WorldWideScience
 
 
1

[Phosphorus characteristics in rhizosphere soil of Cunninghamia lanceolata, Pinus massoniana and their mixed plantations].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2007-2010, a comparative study was conducted on the phosphorus characteristics in the rhizosphere soil of Cunninghamia lanceolata, Pinus massoniana and C. lanceolata-P. massoniana mixed plantations in a forest farm in Nanping City of Fujian Province, East China. In the rhizosphere soil of pure C. lanceolata and P. massoniana plantations, the content of available P was higher than that in non-rhizosphere soil. As compared with non-rhizosphere soil, the rhizophere soil in the three plantations had lower pH and O-P content but higher Al-P and Fe-P contents, and its P adsorption capacity was lower while the P desorption rate and desorbed P were in adverse. In the rhizophere soil of pure P. massoniana plantation, the contents of available P, Fe-P, and Al-P, their desorption rates, and desorption capacity were higher, but the O-P content and the adsorbed P were lower, as compared with those in the rhizophere soil of pure C. lanceolata plantation. In the mixed plantation, the P activation in rhizophere soil was further improved, being more obvious under C. lanceolata, which suggested that mixed plantation of C. lanceolata and P. massoniana could promote the phosphorus nutrition of C. lanceolata. PMID:22303655

Zhang, Ding-Hua; Lin, Kai-Miao; Li, Bao-Fu

2011-11-01

2

Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

3

Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m{sup 3} or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m{sup 3} or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden)

2010-09-15

4

MDF/HDF Production from Plantation Wood Species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the raw material base for the newly built MDF/HDF production line in Mohács, Hungary. The desired raw material for the factory is 80 % poplar and 20 % other species (conifers and broad leaved species. These raw materials should be obtained from wood plantations. Laboratory experiments were done in production of MDF and HDF boards with the following raw materials: 5 and 10 year old Pannonia poplar (Populus x euramericana Pannónia, I214 poplar (Populus x euramericana ‘I214’, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra. The selected trees were evaluated based on the following parameters: diameter, bark volume, ability for barking, ability for chipping, fiber yield, fiber quality, energy consumption of defibrating, chemical analysis of waste water after defibrating. MDF and HDF boards were made in laboratory from clear poplar species, and from a mixture of poplar and Austrian pine and poplar and black locust. In both cases of mixing, the ratio of poplar and other wood species was 80:20. Ureaformaldehyde adhesive and ammonium-sulphate hardener were used during board production. Also some paraffin was added to increase the moisture resistance. The following board characteristics were tested: bending strength, internal bond, modulus of elasticity, thickness swelling, density, moisture content, formaldehyde content. Except the values of internal bond, the results were very satisfactory, highly above the standard requirements. The reason for the low internal bond values is as follows: - in the laboratory we could not apply a proper blending of fibers and additives, - mat forming by hand. In spite of this, we are sure that an actual technological test production will give good results.

Tibor Alpár, Tibor Fáczán, István Rácz, Gabor Kátoli

2010-09-01

5

PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AMONG WOOD PROPERTIES AND GROWTH IN WILD CHERRY PLANTATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Italy is one of the major users of cherry wood (Prunus avium L.), and its cultivation has been increasing since the early nineties, together with studies aimed at improving genotypes, with a selection usually based on growth, stem form, vigor, and tree adaptation. Here, the phenotypic correlations between growth rate and the physical and mechanical properties of wood are investigated in two wild cherry plantations. X-ray microdensitometry was also applied to analyze the age-age correlations o...

Michela Nocetti,; Michele Brunetti,; Fulvio Ducci,; Manuela Romagnoli,; Philippe Rozenberg,; Frédérique Santi

2012-01-01

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Basic physical properties of spruce wood (Picea abies Karst from plantations  

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Full Text Available The basic physical properties of spruce wood from plantations in the surroundings of Banja Luka were researched. The dependence of growth ring diameter and wood density, density, volume porosity, shrinkage, fibre saturation point and absorption of moisture were analysed on three trees average age about 16 years. The data for breast height and for all specimens from breast height to 9.3 m were statistically processed. The research and analysis of the basic physical properties of plantation-grown spruce wood shows that the effect of growth ring diameter on the density is negative and that the dependence is logarithmic, which confirms the previous results. Average value of wood density is lower than the usual value reported in references. Average value of radial shrinkage is 3.90%, and tangential 8.10%. This research confirms the linear dependence between the nominal density and volumetric shrinkage of spruce wood and that density has a negative effect on the coefficient of surface anisotropy. At breast height, average value of the coefficient of surface anisotropy is 2.16, volume porosity 72%, and fibre saturation point 32.6%. Average rate of absorption is 3.42% per day, for the first 7 days, and 0.12% per day for the last 30 days. The study results were compared to the results reported by other authors.

Šoški? Borislav

2007-01-01

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Variations in wood tratis in micro and macro propagated plantation woods of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh  

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Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison between intra-ramet, intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations in girth at breast height (gbh, fiber length, fiber diameter, wall thickness, vessel element length, vessel element diameter and specific gravity in the ramets of L34, G3 and S7C15 clones of Populus deltoides at the age of 6 years old produced from planting material grown by macro- and micro-propagation techniques. Variance ratio (F test indicated that intra-ramet variations were non-significant for all the characters except specific gravity for height in L34 for macro and specific gravity and vessel element diameter for radial locations for micro, and fiber length for G3 (micro for height, and specific gravity for radial location and fiber length for height for S7C15 clone for both the techniques. The clone L34 showed the significantly higher girth followed by G3 and S7C15. The variations were significant for girth, vessel element length and specific gravity between the wood produced from planting stocks grown by two techniques. Intra-clonal variations were significant for fiber length, fiber diameter and vessel element length. In general wood element’s dimensions and specific gravity increased from bottom to top and pith to periphery radial locations. G3 clone was different from the L34 and S7C15 clone for the wood traits. The three different clones of Populus deltoides showed variability in wood anatomical properties and specific gravity in the woods grown from macro- and micro-propagated planting stock. So, the plantation raised by two techniques could not produce similar type of wood even from the same clone. G3 clone was the exception as it did not show variation in wood traits for two techniques. Intra-clonal variations in all the three clones of P. deltoides indicated that wood traits were not stable within the population of same clone grown by either method.

Ramesh C. Dhiman

2010-10-01

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Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

Mehari, A.

1997-11-01

9

Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha{sup -} {sup 1} (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem - soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed. (author)

Omil, Beatriz; Merino, Agustin [Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Escuela Politecnica Superior, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo (Spain); Pineiro, Veronica [Centro de Apoyo Tecnologico (CACTUS), University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo (Spain)

2007-08-01

10

Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha-1 (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem-soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessedsh application must be assessed

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD FROM THREE PLANTATION SOFTWOODS  

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Full Text Available Woods from plantation stands of parana, slash and loblolly pines, thinned at least once, were tested with the objective of comparing physical and mechanical properties. Five threes from each specie were harvested from selected stands. The stems were bucked into logs and then transported to the sawmill cooperating in this study. The logs were processed into planks, which were air seasoned, and then cut into pieces according to ASTM standards. Although the average strength of parana pine was slightly larger than the two other pines, significant differences were found only in the tests of static bending (modulus of elasticity and tension at the proportional limit, compression parallel to the grain (maximum crushing strength, modulus of elasticity and tension at the proportional limit and hardness (cross-section. The  properties  were  not  different  for  slash  and loblolly pines, except in tension perpendicular to the grain, where the strength of loblolly pine was higher than the others. No differences were found for specific gravity and shrinkage among the species.

Elio José Santini

2009-09-01

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CONTROL PROCEDURES OF VOLUME OF ESTIMATED AND HARVESTED WOOD IN A PLANTATION OF Pinus spp. IN PARANÁ STATE  

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Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814585The objective of this research was to improve the operating procedures of control of the volume of timber estimated by the forest inventory and the effectively harvested volume in order to reduce inconsistencies in the forest planning practiced in a forestry plantation of Pinus spp. in Paraná state. Accordingly, we used the tools of quality: storming and PDCA Cycle through an exploratory research project to study together. The study showed an inconsistency initial volume – 24,73% of the volume estimated by the inventory and the effectively harvested wood. This inconsistency was composed of operational failures in the activities of Forest Inventory (+13,84%, Forest Harvesting (+15,62% and Expedition Wood (-3,08%. The application of quality tools helped in the identification of inconsistency, as well as the revelation of operational failures, which suggested some routine monitoring and checking each of the activities involved in managing operational forestry.  

Silvane Vatraz

2014-06-01

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Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to export of nutrients from the forest. Recirculation of nutrients from wood chip combustion by ash spreading in forests has been proposed as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine the effect of wood chip ash application on soil chemistry in a 44-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation on a nutrient-poor soil in Denmark and to investigate the effect of applying different ash types and doses. Soil samples were collected and analyzed 2.5years (3 growing seasons) after ash application. This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an increase in Cd was found in the O-horizon, corresponding to the amount added in the ashes. Generally, no other increase in soil contents of the heavy metals was seen. Hardening of the wood ash did not decrease the chemical impact on the soil chemistry as compared to non-treated ash whereas an increase in ash application dose increases the liming effect.

Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette

2014-01-01

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Short-rotation plantations. Wood from the acre - that's the way; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Holz vom Acker - So geht's  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poplar or willow instead of rapeseed and wheat? It is not quite obviously: There is no question that one may achieve still more profits by means of cultivation of quality wheat than the cultivation of fast growing wood. However, under certain circumstances birch trees, robinia et cetera may be a very lucrative alternative to grassland or low yield rye cultivation. Especially with currently rising timber prices. The book under consideration is a practical decision support for whom a short-rotation plantations is worthwhile as well as how to create and maintain a short-rotation plantation.

Setzer, Frank [Deutsche Landwirtschaftsgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Fachgebiet Forstwirtschaft und Bioenergie; Landgraf, Dirk

2012-07-01

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Wood colour variation in sapwood and heartwood of young trees of Tectona grandis and its relationship with plantation characteristics, site, and decay resistance
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Les variations de couleur dans l'aubier et le duramen de jeunes arbres de Tectona grandis, en relation avec les caractéristiques des plantations, du site et de la durabilité
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

* Wood colour of Tectona grandis produced from fast-growth plantations is highly variable and the causes of this variation are relatively unknown.* With the purpose of understanding the colour variation, different fast-growth plantations were sampled with different growth rates, tree ages, and sites.* Wood colour was measured with a CIELab system, where three variables are estimated: coordinate L* for lightness, coordinate a* defines redness and coordinate b* defines yellowness.* Results show...

Moya, Ro?ger; Berrocal, Alexander

2010-01-01

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VARIATION IN ANISOTROPIC SHRINKAGE OF PLANTATION-GROWN PINUS RADIATA WOOD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anisotropic shrinkage of 27-year old Pinus radiata wood was measured from green to oven-dry condition. The samples were prepared from 21 discs cut from seven trees at different stem heights of 0.1m, 5.2m and 10.3m above ground, respectively. Longitudinal shrinkage was found to vary from 0.02% to 2.34%, with peak values near the pith decreasing towards the bark. The variation was more pronounced at the 0.1m height. The longitudinal shrinkage also showed a trend of decrease with the stem height...

Eric Wang; Taian Chen; Shusheng Pang; Andrew Karalus

2008-01-01

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VARIATION IN ANISOTROPIC SHRINKAGE OF PLANTATION-GROWN PINUS RADIATA WOOD  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Anisotropic shrinkage of 27-year old Pinus radiata wood was measured from green to oven-dry condition. The samples were prepared from 21 discs cut from seven trees at different stem heights of 0.1m, 5.2m and 10.3m above ground, respectively. Longitudinal shrinkage was found to vary from 0.02% to 2.3 [...] 4%, with peak values near the pith decreasing towards the bark. The variation was more pronounced at the 0.1m height. The longitudinal shrinkage also showed a trend of decrease with the stem height above the ground. Tangential and radial shrinkage was found to increase with growth ring number from the pith, but the variation along the stem height did not show a clear trend. The results confirmed that the pith-to-bark variation and vertical variation of the anisotropic shrinkage were significant for radiata pine. Large differences were also observed among corewood, transition wood and outerwood. Microfibril angle (MFA) was believed to the main reason for these variations.

Eric, Wang; Taian, Chen; Shusheng, Pang; Andrew, Karalus.

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VARIATION IN ANISOTROPIC SHRINKAGE OF PLANTATION-GROWN PINUS RADIATA WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anisotropic shrinkage of 27-year old Pinus radiata wood was measured from green to oven-dry condition. The samples were prepared from 21 discs cut from seven trees at different stem heights of 0.1m, 5.2m and 10.3m above ground, respectively. Longitudinal shrinkage was found to vary from 0.02% to 2.34%, with peak values near the pith decreasing towards the bark. The variation was more pronounced at the 0.1m height. The longitudinal shrinkage also showed a trend of decrease with the stem height above the ground. Tangential and radial shrinkage was found to increase with growth ring number from the pith, but the variation along the stem height did not show a clear trend. The results confirmed that the pith-to-bark variation and vertical variation of the anisotropic shrinkage were significant for radiata pine. Large differences were also observed among corewood, transition wood and outerwood. Microfibril angle (MFA was believed to the main reason for these variations.

Eric Wang

2008-01-01

19

Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area

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Equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para plantio de Ocotea porosa Estimating wood volume in plantation of Ocotea porosa  

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Full Text Available

Conhec

er o volume de madeira de uma floresta é de extrema relevância. Equações de volume para espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista se restringem quase que exclusivamente a araucária. Equações de volume para imbuia Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso são inexistentes. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo desenvolver equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para árvore individual de Ocotea porosa na região de Rio Negro, PR. Foram derrubadas 12 árvores, com DAP entre 3,98 cm e 43,13 cm e altura entre 5,1 m e 20,4 m. Foi feita cubagem rigorosa de cada uma das árvores. Para desenvolvimento da equação de volume, foram testados onze modelos matemáticos. Os critérios utilizados para a seleção da melhor equação foram o coeficiente de determinação ajustado, o erro padrão da estimativa em porcentagem, o valor de F calculado e análise gráfica de resíduos. O modelo de Kopezky-Gehrart apresentou alto coeficiente de determinação ajustado (0,97, baixo erro padrão da estimativa (16,7% e alto valor de F calculado (382,6, com boa distribuição de resíduos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o modelo pode ser utilizado para quantificação de volume com casca, o que é muito importante em conjunto com outras informações, para tomada de decisão no manejo florestal.

 

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

To know the volume of wood from a forest is extremely important. Volume equations for species from the Araucaria Forest are restricted almost exclusively to plantations of araucaria. Equations for Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso plantations are inexistent. The present work aims to develop equation for individual tree volume and hypsometric relation from an Ocotea porosa, established in the region of Rio Negro, PR. Twelve trees were logged with DBH from 3.98 cm to 43.13 cm and height from 5.1 m to 20.4 m. All the trees were measured and cubed. Eleven mathematical models were tested for the development of the volume equation. The criteria used for selecting the best equation were the adjusted coefficient of determination, the standard error of estimative in percentage, the value of F calculated and graphical analysis of the residuals. The model-Kopezky Gehrart, presented a high coefficient of determination (0.97, low standard error of estimate (16.7% and high value of calculated F (382.6, with good distribution of residuals. The results indicate that this model can be used to quantify the volume with bark, which is very important in conjunction with other information for decision making in forest management.

 

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

Andreia Taborda dos Santos

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Juglans regia L. tree plantations for wood production in mining area of S. Barbara (AR. Evaluation of N-fixing accessory trees effect  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out in experimental plots located in the Arno valley (Cavriglia, province of Arezzo - Italy. The experimental plots, walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations both pure and mixed to accessory trees (Alnus cordata Loisel., Corylus avellana L., Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L., were established in 1986 and 1989. Data on grown and architectural characteristics were collected in different periods on trees aged 9, 13 and 16. Walnut trees grown with accessory trees showed the best performances, especially if associated with N-fixing species. These positive effects are probably due to many co-occuring favourable causes, a remarkable aspect of which is the higher availability of N. To better investigate the above effect, N concentration in the soil and in walnut leaves was measured in plantations both pure and mixed with Italian alder (Alnus cordata or black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, and N concentration values were compared with growth characteristics. The results showed that Juglans regia trees associated with Italian alder grow faster, with straighter stems and better stem shapes for qualified wood production. Even if walnut trees growing in plantations with black locust show similar N concentration values, growth performances are worse.

Tani A

2006-01-01

22

Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the cost-benefit method  

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Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of polar cultivation was analyzed based on one of the indicators for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects - cost-benefit (r. Poplar plantations of the clone I-214 of different rotations and on different soil types were analyzed in the area of Ravni Srem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the justification of the invested financial means in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts at different plantation ages, using the cost-benefit method. It was found that in all 13 analyzed compartments, the average cost-benefit ratio was 0.36. This means that the costs at the discount rate of 12% are about 2.8 times higher than the receipts. Accordingly, it can be asserted that it is economically unjustified to invest in the projected stands, but only in the case when the value of social capital accounts for 12%. Based on the analysis of sensitivity of the cost-benefit method, it was concluded that cost benefit ratio for p=8-12% was below 1 within the study range of costs and receipts changes, while for p=4-6% this ratio was above 1 in some cases of decrease in costs, i.e. increase in receipts. It was noted that the change in r depending on the change in costs, developed by the exponential function, and the change in r depending on the change in receipts developed by the linear function. Also, it was concluded that at the lower discount rates, the values of r moved towards 1, so for 8% r=0.71, and for 6% r=0.94. The value at the discount rate of 4% indicates that the project is cost-effective and that the invested € 1 makes € 1.22. This fact is especially important when poplar cultivation projects are ranked. For this reason, this method is used for the evaluation of social benefits, i.e. for economic analyses. It is almost never applied in the analysis of private investments.

Ke?a Ljiljana

2011-01-01

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VENEER AND PLYWOOD PRODUCTION OF GUAPURUVU WOOD (Schizolobium parayba Blake. COMING FROM A MIXED PLANTATION OF BRAZILIAN TREE SPECIES  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the guapuruvu wood(Schizolobium parayba, coming a mixed plantings of Brazilian native species, for veneer and plywoodproduction. The peeling yield was 61%, linking green veneer and peeling wood. The obtained veneers, afterclipped and dried, they were graded according to Brazilian Standards (NBR 9531/1986. Thefollowing grades o veneer were obtained: 2% of grade A, 24% of grade B, 48% of grade C and 26%of grade D. After, it was manufactured plywood of grade B/C/B, glued with urea-formaldehydeadhesive, and their properties of static bending (MOR and MOE and bonding line strength in shear test (dry and wet were appraised. Treatments (1, 2 and 3 varied according to the formulation of theglue (35, 50 and 65% of wheat flour in relation to the pure adhesive. The results indicated that theguapuruvu wood has potential for veneer and plywood production. The plywood showed significantdifference between treatments in the static bending (perpendicular MOR and shear (dry and wet. Theplywood presents possibility of interior and intermediate use for the formulations 1 and 2, and interioruse for the formulation 3. The plywood has potential for use in furniture, packing and box factory.

Geraldo Bortoletto Júnior

2003-01-01

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Effects of thinning on wood production, leaf area index, transpiration and canopy interception of a plantation subject to drought.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted thinning trials in a 5-year-old Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus Labill plantation near Warrenbayne, northeastern Victoria, Australia, where soil salinization and waterlogging are common, and assessed treatment effects on tree growth, water use and survival. Half-hectare plots were thinned from the original density of 1100 stems ha(-1) to densities of 800, 600 and 400 stems ha(-1), and stem diameter increment, leaf area index, transpiration, canopy interception and depth of tree water source monitored for 21 months. Two drought periods occurred during the study, rainfall was 30% below the long-term average and there was severe mortality in all three plots. Analysis of deuterium abundance in soil and xylem water indicated that the trees accessed water only from the top meter of the soil profile. Transpiration rates were higher in the most heavily thinned plot than in the least thinned plot, which underwent a reduction in basal area during the study. The most heavily thinned plot increased in basal area by 10% during the study. Edge trees had significantly greater diameters than trees from the middle of the plots. PMID:11498347

McJannet, D; Vertessy, R

2001-08-01

25

Instability in plantations of container-grown Scots pine and consequences on stem form and wood properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis summarizes and discusses results of four studies regarding the effects of growing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)in containers on root deformation, tree stability, basal sweep- and compression wood formation. The thesis is based on non-experimental surveys that include young (7- to 9-year-old) and older (19- to 24-year-old) Scots pine trees from naturally regenerated stands and from stands established with container-grown (Paperpot) seedlings. The thesis is also based on data obt...

Rune, Go?ran

2003-01-01

26

Dinâmica do afilamento do tronco e da produção de madeira em plantios de Araucaria angustifolia / Dynamic of stem taper and wood production in Araucaria angustifolia plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa objetivou avaliar a evolução da forma e do sortimento em plantios de Araucaria angustifolia. Os dados provieram de 30 árvores amostradas em plantios estabelecidos entre as décadas de 1940-1960 na Floresta Nacional de Irati, Paraná. As árvores foram submetidas à técnica de análise de tronc [...] o completa que permite a reconstituição de todo o crescimento passado. Os dados gerados possibilitaram a obtenção de diâmetros às diferentes alturas e nas várias idades de cada árvore. O perfil médio por idade foi gerado com funções de afilamento e funções splines cúbicas foram usadas para determinar a dinâmica do sortimento por classe de idade. Também foram realizados estudos sobre a evolução da forma do tronco com fatores de forma. Os resultados foram apresentados com a média de todas as árvores e agrupando-as em duas classes de sítio e indicam que aos 50 anos as árvores atingem um volume médio de1,20 m³, dos quais, 14% poderia ser utilizado para laminação, 66,2% para serraria 2, 15,9% para serraria 1, 3,7% para celulose e 0,3% destinados para resíduos. Nessa mesma idade, os sítios I e II apresentaram volume total médio de 1,94 m³ e 0,57 m³, respectivamente. O Polinômio de 5º grau ajustado para as classes de idade indicou que a forma do tronco melhora com a idade, tornando-os mais cilíndricos. Essa mesma tendência pode ser constatada com o fator de forma, o qual, praticamente, estabilizou-se a partir dos 35 anos de idade, em um valor de aproximadamente 0,6. Abstract in english The research aimed to evaluate the evolution of stem taper and wood assortment in plantations of Araucaria angustifolia. The data came from 30 sampled trees in plantations established between the decades of 1940-1960 in Irati National Forest, Parana State, Brazil. The trees were subjected to the tec [...] hnique of complete stem analysis that allows reconstitution of the entire past growth. The data generated allowed the obtaintion of diameter at different heights at various ages. The mean stem profile by age was obtained from taper functions and cubic splines functions were used to evaluate the evolution of wood assortment by age classes. We also conducted studies on the stem taper dynamics with the use of form factors. The results were presented with the mean of all trees and grouping them into two site classes, when the trees are 50 years old they reach an average volume of 1.20 m³, of which 14% could be used for lamination, 66.2% for sawmill 2, 15.9% for sawmill 1, 3.7% for pulpwood and only 0.3% would be residuals. In this same age the sites I and II had mean total volume of 1.94 m³ and 0.57 m³, respectively. The 5th degree polynomial function adjusted by age classes allowed to infer that stem tapering improves with age, with the stem becoming more cylindrical. This same trend can be established on the form factor, which practically stabilized after the 35 years of age, at a value of about 0.6.

Afonso, Figueiredo Filho; Sintia Valerio, Kohler; João Luiz, Felde; Andrea Nogueira, Dias.

2014-12-01

27

Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel.) on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut); 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast h...

Giannini T; Cutini A

2009-01-01

28

The complete mitochondrial genome of Tanakia lanceolata (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Bitterling Tanakia lanceolata is a small sized freshwater fish species. The unique reproductive behavior makes bitterlings monophyletic. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of T. lanceolata is sequenced to be 16,607?bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, a control region and the origin of the light strand replication. The overall base composition of T. lanceolata in descending order is A 28.3%, C 28.0%, T 26.1%, and G 17.6%, with a slight A?+?T bias. The mitogenome sequence data may provide useful information to the population genetics analysis of T. lanceolata and the elucidation of evolutionary mechanisms in Cyprinidae. PMID:24865912

Xu, Xiuwen; Cao, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Yurong

2014-05-27

29

Neuroprotective Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Codonopsis lanceolata has been used as an herbal medicine for several lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. Previously, we showed the neuroprotective effect of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, the treatment of HT22 cells with SFC decreased glutamate-induced cell death, suggesting that SFC protected HT22 cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. Based on these, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms of the...

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-jeong; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-sik; Chung, Hee-chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2014-01-01

30

Wood color variation in undried and kiln-dried plantation-grown lumber of Vochysia guatemalensis / Variación del color de la madera aserrada en estado verde y seca al horno de Vochysia guatemalensis proveniente de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La especie Vochysia guatemalensis ha sido plantada sobre largas áreas en regiones tropicales. Así mismo, han sido observadas grandes variaciones del color de su madera. En la investigación fueron muestreadas plantaciones de 8 años de edad en diferentes condiciones de clima con el fin de establecer l [...] as causes de variación de la madera. Fueron evaluadas la presencia de duramen, el patrón de aserrío, la distancia de la medula y el programa de secado. El color fue medido por el sistema CIELab. Fue encontrado que la madera de V. guatemalensis presenta una combinación de tonalidades de claros (L*), rojos (a*) y amarrillos (b*), siendo los colores claros y amarrillos los tonos dominantes. El color del duramen y la albura fueron diferentes antes y después del secado. Una negativa correlación entre a* y L*, y a* y b* fue encontrada, pero ninguna correlación fue observada entre L* y b*. El índice L* fue el único parámetro correlacionado con el duramen en madera verde. En la madera seca, solamente se mantuvo la relación a* y L*, mientras que los parámetros del color fueron afectados por el clima, programa de secado y duramen, siendo L* el más afectado. La madera seca presentó una superficie más clara que la madera antes del secado. Las variaciones en madera seca sugieren la conveniencia de establecer lotes de secado de acuerdo al programa de secado aplicado, procedencia y presencia de albura y duramen. Abstract in english Vochysia guatemalensis has been planted over large tropical areas to obtain lumber products. However, compared with naturally-grown material variations in wood color have been noted. In the current research, trees from two 8-year-old fast-grown plantations were sampled from different climatic condit [...] ions in order to identify the causes of color variation. The study evaluated the heartwood presence, grain pattern, distance from pith, height within the tree, and effect of drying schedules. The wood color was measured by CIEL*a*b* systems.Wood color of Vochysia guatemalensis is a combination of different tonalities of lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*), however, the lightness and yellowness components were the dominant tones. The color of heartwood and sapwood were different before and after drying. A negative relationship was found between a* and L*, and a* and b* in the undried state, but no relationship was found between L* and b*. The L* index is only correlated with heartwood presence in undried wood. In dried wood, only a relationship between a* and L* is maintained, while other color parameters were affected by climate, drying schedule and heartwood presence, the L* parameter being the most affected. The dried wood displays a lighter surface than the wood before drying. The variations in the dried wood suggest that it is useful to establish dried lots of lumber according to the drying schedule, source and presence of sapwood and heartwood.

Diana, Aguilar-Tova; Róger, Moya; Carolina, Tenorio.

31

Alterações nas características químicas da madeira com a substituição do K por Na em plantações de eucalipto / Changes in chemical properties of wood with substitution of K by Na in eucalyptus plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando à substituição parcial do potássio pelo sódio na fertilização das plantações florestais, avaliou-se o efeito da ação isolada desses nutrientes nas características químicas da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram plantadas árvores no espaçamento de 2 m x 3 m e aplicados 116 kg ha-1 de [...] K e 68,5 kg ha-1 de Na. Árvores de eucalipto foram cortadas do 1º ao 4º ano após o plantio, em cada tratamento de fertilização, sendo seccionados discos de madeira em diferentes alturas do tronco e demarcados os anéis de crescimento anuais, estimados por um modelo de perfil do tronco. Amostras representativas de cada anel de crescimento, posição longitudinal e tratamento foram obtidas para determinação dos teores de lignina, holocelulose e extrativos. As árvores de eucalipto que receberam aplicação de potássio e de sódio não sofreram alterações significativas nas característias químicas, indicando que a substituição do K pelo Na na fertilização de plantações florestais de eucalipto pode ser adotada sem que as características químicas da madeira juvenil presente em árvores jovens se alterem. As avaliações anuais indicaram redução significativa dos teores médios de lignina e extrativos totais e aumento dos terores médios de holocelulose com a elevação da idade das árvores. Consistentes alterações nos teores dos componentes químicos do lenho por posição longitudinal e por anel de crescimento foram observadas. Abstract in english With the purpose of partial substitution of potassium by sodium in the forest plantations fertilization, the effect of the isolated performance of these nutrients on the chemical properties of young wood in Eucalyptus grandis trees was evaluated. Trees were planted at a 2mx3m spacing and 116 kg.ha-1 [...] of K and 68.5 kg.ha-1 of Na were applied to them. Eucalypt trees were cut down from the 1st to the 4th year after planting in each fertilization treatment, being sectioned disks of wood in different positions of the trunk and marked the annual growth rings, estimated by a stem profile model. Representative samples of each annual ring, longitudinal position and treatment were obtained for determining the lignin, holocellulose and extractives. Eucalyptus trees that received application of potassium and sodium did not change significantly in chemical properties, indicating that the substitution of K by Na in fertilization of Eucalyptus plantations can be adopted without the alteration of the chemical properties in the young wood in the young trees. Annual evaluations indicated a significant reduction in average content of lignin and total extractives and an increase in average contents of holocellulose with increasing age of the trees. Consistent changes in the levels of chemical properties of wood for the longitudinal and ring growth were observed.

Carlos Roberto, Sette Jr; Mario, Tomazello Filho; Francides Gomes da, Silva Jr; Jean Paul, Laclau.

2014-06-01

32

Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha?¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr?¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products with longer life spans. PMID:24586964

Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

2014-01-01

33

Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational and production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input ...

Lopes Eduardo da Silva; Machado Carlos Cardoso; Souza Amaury Paulo de; Ribeiro Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares

2003-01-01

34

Crecimiento maderable y biomasa aérea en plantaciones jóvenes de Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. Et Cham. En Zacualpan, Veracruz / Wood growth and aerial biomass in young plantations of Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. In Zacualpan, Veracruz  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La superficie de bosques nativos a escala mundial disminuye en proporciones alarmantes, pues cada año se deforestan 13 millones de ha, y para México, en particular, se ha calculado una tasa de deforestación anual de 0.25 % para bosques templados y de 0.76 % para selvas. La creciente demanda de produ [...] ctos maderables en el país ha impulsado el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales forestales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar un sistema de crecimiento maderable, con variables dasométricas y de edad a partir de los datos tomados en una crono-secuencia en plantaciones de Pinus patula establecidas del 2000 al 2007 en áreas agropecuarias reconvertidas. Se presenta un modelo de índice de sitio con base en una familia de curvas polimórficas generadas con el modelo de Chapman-Richards. En la condición promedio se pueden lograr rendimientos de 15 m³ ha-1año-1 durante los primeros 10 años de crecimiento, mientras que en las mejores condiciones es factible alcanzar hasta 30 m³ ha-1 año-1. La captura de carbono fue estimada en 31.3, 41.2, 51.0 y 60.2 Mg ha-1, respectivamente, para los años 9, 11, 13 y 15. A partir de los resultados de ocho años, y las proyecciones, se infiere que la zona tiene un alto potencial productivo tanto de madera como de captura de CO². Abstract in english The area of native forests around the world is being reduced at alarming rates, since every year 13 million ha are deforested and particularly in Mexico, an 0.25 % annual deforestation rate for temperate forests and of 0.76 % for tropical forests has been determined. The growing demand of timber pro [...] ducts in this country has encouraged the establishment of commercial forest plantations. The aim of this paper was to analyze a wood growth system with mensuration and age variables from the data taken in a chronosequence in Pinus patula plantations established from 2000 to 2007 in recovered agriculture and livestock formerly used areas. A site index model is here presented based upon a polymorphic curve family generated by the Chapman-Richards model. In the average condition can be reached 15 m3 ha-1year-1 yields during the first 10 years, while under the best conditions it is feasible to get as much as 30 m3 ha-1 year-1. Carbon sequestration was estimated as 31.3, 41.2, 51.0 and 60.2 Mg ha-1, respectively, for the 9, 11, 13 and 15 years. From the results of eight years and the projections it is inferred that the zone has a high productive potential both of wood and of carbon sequestration.

