the University, the act of writing, and references about specific didactics. Furthermore, the article proposes theoretical approaches concerned with the process of writing, such as constructivism, meaningful learning, metacognition, social practices of language and new writing tendencies in information media. Through all this, the article present a profile of the University students on the level of writing and it evaluates their editing skills and the level of writing productiveness. This allows offering an academic proposal with possible guidelines for the institution to strengthen writing ability in their students.
Second language (L2) instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1) acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI) approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI i...
Liqiu Wei; Ji Liu
By examining the affect, behavior and cognition (the ABCs) involved in the writing process of a Chinese high school student composing application essays in English (a foreign language) as a case study by means of ethnographic approach and under the notion of small culture, this study aims to illustrate how different cultural forces interact with one another and how they come to play in the shaping of rhetorical differences between learner's native language (L1/NL )and second or foreign langua...
Lee, Cynthia; Cheung, William Kwok Wai; Wong, Kelvin Chi Kuen; Lee, Fion Sau Ling
This article is an effort to add to computer-assisted language learning by extending a study on an essay critiquing system (ECS) feedback to secondary school language learners' writing. The study compared two groups of participants' performance, namely the treatment group which received both the system feedback and teacher feedback (i.e., blended…
Lee, Okhee; Mahotiere, Margarette; Salinas, Alejandra; Penfield, Randall D.; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime
As part of our professional development intervention, this study examined third-grade ELL students' writing achievement that included "form" (i.e., conventions, organization, and style/voice) and "content" (i.e., specific knowledge and understanding of science) in expository science writing. The study included six treatment schools from a large…
The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…
This Professional Development Institute (PDI) will focus on teaching strategies and methods that incorporate language acquisition with science instruction for English Language Learners (ELL) in the K-8 classroom. Specifically, this institute will begin with an overview of research on the ELL population, instruction, and programs available to teachers who have responsibilities for teaching science. The bulk of the 6 hours of instruction will provide guided inquiry activities that model integrated (Sheltered Instruction) strategies in science, reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking. The follow-up workshops will provide more in-depth research and instruction in each of the language skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking) as they apply to science instruction as well as working with specific populations of ELL students and available programs. Classrooms in the United States are becoming more diverse thus requiring regular classroom teachers to develop new skills in working with students whose first language is not English. Recent census data show that over the past twenty five years the number of ELL students (ages 5-17) grew from 3.8 million to 9.9 million or approximately 10% of the entire U.S. school population (NCES, 2006). With this incredible growth, regular classroom teachers are in need of learning new teaching skills in language acquisition to integrate into everyday classroom content instruction. Sheltered Instructional strategies or Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) involve teaching strategies used in developing language skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking and incorporates them into content area (Science) planning, instruction and assessment. These strategies include clearly defined language and content objectives, creating instruction that relates to students' prior knowledge, tailoring teacher talk to students' English language proficiency levels, allowing students to process material in a variety of formats including guided inquiry, scaffolding content instruction, and using assessment methods that allow students to display learning in a variety of ways (Becijos,1997; Echevarria, Vogt, and Short, 2008). This is especially important to teachers at the elementary and middle school as the majority of ELL students are entering schools at these levels. Of all ELL students entering school, 44% are in grades K-3 and 35% in grades 4-8 (Kindler, 2002). This Professional Development Institute will be conducted by David Crowther, a Professor of Science Education at the University of Nevada, Reno. Dr. Crowther is the coauthor/editor of Science for English Language Learners by NSTA Press. He has written several chapters in books and articles about science for ELLs; presented at NSTA workshops and TESOL on the subject; and teaches science methods using Sheltered Instruction strategies at the University of Nevada, Reno. Joaquin Vil? is a Professor of English and Second Language Acquisition at Salisbury University in Maryland. In his numerous years of experience he has conducted many workshops on teaching EL students, written chapters / articles, and led departments and programs for ELL within the English departments at several universities. Dr. Vil? is also a NCATE evaluator of TESOL programs and is the Special Assistant to the Vice President of the University for Diversity. Presenters are recognized as top researchers, authors, and workshop facilitators in the field of science and language acquisition.
Bishnu Paramguru Mahapatra
Writing a short or long piece of text effectively flawlessly, precisely, concisely, up to the point with out any ambiguity has been a major concern for the L2 learners of English in the professional world. Professional like engineers need to write business letters, reports, proposals etc as their desk as a part of their routine work. On most of these cases it has been observed that they fail to write the content of the task precisely an effectively, therefore they end up with ...
Mary Helena Rykov
Communicating about music therapy is problematic because discursive language fails to convey the nonverbal, embodied essence of experience. I explore the emergence of this problem in the music therapy literature. I discuss the scholarship of phenomenological writing. I provide examples of nondiscursive music therapy writing. I introduce the genre of poetic inquiry.
Poetry is the most musical form of language. Poetry and music, linked throughout history, share many ...
Rafael Forteza Fernández
Full Text Available El notable incremento de la colaboración médica cubana en la arena internacional y la revolución en las ciencias informáticas ha generado la necesidad de una reconceptualización de del aprendizaje de la escritura en el estudio de las lenguas extranjeras, el inglés en particular, en la educación médica superior. Se exploran los beneficios que aporta este tipo de competencia al estudiante de lenguas extranjeras y se particulariza cuán necesario es esta habilidad para el profesional de la salud.The growing Cuban health sector collaboration with other countries as well as the revolution in information sciences has brought about the need to reconceptualize the role of learning how to write in foreign languages, English in particular, in Higher Medical Education. The present work explores the general contribution of this type of competence to the learner of foreign languages and gives particular attention to the usefulness of this skill to the health professional.
Luu Trong Tuan
“Frequently accepted as being the last language skill to be acquired for native speakers of the language as well as for foreign/second language learners” (Hamp-Lyons and Heasly, 2006: 2), English writing, for a number of EFL learners, appears to be challenging. This paper sought to investigate if learners can grow out of the writing difficulties by engaging in journal writing activity. 85 second-year students from the two writing classes, one treated as the experimental group (EG) and the...
La evolución de modelos mentales de escritura en un contexto de lengua extranjera : dinámica de objetivos y creencias = Development of mental models of writing in a foreign language context : dynamics of goals and beliefs.
Nicolás Conesa, Florentina
The present study is a longitudinal investigation on EFL university learners’ mental models of writing (understood as a set of beliefs and goals) in an EAP course and their effects on performance. Data collection involved language proficiency tests, L2 compositions, interviews and self-reflective journals. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data were carried out. The findings indicate the development of a knowledge-transforming model of writing, the transformation of students’ multi...
Bracewell, Robert J.
Examines characteristics of the mental processes required for writing, compares and contrasts the nature of processing required for other cognitive activities, and reviews recent research on children's writing that reveals the advantages as well as disadvantages of superimposing writing skills over well-developed language skills. (HOD)
Guan, Connie Qun; Perfetti, Charles A.; Meng, Wanjin
To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of…
Sim Monica Ariana
Full Text Available Writing is one of the central pillars of language learning and should be of major interest and concern to teachers, students and researchers. This paper is intended to be a plea for writing and explores issues regarding instruction and evaluation of writing skills of nonnative speaker students. It examines expectations of nonnative speakers writing quality and performance on writing proficiency exams, as well. Finally, it is trying to ring a bell about this skill that has been neglected in spite of its importance when it comes to foreign language acquisition
Luciana C. DE, OLIVEIRA.
Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma análise sistêmico-funcional de duas redações originadas do Exame de Redação Analítica da Universidade da Califórnia, escritas por aprendizes da lingua inglesa. A análise mostra as escolhas linguísticas utilizadas nessas duas redações, uma que recebeu uma nota alta e uma q [...] ue recebeu uma nota baixa no exame. O artigo descreve algumas das escolhas gramaticais que são funcionais para a redação expositiva, divididas em três categorias principais: escolhas textuais, interpessoais e ideacionais. Depois dessa breve descrição é apresentada a análise das duas redações em termos desses recursos. O artigo mostra as diferenças entre as redações em termos das escolhas linguísticas usadas pelos dois autores. Algumas conclusões para a prática educacional e recomendações para educadores baseados na análise serão incluídas. Abstract in english This article presents a systemic-functional linguistic analysis of two writing samples of the University of California Analytical Writing Placement (AWP) Examination written by English language learners (ELLs). The analysis shows the linguistic features utilized in the two writing samples, one that [...] received a passing score and one that received a failing score. The article describes some of the grammatical resources which are functional for expository writing, which are divided under three main categories: textual, interpersonal, and ideational resources. Following this brief description is the analysis of both essays in terms of these resources.. The configuration of grammatical features used in the essays make up the detached style of essay 1 and the more personal style of essay 2. These grammatical features include the textual resources of thematic choices and development, clause-combining strategies (connectors), and lexical cohesion; interpersonal resources of interpersonal metaphors of modality; and ideational resources of nominalization and abstractions as ideational metaphors. Implications for educational practice and recommendations for educators based on the analysis are provided.
The distinction between grammatical, sociolinguistic, and strategic competence as components of communicative competence is useful for helping students develop spoken language skills in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction. When individual speakers demonstrate strategic competence, they will use a range of expressions based on: (1) the…
Romova, Zina; Andrew, Martin
This paper examines the use of portfolios as pedagogical tools for developing academic writing. In particular, it considers the value of multi-drafting, where learners reflect on the learning of a text type as well as focusing on micro and macro aspects. The paper outlines a situated pedagogical approach, where students come to understand their…
Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching-Sing; Gao, Ping
This paper reports an exploratory study on Singapore secondary and primary school students' perceptions and behaviors on using a variety of Chinese input methods for Chinese composition writing. Significant behavioral patterns were uncovered and mapped into a cognitive process, which are potentially critical to the training of students in…
This book deals with requirements of good writings, comprehension toward characters of language, understanding of subjects and materials, grasp of structure of writings, and reality of writing. It contains theoretical requirements of good writing such as creativity, clearness, probity, how to understand the right meanings of language by showing standard languages, dialects, foreign languages, loan words, newly coined words, in-words, slangs, jargon. It also introduces subjects, topics, materials, sentences, meaning, structure, type, requirement, length of paragraphs, diaries, letter writings, travel essays, descriptions, and essays.
Paquot, Magali; Fairon, Ce?drick; International Computer Archive of Modern and Medieval English (ICAME) 27
Learner interlanguage is characterised by a high degree of variability (Ellis 1994) that has commonly been accounted for by a number of external and internal factors, among others the influence of the first language (L1). Assessing L1 influence on learner variability is not an easy task and necessitates methodological rigor. Jarvis (2000) argues that transfer studies should minimally consider three potential effects of L1 influence: (1) similarities shared by members of an L1 population, (2) ...
Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in thei...
Paola Alexandra Cabrera Solano
Full Text Available Extensive studies have been conducted regarding mother tongue (L1 interference and developing English writing skills. This study, however, aims to investigate the influence of the Spanish language on second language (L2 writing skills at several Ecuadorian senior high schools in Loja. To achieve this, 351 students and 42 teachers from second year senior high schools (public and private were asked to participate in this study. The instruments for data collection were student and teacher questionnaires, as well as a written test in which students were asked to write a narrative passage. The information gathered from the instruments was then organized and tabulated to determine the various interference variables. Afterwards, the most representative samples from the narrative texts were analyzed based on their semantic, morphological and syntactical features. The results from this study indicate that English grammar and vocabulary were the linguistic areas that suffered the highest level of L1 language interference. The most common Spanish interference errors were misuse of verbs, omission of personal and object pronouns, misuse of prepositions, overuse of articles, and inappropriate/ unnatural word order. Finally, some suggestions are given to teachers in order to help students prevent further Spanish interference problems during writing/composition classes.
Patterson, Elizabeth; Schaller, Megan; Clemens, Jeannine
Interactive writing is a powerful tool to help students of all ages master writing skills in a purposeful way. During this process, students deepen their understanding of language, conventions of print, and how words work. Interactive writing helps teachers and students collaborate in the construction of text, and meaningful writing is created in…
This is a study of language use in the context of an inquiry-based science curriculum in which conceptual understanding ratings are used split texts into groups of "successful" and "unsuccessful" texts. "Successful" texts could include known features of science language. 420 texts generated by students in 14 classrooms from three school districts, culled from a prior study on the effectiveness of science notebooks to assess understanding, in addition to the aforementioned ratings are the data sources. In science notebooks, students write in the process of learning (here, a unit on electricity). The analytical framework is systemic functional linguistics (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004), specifically the concepts of genre, register and nominalization. Genre classification involves an analysis of the purpose and register features in the text (Schleppegrell, 2004). The use of features of the scientific academic register, namely the use relational processes and nominalization (Halliday and Martin, 1993), requires transitivity analysis and noun analysis. Transitivity analysis, consisting of the identification of the process type, is conducted on 4737 ranking clauses. A manual count of each noun used in the corpus allows for a typology of nouns. Four school science genres, procedures, procedural recounts reports and explanations, are found. Most texts (85.4%) are factual, and 14.1% are classified as explanations, the analytical genre. Logistic regression analysis indicates that there is no significant probability that the texts classified as explanation are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, material process clauses predominate in the corpus, followed by relational process clauses. Results of a logistic regression analysis indicate that there is a significant probability (Chi square = 15.23, p genres and features science language, and relational processes are more prevalent in "successful" texts. However, the pervasive feature of science language, nominalization, is scarce.
Rossetto, Marietta; Chiera-Macchia, Antonella
This study investigated the use of comics (Cary, 2004) in a guided writing experience in secondary school Italian language learning. The main focus of the peer group interaction task included the exploration of visual sequencing and visual integration (Bailey, O'Grady-Jones, & McGown, 1995) using image and text to create a comic strip narrative in…
Cargill, Margaret; O'Connor, Patrick; Li, Yongyan
As is the worldwide trend, scientists in China face strong and increasing pressure to publish their research in international peer-reviewed journals written in English. There is an acute need for graduate students to develop the required language skills alongside their scientific expertise, in spite of the distinct division currently existing…
Full Text Available The study attempts to incorporate the Quality Function Deployment (QFD to be integrated strategically in designing and managing a writing course within an English learning system. Understanding the user`s needs in these communities has become the first priority of learning systems for designing, running and managing effective learning services to meet the increasing expectations of the users. To achieve this, the learning system strives to improve their quality of service by applying a wide range of such quality management approaches as QFD. QFD initially stresses on driving continuous improvement of the user-oriented services towards end-user satisfaction.
Research reveals that the division between reading and writing hinders the development of language learning in general and writing ability in specific. The study examined the effect of using the reading for writing approach on developing the writing ability of Egyptian EFL learners and their attitudes towards writing. Thirty, first year secondary…
Aguade? Bofill, Jordi
This article analyzes how Moroccan authors write today in their own dialect. Publications in Moroccan Arabic are rare: however, it seems that in the last years the situation is changing and Moroccan writers are beginning to pay more attention to their mother tongue, a language which allows them to reach better expressivity and more realism. In this article, an outline is given of the mean orthographic features used byMoroccans when writing in dialect (particularly those diverging ...
Full Text Available The main trust of the present study was to investigate whether writing performance in students of English as a foreign language (EFL was related to self-efficacy in writing, writing apprehension, and attitude towards writing. Fifty IELTS students (30 females and 20 males studying IELTS Writing participated in this study. In order to collect data, three instruments were used which were a writing apprehension test (WAT, a self-efficacy in writing scale (SWS, and a questionnaire on attitude towards writing (WAQ. In order to make the questionnaires more comprehensible, they were adapted to Iranian context. This study conducted in two phases. First, the questionnaires were administered in the fist hour. In the second phase participants were given 45 minutes to write an argumentative essay on a given topic. The compositions were scored according to IELTS Writing Band Descriptive for public version by two raters. The obtained marks were taken to indicate the students’ overall writing performance. The findings of the study suggested that, self-efficacy in writing and writing apprehension was negatively correlated. Moreover there was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and attitude towards writing. Besides, the results showed that self-efficacy and writing performance were positively correlated. The correlation between writing apprehension and attitude towards writing was negative. Finally there was a negative correlation between writing apprehension and writing performance. The results of a three-way ANOVA revealed that those learners with positive attitudes performed significantly better than those with negative attitudes on writing task. In terms of self-efficacy and apprehension levels no significant differences were found.
Investigated whether content knowledge from reading would affect the processes and the products of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students' writing and reading performance on a simulated English language test that made use of reading and writing modules. Revealed that the thematic connection between reading and writing enhanced both the…
Trends in the use of the Internet in recent years, collectively coined Web 2.0, have precipitated changes in modes and uses of writing online. Blogs and social networking sites provide new opportunities and incentives for personal writing. This reading-to-write culture requires use and development of language skills. The challenge for language…
Majid Pour-Mohammadi; Mohamad Jafre Zainol Abidin; Cheong Lai Fong
Teachers who teach English as a second language are committed to develop an understanding and improvement of second language writing as learning to write in the second language is a complicated process. Despite the numerous research on second language writing, the phenomenon of writing is constantly under investigation as teachers want to share the findings of each study which provides knowledge that resonates with their teaching experience. This case study is a report about the effect of pro...
Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.
Full Text Available Abstract: While there is a wide body of research that reports the benefits of engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflection during the practicum courses of their teacher education, there are relatively few studies which describe the nature of prospective teachers written reflections on examples of their own teaching during campus-based methodology courses. However, it has been suggested that engaging prospective English Language teachers in reflective practice early on in their teacher education could be beneficial in helping them to develop their critical thinking skills and to make the most of their future teaching experiences. Thus, the current study was conducted to describe the individual reflective profiles emerging from the analysis of the written reflections of 28 Turkish prospective English Language teachers on a video-recorded microteaching experience carried out as part of a methodology course. A mixed method approach was adopted to this aim. First, qualitative analysis of the written reflections revealed reflective categories showing how the participants reflected on their teaching experience. Second, frequency analysis was used to reveal the distribution of these reflective categories for each participant. The data analysis showed that the individual participants displayed different patterns of reflection in terms of descriptive and dialogic reflection, and positive and negative stance.
Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle
Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…
The US field of composition studies and the subfields of writing across the curriculum and writing in the disciplines have focused on the relationships between teaching, language and knowledge. The Dartmouth Institute for Writing and Rhetoric develops these relationships through courses in writing and speech, student support and faculty…
Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail
Writing has always been regarded as playing a prominent role in learning a second language. Research within this discipline has mainly focused on the development of writing skill, but in recent years, some researchers have examined students’ perceptions of writing. The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ perceptions about an academic writing course and writing in general. A total of 64 female students from an ESP program participated in the study. The general design of the ...
Silmara Carina Dornelas Munhoz
Full Text Available O processo de constituição do sujeito ocorre a partir de relações sociais, semioticamente mediadas. Assim, é via produção de sentidos que o ser humano produz cultura e, simultaneamente, constitui-se enquanto singularidade, o que caracteriza esse processo como criador. Ao reconhecer a linguagem como constitutiva do sujeito e entender o processo de criação como característico do ser humano, o presente trabalho apresenta reflexões, à luz da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural, sobre os processos de criação na/com a linguagem escrita. Situações de uma pesquisa anteriormente desenvolvida são apresentadas para ilustrar as dicotomias existentes no processo de produção escrita, mais especificamente no que se refere às relações forma/conteúdo e técnica/sentido. Para a superação dessas dicotomias, necessário se faz estabelecer relações estéticas com a realidade, por cujo intermédio a pessoa pode distanciar-se e aproximar-se da produção escrita, seja esta produto de sua objetivação ou não. É este movimento que possibilita a organização de novos sentidos para a produção própria ou alheia e, por conseguinte, novas escritas.El proceso de constitución del sujeto ocurre a partir de relaciones sociales, semióticamente mediadas. Así, es vía producción de sentidos que el ser humano produce cultura y, simultáneamente, se constituye con singularidad, lo que caracteriza ese proceso como creador. Al reconocer el lenguaje como constitutivo del sujeto y entender el de creación como característico del ser humano, el presente trabajo presenta reflexiones, a la luz de la Psicología Histórico-cultural, sobre los procesos de creación en el/con el lenguaje escrito. Situaciones de una encuesta anteriormente desarrollada son presentadas para ilustrar las dicotomías existentes en el proceso de producción escrita, más específicamente en lo que se refiere a las relaciones forma/contenido y técnica/sentido. Para la superación de esas dicotomías, se hace necesario establecer relaciones estéticas con la realidad, por cuyo intermedio la persona puede distanciarse y aproximarse de la producción escrita, sea ésta producto de su objetivación o no. Es este movimiento que posibilita la organización de nuevos sentidos para la producción propia o ajena y, por consiguiente nuevas escritas.The process of the constitution of the subject occurs through semiotically mediated social relationships. Through the production of meanings the human being produces culture and, simultaneously, constitutes its singularity, which characterizes the process as creative. While acknowledging language as constitutive of the subject and the comprehension of the creative process as unique to humans, current analysis presents some considerations, based on historical-cultural psychology, on the creative processes with language writing. Situations from a previous research are shown to illustrate the dichotomies during the process of writing production, more specifically the relations between shape/content and technique/meaning. So that these dichotomies may be overcome, it is necessary to establish aesthetic relations with reality. Through reality the subject may distance him/herself from or approach the writing production whether or not it is his/her production. Such shifting permits the organization of new meanings for one’s own or for others’ production, or rather, for new writings.
Ça?r? Tu?rul Mart
Full Text Available It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.
Algumas considerações sobre a interface entre a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS e a Língua Portuguesa na construção inicial da escrita pela criança surda Considerations on the interface between the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS and Portuguese language in the initial construction of writing of deaf children
Renata Castelo Peixoto
Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma reflexão psicolingüística sobre as construções conceituais de crianças surdas no que diz respeito à escrita. O trabalho revela, a partir de um diálogo com as idéias de Emília Ferreiro e Ana Teberosky, que a psicogênese da escrita vivenciada por crianças surdas, que têm a língua de sinais como primeira língua e língua de instrução, se desenrola de forma diferente ao que é vivido por crianças ouvintes em processo inicial de construção da escrita. As principais especificidades dessa aquisição relacionam-se: a não-fonetização da escrita, a uma intensa exploração dos aspectos viso-espaciais da escrita e ao uso dos parâmetros fonológicos da língua de sinais como elemento regulador e organizador da escrita. Tais peculiaridades exigem, portanto, que a escola e o professor alfabetizador revejam suas concepções sobre o processo de escrita no surdo, pensando em (novas práticas pedagógicas que considerem a realidade bilíngüe e sua relação não-sonora com a escrita.This paper proposes a psycholinguistic reflection on the conceptual constructions of deaf children in what regards writing. Based on a dialogue with the ideas of Emília Ferreiro and Ana Teberosky, this work reveals that the psychogenesis of writing experienced by deaf children who have sign language as their first and instruction language, occurs in a different way than that of hearing children in the initial process of constructing writing. The main specificities of this acquisition are related to the non-phonetization of writing, to an intense exploration of the visual-spatial aspects of writing and to the usage of the phonologic parameters of sign language as a regulating and organizing element of writing. Such peculiarities thus demand that school and alphabetizing teachers revise their conceptions on the process of writing of the deaf, thinking of (new pedagogical practices that take into account the bilingual reality and its soundless relationship to writing.
Algumas considerações sobre a interface entre a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS) e a Língua Portuguesa na construção inicial da escrita pela criança surda / Considerations on the interface between the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS) and Portuguese language in the initial construction of writing of deaf children
Renata Castelo, Peixoto.
Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma reflexão psicolingüística sobre as construções conceituais de crianças surdas no que diz respeito à escrita. O trabalho revela, a partir de um diálogo com as idéias de Emília Ferreiro e Ana Teberosky, que a psicogênese da escrita vivenciada por crianças surdas, que têm a língua d [...] e sinais como primeira língua e língua de instrução, se desenrola de forma diferente ao que é vivido por crianças ouvintes em processo inicial de construção da escrita. As principais especificidades dessa aquisição relacionam-se: a não-fonetização da escrita, a uma intensa exploração dos aspectos viso-espaciais da escrita e ao uso dos parâmetros fonológicos da língua de sinais como elemento regulador e organizador da escrita. Tais peculiaridades exigem, portanto, que a escola e o professor alfabetizador revejam suas concepções sobre o processo de escrita no surdo, pensando em (novas) práticas pedagógicas que considerem a realidade bilíngüe e sua relação não-sonora com a escrita. Abstract in english This paper proposes a psycholinguistic reflection on the conceptual constructions of deaf children in what regards writing. Based on a dialogue with the ideas of Emília Ferreiro and Ana Teberosky, this work reveals that the psychogenesis of writing experienced by deaf children who have sign language [...] as their first and instruction language, occurs in a different way than that of hearing children in the initial process of constructing writing. The main specificities of this acquisition are related to the non-phonetization of writing, to an intense exploration of the visual-spatial aspects of writing and to the usage of the phonologic parameters of sign language as a regulating and organizing element of writing. Such peculiarities thus demand that school and alphabetizing teachers revise their conceptions on the process of writing of the deaf, thinking of (new) pedagogical practices that take into account the bilingual reality and its soundless relationship to writing.
Full Text Available Abstract: In our TEFL situation, it is simply in the classroom that we expect our students to get the language exposures as much as possible since the language is not used outside the classroom. Therefore, every opportunity in the teaching learning process should be geared towards the students' using the target language.This paper highlights how oral communication skills can be encouraged even in a writing class. With a paradigmatic change in the teaching of writing, teachers do not value only `the product' but also `the process'. When translated into the classroom, one of the features of this new paradigm, the writing process approach, is `the conference', which occurs between teacher and students as well as between students. As Mol (1992 states, writing conference provides students with immediate, meaningful responses to their writing, developing students' ability to reflect upon their own writing and the writing of others in a critical and constructive way. Looking back at our own experience in teaching writing, the conference does not only scaffold the students in the process of meaning-making but also creates an atmosphere where they are actively engaged in a `more focused' talk. This is of paramount importance since our students tend to speak in their native language even in the classroom.
To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.
Masoome Kooshafar; Manijeh Youhanaee; Zahra Amirian
Considering the communicative framework of language teaching, writing has an advantage- a person can give a variety of information to a close or distant, known or unknown reader or readers. Such way of communicating is highly important in the modern world, whether the communication is in the form of paper-and-pencil writing or advanced electronic writing. Therefore, this skill should be encouraged and nurtured during the language teaching course. Writing consists of different aspects like out...
Miguel Zabalza Beraza
Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.
Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010
This document presents writing samples that have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing--argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative--in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for…
Full Text Available A Teoria de Sistemas Complexos (TSC) tem sido acionada em diversos campos, como forma de examinar os fenômenos de uma maneira que faz com que a interconectividade e emergência sejam centrais para pesquisa. Para a linguística aplicada, TSC oferece a possibilidade de englobar tanto a linguagm quanto a [...] aprendizagem. Ao fazer isso, a orientação teórica tem de ser totalmente integrada ao processo de pesquisa por meio da metodologia de pesquisa. Este artigo descreve um método qualitativo microetnográfico, Análise de Traços Lexicais, que se baseia no conceito de emergência. É um método analítico que nos permite ver o desenvolvimento longitudinal de palavras e de seus padrões. Ele é aplicado aqui em um estudo de caso sobre o desenvolvimento de padrões léxico-gramaticais (sequências formulaicas, colocações, expressões idiomáticas etc.) de uma usuária de uma segunda língua. Seus padrões de palavras são rastreados enquanto ela se prepara para o vestibular para a universidade e, posteriormente, assim que ela entra na universidade. Seu uso de padrões envolve imitação adaptativa, um processo complexo de percepção de padrões, imitação e adaptação para atender aos novos objetivos comunicativos. Abstract in english Complex Systems Theory (CST) has been called upon in many different fields as a means of examining phenomena in a way that makes interconnectivity and emergence central to research. For applied linguistics, CST offers the possibility of encompassing both language and learning. In doing so, the theor [...] etical orientation needs to be fully integrated into the research process through research methodology. This paper describes a qualitative microethnographic method, Lexical Trail Analysis, which draws on the concept of emergence. It is an analytic method that enables us to see the longitudinal development of words and their patterns. It is applied here in a case study of the development of one second language user's lexicogrammatical patterns (formulaic sequences, collocations, idioms, etc.). Her word patterns are traced as she prepares for a university entrance test and later, once she enters the university. Her use of patterns involves adaptive imitation, a complex process of perceiving, imitating and adapting patterns to suit new communicative goals.
Bringing new project funding and business opportunities to your organization is a vital part of UX professionals' growth and success. Writing Successful UX Proposals teaches the proven techniques for assessing proposal requests, writing successful commercial and government funding proposals, and enhancing your business development skills. This book will teach UX practitioners how to succeed in UX business development by mastering the following goals: * Understand how to assess a request for proposals* Understand the "anatomy" of a proposal response * Speak the business language of those who will be evaluating the proposed approach* Recognize the successes of others and build upon their advice Complete with case studies, tricks and tips, and real-world examples throughout, this is a must-have resource for UX professionals interested in honing their proposal writing skills and setting themselves up for success. * Provides unique sales and proposal writing insights tailored to the UX arena (including both resear...
Kim, Young-Suk; AL OTAIBA, STEPHANIE; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Wagner, Richard K.
The present study examined the components of end of kindergarten writing, using data from 242 kindergartners. Specifically of interest was the importance of spelling, letter writing fluency, reading, and word- and syntax-level oral language skills in writing. The results from structural equation modeling revealed that oral language, spelling, and letter writing fluency were positively and uniquely related to writing skill after accounting for reading skills. Reading skill was not uniquely rel...
Villamil, Olga; Carrasquillo, Angela
A discussion of the evaluation of writing in English as a second language looks at conflicting approaches and viewpoints in the literature and suggests strategies for classroom evaluation. Conflicts are found in the literature concerning the importance of writing evaluation, the types of assessment to be used, and procedures for scoring writing…
Kargozari, Hamid R.; Ghaemi, Hamed
The purpose of the present study is to determine whether Web-based Writing Instruction (WBWI) has any influence on the writing quality of Iranian EFL learners. Two groups of EFL learners who were studying English in an English Language Institute participated in the experiment. They were enrolled in an advanced writing course. Before instruction, both groups were pre-tested through writing essays. T-test results illustrated significant differences between two groups in writing ability. The ex...
Examines hedging in textbooks by focusing on the coverage of lexical items as markers of uncertainty and tentativeness. Tentative language continues to be a source of pragmatic failure in the writing of second-language science students. Hence, it is suggested that pedagogic writing materials would benefit from revisions based on authentic data.…
Giti Mousapour Negari
Writing in a second or foreign language seems to be the most difficult language skill for language learners to acquire in academic contexts. While explicit instruction of strategies is not a usual practice in foreign language classrooms, it could be beneficial for language learners. The present study aims at investigating the effect of concept mapping strategy on EFL learners' writing performance. To this end, sixty Iranian students at the intermediate level of language proficiency participat...
Deni Darmawan; Tatat Hartati; Effy Mulyasari
This study aims at overcoming difficulty in learning language, both in Indonesian Language and English at international elementary school, especially in creative writing. Creative writing as part of human activity is creativity with language medium as prose (narrative, description), poem (old, new and modern), as well as drama (dialogue, role play, and sosio drama). Specific target to be achieved is the design of Video Streaming for all kinds of creative writing in the language of Indonesian ...
This web page provides an overview of the RAFT writing strategy, a strategy that helps students understand their role as a writer, the audience they will address, the varied formats for writing, and the topic they'll be writing about. Sample RAFT prompts and references are provided.
Habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares / Oral and written language skills for reading and writing in preschool children Habilidades / Linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares
Esperanza, Guarneros Reyes; Lizbeth, Vega Pérez.
Full Text Available As crianças pré-escolares já possuem noções de leitura e escritura porque têm desenvolvido habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas que se relacionam entre si, e por sua vez, com a aquisição da leitura e a escritura convencionais. Este artigo de revisão tem por objetivos: (a) Descrever as relações [...] existentes entre linguagem oral e escrita nos anos pré-escolares, e (b) Identificar as habilidades concretas da linguagem da criança pré-escolar que possibilitam a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais. Fez-se uma busca nas bases de dados ERIC e OVID de emergent literacy,phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, que contribuiu com os componentes da linguajem oral (habilidades fonológicas e semânticas) que se relacionam com a aquisição da leitura e escritura convencionais, assim como uma proposta de análise na que se enfatiza o processo das habilidades linguísticas orais e escritas para a leitura e escritura em crianças pré-escolares. Abstract in spanish Los niños preescolares ya poseen nociones de lectura y escritura porque han desarrollado habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas que se relacionan entre sí y, a su vez, con la adquisición de la lectura y la escritura convencionales. Este artículo de revisión tiene como objetivos (a) Describir las [...] relaciones existentes entre lenguaje oral y escrito en los años preescolares, e (b) Identificar las habilidades concretas del lenguaje del niño preescolar que posibilitan la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales. Se hizo una búsqueda en las bases de datos ERIC y OVID de emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, preschoolers y language skills, la cual aportó los componentes del lenguaje oral -habilidades fonológicas y semánticas- que se relacionan con la adquisición de la lectura y escritura convencionales, así como una propuesta de análisis en la que se enfatiza el proceso de las habilidades lingüísticas orales y escritas para la lectura y escritura en niños preescolares. Abstract in english Preschool children already have notions of reading and writing because they have developed oral and written language skills that relate to each other, and in turn, with the acquisition of conventional reading and writing. This review article aims to: (a) identify the relationship between oral and wr [...] itten language in the preschool years, and (b) Identify the specific skills of the preschool child language enabling the acquisition of conventional literacy. A search in the databases ERIC and OVID for emergent literacy, phonological awareness, vocabulary, reading, writing, and language skills preschoolers. This provided the oral-language components and semanti-cphonological skills that relate to the acquisition of conventional reading and writing, as well as a proposal for analysis that emphasizes the process of oral and written language skills for literacy in preschool children.
Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Wagner, Richard K.
The present study examined the components of end of kindergarten writing, using data from 242 kindergartners. Specifically of interest was the importance of spelling, letter writing fluency, reading, and word- and syntax-level oral language skills in writing. The results from structural equation modeling revealed that oral language, spelling, and…
Steinlaug Sigríður Bjarnadóttir 1953
This study examines the nature of written feedback in English writing in 8th and 10th grades of the compulsory school in Iceland. It investigates the amount of feedback provided and which aspects of the writing the teachers address in their feedback. It also studies the teachers´views on their teaching of writing in English and their feedback practices. The data consists of two hundred and sixty-four copies of English writing samples from students in the 8th and 10th grades collected from t...
Li, Aike; Post, Brechtje
This study examines the development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) learners of typologically different first languages (L1s) at different levels of proficiency. An empirical investigation of durational variation in L2 English productions by L1 Mandarin learners and L1 German learners compared to native control values in English and the…
Georgia State University's website on Business Writing was designed as a tool for teachers creating new business writing courses. Included in the samples are class projects, student assignments, teaching philosophies, and multi-media suggestions for teaching writing to large groups. In addition to the syllabi provided, there are schedule breakdowns for classes held three times a week or two times per week, and assessment tips. This website could be valuable to any instructor of writing, but especially helpful for those designing business writing courses.
Marziyeh Tahmouresi Majelan
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate empirically if promoting a multimedia package enhances content knowledge in essay writing of 80 junior English translation students at a University in Karaj, Iran; plus, whether the learners’ writing content improve due to the presence of the multimedia package or not. The multimedia was considered to be a CD, containing recordings both in first language (L1=Farsi and in second language (L2=English along with manipulative and task-based activities. A homogenizing test, the pre-posttests, and the material in a form of a CD (treatment including forty of the most common TOEFL essays both in L1 and L2 plus manipulative tasks to fulfill provided by the researcher, were the instruments in the study. After 14 weeks, both the experimental and control groups sat for the posttest with exactly the same characteristics of pretest except for the topics. When the collected data was analyzed, a mean difference of t-test along with a paired t-test showed a significant difference between the performance of the control and the experimental groups, regarding the content. Consequently, the statistics proved that enhancing content knowledge by means of a multimedia package containing recordings plus manipulative and task-based activities would improve students’ writing ability while the control group in which a current traditional rhetoric approach was used, the placebo, did not show any statistically significant improvement regarding content.
Suwantarathip, Ornprapat; Wichadee, Saovapa
Google Docs, a free web-based version of Microsoft Word, offers collaborative features which can be used to facilitate collaborative writing in a foreign language classroom. The current study compared writing abilities of students who collaborated on writing assignments using Google Docs with those working in groups in a face-to-face classroom.…
Degand, Liesbeth; Sanders, Ted
Investigates the impact of causal discourse markers (connectives and signaling phrases) on the comprehension of expository texts in a first language (L1) and a second language (L2). Indicates that readers benefit from the presence of causal relational markers both in L1 and in L2. Discusses implications for (theories of) text processing as well as…
Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy
This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) skills in elementary school and second language (L2) learning in high school. Students classified as high-, average-, and low-proficiency L2 learners were compared on L1 achievement measures of reading, spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and listening comprehension…
Explains how the writing process approach utilizing hypermedia software can help non-native speakers develop an awareness of English-language composition structures. Discusses the pedagogical basis for the writing process, as well as the benefits computers and specialized software can bring to the language classroom. (Author/VWL)
Full Text Available This paper discusses relationships between language anxiety and self. Self refers to an individual’s (a self-confidence, (b language ego, L2/FL self or identity developed during second or foreign language learning, or a combination of both L1 self and L2/FL self. Based on previous literature on language anxiety and L2 or FL learning, language learners’ self-confidence might imply a lack of language anxiety which enhances language achievement (e.g., Casado & Dereshiwsky, 2004; Clément, 1980; Liu & Chen, 2013; Matsuda & Gobel, 2004; Onwuegbuzie, Bailey, & Daley, 1999; Peng & Woodrow, 2010; Ro, 2013. Language anxiety is an experience unique to the language learning process, and this unique emotion or experience may be associated with the anxiety of feeling limited, broken, incompetent, having another self or a different personality in a target language. I believe that while learning target languages, L2 or FL identities are developing, and L1 identities are reconstructed. Language learners may feel the loss of L1 identities in a target language context or may feel that they are not able to express their thoughts in a target language. When learners feel the loss of L1 identities, feel limited or broken, this may be language anxiety arising.