Domingo, Romo Guzmán; Hermilio, Navarro Garza; Héctor Manuel, De los Santos Posadas; Oliverio, Hernández Romero; Javier, López Upton.

2014-06-01

35

Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume) em plantios de eucalyptus grandis / Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume) in eucalyptus grandis plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. [...] Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha), 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal. Abstract in english This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose [...] and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and volume, the data have presented, approximately, normal distribution. Based on variogram analysis, trunk number and wood volume variables were found to be spatially structured. The exponential semi-variogram model was the best model fitted to the experimental semi-variograms of the variables in different plot shapes and sample intensities. The spatial continuity of the trunk number variable was detected at all sample intensities and plot shapes. Therefore, the use of spatial statistics to process this variable will increase the precision of the estimates. Considering the volume, at sample intensity 1:10, we could not evaluate the existence of a spatial continuity structure. Under this condition, classic statistics should be used to process the forest inventory.

José Márcio de, Mello; Frederico Silva, Diniz; Antônio Donizette de, Oliveira; Carlos Rogério de, Mello; José Roberto Soares, Scolforo; Fausto Weimar, Acerbi Junior.

2009-02-01

36

Financial Analysis of Keora (Sonneratia apetala Plantations in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available An attempt has been taken to compare economic performance of different ages of keora (Sonneratia apetala Plantations in coastal zone in this paper. The main objective was to find out financial rotation and profitability of keora plantation. The existing market price of round wood per cubic meter and fuel wood per ton were found to be Tk. 2650 to Tk. 3530 and Tk. 670 to Tk. 940 respectively near plantation area in 2003. The harvesting and processing costs were estimated as 20% and 10% of the standing value of the trees. The value of IRR and other economic determinants for timber were varied among Coastal Afforestation Divisions mainly due to different rates of siltation, salinity and other factors involved on the forest floor in coastal zone. However, applying the economic determinants throughout coastal zone, financially remarkable rotation age for timber was found to be within 14th to 16th year of plantation and rotation age forfuel wood as 9th year of plantation. Applying the same economic determinants keora plantation was also found as profitable in coastal zone in Bangladesh.

Jonaed Kabir

2012-01-01

37

Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, especie forestal con potencial para ser introducida en sistemas silvopastoriles / Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, forest species with potential to be submitted in sylvopastoral systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La utilización de especies forestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria contribuye a reducir la presión en los bosques naturales y se pueden incorporar en áreas no arboladas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad nutritiva, germinación, desarrollo de plántula en vivero y divers [...] idad de usos de Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. El material comestible y las semillas se colectaron en Tomatlán, Jalisco. Se realizaron análisis bromatológicos, pruebas de escarificación y evaluación de plántula en vivero sobre tres suelos con diferente pH. El experimento se analizó en un diseño completamente al azar con comparación de medias de Tukey (P ? 0.05). Además, se hicieron entrevistas a productores, una revisión bibliográfica y consulta de ejemplares en los herbarios para conocer los usos locales y potenciales de la especie. Los resultados indican alto contenido de materia seca (97.40 %) y proteína cruda (29.05 %), mayor germinación en los tratamientos térmicos, mejor desarrollo de la plántula en el suelo ligeramente ácido (6.57) y la diversidad de usos incluye leña, forraje y madera, entre otros. Por el alto valor nutritivo y diversidad de usos en el medio rural, L. lanceolata representa una opción viable para utilizarse en sistemas silvopastoriles del trópico seco. Abstract in english The usefulness of forest species in agricultural production systems is an option that helps to reduce the pressure in natural forests; they can also be used in treeless areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, germination, development of seedlings grown in nursery and va [...] riety of uses of Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. Edible material and seeds were collected in Tomatlán, Jalisco. Bromatologic analyses, scarification tests and the evaluation of seedlings grown in nursery using three soils with different pH values were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized, with Tukey (P?0.05) test for media comparison. A survey study, bibliographical revision and review of specimens in the herbariums were used to know the local and potential diversity of uses of this specie. Results show high content of dry matter (97.40 %) and crude protein (29.05 %), greater germination using heat treatments, better seedling development in slightly acid soil (6.57) and the diversity of uses including firewood, forage and timber among others. L. lanceolata represents a viable option to be used in dry tropical silvopastoral systems due to the high nutritional value and the diversity of uses in rural areas.

María L., Román-Miranda; Luis A., Martínez-Rosas; Antonio, Mora-Santacruz; Pablo, Torres-Morán; Agustín, Gallegos-Rodríguez; Adriana, Avendaño-López.

2013-04-01

38

Observations of evapotranspiration in a break of slope plantation susceptible to periodic drought stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Break of slope (BOS) plantations are advocated as a means of water table control in areas where groundwater flows through colluvial deposits overlying low permeability bedrock. It is also believed that BOS plantations can supplement their water use requirements by exploiting shallow groundwater at the breaks in topographic slope. We compared measurements of BOS plantation and pasture evapotranspiration during spring, when the weather was warm and soils moist, and late summer when drought conditions prevailed. Microlysimeters and ventilated chambers were used to determine pasture and plantation floor evaporation, and heat pulse sensors were used to determine transpiration of the plantation. In spring, pasture evapotranspiration was 65% of that of the plantation, whereas, in summer, pasture evapotranspiration was equivalent to only 35% of that of the plantation. Rainfall interception by the canopy of the plantation was twice that of the pasture, reinforcing the notion that trees can help reduce groundwater recharge and alleviate dryland salinity and waterlogging. During the summer drought period, daily plantation transpiration was only 20% of that measured during spring, suggesting that the plantation was not utilizing groundwater supplies but was instead drawing from soil water supplies. This hypothesis was supported by the comparison of relative abundances of the isotopes of water ((2)H and (18)O) in soil and wood samples. We conclude that the BOS plantation is not behaving in the manner predicted, and our findings raise doubts about the predicted advantages of establishing plantations in break of slope positions. PMID:12651469

McJannet, D. L.; Vertessy, R. A.; Clifton, C. A.

2000-02-01

39

Neuroprotective Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata  

Science.gov (United States)

Codonopsis lanceolata has been used as an herbal medicine for several lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. Previously, we showed the neuroprotective effect of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, the treatment of HT22 cells with SFC decreased glutamate-induced cell death, suggesting that SFC protected HT22 cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. Based on these, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms of the neuro-protective effect of SFC by measuring the oxidative stress parameters and the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in HT22 cells. SFC reduced contents of ROS, Ca2+ and NO. Moreover, SFC restored contents of glutathione and glutathione reductase as well as inhibited Bax and caspase-3 activity in HT22 cells. These results indicate that steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) extract protected HT22 cells by anti-oxidative effect and inhibition of the expression of Bax and caspase-3. PMID:25009706

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2014-01-01

40

Neuroprotective Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Codonopsis lanceolata has been used as an herbal medicine for several lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. Previously, we showed the neuroprotective effect of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, the treatment of HT22 cells with SFC decreased glutamate-induced cell death, suggesting that SFC protected HT22 cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. Based on these, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms of the neuro-protective effect of SFC by measuring the oxidative stress parameters and the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in HT22 cells. SFC reduced contents of ROS, Ca(2+) and NO. Moreover, SFC restored contents of glutathione and glutathione reductase as well as inhibited Bax and caspase-3 activity in HT22 cells. These results indicate that steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) extract protected HT22 cells by anti-oxidative effect and inhibition of the expression of Bax and caspase-3. PMID:25009706

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three extractives from China-fir were obtained by a sequential extraction processes with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The components of the three extractives were analyzed: (1 The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis showed that in addition to the presence of cedrol, naphthalenes comprised a relatively large percentage of both the hexane extract (10.39% and the ethyl acetate extract (9.43%. (2 Total phenolic contents analysis showed that phenols took up 6.66 % of the ethyl acetate extract and 22.8% of the methanol extract. All extracts, even with low concentrations, presented fair antifungal activities against two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Irpex lacteus and two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Cedrol and naphthalenes were partly responsible for the bioactivities. The synergistic effect of phenols and antifungal compounds also contributed to the wood decay resistance.

Jing Wang

2011-02-01

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Economic Rotation of Sissoo Tree Plantations (Strip in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper elaborately discusses the various economic rotation methods of sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo plantations in Bangladesh. Under the present management system, mode of marketing, market mechanism and all the economic criteria for Bangladesh as a whole, the economic rotation of sissoo tree may be fixed at 8 year for fuel wood and 12 or 13 year for timber. But if the Mean Annual Increment (MAI is considered as rotation criterion, rotation age as 6 year for fuel wood and 11 to 13 year for timber may be suggested. The elimination rates varied from 10% to 72% depending on plantation year and location. It was found 10% in the area of Jessore and more than 50% in Rajshahi, Jessore and Dinajpur. For 6th year plantation the IRR was found highest (39% in Mymensingh. The 14th year plantation of Rajshahi and 13th year plantation of Jessore showed the highest NPVs, IRRs, B/C ratios, Le, EI and EAEnpv. From these, it can be inferred that the economic rotation may be fixed at 13 or 14 year for timber and 6 year for fuel wood.

Mohammad Yunus

2014-09-01

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In vitro activities of Maesa lanceolata extracts against fungal plant pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro tests were carried out using extracts of Maesa lanceolata var. goulungensis weir against a broad range of fungal plant pathogens such as Phytophthora cryptogea, Trichoderma virens, Aspergillus niger, Phoma sp., Fusarium oxysporium, Pythium ultimum, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Pyrenophora teres. M. lanceolata extracts were very active against all the pathogens tested except P. ultimum and R. solani. PMID:12727503

Okemo, Paul O; Bais, Harsh Pal; Vivanco, Jorge M

2003-04-01

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ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

2008-03-01

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Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata with Steamed and Fermented Process on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) traditionally have been used as a tonic and to treat patients with lung abscesses. Recently, it was proposed that the extract and some compounds isolated from C. lanceolata reversed scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of cognitive enhancing effect of C. lanceolata by steam and fermentation process in scopolamine-induced memory impairment mice models by passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. The extract of C. lanceolata or the extract of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFCE) was orally administered to male mice at the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight. As a result, mice treated with steamed and fermented C. lanceolata extract (SFCE) (300 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) showed shorter escape latencies than those with C. lanceolata extract or the scopolamine-administered group in Morris water maze test. Also, it exerted longer step-through latency time than scopolamine treated group in passive avoidance test. Furthermore, neuroprotective effect of SFCE on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity was assessed in HT22 cells. Only SFCE-treated cells showed significant protection at 500 ?g/ml. Interestingly, steamed C. lanceolata with fermentation contained more phenolic acid including gallic acid and vanillic acid than original C. lanceolata. Collectively, these results suggest that steam and fermentation process of C. lanceolata increased cognitive enhancing activity related to the memory processes and neuroprotective effect than original C. lanceolata. PMID:24244829

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2013-09-30

46

Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal.This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sodium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

Caridad Carballo Guerra

2002-12-01

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Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata: A Behavioral and Biochemical Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory impairment. Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata) has been employed clinically for lung inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fermented C. lanceolata (300, 500, and 800?mg/kg) on learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine by using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. To elucidate possible mechanism of cognitive-enhancing activity, we measured acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) expression in the brain of mice. Administration of fermented C. lanceolata (800?mg/kg) led to reduced scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Accordingly, the administration of fermented C. lanceolata inhibited AchE activity. Interestingly, the level of CREB phosphorylation and BDNF expression in hippocampal tissue of scopolamine-treated mice was significantly increased by the administration of fermented C. lanceolata. These results indicate that fermented C. lanceolata can ameliorate scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mouse and may be an alternative agent for the treatment of AD. PMID:25031604

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2014-01-01

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Unraveling the Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthesis of the African Shrub Maesa lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maesasaponins produced by the African shrub Maesa lanceolata are oleanane-type saponins with diverse biological activities. Through a combination of transcript profiling of methyl jasmonate-elicited M. lanceolata shoot cultures, functional analysis in transgenic M. lanceolata plants and the heterologous hosts Medicago truncatula and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified three maesaponin biosynthesis genes. These include a ?-amyrin synthase and two cytochrome P450s, CYP716A75 and CYP87D16, which catalyze the C-28 and C-16? oxidations of ?-amyrin, respectively. PMID:25578277

Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Faizal, Ahmad; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc; Thevelein, Johan M; Geelen, Danny; Goossens, Alain

2015-01-01

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Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very ...

José Luiz Gava; José Leonardo de Moraes Gonçalves

2008-01-01

50

Wood stains  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood stains are products used for wood finishing. Wood stain poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is ... Various wood stains Note: This list does not include all sources of wood stain.

51

THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to rev...

Othman Sulaiman,; Nurjannah Salim,; Noor Afeefah Nordin,; Rokiah Hashim; , Mazlan Ibrahim,; Masatoshi Sato,

2012-01-01

52

The Ameliorating Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) have been traditionally used to treat lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. The present study was performed to evaluate the cognitive-enhancing effects of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata in scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. Cognitive abilities were determined by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Mice orally received fermented C. lanceolata extract at doses of 100, 300, or 500?mg/kg b...

Jae Youn Chung; Choong Je Ma; Hee-Chul Chung; Hyeon Yong Lee; Dong-Sik Park; Ji Seon Kim; Min Rye Eom; Jin Bae Weon; Bo-Ra Yun; Jiwoo Lee

2013-01-01

53

Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata with Steamed and Fermented Process on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) traditionally have been used as a tonic and to treat patients with lung abscesses. Recently, it was proposed that the extract and some compounds isolated from C. lanceolata reversed scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of cognitive enhancing effect of C. lanceolata by steam and fermentation process in scopolamine-induced memory impairment mice models by passive avoidance test and Morri...

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-sik; Chung, Hee-chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2013-01-01

54

Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations of Central America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age) were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand o...

Fernández-Moya J; Murillo R; Portuguez E; Jl, Fallas; Ríos V; Kottman F; Jm, Verjans; Mata R; Alvarado A

2014-01-01

55

The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Carbon (C) conservation and sequestration in many developing countries needs to be accompanied by socio-economic improvements. Tree crop plantations can be a potential path for coupling climate change mitigation and economic development by providing C sequestration and supplying wood and non-wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 tC/ha) and orange (76 tC/ha) plantations have a much lower C content, and oil palm (45 tC/ha) has the lowest C potential, assuming that the yield is not used as biofuel. There is considerable C sequestration potential in plantations if they are established on land with modest C content such as degraded forest or agricultural land, and not on land with oldgrowth forest. We also show that simple C assessment methods can give reliable results, which makes it easier for developing countries to partake in REDD+ or other payment schemes.

Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas

2013-01-01

56

Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay. The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas árvores representativas das diferentes classes de diâmetro à altura do peito para avaliação de suas biomassas e para a análise de extrativos e componentes da madeira. Os atributos físicos do solo, sobretudo o teor de argila, diretamente relacionado à quantidade de água disponível, foram os que mais afetaram a produtividade e a qualidade da madeira. A densidade básica da madeira não se alterou nas diferentes classes de solo. O teor de lignina total diminuiu e o de holocelulose aumentou exponencialmente com o aumento do teor de argila do solo (até cerca de 350 a 400 g kg-1 de argila. O teor de extrativos da madeira não foi afetado pelos atributos do solo. O rendimento de celulose depurada relacionou-se exponencialmente com o teor de argila do solo.

José Luiz Gava

2008-01-01

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Fungi associated to bark lesions of Eucalyptus globulus stems in plantations from Uruguay Fungos asociados as lesões da casca do caule de Eucalyptus globulus em plantações no uruguai  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trees with stem bark lesions are frequently observed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations, particularly in the central west region of Uruguay. These lesions constitute a problem for trunk decortications at harvest and they also facilitate the access of fungi that could cause wood decay. Seven, three and oneyear-old plantations, located at three sites in close proximity were selected. Four types of trunk lesions were present in trees regardless the age of plantation and more than one typ...

Raquel Alonso; Susana Tiscornia; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lina Bettucci

2009-01-01

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Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone / Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação [...] celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas árvores representativas das diferentes classes de diâmetro à altura do peito para avaliação de suas biomassas e para a análise de extrativos e componentes da madeira. Os atributos físicos do solo, sobretudo o teor de argila, diretamente relacionado à quantidade de água disponível, foram os que mais afetaram a produtividade e a qualidade da madeira. A densidade básica da madeira não se alterou nas diferentes classes de solo. O teor de lignina total diminuiu e o de holocelulose aumentou exponencialmente com o aumento do teor de argila do solo (até cerca de 350 a 400 g kg-1 de argila). O teor de extrativos da madeira não foi afetado pelos atributos do solo. O rendimento de celulose depurada relacionou-se exponencialmente com o teor de argila do solo. Abstract in english The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at [...] the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay). The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.

José Luiz, Gava; José Leonardo de Moraes, Gonçalves.

59

Carbon sequestration through afforestation: Role of tropical industrial plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compared to the temperate zone, carbon sequestration by trees is much faster in the tropical belt due to favorable climatic conditions. However net sequestration in tropics is much less than actual CO2 assimilation as bulk of wood produced is primarily consumed as fuel. On the other hand, the use of wood for making durable products like paper, pulp, veneer, etc. does not return the absorbed CO2 back to the atmosphere immediately. Due to abundant availability of wood as an industrial raw material in the temperate belt, wood-based manufacturing industry is largely concentrated in the temperate region, mainly western Europe, Scandinavia and North America. Despite excellent conditions for tree growth and presence of vast tracts of significantly underutilized land, Asia, Africa and Latin America are net importers of wood products. The demand for these products is projected to rise at a significantly higher rate in the immediate future and beyond, due to a variety of reasons. Industrial plantations in the tropics can not only make developing countries emerge as the new manufacturing base to meet the global demand for wood-based products, they can prove to be efficient and economically viable means to bring about a net reduction in atmospheric CO2. However, this will require a reorientation of land-use policies as well as policies governing production of wood as a raw material, in order to stimulate the required level of investment in this sehe required level of investment in this sector. 27 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

60

Contracciones y propiedades físicas de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas de plantación en Costa Rica / Skrinkages and physical properties of Acacia mangium Willd, Tectona grandis L. f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, plantation wood from Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish De acuerdo con las normas ASTM D 2395-02 y D 143-94, se determinó la contracción total y normal en dirección radial (CR), tangencial (CT) y volumétrica (CV) y el coeficiente CT/ CR total y normal de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas provenientes de p [...] lantación. También se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas como peso específico básico (PEB), PE12% y PEanhidro, densidad verde (DV) y normal (DN), punto de saturación de la fibra (PSF) y contenido de humedad (CH). Algunos criterios de clasificación, propuestos por otros investigadores, se aplicaron para categorizar la estabilidad dimensional y propiedades físicas de estas especies. Se encontró que la CR, CT, CV totales y CTtotal/CRtotal tienen diferencias significativas entre especies, al igual que las propiedades físicas PEB y PSF. El índice CTtotal/CRtotal indicó que T. grandis tiene mejor estabilidad dimensional. La relación lineal (R²= 0.7769) indicó que el PSF es un buen indicador de la magnitud de la CVtotal. Las especies de plantación de este estudio comparadas con las del bosque natural tienen estabilidad dimensional similar pero menor PEB. Abstract in english Based on ASTM standards D 2395-02 and D 143-94, total and normal shrinkage in radial (RS), tangential (TS) and volumetric (VS) directions and the total and normal TS/RS ratio were determined in the plantation woods Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L.f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev. Also, ph [...] ysical properties such as basic specific gravity (BSG), SG12% and SGovendry, green density (GD) and normal density (ND), fiber saturation point (FSP) and moisture content (MC) were determined. Some classification criteria, proposed by other researchers, were used to categorize the dimensional stability and physical properties of these species. Significant differences were found among the species for total RS, TS, VS and TStotal/RStotal, as well as for the physical properties BSG and FSP. The TStotal/RStotal ratio indicated that T. grandis has better dimensional stability. The linear regression (R²= 0.7769) indicated that FSP is a good indicator of VStotal magnitude. The plantation species of this study compared with those of the natural forest have similar dimensional stability but lower BSG.

Freddy, Muñoz-Acosta; Pablo A., Moreno-Perez.

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
61

Soil microbial properties in Eucalyptus grandis plantations of different ages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Eucalyptus plantations are increasingly used in Brazil to produce wood and energy, although the long-term consequences for ecosystem processes have rarely been evaluated. We investigated the soil microbial properties (soil microbial C, N, respiration, carbon use efficiency, and microbial C-to-N rati [...] o) among Eucalyptus grandis plantations of differing ages (1 to 4 years) in Northeast Brazil. An adjacent native forest was used as a reference. In general, soil microbial properties decreased in initial years of land-use change, but recovered to conditions comparable to an adjacent native forest after four years in the rainy season, but not in the dry season. The varying effects of Eucalyptus plantations and native forests between seasons may reflect differences in soil microbial communities with different responses to environmental conditions. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring and microbial community analysis in order to adequately assess and understand the impacts of exotic forest plantations on soil microbial properties.

C.T, Cortez; L.A.P.L, Nunes; L.B, Rodrigues; N, Eisenhauer; A.S.F, Araújo.

2014-09-01

62

Avaliação do potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata para produção de painéis OSB / Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Os painéis foram produzidos em laboratório com densidade nominal de 0,75 g/cm³, utilizando r [...] esina fenol-formaldeído em quantidade de 6% de sólido resinoso e 1% de emulsão de parafina. Foram avaliadas as propriedades de absorção de água e inchamento em espessura 2 e 24 horas, tração perpendicular, módulo de elasticidade e de ruptura paralelo e perpendicular, de acordo com as normas EN 317, 318 e 310/2003, respectivamente. Os painéis OSB produzidos com as 4 espécies e mistura destas, apresentaram valores médios de propriedades físicas e mecânicas acima do requisito mínimo estabelecido pela norma CSA 437/1993. Os resultados das propriedades físicas e mecânicas obtidas indicam a viabilidade de uso das madeiras de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde [...] resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the parallel and perpendicular direction, according to EN standards. The OSB panels produced with four species and the mixture of these species showed average values of mechanical properties above the minimum standard established by the CSA 437/1993. The results of the physical and mechanical properties obtained indicate the feasibility of the use of wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach and Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing.

Setsuo, Iwakiri; Daniele Cristina, Potulski; Felipe Gustavo, Sanches; Janice Bernardo da, Silva; Rosilani, Trianoski; Williams Carlos, Pretko.

2014-06-01

63

Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

C. Masvingwe

2012-07-01

64

Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

Masvingwe, C.; Mavenyengwa, M.

2012-01-01

65

Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates on growth and arsenic accumulation in Plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of indigenous and non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata L. growing on substrate originating from mine waste rich in As was assessed in a pot experiment. P. lanceolata inoculated with AMF had higher shoot and root biomass and lower concentrations of As in roots than the non-inoculated plants. There were significant differences in As concentration and uptake between different AMF isolates. Inoculation with the indigenous isolate resulted in increased transfer of As from roots to shoots; AMF from non-polluted area apparently restricted plants from absorbing As to the tissue; and plants inoculated with an AMF isolate from Zn–Pb waste showed strong As retainment within the roots. Staining with dithizone indicated that AMF might be actively involved in As accumulation. The mycorrhizal colonization affected also the concentration of Cd and Zn in roots and Pb concentration, both in shoots and roots. - Highlights: ? The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in As uptake was studied. ? Growth of Plantago lanceolata was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. ? Arsenic concentration and uptake significantly depended on the AMF isolate. ? Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may be useful for bioremediation of As contaminated wastes. - Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata strongly depends on the origin of fungal isolates.

66

Clusiamyia nitida gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi) associada com Clusia lanceolata Camb. (Clusiaceae) no Brasil Clusiamyia nítida gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi) associated with Clusia lanceolata Camb. (Clusiaceae) in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidi (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described and illustrated (exuvia, male, female and gall). The species was found in association with Clusia lanceolata (Clusiaceae).

Valéria Cid Maia

1996-01-01

67

Sistema de policultivos en plantas medicinales: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata y Plantago major / System of polycultures in medicinal plants: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamentos: existe una tendencia creciente por los agricultores a desarrollar las producciones agrícolas mediante sistemas de policultivos. Objetivos: demostrar las ventajas del sistema de policultivo sobre el monocultivo basados en el incremento del rendimiento de masa vegetal de las especies que [...] lo integran. Métodos: en la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se investigó sobre suelo ferralítico rojo hidratado (ferralsols), en una plantación establecida de Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm. cultivo perenne y principal, el intercalamiento de varias especies: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L.; cultivos de períodos vegetativos cortos para aprovechar el espacio entre surcos que requiere esta planta; se determinó el rendimiento de masa vegetal fresca en cada una de las especies de esta compleja asociación y se compararon con los de sus respectivos cultivos únicos o monocultivos. Los valores obtenidos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza, además se calculó el incremento productivo a partir del cual se determinó el uso equivalente de la tierra. Resultados: de forma general, se encontró en todas las especies componentes del policultivo (cultivo permanente y plantas intercaladas) ventajas sobre el monocultivo en cuanto a sus rendimientos, sin afectación de los principios activos, así como el aumento de la eficiencia productiva de los suelos. Conclusiones: se demostró en las especies estudiadas la superioridad que ofrece el sistema de siembra por policultivo. Abstract in english Foundations: there is an increasing trend on the part of the agriculturists to develop productions by polyculture systems. Objectives: to show the advantages of the polyculture system over the monoculture based on the increase of the yield of plant mass of the species included. Methods: in an establ [...] ished plantation of Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm., perennial and main culture, with hydrated red ferriferous soil (ferralsols), at "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants, it was investigated the intercropping of various species: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.; cultures of short vegetative periods used to avail the space between furrows required by this plant. The yielding of fresh plant mass was also determined in each of the species of this complex association and they were compared with those of their respective unique cultures or monocultures. The values obtained were analyzed by variance analysis. The productive growth from which the equivalent use of the soil was determined was calculated, too. Results: generally, in all the species composing the polyculture (permanent culture and intercropped plants) there were advantages over the monoculture as regards their yieldings without affecting the active principles. An increase of the productive efficiency of the soils was also observed. Conclusions: the superiority of the polyculture system was proved in the studied species.

Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Horacio, Rodríguez González; Isabel, Hechevarría Sosa; Masgloiris, Milanés Figueredo; Carlos, Rodríguez Ferradá.

2008-06-01

68

Screening of Fungi Capable of Degrading Lignocellulose from Plantation Forests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an effort to prevent forest fires after the clear cutting of plantation forests, fungi capable of degrading lignocelluloses were isolated to make a fertilizer from the logging waste. Seventy five fungal species were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia in plantation forests of South and North Sumatera, Indonesia. Sixty three of the fungi were identified based on the appearance and morphological characteristics of their fruiting bodies and mycelia, as Pycnoporus sanguineus, Dacryopinax spathularia, Schizophyllum commune, Polyporus sp. and Trametes sp. Twenty fungi were categorized as white-rot fungi and 12 as brown-rot fungi. Moreover, isolates 371, 368, 265, 346, 345 and 338 were selected using indicators and tested for the ability to degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal over 1 to 4 weeks. Results showed that the 6 fungi could degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in wood meal. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of lignin and holo-cellulose. Isolate 371 was found to be best at degrading lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal.

Djarwanto

2009-01-01

69

Functional anatomy of five endangered tropical timber wood species of the family Dipterocarpaceae  

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Abstract Wood anatomy of five dipterocarp species endemic to the Philippines was studied with the goal to explore functional wood traits of ecological significance. Stem wood of 6-year-old trees grown under similar environmental conditions in a plantation (Leyte, Philippines) was used. Wood densities decreased in the following order Hopea plagata > Dipterocarpus kerrii > Parashorea malaanoman > Shorea almon ? Shorea contorta. This was mainly caused by significantly thicker f...

Rana, Rumana; Langenfeld-heyser, Rosemarie; Finkeldey, Reiner; Polle, Andrea

2008-01-01

70

The research of some physical properties of wood Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortuneii  

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The density, shrinkage and swelling of Paulownia elongata and P. fortuneii wood were researched. The study material was provided by Boda Vukovojac, B. Sc., who established the Paulownia plantation and sample plots on the territory of the Municipality Bela Crkva. The study results show the differences between the analyzed properties of these two species. The study results were also compared with the results of the similar species of wood. The data shows that the study wood can be used in wood ...

Šoški? Borislav; Lovri? Aleksandar; Vukovojac Boda

2003-01-01

71

The Dynamics of Gynodioecy in Plantago Lanceolata L. II. Mode of Action and Frequencies of Restorer Alleles  

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Male fertility in Plantago lanceolata is controlled by the interaction of cytoplasmic and nuclear genes. Different cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) types can be either male sterile or hermaphrodite, depending on the presence of nuclear restorer alleles. In three CMS types of P. lanceolata (CMSI, CMSIIa, and CMSIIb) the number of loci involved in male fertility restoration was determined. In each CMS type, male fertility was restored by multiple genes with either dominant or recessive action a...

De-haan, A. A.; Koelewijn, H. P.; Hundscheid, Mpj; Van-damme, Jmm

1997-01-01

72

Occurrence of Platypus mutatus Chapuis (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) in a brazilwood experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hardwood of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood, Pernambuco, ibirapitanga) is currently the most profitable material used for violin bow due to the unique vibrational properties and dimensional stability. Although this species is resistant to the wood decay caused by termites and rot fungi, an experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil has been attacked by the ambrosia beetle Platypus mutatus Chapuis (= Megaplatypus mutatus and P. sulcatus). This species invaded ca. 3% of the individuals, mainly in the central part of the plantation. Infestation by larvae and adults was higher during the dry season (winter) when compared to the rainy period (spring and summer). PMID:17273722

Girardi, Graziele S; Giménez, Rosana A; Braga, Márcia R

2006-01-01

73

Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiling to Elucidate Effectiveness of Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata fermented by lactic acid on controlling gene expression levels related to obesity was observed in an oligonucleotide chip microarray. Among 8170 genes, 393 genes were up regulated and 760 genes were down regulated in feeding the fermented C. lanceolata (FCL. Another 374 genes were up regulated and 527 genes down regulated without feeding the sample. The genes were not affected by the FCL sample. It was interesting that among those genes, Chytochrome P450, Dmbt1, LOC76487, and thyroid hormones, etc., were mostly up or down regulated. These genes are more related to lipid synthesis. We could conclude that the FCL possibly controlled the gene expression levels related to lipid synthesis, which resulted in reducing obesity. However, more detailed protein expression experiments should be carried out.

Woon Yong Choi

2014-04-01

74

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01

75

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes  

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Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (...

Meyer, Susan L. F.; Zasada, Inga A.; Roberts, Daniel P.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Lakshman, Dilip K.; Lee, Jae-kook; Chitwood, David J.; Carta, Lynn K.

2006-01-01

76

Early Root Herbivory Impairs Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization and Shifts Defence Allocation in Establishing Plantago lanceolata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research into plant-mediated indirect interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and insect herbivores has focussed on those between plant shoots and above-ground herbivores, despite the fact that only below-ground herbivores share the same part of the host plant as AM fungi. Using Plantago lanceolata L., we aimed to characterise how early root herbivory by the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) affected subsequent colonization by AM fungi (Glomus spp.) and determine how the t...