Full Text Available Self-efficacy has been broadly studied in recent decades and it has been attested an essential contributor to success in English language learning. However, to date, there have been few studies looking into self-efficacy in EFL writing, and into the students’ self-efficacy at a micro-skill level. This paper aims to investigate whether there is a relationship between writing self-efficacy and writing performance and to explore whether students’ overall writing self-efficacy predicts their overall writing performance. By means of a questionnaire for writing self-efficacy and a paragraph writing test, paragraph writing scores of 51 third-year English majors were collected. Then the data were computed using Pearson Correlation Coefficient and the Simple Linear Regression. The results reveal that there is a significant positive relationship between writing self-efficacy and writing performance both at the paragraph level and at the sub-skill level. Furthermore, the overall writing self-efficacy predicts the overall writing performance. In the last part, the importance of self-efficacy is discussed and implications for EFL/ESL education are offered.Keywords: aspects of writing, English as a foreign language, paragraph writing, writing self-efficacy
Peter Yunlin Muir
Full Text Available This present study provides overviews of the phenomenon in EFL writing instruction in basic education in mainland China, which in its natural sense never proceeds among young learners at high school level. Then it investigated 34 students’ short in-class compositions. Beyond many spelling and syntactic errors, their pragmatic failures are therefore categorized into pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic failures in accordance with Jenny Thomas (1983. It finds that pragmalinguistic failures are as follows: verbose appositions, combination of two subordinate clauses, misunderstandings of word meaning, Chinese construction of sentences, run-on sentences, independent subordinate clauses, the omission of relative pronouns and that sociopragmatic failure, considerably rare, lies in their perception and expression of specific Chinese-based pragmatic conventions. The author argues that the causes of pragmatic failure are their limited language proficiency and L1 pragmatic transfer. Based on the investigation and findings of the study, the author puts forward some tentative solutions to achieve pragmatic appropriateness in writing: (1 Appropriate in-class introduction of target language pragmatic knowledge and culture; (2 The awareness of distinguishing the target language with L1.
El oficio del escritor académico: un portal para promover el uso de la lengua escrita como práctica social / The Profession of Academic Writing: A Portal to Promote the Use of Written Language as a Social Practice
Juan Manuel, Fernández-Cárdenas; Lorena, Piña-Gómez.
Full Text Available La escritura académica es un campo en creciente desarrollo debido al reconocimiento de que el uso de la lengua escrita y la socialización en las disciplinas académicas es indisoluble: la lengua no puede reducirse a la enseñanza de la ortografía y la gramática, ni la construcción de conocimiento pued [...] e entenderse sin la mediación de textos académicos en la educación superior. Sin embargo, existen aún muy pocas iniciativas institucionales para formalizar este tipo de acciones, y menos con un componente tecnológico. En este artículo presentamos el desarrollo de un portal de recursos para la escritura académica, el cual ilustra un conjunto de acciones y procesos constitutivos del oficio del escritor académico como una práctica social. Este modelaje de escritura académica se logra utilizando un paradigma sociocultural y uno de semiótica visual. Abstract in english Academic writing is a growing field due to the recognition that the use of written language and socialization in academic disciplines is indissoluble: language cannot be reduced to teaching spelling and grammar, nor can the construction of knowledge be understood without the mediation of academic te [...] xts in higher education. However, institutional initiatives for formalizing this type of actions are still very limited, especially in the case of technological components. In this article, we present the development of a portal of resources for academic writing, which illustrates a set of actions and processes that constitute the profession of academic writing as a social practice. This model of academic writing is achieved by using a sociocultural paradigm and a paradigm of visual semiotics.
Teorías personales de docentes de lengua sobre la enseñanza de la escritura en sistema de educación pública chilena / Language teacher personal theories about teaching writing in the Chilean public educational system
Roxanna Carolina Correa, Pérez; Mónica Tapia, Ladino; Angie Neira, Martinez; Mabel Ortiz, Navarrete.
Full Text Available Es sabido que las ideas que los docentes sostienen acerca de los procesos de enseñanza -aprendizaje de lenguas inciden en su quehacer pedagógico. Son escasos los estudios que explican las teorías personales de profesores de lenguas en torno a las habilidades lingüísticas de sus estudiantes. Por esta [...] razón, el objetivo de este trabajo es determinar cuáles son las teorías personales sobre escritura y su enseñanza en la educación media de seis profesores de inglés y de seis de Lenguaje y Comunicación que se desempeñan en establecimientos educacionales municipalizados de dos regiones de Chile. Para acceder a las teorías personales, los docentes fueron entrevistados con la finalidad de conocer sus ideas sobre diferentes aspectos de la enseñanza de la escritura. La metodología de análisis fue cualitativa y el procesamiento de los datos se realizó con el software NVivo. Los resultados obtenidos indican que los docentes asignan una alta importancia al desarrollo de la escritura, realizan actividades secuenciadas, se apoyan en textos modelos, favorecen el trabajo individual y promueven la escritura de textos breves. Abstract in english It is well known that the teachers' ideas about any area related to language teaching and learning processes impact on their pedagogical practice. There are not many studies, however, that explain language teachers' personal theories about linguistics abilities. The aim of this article is to present [...] the personal theories about writing of 6 English teachers and 6 Spanish teachers, who work in public schools in two regions of Chile. In order to find out the personal theories, we interviewed the teachers to deal with different aspects of the process of teaching writing. The methodology was qualitative and the data analysis was carried out with the support of NVivo software. The results indicate that the teachers assign great importance to the development of writing, carry out sequenced activities, support the process with model texts, foster individual work and promote the writing of brief texts.
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This article explores five students’ perceptions of their writing experiences at an English-medium post-graduate university in a non-English speaking country as compared to writing in their home country universities in their native languages. Three types of differences are found to be relevant: language and rhetorical differences, disciplinary differences, and differences in educational systems (such as the number of assignments required, the focus of writing instruction, and feedback...
In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. Task One What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Task Two Use these site to answer the following questions: Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. ...
Chamberlin, Shannon Marie
Scientific literacy is the foundation on which both California's currently adopted science standards and the recommended new standards for science are based (CDE, 2000; NRC, 2011). The Writing for Science Literacy (WSL) curriculum focuses on a series of writing and discussion tasks aimed at increasing students' scientific literacy. These tasks are based on three teaching and learning constructs: thought and language, scaffolding, and meta-cognition. To this end, WSL is focused on incorporating several strategies from the Rhetorical Approach to Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking to engage students in activities designed to increase their scientific literacy; their ability to both identify an author's claim and evidence and to develop their own arguments based on a claim and evidence. Students participated in scaffolded activities designed to strengthen their written and oral discourse, hone their rhetorical skills and improve their meta-cognition. These activities required students to participate in both writing and discussion tasks to create meaning and build their science content knowledge. Students who participated in the WSL curriculum increased their written and oral fluency and were able to accurately write an evidence-based conclusion all while increasing their conceptual knowledge. This finding implies that a discourse rich curriculum can lead to an increase in scientific knowledge.
Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.
This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student. The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition. Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...
Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary
Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL
Full Text Available Second language (L2 instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1 acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI is first performed by the language trainer andthen imitated by the learners. Behavioral experiments demonstrate that words encoded through VMIs are easierto memorize than audio-visually encoded words and that they are better retained over time. The reasons whygestures promote language learning are manifold. First, we focus on language as an embodied phenomenon ofcognition. Then we review evidence that gestures scaffold the acquisition of L1. Because VMIs reconnectlanguage learning with the body, they can be considered as a more natural tool for language instruction thanaudio-visual activities.
La comprensión oral del lenguaje no literal y su relación con la producción escrita en escolares / Co-relation between oral comprehension of non-literal language and writing in elementary school students
Nina, Crespo; Ricardo, Benítez; Pablo, Cáceres.
Full Text Available Un grupo considerable de niños y jóvenes chilenos escolarizados presenta problemas para producir textos escritos en forma autónoma. Las explicaciones de este fenómeno son diversas, pero este trabajo se focalizará en el desarrollo de la lengua oral que ocurre durante la edad escolar, a partir de los [...] seis años. Concretamente, se referirá aquí a la interpretación de ciertas formas orales de lo no literal: los actos de habla indirectos y las ironías. Teóricamente, la conexión escritura/comprensión oral de lo no literal se fundamenta en que ambas parecieran estar relacionadas con el desarrollo de la conciencia metalingüística y de la teoría de la mente. Empíricamente, se lleva a cabo un estudio con 141 estudiantes de 13 y 14 años cuya comprensión oral fue medida con el Instrumento de Medición de Inferencias Pragmáticas (IMIP) y su habilidad de escritura, con una Pauta de Evaluación Analítica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una correlación canónica y los resultados muestran, por una parte, un grado moderado de asociación entre las variables observables orales y escritas entre sí y, por otra parte, un grado de correlación canónica bajo pero significativo entre las dimensiones latentes comprensión oral y producción escrita (Rc = 0,26, p Abstract in english A substantial number of school children and youngsters encounters problems with the production of written texts in an autonomous fashion. Although the reasons for this phenomenon are various, it will hereby be focused on the development of the oral language occurring during the school age; that is, [...] from six years of age on. In particular, this study will refer to certain forms of non-literal language: indirect speech acts and ironies. Theoretically, the writing/oral comprehension of non-literal language connection is based on their seeming relationship with the development of a metalinguistic conscience and a theory of the mind. Empirically, this study involves the participation of 141 13-14-year-old students whose oral comprehension was measured by the Instrument for the Measurement of Pragmatic Inferences (IMIP, according to the Spanish acronym), and writing, by an Analytic Assessment Guide. Data were analyzed with the aid of canonical co-relation and the results reveal, on the one hand, a moderate degree of association in the observable oral and writing variables among themselves and, on the other, a low but significant degree of canonical co-relation between the latent oral and writing variables (Rc = 0,26, p
A atenção fonoaudiólogica e a linguagem escrita de pessoas com baixa visão: estudo exploratório / Speech and language pathology therapy and the reading and writing of a person with visual disabilitie: exploratory study
Mayla Myrina Bianchim, Monteiro; Rita de Cássia Ietto, Montilha; Maria Elisabete Rodrigues Freire, Gasparetto.
Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: conhecer como as pessoas com baixa visão (visão subnormal) adquirida utilizavam a linguagem escrita no cotidiano e recomendar a atenção fonoaudiológica nesse processo. Foi realizado estudo descritivo exploratório para a construção do instrumento de coleta de dados. [...] A amostra foi constituída por pessoas com baixa visão que freqüentaram o Programa de Reabilitação de Adolescentes e Adultos do Cepre/FCM/Unicamp em 2008. Aplicou-se questionário por entrevista, onde foram investigadas as variáveis: características pessoais, uso de recursos de tecnologia assistiva na leitura e escrita, razões das atividades de leitura e escrita e frequência do uso após a perda visual. A amostra foi composta por 08 pessoas com baixa visão com média de idade de 47 anos e predominância do sexo masculino (75,0%). Os resultados indicaram que a maioria (62,5%) relatou utilizar auxílios ópticos nas atividades de leitura. Todos informaram utilizar auxílios não ópticos na leitura. Os sujeitos declararam utilizar a leitura para obter informações sobre assuntos que os interessavam e a escrita para se comunicarem com as outras pessoas. Verificou-se que a maioria (75,0%), relatou não utilizar a leitura e nem a escrita com a mesma freqüência que usava antes da perda visual e os motivos alegados foram a dificuldade para enxergar e o cansaço visual. A redução do uso da linguagem escrita no cotidiano por sujeitos com baixa visão adquirida compromete a autonomia e independência, fato este que demonstra necessidade de ênfase no trabalho com a linguagem escrita que poderá ser maximizado por meio da atenção fonoaudiológica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to: understand how people with acquired low vision (subnormal vision) used written language in daily living and to recommend speech and language pathology therapy during the process. A descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in order to build a data collection instrumen [...] t. The sample was composed of subjects with low vision who attended Cepre / FCM / Unicamp in 2008. A questionnaire was applied during an interview, during which time the following variables were investigated: personal characteristics, use of assistive technology in reading and writing, reasons for performing reading and writing activities and the frequency of reading and writing after having acquired the visual loss. The sample was made up of 8 subjects with acquired low vision. The mean age was 47 years, of which 75,0% were males. Most of the subjects (62,5%) declared they used optical aids to read. All reported they used non-optical aids to read. The results showed that the subjects reported that they used to read to get information on topics of interest and they write to communicate with other people. The majority (75,0%) reported they didn't read and write with the same frequency as before the emergence of the ophthalmic problem and the reason given was difficulty in seeing and eyestrain. The reduction of reading and writing for individuals with low vision justifies the need for greater emphasis on working with reading and writing during rehabilitation, and this can be enhanced by speech and language pathology therapy.
A atenção fonoaudiólogica e a linguagem escrita de pessoas com baixa visão: estudo exploratório Speech and language pathology therapy and the reading and writing of a person with visual disabilitie: exploratory study
Mayla Myrina Bianchim Monteiro
Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: conhecer como as pessoas com baixa visão (visão subnormal adquirida utilizavam a linguagem escrita no cotidiano e recomendar a atenção fonoaudiológica nesse processo. Foi realizado estudo descritivo exploratório para a construção do instrumento de coleta de dados. A amostra foi constituída por pessoas com baixa visão que freqüentaram o Programa de Reabilitação de Adolescentes e Adultos do Cepre/FCM/Unicamp em 2008. Aplicou-se questionário por entrevista, onde foram investigadas as variáveis: características pessoais, uso de recursos de tecnologia assistiva na leitura e escrita, razões das atividades de leitura e escrita e frequência do uso após a perda visual. A amostra foi composta por 08 pessoas com baixa visão com média de idade de 47 anos e predominância do sexo masculino (75,0%. Os resultados indicaram que a maioria (62,5% relatou utilizar auxílios ópticos nas atividades de leitura. Todos informaram utilizar auxílios não ópticos na leitura. Os sujeitos declararam utilizar a leitura para obter informações sobre assuntos que os interessavam e a escrita para se comunicarem com as outras pessoas. Verificou-se que a maioria (75,0%, relatou não utilizar a leitura e nem a escrita com a mesma freqüência que usava antes da perda visual e os motivos alegados foram a dificuldade para enxergar e o cansaço visual. A redução do uso da linguagem escrita no cotidiano por sujeitos com baixa visão adquirida compromete a autonomia e independência, fato este que demonstra necessidade de ênfase no trabalho com a linguagem escrita que poderá ser maximizado por meio da atenção fonoaudiológica.The aim of this study was to: understand how people with acquired low vision (subnormal vision used written language in daily living and to recommend speech and language pathology therapy during the process. A descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in order to build a data collection instrument. The sample was composed of subjects with low vision who attended Cepre / FCM / Unicamp in 2008. A questionnaire was applied during an interview, during which time the following variables were investigated: personal characteristics, use of assistive technology in reading and writing, reasons for performing reading and writing activities and the frequency of reading and writing after having acquired the visual loss. The sample was made up of 8 subjects with acquired low vision. The mean age was 47 years, of which 75,0% were males. Most of the subjects (62,5% declared they used optical aids to read. All reported they used non-optical aids to read. The results showed that the subjects reported that they used to read to get information on topics of interest and they write to communicate with other people. The majority (75,0% reported they didn't read and write with the same frequency as before the emergence of the ophthalmic problem and the reason given was difficulty in seeing and eyestrain. The reduction of reading and writing for individuals with low vision justifies the need for greater emphasis on working with reading and writing during rehabilitation, and this can be enhanced by speech and language pathology therapy.
Naoko Machida; Dalsky, David J.
Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students’ learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students’ writing anxiety. Participants completed writing anxiety scales and were randomly assigned to three groups before completing a writing task: concept mapping, idea l...
Change of first language (L1) status from the most stable language to a less accessible language over the life-span of a bilingual individual is termed "language attrition". Such a shift in ease of L1 access has been reported to affect the lexicon (Pelc, 2001) more than other aspects of language. However, whether L1 attrition is affected by…
Abdulaziz Ibraheem Fageeh
Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effects of journal writing and reading comprehension practice during pre-writing on the development of the writing of college students enrolled in English as a foreign language (EFL programme. A factorial design was manipulated, where subjects (n = 42 were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Existing scores on the students’ first semester writing achievement test were used to determine the writing proficiency levels of the subjects. Data were collected through administering two writing tests, an one-hour test and a 15-minutes free writing test. The results of these tests were analyzed using t-test to assess the relationship between writing fluency, complexity and accuracy. Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations and two multivariate analyses of variances (MANOVA were further run in order to address the questions raised in the study. Findings of the study showed that there was no significant difference between journal writing and reading comprehension practice in improving the writing fluency, complexity and accuracy of the students. The MANOVA test run to test the interaction between the treatment (journal writing and reading comprehension texts and the writing proficiency levels (low vs. high on the writing fluency, complexity and accuracy showed no significant results. Recommendations for future research were provided at the end of the study.
Powers, Donald E.; Powers, Andrew
Typically, English language proficiency tests yield multiple scores--usually for each of the four traditional language domains. In order to maximize the usefulness of test scores, they may need to be accompanied by information concerning how they complement one another. Using self-assessments by some 2300 TOEIC test takers, this study aimed to…
Nationally, foreign language faculty have been adjusting their curricula to ensure that today's college students know how to use technology to communicate effectively in languages other than their native tongue. Once upon a time, students were considered fluent if they could read, write, speak and aurally comprehend a foreign language. However…
Several recent reports on the untutored second language acquisition of English have suggested that the same developmental sequence holds for the acquisition of the interrogative structures irrespective of whether English is acquired as a first language (L1) or a second language (L2). These studies have been conducted within the Klima & Bellugi…
Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD
Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.
Barney G Glaser, Phd
The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT) methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, b...
Connecting reading and writing has become an important trend in teaching the language arts. Poetry, as a salient facet of the reading curriculum, integrates well with different purposes in writing. Poetry read aloud to students can assist learners to enjoy reading activities and develop the feeling and aesthetic dimension of learning, among other…
Padula, Janice; Nin, Lucy; Lam, Sucy
Suggests that teachers could write problems to suit student populations in their schools and in the process of doing so encourage discussion, reflection, and writing by their students on mathematical language. Presents a series of games for the creation of equations for Year 7 students. (Contains 13 references.) (ASK)
Clerehan, Rosemary; Moore, Tim; Vance, Sheila
The Monash University (Australia) Transition to Tertiary Writing Project seeks to produce a World Wide Web-based resource for first-year students to facilitate their transition to the kinds of thinking and writing valued at the university. The background research on which this language and academic skills (LAS) project is based centers on three…
This article examines how learning an additional language can positively affect children's opinions and feelings about languages and how this process can be enriched when different languages--namely, the additional language and the children's L1s--are present and used in the classroom in an informed way. It is hypothesised that this will benefit…
This paper discusses relationships between language anxiety and self. Self refers to an individual’s (a) self-confidence, (b) language ego, L2/FL self or identity developed during second or foreign language learning, or a combination of both L1 self and L2/FL self. Based on previous literature on language anxiety and L2 or FL learning, language learners’ self-confidence might imply a lack of language anxiety which enhances language achievement (e.g., Casado & Dereshiwsky, 2004; Cléme...
Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip
As Bourdieu and Passeron noted, academic discourse is never anyone’s ‘mother tongue’. Acquisition of this discourse in one’s first language is a prime aim of undergraduate education, but there is evidence that a substantial minority of students fail to acquire it. There is strong evidence that academic discourse skills are transferable from L1 to L2 and best acquired in L1, but it is not clear to what extent these skills represent usable capital in professional life. Graduates often report having to write in a very different style from the one they have been taught at university. There may be a trade-off between the fluency in a second language provided by its use as sole or parallel medium in education and educational depth in the discipline studied. This fluency may in some circumstances constitute greater capital than the disciplinary insights partially sacrificed. But this varies strikingly across disciplines. This paper uses Bourdieu’s framework to assess the types of linguistic capital – academic discourse, foreign-language fluency, and more – to be acquired in the internationalized university, their utility in the personal advancement of graduates in various societies, and the variation of these factors across disciplines.
Grymonpre, Kris; Cohn, Allison; Solomon, Stacey
How many times do teachers assign writing in science class only to be exasperated by their students' lack of writing skills? They often have difficulty making claims and using evidence; instead of explaining their reasoning, they state, "Just because." But teaching writing isn't just for English/language arts (ELA) class. Over the past two years,…
Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati
Noting that electronic communication places new demands on language that leads to interesting variations in written language use, this Digest summarizes insights gained from research on writing behavior and performance in the electronic age. It concludes that both the process and the content of writing are evolving in response to the increased use…
Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.
Theoretical sorting has brought the analyst to the point of pent-up pressure to write: to see the months of work actualized in a “piece.” But this is only a personal pressure. The goal of grounded theory methodology, above all is to offer the results to the public, usually through one or more publications. We will focus on writing for publication, which is the most frequent way that the analyst can tell how people are “buying” what really matters in sociology, or in other fields.Both feedback...
Adriana da, Silva.
Full Text Available Verificamos as representações sociais de escrita de alunos de Mestrado em Letras. Procuramos usar a Teoria das Representações Sociais para investigarmos as representações da escrita de 10 alunos do Mestrado em Letras de uma Universidade Federal do interior de Minas Gerais. Associamos essas represent [...] ações aos discursos sobre a escrita difundidos na esfera acadêmica. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, baseado em narrativas elaboradas por esses alunos. Concluímos que, durante o maior período de escolarização desses alunos, as representações da escrita foram negativas, mas se transformaram em positivas com o passar do tempo. Isso demonstra que as representações são plásticas, flexíveis, pois antigas representações dão lugar a novas representações em função das experiências humanas, influenciadas por novos contextos. As narrativas sobre a história da escrita podem ser um caminho para professores conhecerem os percursos da escrita desenvolvidos por seus alunos, assim como permitem a identificação das representações sociais desses alunos. Abstract in spanish Verificamos las representaciones sociales de escritura de alumnos de Maestría en Letras. Procuramos usar la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales para investigar las representaciones de la escritura de 10 alumnos de la Maestría en Letras de una Universidad Federal del interior de Minas Gerais. Aso [...] ciamos esas representaciones a los discursos sobre la escritura difundidos en la esfera académica. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, basado en narrativas elaboradas por esos alumnos. Concluimos que, durante el mayor período de escolaridad de esos alumnos, las representaciones de la escritura fueron negativas, pero se transformaron en positivas con el paso del tiempo. Eso demuestra que las representaciones son plásticas, flexibles, pues antiguas representaciones dan lugar a nuevas representaciones en función de las experiencias humanas, influenciadas por nuevos contextos. Las narrativas sobre la historia de la escritura pueden ser un camino para que profesores conozcan los recorridos de la escritura desarrollados por sus alumnos, así como permiten la identificación de las representaciones sociales de esos alumnos. Abstract in english Here we examine the social representations in the writing of students of Masters in Languages. We used the Social Representation Theory to investigate the representations in the writings of 10 students of the Masters in Languages at a Federal University in upstate Minas Gerais. We associated these r [...] epresentations to the discourses spread in the academic sphere. The results obtained from the reading of the narratives written by the students will be presented. We concluded that throughout most of the period of these students' schooling the representations in their writing were negative, but became positive through the time. This demonstrates that the representations are plastic and flexible because old representations give place to new ones in function of human experiences influenced by new contexts. The narratives about the writing history may be a path for teachers to learn the routes of the writing developed by their students, as well as allowing an identification of the social representations and discourses of writing internalized by these students.
Rafael, Forteza Fernández; Amable, Faedo Borges.
Full Text Available A partir del uso del método histórico-lógico para el análisis científico, se propone una nueva reperiodización de la historia de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la expresión escrita en lenguas extranjeras. También, se realiza un breve recorrido por los métodos y enfoques de esta disciplina y las inciden [...] cias de éstos en los modos de enseñar-aprender a como escribir. Abstract in english Making use of the historical and logical methods of scientific analysis, the authors propose a new reperiodization of the teaching-learning history of the written expression in foreign languages. A brief account of the methods and approaches of this discipline and their impact on the way to teach an [...] d learn how to write is also made.
Ellen Bialystok, York University
What challenges face students who are learning a second language at the same time as they are learning science? This essay considers some of the difficulties associated with learning to speak, read, and write in a second language. Although the principles of language learning discussed here can be generalized across languages and contexts, this essay considers situations in which English is both the language of instruction and the language being learned.
Full Text Available At higher education settings, summarization skills are essential to academic success. However, research on summarization appear to have been relatively neglected, and consequently "many more are needed … [and] a re-examination of summarization from a reading-writing perspective merits more attention'' (Grabe, 2003, pp. 252-253. To this end, 120 EFL students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran were selected: the three experimental groups were subjected to the task-based language teaching principles in the treatment. Two reading comprehension texts (one as a pre-test, the other a post-testwere assigned to the four groups involved, and they were all required to write up two summary protocols for each text they read, one in English, and another in Persian. In the experimental groups, summary writing was mediated by a particular teaching task while for the control group there was no mediating task. Afterwards, the performance of all subject groups was evaluated based on a cross-linguistic evaluation scale to determine a if task-based language teaching had any significant effect on learners' reading comprehension and b if the L1 of the subjects contributed to a better comprehension of the texts they read. Finally, the conclusions and pedagogical implications of the research for EAP courses were highlighted.
This article describes a course in ancient Egyptian studies for gifted elementary students. The course incorporates social studies, science, math, language, reading/writing, and art activities. Students study history and development of Egyptian culture, reading and writing with glyphs, and analyzing and evaluating Egyptian hieroglyphic writing.…
A compilator is a program which is development in a programming language that read a file known as source. After this file have to translate and have to convert in other program known as object or to generate a exit. The best way for to know any programming language is analizing a compilation process which is same in all programming paradigm existents. To like to generate a tool that permit a learning in university course. This course could explain in any plataform such as Linux o Windows. This goal is posible through development a Web aplication which is unite with a compilator, it is Traductor Writing System (Sistema de Escritura de Traductores). This system is complete and permit extend and modify the compilator. The system is a module in Moodle which is a Course Management System (CMS) that help teachers for to create comunities of learning in line. This software is in free software license (GPL).
Explains how the author teaches her first graders to write and the steps that go into her writing program. Suggests that whatever children can talk about, they can write about, and whatever they can write about, they can read about. Organizes her literacy program according to this. Presents eight oral language activities that are adapted from…
Perkins, Kyle; Brutten, Sheila R.
Examines whether prerequisite relationships exist between five analytical components of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) composition: content, organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanics. Finds the need for an approach to writing which recognizes that "separate skills" are actually highly interrelated. (MM)
D.Vijaya Lakshmi*1; Ragini, K.
This research paper focuses on the writing skills of the Engineering students of all the branches especially at the time of placements. Writing in English is almost a prerequisite for the job. Now- a-days testing the writing skills of the students is mandatory before going to attend the interviews. LSRW skills are essential in the acquisition of language. In order to help the students with these writing skills, teacher has to take the initiative to motivate them. Most of the students are ...
Much like the regular physical exercise, having a regular writing workout is necessary for learners of English language. Dialogue journals provide the perfect means for this. Dialogue journal in an English classroom is an informal written conversation between the students and the teacher; in fact it can motivate a learner to write more in English. The language in a dialogue journal is closer to speech than to academic writing, so it promotes authentic, informal and lively conversation between...
Chunling Sun; Guoping Feng
English writing, as a basic language skill for second language learners, is being paid close attention to. How to achieve better results in English teaching and how to develop students’ writing competence remain an arduous task for English teachers. Based on the review of the concerning literature from other researchers as well as a summery of the author’s own experimental research, the author of this essay for the first time tries to give definitions of the process approach to writing, m...
As an indispensable and most difficult part of language acquisition, the importance of English writing has been intensified by the economic globalization and internet revolution due to the special role of English as a universal language (Warshauer, 2000). However, writing teaching and learning has been long perplexing language teachers and learners even in the first language. Therefore many studies have been conducted on the revelation of the nature of writing and how to achieve it in pursuit...
Full Text Available With this study, it is aimed to afford an artistic development for science of mathematics with using literary language and learn with associating visual themes and imaginariness in essays. In the study, different written expression works, which are composed about same symmetric figure, of first grade preservice teachers of Turkish Language and Mathematics Teaching are compared.This study will put forth the grasp of communication skill of preservice students who are implementers of new program of Turkish and Mathematics lesson used from 2005 and in which the importance of this skill is emphasized. Also this study will contribute education of preservice students henceforwards.
L1 interference plays a major role in second language acquisition, as evidenced by empirical studies (Kellerman & Sharwood Smith, 1986). The interference could result from a learner's conscious or unconscious judgment that some linguistic features in L1 and L2 are similar (Odlin, 1989), particularly in phonology (MacKain, Best, & Strange, 1981). This paper reports on two experiments using Elicited Imitation and Reading Tasks to investigate whether L1, Cairene Arabic prosodic strategy of epent...
Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ernst, Cheryl; Talley, Paul C.
This study revealed the relationship between L1 (Mandarin Chinese) and L2 (English) strategy use in L2 reading comprehension by focusing on the correlation of L1 reading ability, L2 proficiency and employed reading strategies. The participants, 222 undergraduates learning English as a foreign language (EFL), were classified into skilled and…
Correa, Carolina T.
In 2005, the U. S. Department of Education estimated that 44% of the 3 million students enrolled in non-traditional, that is, non-academic, adult education programs were English language learners. Yet, because of the overt focus that tends to be placed on oral communication, little has been done to document how these learners might view themselves…
This essay examines the differing contexts and modes of encounter with Islamic culture in the travel writing of two contrasting women, the Prussian Countess Ida Hahn-Hahn and the Austrian Maria Schuber: both travelled to and wrote from the Middle East in the 1830s and 1840s and published their letters as collections. The encounters both women had with Islam were conditioned, at least in part, by their respective stance on religion, issues of gender and social class, and by the obligations of ...
Mrs. Rekha Purohit; Prof. Prabhat Mathur
The term language means communication tool which is used to write Computer program and develop application, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. Computer programming languages are used to write programs that define the behavior of a computer system. They are based on certain syntactic and semantic rules, which define the meaning of each of the programming language constructs. The syntactic and the semantic rules of every programming language define the language imp...
Chinese characters are used in both Chinese and Japanese writing systems. When literate speakers of either language experience problems in finding or understanding words, they often resort to using Chinese characters or "kanji" (i.e., Chinese characters used in Japanese writing) in their talk, a practice known as "brush talk" ("bitan" in Chinese,…
Nooreiny Maarof; Mazlin Murat
Writing is a great challenge whether performed in the mother tongue or in a second or foreign language (L2/FL). Studies in L2 writing show that writing is a complex cognitive activity comprising a number of processes which includes the use of various strategies. This study aimed to examine strategies used in essay writing among 50 high-intermediate and low proficiency ESL upper secondary school students and to determine any significant differences in strategy use between the two groups. Dat...
Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching
English as Foreign Language (EFL) students face additional difficulties for academic writing largely due to their level of language competency. An appropriate structural process of writing can help students develop their academic writing skills. This study explored the use of the e-readers to facilitate EFL students' process-based academic…
Graham, Steve; Fitzgerald, Jill
An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language le
Hazelrigg, Amy C.
Second language research and classroom practice have tended to sideline reading in favor of an emphasis on the oral language development of the English Language Learner (ELL). First-language (L1) reading research is well developed but has limited usefulness to the teacher or researcher interested in second-language (L2) reading. Developing L2…
Ruwaida Abu Rass
This paper reviews and strengthens the data on cultural transfer by Arab Muslim students writing in English and adds the significant element of the cultural impact of Islam on such writing. This qualitative study examines the writing of 18 teacher trainees at an Arab language teacher training college in Israel. Results point to a strong cultural influence appearing in the students' writing. It is suggested that greater consideration should be given to the first and the target culture when des...
Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.
Full Text Available Theoretical sorting has brought the analyst to the point of pent-up pressure to write: to see the months of work actualized in a “piece.” But this is only a personal pressure. The goal of grounded theory methodology, above all is to offer the results to the public, usually through one or more publications. We will focus on writing for publication, which is the most frequent way that the analyst can tell how people are “buying” what really matters in sociology, or in other fields.Both feedback on and use of publications will be the best evaluation of the analyst’s grounded theory. It will be his main source or criticism, constructive critique, and frequently of career rewards. In any case, he has to write to expand his audience beyond the limited number of close colleagues and students. Unless there is a publication, his work will be relegated to limited discussion, classroom presentation, or even private fantasy. The rigor and value of grounded theory work deserves publication. And many analysts have a stake in effecting wider publics, which makes their substantive grounded theory count.
Karl Óskar Þráinsson 1975
Current research on language development and bilingual development suggests that good proficiency in the first language (L1) is a prerequisite for acquiring a second language (L2). Documentation from the Icelandic State's Diagnostic and Counselling Centre seems to challenge this assumption, as a number of children who have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and that have delayed or impaired L1 development, seems to have very good proficiency in English, which is their L2. Th...
Full Text Available Studies done in L1/L2 English settings have revealed the negative effects of writing anxiety on both learner motivation and academic achievement and teachers’ attitudes towards writing and the practices they use in their own classes. The present study aims to find out the effects of peer feedback on the writing anxiety of Turkish prospective teachers (PTs of English. A total of 86 PTs of English participated in this study. During the eight-week study, PTs in the experimental group, who had been given a training on peer feedback, were asked to work in pairs in their writing class, give feedback on each other’s essays and discuss their feedback with each other before handing them to their instructors. On the other hand, PTs in the control group received only teacher feedback on their essays. Data were collected by means of the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 given at the beginning and end of the study and by means of interviews carried out with 20 experimental group PTs at the end of the term. Results of the quantitative data showed that the peer feedback group experienced significantly less writing anxiety than the teacher feedback group at the end of the study. The interview results revealed that the participating PTs benefited from the peer feedback process as with the feedback of their friends they became aware of their mistakes. Moreover, during the process they received opinions from their friends to elaborate on, and this collaboration helped them look at their essays from a different perspective.
Shinoura, Nobusada; Midorikawa, Akira; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Tsukada, Masanobu; Yamada, Ryozi; Tabei, Yusuke; Itoi, Chisato; Saito, Seiko; Yagi, Kazuo
The anatomic localization of brain functions can be characterized via diffusion tensor imaging in patients with brain tumors and neurological symptoms. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the function of the ventral, arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)-related language pathways using these techniques by analyzing 9 patients treated in our hospital between 2007 and 2011. In cases 1-3, the left ventral pathways, namely, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus or inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, were mainly damaged, and the common dysfunction experienced by these patients was a deficit in object naming. In cases 4-6, the left SLF was mainly damaged, and the common deficit was dysgraphia. In cases 7-9, the left AF was mainly damaged, and almost all language functions related to phonology were abnormal. These results suggest that the left ventral, AF and SLF-related pathways are closely related to visual, auditory and hand-related language function, respectively. PMID:23311714
Early career science teachers are often assigned to classrooms with high numbers of English language learners (ELL students). As these teachers learn to become effective practitioners, the circumstances surrounding them merit a thorough examination. This study examines the longitudinal changes in Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and practices of six early career science teachers who taught in urban schools. The teachers participated in the Alternative Support for Induction Science Teachers (ASIST) program during their initial two years of teaching. Our research team followed the participants over a five-year period. This study focuses on data from Years 1, 3, and 5. The data collected included classroom observations and interviews. In addition, classroom artifacts were collected periodically for the purpose of triangulation. The analysis of the data revealed that with the support of the ASIST program, the teachers implemented inquiry lessons and utilized instructional materials that promoted academic language skills and science competencies among their ELL students. Conversely, standardized testing, teaching assignment, and school culture played a role in constraining the implementation of inquiry-based practices. The results of this study call for collaborative efforts among university science educators and school administrators to provide professional development opportunities and support for the implementation of inquiry and language practices among early career science teachers of ELL students.
Mohana Ram Murugiah
Full Text Available Writing is a complex task. The development of students’ writing skill depends on the teacher’s teaching strategy and also the materials used in the writing lesson. In the present study, the effectiveness of a creative writing module was examined that was designed to improve the writing skill of a group of excellent students. It was added with explicit teaching strategies. The selected group of students were students who were in the excellent group but lacked creativity and vocabulary in their writing. The creative writing module was designed to help these students. Students’ improvement was observed through observation in the classrooms during the lessons and through writing task as well as interviews. Two observations were made. One was before the creative writing project was started and another after the completion of the entire task of the module. The interview was carried out to learn about the students’ perception of the module and how do they find the module has helped them. The result of the research showed that students have shown a great level of improvement in their writing skills. The outcome of this present study could be useful to assist language instructors in helping proficient learners to undergo a more effective second language learning experience.
Jones, Nathan B.
Responds to Tony Silva's 1997 article, which asserted that English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing teachers should prevent themes and topics from dominating or controlling the curriculum. This paper argues that it is sometimes helpful for writing teachers to control why and what students write, focusing on university-level English writing in…
Full Text Available This research and development study aims to develop a product in the form of German descriptive writing learning device based on SMRC Berlo communication for Senior High school. The study procedure follows the first the phases of Thiagrajan 4-D Development Stage: (1 defining Stage; (2 designing Stage; (3 developing stage; (4 disseminating stage. This research involved senior secondary school teachers and students during the defining and developing phases. Besides, experts were involved during the validation of the product. The newly developed learning devices consist of 1 lesson plan, 2 teaching materials/student’s book, 3 teacher’s handbook, 4 students’ worksheet, and 5 learning result test. Quality of the learning device is considered from three aspects namely: validity, practicability, and effectiveness. Validity of the learning device is based on the result of the try-outs including the students’ German descriptive texts.
Teaching technical writing to Native Americans contending with a second language and culture is addressed. Learning difficulties arising from differences between native and acquired language and cultural systems are examined. Compartmentalized teaching, which presents the ideals of technical writing in minimal units, and skills development are considered. Rhetorical problems treated include logic of arrangement, selection of support and scope of detail, and time and space. Specific problems selected include the concept of promptness, the contextualization of purpose, interpersonal relationships, wordiness, mixture of registers, and the problem of abstracting. Four inductive procedures for students having writing and perception problems are included. Four sample exercises and a bibliography of 13 references are also included.
Full Text Available This research paper focuses on the writing skills of the Engineering students of all the branches especially at the time of placements. Writing in English is almost a prerequisite for the job. Now- a-days testing the writing skills of the students is mandatory before going to attend the interviews. LSRW skills are essential in the acquisition of language. In order to help the students with these writing skills, teacher has to take the initiative to motivate them. Most of the students are coming from rural areas and basically from regional medium background. So they require support at every step. Writing becomes a Herculean task to them. Triggering their requirement is a pivotal role of the teacher. Different perspectives of writing skills like free writing, mechanics of writing, vocabulary, grammar, description of a picture, paragraph, essay and summary writing and report, resume, letter and e-mail writings are discussed in this paper. Activities like pair work or group work of all the tasks are added benefit to the students. Interest and command on the identified topic of the student is not identical. Analysis and feedback of each and every activity is an added grace to the teacher and advantage to the student. If the students are trained logically from the beginning of their first year of Engineering they achieve their dream of getting a placement before completing their Bachelor’s degree.
Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer user...
Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer users. Grammar for Ezhil and a few example programs are reported here, from the initial proof-of-concept implementation using the Python programming language1. To the best of our knowledge, Ezhil language is the first freely available Tamil programming language.