Bennett, Alison E.; Macrae, Anna M.; Moore, Ben D.; Caul, Sandra; Johnson, Scott N.

2013-01-01

77

Tree Biomass Estimation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Based on Bayesian Method  

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Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) is the most important conifer species for timber production with huge distribution area in southern China. Accurate estimation of biomass is required for accounting and monitoring Chinese forest carbon stocking. In the study, allometric equation was used to analyze tree biomass of Chinese fir. The common methods for estimating allometric model have taken the classical approach based on the frequency interpretation of probability. However, m...

Zhang, Xiongqing; Duan, Aiguo; Zhang, Jianguo

2013-01-01

78

Out of the woods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity. PMID:12285836

Jacobson, J L

1992-01-01

79

THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to review the current status of oil palm biomass, including the availability of this tree, in order to illustrate the potential of oil palm biomass as an alternative source for compressed wood. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of compressed wood from oil palm trunk. This paper will cover the background of compressed wood and the possibilities of producing compressed wood using oil palm trunk as a raw material.

Othman Sulaiman,

2012-06-01

80

Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

Ke?a Ljiljana

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Simulation of the impact of future market prices on the management of loblolly pine plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computer simulation techniques were used to evaluate the impact that four future markets scenarios had on cash flows from intensively managed pine plantations in the South of the USA. Four simulation programs were combined to predict tree growth and stand development and to model intermediate thinnings and final harvests for an economic analysis of management alternatives for an average loblolly pine plantation. Under the stated assumptions, the results demonstrated that the present value of unthinned stands compared closely with the returns generated from thinned plantations for the future market conditions assumed. This suggests that individual forest product companies may find wood flows, cash flows, tax advantages, and future product requirements of their plants to be overriding factors determining whether to engage in commercial thinning.

Reisinger, T.W.; Stuart, W.B.; Walbridge, T.A. Jr.

1985-01-01

82

Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut growth and especially on radial increment, a very important matter being common walnut the target species with a very appreciated and valuable wood.

Giannini T

2009-01-01

83

A report on the quality control parameters of aerial parts of Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae / Relatório sobre os parâmetros de controle de qualidade das partes aéreas de Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae, é uma planta que tem sido usada como medicinal na Índia como um antipirético, analgésico anti-reumático e calmante. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estabelecer os padrões morfológicos e anatômicos e caracterizar o extrato(s) de P. lanceolata pela t [...] riagem fitoquímica preliminar como parâmetro de controle de qualidade para a matéria-prima. Abstract in english Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae, is a weed that has been used as an indigenous medicine in India as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic and nervine tonic. This paper aims at setting the morphological and anatomical standards and to characterize the extract(s) of P. lanceolat [...] a by preliminary phytochemical screening as quality control parameter for the raw material.

Saleemulla, Khan; Ruchi, Rawat; AKS, Rawat; Annie, Shirwaiker.

2010-09-01

84

The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

85

Molecular genetic tools to infer the origin of forest plants and wood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Most forest tree species exhibit high levels of genetic diversity that can be used to trace the origin of living plants or their products such as timber and processed wood. Recent progress to isolate DNA not only from living tissue but also from wood and wood products offers new opportunities to test the declared origin of material such as seedlings for plantation establishment or timber. However, since most forest tree populations are weakly differentiated, the identificati...

Finkeldey, Reiner; Leinemann, Ludger; Gailing, Oliver

2009-01-01

86

Energy Characteristics of Wood-Chips Produced from Salix Viminalis - Clone ULV  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores the energy characteristics of wood-chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV, which was cultivated in an energy plantation. The higher heating value of wood and bark of Salix viminalis was assessed through an experimental measurement in a special calorimeter for solid fuels, model IKA C 200. The lower heating value of wood and bark was calculated from the higher heating value Qs, taking into account hydrogen Hdaf and water contentWr in fuel samples that were assess...

Ladislav Dzurenda; Jarmila Geffertova; Vladimir Hecl

2010-01-01

87

Storage Problems of Poplar Chips from Short Rotation Plantations with Special Emphasis on Fungal Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are several problems in storing wood chips freshly harvested from short rotation plantations, which result in quality losses as well as in dry matter and energy losses. The factors influencing the degradation of raw material are examined in this paper with special focus on fungal development. An excessive growth of fungi is connected to dry matter losses and also to an increased health risk during raw material handling.The following factors were measured during 6 months storage of popla...

Horva?th, Zsuzsanna; Marosvo?lgyi, Be?la; Idler, Christine; Pecenka, Ralf; Lenz, Hannes

2012-01-01

88

THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN. WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn., which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and colour change of the wood specimens were tested in comparison with untreated specimens. The results showed that density, swelling, and hardness decreased with increasing treatment temperature and durations while heat treatment made the colour of the wood specimens darker

O Unsal

2003-01-01

89

Plantation agriculture in the tropics - environmental issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plantation agriculture is more than 400 years old and contributes to the regional and national economies in many tropical countries. This paper reviews some of the main environmental issues related to plantation agriculture with perennial crops, including soil erosion, soil fertility decline, pollution, carbon sequestration and biodiversity. Soil erosion and soil fertility decline are of concern in some areas, but in most plantations these are being checked by cover crops and inorganic fertil...

Hartemink, A. E.

2005-01-01

90

ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 ?m, and 7.1 ?m, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre...

Ahmad Jahan Latibari; K. Pourali,; Fakhrian Roghani, A.

2011-01-01

91

Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

2010-12-15

92

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

93

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Babanezhad, M. [Department of statistics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vitharana, U.W.A. [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Wuytack, T.; Potters, G. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Samson, R., E-mail: Roeland.Samson@ua.ac.b [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

2010-03-15

94

Elevated ozone affects the genetic composition of Plantago lanceolata L. populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The genetic composition and diversity of Plantago lanceolata L. populations were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to test for differences in an old semi-natural grassland after five years of treatment with ambient or elevated ozone (O3) using a free-air fumigation system. Genetic diversity in populations exposed to elevated O3 was slightly higher than in populations sampled from control plots. This effect was significant for AFLP-based measures of diversity and for SSR markers based on observed heterozygosity. Also, a small but significant difference in genetic composition between O3 treatments was detected by analysis of molecular variance and redundancy analysis. The results show that micro-evolutionary processes could take place in response to long-term elevated O3 exposure in highly diverse populations of outbreeding plant species. - Five years of exposure indicated a small but significant influence of elevated O3 on genetic composition and diversity of Plantago lanceolata L. populations

95

Early Root Herbivory Impairs Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization and Shifts Defence Allocation in Establishing Plantago lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research into plant-mediated indirect interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and insect herbivores has focussed on those between plant shoots and above-ground herbivores, despite the fact that only below-ground herbivores share the same part of the host plant as AM fungi. Using Plantago lanceolata L., we aimed to characterise how early root herbivory by the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) affected subsequent colonization by AM fungi (Glomus spp.) and determine how the two affected plant growth and defensive chemistry. We exposed four week old P. lanceolata to root herbivory and AM fungi using a 2×2 factorial design (and quantified subsequent effects on plant biomass and iridoid glycosides (IGs) concentrations. Otiorhynchus sulcatus reduced root growth by c. 64%, whereas plant growth was unaffected by AM fungi. Root herbivory reduced extent of AM fungal colonization (by c. 61%). O. sulcatus did not influence overall IG concentrations, but caused qualitative shifts in root and shoot IGs, specifically increasing the proportion of the more toxic catalpol. These changes may reflect defensive allocation in the plant against further attack. This study demonstrates that very early root herbivory during plant development can shape future patterns of AM fungal colonization and influence defensive allocation in the plant. PMID:23840398

Bennett, Alison E; Macrae, Anna M; Moore, Ben D; Caul, Sandra; Johnson, Scott N

2013-01-01

96

Effect of Pluchea lanceolata bioactives in LPS-induced neuroinflammation in C6 rat glial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroinflammation plays a significant role in various chronic and acute pathological conditions of the central nervous system. In the Indian system of medicine, Pluchea lanceolata is used to treat the neurological disorders. We investigated the effect of major pentacyclic triterpene and its naturally occurring acetate derivative isolated from P. lanceolata on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neuroinflammatory condition associated to inflammatory cytokine production in rat astrocytoma cell line (C6). The log concentration dependence of Pluchea bioactive taraxasterol (Tx) significantly (p??0.05). Surflex-Dock molecular modeling study was performed to simulate the binding capacity of compounds into the active site of the TNF-? (2AZ5), tumor protein P53 (2VUK), and NF-kappa-B (1RAM). The differential inhibition of cytokines by Tx and TxAc was further confirmed by high docking scores showing the high affinity to target proteins. Findings of the study demonstrated the comparatively greater role of Pluchea triterpene than its in situ produced acetate derivate in neuroinflammation-associated disorders. PMID:24101125

Srivastava, Pooja; Mohanti, Shilpa; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao; Khan, Feroz; Shanker, Karuna

2014-02-01

97

Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

Pandey, D.

1996-12-31

98

Leishmaniasis vector potential of Lutzomyia spp. in Colombian coffee plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential vectors of Leishmania braziliensis Vianna were assessed at four study sites in the mountainous Valle del Cauca, western Colombia, from March to June 1989. In an active focus of transmission at 1450 m altitude, a coffee plantation at Versalles, there were high densities of antropophilic phlebotomines: Lutzomyia columbiana (Ritorcelli & Van Ty) and Lu.townsendi (Ortiz), both in the verrucarum species group, and of Lu.pia (Fairchild & Hertig). At a comparable altitude in a forest reserve at Yotoco where leishmaniasis is unknown, Lu.pia was the prevalent species and Lu.townsendi was absent. In two localities at 1150 m altitude, there were plentiful Lu.lichyi (Floch & Abonnenc) plus both species in the verrucarum group, but Lu.pia was absent. One of these localities, a coffee plantation at Villa Hermosa where a leishmaniasis outbreak occurred in 1986, was compared with a leishmaniasis-free, partly wooded nature reserve at Mateguadua. No natural infections of Leishmania were found in a total of 1896 wild-caught female phlebotomines belonging to at least seven species. It remains unclear why Leishmaniasis transmission is associated with coffee plantations in this part of Colombia. Laboratory-bred Lu.lichyi females were invariably autogenous, and blood-seeking females of this species were always parous. Parity rates in wild-caught females of other species were 55% Lu.pia, 24% Lu.columbiana and 14% Lu.townsendi. Female Lutzomyia infected artificially with Le.braziliensis promastigotes developed peripylarian infections. Higher proportions of Lu.townsendi (96%) and Lu.columbiana (78%) became infected but these species developed lower rates of stomodaeal infections (P less than 0.1) than Lu.lichyi (37%) or Lu.pia (44%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1768906

Warburg, A; Montoya-Lerma, J; Jaramillo, C; Cruz-Ruiz, A L; Ostrovska, K

1991-01-01

99

Federal tax incentives and disincentives for the adoption of wood-fuel electric-generating technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we estimate the effects of current federal tax policy on the financial criteria that investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) and non-utility electricity generators (NUGs) use to evaluate wood-fuel electric-generating technologies, distinguishing between dedicated-plantation and wood-waste fuels. Accelerated tax depreciation, the 1.5 cent/kWh production tax credit for the dedicated-plantation technology, and the alternative minimum tax are the most important tax provisions. The results indicate that federal tax laws have significantly different effects on the evaluation criteria, depending on the plant's ownership (IOU vs NUG) and type of fuel (dedicated-plantation vs wood-waste). (Author)

100

Monkstown Wood  

...interrupted by cow parsley, germander speedwell and bush vetch. Speckled wood and small white butterflies dance among the blooms, while overhead, the skies are busy with house martins and swifts...

 
 
 
 
101

Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China  

Science.gov (United States)

Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76") plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G) partitioning to latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G) ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008) to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009), and H/(Rn-G) from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (?=H/LE) were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs) had the greatest response to drought (+43%), but the aerodynamic and climatological resistances did not change significantly (p > 0.05). Partial correlation analysis indicated that Rs was the dominant factor in controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the major factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (? = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively), and the LE / LEeq ratio ranged from 0.81 and 0.68 in wet and dry years, respectively. In general, the dry surface conditions dominated in this poplar plantation ecosystem regardless of soil water availability suggesting that fast-growing and water use-intensive species like poplar plantations are poorly adapted for the water limited region.

Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.; Chen, J.

2015-01-01

102

An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditint is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

103

ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

Thais Cunha Ferreira

2004-07-01

104

Water use, water limitation, and water use efficiency in a Eucalyptus plantation Utilización del agua, limitación hídrica y eficiencia del uso del agua en una plantación de Eucalyptus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production worldwide, but the ecophysiology of resource limitation on growth remains poorly quantified. We investigated the production ecology of a 3.4- to 5.4- year-old plantation of clonal Eucalypus grandis x urophylla in northeastern Brazil on a sandy Oxisol during two years (one wet, and one with normal rainfall). We measured wood production and estimated water use (transpired water) in control and irrigated treatments. W...

JOSE LUIZ STAPE; DAN BINKLEY; Ryan, Michael G.; ANTONIO DO NASCIMENTO GOMES

2004-01-01

105

Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment. PMID:23915092

Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

2013-09-01

106

Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f. plantations of Central America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand of 150 teak trees ha-1 at age 19 would accumulate (kg ha-1 405 N, 661 Ca, 182 K, 111 Mg, 33 P, 53 S, 9 Fe, 0.47 Mn, 0.22 Cu, 0.92 Zn, 1 B; whereas the expected nutrient export by timber harvest (bole and bark is (kg ha-1 220 N, 281 Ca, 88 K, 63 Mg, 23 P, 39 S, 6 Fe, 0.13 Mn, 0.10 Cu, 0.21 Zn, 0.40 B. Hence, teak nutrition should pay special attention to N and K, together with Ca the nutrients most accumulated by teak. In addition, P and B could also be limiting planted teak forest productivity due to their general soil deficiencies. Proposed models estimate the amount of nutrients removed from the site during timber harvests, information that can be used by plantation managers to avoid soil nutrient depletion, approaching sustainability in forest plantation management.

Fernández-Moya J

2015-02-01

107

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (10% w/v) was prepared in water and another in methanol. Treatments included extract concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, and water controls. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was recorded after 7-day exposure to the treatments, and second-stage juvenile (J2) activity after 48 hours. All extracts were toxic to eggs and J2, with P. lanceolata shoot extract tending to have the most activity against M. incognita. Numbers of active J2 remained the same or decreased in a 24-hour water rinse following the 48-hour extract treatment, indicating that the extracts were lethal. When data from water- and methanol-extracted roots and shoots of both plant species were combined for analysis, J2 tended to be more sensitive than eggs to the toxic compounds at lower concentrations, while the higher concentrations (75% and 100%) were equally toxic to both life stages. The effective concentrations causing 50% reduction (EC(50)) in egg hatch and in J2 viability were 44.4% and 43.7%, respectively. No extract was toxic to any of the bacteria or fungi in our assays. PMID:19259537

Meyer, Susan L F; Zasada, Inga A; Roberts, Daniel P; Vinyard, Bryan T; Lakshman, Dilip K; Lee, Jae-Kook; Chitwood, David J; Carta, Lynn K

2006-09-01

108

ADVANCES IN THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF Cuphea aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata : EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea lanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina tradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h), el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de variosórganos de C. aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata . Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH + y ABTS + ) y el de poder reduc...

Cardenas-sandoval, B. A.; Pez-laredo, A. R. L. U. F.; Cdnez-bonfil, B. P. Mart U.; Fadez-torres, K. Berm U.; Trejo-tapia, G.

2012-01-01

109

CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

110

Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD7, 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha-1, respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

111

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2 and 4 h (T4, were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7% and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4% were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata.

Maria A. C. Kaplan

2012-09-01

112

[The influence of oil heat treatment on wood decay resistance by Fourier infrared spectrum analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood preservative treatment can improve defects of plantation wood such as easy to corrupt and moth eaten. Among them heat-treatment is not only environmental and no pollution, also can improve the corrosion resistance and dimension stability of wood. In this test Poplar and Mongolian Seoteh Pine was treated by soybean oil as heat-conducting medium, and the heat treatment wood was studied for indoor decay resistance; wood chemical components before and after treatment, the effect of heat treatment on wood decay resistance performance and main mechanism of action were analysed by Fourier infrared spectrometric. Results showed that the mass loss rate of poplar fell from 19.37% to 5% and Mongolian Seoteh Pine's fell from 8.23% to 3.15%, so oil heat treatment can effectively improve the decay resistance. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that the heat treatment made wood's hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl groups in largely reduced, absorbing capacity decreased and the moisture of wood rotting fungi necessary was reduced; during the heat treatment wood chemical components such as cellulose, hemicellu lose were degraded, and the nutrient source of wood rotting fungi growth necessary was reduced. Wood decay fungi can grow in the wood to discredit wood is because of that wood can provide better living conditions for wood decay fungi, such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and so on. The cellulose and hemicellulose in wood is the main nutrition source of wood decay fungi. So the oil heat-treatment can reduce the cellulose, hemicellulose nutrition source of wood decay fungi so as to improve the decay resistance of wood. PMID:25208386

Wang, Ya-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ling; Feng, Li-Qun

2014-03-01

113

[Caloric value and ash content of dominant plants in plantation communities in Heshan of Guangdong, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Different parts of twenty dominant plant species in five plantation communities on the subtropical hilly lands in Heshan of Gunagdong as well as the litters from three of the five plantation communities were sampled, and their gross caloric value (GCV) and ash content were measured by using a PARR-1281 oxygen bomb calorimeter and a muffle furnace. Based on the measurements, the ash-free caloric value (AFCV) of the samples was calculated, and the characteristics of caloric value and ash content of the samples, according to plant part, individual, and plant growth form, were analyzed. The results showed that the GCV and AFCV of leaf, branch, stem wood, stem bark, and root were in the range of 10.7-22.17 kJ x g(-1) and 13.89-23.04 kJ x g(-1), respectively. The GCV and AFCV of leaf were significantly higher than those of other parts (P shrub layer (19.46 kJ x g(-1) > herb layer (18.77 kJ x g(-1)), with indigenous coniferous tree (19.86 kJ x g(-1)) > indigenous broad-leaved tree (19.55 kJ x g(-1)) > exotic eucalyptus (19.18 kJ x g(-1)), while the mean ash content was just the opposite. In Acacia mangium, coniferous, and Schima plantation communities, the GCV and AFCV of litters were higher than those of various plant parts (P < 0.01). The litter-falls in A. mangium and coniferous plantations had higher mean GCV and AFCV than the litters and fresh leaves of tree layer, while the fresh leaves of tree layer in Schima plantation showed higher mean GCV and AFCV. PMID:19637580

Zeng, Xiao-ping; Cai, Xi-an; Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xing-quan

2009-03-01

114

Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration of carbon. The same is likely to be true for managed forests in other temperate regions. If wood from additional felling is used, it would be most effective to use it in products that stay in circulation for a long time, only to be used for energy at the end of its service life. An increase in wood demand may lead to an intensification of forest management, which may temporarily increase carbon sequestration rates and biomass yields. This would eventually reduce the payback times. However, it must be noted that it would still take a substantial amount of time for the intensification of forest management to become effective, especially when it includes drastic measures, such as converting natural forests into plantations. Short rotation plantations with fast growing trees on agricultural land may be another option, but in these cases there are similarities with the direct and indirect land-use change effects related to energy crops. Further analysis is required to enable a clear judgment on the impact of these options. Products are not the only place of storing carbon with a beneficial effect on climate change. The combination of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) on large industrial sites where biomass is converted into energy carriers, such as transport fuel and electricity, is projected to be beneficial, as well. Even landfill sites may serve as storage of carbon in wood waste, as pieces of wood hardly degrade.

Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

2013-08-15

115

Antiinflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Phlomis lanceolata Boiss. and Hohen. Extracts and Examination of their Components  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of total extract and four fractions (ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water from Phlomis lanceolata (Lamiaceae in mice. The plant material was extracted with methanol. In order to estimate the polarity of the active compounds, the total extract was dissolved in water and the water soluble portion was successively partitioned between ether, ethyl acetate and n-buthanol. The total extract and four fractions were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC by use of specific reagents. Dose of 100 mg kg 1 of each extracts were used in carrageenan-induced paw edema, formalin and writhing nociception tests in mice. All compounds reduced paw edema in comparison to the control group at 1, 3, 5 and 7 h post carrageenan injection. The total, ether and aqueous extracts were similar to indomethacin while the ethyl acetate extract was weaker than indomethacin in reduction of paw edema. All extracts induced antinociception in both phases of formalin test. The total and ether extracts were as potent as indomethacin in both phases of formalin test. The ethyl acetate extract was weaker than indomethacin in the second phase of formalin-test while the n-butanol and aqueous extracts showed more antinociception than indomethacin in the second phase of formalin test. All extracts as well as indomethacin induced antinociception in writhing test in comparison to control. The total and aqueous extracts induced the same antinociception as indomethacin while ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol showed weaker antinociception than indomethacin. Positive results for iridoids and phenolic compounds were indicated by phytochemical analysis of total extract. Phenolic compounds were found in four fractions whereas only n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed positive results for iridoid glycosides. The higher antinociceptive effects of n-butanol and aqueous extracts in the inflammatory phase of formalin test among different extracts tested, might back to the presence of iridoid glycosides, phenolic glycosides or other glycosides. These data suggest that different extracts of P. lanceolata produce different antinociceptive activities that could be due to the effect of one or a combination of the bioactive components in each extract.

M. Mohajer

2006-01-01

116

Evaluation of Mycosphaerella impact on eucalypts plantations in Portugal  

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Full Text Available Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD is one of the most important diseases of eucalypts plantations worldwide. However, only recently it has become relevant in Portugal. Caused by a complex of Mycosphaerella species, this disease reduces the photosynthetic area and can cause tree defoliation. In extreme cases it causes reduction in the volume of wood produced. In order to relate the observed symptoms of MLD with the presence of the pathogen and at the same time obtaining an evaluation of eucalypt clones and family susceptibility, two experimental plantations were established in places where the disease has been detected. Data on the percentage of affected crown (necrosis or defoliation were collected and some of the Mycosphaerella species present were identified (M. africana, M. communis, M. grandis, M. lateralis, M. marksii, M. nubilosa, M. parva, M. vespa and M. walkeri.A doença das manchas das folhas do eucalipto é uma das mais importantes nas plantações de eucalipto, tendo-se só recentemente tornado relevante em Portugal. Esta doença, causada por um complexo de espécies de Mycosphaerella, reduz a área fotossintética da árvore, podendo causar desfolha, com consequente redução da taxa de crescimento e do volume de madeira produzido. Com o objectivo de relacionar os sintomas observados com a presença do agente patogénico e avaliar a susceptibilidade de clones e famílias de eucalipto, foram estabelecidas duas plantações experimentais em locais onde foi detectada a doença. Foram recolhidos dados relativos à percentagem de área da copa afectada (por necroses ou desfolha e identificadas as espécies de Mycosphaerella associadas (M. africana, M. communis, M. grandis, M. lateralis, M. marksii, M. nubilosa, M. parva, M. vespa e M. walkeri.

Márcia Silva

2008-12-01

117

Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There exists a significant potential for utilising perennial energy plantations in protecting and restoring polluted water and land resources in Sweden. By optimising the design, location and management, several additional environmental services could be obtained which will increase the value of the energy plantations, thereby improving future market conditions for biomass. Multi-functional energy plantations (mainly Salix but also energy grass) can be divided into two categories, those designed for dedicated environmental services (e.g. vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and shelter belts against soil erosion), and those generating more general benefits (e.g. soil carbon accumulation, increased soil fertility, cadmium removal and increased hunting potential). The practical potential of those two categories is estimated to be equivalent to up to 3% and more than 20% of the total Swedish arable land, respectively. The regional conditions of utilising multi-functional plantations vary, however, with the best possibilities in densely populated areas dominated by farmland. The economic value of multi-functional plantations is normally highest for those designed for dedicated environmental services. Purification of wastewater has the highest value, which could exceed the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, followed by treatment of polluted drainage water in vegetation filters and buffer zones (equivalent to more than half of the production cost), recirculation of sewage sludge (around half of the production cost), erosion control (around one fourth) and increased hunting potential (up to 15% of the production cost). The value of increased hunting potential varies due to nearness to larger cities and in which part of Sweden the plantation is located. The economic value of cadmium removal and increased soil fertility is equivalent to a few percent of the production cost, but the value of cadmium removal might increase in the future if this problem will be valued differently. The value of increased carbon accumulation in mineral soils and reduced carbon dioxide emissions from organic soils is estimated to be equivalent to a few percent and half the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, respectively. These values may also change in the future if carbon sinks in agriculture will be included as an approved mitigation option within the Kyoto agreement. Based on an analysis of possible combinations of environmental services achieved in specific plantations, it is estimated that biomass can be produced to an negative cost in around 100,000 hectares of multi-functional energy plantations, when the value of the environmental services is included. The production cost in another 250,000 hectares of plantations is estimated to be halved. This is equivalent to around 6 and 11 TWh biomass per year, respectively. Economic incentives also exist for municipal wastewater plants for utilising vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. Cadmium removal and increased soil fertility will give a minor increase in the income for the farmer. However, cadmium removal will result in increased costs later in the Salix fuel chain, due to increased costs of flue gas cleaning during combustion. Thus, to overcome this economic barrier, subsidies will probably be needed to heating plants utilising cadmium-contaminated biomass. The possibilities of achieving an income from increased soil carbon accumulation will depend on if this option will be an approved mechanism. Today, the Swedish greenhouse gas mitigation policy does not include this option. Some of the potential multi-functional energy plantations (e.g. buffer strips for reducing nutrient leaching and vegetation filters for treatment of polluted drainage water) results in increased cultivation costs for the farmer, thus increased economic barriers. Examples of measures to overcome such barriers are dedicated subsidies for multi-functional plantations established at specific locations, or on a certain type of soil. The concept of mu

Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

2002-02-01

118

Private valuation of carbon sequestration in forest plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approval of the Clean Development Mechanism, provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, enables countries with afforested land to trade in carbon emissions reduction certificates related to carbon dioxide equivalent quantities (CO{sub 2-e}) stored within a certain forest area. Potential CO{sub 2-e} above base line sequestration was determined for two forest sites on commercial eucalyptus plantations in northern Brazil (Bahia). Compensation values for silvicultural regimes involving rotation lengths greater than economically optimal were computed using the Faustmann formula. Mean values obtained were US$8.16 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} and US$7.19 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} for average and high site indexes, respectively. Results show that carbon supply is more cost-efficient in highly productive sites. Annuities of US$18.8 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and US$35.1 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and yearly payments of US$4.4 m{sup -} {sup 3} and US$8.2 m{sup -} {sup 3} due for each marginal cubic meter produced were computed for high and average sites, respectively. The estimated value of the tonne of carbon defines minimum values to be paid to forest owners, in order to induce a change in silvicultural management regimes. A reduction of carbon supply could be expected as a result of an increase in wood prices, although it would not respond in a regular manner. For both sites, price elasticity of supply was found to be inelastic and increased as rotation length moved further away from economically optimal: 0.24 and 0.27 for age 11 years in average- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This would be due to biomass production potential as a limiting factor; beyond a certain threshold value, an increase in price does not sustain a proportional change in carbon storage supply. The environmental service valuation model proposed might be adequate for assessing potential supply in plantation forestry, from a private landowner perspective, with an economic opportunity cost. The model is not applicable to low commercial value forest plantations. (author)

Guitart, A. Bussoni [Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica. Avda. E. Garzon, 780, CP 12.900, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, L.C. Estraviz [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' , Universidad de Sao, Paulo (Brazil)

2010-01-15

119

ANALYSIS OF GROWTH AND LATEX PRODUCTION IN COMMERCIAL FOREST PLANTATIONS OF RUBBER (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg.) IN THE STATE OF OAXACA, MEXICO  

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SUMMARYWere selected 41 plantations in the region of Papaloapan; these didn’t present damage by plagues, disease or mechanic action; have a space of 6 x 3 m and ages from 1 to 42 years. In each plantation were design sites of 1000 m2 whose trees were enumerated consecutively. Were measured a total of 2255 trees from which were obtain the next data: thick of bark (gc), height of clean wood (altf), total height (altt), diameter normal (dpa), projection of canopy north-south and east-west and ...

Rosa Marti?nez Ruiz, Gustavo E. Rojo Marti?nez

2007-01-01

120

Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind-stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems. PMID:25297315

Timerman, David; Greene, David F; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Phytochemicals and Antioxidative Properties of Borneo Indigenous Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa Fruits  

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Full Text Available Two underutilized indigenous fruits of Borneo, Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa were investigated for their total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC, anthocyanin (TAC and carotenoid (TCC contents as well as antioxidant properties in vitro. The fruits were separated into three different parts (i.e., pericarp, flesh and seed and extracted using 80% methanol. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, ABTS decolorization and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The results showed that B. macrocarpa pericarp contained the highest amount of total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and total carotenoid with the values of 60.04 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g, 44.68 ± 0.67 mg CE/g, 1.23 ± 0.20 mg c-3-gE/100 g and 0.81 ± 0.14 mg BCE/g. Results from DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays also showed that the pericarp of B. macrocarpa displayed the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity of the extract was significantly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with the carotenoid contents. In conclusion, B. macrocarpa displayed high potential as natural source of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties.

Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

2014-07-01

122

Dihydrochalcone glucosides and antioxidant activity from the roots of Anneslea fragrans var. lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the roots of Anneslea fragrans var. lanceolata led to the isolation of four dihydrochalcone glucosides, davidigenin-2'-O-(6?-O-4?'-hydroxybenzoyl)-?-glucoside (1), davidigenin-2'-O-(2?-O-4?'-hydroxybenzoyl)-?-glucoside (2), davidigenin-2'-O-(3?-O-4?'-hydroxybenzoyl)-?-glucoside (3), and davidigenin-2'-O-(6?-O-syringoyl)-?-glucoside (4), and 13 known compounds. The structures were identified by means of spectroscopic analysis. Davidigenin-2'-O-(6?-O-syringoyl)-?-glucoside (4), 1-O-3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyphenyl-6-O-(3,5-di-O-methylgalloyl)-?-glucopyranoside (5), lyoniresinol (10), and syringic acid (13) showed ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] cation radical scavenging activity, with SC(50) values of 52.6 ± 5.5, 26.0 ± 0.7, 6.0 ± 0.2, and 27.5 ± 0.6 ?g/mL in 20 min, respectively. Lyoniresinol (10), isofraxidin (12), and syringic acid (13) also showed DPPH [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, with SC(50) values of 8.4 ± 1.8, 51.6 ± 2.2, and 4.3 ± 0.7 ?g/mL in 30 min, respectively. PMID:22459967

Huang, Hung-Yi; Ko, Horng-Huey; Jin, Yu-Jin; Yang, Sheng-Zehn; Shih, You-An; Chen, Ih-Sheng

2012-06-01

123

Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argen Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

124

The research of some physical properties of wood Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortuneii  

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Full Text Available The density, shrinkage and swelling of Paulownia elongata and P. fortuneii wood were researched. The study material was provided by Boda Vukovojac, B. Sc., who established the Paulownia plantation and sample plots on the territory of the Municipality Bela Crkva. The study results show the differences between the analyzed properties of these two species. The study results were also compared with the results of the similar species of wood. The data shows that the study wood can be used in wood products that are not subject to great loads during exploitation. Further study should investigate the liability of these wood species to form tension wood and deformations in the conditions of variable hygroscopic moisture.

Šoški? Borislav

2003-01-01

125

Fire retardants for wood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount ...

Vlatka Jirouš-Rajkovi?; Josip Mikle?i?

2009-01-01

126

Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil Planejamento de colheita e transporte de madeira usando o programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) em uma plantação de pinus no sudeste do Brasil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational and production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input ...

Eduardo da Silva Lopes; Carlos Cardoso Machado; Amaury Paulo de Souza; Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro

2003-01-01

127

[Causal factors of decline disease in exotic pine (Pinus taeda and P. elliottii) plantations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation on the cause of the decline of exotic pine plantations in Anhui Province was carried out from 1995 to 2000. The results showed that the cause might develop from the interaction of three or more sets of factors. The first group of factors called as predisposing factors were high and low temperature and rainfall, poor soil fertility, and excessive soil bulk density, soil moisture, and of stand density; the second group of factors called as inciting factors were insect defoliators, damaging diseases of needles, late spring frost, severe drought, and excessive resin-tapping, and the third group of factors called as contributing factors were several biotic agents such as shoot blight infected by Sphaeropsis sapinea, decay wood and root rot by fungi, and bark beetles and wood borers. PMID:11758405

Shu, Q; Yang, G; Zou, Y; Tang, J; Huang, C

2001-06-01

128

Assessment of the effect of quality factors on the assortment structure in poplar plantations  

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Full Text Available Quality factors affecting the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations were researched on nine temporary sample plots in the period 1997-2004, from the aspect of the implementation of roundwood standards. Sample plots were selected depending on the factors, the effect of which was studied. The following factors were researched: clonal species, planting pattern, flood risk, pruning of branches, plantation position and age. The study was performed by the original methodology. Based on the study results, it is concluded that knots have the highest effect on the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations, regardless of the site and stand conditions. Their effect rises significantly with the increase of tree diameter. Also, the analyses show that the number of large and rotten knots on the tree trunk increases considerably with the older age. In the flooded area, the sweep of the lower part of the stem is more intensive and multiple curvatures are frequent on the trees growing immediately along the river, whereas curvature decreases with the distance from the river bank. Based on the study results, it is concluded that the percentage of best quality assortments is considerably reduced by the above wood defects.

Danilovi? Milorad

2008-01-01

129

Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha-'1) and 86 % higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

130

Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun  

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Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

Makombu, G.

2010-01-01

131

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks  

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Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli...

Kaplan, Maria A. C.; Rodarte, Mi?rian P.; Amaral, Maria P. H.; Arau?jo, Ai?lson A. L.; Pinto, Mi?riam A. O.; Alves, Maria S.; Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira; Sousa, Orlando V.

2012-01-01

132

Phenylethanoid glucosides from in vitro propagated plants and callus cultures of Plantago lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The well-known medicinal plant Plantago lanceolata L. (ribwort plantain) was effectively propagated by direct organogenesis from segments of leaves and roots using MS medium supplemented with IAA (11.42 microM), kinetin (9.29 microM) for multiplication and IAA (5.71 microM) for rooting. The plantlets were successfully hardened (80 %) and transferred to field cultivation (100 %). Two lines of callus tissue, derived from leaves and roots, were obtained on MS medium without NH (4)NO (3) and supplemented with 2,4-D (4.52 microM) and kinetin ( 0.46 microM). From plant materials--leaf rosettes from in vitro, leaves from plants in field cultivation obtained by micropropagation, root-derived callus and leaf-derived callus--sixteen phenylethanoid glucosides representing nine different structures were isolated and identified by spectral methods (1D and 2D NMR) as known for the species: lavandulifolioside ( 1), plantamajoside ( 2,) acteoside ( 3); new for the species: leucosceptoside A ( 4), martynoside ( 5), desrhamnosylisoacteoside ( 6), plantainoside D ( 7), desrhamnosylacteoside ( 8) and - 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta- D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-4- O- trans- and cis- p-coumaroyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 9)--the latter also being found for the first time in nature and named lancetoside. Only plantamajoside ( 2) and acteoside ( 3) were common to all plant materials, the former was the main constituent of calli (1.19 - 2.84 % of dry weight), while the latter was the main constituent of the leaves (1.78 - 10.43 % of dry weight). Flavonoids were present only in plants of field cultivation. PMID:15386192

Budzianowska, Anna; Skrzypczak, Lutos?awa; Budzianowski, Jaromir

2004-09-01

133

What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that although stand density may have a significant impact on boundary layer conductance in young stands, it does not account for the ''density effect''. Our tests of the light quality hypothesis were slowed due to poor plantation establishment in the early phase of this study. In a variable density experiment we detected significant changes in R:FR related to density. Also in that study we measured a significant enhancement of tree height at high density. However, after three years of growth, the study trees did not show significant differences in stem diameter related to density. Experimenters at Weyerhaeuser therefore decided not to harvest the trees at the end of the 3rd growth year, as originally planned. In a 1-year study of seedlings planted in raised beds subjected to different light quality treatments using transparent plastic film, we found that tree height but not diameter increased in response to decreased R:FR. At this point, we conclude that R:FR remains a viable hypothesis for the ''density effect'', but evidence is not conclusive. We expect that continued measurements in the variable density test plot at Weyerhaeuser will add more evidence in the future.

Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie

2002-07-21

134

Grapple processor for plantation thinning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small boom-mounted grapple processor, the Valmet 940, was tested in a first thinning of loblolly pine in Alabama. The processor followed a small feller-buncher which built large bunches (16 stems) at about 27-ft intervals along an access corridor. The processor delimbed and cross-cut the wood into 7.5 ft bolts, forming a neat pile at the side of the access corridor for subsequent forwarding. Production averaged 2.5 stems per minute. Regression equations were developed to predict processing time per tree, moving time per tree, and total time per tree. Processing time per tree was greatly dependent on average tree size. Moving time per tree was closely related to the distance travelled from the previous bunch and the number of trees in the current bunch. The major component of total time was processing time. Slash piles remaining after forwarding were much smaller with this system than with manual methods since tops were deposited in the access corridors where subsequent machine traffic reduced the slash. A grapple processor appears well suited to southern pine thinnings where it can replace dangerous and physically demanding manual operations. 2 references.

Greene, W.D.; Lanford, B.L.

1985-01-01

135

Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gheibi F, Akbarinia M, Kooch Y. 2015. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Biodiversitas 16: 10-15. Forest plantation is a common action in order to restore the degraded forests in Hyrcanian forests of Iran. This study compares the plant biodiversity in four 25-year-old stands of plantation, adjacent understory of alder (Alnus subcordata C. A. Mey., maple (Acer insigne Boiss., sequoia or red wood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don Endl. and mixed stand (maple and sequoia, located in Salmanshahr of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Research carried out in, 10 sample plots with 20m × 20m area which taken by systematic-random in each plantation. All understory species were identified, recorded and then the biodiversity indices (diversity, richness and evenness were calculated. Our findings show that the planted species had significant effects on understory diversity. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest and lowest diversity (Simpson and Shanon-Winer and richness (Margalef and Menhinic indices occurred in sequoia and alder stands, respectively. The evenness indices (Camargo and Smith-Wilson were significantly greater in maple, sequoia and mixed stands compared with the alder type. As a conclusion, floristic change trends were different according to the planted tree species. A good understanding of the complexity of vegetation processes requires long-term monitoring of vegetation change.

FATEMEH GHEIBI

2015-04-01

136

Harvesting Short-Rotation Poplar Plantations for Biomass Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Italy, short rotation forest has become very popular in recent years, with over 4,000 hectares already planted – almost exclusively with clone poplar. The study models the performance of modified forage harvesters on a range of short-rotation poplar plantations, identifies technical obstacles to the deployment of these machines and suggests solutions that may expand the capability of modified forage harvesters when treating short-rotation poplar. Data were collected from 16 operations, covering a total of 50 hectares and producing over 1000 green tonnes of wood chips. The average yield of the fields harvested during the trials was about 20 green tonnes/ha year, equivalent to 8 oven-dry tonnes/ha for a 60% average moisture content, measured in the laboratory. Gross machine productivity ranged from 9 to 44 green tonnes/scheduled machine hour (gt/SMH, with an average value of 25 gt/SMH.Of course, this result is affected by other factors than just forager performance, which is potentially much higher. A model was developed to predict harvesting performance and cost, showing that harvesting cost can be maintained below the 15 Euro/green tonne (2 Euro/GJ ceiling only if field stocking exceeds 40 or 50 gt/ha when rows are long 300 and 100 m, respectively. The study also shows the need to optimize operations. Over a quarter of the total worksite time is occupied by unproductive delays, which may be reduced with improved planning and maintenance.

Raffaele Spinelli

2008-12-01

137

Molecular genetic tools to infer the origin of forest plants and wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most forest tree species exhibit high levels of genetic diversity that can be used to trace the origin of living plants or their products such as timber and processed wood. Recent progress to isolate DNA not only from living tissue but also from wood and wood products offers new opportunities to test the declared origin of material such as seedlings for plantation establishment or timber. However, since most forest tree populations are weakly differentiated, the identification of genetic markers to differentiate among spatially isolated populations is often difficult and time consuming. Two important fields of "forensic" applications are described: Molecular tools are applied to test the declared origin of forest reproductive material used for plantation establishment and of internationally traded timber and wood products. These applications are illustrated taking examples from Germany, where mechanisms have been developed to improve the control of the trade with forest seeds and seedlings, and from the trade with wood of the important Southeast Asian tree family Dipterocarpaceae. Prospects and limitations of the use of molecular genetic methods to conclude on the origin of forest plants, wood, and wood products are discussed. PMID:19911178

Finkeldey, Reiner; Leinemann, Ludger; Gailing, Oliver

2010-02-01

138

Wood's Lamp Examination  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Wood's Lamp Examination A A A The Wood’s lamp examination is simply ultraviolet light used to show fluorescence, as in ... presence of bacteria causing erythrasma. Procedure Overview A Wood's lamp is a device that emits ultraviolet (UV) ...

139

Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689.Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are kidney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

Débora Aparecida Verde de Andrade

2008-09-01

140

Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae) / Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, [...] polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689. Abstract in english Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are ki [...] dney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

Débora Aparecida Verde de, Andrade; Flavia Aparecida, Ortolani; José Roberto, Moro; Fabíola Vitti, Moro.

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Energy Characteristics of Wood-Chips Produced from Salix Viminalis - Clone ULV  

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Full Text Available This article explores the energy characteristics of wood-chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV, which was cultivated in an energy plantation. The higher heating value of wood and bark of Salix viminalis was assessed through an experimental measurement in a special calorimeter for solid fuels, model IKA C 200. The lower heating value of wood and bark was calculated from the higher heating value Qs, taking into account hydrogen Hdaf and water contentWr in fuel samples that were assessed in a laboratory. The higher heating value and lower heating value of a dry Salix viminalis wood (QSW = 19 520 kJ/kg and QnW =18 044 kJ/kg were assessed by these analyses. The higher heating value and lower heating value of a dry Salix viminalis bark were also assessed (QSB = 19 389 kJ/kg, and QnB = 17 997 kJ/kg. The share of bark of 19.35%was assessed in wood-chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV, in accordance with the Slovak Technical Norm STN 48 0058 for wood assortments, wood chips containing leaves, and sawdust. The lower heating value of wood chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV in dry state was calculated, based on the lower heating value of salix wood, the lower heating value of salix bark, and the share of bark in wood chips as a weighted average Qn CH = 18 035 kJ/kg.

Ladislav Dzurenda

2010-03-01

142

CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

Hamid Reza Naji,

2011-10-01

143

Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01

144

Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given ...

2007-01-01

145

Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil / Planejamento de colheita e transporte de madeira usando o programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) em uma plantação de pinus no sudeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a aplicabilidade do programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte florestal em condições brasileiras. Os aspectos avaliados foram a definição dos subsistemas de colheita e a det [...] erminação de uma rota compatível de transporte de madeira. Inicialmente, determinou-se o custo operacional e de produção das máquinas em sete subsistemas de colheita tecnicamente viáveis para a região de estudo, como também os índices de qualidade e de custos de construção e manutenção de estradas, os quais foram utilizados como dados de entrada no SNAP III. Posteriormente, verificou-se, através de um estudo de caso, a aplicabilidade do programa como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. De acordo com os resultados, constatou-se que há três categorias de estradas de ocorrência na área de estudo: principal, secundária e terciária, as quais, com base no índice de qualidade encontrado, permitiram uma velocidade média do veículo de transporte de 41,0 30,3 e 24,3 km/hora e um custo de construção de US$ 5.084,30, US$ 2.275,28 e US$ 1.650,00/km, respectivamente. Quanto ao uso do SNAP III como ferramenta de apoio ao planejamento, o sistema mostrou-se com elevado potencial, podendo auxiliar no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. O programa foi capaz de definir com eficiência os subsistemas de colheita técnica e economicamente viável, a rota ótima de transporte e as estradas em uso em cada período do horizonte de planejamento. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational a [...] nd production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.

Eduardo da Silva, Lopes; Carlos Cardoso, Machado; Amaury Paulo de, Souza; Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares, Ribeiro.

2003-12-01

146

Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil Planejamento de colheita e transporte de madeira usando o programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program em uma plantação de pinus no sudeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational and production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a aplicabilidade do programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte florestal em condições brasileiras. Os aspectos avaliados foram a definição dos subsistemas de colheita e a determinação de uma rota compatível de transporte de madeira. Inicialmente, determinou-se o custo operacional e de produção das máquinas em sete subsistemas de colheita tecnicamente viáveis para a região de estudo, como também os índices de qualidade e de custos de construção e manutenção de estradas, os quais foram utilizados como dados de entrada no SNAP III. Posteriormente, verificou-se, através de um estudo de caso, a aplicabilidade do programa como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. De acordo com os resultados, constatou-se que há três categorias de estradas de ocorrência na área de estudo: principal, secundária e terciária, as quais, com base no índice de qualidade encontrado, permitiram uma velocidade média do veículo de transporte de 41,0 30,3 e 24,3 km/hora e um custo de construção de US$ 5.084,30, US$ 2.275,28 e US$ 1.650,00/km, respectivamente. Quanto ao uso do SNAP III como ferramenta de apoio ao planejamento, o sistema mostrou-se com elevado potencial, podendo auxiliar no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. O programa foi capaz de definir com eficiência os subsistemas de colheita técnica e economicamente viável, a rota ótima de transporte e as estradas em uso em cada período do horizonte de planejamento.

Eduardo da Silva Lopes

2003-12-01

147

Phenology of wood formation and its genetic variability in larch : A step towards a better understanding of wood formation in relation to climate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Larix is a genus of high interest for plantation due to its fast growth rate and appreciated wood quality. Larch has a great potential to be introduced in middle and lowland afforestations as an alternative to Douglas-fir. One important question for breeders is adaptation to environment. It is particularly relevant in the context of climatic changes where a strong decrease of soil water availability during the growth period is predicted. Three larch species are used by foresters in France for...

Gauchat Funes Drewes, Mari?a Elena

2011-01-01

148

Ectomycorrhizal status of a mature productive black truffle plantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The truffle-plantation «Los Quejigares» was planted in 1971 by AROTZ-CATESA company. It is a 600 ha plot of Quercus ilexmycorrhizated with Tuber melanosporum at 1,250 m a.s.l. on calcareous soil. This plantation is the largest of the world and one of the eldest truffle-plantations of Spain and it is in full production. Knowledge of the mycorrhizal status of a mature black truffle plantation is significant for the improvement of truffle cultivation. Ectomycorrhizae were studied for ...

Agueda, B.; Fernandez-toiran, L. M.; Miguel, A. M.; Martinez-pen?a, F.

2010-01-01

149

The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass, additional products in the form of non-timber forest products and additional services in the form of shelterbelts and phytoremediation.

Iveti? Vladan

2014-01-01

150

Mechanics of Wood Machining  

CERN Document Server

Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

Csanády, Etele

2013-01-01

151

Wood's lamp illumination (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

152

Method of wood protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood protection from tylosis is effected using gamma or X irradiation with absorbed doses of 0.25 to 25 J/kg. The advantage of the method described is controlled reduction in wood cell vitality down to their death. Thus, the wood retains its permeability for various impregnation and protective substances. (J.B.)

153

Fire retardants for wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

Vlatka Jirouš-Rajkovi?

2009-06-01

154

Economic analysis of a pine plantation receiving repeated applications of biosolids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treated biosolids have been applied to 750-ha of a Pinus radiata forest plantation on Rabbit Island near Nelson City in New Zealand since 1996. A long-term research trial was established in 1997 to investigate the effects of the biosolids applications on the receiving environment and tree growth. An analysis of the likely economic impact of biosolids application shows that biosolids application has been beneficial. Stem volume of the high treatment (biosolids applied at 600 kg N ha(-1) every three years) was 36% greater than the control treatment (no biosolids applied), and stem volume of the standard treatment (300 kg N ha(-1)) was 27% greater than the control treatment at age 18 years of age. Biosolids treatments have effectively transformed a low productivity forest site to a medium productivity site. Although this increased productivity has been accompanied by some negative influences on wood quality attributes with reduced wood stiffness, wood density, and larger branches, an economic analysis shows that the increased stem volume and greater average log diameter in the biosolids treatments outweighs these negative effects. The high and standard biosolids treatments are predicted to increase the net stumpage value of logs by 24% and 14% respectively at harvesting, providing a large positive impact on the forest owner's economic return. PMID:23451262

Wang, Hailong; Kimberley, Mark O; Wilks, Peter J

2013-01-01

155

Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies  

Science.gov (United States)

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information, thus helping to understand the dynamics of the rubber tree resource. The decrease in the area of rubber plantations and the increase in the area of mixed crops from 1989--1993 in south of KL were partly attributed to the adoption of a crop diversification policy which was driven by relatively poor natural rubber prices during that time. The decrease in the areas of rubber plantations from 1993--1999 in this area was primarily due to rapid urbanization and infrastructure development driven by demographic expansion in the area south of KL. This thesis makes a practical contribution to the development of methods for inventory of forest plantations by linking ground information with model projections based on satellite data. Additionally, the thesis demonstrates the development of monitoring tools to assess resource availability and variability over time, and establish its linkages to policies. The inventory information, models, and monitoring protocols are needed for effective resource management planning aimed at maximizing the potential benefits of rubber tree crops for wood and natural rubber supply in Malaysia.

Suratman, Mohd Nazip

2003-06-01

156

Genetic Differentiation and Phenotypic Plasticity I. Responses in Three Plantago lanceolata L. Populations upon Changes in Mineral Supply  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three populations of Plantago lanceolata L. were analyzed for genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity. Eight randomly taken samples of each population were grown at two nutrient levels and subjected to alterations in mineral supply. Growth and root respiration was followed during the experiment. With respect to all measured characteristic genetic differentiation on population level was demonstrated. Overall phenotypic plasticity of the measured characteristics and differences in estimated genetic variation were present. High relative growth rate was correlated with high root respiration. High relative growth rate was correlated with high root respiration and high Ca2+ - Mg2+ - stimulated ATPase activity in roots. Ecological significance of the results and correlation with habitat properties are discussed.

Ibtisam Hammad

2002-01-01

157

Floodplains and wood  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions between floodplains and wood date to the Carboniferous, when stable, multithread channel deposits appear with the evolution of tree-like plants. Foundational geologic texts, such as Lyell's, 1830Principles of Geology, describe floodplain-wood interactions, yet modern technical literature describes floodplain-wood interactions in detail for only a very limited range of environments. This likely reflects more than a century of deforestation, flow regulation, and channel engineering, including instream wood removal, which has resulted in severe wood depletion in most of the world's river networks. Instream wood affects floodplain form and process by altering flow resistance, conveyance and channel-floodplain connectivity, and influencing lateral and vertical accretion of floodplains. Instream wood reflects floodplain form and process as the floodplain influences wood recruitment via bank erosion and overbank flow, and wood transport and storage via floodplain effects on stage-discharge relations and flow resistance. Examining turnover times for instream wood at the reach scale in the context of a wood budget, floodplain characteristics influence fluvial transport and dynamics (wood recruitment), valley geometry (wood transport and storage), and hydraulics and river biota (wood decay and breakage). Accumulations of wood that vary from in situ jams and beaver dams in small channels to transport jams and log rafts in very large rivers can create stable, multithread channels and floodplain wetlands. Floodplain-wood interactions are best understood for a subset of small to medium-sized rivers in the temperate zone. We know little about these interactions on very large rivers, or on rivers in the tropical or boreal regions. This review suggests that most, if not all, channels and floodplains within forested catchments in the temperate zone historically had much greater wood loads and consequently much more obvious and important influences from wood than do heavily modified contemporary catchments. For many rivers in the temperate zone, direct and indirect removal of instream wood very likely caused a fundamental shift in channel and floodplain process and form, as has been demonstrated in detail for specific rivers of diverse size in several regions. Failure to explicitly include floodplain-wood interactions creates a misleading conceptual model of floodplain dynamics in forested catchments.

Wohl, Ellen

2013-08-01

158

Wood frame systems for wood homes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

Julio Cesar Molina

2010-12-01

159

Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with MultilureRM Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.6%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton only 2 tephritids were captured: 1 A. striata and 1 A. obliqua. These results show the great diversity of tephritids in the fruit orchards studied. Most of these tephritid pests are poliphagous and able to use the same hosts. (author)

160

Water use in a sugarcane plantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The evapotranspiration (E) from a sugarcane plantation in the southeast Brazil was measured by the eddy-covariance method during two consecutive cycles. These represented the second (393 days) and third year (374 days) re-growth (ratoon). The total E in the first cycle was 829 mm, accounting for 69% of rainfall, whereas in the second cycle, it was 690 mm, despite the total rainfall (1353 mm) being 13% greater. The ratio of E to available energy, the evaporative fraction, exhibited a smaller v...

Cabral, Osvaldo M. R.; Rocha, Humberto R.; Gash, John H.; Ligo, Marcos A. V.; Tatsch, Jonatan D.; Freitas, Helber C.; Brasilio, Emi?lia

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Efecto del raleo en el crecimiento y algunas propiedades de la madera de Eucalyptus nitens en una plantación de 15 años / Effect of thinning on growth and some properties of wood of Eucalyptus nitens in a plantation of 15 years old  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El raleo tiene implicancias económicas y técnicas tanto para producción forestal como para la actividad industrial. En el presente estudio se realizó la evaluación de un ensayo de intensidad de raleo en E. nitens, de 15 años de edad, intervenido a los 7 y 9 años, con densidades residuales de 300, 40 [...] 0, 500, 700 y un tratamiento testigo con 1070 arb ha-1. El objetivo es conocer el efecto del raleo en el diámetro y altura de los árboles, coeficiente de esbeltez, en los índices de competencia área potencialmente aprovechable (APA), área de proyección de copas (APC) y en las propiedades de la madera, densidad básica, módulo de elasticidad dinámico (MOEd) y las tensiones de crecimiento evaluadas con la deformación residual longitudinal de la fibra (DRL). Los resultados mostraron que el raleo afectó el diámetro, coeficiente de esbeltez, APA y APC, no así la altura. El raleo tampoco tuvo efecto en la densidad básica de la madera y en el DRL. Por otra parte el MOEd fue afectado por el raleo, pero sin mostrar claras tendencias respecto de su intensidad. El efecto de la orientación del fuste en el MOEd y el DRL, mostró valores significativamente mayores en la orientación Sur. Abstract in english Thinning has significant technical and economic implications for both forest managers and industrial end users. In the present study a 15 year old Eucalyptus nitens thinning experiment was evaluated. Thinnings operations were carried out at 7 and 9 years, with final stockings of 300, 400, 500, 700 a [...] nd a control treatment of 1070 trees ha-1. The aim was to determine the effect of thinning on (i) stem diameter and tree height, stem slenderness ratio, (ii) competition indices: potentially usefull area (PUA), crown projection area (CPA) and (iii) wood properties: basic density, dynamic modulus of elasticity (Moed) and growth stresses evaluated using the residual deformation of the fiber length (DRL). The results showed that thinning affected tree diameter, slenderness index, PUA and CPA, but not total height. Thinning had no effect on basic density and DRL. On the other hand Moed was affected by thinning, but did not show a clear trend with thinning intensity. The effect of the stem orientation on DRL and Moed showed significantly higher values on the South side.

Sandro, Díaz Bravo; Miguel, Espinosa; Luis, Valenzuela; Jorge, Cancino; Jean P, Lasserre.

2012-11-01

162

Effects of Silviculture and Genetics on Branch/Knot Attributes of Coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir and Implications for Wood Quality—A Synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Douglas-fir is the most commercially important timber species in the US Pacific Northwest due to its ecological prevalence and its superior wood attributes, especially strength and stiffness properties that make it highly prized for structural applications. Its economic significance has led to extensive establishment and management of plantations over the last few decades. Cultural treatments and genetic improvement designed to increase production of utilizable wood volume also impact tree mo...

Lowell, Eini C.; Maguire, Douglas A.; Briggs, David G.; Turnblom, Eric C.; Jayawickrama, Keith J. S.; Jed Bryce

2014-01-01

163

Tracking deforestation, tree plantation expansion, and forest regrowth in a Costa Rican biological corridor using a Landsat time series  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood demand and voluntary carbon markets have driven a rapid global expansion in tropical tree plantations. To effectively monitor this expansion, new remote sensing-based methods are needed that can overcome difficulties in distinguishing between tree plantations, mature forests, and forest regrowth using low-cost moderate-resolution (10-100 m) satellite sensors. The objective of this study was to accurately map changes in the area of these three forest types in northern Costa Rica using Landsat imagery spanning a 25 year period (1986-2011). We mapped forest and tree plantation cover in a fragmented tropical landscape spanning approximately 2500 km2: the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC). In 1996, the Costa Rican government banned deforestation country-wide and concentrated payments for environmental services (PES) within Biological Corridors to promote native tree plantations and protect forests on private land. To evaluate this program's long-term success, we first tracked forest cover change over time and then distinguished between spectrally-similar forest types. We classified five dates (1986, 1996, 2001, 2005, and 2011) of multispectral Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (30 m resolution). Using Random Forests, we classified each single-date Landsat image first to forest/nonforest and then to thirteen land cover classes (Figures 1-3). To improve mapping of reforestation, final land cover classification was constrained by forest masks integrated over the time series. Training and validation data (1932 polygons covering 2185 ha) were collected using field data and aerial photography; final accuracy analysis was conducted by withholding twenty bootstrapped samples of the training data. Overall mean change-detection accuracy for the forest mask time series was 95.1% (Kappa= 0.93) and the overall land cover accuracy for all maps was greater than 80%. For tree plantations, the inclusion of multitemporal data improved classification accuracy over single-date imagery alone; in the 2011 classification, the user's accuracy for native tree plantations increased from 56% to 77%. Results indicate that, over the last 15 years, the deforestation ban and PES payments have been effective in protecting mature forests, especially within the Corridor. The area of regrowth forest declined however, indicating that agricultural pressures on easily-clearable land are increasing. Tree plantations expanded rapidly over the time period analyzed, although the largest increases occurred in exotic tree plantations outside the corridor. We found that it is possible to accurately distinguish tropical tree plantations, secondary forest, and mature forest using moderate-resolution optical sensors like Landsat, but extensive training data and multitemporal imagery was necessary to accurately map tree plantations in this area. Despite the effectiveness of the deforestation ban, it did not prevent an expansion of intensive agriculture and the long-term clearing of forest regrowth.

Fagan, M. E.; Sesnie, S.; Arroyo, J.; Walker, W. S.; Soto, C.; Chazdon, R. L.; Sanchun, A.; DeFries, R. S.

2012-12-01

164

Heavy metal bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses in Cardaminopsis arenosa and Plantago lanceolata leaves from metalliferous and non-metalliferous sites: a field study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, iron and manganese) in soil, their bioavailability and bioaccumulation in plants leaves. This study also examined their influences on the antioxidant response of the plants Cardaminopsis arenosa and Plantago lanceolata grown in metal-contaminated and non-contaminated soils. The activities of guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the levels of antioxidants such as glutathione,...

Nadgo?rska-socha, Aleksandra; Ptasin?ski, Bart?omiej; Kita, Andrzej

2013-01-01

165

Controversy. The wood war  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

166

Forests and wood consumption on the carbon balance. Carbon emission reduction by use of wood products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until now studies on the greenhouse effect paid much attention to carbon fixation by forests, while the entire CO2 cycle of forests and forest products remained underexposed. Utilization of wood products instead of energy-intensive materials (plastics/steel) and fossil fuels (coal) proves to play an important role as well. The effect of utilization is even greater than that of fixation. In all, additional forests together with the multiple use of trees can contribute substantially to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The contribution can run from 5.3 ton CO2/ha/yr for a mixed forest of oak/beech to 18.9 ton CO2/ha/yr for energy plantations (poplar). 2 figs., 3 tabs

167

Complex geometries in wood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners.

Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

2009-01-01

168

[Economic damage level for leaf-cutting ants in function of the productivity index of eucalyptus plantations in an Atlantic Forest region].  

Science.gov (United States)

The production and quality of eucalyptus plantations have been studied in areas with different densities of ant nests, being important to estimate losses caused by leaf-cutting ants. The effects of leaf-cutting ant on wood production in differents productivity sites were studied in eucalyptus plantations in the region of Atlantic Forest, Minas Gerais State, Brazil from 2003 to 2006. Data of plots of the continuous forest inventory and data of leaf-cutting ant monitoring in eucalyptus plantations were obtained. Each unitary increment in the area of Atta spp. nests per hectare reduced the wood production of the eucalyptus forest between 0.04 and 0.13 m³.ha(-1), resulting in a level of economic damage for leaf-cutting ants between 13.4 and 39.2 m².ha(-1), in this region. Moreover, this study innovated when using indices of forest productivity (site index) that promote better adjustment of the models and produce estimate more accurate of the level of economic damage for leaf-cutting ants in cultivated forests, allowing to conclude that the increase of the total area of ant nests reduces the wooden volume of eucalyptus, proportionally to the productive potential of the forest. PMID:21952966

Souza, A; Zanetti, R; Calegario, N

2011-01-01

169

Wood pellet seminar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

170

WOOD MODIFICATION: AN UPDATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wood modification is a generic term describing the application of chemical, physical, or biological methods to alter the properties of the material. The aim is to get better performance from the wood, resulting in improvements in dimensional stability, decay resistance, weathering resistance, etc. It is essential that the modified wood is non-toxic in service and that disposal at the end of life does not result in the generation of any toxic residues. Over the past five years there have been significant developments in wood modification technologies, especially in the commercial sector. This technology is here to stay.

Callum A. S. Hill

2011-04-01

171

SOIL FAUNA CHARACTERIZATION IN Eucalyptus spp. PLANTATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810545Forest soils provide good conditions for the development and the establishment of soil fauna, manly by the deposition of litter. However, monoculture systems conducted in a single substrate by providing food, can promote the development of certain animal groups over others, causing outbreaks of pest species. The aim of this study was to characterize the soil fauna and its relationship with meteorological variables, in plantations of Eucalyptus spp. This study was conducted in six stands of Eucalyptus from three species: Eucalyptus dunni Maiden, Eucalyptus grandis Maiden and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake (clone hybrid and two ages (planted in 2006 and 2007.

Juliana Garlet

2013-08-01

172

Variations in wood tratis in micro and macro propagated plantation woods of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents a comparison between intra-ramet, intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations in girth at breast height (gbh), fiber length, fiber diameter, wall thickness, vessel element length, vessel element diameter and specific gravity in the ramets of L34, G3 and S7C15 clones of Populus deltoides at the age of 6 years old produced from planting material grown by macro- and micro-propagation techniques. Variance ratio (F) test indicated that intra-ramet variations were non-significant fo...

Dhiman, Ramesh C.; Pande, Pramod K.

2010-01-01

173

Method of stabilizing wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

174

The wood, renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

175

How James Wood Works  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

176

Importance of residual trees to birds in regenerating pine plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pine plantation establishment methods can alter vegetation composition and structure, thus affecting habitat important characteristics for declining early successional bird species. We evaluated eight vegetation characteristics, which varied due to a range of pine plantation establishment methods, to identify vegetation most closely associated with spring bird abundance in the Lower Coastal Plain of southern Mississippi, USA. Presence of residual trees and snags was positively related to relative abundance of 10 of 14 common species present in regenerating stands. Cover of woody vegetation was positively related to relative abundance of 4 species and negatively related to relative abundance of 2 species. For 5 species, increasing pine tree cover had a negative relationship with relative abundance. Residual trees and snags contributed to avian abundance and richness in regenerating pine plantations. Integration of habitat elements, such as residual trees that influence abundance of birds and other wildlife, with intensive pine plantation establishment can aid managers to attain wildlife conservation in intensively managed stands.