Despite increased efforts by linguists and educationalists to facilitate literacy and literature development in minority languages, there are still many languages worldwide which do not have a written form. One area that needs attention in literature production for a newly written language is the question of writing style. As the features of good style are language-specific, writing style guidelines have to be developed for each language anew. It has been assumed that such vern...
A major issue in the field of L2 acquisition is the role that language learners' L1 plays in the acquisition of an L2. This article shows some of the salient linguistic features of Chinese that may present communication challenges for Chinese-speaking learners of English as an additional language. Instructors' awareness of such features will…
Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko
When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…
...employee's proficiency in a foreign language the Secretary has determined...of the employee's foreign language proficiency level renewed...particular language skills; (3) The difficulty...listening, reading, speaking, or writing, as...
Examines structural consequences of intensive language contact on simultaneous first language (L1) and second language (L2) child language development in an L2-dominant environment. Based on the assumption that structural processes in language contact are operating at and determined by abstract lexical structure, various structural configurations…
Parastou Gholami Pasand
Full Text Available Writing is one the most important skills in learning a foreign language. The significance of being able to write in a second or foreign language has become clearer nowadays. Accordingly, different approaches to writing such as product approach, process approach and more recently process-product approach came into existence and they have been the concern of SL/FL researchers. The aim of this study is to answer the question that whether the use of an incomplete model text in process-product approach to writing and asking the learners to complete the text rather than copying it can have a positive impact on EFL learners’ accuracy in writing. After training a number of EFL learners on using process approach, we held a two-session writing class. In the first session students wrote in the process approach, and in the second one they were given a model text to continue in the process-product approach. The writing performance of the students in these two sessions was compared in term of accuracy. Based on the students’ writing performance, we came to the conclusion that completing the model text in process-product writing can have a rather positive influence in some aspects of their writing accuracy such as punctuation, capitalization, spelling, subject-verb agreement, tense, the use of connectors, using correct pronouns and possessives. Also the results of the paired t-test indicate that using a model text to continue increased students’ writing accuracy.Keywords: EFL writing, process-product approach, model text, writing accuracy
Turner, Thomas; Broemmel, Amy
Any science teacher who wants his or her students to be engaged in real science is going to engage them in real science writing. Writing in science should begin with clear, imaginative writing purposes and stimuli that are then scaffolded in such a way that students are able to find an organizational structure for their writing. Writing fluency is…
Whenever attending meetings on Commonwealth or postcolonial literature outside the sub continent, a Hindi writer will invariably be asked this ritual question, ‘why do you write in Hindi?', and similarly any other “regional” or “vernacular” writer, even if the name of these other languages may sometimes be confused with the name of the state (Malyalam and Kerala, Kannada and Karnataka, Oriya and Orissa). The wonder of the Western journalist or literature scholar at Indians writing i...
In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…
Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C
This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w
This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2) reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1) reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females) Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after closely looking into the methods of data analysis of the current literature on a language threshold. Statistical analysis revealed that the contributi...
Full Text Available The present study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Persian language, regarded as the first language (L1, in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast by Iranian EFL students. 65 English paragraphs written by the participants, who were at the intermediate level based on their performance on a quick placement test, were analyzed by using Error Analysis (EA. The ideas of 15 teachers with more than six years of teaching in the field of TEFL were also sought through interview to validate the collected data. The results revealed that the first language interference errors fell into 12 categories: singular/plural form, modal auxiliary, subject-verb agreement, verb tense, infinitive gerund, pronoun, article, verb form, prepositions, sentence structure, word choice, comparison structure, respectively, and the number of frequent errors made in each type of written tasks was apparently different with regard to text genres. In narration, the five most frequent errors found were singular/plural form, modal auxiliary, subject-verb agreement, verb tense, and infinitive gerund, respectively, while the five most frequent errors in description were article, subject-verb agreement, modal/auxiliary, verb tense, and prepositions. The category for that of comparison/contrast comprised verb tense, singular/plural form, preposition, and subject-verb agreement respectively. The three errors of singular/plural form, verb tense, subject-verb agreement were the most frequent errors. The results reveals that different structural features required in a genre influences the writing errors made in the genre. Moreover, some pedagogical implications are provided based on the results.
Van Gelderen, A.
Full Text Available In an explorative classroom experiment the effects of several instructional conditions for writing were compared. Studies on writing suggest that linguistic fluency is an important factor in writer’s abilities to manipulate sentence structures in order to produce comprehensible text. L1 writing theories indicate that working memory limitations play an important role in formulation. Therefore, improving linguistic fluency presumably frees working memory space and allows the writer to devote more attention to meaning-related problems. An important point of debate in language-learning theories is the role of explicit knowledge about linguistic structure. Some believe that explicit rule knowledge has an important role in acquiring fluency, while others maintain that explicit knowledge has no real influence on skill development, and that fluency develops on the basis of the implicit knowledge of linguistic structures. In recent L2 theories a focus solely on meaning appears insufficient for mastery of linguistic structures. Meaning-oriented language production should, in this view, be complemented by a focus on form(s. Four learning conditions for improving linguistic fluency were discriminated according to the dimensions “focus of instruction” (forms vs. meaning and “explicitness of instruction” (implicit vs. explicit. Students of elementary grades 5 and 6 (including both first- and advanced second-language learners of Dutch received four lessons involving the linguistic operations for adding information to sentences in meaningful contexts and avoiding unnecessary (repetition of information. Results of the experiment show significant positive effects of all four conditions on two post-test formulation tasks in comparison to a control group.
'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...
Your students successfully completed a lab session, correctly filled in all of the worksheets,and collected the required data. Yet, as a science teacher, you still find yourself wondering--what did my students actually learn? And, can they apply that learning to what is going on in their everyday lives? The process of critical thinking and knowledge application requires more than rote memorization and the ability to get answers correct on lab reports or multiple-choice tests. Purposeful, guided reflection may be an opportunity to gain insight into what students are thinking and learning in relation to science content. This article describes how to use guided reflective writing in the science classroom to provide a window into students' minds.
Full Text Available Much like the regular physical exercise, having a regular writing workout is necessary for learners of English language. Dialogue journals provide the perfect means for this. Dialogue journal in an English classroom is an informal written conversation between the students and the teacher; in fact it can motivate a learner to write more in English. The language in a dialogue journal is closer to speech than to academic writing, so it promotes authentic, informal and lively conversation between the writers. As our learners need frequent opportunities to practice speaking English freely without fear of being corrected, in order to achieve oral fluency; similarly they need the chance to write freely without inhibition to promote fluency in writing. Often it is in the act of writing a response that actual learning takes place and this is how critical thinking develops. In fact, dialogue journal is the place where students explore their thinking before classroom discussion. It enables speaking and writing, referencing each other. The main objective of using dialogue journals in the English language classroom is to give students more time and opportunities for writing so that they can experience the pleasure of communication through the written word and at the same time become better writers and thinkers in English. With this background, the aim of this paper is to discuss the role of dialogue journals in developing the skills of writing and critical thinking of English language learners.
Summary writing has been considered an important aspect of academic writing. However, writing summaries can be a challenging task for the majority of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Research into teaching summary writing has focused on different processes to teach EFL learners. The present study adopted two methods – keyword and question generation – to guide Taiwanese university students in writing summaries in English. To decrease the students’ apprehension resulting fro...
Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 S000386 05-November-2005 (last modified) kehi L1 box found in promoter of Arabidopsi ... otein ATML can bind to the L1 box; Y=C/T; A cotton fiber ... gene, RD22-like 1 (RDL1), contains a homeodomain b ... hoot apical meristem; SAM; organ primordia; cotton fiber ; HDZip; homeodomain; leucine zipper; Arabidopsis t ...
So, Lee; Lee, Chung Hyun
This case study explores EFL (English as a foreign language) students' perceptions toward a prototype of an instructional model for second language (L2) writing in blended learning and the effects of the model on the development of L2 writing skills in higher education. This model is primarily founded on the process-oriented writing approach…
Full Text Available In China, in the process of college students’ foreign language learning, English writing is the reflection of their integrating skills and it is also the process of rewriting based on gaining English knowledge. Meanwhile, Chinese college students’ English writing is a cross-language and cross-cultural communicative behavior, and also a behavior of the transformation of thinking and cultural model. However, in the process of English writing, the negative transfer of Chinese influences students’ writing. Here, according to the research to the students’ writing and the relative questionnaire survey in Beihai College of Beihang University, this paper is a systematic and objective analysis on the negative transfer of Chinese to college students’ English writing at the levels of lexis, sentence structure and discourse.
Barro?n Ceden?o, Luis Alberto; Gupta, Parth Alokkumar; Rosso, Paolo
Three reasons make plagiarism across languages to be on the rise: (i) speakers of under-resourced languages often consult documentation in a foreign language, (ii) people immersed in a foreign country can still consult material written in their native language, and (iii) people are often interested in writing in a language different to their native one. Most efforts for automatically detecting cross-language plagiarism depend on a preliminary translation, which is not always available. In...
Brown, Roger S.
Proposes that writing instruction at the intermediate level of second language study should be kept to a minimum. Gives examples of the kinds of brief derivative exercises that are most beneficial. (EKN)
Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed Ismail
Full Text Available Writing has always been regarded as playing a prominent role in learning a second language. Research within this discipline has mainly focused on the development of writing skill, but in recent years, some researchers have examined students’ perceptions of writing. The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ perceptions about an academic writing course and writing in general. A total of 64 female students from an ESP program participated in the study. The general design of the study was quantitative and qualitative in nature as a questionnaire and a focus-group interview were implemented for data collection. A combination of quantitative and qualitative procedures was employed to analyze the data collected via the questionnaire and the focus group interview respectively. The overall results demonstrated the students’ positive views towards the Academic Writing Course (AWC in particular and ESL writing in general. The major findings demonstrated students’ awareness of their needs and ESL writing requirements. The study concluded with recommendations for future research.
Upton, Kyle R; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Jesuadian, J Samuel; Richardson, Sandra R; Sánchez-Luque, Francisco J; Bodea, Gabriela O; Ewing, Adam D; Salvador-Palomeque, Carmen; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Brennan, Paul M; Vanderver, Adeline; Faulkner, Geoffrey J
Somatic LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition during neurogenesis is a potential source of genotypic variation among neurons. As a neurogenic niche, the hippocampus supports pronounced L1 activity. However, the basal parameters and biological impact of L1-driven mosaicism remain unclear. Here, we performed single-cell retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) on individual human hippocampal neurons and glia, as well as cortical neurons. An estimated 13.7 somatic L1 insertions occurred per hippocampal neuron and carried the sequence hallmarks of target-primed reverse transcription. Notably, hippocampal neuron L1 insertions were specifically enriched in transcribed neuronal stem cell enhancers and hippocampus genes, increasing their probability of functional relevance. In addition, bias against intronic L1 insertions sense oriented relative to their host gene was observed, perhaps indicating moderate selection against this configuration in vivo. These experiments demonstrate pervasive L1 mosaicism at genomic loci expressed in hippocampal neurons. PMID:25860606
Ghadah Al Murshidi; Kholood Al Abd
Writing has always been regarded as playing a prominent role in learning a second language. UAE university writing center provides a key support service within the institution, and as such must find ways to evaluate the impact of the instruction they provide. However, many studies of tutorial effectiveness lack adequate analyses of tutorial services and of both student and tutor awareness and outcomes. The purpose of the study is to explore the effectiveness of the writing center and its prop...
This collection contains selected readings of Ccassical writings for linguistic theory, literature history, and applications of the English language in documents from the early beginnings to the 20th century.
Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine
This study investigated the rate of school-aged Chinese-English language learners at risk for reading difficulties in either Chinese or English only, or both, among second and fifth graders in Hong Kong. In addition, we examined the metalinguistic skills that distinguished those who were poor in reading Chinese from those who were poor in reading English. The prevalence of poor English readers among children identified to be poor in Chinese word recognition across the five participating schools was approximately 42% at Grade 2 and 57% at Grade 5. Across grades, children who were poor readers of both languages tended to have difficulties in phonological and morphological awareness. Poor readers of English only were found to manifest significantly poorer phonological awareness, compared to those who were poor readers of Chinese only; their average tone awareness score was also lower relative to normally developing controls. Apart from indicating possible dissociations between Chinese first language (L1) word reading and English second language (L2) word reading, these findings suggested that the degree to which different metalinguistic skills are important for reading in different writing systems may depend on the linguistic features of the particular writing system. PMID:23784785
Waxler, Robert P
The book is interdisciplinary in focus and centers on enlarging teachers' understanding of how reading and writing can change lives and how the language arts can contribute significantly to and change educational processes in the twenty-first century. Implicit in its argument is that although the emphasis on science and math is crucial to education in the digital edge, it remains vitally important to keep reading and writing, language and story, at the heart of the educational process
Explains a reading and writing assignment called "Writing a Movie" in which students view a short film segment and write a script in which they describe the scene. Notes that this assignment uses films to develop fluency and helps students understand the reading and writing connections. Concludes that students learn to summarize a scene from film,…
Writing activities are a sure way to assess and enhance students' science literacy. Sometimes the author's students use technical writing to communicate their lab experiences, just as practicing scientists do. Other times, they use creative writing to make connections to the topics they're learning. This article describes both types of writing…
Dixon, L. Quentin
This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…
Friesen, Helen Lepp
To writing, painting, drawing, and photography as artistic media, the author would like to add teaching as a creative endeavor as well. Especially in a classroom where English is not the first language for many students, the writing teacher needs to be creative with assignments and activities that address nontraditional ways of learning. Her…
Young, Richard F.; Miller, Elizabeth R.
This study investigates the acquisition of an unfamiliar discursive practice by an adult Vietnamese learner of English. The practice is revision talk in weekly English as a Second Language (ESL) writing conferences between the student and his ESL writing instructor. This research adopts the interactional competence framework for understanding the…
A year-long project to develop an automatic English grammar text-analysis for Chinese students in Taiwan to help writing revision processes is described. The project analyzed 135 writing samples, developed an electronic dictionary, and researched error analysis, linguistic analysis, and natural language processing in computational linguistics.…
Castañeda, Daniel A.; Cho, Moon-Heum
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which wiki writing improves college students' grammatical knowledge in Spanish as a second language (L2). Fifty-three students participated in the study for three consecutive semesters. Pre- and posttest results show that wiki writing was helpful in improving their grammatical…
Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak
A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…
Xiaoyu Huang; Xueying Liang; Effie Dracopoulos
Up to now, most researchers have been paying attention to the negative transfer of mother tongue to second language writing. Few studies, if any, have touched upon the positive transfer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the positive transfer of Chinese to 26 first-year university students’ English writing holistically and segmentally in the use of words, grammar, coherence, and content and organization. The result of the Pearson correlation coefficient turned out to be...
Jafar Asgari Arani
Full Text Available Medical writing activities which may have a context and seem to be engaging may be perceived as demotivating by the students of medicine. This opinion was confirmed by the learners' responses to the open-ended question given to them prior to this study. In their responses students evaluated the writing section of English course negatively. The negative views about the writing course posed a problem to the class teacher. The computer technology and the Internet can easily be integrated into language classroom if activities are designed carefully, and carried out systematically. These attempts brought about a new understanding to teaching and learning: blended learning (BL. The purpose of this research was to investigate students of medicine attitude to blended writing classes. It was conducted with second year learners in the Faculty of Medicine at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. The first reflection aimed at finding out medical students' attitude toward blended writing lessons. Although learners' attitude to writing lessons was negative in the first reflections, they changed into positive in the latter ones. The findings indicated that blended writing class had changed students' perception of writing lessons positively. Therefore, this kind of classes may help students develop a positive attitude towards writing by providing meaningful writing opportunities. Like the student portfolio before it, the weblog faces challenges with practicality and security, but ultimately provides an alternative way to teach and assess authentic writing and reading skills. Blog Assisted Language Learning not only provides teachers with an exciting new way to approach communicative language learning, it also gives the students a new reason to enjoy writing! The paper concludes that Internet tools have the potential to be a transformational technology for teaching and learning writing, and teachers ought to give strong consideration to the setting up their facilities within their learning management system.
Full Text Available As provas de Língua Portuguesa e de Redação dos vestibulares são instrumentos voltados para a seleção de candidatos aptos para ingressar no Ensino Superior. Espera-se que eles demonstrem ter conhecimentos linguísticos e textuais que lhes permitam interpretar e produzir textos da esfera acadêmica. Ma [...] s, essas provas evidenciam os conhecimentos necessários para a admissão dos melhores candidatos nos cursos de graduação? Com o objetivo de responder a essa pergunta, analisamos questões propostas em vestibulares da UFMG nos últimos dez anos. Constatamos que, entre 2000 e 2009, avaliam-se competências a serem demonstradas por meio de habilidades, como localizar informações explícitas, inferir as implícitas em um texto, reconhecer novos sentidos atribuídos às palavras dentro de uma produção textual. Constatamos também a presença de diversos gêneros textuais da mídia impressa que favorece a reflexão crítica, o exercício de formas de pensamento mais elaboradas. Concluímos que as provas desse concurso cumprem a meta a que se destinam. Abstract in english Exams of Portuguese Language and Writing in entrance examinations are instruments aiming at the selection of the candidates who are fit to start undergraduate studies. It is expected that they show the textual and linguistic knowledge that allow them to interpret and produce texts in the academic fi [...] eld. But do these texts elicit the necessary knowledge for the admission of the best candidates to undergraduate courses? With the purpose of answering this question we have analyzed the questions asked in the entrance examinations of UFMG in the last 10 years. We have found that, between the years 2000 and 2009, the competence is assessed through skills such as locating explicit information, deducing implicit information, recognizing new meanings of words, within a given text. We have also verified the presence of several text genres from press media which favor critical reflection, and the application of more elaborated forms of reasoning. We have concluded that these tests fulfill their intended goal.
Regina Lúcia Péret Dell'Isola
Full Text Available As provas de Língua Portuguesa e de Redação dos vestibulares são instrumentos voltados para a seleção de candidatos aptos para ingressar no Ensino Superior. Espera-se que eles demonstrem ter conhecimentos linguísticos e textuais que lhes permitam interpretar e produzir textos da esfera acadêmica. Mas, essas provas evidenciam os conhecimentos necessários para a admissão dos melhores candidatos nos cursos de graduação? Com o objetivo de responder a essa pergunta, analisamos questões propostas em vestibulares da UFMG nos últimos dez anos. Constatamos que, entre 2000 e 2009, avaliam-se competências a serem demonstradas por meio de habilidades, como localizar informações explícitas, inferir as implícitas em um texto, reconhecer novos sentidos atribuídos às palavras dentro de uma produção textual. Constatamos também a presença de diversos gêneros textuais da mídia impressa que favorece a reflexão crítica, o exercício de formas de pensamento mais elaboradas. Concluímos que as provas desse concurso cumprem a meta a que se destinam.Exams of Portuguese Language and Writing in entrance examinations are instruments aiming at the selection of the candidates who are fit to start undergraduate studies. It is expected that they show the textual and linguistic knowledge that allow them to interpret and produce texts in the academic field. But do these texts elicit the necessary knowledge for the admission of the best candidates to undergraduate courses? With the purpose of answering this question we have analyzed the questions asked in the entrance examinations of UFMG in the last 10 years. We have found that, between the years 2000 and 2009, the competence is assessed through skills such as locating explicit information, deducing implicit information, recognizing new meanings of words, within a given text. We have also verified the presence of several text genres from press media which favor critical reflection, and the application of more elaborated forms of reasoning. We have concluded that these tests fulfill their intended goal.