Jones JC

2012-06-01

177

Wireless Group Control System Applied in Plantation Irrigation System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper have a study of the wireless group control system applied in plantation irrigation system. China is a fresh water resources scarce country, agricultural irrigation occupies a large part of the water resources. Because long-term use of traditional farming patterns, low utilization rate of irrigation water, irrigation water wasted is a very serious problem. In order to improve the irrigation efficiency and spare the water resource, based on an example of a large plantation in Shandon...

Dong Jie

2013-01-01

178

Pengaruh modal kerja terhadap profitabilitas PT.Goodyear Sumatra Plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fatma Fauriya Sari (2006). Pengaruh Modal Kerja Terhadap Profitabilitas PT Goodyear Sumatra Plantations Dolok Merangir. Ketua Departemen Manajemen, Prof. Dr. Ritha F. Dalimunthe, SE, M.Si. Dosen Pembimbing, Drs. Syahyunan, M.Si. Dosen Penguji, Dra. Husnani Sudardjat dan Dra. Lisa Marlina, M.Si. Berdasarkan laporan keuangan PT Goodyear Sumatra Plantations Dolok Merangir tahun 2001-2004, perputaran modal kerja bersih perusahaan mengalami penurunan yang signifikan sementara Return on Investment ...

Fatma Fauriya Sari

2008-01-01

179

Importance of residual trees to birds in regenerating pine plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pine plantation establishment methods can alter vegetation composition and structure, thus affecting habitat important characteristics for declining early successional bird species. We evaluated eight vegetation characteristics, which varied due to a range of pine plantation establishment methods, to identify vegetation most closely associated with spring bird abundance in the Lower Coastal Plain of southern Mississippi, USA. Presence of residual trees and snags was positively related to rela...

Jc, Jones; Demarais S; Hanberry P; Bb, Hanberry

2012-01-01

180

Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

Bruce Alexander

2002-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Sterols and lignin in Eucalyptus globulus wood: spatial distribution and fungal removal as revealed by microscopy and chemical analyses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wood decay experiments have been carried out aiming at the selective removal of lipophilic compounds with selected basidiomycetes isolated from E. globulus plantations in Uruguay: Dendrophora albobadia, Lentinus tigrinus, Peniophora cinerea, Peniophora lycii and Phanerochaete crassa. Localization and composition of lipophilic compounds and lignin of Eucalyptus globulus were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), fluorescence microscopy (FM) using filipin stain, confoca...

Speranza, Mariela; Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del; Betucci, Lina; Marti?nez, A?ngel T.; Marti?nez Herna?ndez, Mari?a Jesu?s

2009-01-01

182

PARTICIPATORY DIAGNOSIS OF USE, SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WOOD IN A ZOQUE COMMUNITY FROM THE CENTER OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was performed in Ocuilapa de Juárez, under the initiative of a group of communal Zoque owners, which are members of the Sociedad Cooperativa de Transporte Ejidal Benito Juárez. The group focused on the wood production, that will allow to cover the local and external demand of this. To this end, the group agreed to establish dendroenergetic forest plantations under a management plan that allows its use in a short term. The project was designed in three stages: Stage I (diagnosis), ...

María Consuelo Escobar Ocampo; José Ángel Niños Cruz; Neptalí Ramírez Marcial; Cristina Yépez Pacheco

2009-01-01

183

ESTIMATING THE DENSITY AND PULPING YIELD OF E. globulus WOOD BY DRIFT-MIR SPECTROSCOPY AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS REGRESSION (PCR)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy as a quick technique for determining wood properties of Eucalyptus globulus plantations, specifically basic density and pulping yield, has been examined. Twenty-seven samples were used as a calibration set and other three, for prediction making based on calibration (validation set). Calibrations and predictions through principal components regression (PCR) were obtained through the Quant+ chemometrics. Spectral data for a PCR model based on diffu...

Juanita Freer; José Ruiz; Peredo, Miguel A.; Jaime Rodríguez; Jaime Baeza

2003-01-01

184

Review of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cleaning is carried out in order to influence the competitive situation of controlling the distribution of volume growth and the quality of timber. today, cleaning is conducted on about 200 000 ha per year in Sweden, most if which is cleaned motor-manually. The degree of mechanization is less than 1 % of. The biomass content of a cleaned stand is generally low, ranging from 1 to 2 tons dry matter per ha, but in some stands it can amount to over 20 tons per ha. The main motivation for removing biomass from a cleaned stand is the possibility of reducing overall cleaning costs. Few studies have been made on the environmental effects of the biomass removal in connection with cleaning. Studies made in connection with thinning, primarily conifers, indicate that the negative effects, such as increased soil acidification, reduced pools of base cations and nitrogen losses, can occur. It should be possible to compensate these undesirable effects through measures such as fertilization or ash recycling. Estimates of impacts on the flora and fauna suggests that effects are small and reversible. However, certain biotopes require special attention. Cost and performance studies indicate that it can be profitable for individual landowners to remove biofuel from very tall, dense stands, whereas better technology is required for more commercial operations. The development of such techniques is under way today. For large-scale removal of biofuel in connection with cleaning, simple forecain connection with cleaning, simple forecasting tools will have to be developed that can help in determining when and where biomass should be removed. The decision should be based on economic, ecological and technical considerations. Furthermore, thorough analyses of the effects on the nutrient balance need to be made, and any reductions in the quality and growth of timber need to be quantified 21 refs

185

Evaluación financiera de plantaciones forestales de caoba en Quintana Roo / Financial assessment of mahogany forest plantations in Quintana Roo state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las plantaciones forestales en México no han tenido resultados de acuerdo al esfuerzo y recursos invertidos en ellas. El problema fundamental es que no se les ha dado el seguimiento requerido, en virtud de que el éxito de los programas actuales debe medirse por el porcentaje de supervivencia en el c [...] ampo, así como por el crecimiento y rendimiento de madera y no por el número de plantas que se producen en los viveros. Además, para hacer de las plantaciones forestales una actividad económica rentable, es necesario proporcionar apoyos a los productores, a través del Gobierno Federal y la banca nacional. Bajo este contexto, el presente trabajo se realizó con datos obtenidos en el centro y sur de Quintana Roo, en los municipios de José María Morelos, Felipe Carrillo Puerto y Otón Pompeyo Blanco. La información recopilada es de tipo financiero (costos y beneficios ha-1) e indicadores financieros para plantaciones forestales comerciales, entre los que destacan: VPN = 162,344.2, TIR = 13.37 y B/C = 4.10, que les servirán a los productores y financiadores en el proceso de toma de decisiones. Finalmente, se analizan y discuten los indicadores financieros y el análisis de sensibilidad sobre su rentabilidad. Los resultados indican que las plantaciones pueden ser un buen negocio en Quintana Roo. Abstract in english Forest plantations operations in Mexico have not produced results according to the efforts and resources invested in them. The main problem is that they have not received the necessary follow-up as the success of the existing programs should be measured by the per cent of survival in the field, as w [...] ell as its growth and wood yield and not by the number of plants produced in the nursery. In addition, to make a profitable business out of forest plantations support must be provided to producers, in which the Federal Government and the national banks should be involved. In this context, this work was carried out with information from the Centre and South of Quintana Roo State, in the municipalities of José María Morelos, Felipe Carrillo Puerto and Othon Pompeyo Blanco. Financial information is presented (benefits, cost /ha-1) and financial indicators obtained for commercial forest plantations), being among the most important: VPN = 162,344.2, TIR = 13.37 and B/C = 4.10, which will be used to support producers and funders to make decisions. Finally, the financial indicators and the sensitivity on the profitability of forest plantations are analyzed and discussed. These results indicate that plantations can be an attractive business in Quintana Roo, México.

Xavier, García Cuevas; Bartolo, Rodríguez Santiago; Juan, Islas Gutiérrez.

2011-10-01

186

Hunger for wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EU climate protection targets imply that Europe will need more mood. The preferred options for increasing wood supply require innovations in shredding technology in order to broaden the raw material base. (orig.)

Dany, Christian

2011-07-01

187

Lenaghan Wood ASSI  

...with occasional bilberry. Where the soils are richer, species such as primrose, lesser celandine, barren strawberry, water avens and wood-sedge are common. Opposite-leaved golden saxifrage, meadowsweet, creeping buttercup...

188

Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P estimated to be 167 ± 58 Mg C ha-1 which was nearly two times higher than that of current paddy fields 85 ± 17 Mg C ha-1. These facts suggest the feasibility of the mangrove plantation and induced natural regeneration as a carbon sequestration tool. The establishment of mangrove plantations appeared to be one measure for reducing the risk of cyclone damage after the Cyclone Nargis. This may reduce future human loss by cyclones and also improve the life of local people by increasing timber resources and environmental services.

Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

2011-12-01

189

Changes in Whole-Tree Water Use Following Live-Crown Pruning in Young Plantation-Grown Eucalyptus pilularis and Eucalyptus cloeziana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pruning of live branches is a management option to enhance wood quality in plantation trees. It may also alter whole-tree water use, but little is known about the extent and duration of changes in transpiration. In this study, sap flow sensors were used to measure transpiration for 14 days prior to, and 75 days following the removal, through pruning, of the lower 50% of the live-crown length of 10–11 m tall four-year old Eucalyptus pilularis Sm. and E. cloeziana F. Muell. trees. Pruning had...

Nicotra, Adrienne B.; Smith, R. Geoff B.; Ryde James; Thomas, Dane S.; Forrester, David I.; Alcorn, Philip J.; Jürgen Bauhus

2013-01-01

190

Wood pellet research program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood pellets are composed of waste wood materials such as sawmill residue, municipal landfill waste and grain crops. Due to the high temperature combustion used to form the waste materials into the pellet, no additives or glues are necessary to bind them. The pellets are typically used for home heating; heat and power production; poultry bedding; and in biorefineries. This presentation provided an outline of the University of British Columbia wood pellet research and development program. Research at the university is being conducted to develop new types of pellets. Researchers at the program also analyze the physical and chemical properties of pellets in order to optimize pellet density and heating values. Wood pellet modelling and simulation studies are carried out, and various training and education programs are also offered. Research is currently being conducted to develop a reactor for off-gassing experiments. This presentation also provided details of a study investigating the economics of wood pellet production and transport. Pellet production costs and feedstock costs were compared. A summary of the costs and energy inputs of pellet production included details of product storage; transportation and transfer; handling; and transportation to energy plants. It was concluded that more than 35 per cent of the energy content of biomass is used up in the processing and transport of Canadian wood pellets to Europe. refs., tabs., figs, figs

191

Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere of the major land use types of the tropical rain forest margin area in South East Asia and quantification of the impact that land use change from undisturbed primary rain forest to pasture has on these interactions is task of subprogramme B1 within the DFG-funded project STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins). In order to fulfill the projects tasks the different major land use types have to be investigated and each ecosystem characterized one by one and compared to a reference site in an undisturbed primary rain forest, to see the changes in the atmosphere-biospheric interactions, i. e. in water and carbon household, with land use change and thus the impact on regional climate. One of the major land use types in the valleys around the Lore Lindu National Park on Sulawesi are Cacao plantations, Theobroma cacao. A site in the Palolo valley near the village Nopu was chosen as research site since the area there is covered with small Cacao fields which form to one big area of Cacao and matches the requirements of the applied research approach. Since Cacao trees need to be shaded especially when younger, shadow trees had been planted and trees of the former forest had been left standing to serve as wind breaks and sun shades. The plantations in Nopu, Palolo valley, consist not only of fields of cultivated Cacao, but also serve as environment and home to the farmers and their families. The whole area of Cacao plantation is interspersed with wooden farm houses, which are also sources of carbon dioxide due to cooking or small power plants etc. and thus have to be taken into account when looking at the carbon household of this specific ecosystem. An estimation of the components of the carbon and water household and the contribution of the humans living within this environment to the carbon household of Cacao plantations of this ecosystem is subject of this presentation. From December 2001 until April 2002 and June 2002 until now eddy-covariance measurements have been performed above a Cacao plantation in Nopu measuring time series of water vapour, CO2, air temperature, three-dimensional wind vector, photosyntetic active radiation and the surface temperature of the Cacao canopy at 10 Hz. Additionally, net radiation balance and soil heat fluxes have been measured. In order to assess the carbon input caused by the humans living in the ecosystem, a mapping of the site area has been carried out, including investigations of consumption of fire wood and use of machines, like generators for example. In order to obtain the energy balance equation of the canopy surface, also the radiation balance and the heat flux into the canopy have to be evaluated.

Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

2003-04-01

192

The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under 4 climate change scenarios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future stem wood production and net ecosystem production of Pinus radiata plantations in southwestern Australia were estimated in this modelling study, which was conducted in order to determine the potential effects of anticipated severe rainfall reductions in the region. Four climate change and emission scenarios were considered as well as simulations of the present climate. Results of the study showed that stem wood production and NEP were not significantly influenced by moderate changes in temperature. However, stem wood production and NEP decreased significantly under the most pessimistic climate change scenarios. Results of the study suggested that a trade-off between the positive effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on plant and water use efficiency and the negative impacts of decreased rainfall and increased temperatures. Changes in heterotrophic respiration lagged behind changes in plant growth. It was concluded that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential will require modelling tools capable of characterizing interactions between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, as well as the potential range of climate change scenarios. 53 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

193

Prospect of Neem Plantation at Arafat, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indicaA.Juss. is a multipurpose agroforestry tree that is well adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions and has gained worldwide recognition for its pharmaceutical and pesticidal properties.The world's largest pure Neem plantations are available in the plains of Arafat, Saudi Arabia where 50,000 thousands Neem trees were planted to provide shade from the blazing summer sun for the millions of Hajis (Muslim pilgrims. Sporadic mature Neem trees are also found in Medinah, Taif and elsewhereof the Kingdom. The Neem tree is adapted to Arafat under harsh climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia and the plantation may be extended to other parts of the Kingdom as a avenue tree and also to minimize the desertification under changing climatic conditions and to improve the environmental condition of the country. At Arafat mixed plantations may be advocated to save the present plantation which may come from climate change as well as pest and diseases problems. So care must be taken to monitor the diseases of Neem tree at Arafat on a regularbasis. Because of insufficient growth of Neem at Arafat the methods of green cultivation with microbial inoculants, organic fertilizers, mycotrophic green manure plants may be practiced for successful plantation.

M. A. U Mridha

2014-04-01

194

FEATURES OF GROWTH AND EFFICIENCY OF FIELD-PROTECTION PLANTATIONS OF TAMBOV REGION ??????????? ????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article shows the parameters of growth of main tree species depending on planting density, placement of plants, location in the profile of plantations, the effectiveness of plantations

Balandin A. V.

2012-05-01

195

Sustainable Management of a Matured Oil Palm Plantation in UPM Campus, Malaysia Using Airborne Remote Sensing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accurate and reliable near-real time information is needed for a sustainable oil palm plantation management, especially on plant quality and health. Airborne remote sensing provides the effective recent agricultural crop information for the oil palm plantat...

Kamaruzaman Jusoff

2009-01-01

196

Wood for the Trees”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the t rees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resou rce rather than the collective wood[s] , implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of fore st and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high - value timber. By the late twentieth c entury, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movement s against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region . Wood for the t rees , curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington , plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawi lil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial p ole , Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into c olonisation , Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory s tick , and Añ A Wojak’s (2008 Unread b ook (in a forgotten language . Our art writing on the works, a practi ce informed by Bal (2002, Mueck e (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to t hat which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

Rob Garbutt

2013-02-01

197

Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to understand how management practices can help to increase their adaptability to climate change. Growth magnitude and period, specific hydraulic conductivity, and anatomical traits (early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter, cell-wall thickness, tracheid length and bordered pit dimensions) were measured in the ring 2008-2009, which was formed during drought conditions. This drought event decreased annual stem growth by 30-38% and 58-65% respect to previous mean growth, in open vs. closed stand trees, respectively, indicating a higher sensitivity of the latter, which is opposite to reports from the same species growing in managed native forests in USA. Some wood anatomical variables did differ in more water stressed trees (lower cell wall thickness of early wood cells and higher proportion of small-lumen cells in late wood), which in turn did not affect wood function (hydraulic conductivity and resistance to implosion). Other anatomical variables (tracheid length, pit dimensions, early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter of early wood cells) did not differ between tree sizes and plantation density. The results suggest that severe drought affects differentially the amount but not the function and quality of formed wood in ponderosa pine growing at different competition levels. (Author) 41 refs.

Fernandez, M. E.; Gyenge, J. E.; Urquiza, M. M.; Varela, S.

2012-11-01

198

Is spatial structure the key to promote plant diversity in Mediterranean forets plantations?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mediterranean forest plantations are currently under an intense debate related to their ecological function, sustainability and future performance. In several Mediterranean countries, efforts are directed to convert pine plantations into mixed and more diverse forests. This research aims to evaluate the effect of the spatial configuration of pine plantations on regeneration and plant diversity in order to facilitate plantation management towards more diversified stands. Spatial characteristic...

Gonza?lez-moreno, P.; Quero, J. L.; Poorter, L.; Bonet, F. J.; Zamora, R.

2011-01-01

199

Shady Plantations : Theorizing Coastal Shelter in Tamil Nadu  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between these, as they are realized in social encounters. This calls for a view of theory and analysis as generative of objects in the world, rather than applied to them from some fictitious elsewhere or posterity. Exploring the plantation and the shelter it offers as an intertwinement and simultaneity of practice and analysis, data and theory, I discuss anthropological knowledge-making as a truly lateral endeavour that engages in describing and cultivating a shared capacity for world-making, the challenge then being to find the right story of sameness and difference, without ascribing fixity and inevitability to our objects of knowledge.

Hastrup, Frida

2011-01-01

200

Tree Plantation Will not Compensate Natural Woody Vegetation Cover Loss in the Atlantic Department of Southern Benin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study deals with land use and land cover changes for a 33 years period. We assessed these changes for eight land cover classes in the south of Benin by using an integrated multi-temporal analysis using three Landsat images (1972 Landsat MSS, 1986 Landsat TM and 2005 Landsat ETM+. Three scenarios for the future were simulated using a first-order Markovian model based on annual probability matrices. The contribution of tree plantations to compensate forest loss was assessed. The results show a strong loss of forest and savanna, mainly due to increased agricultural land. Natural woody vegetation ("forest", "wooded savanna" and "tree and shrub savanna" will seriously decrease by 2025 due to the expansion of agricultural activities and the increase of settlements. Tree plantations are expected to double by 2025, but they will not compensate for the loss of natural woody vegetation cover. Consequently, we assist to a continuing woody vegetation area decrease. Policies regarding reforestation and forest conservation must be initiated to reverse the currently projected tendencies.

Toyi, MS.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Nutrient cycling in a RRIM 600 clone rubber plantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few reports have been presented on nutrient cycling in rubber tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). This experiment was carried out to evaluate: the effect of K rates on the amount of nutrients transfered to the soil in a 13-year old Hevea brasilensis RRIM 600 clone plantation, nutrient retranslocation from the leaves before falling to the soil, and nutrient loss by dry rubber export. The experiment started in 1998 and potassium was applied at the rates of 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha...

Murbach Marcos Roberto; Boaretto Antonio Enedi; Muraoka Takashi; Souza Euclides Caxambu Alexandrino de

2003-01-01

202

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

203

Energy from wood - an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

204

Potentials of Liquefied CCB Treated Waste Wood for Wood Preservation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recovered wood is frequently contaminated with biocides and therefore its use is limited. Even more, wood, impregnated with classical chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservatives is classified as a hazardous waste, therefore solutions for reuse or recovery of this material are sought. One of the options, discussed in this paper is liquefaction and further applications of liquefied wood containing biocide remainings. In order to elucidate this possibilty, spruce and beech wood was impregnated...

Miha Humar; Franc Budija; David Hrastnik; Boštjan Lesar; Marko Petri?

2011-01-01

205

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30

206

Methane from wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

207

Methane from wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

2005-07-15

208

Health Effects of Wood Smoke  

Science.gov (United States)

... smell good, but it's not good for you. Wood smoke can affect everyone, but children, teenagers, older ... complex mixture of gases and particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. A major health ...

209

The Woods and Pond  

Science.gov (United States)

These activities offer sudents a hands-on approach to learning about their natural surroundings. After visiting a local pond and woods area, they will recognize that pond and woods environments are ecosystems and be able to state some of the differences between the two. They will also learn to identify trees by their leaves and bark and to identify shrubs by their fruit and manner of growth. In addition, they will also learn to identify animals and plants near the pond, and learn to recognize changes in the two ecosystems over a span of months.

1998-01-01

210

Status of wood energy applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

211

Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability.

Oka, Hideo E-mail: hoka@iwate-u.ac.jp; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

2002-02-01

212

Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

213

RETENTION AND PENETRATION OF CCA IN WOOD OF FIRST AND SECOND ROTATION OF Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989292This study aimed to evaluate the retention and penetration of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C as well as some wood properties of two rotations of two natural hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, aiming their use as treated wood. The study was conducted with material from commercial plantations, with 63 months of age. For the wood characterization, the relationship sapwood-heartwood, the basic density and the size of fibers and vessels were evaluated. For the evaluation of treated wood, the penetration and retention of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C were determined. Four trees per rotation and genetic material were used, which subsequently were split into three logs, in a total of 12 logs for each treatment. The preservative treatment was performed using the full cell process in autoclave using CCA solution with 2% concentration of active ingredients. The treatment process used was effective under the conditions required by the NBR 9480, with retention values ??higher than the minimum required by the standard, which is 6.5 kg/m3 of CCA per treated wood, and in addition, provided deep penetration and regular condom in sapwood of all timber treated. There are no restrictions on the use of wood from the first and second rotation for preservative treatment, based on the properties evaluated. There was no correlation between the type C CCA retention and wood properties evaluated.

Mara Lúcia Agostini Valle

2013-06-01

214

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND INTRA-RING WOOD DENSITY PROFILES IN Gmelina arborea APPLYING X-RAY DENSITOMETRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four annual tree-rings (2 of juvenile wood and 2 of mature wood were sampled from fast-growth plantations ofGmelina arborea in two climatic conditions (dry and wet tropical in Costa Rica. Each annual tree-ring was divided in equal parts ina radial direction. For each part, X-ray density as well as vessel percentage, length and width fiber, cell wall thickness and lumendiameter were measured. Wood density and profile patterns of cell dimension demonstrated inconsistency between juvenile andmature wood and climatic conditions. The Pearson correlation matrix showed that intra-ring wood density was positively correlatedwith the cell wall thickness and negatively correlated with vessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width. The forwardstepwise regressions determined that: (i intra-ring wood density variation could be predicted from 76 to 96% for anatomicalvariation; (ii cell wall thickness was the most important anatomical feature to produce intra-ring wood density variation and (iii thevessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width were the second most statically significant characteristics to intra-ring wooddensity, however, with low participation of the determination coefficient of stepwise regressions.

Mario Tomazelo-Filho

2007-12-01

215

Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First a map of grass contamination (of May 1986) in Styria, Austria and the sites of plantation of medical herbs are given. Then tables of radioactivity of several dried herbs and of infusions, tinctures and essential oils are presented. There is no danger to the users of drugs. 2 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (qui)

216

Soil physical properties influence "black truffle" fructification in plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the important effects of pH and carbonate content of soils on "black truffle" (Tuber melanosporum) production are well known, we poorly understand the influence of soil physical properties. This study focuses on physical soil characteristics that drive successful production of black truffles in plantations. Seventy-eight Quercus ilex ssp. ballota plantations older than 10 years were studied in the province of Teruel (eastern Spain). Soil samples were analyzed for various edaphic characteristics and to locate T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizae. The influence of cultivation practices, climatic features, and soil properties on sporocarp production was assessed using multivariate analyses. Low contents of fine earth and silt and high levels of bulk density, clay content, and water-holding capacity appear to promote fructification. Watering is also highly positive for truffle fructification. We develop and discuss a logistic model to predict the probability of truffle fructification in field sites under consideration for truffle plantation establishment. The balance between water availability and aeration plays a crucial role in achieving success in black truffle plantations. PMID:24487451

Alonso Ponce, Rafael; Ágreda, Teresa; Águeda, Beatriz; Aldea, Jorge; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Modrego, María Pilar

2014-04-01

217

War on the Home Front: Hardships on the Burroughs Plantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Booker T. Washington National Monument preserves and protects the birth site and childhood home of Booker T. Washington while interpreting his life experiences and significance in U.S. history as the most powerful African American between 1895 and 1915. The programs and activities included in this guide about the Burroughs Plantation

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

218

Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less stemwood since half of the canopy (Acacias) are dominated, and the other half does not benefit much in terms of tree growth compared to absorbed light. The eventual benefit of the nitrogen-fixing species is not visible in the mixture with 50% of each species. More attention has to be paid to introducing acacias in an additive series with the same density of eucalyptus trees as in the monospecific stands.

Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

2010-12-01

219

Wood waste in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

1997-12-31

220

Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted a new resource on birds. This resource describes the habitat requirements of the Wood Duck, and is designed to assist in the development of a "comprehensive management plan." The resource is accompanied by figures and may be browsed online or downloaded as a zip file.

 
 
 
 
221

Welding of solid wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the up-to-date knowledge and results of the application of wood welding techniques at the Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb. Wood welding technologies have been developed as a new way of bonding timber by using high temperature generatedby friction and pressure. Timber is assembled without any adhesives. During the process the surface layer of timber (lignin, which is in direct contact with its counterpart, melts due to high pressure and temperature, which is usually generated by mechanical friction of the elements being connected. The cell structure in the interface area of timber is completely destroyed, while in the welding area the density is increased due to the destruction of wood cells. The cell walls are broken, as a result of exposure to high temperatures, mechanical pressure and chemical process, which occur during the cooling stage.Only natural materials are used in wood welding, which makes these products eco-friendly. In case of recycling, welded products may be disposed of just as natural timber, without the release of toxic substances.

Ivica Žup?i?

2008-10-01

222

Study of wood polymer combinations from woods of Kashmir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the studies conducted to upgrade inferior woods of Kashmir by the application of radiation polymerization process. The process has brought about improvements in the physical and mechanical properties of wood. Wood polymer composite samples have been studied for their use in flooring, wall panelling, roofing shingles, wood carving and in other decorative items. It has been shown that 10% ethyl silicate, when present along with methyl methacrylate or styrene, considerably improves the impact strength and such wood polymer composite samples do not crack even on nailing. Wood polymer composites have been tested for carving and it has been shown that with 50% polymer content, carving quality is preserved. It has also been shown that surface coated wood is more advantageous for use in roofing shingles. (author)

223

Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (Wc; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (Wa) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha-1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha-1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

224

Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-03-15

225

The response of macroinvertebrates to artificially enhanced detritus levels in plantation streams  

Science.gov (United States)

The leaves and wood from vegetation surrounding headwater streams constitute a major food source for aquatic invertebrates, providing they are retained upon the streambed and not transported downstream. This study investigated the response of aquatic invertebrates to artificially increased detritus retention, in an effort to reproduce the naturally occurring build up of dead organic matter associated with streams in old-growth forest. The background detrital standing stock in streams in Kielder Forest (Northumberland, UK) was low, approximately 32 gm-2. Two streams flowing through dense conifer plantation and one in open broadleaved woodland were manipulated by the addition of logs over a 10 m stream reach. After several months, log addition significantly enhanced detrital standing stocks in both conifer and broadleaved streams. Total invertebrate abundance, taxon richness and the numbers of certain numerically dominant families were significantly higher in experimental than reference reaches in both conifer and broadleaved streams. This response was most marked for detritivores, whilst non-detritivore groups often showed no response to the manipulation. Whilst in the short term the responses to enhanced retention may reflect a redistribution of the local fauna, it is argued that over a longer time-scale, a genuine increase in invertebrate density and diversity could occur. Allowing old-growth forest to develop in planted valley bottoms may be a viable management option for conservation. If established alongside streams, it would ensure continuous input of woody material and the fauna may benefit from the resulting increase in detritus retention.

Pretty, J. L.; Dobson, M.

226

L’Habitation Beauséjour : une plantation martiniquaise remarquable et pérenne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aux Antilles françaises les anciennes propriétés de colons ne se nomment pas plantations mais « habitations », espace et mode de vie étant différents de ceux d’Amérique Latine, du Sud des Etats-Unis, ou des Grandes Antilles. L’Habitation Beauséjour, située sur des terres propices aux cultures d’exportation, dans le nord de la Martinique, est un exemple remarquable de domaine colonial qui a conservé une structure traditionnelle avec plantations, bâtiments principaux d’habitation, bâtiments de production, aménagement hydraulique, logements pour le personnel. Au cœur des rapports d’exploitation qu’engendrent les sociétés de type colonial, nous nous trouvons à Beauséjour devant une demeure créole dont la structure n’a pas varié de façon fondamentale au cours de son histoire.In French West-Indies, the old colonial estates are not called plantations, but “habitations”, because the geographic space as well as the way of life differed here from the vast plantations of Latin America, Southern United States and Greater Antilles. The « Habitation Beauséjour » situated on land that is good for growing export crops, in northern Martinique, is an instructive exemple of colonial estate preserving a traditional structure with plantations, main buildings, production buildings, hydraulic land-scaping, and buildings for housing and use of employees. The « Habitation Beauséjour » is more than many others a Creole estate with a persistent structure that has remained unchanged over its history and through the change due to the end of the exploitive relations generated by colonial societies.

Laurent-Christian Ursulet

2012-04-01

227

Effectiveness of selected preservatives in protecting Ugandan grown Eucalyptus grandis wood against termite attack  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Termites are one of the major wood destroying agents in the tropics and with the increasing rate of deforestation, there is a need to protect wood from biodegradation in order to extend its service life. In this study the incidence and severity of termite attack on Eucalyptus grandis sapwood treated with CCA, used engine oil and neem extract were investigated. Sixty samples (20 × 20 × 300mm were prepared from the sapwood at mid-height of the tree of E. grandis and air seasoned for two weeks then treated with the preservatives. An area of 20m by 20m in a pine plantation and 15 plots of 1m by 1m were selected at random. Four samples, one from each treatment, were placed at the corners of the selected plots. Inspection and evaluation of stakes was made by visual assessments after every 30 days for any sign of termite attack for a period of 8 months. The specimens were removed from the ground, damage assessed and returned to the ground. After 4 weeks all the untreated wood samples had been attacked, neem extract treated wood samples were attacked after 17 weeks and used engine oil treated samples after 30 weeks. None of the CCA treated wood samples were attacked by the end of study period. Chi square analysis showed a high association between treatment and incidence as well as between treatment and severity. It was recommended that further research be carried out on neem extract using different concentrations.

I. E Ssemaganda

2011-01-01

228

Accumulation of Pb, Cd and Zn from contaminated soil to various plants and evaluation of soil remediation with indicator plant (Plantago lanceolata L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accumulation of cadmium, lead, and zinc by different major cultivated plants from soils contaminated with heavy metals, is presented. The vegetables, crops, and the indicator plant narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) were used in a field experiment including 3 areas with different levels of pollution. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were observed in edible green parts of vegetables (endive, spinach, lettuce) and roots (carrot, red beet, radish). The heavy metal content in leguminous plants (pods and seeds) was very low compared to high soil concentrations. Wheat and maize showed lower concentrations in grains and kernels than in green parts. Lime and vermiculite were used for reduction of Cd availability to plants in polluted soil. The Cd concentration decreased in the narrow leaf plantain in the presence of both lime and vermiculite in acid soil. In the higher-pH soil the Cd availability to spinach was greatly reduced in the presence of vermiculite

Zupan, M.; Lobnik, F.; Kadunc, V. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Agronomy Dept., Center for Soil and Environmental Science; Hudnik, V. [National Institute of Chemistry Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

1997-12-31

229

The methanol extract of Euonymus laxiflorus, Rubia lanceolata and Gardenia jasminoides inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduce serum uric acid level in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese herbal medicinal plants, Euonymus laxiflorus (EL), Rubia lanceolata (RL) and Gardenia jasminoides (GJ), have been used wildly to treat arthritis and gout in Taiwan for decades. To understand the beneficial effects of these three plants, their xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity in vitro and hypouricaemic activity in vivo were investigated. Our results suggested that methanol extracts were better than water extracts for inhibition of XO activity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, except the water extract of GJ, which exhibited the strongest radical scavenging effect. In animal study, the serum urate level was significantly decreased after oral administration of higher dose (0.39g/kg) methanol extract of the mixture of three plants (ERG). In addition, methanol extract of ERG reduced the pain reaction time in the second phase of formalin induced pain. The results provide useful information on the pharmacological activities of these plants for the potential in treating hyperuricemia. PMID:24845958

Liu, Li-Min; Cheng, Shu-Fen; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Lee, Jang-Chang; Chen, Jih-Jung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Way, Tzong-Der

2014-08-01

230

Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

2012-11-01

231

Radiographic testing of wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

232

Wood Composite Adhesives  

Science.gov (United States)

The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

233

Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

234

European wood-fuel trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

235

Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

236

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to eval...

Da Silva, Marliane Ca?ssia Soares; Paula, Thiago Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2014-01-01

237

Leaf area estimation from tree allometrics in Eucalyptus globulus plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data from five studies on the relationships between dendrometric measurements and leaf area of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations were pooled and analyzed to develop regression models for the estimation of leaf area of individual trees. The data, collected at two sites in west-central and southwestern Portugal, varied in age from 2 to 19 years and in plant density from 481 to 1560 trees/ha and included both first and second rotation coppice stands. A total of 29 nonlinear reg...

Fabia?o, Anto?nio; Pereira, J. M. C.; Tome?, Margarida; Carreiras, J. M. B.; Tome?, Jose?; Pereira, J. S.; David, J. S.

1997-01-01

238

Proposal of a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to develop a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations, to identify areas where eucalyptus planting could be developed, and to determine suitability of such areas. The study area was the County of Vassouras, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, considering physical data, environmental legislation, urban areas, and the municipal land use plan. The areas for permanent preservation, as well as the conservation units and areas for industrial expansion, a...

Leonardo Duarte Batista da Silva; Estevão Machado Cidade de Rezende; Márcio Rocha Francelino

2012-01-01

239

A recalcitrant plantation colony : Dominica, 1880-1946  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study of the class and gender dialectics in Dominica during one of its boom-bust cycles of plantation economy. This cycle encompassed the state sponsorship and rise and decline of the lime industry and planter class; the subsequent coming into prominence on the peasantry in Dominica's political economy and in Colonial Office policy; the masculinist recoding of peasant proprietorship and production forms; and shifting roles and agency of women.

Cecilia Green

1999-07-01

240

Forest Floor Nutrient Dynamics in Chestnut Plantation Ecosystems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nutrient content and detrital biomass in the forest floor of a mature chestnut plantation at Karies (Agio Oros mountain, Athos peninsula, northern Greece was measured in autumn of the year 2010. These measurements were compared to their expected values (bibliography based values. All nutrients storage and organic matter were fairly similar, even though measurements in this study were slightly higher than expected.

Kyriaki Kitikidou

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Harvesting Short-Rotation Poplar Plantations for Biomass Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Italy, short rotation forest has become very popular in recent years, with over 4,000 hectares already planted – almost exclusively with clone poplar. The study models the performance of modified forage harvesters on a range of short-rotation poplar plantations, identifies technical obstacles to the deployment of these machines and suggests solutions that may expand the capability of modified forage harvesters when treating short-rotation poplar. Data were collected from 16 operations, c...

Raffaele Spinelli; Carla Nati; Natascia Magagnotti

2008-01-01

242

Pathogens associated with plantation tree diseases in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Access to this dissertation is resticted until 2014-04-28 © 2010 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria Please cite as follows: Chungu, D 2010, Pathogens associated with plantation tree diseases in Zambia, MSc dissertation, University o...

Chungu, Donald

2010-01-01

243

Device for wood pellet transportation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Renewable energy is gaining on popularity and importance, as a result of ecological dangers of fossil fuel usage. With constant improvements in renewable energy technology we can lower the negative effects on our environment. Wood biomass represents one of the most important renewable energy sources as we can produce electric energy as well as heat energy. Important wood biomass products are wood pellets which are by many described as the fuel of the future. Because of the great importance of...

Zadravec, Tomas

2012-01-01

244

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2014-01-01

245

[Interspecific association between understory species in a southern highland plantation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based upon 2 x 2 contingency table, chi2 test and association coefficient were used to determine the interspecific association between understory species in a southern highland plantation, and to analyze the restoration degree and the stability of southern highland vegetations originated from plantation. The Qianyanzhou in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province, a typical sample of southern highland plantation, was chosen to make the study. The results showed that both in shrub layer and in herb layer, species pair with chi2 reaching significant level (P negundo var. cannabifolia. Many species in Group I had a significantly negative association with the species in Group II, and dominant species always played a key role in the relationships among species. The three dominant species in herb layer, Wooduardia japonica, Dryopteris atrata and Adiantun flabellulaturn, had a highly significant positive correlation between each other, and moreover, had a significant or highly significant positive association with many other herbaceous species. Similarily, dominant species in shrub layer played a key role on the interspecific association in the two species groups. The ratios of positive and negative association indicating the species compositions of the two layers were fluctuating, which was 125/106 in shrub layer and 42/63 in herb layer. Several shortcomings of interspecific association method were pointed out, with some proposals put forward. PMID:16471332

Hu, Lile; Yan, Boqian; Liu, Qijing; Zhu, Jiaojun

2005-11-01

246

THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ??of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

Charlote Wink

2013-06-01

247

Pruning in poplar plantations by mechanized device Stihl HT-75  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of branch pruning device Stihl HT-75 were researched on sample plots in FA Kupinovo and FA Klenak, in poplar plantations of Populus×euramericana 'I-214', Populus×euramericana 'M1' and Populus deltoides of different planting spaces and different ages. The analysed factors were: pruning method, site conditions, number of pruned branches, pruning height, branch diameter, etc. Time measurement was performed by the flow method, and the required number of measurements was calculated by variation statistics. The results of the analysis of variance show the statistical significance of the differences between pruning times of different clone species, different planting spaces and different plantation ages. The results of the analysis of variance and statistical tests show that there are no statistically significant differences between the average time of poplar pruning in plantations of the same age and different planting spaces. The correlation of branch pruning time and the number of pruned branches is represented by the power function model, which according to the results of the regression analyses, is the best representation of the nature of this dependence. Exponential function represents the correlation of the average diameter of pruned branches and the time of pruning. Also, there is a correlation of the average diameter of pruned branches and fuel consumption. Pruning time of poplar trees increases with the increase of the average diameter of pruned branches.

Danilovi? Milorad

2009-01-01

248

Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation

249

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L., extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L., sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2 hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates para el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos.

Milena A Ferrari Mateus

2013-04-01

250

Do changes in carbon allocation account for the growth response to potassium and sodium applications in tropical Eucalyptus plantations?  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the underlying mechanisms that account for the impact of potassium (K) fertilization and its replacement by sodium (Na) on tree growth is key to improving the management of forest plantations that are expanding over weathered tropical soils with low amounts of exchangeable bases. A complete randomized block design was planted with Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) to quantify growth, carbon uptake and carbon partitioning using a carbon budget approach. A combination of approaches including the establishment of allometric relationships over the whole rotation and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall at the end of the rotation were used to estimate aboveground net production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux and gross primary production (GPP). The stable carbon isotope (?(13)C) of stem wood ?-cellulose produced every year was used as a proxy for stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Potassium fertilization increased GPP and decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground. Aboveground net production was strongly enhanced, and because leaf lifespan increased, leaf biomass was enhanced without any change in leaf production, and wood production (P(W)) was dramatically increased. Sodium application decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground in a similar way, and enhanced GPP, ANPP and P(W), but to a lesser extent compared with K fertilization. Neither K nor Na affected ?(13)C of stem wood ?-cellulose, suggesting that water-use efficiency was the same among the treatments and that the inferred increase in leaf photosynthesis was not only related to a higher stomatal conductance. We concluded that the response to K fertilization and Na addition on P(W) resulted from drastic changes in carbon allocation. PMID:22021011

Epron, Daniel; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Almeida, Julio C R; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Ponton, Stephane; Sette, Carlos R; Delgado-Rojas, Juan S; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Nouvellon, Yann

2012-06-01

251

[Tropical woods and contact eczema].  

Science.gov (United States)

An enquiry was carried out in Zaire among workers handling different woods. The aim of the investigation was to establish which woods provoke undesirable reactions of the skin and mucous membranes. Besides the well known toxic woods, 6 types of wood were identified, which had not been known to be cause of these reactions: --Autranella congolensis (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations); --Drypetes gossweileri (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations); --Ceiba pentandra (essentially pruriginous manifestations); --Diba di Nzambi (common name) and Ficus capensis (bullous dermatitis); --Combretodendron macrocarpum (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations). PMID:6218978

Ngangu, Z; Foussereau, J

1982-01-01

252

Nutrition and growth in newly established plantations of Eucalyptus globulus in northwestern Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growth and nutritional status of newly established Eucalyptus globulus plantations, located in NW Spain, were studied in relation to soil properties and site preparation techniques. Most of the plantations are growing on chemically poorly fertile soils of intermediate depth. Despite being fertilized at establishment, most of the plantations showed low foliar levels of P and Ca, and some showed deficiencies of Mg and K. Growth depended mainly on the altitude, length of the drought period a...

Merino, Agusti?n; Lo?pez, A?ngel; Bran?as, Jesu?s; Rodri?guez-soalleiro, Roque

2003-01-01

253

Way to Measure the Concept Precarious Working Conditions in Oil Palm Plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil palm plantations are the backbone of the Malaysian economy, since day immemorial. When you look intothe past, the workers in the oil palm plantations were dominated by Indian and Chinese communities. Later dueto the sigma associate with oil palm plantations jobs viz., dirty, dangerous and distance, the Indians and Chineseworkers moved away from the oil palm work and they were replaced by Indonesians and Philippines. Theseforeign workers whom having the legal and illegal status under enfor...

Dileep Kumar. M; Noor Azizi Ismail; Govindarajo, Normala S.

2014-01-01

254

Mangrove Plantation as a Tourist Attraction in San Juan Batangas, Philippines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study about the Mangrove Plantation in San Juan, Batangas, Philippines aimed to identify the potential of mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction; to describe the status of mangroves, the programs offered by the government; to determine the level of support given by the government; to determine the benefits of the mangroves; and to propose an action plan that will develop the mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction. The study used descriptive method in order to determine the need...

Miranda, Sarah Jane M.; Reyes, Joy O.; Anne Tan; Villanueva, Letlet C.; Zara, Sarah Mae F.; Banaag, Amada G.; Renato Rosales

2013-01-01

255

Vulnerability of Plantation Carbon Stocks to Defoliation under Current and Future Climates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plantation species globally are susceptible to a range of defoliating pests, but pest damage is rarely considered when estimating biomass C sequestered by these forests. We examined the impacts of defoliation on Eucalyptus globulus plantation C stocks under current and future climates using Mycospharella Leaf Disease (MLD) as a case study, hypothesising that biomass C sequestered in plantations would decrease with a warming and drying climate, and that impacts of defoliation would be strongly...

Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Keryn Paul; Michael Battaglia; Jody Bruce

2014-01-01

256

Phytocoenological characteristics in poplar plantations in the protected region of the central Danube basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following the water regulation along the Danube river, the area of natural forests decreases and the vegetation is fragmented. The goal of the study was to survey the recent phytocenological characteristics of the region of the protected floodplain outside the dam. We surveyed three site types in poplar plantations near Novi Sad. In the poplar plantations phytocoenological relevés were made. The elevation of the study plantations is between 75 and 76 m a.s.l. The most represented speci...

Gali? Z.; Orlovi? S.; Vasi? Verica; Galovi? Vladislava; Klašnja Bojana; Stojanovi? D.; Babi? Violeta

2011-01-01

257

Way to Measure the Concept Precarious Working Conditions in Oil Palm Plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil palm plantations are the backbone of the Malaysian economy, since day immemorial. When you look intothe past, the workers in the oil palm plantations were dominated by Indian and Chinese communities. Later dueto the sigma associate with oil palm plantations jobs viz., dirty, dangerous and distance, the Indians and Chineseworkers moved away from the oil palm work and they were replaced by Indonesians and Philippines. Theseforeign workers whom having the legal and illegal status under enforcement in Malaysia, have been living inremotely located inhabitations engaging in ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ wise oil palm plantations. Though thelarger oil palm plantation companies ensure minimum living and working conditions for the foreign workers,vastly located small holding plantations never follow such minimum and fair working environment. Theseconditions to be correlated with the term “precarious working conditions’ in small holding oil palm plantations.Due to lack of availability of the locals to engage in oil palm work, the plantations have to depend on foreignworkers do all these ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ workers in oil palm plantations. Except a few literatureavailable from Amnesty international and local NGOs, there is less evidence to prove the existence of suchexploitative working conditions in oil palm plantations. In order to explore precarious working conditions in oilpalm plantations thus a qualitative research study is conducted in the Sabah region of the Eastern Part ofMalaysia. The study followed, triangulation method through interviews with the migrated foreign workers, (legaland illegal, focus group discussions and Delphi technique with the identification of experts in the field to arriveat the factors and categories related to the theme ‘precarious working conditions’ in oil palm plantations. Theoutcome of the study fixes the variables that need to be concentrated for a higher level research throughquantitative research.

Dileep Kumar M.

2014-10-01

258

Control of termites in tea (Camellia sinensis L(0) Kuntz) plantations of Barak Valley, Assam, (India)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Termites cause serious damage to tea plantations in Barak Valley, Assam (India) especially during the dry season (i.e. September-March). Tea plantations in the southwest facing slopes are worst affected possibly due to poor soil moisture and shade. Termites also cause considerable damage to the vegetation growing in and around tea plantations. Both chemical and phytopesticides were effective for the control of termites. Among chemical pesticides, endosulphan, chloropyriphos and phorate were e...

Dutta, B. K.; Bhattacharjee, P. C.

2005-01-01

259

Tree culture for a valuable wood production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First, the idea of large spaces, or low density of plantation, is defined from the density of the final stand (80 and 250 stems per ha for broadleaves and conifers) and from the minimal standard densities of plantation given by the French Forest Fund. Largely spaced plantations cannot be imagined without a real tree culture which means a particular attention to establishment and weed competition conditions and the artificial bole formation by prunings. The article analyzes the technical, ecological and socio-economical advantages and constraints of this silviculture: it is necessary to create a homogeneous stand to ensure its future value. Prunings are too very constraining and compulsory with broadleaves as with conifers. The total cost of these plantations analyzed with some standards is nearly the same as in classical plantations, except when protection against deer is necessary. The gain at plantation is lost by overcosts for cleanings and prunings. However, a lot of work can be made by the owner, which decreases the cost. This is the main advantage as well as the conception of a new silviculture close to arboriculture where one takes care of all the trees rather than selecting and suppressing the worst ones. At last these plantations allow intercropping cultures and plantations. 6 refs, 2 tabs

Guitton, J.L.; Ginisty, C. [Centre National du Machinisme Agricole, du Genie Rural, des Eaux et des Forets (CEMAGREF), 63 -Riom (France). Forest Engineering and Management Team

1996-12-31

260

Mapping Deciduous Rubber Plantation Areas and Stand Ages with PALSAR and Landsat Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate and updated finer resolution maps of rubber plantations and stand ages are needed to understand and assess the impacts of rubber plantations on regional ecosystem processes. This study presented a simple method for mapping rubber plantation areas and their stand ages by integration of PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. The L-band PALSAR 50-m mosaic images were used to map forests (including both natural forests and rubber trees and non-forests. For those PALSAR-based forest pixels, we analyzed the multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We first studied phenological signatures of deciduous rubber plantations (defoliation and foliation and natural forests through analysis of surface reflectance, Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and generated a map of rubber plantations in 2009. We then analyzed phenological signatures of rubber plantations with different stand ages and generated a map, in 2009, of rubber plantation stand ages (?5, 6–10, >10 years-old based on multi-temporal Landsat images. The resultant maps clearly illustrated how rubber plantations have expanded into the mountains in the study area over the years. The results in this study demonstrate the potential of integrating microwave (e.g., PALSAR and optical remote sensing in the characterization of rubber plantations and their expansion over time.

Weili Kou

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 ?m, and 7.1 ?m, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70°C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

Ahmad Jahan Latibari,

2011-11-01

262

Predicting the morphological characteristics and basic density of Eucalyptus wood using the NIRS technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed to apply the near infrared spectroscopy technique (NIRS for fast prediction of basic density and morphological characteristics of wood fibers in Eucalyptus clones. Six Eucalyptus clones aged three years were used, obtained from plantations in Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce and Santa Bárbara, in Minas Gerais state. The morphological characteristics of the fibers and basic density of the wood were determined by conventional methods and correlated with near infrared spectra using partial least square regression (PLS regression. Best calibration correlations were obtained in basic density prediction, with values 0.95 for correlation coefficient of cross validation (Rcv and 3.4 for ratio performance deviation (RPD, in clone 57. Fiber length can be predicted by models with Rcv ranging from 0.61 to 0.89 and standard error (SECV ranging from 0.037 to 0.079 mm. The prediction model for wood fiber width presented higher Rcv (0.82 and RPD (1.9 values in clone 1046. Best fits to estimate lumen diameter and fiber wall thickness were obtained with information from clone 1046. In some clones, the NIRS technique proved efficient to predict the anatomical properties and basic density of wood in Eucalyptus clones.

Lívia Cássia Viana

2009-12-01

263

Preservation of forest wood chips  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

1999-01-01

264

The Swedish wood fuel market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

265

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the...

Ferrari Mateus, Milena A.; Duarte Rios Faria¹, Cacilda M.; Botelho, Renato V.; Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta; Martins Ferreira, Silvana G.; Zaluski, Welton L.

2013-01-01

266

The response of macroinvertebrates to artificially enhanced detritus levels in plantation streams  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The leaves and wood from vegetation surrounding headwater streams constitute a major food source for aquatic invertebrates, providing they are retained upon the streambed and not transported downstream. This study investigated the response of aquatic invertebrates to artificially increased detritus retention, in an effort to reproduce the naturally occurring build up of dead organic matter associated with streams in old-growth forest. The background detrital standing stock in streams in Kielder Forest (Northumberland, UK was low, approximately 32 gm-2. Two streams flowing through dense conifer plantation and one in open broadleaved woodland were manipulated by the addition of logs over a 10 m stream reach. After several months, log addition significantly enhanced detrital standing stocks in both conifer and broadleaved streams. Total invertebrate abundance, taxon richness and the numbers of certain numerically dominant families were significantly higher in experimental than reference reaches in both conifer and broadleaved streams. This response was most marked for detritivores, whilst non-detritivore groups often showed no response to the manipulation. Whilst in the short term the responses to enhanced retention may reflect a redistribution of the local fauna, it is argued that over a longer time-scale, a genuine increase in invertebrate density and diversity could occur. Allowing old-growth forest to develop in planted valley bottoms may be a viable management option for conservation. If established alongside streams, it would ensure continuous input of woody material and the fauna may benefit from the resulting increase in detritus retention. Keywords: forestry, detritivores, old-growth conifers, river management, woody debris

J. L. Pretty

2004-01-01

267

Wood Bond Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

1989-01-01

268

Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity of herbs of harvests 1986 and 1987 - both from the regions of Styria (Austria) with the most important fallout from Chernobyl - are compared. As expected, the radioactive contamination from harvest 1987 is much lower than that from 1986, restricted to Cs 134 and Cs 137 and very low absolutely. Values of soil contamination in the plantation regions are also listed. Hypotheses on the mechanism of radioactivity uptake from the contaminated soils, in particular the importance of potassium-containing fertilizers, are put forward. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (qui)

269

Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and agroforests, streams draining oil palm show greater biological activity, as indicated by elevated pH and reduced dissolved oxygen levels. Moreover, turbidity is elevated in young oil palm plantations watersheds compared to forest, agroforest, and old oil palm land covers. We discuss the implications of these findings for communities and ecosystems.

Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

2011-12-01

270

Software Development Of Sugar Cane Plantation And Harvesting Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This software is a management system based on database-driven computer software application. It is intended to improve the quality of sugar cane through increased efficiency in managing, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, as part of a sugar factory operation. The software was developed using the Borland Delphi development platform, with database manipulation using Microsoft Access. The software is intended for Personal Computer with Windows 95 (or later) installed. The application has been tested with acceptable result and can be used in Sragi Sugar Factory's related activities; namely sugar cane plantation management, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, payment process and other related administrative processes

271

Exclusive breastfeeding among women on the plantations in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, using the current status method for the assessment of breastfeeding, was conducted among women working in the plantations in Sri Lanka. The exclusive breastfeeding rate was 32.4 per cent. The mothers' return to work and the feeling of having insufficient milk were significantly and negatively associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Women will sometimes start with powdered milk several weeks before going back to work, suggesting that work itself is not the only reason for introducing powdered milk. Although the health authorities have endorsed the concept of exclusive breastfeeding, further health education is needed for the full acceptance of exclusive breastfeeding in the population. PMID:9819499

Sørensen, E; Fernando, D N; Hettiarachchi, I; Durongdej, S; Podhipak, A; Skaara, B B

1998-10-01

272

Bird species in Mediterranean pine plantations exhibit different characteristics to those in natural reforested woodlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive woodland regeneration following cropland abandonment and pine plantations are two major approaches for vegetation restoration in agricultural landscapes in the Mediterranean Basin. We compared the effects of these two contrasting approaches on local bird density in central Spain on the basis of species characteristics, including regional density, habitat breadth, life-history traits and plumage colouration. Local bird density increased with regional density and habitat breadth in both woodland and pine plantation plots following macroecological patterns of bird abundance and distribution. In woodlands, dichromatic species were more abundant than monochromatic species and bird density increased with the intensity of territory defense and as the proportion of plumage colour generated by pheomelanin decreased. Contrary to our prediction, this latter observation suggests that woodlands may induce higher levels of physiological stress in birds than pine plantations even though these represent a novel habitat change. In pine plantations, sedentary species were more abundant than migratory species and bird density was negatively related to body and egg mass. These traits of bird species in pine plantations are characteristic of successful invaders. The variation in bird density explained by phylogeny was twice as high in pine plantations as in woodlands, suggesting that pine plantations limit accessibility to some clades. Our results support, from an evolutionary perspective, the described inability of pine plantations on cropland to maintain or increase bird diversity in Mediterranean agricultural landscapes. PMID:21107867

Galván, Ismael; Benayas, José M Rey

2011-06-01

273

Short-rotation eucalypt plantations in Brazil: Social and environmental issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents an overview of the historical and current legislative, social, and environmental aspects of the establishment of large-scale eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The report consolidates the vast experience and knowledge relating to these forest plantation systems and highlights lessons learned and new trends. The overview should prove useful to those interested in comparing or beginning similar endeavors.

Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brasil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

1995-02-01

274

ANALYSIS OF GROWTH AND LATEX PRODUCTION IN COMMERCIAL FOREST PLANTATIONS OF RUBBER (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. IN THE STATE OF OAXACA, MEXICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SUMMARYWere selected 41 plantations in the region of Papaloapan; these didn’t present damage by plagues, disease or mechanic action; have a space of 6 x 3 m and ages from 1 to 42 years. In each plantation were design sites of 1000 m2 whose trees were enumerated consecutively. Were measured a total of 2255 trees from which were obtain the next data: thick of bark (gc, height of clean wood (altf, total height (altt, diameter normal (dpa, projection of canopy north-south and east-west and to 1562 trees were measured the latex production in kg/tree/year. With the objective to establish the grade of association between the latex production and the dasometric variables, to reach this goal were used the statistics programme SAS (SAS Institute Inc., 1991. According to comparing four mathematic models to predict the commercial volume of clon IAN-710 of Hevea brasiliensis Muel Arg. The model of the logarithmic equation and the australian equation present the best adjustment to predict the volume. Nevertheless, the logarithmic model was elected because present the best distribution of residual values and because it’s easier to handle than australian equation. The equation elected expressed in it’s exponential form is: V= 0.02882823 * D2.24237 H0.74475

Rosa Martínez Ruiz, Gustavo E. Rojo Martínez, Jesús Jasso Mata

2007-08-01

275

Mapping the expansion and distribution of willow plantations for bioenergy in Sweden: Lessons to be learned about the spread of energy crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Where and when farmers will adopt new energy crops is a key issue for the proper development of a country's energy strategy on renewables based in bioenergy. This paper analyses the spread of willow cultivation for bioenergy in Sweden, during the period 1986-2005, linked to the changes in the policies of promotion of wood-energy crops and to the local economic framework. To perform the study, a geostatistic method based on kernel analysis is applied, in order to identify the spatial grouping patterns of growers and plantations, and the areas where cultivation was successful. The analysis of the resulting figures shows that the development of an infrastructure and a market for willow chips are essential pre-conditions for the development of short rotation coppice for bioenergy. The results of this study confirm that probably the most important factor in the location of willow plantations is the existence of consumers that can guarantee a long-term demand for willow chips. The tools and methods presented, and its analysis, can provide a better understanding of the interactions between the biomass producers, the energy consumers and the different local and national actors. (author)

276

STRUCTURE OF SOIL FOOD WEB IN SMALLHOLDER COCOA PLANTATION, SOUTH KONAWE DISTRICT, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An understanding of the structure of the soil food web is critical in determining the practices of soil fertility management based on the biological processes in tropical agricultural regions. The objectives of the study were to assess the variation in trophic level biomass and to analyze the dynamics of the energy channels on the increasing age of cocoa plantation. The characteristics of soil food web structure in smallholder cocoa plantation aged 4, 5, 7, 10, and 16 years were analyzed. The results showed that only biomass at the third trophic level increased with plantation age, but not for the biomass at the lower trophic levels. Biomass in all energy channels did not increased as well along with plantation age. We concluded that variation in the soil food web structure was more influenced by biotic factors of macro-arthropods group, such as facilitation, recolonization capabilities and accessibility in the soil habitat of smallholder cocoa plantation.

Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid

2014-02-01

277

Effects of young poplar plantations on understory plant diversity in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the effects of young poplar plantations on understory plant diversity in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. Poplar plantations resulted in a higher species number and Shannon's diversity. Species compositions were different between areas with poplar and reed populations: a lower ratio of hygrophytes but a higher ratio of mesophytes, and a higher ratio of heliophytes but a lower ratio of neutrophilous or shade plants in poplar areas compared to reed areas. Poplar plantations supported a higher ratio of ligneous plants in the entire Dongting Lake area, but there was no difference in the monitored plots. Unlike reedy areas, poplar plantations had higher light availability but lower soil water content during the growing seasons. These data suggest that young poplar plantations generally increased species richness and plant diversity, but significantly changed species composition due to the reduced soil water and increased light availability. PMID:25208975

Li, Youzhi; Chen, Xinsheng; Xie, Yonghong; Li, Xu; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhiyong

2014-01-01

278

RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF WOOD AND WOOD BASED MATERIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wood, as well as other construction materials, presents changes in this stiffness and strength when submitted to a long time loading. This phenomenon is important in the analyses resistance capacity of structural materials. Mechanically, the wood behaves as aviscous-elastic solid. However, over time, the structural elements submitted to permanent or cyclic loading presents some deformation, which denotes a viscous-elastic behavior. This characteristic is influenced mainly on the intensity and duration of loading. In this study a review of rheological phenomenon is presented, showing up the causes and effects for a better understanding, which is essential for the appropriate and efficient use of the wood and wood composites as structural materials.

Rafael Rodolfo de Melo

2010-05-01

279

Ecological effects of wood fuel utilization and wood ash recycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing interest for and utilization of wood fuels have resulted in deepening concern for the nutrient and mineral balance in forest soils. In 14 papers, the ecological implications of whole tree utilization and ash recycling is thoroughly treated

280

Wood-pellets - Quality guaranteed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses how wood-pellets and wood-pellet-fired heating systems have, since 1998, captured an increasing portion of the Swiss heating market. In particular, Swiss standards designed to provide assured quality of the pellets are discussed that are based on Austrian standards. The particular requirements placed on the pellets with regard to their chemical composition, physical properties and their heating characteristics are listed. Market developments and the potential for this fuel are discussed. A short interview with Samuel Jenni from the Energy-Wood Centre in Diegten, Switzerland, completes the article

 
 
 
 
281

Wood and pulp properties of two Eucalyptus globulus wood samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports experimental data about wood chemical composition (extractives and lignin content), fibre characteristics, kraft cooking behaviour and papermaking potential of two wood samples of Eucalyptus globulus (one industrial chip sample and another obtained from a clone tree). The samples were submitted to the kraft cooking and bleaching processes in order to evaluate its pulping potential. The experimental results showed that the clone tree requires mi...

Santos, A.; Anjos, O.; Simo?es, R.

2004-01-01

282

RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF WOOD AND WOOD BASED MATERIALS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The wood, as well as other construction materials, presents changes in this stiffness and strength when submitted to a long time loading. This phenomenon is important in the analyses resistance capacity of structural materials. Mechanically, the wood behaves as aviscous-elastic solid. However, over time, the structural elements submitted to permanent or cyclic loading presents some deformation, which denotes a viscous-elastic behavior. This characteristic is influenced mainly on the intensity...

Rafael Rodolfo de Melo; Cláudio Henrique Soares Del Menezzi

2010-01-01

283

Heating with wood chips can cause cough  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Finland some five thousant persons heat with wood chips. In a questionaire sent to farmers by the Work Efficiency Association using this type of heating respiratory symptoms were identified as being more common than among other farmers. Persons heating by wood chips were troubled by cough, especially. Wood chips made from deciduous wood were worse than conifer. Long storage time and long daily handling time of wood chips were also more harmful. However, the prevalence of symptoms among farmers heating with wood chips was not statistically different from those not heating with wood chips. By using respiratory protectors farmers can prevent spores from getting into their respiratory organs.

Castren, M.

1986-01-01

284

O cultivo da araucária para produção de pinhões como ferramenta para a conservação Plantation of Brazilian pine to nuts production as a conservation tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A madeira da araucária (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze teve grande importância econômica no Brasil, principalmente entre 1930 e 1970. O desmatamento ocasionou a redução drástica do tamanho populacional de araucária e atualmente ela integra a lista de espécies brasileiras ameaçadas de extinção. O objetivo dessa revisão foi apresentar o potencial de geração de renda do cultivo de araucária para produção de pinhões e a consequente conservação da espécie. Segundo o que se observou na literatura, o pinhão pode gerar mais renda que a madeira da araucária, quando são utilizadas técnicas de manejo adequadas. O cultivo da araucária com interesse econômico do pinhão é uma ferramenta eficaz para aumentar os plantios e diminuir a exploração das araucárias remanescentes. É necessário propor estratégias em parceria entre organizações de produtores e coletores, pesquisadores e órgãos governamentais brasileiros para desenvolver e aprimorar técnicas adequadas de manejo, processamento e comercialização do pinhão. The wood of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze had great economic importance in Brazil, mainly between 1930 to 1970. The deforestation caused a drastic reduction in population size of Brazilian pine and currently it integrates the list of Brazilian threatened species. The aim of thisreview was to present the potential of generating income from Brazilian pine plantation for pine nuts production and the consequent species conservation. According to the literature, pine nuts can generate more income than Brazilian pine wood, when used appropriate management techniques. The plantation with economic interest in pine nuts is an effective tool to increase planting and reduce exploitation of the Brazilian pine remaining. It is necessary to propose strategies in partnership among producer and collectors organizations, researchers and Brazilians government agencies to develop and improve management techniques, processing and marketing of the pine nuts.