Culture, cognition and language in the constitution of reading and writing practices in an adult literacy classroom Cultura, cognição e linguagem na constituição de práticas de leitura e escrita de adultos em processo de alfabetização
Maria de Fátima Cardoso Gomes
Full Text Available In this article we analyze a discursive interaction between a researcher and an Youth and Adult Education student intending to show the meanings and uses of reading and writing taken by him. We take as our basis for discussion the theoretical-methodological contributions from Historical-Cultural Psychology and Paulo Freire's theories, which are combined with Bakhtin's concept of dialogue. This procedure allowed us, on one hand, getting into the other's perspective and, on the other hand, to make relations between cognition, language and culture to understand the adult students' metacognitive strategies, in the appropriation process of literacy practices of school culture. Thus, we could discuss the intimate relationship between doing and knowing and the importance of school in the transition from concrete thinking to the abstract thinking and vice-versa.Neste artigo analisamos uma interação discursiva entre uma pesquisadora e um estudante da Educação de Jovens e Adultos objetivando mostrar sentidos e usos da leitura e da escrita por ele mobilizados. Tomamos como base para nossa discussão os aportes teórico-metodológicos da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural e das teorizações de Paulo Freire, que conjugamos com a concepção de diálogo de Bakhtin. Tal procedimento nos possibilitou, por um lado, entrar na perspectiva do outro, e por outro, fazer relações entre cognição, linguagem e cultura para compreendermos as estratégias metacognitivas de alunos da EJA ao se apropriarem da cultura escolar. Pudemos também evidenciar a íntima relação entre fazer e saber e a importância da escola na transição do pensamento concreto para o abstrato e vice-versa.
Culture, cognition and language in the constitution of reading and writing practices in an adult literacy classroom / Cultura, cognição e linguagem na constituição de práticas de leitura e escrita de adultos em processo de alfabetização
Maria de Fátima Cardoso, Gomes; Maria da Conceição Ferreira Reis, Fonseca; Maira Tomayno de Melo, Dias; Patricia Guimarães, Vargas.
Full Text Available Neste artigo analisamos uma interação discursiva entre uma pesquisadora e um estudante da Educação de Jovens e Adultos objetivando mostrar sentidos e usos da leitura e da escrita por ele mobilizados. Tomamos como base para nossa discussão os aportes teórico-metodológicos da Psicologia Histórico-Cult [...] ural e das teorizações de Paulo Freire, que conjugamos com a concepção de diálogo de Bakhtin. Tal procedimento nos possibilitou, por um lado, entrar na perspectiva do outro, e por outro, fazer relações entre cognição, linguagem e cultura para compreendermos as estratégias metacognitivas de alunos da EJA ao se apropriarem da cultura escolar. Pudemos também evidenciar a íntima relação entre fazer e saber e a importância da escola na transição do pensamento concreto para o abstrato e vice-versa. Abstract in english In this article we analyze a discursive interaction between a researcher and an Youth and Adult Education student intending to show the meanings and uses of reading and writing taken by him. We take as our basis for discussion the theoretical-methodological contributions from Historical-Cultural Psy [...] chology and Paulo Freire's theories, which are combined with Bakhtin's concept of dialogue. This procedure allowed us, on one hand, getting into the other's perspective and, on the other hand, to make relations between cognition, language and culture to understand the adult students' metacognitive strategies, in the appropriation process of literacy practices of school culture. Thus, we could discuss the intimate relationship between doing and knowing and the importance of school in the transition from concrete thinking to the abstract thinking and vice-versa.
Examines the poetics of Richard Hugo, William Stafford, Donald Hall, and Robert Bly. Proposes that these poets are associated more with European and South American literature than with the poetry previously written in the United States and England. Discusses what these poets tell others about language and about writing poetry. (RL)
A middle school language arts teacher reflects on his experience in utilizing a school-housed online social network to create avenues for authentic audience, purpose, and response to student writing. With many technology proponents advocating a 21st century education, the fact that interacting with the Web 2.0 environment is essentially a reading…
Full Text Available Learning a second language in an EFL context requires both students and teachers to cooperate efficiently and resourcefully. By referring to the current theories of second language acquisition and reviewing the recent literature, it can be seen that the first language of learners (L1 has a necessary and facilitating role in all aspects of language instruction. This indicates that the ‘bilingual approach’ is gaining more support by incorporating the students’ L1 as a learning tool and also as a facilitator for an efficient communication. At the same time, advocacy for an English-only policy has been declining. Inspired by these views, this paper aims to explore the Iranian university students' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of L1. A well-known survey – Prodromou (2002 was employed and, surprisingly, the results were contradictory to the all previous similar studies. Iranian university students reported reluctance to use their L1. Finally, some pedagogical suggestions for a judicious use of L1 will be presented.
Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”, “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua. Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions. Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.
Kondyli, M.; Stellakis, N.
Learning to read and write constitutes a central part of becoming literate. From an emergent literacy perspective, learning to write starts during the first years of a child’s life, fostered by experiences that permit and promote meaningful interaction with oral and written language. Data from a research study that took place in 11 pre-primary education classes in the region of Achaia, Greece, is reported. The early children’s attempts to write are in the center of this paper. Written sam...
Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chen, Wenli; Chai, Ching-Sing; Chin, Chee-Kuen; Gao, Ping
This paper outlines an adaptable collaborative writing approach employing a wiki to address the typical weaknesses of young Singaporean Chinese students learning Chinese as second language (L2) in Chinese writing. These students' problems in writing include limited and incorrect use of vocabulary, English-style grammar, badly structured passages,…
Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian; Petit, Emily; Chen, Ching-Huei
This exploratory computer assisted-language learning (CALL) study used a computer-mediated communication (CMC) interface to allow English as a foreign language (EFL) writing students in classes at two universities to give each other anonymous peer feedback about essay-writing assignments reacting to selected news stories. Experts also provided…
Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying; Fiez, Julie; Nelson, Jessica; Bolger, Donald J.; Tan, Li-Hai
Bilingual reading can require more than knowing two languages. Learners must acquire also the writing conventions of their second language, which can differ in its deep mapping principles (writing system) and its visual configurations (script). We review ERP (event-related potential) and fMRI studies of both Chinese-English bilingualism and…
Zohreh Seifoori; Mohammad Amin Mozaheb; Amir Biglar Beigi
Teaching writing has always been a controversial issue in the field of Foreign Language Teaching. And while there are a number of approaches and techniques for teaching writing in an English as a Second Language or English as a Foreign Language (SL/EFL) setting, very few comprehensive frameworks exist for an ESL/EFL writing teacher. The present study hopes to fill that void by exploring the qualities of a good and effective EFL writing teacher on the basis of classroom observation and intervi...
María del Mar Ramón Torrijos
Full Text Available This article concentrates on the impact that cross-linguistic influences have on second language acquisition. It investigates the importance of the learner's native language (L1 in written production of a second language (L2, particularly the use of L1 linguistic rules by Spanish speakers when they are writing in the target language (L2. This exploratory research focuses on the production errors made by students relative to specific subsystems such as semantic and syntactic areas. Errors are studied with respect to the differences between Spanish and English through a contrastive analysis between both languages in problematic linguistic areas. In this article only semantic errors will be considered as a first approximation to the study of transfer in written production. The results indicate that transfer is a reality and an important determinant in the process of second language acquisition. Teachers in an EFL context should be able to identify this phenomenon in order to prevent the errors which may arise from it.
St?ncu?a Ramona DIMA-LAZA
Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.
Language plays a crucial role in the development of human society. It is the main means of communication between individuals, groups and countries. Nowadays in China, more and more people are learning English as a second language. What is the effective method of learning a foreign language becomes their chief concern. Basically speaking, four modules are involved in the process of second language acquisition. They are listening, reading, writing and speaking. In English language teaching and ...
Four Japanese university professors were interviewed on their strategies for writing a research paper in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Results indicate that these writers use strategies similar to those used by skilled native English writers and proficient writers of English as a Second Language. (35 references) (Author/CK)
Full Text Available This paper describes three different examples of the use of textographies in the researching and teaching of writing. The first is an examination of the exegeses that art and design students write in their masters degrees. In the second example, a group of teachers looked at the writing section of Chinese College English tests. The third example describes a course in which second language students carry out an analysis of the kinds of writing that is required of them in their academic studies. Each of the projects aims to go “beyond the text” (Freedman, 1999 in order to gain an understanding of why the texts are written as they are.
It is a heated discussion among researchers of foreign-language teaching on how to enhance the interest of study and teaching effect through the design, organization and implementation of classroom teaching of EFL writing, which is responsible for the enhancement of the student’s writing competence. This study is devoted to the systematic teaching design of communicative context in EFL writing within the paradigm of communicative language teaching, concentrating on the exploring of the cult...
La producción de resúmenes en Inglés como Lengua Extranjera (ILE) / La rédaction de résumés en anglais langue étrangère (ALE) / Summary Writing in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) / A produção de resumos em inglês como língua estrangeira (ILE)
Simón, Ruiz; Rebecca, Beke.
Full Text Available A escritura de resumos de textos em inglês como língua estrangeira é um tema que tem recebido mais atenção por parte dos especialistas no âmbito internacional do que no nacional. A partir da abordagem discursivo-funcional, e com base em um corpus de cem resumos redigidos em inglês, estabelecemos com [...] o intuito deste trabalho pesquisar como os estudantes incluem em seus textos as funções discursivas do texto origem e como utilizam as marcas discursivas para destacar essas funções. Para isso, foi utilizado o padrão textual Problema-Solução proposto por Hoey (2001). Os resultados desta análise demonstram que a maioria dos estudantes incluiu em seus resumos as funções hierarquicamente mais importantes do texto original. A estrutura to be about foi utilizada mais frequentemente para introduzir o tópico do texto origem e o verbo to evaluate para reportar o objetivo da pesquisa. Os resultados evidenciam que a maioria dos estudantes tem as aptidões necessárias não só para identificar as diferentes funções discursivas no texto original, mas também para reconstruir, com suas próprias palavras, um texto novo respeitando estas funções. Abstract in spanish La escritura de resúmenes de textos en inglés como lengua extranjera es un tema que ha recibido mayor atención de los expertos en el contexto internacional que en el nacional. Desde una perspectiva discursivo-funcional, y sobre la base de un corpus de cien resúmenes redactados en inglés, nos propusi [...] mos averiguar cómo los aprendices incluyen en sus textos las funciones discursivas del texto fuente y cómo utilizan las marcas discursivas para señalar estas funciones. Para ello se utilizó el patrón textual Problema-Solución propuesto por Hoey (2001). Los resultados del análisis muestran que la mayoría de los estudiantes incluyó en sus resúmenes las funciones jerárquicamente más importantes del texto original. La estructura to be about fue utilizada con mayor frecuencia para introducir el tópico del texto fuente y el verbo to evaluate para reportar el propósito de la investigación. Los resultados evidencian que la mayoría de los estudiantes tiene las habilidades necesarias para identificar las diferentes funciones discursivas en el texto original y para reconstruir, con sus propias palabras, un texto nuevo respetando estas funciones. Abstract in english Summary writing in English as a foreign language has been investigated internationally more than locally. From a discursive-functional perspective and on the basis of the problem-solution textual pattern (Hoey, 2001), we analyzed a corpus of one hundred summaries of a scientific news article, writte [...] n in English by Spanish speaking high school students. We aimed at finding out how the learners include the discursive functions of the source text in their writings and how these functions are linguistically signaled. The results show that the majority of students included in their summaries the hierarchically most important functions of the original text. To be about was the most common structure used to introduce the topic of the original text while the verb to evaluate was most widely used to report the purpose of the source text. These findings indicate that the majority of the participants are discursively and linguistically competent not only to identify the different discourse functions of the original text, but also to reconstruct, in their own words, a new and coherent text.
Full Text Available Language plays a crucial role in the development of human society. It is the main means of communication between individuals, groups and countries. Nowadays in China, more and more people are learning English as a second language. What is the effective method of learning a foreign language becomes their chief concern. Basically speaking, four modules are involved in the process of second language acquisition. They are listening, reading, writing and speaking. In English language teaching and learning, mastering these four modules means a lot. Speaking and writing skills, as the productive modules, are usually more difficult for learners. In this essay, from the origin and functions of language, the correlation and disparities between speaking and writing skills are analyzed and possible ways of improving these two skills in second language acquisition are explored and suggested.
Brantmeier, Cindy; Hammadou Sullivan, JoAnn; Strube, Michael
With 97 learners in an advanced Spanish course, the study examines the effects of textual enhancement adjuncts, prior subject knowledge, first language (L1) reading ability, and second language (L2) Spanish proficiency on L2 comprehension of scientific passages. Readings included two texts with two types of embedded questions: a pause or written…
Tran, Tammie M.
The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…
This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with ...
Susan Conrad, Ph.D.
The Civil Engineering Writing Project website contains two kinds of information: (1) research findings about the ways in which student writing in civil engineering differs from practitioners' writing and (2) materials for civil engineering students who want to improve writing skills that are especially useful in the workplace (as well as in the classroom). The resource resulted from a project funded by the National Science Foundation.
Full Text Available This paper aims to study the current challenges of Chinese language education in the multilingual societies of Hong Kong and Singapore through policy documents. After the handover of Hong Kong to China in 1997, the role of Putonghua is far more important than before due to political and economic reasons. However, the medium of instruction for the Chinese Language subject in Hong Kong has long been Cantonese since the British colony days. A change in the medium of instruction from mother-tongue Cantonese to Putonghua is a shift from L1 to L2. This paper will discuss the feasibility of this long term policy of Hong Kong Education Bureau with reference to Singapore’s experience. Currently, Singapore faces the problem of declining standard of reading and writing in Huayu (Putonghua in China and this paper will investigate the reason for that and suggest possible remedies.
The epistemic creative writer is not merely an expressive writer, a writer who writes for creative writing programs at diverse university colleges. Rather, the epistemic creative writer is the writer who understands that in order to say something useful you must step out of the space that engages your ego. Awareness of what really matters comes from the contemplation of the futility of words. Before the word there is silence. After the word there is silence. But during the word there is knowledge that can be made crystal clear. This book is about extracting what writing means to a few writers who formulate ideas about creative writing without, however, making claims to instruction. Can creative writing that produces knowledge be taught without a method? Samuel Beckett, Raymond Federman, Gertrude Stein, Jacques Lacan, Frank O'Hara, Douglas Hofstadter, Brian Rotman, Herman Melville, Kathy Acker, Friedrich Nietzsche, David Markson, Andrei Codrescu, and a host of others, gather here to offer an answer. --"Camelia Elias speaks to the reader from that place where the language of the birds becomes the language of silence." (Patrick Blackburn, Professor of Formal Logic, Roskilde University)
Yagelski, Robert P.
In 2003, the National Commission on Writing released "The Neglected "R,"" its report on the state of writing instruction in the nation's schools. The report identified an apparent paradox: writing, which the Commission defines as an essential skill for the many that has helped transform the world, is nevertheless increasingly shortchanged…
In the past, students and teachers alike viewed reading and writing instruction as two separate entities. Reading and writing instruction was often characterized by linear and behaviorist theories and methods, with students rarely coming away from their schooling experience with confidence in and respect for their own writing. To both read and…
Lenhart, Amanda; Arafeh, Sousan; Smith, Aaron
Teenagers' lives are filled with writing. All teens write for school, and 93% of teens say they write for their own pleasure. Most notably, the vast majority of teens have eagerly embraced written communication with their peers as they share messages on their social network pages, in emails and instant messages online, and through fast-paced thumb…
Brand, Alice G.
Promotes writing as a counseling technique to enhance a child's psychological growth. Notes that writing enhances awareness by helping individuals organize their inner selves, contributing to personal integration and self-validation, and providing a cathartic emotional release. Describes current therapeutic writing practices and a therapeutic…
Individuals mostly write texts which are directed to other persons, the readers. Even though individuals cannot rely on immediate reactions, as in spoken dialogue, they are nevertheless able to communicate successfully with them. A writing experiment focused on the role of the addressee in the writing process. Writers grouped in pairs were asked…
Deciding to enroll in a creative writing class, a quick web-search by this author revealed that there were classes in the local adult education college, run by an independent writing school. The author met one of the tutors, discussed his needs, and found himself enrolled in a short- story writing class. As it happened, so smitten was he that he…
Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.; Gerde, Hope K.
Providing preschoolers with rich writing experiences can help to lay a foundation for their later reading and writing success. Early writing experiences can be greatly enhanced by how preschool teachers answer young children's questions about writing and engage them in productive writing instruction. With appropriate scaffolding, early writing…
Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson; John Adamson
This study investigates language advising in a self-access center (SAC) with the purpose of informing language policy. This center is located in a new Japanese university and has shifted from an initially teacher-imposed ‘English-only’ language policy into one which encourages “translanguaging” (Blackledge & Creese, 2010, p. 105) between the students’ and center advisors’ (termed as mentors in this center) L1 (Japanese) and their L2 (English). Data from audio-recordings of interac...
Full Text Available Learning to read and write constitutes a central part of becoming literate. From an emergent literacy perspective, learning to write starts during the first years of a child’s life, fostered by experiences that permit and promote meaningful interaction with oral and written language. Data from a research study that took place in 11 pre-primary education classes in the region of Achaia, Greece, is reported. The early children’s attempts to write are in the center of this paper. Written samples by 172 pupils (aged 47–71 months, who were in the pre-alphabetic spelling phase, the period preceding the phonographic or conventional spelling, are analyzed. During this phase, even though the children have not yet discovered the letter sound correspondence, they demonstrate a great amount of knowledge of what is written language, how it works and what are its purposes. The results of the study suggest that reading and writing development is a strictly interrelated process and pre-school education reinforces literacy by creating context of decontextualized language use. The educational implications of the findings are also discussed. The main argument is that kindergarten education could significantly help the development of early literacy, but it is important to adopt an approach that starts from what children know and gives them opportunities to communicate by writing.
Karim Sadeghi; Sholeh Karvani Dilmaghani
The present study investigated whether lexical diversity is sensitive to genre in Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ writings. It also aimed at determining the relationship between learners’ writing quality and lexical diversity in different genres. To this end, 30 intermediate EFL learners, studying English at the Language Center of Urmia University, were asked to write essays in three genres: argumentative, narrative and descriptive. The writings were scored both holistically an...
Saeid Raoofi; Swee Heng Chan; Jayakaran Mukundan; Sabariah Md Rashid
This study reports on an investigation into writing strategies of Malaysian university students learning English as a second language. Qualitative data were collected from 21 undergraduate university students aged 19 to 21. The students interviewed reported using a variety of writing strategies. It was also found that all of the participants reported doing some pre-writing activities, and having awareness of their own writing problems. The findings of the study also revealed that the highly p...
Omid Tabatabaei; Farzaneh Assefi
Nowadays, writing has received a great degree of attention not only because it plays a significant role in transforming knowledge and learning but also in fostering creativity and when acquiring of a special language skill is seen as important, its assessment becomes important as well and writing is no exception. This study intended to investigate the effect of portfolio assessment technique as a teaching, learning and assessment tool on writing performance of EFL learners. Writing sub-skills...
Kaukuata, Naomy K.
Writing is a very important skill in language acquisition, and as such it requires special attention. That is why the first chapter of this project gives the reader a clear picture of the English language situation in Namibia. The situation of the English language changed after independence and has become the main medium of instruction today. The second chapter deals with Teaching/Learning problems in the country. Indeed, it shows that learning is associated with learning in difficult circums...
Le, Catherine; Smith, Joyce; Cohen, Lewis
Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam-mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirror writing had a deeper level of meaning; however, it does emphasize the idiosyncratic nature of dissociative identity disorder. PMID:19865491
Luu, Tuan Trong
Full Text Available This research is an endeavour to examine the impact of genre-based approach on students’ writing performance as well as students’ attitudes towards the implementation of genre-based approach in writing learning. Research findings reveal that most of the students gained the control over the key features of the required recount genre in terms of social purposes, language features and schematic structure. The necessity and usefulness of the application of teaching-learning cycle into learning the recount genre was predominantly recognized among students.
Full Text Available Graduates often find conceptualizing and writing long research projects an arduous alienating process. This paper describes a research writing intervention conducted at Memorial University in Newfoundland with two groups of graduate students (Engineering and Arts. One small part of the workshop was devoted to creative “sentence activities.” Our argument is that these creative activities contributed to re-connecting students to themselves as researchers/writers and to others in the group. The activities engaged students in language literally, metaphorically, and performatively.
This article describes the technologies in use for second language learning, in relation to the major language areas and skills. In order, these are grammar, vocabulary, reading, writing, pronunciation, listening, speaking, and culture. With each language area or skill, the relevant technologies are discussed with examples that illustrate how…
Chen, Si; Zhou, Jing
The ways in which learning graphical representations can encourage the development of creativities in Chinese young children remain to be fully explored. Previous research on children's writing focused on children's symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding Chinese young children's symbolization and creative…
Research shows that the most important skill to possess when learning a previously unknown word is to be able to interpret its meaning based on the context in which it is found (Nation, 2001). This is especially true for L1 learners, but regrettably, research shows, not as true for students learning a second language (Nation, 2001). The aim of the…
Full Text Available The present study was designed and conducted with the purpose to assess primary school students’ awareness in GL1 (Greek as first language and EFL (English as a foreign language strategy use and investigate the relations between the reported reading strategies use in first (L1 and foreign language (FL. The sample (455 students attending the fifth and sixth grades of primary schools in Northern Greece was first categorized into skilled and less skilled L1 and EFL readers through screening reading comprehension tests, one in L1 and one in FL, before filling in the reading strategy questionnaires. The findings revealed participants’ preference for “problem solving” strategies, while “global strategies” coming next. Girls were proved to be more aware of their reading strategies use with the boys reporting a more frequent use in both languages. Also, skilled readers were found to use reading strategies more effectively, and appeared to be more flexible in transferring strategies from L1 to FL compared to less-skilled readers.Keywords: reading awareness, reading strategies, reading difficulties, primary school students
Full Text Available This article presents and discusses the findings of a research study on the issue of L1 communicative-textual competence (CTC. More specifically it examines the L1 CTC of 10–12-year-old Greek elementary school students, before and after the use of alternative communicative-text-oriented teaching material versus traditional language materials currently used in the schools. The CTC of the students was examined using a version of the test published by the French Ministry of Education revised and adapted to the Greek language and educational context. Analysis of the pre- and post-intervention data suggests that using appropriately designed communicative-text-oriented teaching materials can increase Greek school students’ level of written L1 CTC.
Day, Robert A
Writing and publishing journal articles are crucial to scientific careers. Unfortunately, many young scientists find the process of communicating scientific information effectively a complete mystery. By providing practical, readable, and sometimes humorous guidance, this book helps researchers gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence to succeed in communicating about their work. This seventh edition of "How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper" contains 41 chapters focused upon two separate tasks: how to write the respective sections of a scientific paper and how to publish the paper. Other related topics include approaching a writing project, following ethical principles in scientific publishing, preparing oral presentations and poster presentations, writing grant proposals, and working with the popular media. The authors provide considerable guidance on appropriate scientific writing style as well as an extensive list of words and expressions to avoid - and supply the language to substitute for them.
In this lesson (part two of a two-part unit), students will read the poem “Florida” by Elizabeth Bishop and label her use of figurative language. Students will then determine how word choice and figurative language enhance and convey author’s meaning and tone. Using Bishop’s poem as a model, students then write their own Florida poem brimming with figurative language and vivid vocabulary.
Listening comprehension is the primary channel of learning a language. Yet of the four dominant macro-skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), it is often difficult and inaccessible for second and foreign language learners due to its implicit process. The secondary skill, speaking, proceeds listening cognitively. Aural/oral skills precede the graphic skills, such as reading and writing, as they form the circle of language learning process. However, despite the significant relationsh...
Wilson, Kathleen; Trainin, Guy; Laughridge, Virginia; Brooks, David; Wickless, Mimi
This study examined first-grade students' journal writing to determine how placing live zoo animals in classrooms for science education links to students' emergent and early writing. Students were asked to write journal entries during the daily language arts period. Although no direct instruction in informational text writing was offered, teachers…
Asif, Muhammad Salman
The theory of compressive sensing (CS) suggests that under certain conditions, a sparse signal can be recovered from a small number of linear incoherent measurements. An effective class of reconstruction algorithms involve solving a convex optimization program that balances the L1 norm of the solution against a data fidelity term. Tremendous progress has been made in recent years on algorithms for solving these L1 minimization programs. These algorithms, however, are for the most part static: they focus on finding the solution for a fixed set of measurements. In this paper, we will discuss "dynamic algorithms" for solving L1 minimization programs for streaming sets of measurements. We consider cases where the underlying signal changes slightly between measurements, and where new measurements of a fixed signal are sequentially added to the system. We develop algorithms to quickly update the solution of several different types of L1 optimization problems whenever these changes occur, thus avoiding having to sol...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L1: Northeast U.S. Canyons Exploration between 20130708 and...
Wang, Haixian; Lu, Xuesong; Hu, Zilan; Zheng, Wenming
Fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a classical subspace learning technique of extracting discriminative features for pattern recognition problems. The formulation of the Fisher criterion is based on the L2-norm, which makes LDA prone to being affected by the presence of outliers. In this paper, we propose a new method, termed LDA-L1, by maximizing the ratio of the between-class dispersion to the within-class dispersion using the L1-norm rather than the L2-norm. LDA-L1 is robust to outliers, and is solved by an iterative algorithm proposed. The algorithm is easy to be implemented and is theoretically shown to arrive at a locally maximal point. LDA-L1 does not suffer from the problems of small sample size and rank limit as existed in the conventional LDA. Experiment results of image recognition confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:23912504
Wu, Jiasong; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xiaoqing; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong
The l1-norm minimization problem plays an important role in the compressed sensing (CS) theory. We present in this letter an algorithm for solving the problem of l1-norm minimization for quaternion signals by converting it to second-order cone programming. An application example of the proposed algorithm is also given for practical guidelines of perfect recovery of quaternion signals. The proposed algorithm may find its potential application when CS theory meets the quaterni...
Full Text Available This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2 reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1 reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after closely looking into the methods of data analysis of the current literature on a language threshold. Statistical analysis revealed that the contribution of L1 reading and L2 knowledge to L2 reading was significant and substantial in the main and interaction effects, accounting for 54 percent of variance of L2 reading comprehension in tandem. However, the correlation of L1 reading to L2 reading showed, in general, a decreasing trend in accordance with the improvement of L2 knowledge, which is in contrast with the notion of a threshold level. This result of a language threshold was discussed in terms of a broad construct of language transfer and the interactive approach to reading in an L2.
Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M
In the current study, we set out to investigate the influence of a sentence context on language switching. The task required German-English bilinguals to produce responses based on an alternating language sequence (L1-L1-L2-L2- …) and concepts in a specific sequential order. The concept sequence was either a sentence which was syntactically correct in both languages (language-unspecific sentence), a sentence which was correct in just one language (language-specific sentence) or a sentence which was syntactically incorrect in both languages (scrambled sentence). No switch costs were observed in language-unspecific sentences. Consequently, switch costs were smaller in those sentences than in the language-specific or scrambled sentences. The language-specific and scrambled sentence did not differ with respect to switch costs. These results demonstrate an important role of sentence context for language switch costs and were interpreted in terms of language interference and preparation processes. PMID:25659539
Consuelo, Orozco Giraldo.
Full Text Available A linguagem permite a comunicação, compartilhar interesses e cultura. É eficaz desenvolver processos de leitura e escrita convencional, em geral, e de bilinguismo, em particular, mediante a literatura infantil (contos). Os resultados da primeira fase do processo investigativo (três anos) abrangem os [...] aspectos-chave sobre o discurso e a prática pedagógica que favorecem a aquisição da leitura e da escrita da língua materna (L1) na primeira infância. A segunda fase aborda como as estratégias e os discursos eficazes na primeira fase, com algumas adaptações, conseguem deslocar-se aos mesmos processos em uma segunda língua (L2) e dão lugar a resultados inesperados. Abstract in spanish El lenguaje permite la comunicación, compartir intereses y cultura. Es eficaz desarrollar procesos de lectura y escritura convencional, en general, y de bilingüismo, en particular, mediante la literatura infantil (cuentos). Los resultados de la primera fase del proceso investigativo (3 años) dan cue [...] nta de los aspectos claves acerca del discurso y práctica pedagógica que favorecen la adquisición de la lectura y la escritura de la lengua materna (L1) en la primera infancia. La segunda fase aborda cómo las estrategias y los discursos eficaces en la primera fase, con algunas adaptaciones, logran trasladarse a los mismos procesos en una segunda lengua (L2), y dan lugar a resultados insospechados. Abstract in english Language makes it possible to communicate and share interests and culture. It is effective in developing conventional reading and writing processes, in general, and bilingualism, in particular, through children's literature (stories). The results of the first phase of the research process (3 years) [...] account for the key aspects of the pedagogical discourse and practice that fosters the acquisition of reading and writing skills in the native language (L1) during early childhood. The second phase addresses the way in which the strategies and discourses that were effective in the first phase can be transferred, with some adaptations, to the same processes in a second language (L2), producing surprising results.
The authors describe a one-on-one online mentoring project that matched preservice teachers with English language learners to help them improve their writing skills. Online writing became a practical, engaging forum for the preservice teachers to discuss language learning and teaching and to learn how to effectively teach writing to ELL students.
Bernhardt (2005) proposed a compensatory model of second language reading. This model predicted that 50% of second language (L2) reading scores are attributed to second language knowledge and first-language (L1) reading ability. In this model, these two factors compensate for deficiencies in each other. Although this model explains a significant…
Full Text Available As an indispensable and most difficult part of language acquisition, the importance of English writing has been intensified by the economic globalization and internet revolution due to the special role of English as a universal language (Warshauer, 2000. However, writing teaching and learning has been long perplexing language teachers and learners even in the first language. Therefore many studies have been conducted on the revelation of the nature of writing and how to achieve it in pursuit of solutions to this problem. Consequently, the paradigm of teaching design of EFL Writing has experienced corresponding shift with the development of science, technology and social culture. Based on the analyses of various paradigms, the paper proposes the framework of a “three dimensional” model as well as its application in the teaching of EFL Business English discourse composition so as to cultivate the learners’ all-round writing skills in the aspect of teaching design.
Lin, Ming-Chia; Cheng, Yuh-Show; Lin, Sieh-Hwa; Hsieh, Pei-Jung
-The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of research-article writing motivation and use of self-regulatory writing strategies in explaining second language (L2) research-article abstract writing ability, alongside the L2 literacy effect. Four measures were administered: a L2 literacy test, a research abstract performance assessment, and inventories of writing motivation and strategy. Participants were L2 graduate students in Taiwan (N = 185; M age = 25.8 yr., SD = 4.5, range = 22-53). Results of structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of motivation on research-article writing ability, but no direct effect of strategy or indirect effect of motivation via strategy on research-article writing ability, with L2 literacy controlled. The findings suggest research-article writing instruction should address writing motivation, besides L2 literacy. PMID:25706344
The effective use of writing in science instruction may open the way for students to grow in their ability to exercise higher order thinking skills (Bland & Koppel, 1988). Scinto (1986) makes a compelling case for writing as a means of stimulating thinking when he states: The production of written text demands more elaborate strategies of preplanning. Written language demands the conscious organization of ensembles of propositions to achieve its end. The need to manipulate linguistic means in such a conscious and deliberate fashion entails a level of linguistic self-reflection not called forth in oral discourse (p. 101). Science educators may find that the writing process is one technique to help them move away from the teacher-centered, textbook-driven science classroom of today, and move toward the realization of science education which will ensure that students are able to function as scientifically literate citizens in our contemporary society.
This book provides a practical approach to compiler implementation and shows how the different language features are handled and translated in the compilation process. Unlike most books in this area, The Theory and Practice of Compiler Writing thoroughly covers programming language design and error detection, and recovery techniques in compilation, enabling readers to get a firm grasp on compiler planning and programming. Traditional topics such as lexical analysis, syntactic analysis, symbol table handling, semantic analysis, code generation and code optimization are given balanced coverage,
The Paradigm Online Writing Assistant, a frames-based site provided by Professor Chuck Guilford of Boise State University, aids writers in a different way from well known Online Writing Labs (OWLs), such as Purdue University's (discussed in the March 8, 1996 Scout Report), in that it concentrates on helping students think about how to conceive a writing project instead of giving nuts and bolts aids on grammar and style. This site contains sections on discovering what to write, organizing, revising and editing your writing, various types of essays, including thesis/support, argumentative, exploratory, and informal, and documenting sources. Each section is accompanied by activities, which help the student to incorporate the concepts. Professor Guilford understands that good writing is well prepared and thought out before a word hits the page, and that is the power of this site.
Investigated word recognition among fluent readers of English as a Second Language (ESL), specifically whether ESL readers' first language (L1) affects the procedures underlying second language word recognition, with respect to the effects of word frequency and regularity on word recognition. Results revealed a similarity in word-recognition…
Farley, Alexander H.; Luning Prak, Eline T; Kazazian, Haig. H.
The vast majority of L1 insertions are 5? truncated and thus inactive. Yet, the mechanism of 5? truncation is unknown. To examine whether the frequency of L1 retrotransposition is directly correlated with the length of genomic L1 insertions, we used a cell culture assay to measure retrotransposition frequency and a PCR-based assay to measure L1 insertion length. We tested five full-length human L1 elements that retrotranspose at different frequencies: LRE3, L1RP, L1.3, L1.2A and L1.2B. Ou...
Hatzidaki, Anna; Pothos, Emmanuel M.
A "text"-translation task and a recognition task investigated the hypothesis that "semantic memory" principally mediates translation from a bilingual's native first language (L1) to her second language (L2), whereas "lexical memory" mediates translation from L2 to L1. This has been held for word translation by the revised hierarchical model (RHM)…
Bill Daly of the Victoria University of Technology has posted a unit of curriculum designed to teach students how to write short argumentative essays. Originally created for students taking English in a vocational school, it is also useful to upper level high school and university educators and students. The site uses examples and models to systematically guide users through the steps of writing an argumentative essay. Students in any discipline that requires persuasive writing will benefit from this well constructed lesson.
This learning activity by Brown and from the Mechatronics Education Centerâ??s Project SHINE develops student technical writing skills. The lesson helps students understand the differences between literature and technical writing, while learning the processes, concepts and considerations used in technical writing. In particular, this activity aims to increase student understanding of sequential order, attention to detail, trouble-shooting, matching illustrations to text and ability to assess an audienceâ??s needs. The activity requires 90 minutes of class time.
Finlay, Chris; Tierney, Anne; Mcvey, Mary; Gray, Joseph
Students’ writing skills are subject to criticism, particularly in science subjects where there may be a lack of opportunity to practise. This is especially true in large classes, where assessments are often administered as multiple choice tests. In addition, the increasing number of students whose first language is not English makes the nuances and the conventions of scientific English particularly difficult to acquire. In the School of Life Sciences at the University of Glasgow, we hav...
Catherine Le; Lewis Cohen; Joyce Smith
Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have been known to show varied skills and talents as they change from one dissociative state to another. For example, case reports have described people who have changed their handedness or have spoken foreign languages during their dissociative states. During an interview with a patient with DID, a surprising talent emerged when she wrote a sentence for the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam—mirror writing. It is not known whether her mirr...
Betz, J.W.; Blanco, M.A.; Cahn, C.R.; Dafesh, P.A.; Hegarty, C.J.; Hudnut, K.W.; Kasemsri, V.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L.S.; Ma, H.H.; Rushanan, J.J.; Sklar, D.; Stansell, T.A.; Wang, C.C.; Yi, S.K.
Detailed design of the modernized LI civil signal (L1C) signal has been completed, and the resulting draft Interface Specification IS-GPS-800 was released in Spring 2006. The novel characteristics of the optimized L1C signal design provide advanced capabilities while offering to receiver designers considerable flexibility in how to use these capabilities. L1C provides a number of advanced features, including: 75% of power in a pilot component for enhanced signal tracking, advanced Weilbased spreading codes, an overlay code on the pilot that provides data message synchronization, support for improved reading of clock and ephemeris by combining message symbols across messages, advanced forward error control coding, and data symbol interleaving to combat fading. The resulting design offers receiver designers the opportunity to obtain unmatched performance in many ways. This paper describes the design of L1C. A summary of LIC's background and history is provided. The signal description then proceeds with the overall signal structure consisting of a pilot component and a carrier component. The new L1C spreading code family is described, along with the logic used for generating these spreading codes. Overlay codes on the pilot channel are also described, as is the logic used for generating the overlay codes. Spreading modulation characteristics are summarized. The data message structure is also presented, showing the format for providing time, ephemeris, and system data to users, along with features that enable receivers to perform code combining. Encoding of rapidly changing time bits is described, as are the Low Density Parity Check codes used for forward error control of slowly changing time bits, clock, ephemeris, and system data. The structure of the interleaver is also presented. A summary of L 1C's unique features and their benefits is provided, along with a discussion of the plan for L1C implementation.
Samshad N. Sheikh
Full Text Available Language is the most vital aspect of our life. It is used for varied purposes. We use it to express our inner thoughts and emotions, make sense of complex and abstract thought, to learn to communicate with others, to fulfill our wants and needs, as well as to establish rules and maintain our culture. It is defined in myriad ways. Whatever may be the definition, the language is considered as ‘skill’rather than a ‘subject’. It has four basic skills namely, listening, speaking, reading and writing. Among these skills listening and reading are called receptive skills and speaking and writing are productive skills. All these skills are complementary to each other. Developing these skills is, no doubt, a hard nut to crack for the teachers of English. But writing skill needs extra initiation and exertion on the part of the learner. In such circumstances, it really becomes a challenge for the teachers, teaching specially in rural areas. The present paper proposes to highlight the barriers that come in the way of developing writing skill of such rural learners. It also suggests some remedial measures to overcome these obstacles.
The technology of the Information Age depends on programming languages for functionality. Because programming languages ultimately affect the production of language digitally, programming languages will inevitably demonstrate a lasting effect on the process of writing. Hence it is important to recognize the impact of programming languages on the production of language. It may well be the necessary first step in understanding technology’s reverberating presence in the classroom.
"Zooming in" with a camera lens led students in Joan Berger's class to enrich their writing exponentially. Through class discussion of body language, along with the use of worksheets (provided), role-playing, modeling, and conferencing, one aspect of lively writing became a part of their writing repertoire. (Contains 5 figures.)