Moeses Andrigo Danner

2012-12-01

285

A new method for determining water uptake in elderberry plantation  

Science.gov (United States)

A considerable quantity of elderberry ( Sambucus nigra L.) fruit gets yearly on the market in Hungary. The decisive majority of this quantity is harvested from feral plants. The area of elderberry plantations is only 150-180 ha in spite of the fact that it would be possible to produce this valuable fruit on larger surface if suitable watering system were applied. The fruit of elderberry is important from the aspect of food industry. The goal of present study is promoting the effective irrigation of elder berry plantation. The experiments were carried out in the Experimental Farm of the University for Horticulture and Food Industry in Szigetcsép from 1989. The measuring of the water demand of elderberry using the heat pulse method was started in 1996. The measurement of the sap-flow in the trunk is a new element of phyto-climate researches. The development of the equipment was started in 1991 and improvement of the method is still going on. In this phase, first of all the connections between sap-flow velocity and meteorological data were investigated. Summarising the experiences of the trials it can be announced that: (1) The water circulation of elder plants principally depends on the conditions of atmosphere. It is barely sensitive to the water content of the soil. (2) The transpiration intensity reacts sensitively to the change of meteorological conditions. (3) The changing rate of the transpiration coefficient is particularly large in certain intervals of the meteorological elements.

T?kei, László; Dunkel, Zoltán; Jung, András

286

Nutrient cycling in a RRIM 600 clone rubber plantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Few reports have been presented on nutrient cycling in rubber tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. This experiment was carried out to evaluate: the effect of K rates on the amount of nutrients transfered to the soil in a 13-year old Hevea brasilensis RRIM 600 clone plantation, nutrient retranslocation from the leaves before falling to the soil, and nutrient loss by dry rubber export. The experiment started in 1998 and potassium was applied at the rates of 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of K2O under the crowns of 40 rubber trees of each plot. Literfall collectors, five per plot, were randomly distributed within the plots under the trees. The accumulated literfall was collected monthly during one year. The coagulated rubber latex from each plot was weighed, and samples were analyzed for nutrient content. Increasing K fertilization rates also increased the K content in leaf literfall. Calcium and N were the most recycled leaf nutrients to the soil via litterfall. Potassium, followed by P were the nutrients with the highest retranslocation rates. Potassium was the most exported nutrient by the harvested rubber, and this amount was higher than that transfered to the soil by the leaf literfall.

Murbach Marcos Roberto

2003-01-01

287

Biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar plantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 3-year study measured the effects of ground cover treatments and nitrogen fertilization on biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. x P. trichocarpa Torr. and Gray, clone NC-9922) plantation in northern Wisconsin. Annually fertilized (112 kg N/ha/yr) and unfertilized plots were either maintained weed-free (bare soil), allowed to revegetate with native weeds, or seeded to birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Trees in bare soil plots responded to fertilization primarily in the third growing season, but total biomass of 3-year-old trees was not increased by annual fertilization. High nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the soil solution suggested significant leaching in both unfertilized and fertilized bare soil plots in the first growing season, and in fertilized plots the second season. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations declined sharply in fertilized bare soil plots during the third growing season. Cover crop biomass was greatest in the second year and declined thereafter due to declines in below-ground components. Fertilization increased tree growth in these plots, but cover crop treatments had no effect. Results of this study suggest that, under irrigated conditions, a cover crop can substantially reduce leaching losses of nutrients and serve as a slow-release pool of nitrogen after the trees achieve crown closure. Fertilization is not recommended in these plantations until the second growing season if a cover crop is present and the third growing season if complete weed control is practiced.

McLaughlin, R.A.

1985-01-01

288

Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development,it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in termof polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province.These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.

Afrooz Alimohamadi

2012-11-01

289

Epidemiological aspects of snake bites on a Liberian rubber plantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

During a one-year period 95 patients with a history of snake bite were admitted to the hospital of a Liberian rubber plantation. The population at risk included the field workers (tappers and slashers) with an incidence of 4.2 symptomatic snake bites per thousand per year. The incidence of symptomatic bites was 1.7 per thousand in the group of non-field employees and 0.4 per thousand per year in the group of non-employees. The temporary disability was between 3 and 5 days, and the loss of workings days due to snake bites was one day per 10,000 working days on the plantation. Among the 95 patients 27 did not show any symptoms of envenoming except occasional fang marks. 64 patients developed cytotoxic symptoms alone. In this group, the night adder (Causus maculatus) was the main responsible snake. 4 patients showed signs of systemic envenoming. Two were haematological and two were neurological in nature and caused by Bitis species and Naja species, respectively. No fatalities were noted. A definite maximum of snake bites was observed during October and November which corresponds to the transition from rainy to dry season. PMID:6110326

Stahel, E

1980-12-01

290

Chromosomal polymorphism in Rineloricaria lanceolata Günther, 1868 (Loricariidae: Loricariinae) of the Paraguay basin (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil): evidence of fusions and their consequences in the population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rineloricaria is the most species-rich genus of the Loricariinae (armored catfish) with 65 valid species. However, the karyotype structure is known only for eight species in this group. This study provides cytogenetic data for Rineloricaria lanceolata collected from the upper Paraguay basin (Mato Grosso do Sul). The specimens revealed extensive chromosomal polymorphism constituting 10 karyotypes, which differed in the diploid number (48 to 45 chromosomes) and fundamental number (FN) between 52 and 55. Three types of chromosome variants were observed: a medium-sized submetacentric, a large submetacentric, and a small acrocentric form. Internal telomere sequences were demonstrated by a telomeric (TTAGGG)n probe in submetacentric chromosome variants, suggesting Robertsonian and tandem fusions. Considering the karyotype 2n=48 (4m+2st+42a, FN=54) as the starting point for this polymorphism, these rearrangements contributed to the reduction in diploid number (48-45). Furthermore, a remarkable polymorphism of 18S rDNA resulted in three nucleolus organizer region phenotypes (I, II, and III) with variable frequencies. Interestingly, this polymorphism has remained in the population through interbreeding between specimens, resulting in different viable combinations. The data obtained confirm that diversification/karyotype evolution in Rineloricaria was marked by numerous chromosomal rearrangements which appear to be well tolerated in the panmitic population. PMID:25069031

Porto, Fernanda Errero; Vieira, Margarida Maria de Rossi; Barbosa, Ligia Magrinelli; Borin-Carvalho, Luciana Andréia; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Portela-Castro, Ana Luiza de Brito; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

2014-08-01

291

Specific Heat Capacity of Wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Specifi c heat capacity is defi ned as the amount of heat that a kilogram of a given substance is required to absorb in order to increase its temperature by one degree. The temperature of a given substance can change either at constant pressure or at constant volume, so we differentiate between specifi c heat capacity at constant pressure (cp and specifi c heat capacity at constant volume (cv. When doing research into the heat propertiesof wood, the quantity that most frequently remains constant is pressure, thus restricting our study on specifi c heat capacity to cp. This paper provides an overview of the research that has so far been carried out into the specifi c heat capacity of wood depending on the temperature and moisture content. An analytical and graphical comparison has been performed of the results published in the Wood Industry Manual (1967 (DIP, Wood Handbook (1999 (WH and work published by Deliiski (2012 (DEL.

Kristijan Radmanovi?

2014-06-01

292

Volume measurement of wood disks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the Department of Forest Products at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences different metrics for wood are used. The volume of wood disks' is measured using archimedes principle.There are concerns of how accurate this measurement is and a different measuringsystem is wanted. This thesis has investigated the possibility of measuring the disks' volumes with imageanalysis. The recovery error should be less than 1% of the actual volume. In general, there are two methods for recovering an ...

Da?nmark, Anders

2013-01-01

293

Wood ash disposal and utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood ash is becoming a major disposal problem to the forest products industry as solid waste regulations become more stringent and as landfill costs escalate. The objective of this paper is to present information on wood ash that can be used to evaluate disposal and utilization alternatives. This paper reviews the literature on the chemical and physical properties of ash, methods of disposal and utilization, land application practices, and regulations concerning disposal. Wood ash has been used for centuries as a source of potash and lime for agricultural fields. Based on the properties of wood ash and the disposal alternatives, land application appears to be a safe, relatively simple and economical method for ash disposal. For example, several ash producers in the Northeast and Northwest currently land apply wood ash based on the liming requirements of the soil. Wood ash is a valuable liming agent and soil amendment which should be recycled back to the land rather than being concentrated and buried in a landfill

294

Physico-chemical aspects of wood-cement interactions. Modification of cement hydration by wood.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of wood in a cement material gives interesting properties to composites. However, dimensional instability and setting delay are two major problems. The aim of this work is to understand the interaction mechanism between wood and cement. We studied the influence of wood fiber and heat treated wood fiber on cement hydration. As wood chemical composition affects cement setting, data were first collected regarding wood species used (poplar) : hygroscopic properties, structural analysis, c...

Govin, Alexandre

2004-01-01

295

The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

Tomasz R. Sekutowski

2014-12-01

296

Regeneración natural del matorral espinoso tamaulipeco en una plantación de Eucalyptus spp. / Natural regeneration of the tamaulipan thornscrub in an Eucalyptus spp. plantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las plantaciones forestales con especies exóticas generan controversia a nivel mundial y tal es el caso de la presencia de eucaliptos en México. En el presente estudio se caracterizó la regeneración natural de vegetación leñosa en el Matorral Espinoso Tamaulipeco (MET), que se localiza en el noreste [...] del país, dentro de una plantación original de Eucalyptus spp. La investigación se llevó a cabo 27 años después de su establecimiento y en ella se instalaron 11 sitios de muestreo de 250 m² (10 x 25 m) para evaluar todos los ejemplares con crecimiento secundario que presentaran un diámetro basal (d0.50) mayor o igual a 0.5 cm. Los datos recabados permitieron estimar índices de riqueza y diversidad, así como abundancia relativa, dominancia y frecuencia; con estos números se calculó el Índice de Valor de Importancia. Se demostró que en la zona existe renovación de las especies de interés en la siembra original y los parámetros poblacionales propios son similares a las de otras áreas con características parecidas; además se presentó sucesión ecológica, después de haber sido sujetas a actividades agrícolas, pecuarias y forestales (matarrasa). Se registró alta densidad (4 301 ind ha-1) y mayor cantidad de individuos de clases diamétricas bajas ( Abstract in english Forest plantations with exotic species are of great controversy worldwide. This research characterizes the natural regeneration of woody vegetation of Tamaulipan thornscrub (MET) in a plantation of Eucalyptus spp. Eleven sampling sites of 250 m² (10 x 25 m) were established in the plantation area an [...] d all wood species larger than one centimeter of basal diameter were registered and measured. Richness and diversity indices as well as values of relative abundance, dominance, frequency were estimated which were used to calculate the Importance Value Index. Results show that there is natural regeneration of native woody species under the plantation of Eucalyptus spp.; density, crown area, richness and diversity values were similar to other regenerated areas after agricultural activities, livestock and forestry (clear cutting). High density (4 301 ind ha-1) and more individuals of lower diameter classes (

Dinorah Dalila, Martínez Hernández; Javier, Jiménez Pérez; Eduardo, Alanís Rodríguez; José Isidro, Uvalle Sauceda; Pamela Anabel, Canizales Velázquez; Luis, Rocha Domínguez.

2014-02-01

297

Natural vs. plantation forests: A case study of land reclamation strategies for the humid tropics  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass and productivity were compared in two plantations and in one stand of natural regeneration on similar sites in a premontane moist forest region of Puerto Rico. While initial growth rates of plantation species were higher, after four decades productivity of the natural regeneration plots was equal to or greater than productivity of the plantations. For the first 44 years, aboveground biomass of natural regeneration increased at an average annual rate of 3.8t·ha-1·yr-1, but the last year of the study it was 14.7t·ha-1. Biomass increment of a pine plantation averaged between 8 and 10.5t·ha-1·yr-1 except for one year when the rate was much lower, possibly because of hurricane damage. A tropical hardwood plantation averaged close to 4t·ha-1·yr-1 for 41 years. It is suggested that in countries where funds for land reclamation are limited, intensive plantations may not always be the best strategy. Natural regeneration or shelterbelt plantations may be suitable alternatives.

Jordan, Carl F.; Farnworth, Edward G.

1982-11-01

298

Mangrove Plantation as a Tourist Attraction in San Juan Batangas, Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study about the Mangrove Plantation in San Juan, Batangas, Philippines aimed to identify the potential of mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction; to describe the status of mangroves, the programs offered by the government; to determine the level of support given by the government; to determine the benefits of the mangroves; and to propose an action plan that will develop the mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction. The study used descriptive method in order to determine the needed information regarding the current status of mangrove plantation as tourist attraction. The study concluded that the status of the mangroves in the coastal areas of San Juan, Batangas is continuously propagating and the local government does not neglect the mangrove plantations in the said community, as such, it is properly protected; the government’s level of support given to the mangrove plantation in terms of policies, management and planning and budget are highly implemented while in terms of promotion is implemented only; mangroves are beneficial to the residents of San Juan particularly in terms of environmental/ecological, economic and health, and ; proposed an action plan regarding development of Mangrove Plantation was designed by the researchers.

Sarah Jane M. Miranda

2013-08-01

299

Predicting effects of plantation expansion on streamflow regime for catchments in Australia  

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Full Text Available The effect of plantations on mean annual streamflow is well understood and, there are robust methods available for assessing the impact. Plantations also affect streamflow regime, leading to reductions in low flow and increased number of zero-flow days. Understanding changes in streamflow regime following plantation expansion is important for developing water resources and environmental flow strategy. This study evaluated the impacts of plantations on streamflow regime from 15 catchments in Australia. The selected catchments range in size from 0.6 to 1136 km2 and represent different climatic conditions and management practices. The catchments have at least 20 yr and in most cases 35 yr of continuous daily streamflow data and well documented plantation records. Catchments with perennial streamflow in the pre-treatment periods showed relatively uniform reductions in most flows after plantation expansions, whereas catchments with ephemeral streamflow showed more dramatic reductions in low flows, leading to an increased number of zero-flow days. The Forest Cover Flow Change (FCFC model was tested using the data from the selected catchments and comparison of predicted and observed flow duration curves showed that 14 of the 15 catchments have coefficients of efficiency greater than 0.8. The results indicate that the model is capable of predicting plantation impacts on streamflow regime.

L. Zhang

2012-07-01

300

Effectiveness of selected preservatives in protecting Ugandan grown Eucalyptus grandis wood against termite attack  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Termites are one of the major wood destroying agents in the tropics and with the increasing rate of deforestation, there is a need to protect wood from biodegradation in order to extend its service life. In this study the incidence and severity of termite attack on Eucalyptus grandis sapwood treated [...] with CCA, used engine oil and neem extract were investigated. Sixty samples (20 × 20 × 300mm) were prepared from the sapwood at mid-height of the tree of E. grandis and air seasoned for two weeks then treated with the preservatives. An area of 20m by 20m in a pine plantation and 15 plots of 1m by 1m were selected at random. Four samples, one from each treatment, were placed at the corners of the selected plots. Inspection and evaluation of stakes was made by visual assessments after every 30 days for any sign of termite attack for a period of 8 months. The specimens were removed from the ground, damage assessed and returned to the ground. After 4 weeks all the untreated wood samples had been attacked, neem extract treated wood samples were attacked after 17 weeks and used engine oil treated samples after 30 weeks. None of the CCA treated wood samples were attacked by the end of study period. Chi square analysis showed a high association between treatment and incidence as well as between treatment and severity. It was recommended that further research be carried out on neem extract using different concentrations.

I. E, Ssemaganda; P, Mugabi; S. B, Tumwebaze.

 
 
 
 
301

Overseas forest plantations of Japanese paper companies: current trends and issues; Kaigai shokurin no genjo to mondaiten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the latter half of the 1980s, a waste paper recycling rate exceeded 50% to approach the limit, import of materials from abroad was profitable thanks to a strong yen, and control was intensified over deforestation, all persuading overseas forestation business into full wing. As of the end of fiscal 1996, forestation was under way at 15 sites in 6 countries covering a total area of 93,000ha. The early maturing varieties of the eucalyptus, acacia, and others that best suit the land are planted. Overseas plantation totalling 600,000ha will be required if one third of wood chips Japan will demand in 2010 is to be met only by overseas sources. For the assurance of raw material supply, the chip price upon arrival in Japan will have to be competitive in the international market. Heavy investment and long-term use of large land are mandatory, and the business has to face various risks involving the state of affairs peculiar to the host country, natural disaster, and foreign exchange. It is necessary to conduct preparatory investigations fully and to formulate flexible plans in case of changes in presupposed conditions. The most important is to choose appropriate sites for forestation while political and economic difficulties have to be also considered. In the field of technology, right species should be chosen and techniques for raising seedlings and trees worked out, and hedges have to be prepared against forestry fire, violent wind, vermin, and germs. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Hisada, M. [Oji Paper Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-10-01

302

Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg-1 for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries.

303

Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the possible contribution of Short Rotation Cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]). A dense poplar plantation (1 x 1 m) was exposed to a [CO2] of 550 ppm in Central Italy using the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technique. Three species of Populus were examined, namely P. alba L., P. nigra L. and P. x euramericana Dode (Guinier). Aboveground woody biomass of trees exposed to elevated [CO2] for three growing seasons increased by 15 to 27%, depending on species. As a result, light-use efficiency increased. Aboveground biomass allocation was unaffected, and belowground biomass also increased under elevated [CO2] conditions, by 22 to 38%. Populus nigra, with total biomass equal to 62.02 and 72.03 Mg ha-1 in ambient and elevated [CO2], respectively, was the most productive species, although its productivity was stimulated least by atmospheric CO2 enrichment. There was greater depletion of inorganic nitrogen from the soil after three growing seasons in elevated [CO2], but no effect of [CO2] on stem wood density, which differed significantly only among species. PMID:12865246

Calfapietra, C; Gielen, B; Galema, A N J; Lukac, M; De Angelis, P; Moscatelli, M C; Ceulemans, R; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G

2003-08-01

304

Water use efficiency of a banana plantation in a screenhouse  

Science.gov (United States)

Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is becoming increasingly popular in arid and semi-arid regions due to the resulting decreased water use and increased fruit quality. This study focused on measurements of water vapor and CO2 fluxes in a large commercial flat-roof banana screenhouse in northern Israel whose dimensions were 300 m long, 200 m wide and 6 m high. Measurements were conducted using an eddy covariance system deployed on a pole near the center of the screenhouse, allowing a minimum fetch of 100 m in all wind directions. The system measured the three air velocity components, air sonic temperature, air humidity and CO2 concentration. Measurements were conducted during 21 days between July 7th (DOY 189) and August 17th 2007 (DOY 230). During this period the banana plants grew from 2.8 to 4.6 m height and leaf area index increased from 0.5 to 1.8. Additional measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux enabled the analysis of energy balance closure. Energy balance closure analysis gave the regression line Y = 0.85X - 0.5 (R2 = 0.84) where Y represents the consumed energy (latent plus sensible heat fluxes) and X represents the available energy (net radiation minus soil heat flux). This result (slope close to unity) validates the measured evapotranspiration (latent heat flux). Farmer's irrigation increased during the measurement period due to both plant growth and climate variation. Daily evapotranspiration of the plantation increased from 1.7 to 3.2 mm of water during the measurement period. Daily water consumption was on average 70% of the applied irrigation, suggesting that the plantation was over-irrigated. The water use efficiency (WUE) was defined as the total daily mass of CO2 consumed by the plantation per unit mass of water used. Results show that WUE generally increased during the measurement period, implying that larger banana plants were more efficient in using the available water than smaller plants.

Tanny, J.; Dicken, U.; Grava, A.; Cohen, S.

2009-04-01

305

Energy dynamics and bioenergy production of Populus deltoides G-3 Marsh plantation in eastern India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy content of stems, branches, roots and litter was determined using an oxygen bomb calorimeter, and these data were used to estimate energy storage, net energy fixation and energy transfer within poplar (Populus deltoides G-3 Marsh) plantations of two ages at the Research Farm of Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar, India. Energy fixation, storage and energy released and exit from the 7-year-old plantation were 1.69, 2.11 and 1.53 times that of the 5-year-old plantation. The net energy fixation was 243.08 GJ ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} in 5-year-old and 410.57 GJ ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} in 7-year-old plantation. The energy conservation efficiency in the 7-year-old plantation was higher (1.51%) than that of the 5-year-old plantation (0.89%). The 5-year-old plantation showed lower energy accumulation ratio (2.02) resulting from less energy accumulation in components of poplar tree and greater annual turnover in terms of litter fall. The energy stored in the above-ground tree components from 2131.87 ha (5-year old) and 1002.88 ha (7-year old) or in the above-ground net annual production from 3924.15 ha (5-year old) and 2386.37 ha (7-year old) of poplar plantations is sufficient to operate a 5 MW generating station for 1 year. Above-ground biomass and net production from 1 ha of 5-year-old and 7-year-old poplar plantations is sufficient to meet the energy need of an average household in eastern India for 8.5 and 18.0 years and 4.6 and 7.6 years, respectively. (author)

Das, D.K. [Department of Forestry, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa 848 125 Samastipur, Bihar (India); Chaturvedi, O.P. [National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi 284 003, UP (India)

2009-01-15

306

Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids  

CERN Document Server

To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

2005-01-01

307

Respiratory diseases in wood workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was carried out on wood workers and on a group of unexposed, healthy controls. One group of wood workers (group A) were asymptomatic and another (group B) had symptoms either of chronic cough and dyspnoea on exertion (B1) or dyspnoea at work and bronchial hyperreactivity (B2). The control group (group C) was randomly selected from among a population of laboratory workers. No significant differences were found among the groups with respect to the frequency of atopy but the prevalence of a positive skin reaction to wood extracts was significantly higher in the asthmatic subjects. The adjusted FVC and FEV1/FVC% were significantly higher in B1 than in the other groups; the FEV1 was lower in B1 than in B2 and in B2 than in the other groups; TLCO and KCO differed significantly in all four groups. A significant negative correlation was observed between FEV1, MEF50, TLCO and KCO and duration of exposure to wood dusts. The alveolar volumes were not significantly different between the groups and were not correlated with duration of exposure. These results confirm the observation that exposure to wood dust or to some bronchoreactive substances linked with wood working can induce chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). Some cases of wood dust asthma seem to be related to an immediate allergic reaction, but precipitating antibodies appear to be an index of exposure rather than of disease. The decrease in diffusion capacity can be ascribed to a thickening of the alveolar capillary membranes secondary to an alveolitis like, non-symptomatic, allergic reaction. PMID:3814535

Carosso, A; Ruffino, C; Bugiani, M

1987-01-01

308

Carbon stocks and productivity in forest plantations (Kyoto forests) in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aboveground biomass, increment and carbon stock in a 36 forest plantations chronosequence of different ages were quantified. Results have been extrapolated in time using the Richard’s model. Maximum carbon stock was measured in 23 years old plantations (37 tC ha-1) and annual carbon stock rate occurs at 9 years (3.4 tC ha-1 year-1). After this age it decreases to reach 0.40 tC ha-1 year-1 at 23 years after plantation.

Alberti G; Marelli A; Piovesana D; Peressotti A; Zerbi G; Gottardo E; Bidese F

2006-01-01

309

Carbon stocks and productivity in forest plantations (Kyoto forests in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aboveground biomass, increment and carbon stock in a 36 forest plantations chronosequence of different ages were quantified. Results have been extrapolated in time using the Richard’s model. Maximum carbon stock was measured in 23 years old plantations (37 tC ha-1 and annual carbon stock rate occurs at 9 years (3.4 tC ha-1 year-1. After this age it decreases to reach 0.40 tC ha-1 year-1 at 23 years after plantation.

Alberti G

2006-01-01

310

Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo  

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This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E). The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane...

Dzaba, D.; Nganga, D.; Moundzeo, L.; Pandzou, J.

2011-01-01

311

Reptiles in Monterey pine plantations of the Coastal Range of Central Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: In Chile, most of the timber industry depends on Monterey pine (Pinus radíala (D. Don.)) plantations, which now cover more than 1.5 million ha. In spite of the intensive management of these plantations, they are home to a large number of wildlife species. One of the least known groups in [...] this type of environment are reptiles. For this reason, we conducted a study on the distribution and abundance of reptiles at plantations of different ages in seven sites in the Coastal Range of Central Chile. RESULTS: From seven species that could be potentially found in the study region, a total of five species were recorded, with Liolaemus lemniscatus (Gravenhorst) being the most abundant (with up to 160 ind*ha-1). Detectability of species was similar in young and mature plantations but Liolaemus tenuis (Duméril and Bibron), the most colorful species, showed a higher detection probability than the other species. The highest abundance of reptiles was found in young plantations, and the density of L. lemniscatus and Liolaemus chiliensis (Lesson) declined significantly with plantation development. Liolaemus schroederi (Müller and Hellmich) increased significantly its numbers in 4- to 5-year-old plantations and remained with similar densities in mature plantations. L. tenuis density was low in all plantations and showed no relationship with age. The snake Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann) was recorded very few times and only in young plantations. Vegetation characteristics explained a significant proportion of the variation in the abundance of reptiles, with dense understories negatively affecting the abundance of lizards, likely by reducing the amount of heat and sunlight reaching the plantation's interior. The type of microhabitats with the highest number of lizard records was scrub and harvest debris. CONCLUSIONS: This work confirms the role of pine plantations as habitat for an important proportion of reptile species in South Central Chile and provides some relationships with management variables that can be used to enhance the contribution of these artificial forests to biodiversity conservation.

Sandra V, Uribe; Cristián F, Estades.

312

Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations Balanço de N em solos sob plantações de eucalipto  

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Full Text Available An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years. Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N; Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.O entendimento da participação de reservas orgânicas de N no suprimento de plantações de eucalipto é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que maximizem a eficiência no uso de N por essa cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de reservas orgânicas de N em diferentes compartimentos no sistema solo-planta e a contribuição desses compartimentos no suprimento de N em plantações de eucalipto em diferentes idades de cultivo (1, 3, 5 e 13 anos. Para estimar a contribuição das reservas orgânicas, foram empregados três modelos: o modelo I considerou os estoques do N contido na serapilheira e na biomassa microbiana do solo e o N disponível no solo (N mineral; o modelo II considerou os estoques de N no solo, o N potencialmente mineralizável e a exportação de N na colheita da madeira; e o modelo III (balanço de N foi definido pela diferença entre o estoque inicial de N no solo (0-10 cm e a exportação de N, somada a uma aplicação de fertilizante nitrogenado. O modelo I mostrou que as reservas de N poderiam suprir de 27 a 70 % da demanda de N pelo eucalipto entre as idades. O modelo II mostrou que o estoque de N no solo pode ser suficiente para quatro a cinco rotações de cinco anos. Pelo balanço de N, o estoque de N seria suficiente para suprir a demanda desse nutriente pelo eucalipto por mais de 15 rotações de cinco anos. As reservas orgânicas contribuem para o fornecimento de N em diferentes magnitudes e, em conjunto, são suficientes para atender à demanda de N pelo eucalipto por várias rotações de cultivo.

Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto

2012-08-01

313

PLUM PLANTATION VALUE BASED ON REAL OPTION CONTRIBUTION  

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Full Text Available This paper is aimed to stress the modern methods of project value analysis based on valuation of opportunities emerged during the project’s life. Traditional appraisal methodology can hardly incorporate option value and quantify management flexibility. Therefore, traditional investment appraisal should be completed with option value evaluation (Real Option. The appliance of option quantification is showed on a model of plum and plum brandy production as an extension activity. Results of traditional NPV analysis for 1 ha of plum production imply to be unacceptable. On the other hand, economic analysis of extended plum brandy production indicates high profitability. It implies that plum plantation has an option calculated using Black-Scholes and Binomial model. Plum production strategic NPV that includes option value is in this case 2 950.54 EUR indicating acceptability of investment.

Lari Hadelan

2009-06-01

314

Proposal of a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations, to identify areas where eucalyptus planting could be developed, and to determine suitability of such areas. The study area was the County of Vassouras, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, considering physical data, environmental legislation, urban areas, and the municipal land use plan. The areas for permanent preservation, as well as the conservation units and areas for industrial expansion, as defined in the county land use plan, plus areas nearby the city were considered restricted for the planting of eucalyptus trees. Vassouras is 552 km² large. Approximately 144 km² are suitable eucalyptus planting, of which 97% are now used for pastures. Approximately 50% of the area suitable for eucalyptus is of average suitability, whereas the class of highest suitability occupies about 30%. The less suitable areas correspond to 20% of the remaining 144 km2.

Leonardo Duarte Batista da Silva

2012-06-01

315

Nutrient losses in forest plantations in Sabah, Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic nutrients are lost from terrestrial ecosystems through the harvesting of plant products, leaching, soil erosion and volatilization of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. In this study, carried out in a tropical rain forest ecosystem in Sabah, Malaysia, losses of inorganic nutrients through log removal and runoff/leaching to stream water were compared in clear-fellings, harvested and prepared for planting in two different ways: (i) tractor logging/burning; (ii) and manual logging/no burning. The major findings of the study were that nutrient losses in stream water were reduced by 50% and growth of the planted forest was twice as fast on the catchment where soil disturbance was minimized and burning not used. Weeds were more abundant after burning, and the extra weeding needed increased costs for plantation establishment. Ways of decreasing the loss of inorganic nutrients when clear-felling tropical rain forests are discussed. 32 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

316

Acute formic acid poisoning in a rubber plantation worker.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the workers in a rubber plantation in South India, ingestion of formic acid either accidentally or with suicidal intention is a common problem. Formic acid is diluted and used for coagulation of rubber latex. Easy availability makes formic acid a common poison. The aim of this article is to study the case of formic acid poisoning, its complications and management. Patient was managed symptomatically. Antidote was not used and no nasogastric aspiration was done. Patient had dysphagia; nutrition was maintained with open gastrostomy done on day 5 and subsequent enteral feeding. Measures to prevent anticipated complications were undertaken. Stricture of the esophagus is a common complication leading to long-term morbidity. After initial management, all patients should be on follow-up for prevention and management of strictures. Workers should be educated on complications of formic acid poisoning and easy availability should be curtailed by enforcing remedial measures. PMID:25006314

More, Dattatrai Kashinath; Vora, Mahmedsaeed; Wills, Vimod

2014-01-01

317

Wood waste production for industrial use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood wastes are a product of regular selective thinning. Selective thinning is done along silvicultural lines, mostly with a view to obtaining a large proportion of high-grade wood products. In so far the widely deplored discrepancy between expenditure for forest care and profits from the sale of the accruing types of wood does not necessarily mean that wood waste production is ineconomical. In fact, wood waste production is economical as long as the cost of handling wood wastes is balanced by profits. (orig.)

318

WOOD MODIFICATION BY HEAT TREATMENT: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wood heat treatment has increased significantly in the last few years and is still growing as an industrial process to improve some wood properties. The first studies on heat treatment investigated mainly equilibrium mois-ture, dimensional stability, durability and mechanical properties. Mass loss, wettability, wood color, and chemical transformations have been subsequently extensively studied, while recent works focus on quality control, modeling, and study the reasons for the improvements. This review explains the recent interest on the heat treatment of wood and synthesizes the major publications on this subject on wood properties, chemical changes, wood uses, and quality control.