Bauler, Clara Vaz
This research study examines the role of digital media, more specifically online forums, in the development of academic literacy and language learning in English as a Second Language (ESL) college writing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition suggest that participation in online forum discussions can potentially foster collaboration,…
This collection of language activities for the Hispanic adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) student emphasizes real life vocabulary and skills. It is addressed to the student, except where a facilitator is needed for dictation exercises. Nonetheless, an instructor's help is necessary for the manual's use. Vocabulary lists in Spanish and…
Linking engineering students in Spain and technical writing students in the US as co-authors: The challenges and outcomes of subject-matter experts and language specialists collaborating internationally
Full Text Available In a first-of-its-kind international collaboration, technical writing classes in Spain and the US matched engineering students with international technical writing students to coauthor procedural instructions. These were then tested for usability by students in Finland and the US, and subsequently translated and localized by students in Belgium, France, and Italy. The coauthors faced challenges in gaining expertise, communicating clearly in a lingua franca, handling differing cultures, testing for usability, and managing differing semester schedules and time zones. Insights from these experiences yield recommendations for instructors who wish to replicate such collaborations.
Full Text Available Considering the communicative framework of language teaching, writing has an advantage- a person can give a variety of information to a close or distant, known or unknown reader or readers. Such way of communicating is highly important in the modern world, whether the communication is in the form of paper-and-pencil writing or advanced electronic writing. Therefore, this skill should be encouraged and nurtured during the language teaching course. Writing consists of different aspects like outline, structure, use of words, etc. which should be considered while teaching and practicing. Among those aspects, one is the focus of this study which is the use of cohesive devices to create a coherent text. Two techniques of teaching these devices, explicit teaching and dictogloss, are evaluated among intermediate Iranian language learners to see which one is more effective in helping them to improve the coherence of their compositions. The conclusion is that both techniques are effective but dictogloss seems to be more useful in case of these participants.
Betz, J.W.; Cahn, C.R.; Dafesh, P.A.; Hegarty, C.J.; Hudnut, K.W.; Jones, A.J.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L.S.; Ma, H.H.; Rushanan, J.J.; Stansell, T.A.; Wang, C.C.; Yi, S.K.
Design activities for a new civil signal centered at 1575.42 MHz, called L1C, began in 2003, and the Phase 1 effort was completed in 2004. The L1C signal design has evolved and matured during a Phase 2 design activity that began in 2005. Phase 2 has built on the initial design activity, guided by responses to international user surveys conducted during Phase 1. A common core of signal characteristics has been developed to provide advances in robustness and performance. The Phase 2 activity produced five design options, all drawing upon the core signal characteristics, while representing different blends of characteristics and capabilities. A second round of international user surveys was completed to solicit advice concerning these design options. This paper provides an update of the L1C design process, and describes the current L1C design options. Initial performance estimates are presented for each design option, displaying trades between signal tracking robustness, the speed and robustness of clock and ephemeris data, and the rate and robustness of other data message contents. Planned remaining activities are summarized, leading to optimization of the L1C design.
Consciência fonológica e o processo de aprendizagem de leitura e escrita: implicações teóricas para o embasamento da prática fonoaudiológica / Phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing: theoretical implications for the basement of the Speech-Language pathologist practice
Cristiane, Nunes; Silvana, Frota; Renata, Mousinho.
Full Text Available TEMA: consciência fonológica e o aprendizado da leitura e escrita. OBJETIVO: realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca do tema com o objetivo de retomar conceitos dispostos recentemente na literatura e oferecer ao Fonoaudiólogo a possibilidade de revisão de suas práticas para (re)formulação de estra [...] tégias terapêuticas. CONCLUSÃO: é possível observar que os estudos convergem para a importante relação no desenvolvimento das habilidades de consciência fonológica com o desenvolvimento da leitura e escrita. Tal fato reforça a necessidade de revisão de nossa prática clínica e científica para a criação e difusão de estratégias preventivas e/ou de remediação envolvendo atividades lúdicas que englobam a consciência da criança na manipulação dos sons da fala. Uma importante área de pesquisa na Fonoaudiologia do Brasil deveria convergir para o estudo e criação de ferramentas facilitadoras ao Fonoaudiólogo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: phonological awareness and the process of learning reading and writing. PURPOSE: to hold a review of the literature about this theme, in order to resume concepts recently published on technical literature and offer for the Speech-Language pathologist the possibility to review some of the [...] ir practices and formulate a therapeutic strategy. CONCLUSION: it is possible to observe that the studies point to the important relationship on the development of phonological awareness skills, including the increase of reading and writing. This fact reinforces the need for reviewing our clinical and scientific practice in order to approach the creation and to disseminate some preventive and remediate strategies involving recreational activities which include children awareness manipulation of the sounds of speech. One important area of the Speech Language research in Brazil should converge for the studies and creation on this subject toward the tools in order to help the Speech-Language Pathologist.
AN ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTIVENESS OF WRITING LEARNING DOMAIN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TURKISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION CURRUCULUM ?LKÖ?RET?M TÜRKÇE DERS? Ö?RET?M PROGRAMINDAK? YAZMA Ö?RENME ALANININ ETK?L?L???N?N DE?ERLEND?R?LMES?
Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKS?Z
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine teachers’ perceptions of effectiveness of writing learning domain in elementary school Turkish Language Curriculum in practice. The participants of the study consisted of 15 Turkish Language teachers working in Malatya city. Data were collected by using a semi-structured interview form consisting of eight questions. NVivo 8 program was used to analyze the data and teachers’ answers were analyzed by using content analysis. The findings of the study were presented as frequencies and percentages. Analysis of interview data revealed that teachers found Turkish Language Curriculum effective in writing learning domain. Bu ara?t?rman?n amac?, ?lkö?retim ?kinci Kademe Türkçe Dersi Ö?retim Program?’ndaki “yazma” ö?renme alan?n?n uygulamada etkilili?ine ili?kin ö?retmen görü?lerini belirlemektir. Ara?t?rma Malatya ilinde görev yapan 15 Türkçe ö?retmeni üzerinde gerçekle?tirilmi?tir. Çal??mada veri toplama arac? olarak sekiz sorudan olu?an yar? yap?land?r?lm?? görü?me formu kullan?lm??t?r. Ara?t?rmada NVivo 8 program? kullan?lm?? ve ö?retmen cevaplar?n?n de?erlendirilmesinde içerik analizi yap?lm??t?r. Elde edilen bulgular frekans ve yüzde da??l?mlar? yap?lm??t?r. Yazma ö?renme alan? ile ilgili uygulamalarda ?lkö?retim Türkçe Dersi Ö?retim Program?’n?n genel olarak etkili oldu?u görülmü?tür.
Albaaly, Emad; Higgins, Steven
This study investigated the impact of the interactive whiteboard on Egyptian medical students' achievement in essay writing in English as a second language (ESL). First, the writing micro-skills judged essential to help these students improve their essay writing were identified, using a questionnaire which investigated experts' views. This gave…
With the increasing use of integrated tasks in assessing writing, more and more research studies have been conducted to examine the construct validity of such tasks. Previous studies have largely focused on reading-writing tasks, while relatively little is known about graph-writing tasks. This study examines second language (L2) writers'…
Gala, Núria; Bel-Enguix, Gemma
The book collects contributions from well-established researchers at the interface between language and cognition. It provides an overview of the latest insights into this interdisciplinary field from the perspectives of natural language processing, computer science, psycholinguistics and cognitive science. One of the pioneers in cognitive natural language processing is Michael Zock, to whom this volume is dedicated. The structure of the book reflects his main research interests: lexicon and lexical analysis, semantics, language and speech generation, reading and writing technologies, langu
Sugiura, Lisa; Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko
A large-scale study of 484 elementary school children (6–10 years) performing word repetition tasks in their native language (L1-Japanese) and a second language (L2-English) was conducted using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Three factors presumably associated with cortical activation, language (L1/L2), word frequency (high/low), and hemisphere (left/right), were investigated. L1 words elicited significantly greater brain activation than L2 words, regardless of semantic knowledge, p...
As teaching English as a foreign language, it has become obvious that an average Thai is considered to have very low English proficiency. As a result, Thailand may find herself at a disadvantage because of inferior English skills towards globalization and forming of ASEAN community. Thus, the study is devoted to the exploration of English writing skill which sets out to obtain some concrete information on the students’ problems in writing English supported by Systemic Functional Grammar. Th...
Panovic?, Ivan; Holes, Clive D.
This thesis is an ethnographically grounded description and interpretation of a variety of writing practices observable in an Arabic speaking community, primarily on the Internet. Working with, or in reaction to, the concept of diglossia, of which Arabic sociolinguistic setting is often cited as a textbook example, the majority of scholars have focused their attention on speech as a major site of language variation and mixing. Writing has been largely neglected. This thesis is a contribution ...
Yu-Chung Change of Pasadena City College developed this method in an inquiry project. Here is her description of the approach: The Writing and Reading Activities for Math Problem Solving (WRAMPS) is a nine-step process that requires students to break a word problem into small pieces by using reading and writing strategies. Students then work collaboratively and concentrate on language decoding and comprehension.
Siti Rafizah Fatimah Osman; Erny Arniza Ahmad; Kamaruzaman Jusoff
This paper explores the effectiveness of theme-based instructional (TBI) method as a means of honing the writing skills and the motivation for writing of 36 pre-degree ESL learners in a Malaysian tertiary institution. The method which focused on development of language skills through discussion of themes provided the teacher a direct and effective way in guiding the learning processes the learners underwent in terms of how information was shared and kept and how the outcomes were ensued in pu...
The purpose of this article is to share lessons learned in setting up three different peer online writing centers in three different contexts (EFL, Generation 1.5, and ESL). In each center the focus was on the language learner as a peer online writing advisor and their needs in maintaining centers “for and by” learners. Technology affordances and constraints for local contexts, which promote learner autonomy, are analyzed. The open-source platforms (Moodle, Drupal, and Google Apps) are compar...
Full Text Available Beyond the boundaries of what is typically considered the Indonesian-Malay world, a small community known today as the Sri Lanka Malays continued to employ the Malay language in writing and speech long after its ancestors left the Indonesian archipelago and Malay peninsula for their new home. Although it is reasonable to assume that the ancestors of the Malays spoke a variety of languages, at least initially, no traces of writing in another Indonesian language have ever been found. Below I present the first evidence of such writing, in Javanese, encountered in an early nineteenth century manuscript from Colombo.
Chi-Fen Emily Chen
Though e-mail has become a common interpersonal communication medium, it does not mean that this medium is used without difficulty. While people can write e-mails to peers in any manner they like, writing e-mails to authority figures requires higher pragmatic competence and critical language awareness of how discourse shapes and reflects power asymmetry in an institutional context. For L2 learners, the challenge of composing this type of e-mail can be greater due not only to their limited lin...
Parviz Maftoon; Parviz Birjandi; Pantea Pahlavani
In the third millennium, writing skill plays a great role in the foreign language education. Also, current advances in computer technology are affecting the ways the teachers use to develop learners’ language skills. The present study investigated the effectiveness of computer-aided argument mapping (CAAM) on the improvement of writing achievement of Iranian learners of English. To this end, after administrating a language proficiency test and an essay writing test, 90 students were cho...
Juan Barragán, Francisco Javier; Pérez Grana, José Arturo; Cervantes, Francisco; Schwarzblat y Katz, Morris; Olide Márquez, María Guadalupe; Pérez Sánchez, Ana Paola
We present here the first visual interface for a Mexican Spanish Sign Language translator on its first development stage: sign-writing recognition. The software was developed for the unique characteristics of Mexican linguistics and was designed in order to use sentences or a sequence of signs in sign-writing system which are decoded by the program and converted into a series of images with movement that correspond to the Mexican sign language system. Using a lexical, syntactic and semantic...
Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger
This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…
Academics tend to focus on how best to get their outputs read, rather than on the writing process itself. Pat Thomson argues writing itself deserves attention. If academics embrace their writer identity, there is much to be learned about the art from wider creative resources.
Dorfman, Lynne; Cappelli, Rose
When learning how to write well, there is nothing more powerful than examining the work of the writers we admire. Real writers need mentors--those writers who inspire us and demonstrate through their style and craft how we, too, can be successful writers. In "Writing with Mentors", Lynne Dorfman and Rose Cappelli, authors of "Mentor Texts" and…
This educators guide blends space exploration with reading and writing. The materials are divided into two units. One unit is designed for students in grades 1 and 2 while the other unit focuses on students in grades 3 and 4. Each includes a series of lessons that take students on a path of exploration of Saturn using reading and writing prompts.
Discusses, in poetic form, the writing of the play "Salvador" from the perspective of the author. Explains her thoughts about writing for children, including didactic relationships with children, didactic functions of art, and how adults teachers try to create a sterilized, lifeless, good-thinking, and artificial world for children when they are…
Lowe, Kelly Fisher
This paper looks at the role of a Writing Program Administrator, and applies the idea of a cybernetic system to the administration of the program. In this cybernetic model, the Writing Program Administrator (WPA) works as both a problem solver and problem causer, with the responsibility of keeping the program in proper balance. A cybernetic…
Taylor, C. V.
This paper seeks to define the relationship between speech and writing as two separate media within language, and suggests the use of the term translation to describe moving from one medium to another. Such a view acknowledges the independence of speech and writing, the possibility of translation in either direction, the possible untranslatability…
Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Gomez, Conrado Laborin
Science teachers need specific strategies to develop writing skills along with science content. Fortunately, research has demonstrated that science-teaching methodology can accomplish both the teaching of science content and various language skills, including writing. A technique suitable for and utilized by science teachers is the "mode…
Mourad, Ali Eissa
Introduction: Writing poses challenges for many students. In Egypt, many students with learning disabilities (LD) who learn English as a foreign language exhibit deficiencies in the writing process. In order for students to achieve a good level of competence, those students need to apply strategies which have proven to be effective in improving…
Full Text Available A large body of research has examined the interaction of oral and written language in formal educational context. Language practitioners and researchers have also taken up the sociocultural approach to language learning and emphasized the need for composition teachers to promote a social atmosphere in classrooms through collaboration. Accordingly, the present study sought to extend the scope of collaborative writing studies to FL context. More specifically, it aimed to investigate the writing performance of Iranian intermediate EFL learners in the textbook evaluation course which is one of the university courses for the students of TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language. For this purpose, fifty seven female EFL learners participated in this study. It was carried out in two parallel textbook evaluation classes; namely, control and experimental groups to which students were randomly assigned. Students were supposed to evaluate eight series of ELT materials and write reports based on them. Students in the control group did the tasks individually; whereas students in the experimental group wrote collaboratively in small groups. Data collection was based on the pre-test, post-test design. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the students working in groups outperformed those writing individually based on such writing components as content, organization, grammar, and vocabulary.
Full Text Available This study aims at overcoming difficulty in learning language, both in Indonesian Language and English at international elementary school, especially in creative writing. Creative writing as part of human activity is creativity with language medium as prose (narrative, description, poem (old, new and modern, as well as drama (dialogue, role play, and sosio drama. Specific target to be achieved is the design of Video Streaming for all kinds of creative writing in the language of Indonesian and English. This investigation is a continuation of the previos investigation that has managed to make a video leaning in English for Math and Science as integrated learning to early class at international elementary school. The method used follow the principles of developmental reasearch. The firts stage is script writing video streaming through brainstorming with teachers, lecturers, teams of investigators Indonesia (UPI and Malaysia (USM. The second stage manuscript, making finalization Video Streaming, make the Web, media experts and creative writing material team investigators. The third stage, testing the Video Streaming, Web and dissemination of results into all the international elementary school in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Full Text Available Being one of the four language skills, writing poses its own challenges for EFL learners. Over time, educators have suggested different methods to cure some of these challenges faced by students. In the 21st century, we suppose that technology should be part of the solutions to be introduced. The potential of technology in teaching writing is able to yield positive results compared to pen-and-paper writing. From drafting to publishing, technology eases the matter a lot. However, technology seems to have some shortcomings that may hinder both teachers and learners from achieving favourable results. This paper is about weighing some advantages and disadvantages of introducing ICT in the writing classroom.Keywords: EFL writing, ICT (Information and Communication Technology, computer literacy
Riordan, Daniel G
"Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...
Dr. Michael Carter
LabWrite is a website students can use to write better lab reports, which helps students learn to think scientifically. The main structure of the site is chronological, guiding students through the full lab experience: PreLab is a set of questions that initiates scientific inquiry; InLab helps students collect, organize, and analyze data during the lab; PostLab offers a step-by-step guide to writing the report; and LabCheck helps students revise their reports before handing them in. In addition to the standard hypothetical lab, LabWrite also provides full support for descriptive labs and labs that students design for themselves. LabWrite also includes an extensive set of resources, such as an Excel tutorial and guides for creating tables and graphs, which students can use on their own or teachers can use for in-class instruction. The website contains a guide for teachers.
Full Text Available The role of feedback on writing involves complex issues and needs to be considered within the total context in which the feedback is given. The reason studies examining feedback effects are so inconsistent may be a function of the fact that these studies consider feedback issue from a single perspective. To deal with this problem, feedback is first defined from different perspectives, then different aspects of feedback are discussed and after that a discussion of the factors that affect the influence of feedback on second language writing follows and finally a model where all the factors interact to influence feedback practices in second langue writing is presented.
Miller, J. Hillis
Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)
Full Text Available Studies in interlanguage pragmatics have shown that L2 learners’ proficiency has an influence on the occurrences of L1 pragmatic transfer. However, questions remain whether the relationship between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency is positive or negative. This paper is designed to study L1 pragmatic transfer in requests made by Chinese learners of English at low L2 proficiency level and at high L2 proficiency level and how L1 pragmatic transfer is related to their L2 proficiency. Ten low proficiency learners of English, ten high proficiency learners of English?ten native speakers of English and ten native speakers of Chinese participate in this study. Requests are collected by means of a discourse completion test questionnaire and are analysed in terms of requestive semantic formulas based on the taxonomy of request strategies, internal modifiers and external modifiers. The research results reveal that L1 pragmatic transfer decreases with the increase of L2 proficiency such as learners’ use of direct strategies, lexical and phrasal downgraders, imperatives and grounder and no clear relationship is found between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency in terms of the other request strategies, internal modifiers and external modifiers. These results provide partial support to negative correlation hypothesis —high proficiency L2 learners are less likely to transfer their native language pragmatic norms since they have enough control over L2.
This article explores the value of judiciously used first language (L1)-to-second language (L2) translation in meaning-focused, advanced-level academic language education. It examines languaging in the teacher-led discourse (TLD) that arises when translation tasks are used and compares it to languaging during the TLD engendered by 4 other…
Full Text Available Cross-national, or cross-cultural, studies of academic writing have moved beyond contrastive rhetoric’s textual focus to broad concerns of students’ first-and second-language literacy development. However, we remain in the dark as to how, in a micro view, students initiate into academic discourses in cross-national contexts. Situating our study in first-year writing courses in a Taiwanese and a U.S. university, we examined students’ negotiation acts when they struggled to enter into social science discourses. Our study reveals that students in both institutions negotiated with academic writing at metacognitive, textual, and contextual levels. They brought rhetorical values, such as writing as a display of knowledge or writing grounded in evidential research, into their writing that they acquired in high school. Further, teachers’ expectations, their new perceptions of research and writing, and their dreams and experiences all came into play in their writing.
Modern computer programming languages are governed by complex syntactic rules. They are unlike natural languages; they require extensive manual work and a significant amount of learning and practicing for an individual to become skilled at and to write correct programs. Computer programming is a difficult, complicated, unfamiliar, non-automated, and a challenging discipline for everyone; especially, for students, new programmers and end-users. This paper proposes a new programming language and an environment for writing computer applications based on source-code generation. It is mainly a template-driven automatic natural imperative programming language called MyProLang. It harnesses GUI templates to generate proprietary natural language source-code, instead of having computer programmers write the code manually. MyProLang is a blend of five elements. A proprietary natural programming language with unsophisticated grammatical rules and expressive syntax; automation templates that automate the generation of in...