Bruno M. Esteves

2009-02-01

319

SMALL WOODEN OBJECTS USING EUCALYPT SAWMILL WOOD WASTE  

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Full Text Available Forest industries look for multiple utilizations for their timber production. In Brazil, the genus Eucalyptus has a great potential for solid wood products; however, only a small amount of Eucalyptus is used as sawn timber. About 50% of the log volume ends up as waste during mechanical processing, resulting in serious economic and environmental problems. In most cases, such residue is discarded at random or used as fuel, and in this context the sustainable management of processing industrial waste is an urgent necessity. Parallel to this, Eucalyptus has not been employed for small wooden object (SWO production. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of small wooden objects produced with Eucalyptus urophylla, E. camaldulensis, and E. grandis waste from sawmilling. Brazilian craftsmen manufactured SWOs with Eucalyptus, and these crafted objects were presented at exhibits and trade fairs for assessment. The proposed small wooden objects made with Eucalyptus residues exhibited satisfactory performance and achieved excellent acceptance by the visitors. This work gave evidence that the use of sawmill waste as raw material for small wooden object manufacture has potential to generate income for economically underprivileged communities near to a plantation.

Renato da Silva Vieira

2010-05-01

320

Native tree species regulate nitrous oxide fluxes in tropical plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary and managed plantation forests comprise a rapidly increasing portion of the humid tropical forest biome, a region that, in turn, is a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere. Previous work has demonstrated reduced N2O emissions in regenerating secondary stands compared to mature forests, yet the importance of species composition in regulating N2O production in young forests remains unclear. We measured N2O fluxes beneath four native tree species planted in replicated, 21-yr-old monodominant stands in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica in comparison with nearby mature forest and abandoned pasture sites at two time points (wetter and drier seasons). We found that species differed eight-fold in their production of N2O, with slower growing, late-successional species (including one legume) promoting high N2O fluxes similar to mature forest, and faster growing, early successional species maintaining low N2O fluxes similar to abandoned pasture. Across all species, N2O flux was positively correlated with soil nitrate concentration in the wetter season and with soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) in the drier season. However, the strongest predictor of N2O fluxes was fine-root growth rate, which was negatively correlated with N2O emissions at both time points. We suggest that tree-specific variation in growth habits creates differences in both N demand and soil water conditions that may exert significant control on N2O fluxes from tropical forests. With the advent of REDD+ and related strategies for fostering climate mitigation via tropical forest regrowth and plantations, we note that species-specific traits as they relate to N2O fluxes may be an important consideration in estimating overall climate benefits. PMID:24988773

Weintraub, Samantha R; Russell, Ann E; Townsend, Alan R

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment rate fully comparable to a tertiary effluent quality with regard to biodegradable organic material and eutrophying nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Introductory analyses of the costs of a wastewater irrigated willow plantation for bio-fuel production indicate that the benefits of the wastewater treatment per se appear to be greater than the benefits from the increased production of wood chips. The risks of contamination via faecal micro-organisms of animals and humans seem possible to reduce or eliminate if proper precautions are taken. The awareness of the hygienic aspects is among the most important issues to deal with concerning the public acceptance. The gathered opinion from the members of the multidisciplinary project team is that the concept of recycling wastewater or fractions of wastewater within willow plantations for combined energy production and wastewater treatment would be worth developing on a wider scale. Experiences from a few full-scale facilities in Sweden are well in accordance with the findings outlined here. The fact that wastewater could be treated at reasonable costs might encourage the municipal sector as well as the energy and agricultural industry in Europe to further expand the concept with increased willow plantation areas as a consequence. This would increase the opportunities for an over all better environment for generations to come.

Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

2003-01-01

322

Equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para plantio de Ocotea porosa Estimating wood volume in plantation of Ocotea porosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conhec

er o volume de madeira de uma floresta é de extrema relevância. Equações de volume para espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista se restringem quase que exclusivamente a araucária. Equações de volume para imbuia Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart.) Barroso são inexistentes. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo desenvolver equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para árvore individual de Ocotea porosa na r...

Andreia Taborda dos Santos; Patricia Povoa de Mattos; Evaldo Muñoz Braz; Nelson Carlos Rosot

2012-01-01

323

Province-scale comparison between harvest wood products reported by ISTAT and forested areas reported by INFC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The future agreements on the LULUCF sector will probably implement the role of harvest wood products (HWP for climate change mitigation. As highlighted by many Authors however, for Italy to quantify the amount of HWP will impose a number of issues mainly related to the inconsistency of the data provided by the National Institute for Statistic (ISTAT. New data collected by the National Forest and Carbon Inventory (INFC will probably provide useful information. In the meantime, however, a comparison based on the forest area reported by INFC and data on HWP provided by ISTAT, both scaled at province level, could be proposed. The 2005 was assumed as reference year for both data sources. At this purpose, grouping the 103 Italian provinces in 9 groups mainly based on the 20 administrative regions, the Pearson coefficient of correlation was estimated, for each group, comparing the amount of harvest reported by ISTAT with (i the forest area, (ii the plantation area and (iii the total forest area, including both plantations and forests. Possible outliers were identified estimating the harvest rates per hectare of forest and considering the interquantile range of these values. A linear model was finally applied between the total forest area and the total amount of harvest estimated at regional level. The results highlighted a strong correlation between the amount of harvest reported by ISTAT and the forest area reported by INFC for 13 out of 21 regions. For 5 regions, including Lombardia, Piemonte, Lazio, Umbria and Marche the amount of harvest was only correlated with the area of plantations. No correlation was detected for Toscana region. Based on the harvest rate per hectare, 5 provinces out of 103 were identified as outliers. The amount of harvest reported for 3 of these provinces (Cremona, Mantova and Pavia was clearly referred to plantations. The analysis of the studentized residuals based on the application of the linear model, highlighted outliers values also for Piemonte region. As in the previous case, the amount of harvest reported for this region was probably partially referred to plantations. We could therefore speculate that for many regions data reported by national statistics as referred to the amount of harvest in forest, were statistically correlated with the forest area detected by INFC. However, for some important regions, such as Piemonte and Lombardia, they were clearly correlated with plantations.

Pilli R

2011-07-01

324

FLEXURAL FATIGUE OF LAMINATED WOOD  

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Full Text Available Problem statement. Local damage accumulation in goods and construction elements ultimately leading to a failure occurs due to fluctuating load effect. Results and conclusions. The results of the analysis of the experimentally obtained analytical dependences of strength characteristics and resistance to cracks of profiled laminated wood during bending in products and designs are presented. This products and designs operate under static and cyclic loading. Stresses under which cracks form in pilot samples are established from the results, as well as maximum permissible lengths of cracks for static and cyclic load. Effect of natural and technological defects of laminated wood is taken into account. Recommendation on application of laminated wood in products and designs which experience force cyclic loading under operation are given.

B. A. Bondarev

2010-12-01

325

Liquefaction of aspen poplar wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dried and green aspen poplar wood suspended in water containing alkali catalysts was converted completely to an oil, water-soluble chemical, and gases by heating for 1 hour in the presence of CO in a rocking batch reactor. Within the ranges of parameters studied: temperature of 593-633 K; nominal reaction times of less than or equal to 1 hour; water-to-wood ratio of 0.5:1-5:1; Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and NaOH catalysts; amount of catalyst 7.0-12.5%; and initial H-CO ratios of 2:1-0:1, the water-to-wood ratio was most important. Oil yields of approximately 50% with a C plus H content of approximately 80% and representing a C recovery of approximately 66% were obtained. The higher heats of combustion were 32.2-36.0 MJ/kg.

Eager, R.L.; Mathews, J.F.; Pepper, J.M.

1982-01-01

326

Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

Andrašev Siniša

2004-01-01

327

A water use and growth model for Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the environmental impact of plantation forestry using fast-growing tree species in southern India, a program of field studies was initiated in 1987 specifically to measure the water use, nutrient uptake and growth rates of the plantations. A water use and growth (WAG) model is proposed for calculating transpiration and growth of Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions. The model is based on the measured relationships between transpiration rate and basal cross-sectional area and soil moisture availability. The volume growth rate (in water-limited conditions) is assumed to be proportional to the volume of water transpired. The model is calibrated using (deuterium tracing) measurements of transpiration and measurements of growth recorded at the Puradal experimental plantation, Karnataka, southern India

328

SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

329

The environmental assessment of the wood combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the authors analysed the emissions from residential boilers burning wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. Three boilers, selected with respect to age, design, connection to heat storage tank, and type of biofuel, were included in the study. The emissions captured comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAC) and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). We have used the Life Cycle Inventory method in order to identify the main stressors generated by the wood combustion stage. In this purpose, we have analysed one type of old boiler, one type of modern boiler and a multi-fuel boiler, which can burn wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. In this article, we selected only the wood combustion stage because it is the most important according to the emissions produced. (authors)

330

Wood pellets for stoker burner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author of this article has had a stoker for several years. Wood chips and sod peat has been used as fuels in the stoker, either separately or mixed. Last winter there occurred problems with the sod peat due to poor quality. Wood pellets, delivered by Vapo Oy were tested in the stoker. The price of the pellets seemed to be a little high 400 FIM/500 kg large sack. If the sack is returned in good condition 50 FIM deposit will be repaid to the customer. However, Vapo Oy informed that the calorific value of wood pellets is three times higher than that of sod peat so it should not be more expensive than sod peat. When testing the wood pellets in the stoker, the silo of the stoker was filled with wood pellets. The adjustments were first left to position used for sod peat. However, after the fire had ignited well, the adjustments had to be decreased. The content of the silo was combusted totally. The combustion of the content of the 400 litter silo took 4 days and 22 hours. Respectively combustion of 400 l silo of good quality sod peat took 2 days. The water temperature with wood pellets remained at 80 deg C, while with sod peat it dropped to 70 deg C. The main disadvantage of peat with small loads is the unhomogenous composition of the peat. The results of this test showed that wood pellets will give better efficiency than peat, especially when using small burner heads. The utilization of them is easier, and the amount of ash formed in combustion is significantly smallermed in combustion is significantly smaller than with peat. Wood pellets are always homogenous and dry if you do not spoil it with unproper storage. Pellets do not require large storages, the storage volume needed being less than a half of the volume needed for sod peat. When using large sacks the amount needed can even be transported at the trunk of a passenger car. Depending on the area to be heated, a large sack is sufficient for heating for 2-3 weeks. Filling of stoker every 2-5 day is not an enormous task

331

Wood fuelled boiler operating costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

332

A new feller-buncher for harvesting energy wood: Results from a European test programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, some manufacturers have developed new downsized feller-bunchers that are particularly suited to small-tree harvesting. One of these machines was tested in some of the most promising small tree resources of Europe, namely: Finnish young conifer forests, French hornbeam coppice and Italian sycamore plantations. The tests were conducted within the scope of a 3-year long European project, whose goal was to assess the suitability of this new technology to the production of wood biomass from silvicultural operations. Depending on site characteristics, the machine reached an average productivity between 4 and 8 green tonnes per net working hour, comparing favourably with other European shear-type felling heads and qualifying for deployment on a European scale. (author)

Spinelli, Raffaele [CNR-Ivalsa, Timber and Tree Institute, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cuchet, Emmanuel [Afocel, Charrey sur Saone (France); Roux, Philippe [Cemagref, TEMO, Montpellier (France)

2007-04-15

333

A case study in Bangka Island, Indonesia on the utilization of pesticides in black pepper plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Habits and consequences of pesticide use in pepper plantations were studied in Indonesia. The first study was conducted by questioning 117 farmers about their habits in pesticide use and determining pesticide residues on pepper berries on Bangka Island. Meanwhile, the second study was completed by analyzing exposure levels of pesticide in farmers' bodies before and after pesticide application to pepper plantations at Sukamulya, West Java. Risks of pesticide exposure to below ground terrestria...

Wiratno; Taniwiryono, D.; Brink, P. J.; Rietjens, I. M. C. M.; Murk, A. J.

2007-01-01

334

An Assessment of Tree Plantation Activity among Smallholders in the District of Ranau, Sabah  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the tree plantation activity among smallholders in the District of Ranau, Sabah. There were six range areas involved, namely Kundasang, Randagong, Nalapak, Lohan-Bongkud, Timbua and Perancangan. The objectives of the study have been to identify the type of tree species planted, the distribution of tree plantation areas, the planting practiced, and the perception of small holders towards tree plantation activity. Data were gathered by direct observation, interviews, questionnaire, as well as secondary data, which were collected from related agencies such as the Agricultural Department and the Rubber Industrial Board in Ranau. There were 47 observations of plantation areas recorded, and the farmers involved were interviewed. The study has identified that Hevea brasiliensis and Durio zibethinus of the agriculture crops' tree were the most types planted by the small holders. Species planted under the category of other selected plantation trees were Acacia sp. (40 %, Tectona grandis (29 %, Pinus sp. (18 %, Azadirachta excels, Neolamarckia cadamba, Octomeles sumatrana and Eucalyptus sp.(13 %. The species of Acacia sp., Tectona grandis, Octomeles sumatrana and Eucalyptus sp. were found at Randagong, Lohan-Bongkud, Timbua and Perancangan while Pinus sp. was mainly found at Kundasang. Azadirachta excelsa, Neolamarckia cadamba and Octomeles sumatrana were only found at Timbua, Lohan and Nalapak. The study has also revealed that the tree plantations among the small holders in Ranau were influenced by land areas owned by the farmer, and the willingness to wait for the long term outcome of the investment. Integrated planting among trees and various crops was applied in order to maximize the usage of the available land. The tree plantation under the category of agriculture crops was mainly for the purpose of economic income, while other selected plantation trees were cultivated for landscaping, long term investment and also for soil protection.

Walter Lintangah

2010-08-01

335

Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation) stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests). Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhin...

Abu Hassan Ahmad; Aiman Hanis Jasmi

2011-01-01

336

STRUCTURE OF SOIL FOOD WEB IN SMALLHOLDER COCOA PLANTATION, SOUTH KONAWE DISTRICT, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An understanding of the structure of the soil food web is critical in determining the practices of soil fertility management based on the biological processes in tropical agricultural regions. The objectives of the study were to assess the variation in trophic level biomass and to analyze the dynamics of the energy channels on the increasing age of cocoa plantation. The characteristics of soil food web structure in smallholder cocoa plantation aged 4, 5, 7, 10, and 16 years were analyzed. The...

Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid; Tati Suryati Syamsudin; Endah Sulystiawati; Fransiscus-Xaverius Susilo

2014-01-01

337

Sediment Enrichment Ratio and Nutrient Leached by Runoff and Soil Erosion on Cacao Plantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil consevation management system is an activity for diminishing sediment enrichment ratio and nutrient leachedsby water run off and soil erosion processes. The research was aimed to study sediment enrichment ratio and nutrientleached by run off and soil erosion on cacao plantations. Arachis pintoi with strips parallel contour and multiplestrip cropping of upland rice or soybean (Glycine max) were planted to improve soil physical characterictic oncacao plantation as a main plant. The exprime...

Oteng Haridjaja

2012-01-01

338

Soil carbon stocks decrease following conversion of secondary forests to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha(-1) in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha(-1) to an increase of 8 Mg C ha(-1). In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes. PMID:23894456

de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

2013-01-01

339

Characteristics of Soil Fauna Communities and Habitat in Small-Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The composition of soil fauna community have played an important role in regulating decomposition and nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystems (include cocoa plantation). Changes in food availability and conditions in the soil habitat can affect the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. This study aimed: (i) to analyze the pattern of changes in soil fauna community composition and characteristic of soil habitat based on the increasing age of cocoa plantation, and (ii) to identify taxa of soil fau...

Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid; Tati Suryati Syamsudin; Franciscus Xaverius Susilo; Endah Sulistyawati; Hasbullah Syaf

2013-01-01

340

Phosphorus cycling in fast growing forest plantations: availability, plant uptake and the role of forest floor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[eng] The research reported in this thesis focuses on studying the effects of naturally occurring mycorrhiza and the role of forest floor in the cycling of P in fast growing forest plantations. In order to study the effects of mycorrhizae on forest soils fertility and the subsequent seedling growth response, radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) seedlings were grown in pots using the soil collected from a mature (23 year old) radiata pine plantation. The experiment was arranged in a two factor ...

Romanya? I Socoro?, Joan

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Natural Forest Biomass Estimation Based on Plantation Information Using PALSAR Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forests play a vital role in terrestrial carbon cycling; therefore, monitoring forest biomass at local to global scales has become a challenging issue in the context of climate change. In this study, we investigated the backscattering properties of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data in cashew and rubber plantation areas of Cambodia. The PALSAR backscattering coefficient (?0) had different responses in the two plantation types b...

Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Sawada, Haruo

2014-01-01

342

Productivity and Profitability of Forest Machines in the Harvesting of Normal and Overgrown Willow Plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forage harvesters used in Short Rotation Willow Coppice (SRWC) plantations in Sweden suffer from an inability to efficiently harvest stems thicker than 6 – 7 cm at stump height. An alternative, when harvesting in such plantations, might be to use forest machines fitted with accumulating felling heads. This study aimed to measure the time consumption and to compare the costs of two forest machine systems in a normal (N) and an overgrown (O) SRWC, where the respective biomass densities were 3...

Fulvio Di Fulvio; Dan Bergström; Kalvis Kons; Tomas Nordfjell

2012-01-01

343

ASSESSMENT OF OIL PALM PLANTATION AND TROPICAL PEAT SWAMP FOREST WATER QUALITY BY MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports the spatio-temporal changes in river and canal water quality of peat swamp forest and oil palm plantation sites of Sarawak, Malaysia. To investigate temporal changes, 192 water samples were collected at four stations of BatangIgan, an oil palm plantation site of Sarawak, during July-November in 2009 and April-July in 2010. Nine water quality parameters including Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, Turbidity (TER), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Temperature (TEMP), Chemical Oxygen Dem...

Seca Gandaseca; Noraini Rosli; Mohammad Shawkat Hossain; Chandra Imam Arianto

2014-01-01

344

Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

2005-04-28

345

Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, ?-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of ?-Raman and ?-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested

346

Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High fossil fuel prices and ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have increased demand for renewable energy and are changing wood fuel market structures. Wood fuels are to a rapidly growing degree used in industrial proportions and traded in commercial markets. Wood fuels are seen as a key component to achieve policy goals related to climate change, especially in the EU. In the six papers that form the basis for this thesis, prices of wood fuels in Northern Europe are analyzed by mea...

Olsson, Olle

2012-01-01

347

Factors for converting hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) into black alder (Alnus glutinosa Yalt.) plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hazelnut plantations, which are a major source of income for the villagers in the eastern Black sea region are notable to provide sufficient income to the villagers due to price fluctuations and sudden falls witnessed in recent years. Alternative investments in place of hazelnut cultivation are being investigated in order to prevent migration to urban areas and to increase the welfare of the rural population in the region. Black alder plantation investments have been assessed as one of the most essential alternative investment tools within the framework of the study Assessment was carried out by comparing expected possible net present values (NPV). Although value increase occurs 12-18 years later more income can be obtained through black alder than hazelnut plantation. In hazelnut plantations, the best NPV emerged in the lower zone. NPV was positive in the moderate zone but values were close to zero. In upper zone, positive NPV couldn't emerge. As a result, it was understood that black alder plantation investment is an effective alternative for hazelnut plantations. PMID:20120499

Durkaya, Ali; Durkaya, Birsen

2009-07-01

348

A Comparison of Litterfall Dynamics in Three Coniferous Plantations of Identical Age under Similar Site Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate litterfall dynamics in three adjacent coniferous treeplantations (larch: Larix leptolepis; red pine: Pinus densiflora; rigitaeda pine: P. rigitaeda planted in the sameyear (1963, and growing under similar environmental conditions in the Sambong Exhibition Forests, Hamyanggun,Gyeongsangnam-do. Litter was collected monthly between July 2006 and June 2008. Needle, broad leafand total litter inputs followed a similar monthly pattern in the three coniferous plantations. The amounts ofneedles, flowers, and miscellaneous litter were significantly lower in the larch than in the two pine plantations,while branch litter was significantly higher in the larch than in the two pine plantations. Average total litterfallfor two years was significantly higher for the pine (5,475 kg ha-1 yr-1 for red pine and 5,290 kg ha-1 yr-1 forrigitaeda pine plantations than for the larch (3,953 kg ha-1 yr-1 plantation. Needle litter comprised about 73.1%of total litterfall for the rigitaeda pine, 70.8% for the red pine and 62.9% for the larch plantations. Our resultsdemonstrate that litterfall inputs can be affected by tree species.

Jeong, Jaeyeob

2009-05-01

349

Phlebotomine sandflies and leishmaniasis risks in Colombian coffee plantations under two systems of cultivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of traditional (shaded) and intensified (unshaded) coffee plantations in Colombia was sampled by a variety of methods and the species composition and density under the two systems compared. Twenty species of Lutzomyia sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) were collected, of which eight were found only in the 'Coffee Axis' ('Eje Cafetero') of the departments of Caldas, Risaralda and Quindio, six were exclusive to the department of Norte de Santander and six occurred in both regions. Four species were collected only in traditional plantations and two exclusively in intensified ones. At least 13 species occurred in both plantation types. Fifteen species are opportunistic man-biters and eight are suspected vectors of leishmaniasis caused by Le. braziliensis, Le. panamensis or Le. mexicana. Seven species were collected inside houses and may be involved in intradomiciliary transmission of Leishmania. The dominant species in Norte de Santander was Lu. spinicrassa, which made up 93.8% of all the sandflies collected in this department. This species was absent from the Eje Cafetero and a number of others among the 15 recorded there might be responsible for Leishmania transmission in this region, including Lu. trapidoi, Lu. yuilli, Lu. gomezi, L. hartmanni and Lu. ovallesi. Sandfly population densities were significantly higher in traditional plantations than in intensified ones. Residents of traditional plantations were able to describe sandflies in significantly more detail than those of intensified plantations, based on seven basic characteristics related to the appearance and biting behaviour of the insects. PMID:11776455

Alexande; Agudelo, L A; Navarro, F; Ruiz, F; Molina, J; Aguilera, G; Quiñones, M L

2001-12-01

350

[Root exudates and soil microbes in three Picea asperata plantations with different stand ages].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the dynamics of in situ root exudates and soil microbial composition among three Picea asperata plantations with different stand ages (9, 13 and 31 a) in Miyaluo, west Sichuan, China. The results showed that the secretion rates of root exudation per fine biomass, length, surface area and tip were significantly different among the three plantations with different stand ages. The secretion rate of root exudation was the highest in the 9-year-old plantation stand. The root activity of P. asperata was the weakest in the 13-year-old plantation stand. Besides, soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were significantly different among the three plantation stands. MBC and MBN contents of rhizosphere soil gradually increased with stand ages, while those of non-rhizosphere soil were the largest in the 13-year-old plantation stand. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and their summation in rhizosphere soil presented a trend of high-low-high with stand ages. The opposite pattern was found in the PLFAs of bacteria, fungi, the summation of PLFA, and the ratio of fungi number to bacteria in non-rhizosphere soil. It is suggested that root exudates might have a positive rhizosphere effect on soil microbial biomass C, N and PLFAs of functional groups. PMID:24830229

Li, Jiao; Jiang, Xian-Min; Yin, Hua-Jun; Yin, Chun-Ying; Wei, Yu-Hang; Liu, Qing

2014-02-01

351

Evaluation of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Poplar Plantations in North of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil physical and chemical properties and some quantitative characteristics of Populus deltoides Marsh (clone 79.51 plantations and relationships between them were evaluated in Guilan plain of north of Iran. Two same aged poplar plantations with low and high qualities were selected. In each poplar plantation, fifteen sample plots with systematic sampling method were selected. In each sample plot diameter at breast height (DBH as well as height of all trees within them was determined. Soil samples were taken from 0-20cm in each plot and soil texture, water holding capacity (WHC, bulk density (B.D and particle density (P.D as well as soil porosity, O.C, N, available P and exchangeable K were determined for each soil sample in laboratory. Tree data and soil properties between two plantations were analysed using independent samples t-test (Student’s t test at p < 0.05. The results showed that among soil physical properties, percentage of clay, sand, B.D and WHC and amongst soil chemical properties O.C, N, available P and exchangeable K were significantly different between two plantations. Heavy textured soils with high B.D are undesirable for growing of populus deltoides in study area. The results also indicated that poor quality plantations has negative effect on soil nutrient and reduces its fertility. Reduction of nutrient availability had negative effects on quantity and quality of poplar trees.

Ali Salehi

2012-12-01

352

WOOD COLOR CHANGES BY AMMONIA FUMING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of ammonia gas on wood color changes in response to an increasing demand for dark colored wood specimens. The darker wood color in ammonia fuming is accomplished through chemical reactions between ammonia gas and wood compounds. We exposed oak, maple, spruce, and larch wood samples to ammonia gas for 16 days. During fuming, the color changes were studied using CIE L*a*b* parameters. After fuming, the changes in extractives content, tannin, and nitrogen content were analyzed. The chemical changes of wood and residues of wood extractives after fuming were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Oak wood reacted intensively with ammonia gas in a very short time, and the darkening was prominent for all the investigated wood species. It was established that tannin had no major influence on color changes of maple and larch wood in the ammonia-fuming process. The FTIR spectra of fumed wood indicated involvement of carbonyl groups, and the FTIR spectra of wood extractives indicated involvement of carbonyl, aromatic, and alcohol groups in reaction with ammonia gas.

Josip Mikle?i?,

2012-06-01

353

Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

Fouchal, Fazia; Dubois, Frederic; Sauvat, Nicolas

2011-01-01

354

Efficiency of natural wood extractives as wood preservatives against termite attack  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wood extractives play a major role in the protection of wood against termite and fungal attack. Wood extractives from three hard wood species of Milicia excelsa, Albizia coriaria and Markhamia lutea that are known to be very resistant against termite attack and fungal decay were studied to assess their role as wood preservatives in Uganda. Acetone, hexane and distilled water were used in the extraction of these compounds from the outer heartwood of the selected durable species. Extraction was...

Syofuna, A.; Banana, A. Y.; Nakabonge, G.

2012-01-01

355

Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.

Jacobsen, Gitte HØjbjerg; Schaumburg, Inger

2010-01-01

356

Wood decomposing abilities of diverse lignicolous fungi on nondecayed and decayed beech wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested the decay abilities of 28 isolates from 28 lignicolous fungal species (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota) with the pure culture test. We used beech wood powder in varying moisture conditions and decay stages (nondecayed, intermediately decayed and well decayed) as substrates. The weight loss in wood powder was -0.2-17.8%. Five isolates of Basidiomycota (Bjerkandera adusta, Mycena haematopus, Omphalotus guepiniformis, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor) caused high weight losses in nondecayed wood. We detected significant effects of decay stage on weight loss in wood in most isolates tested, whereas moisture content rarely had an effect on weight loss. Among Basidiomycota and Xylariaceae in Ascomycota weight loss was greater for nondecayed wood than for intermediately and well decayed wood. In contrast four isolates in Ascomycota (Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii) caused substantial weight loss in intermediately and well decayed wood, although they rarely caused weight loss in nondecayed wood. Zygomycota caused low weight loss in wood. Wood decay stages also affected decomposition of wood chemical components. Acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) decomposition was reduced, whereas holocellulose decomposition was stimulated by some strains of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in well decayed wood. T. harzianum in particular caused significant weight loss of holocellulose in well decayed wood, although this fungus caused negligible weight loss of both AUR and holocellulose in nondecayed wood. We discuss these changes in the decay patterns of AUR and holocellulose with varying wood decay stages in relation to the role of fungal decomposition of woody debris in forests. PMID:21262989

Fukasawa, Yu; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

357

Extraction of oil palm plantations on the undulating terrains in the Borneo using PALSAR Global Mosaic  

Science.gov (United States)

Conversions of forests and peat swamps into oil palm plantations might cause decrease of net ecosystem production, change of water stream and loss of biodiversity. Most of the oil plantations in the South East Asia have been expanded in the past decade. For monitoring the distribution and condition of these plantations, the PALSAR Global Mosaic data set (PGM) have been utilized. This PGM is one of the L-Band Synthetic Aparture Radar (SAR) data sets orthorectified and mosaicked (unified). Unlike optical satellite imagery, the L-band SAR is useful especially for cloudy tropic regions. In addition, PGM have high resolution (about 10 m) and contains cross polarization (HV) SAR data which is useful for observation of forest because cross polarization SAR data contain data of the volume scattering which reflect the volume of plant bodies. On the other hand, topographic effect in PGM is not reduced sufficiently because of low resolution of DEM utilized to make PGM. As a result, pixel value of PGM is affected by the highlight effect especially in undulating terrains. These undulating terrains consist of rises which have about 10m height, exist in about 100m horizontal interval and cause striped patterns on SAR images. These patterns result in difficulty in extracting oil palm plantation using SAR imagery in the undulating terrains. However, many papers extracting oil palm plantations didn't show the accuracy of distributions extracted as oil palm plantation in the undulating terrains and thus it isn't clear how well oil palm plantations on the undulating terrains can be extracted. In this study, we carried out a supervised classification and extracted oil palm plantations in the north-west of Borneo Island. The Island is a part of the South East Asia and contains undulating terrains. In this extraction, we used the PGM data, a learning model and the training data made from PGM data, aerial photograph, high resolution optical satellite data and field survey data. After extraction, we assessed accuracy of the area extracted as oil palm plantations on undulating terrains using land cover maps made from high resolution aerial photo graph, optical satellite imagery and field survey data. In addition, we discussed the distribution of each land covers in a feature space (scatter diagram for many types of values such as pixel value and filtered pixel value which belong to each land covers) and discussed the structure of the learning model for extraction. As a result, we confirmed that the oil palm plantations on the undulating terrains can be extracted with high accuracy when PGM is used.

Tanigaki, Y.; Ishii, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Nagai, S.; Suzuki, R.

2013-12-01

358

Effects of Converting Secondary Forest on Peat to Oil Palm Plantation on Carbon Sequestration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Peat has been identified as one of the major groups of soils found in Malaysia. Sarawak as the largest state in Malaysia has the biggest reserve of peat-land. There are about 1.5 million ha of peat-land in Sarawak, which are relatively under developed. As is the case with any plant, oil palm trees do sequester carbon as they grow. Nevertheless, the process of clearing forest in order to establish a plantation may release more carbon. The carbon losses may be greater when the plantation established on peat-land, which store vast amounts of carbon but release it as they are drained. Little study has been done on the comparison of soil organic matter, soil organic carbon and yield of humic acids when secondary forest on peat soil is converted to oil palm plantation. The objectives of this study were to: (i Quantify Soil Organic Matter (SOM, Soil Organic Carbon (SOC, Humic Acids (HA and stable carbon upon the conversion of secondary forest on peat to different ages of oil palm plantation and (ii Compare carbon sequestration of a secondary forest with different ages of oil palm plantation. Approach: Soil samples were collected from the secondary forest, 1, 3, 4 and 5 year old oil palm plantation at the Tatau district. Ten samples were taken at random with a peat auger at 0-25 and 25-50 cm depths. The bulk densities at these depths were determined by the coring method. The bulk density method was used to quantify the total carbon, total organic carbon, total organic matter, total nitrogen, humic acids and stable carbon at the stated sampling depths on per hectare basis. Results: There were no significant differences in the amounts of stable C of both secondary forest and different ages of oil palm plantations at 0-25 and 25-50 cm. The amounts of stable C of secondary forest, 1, 3, 4 and 5 year old oil palm plantation at the depth of 0-25 cm were generally higher than those in the 25-50 cm although there were no significant differences between the depths. This was attributed to higher yield of HA in the secondary forest, 1, 3, 4 and 5 year old oil palm plantation soil partly due to better humification at the depth of 0-25 cm. Conclusion: Conversion of secondary forest on peat to initial stages of oil palm plantation did not exert any differences in the amount of C sequestered.

Chng H. Ywih

2009-01-01

359

Crisis and neoliberal reforms in Africa : civil society and agro-industry in anglophone Cameroon's plantation economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book discusses the consequences of the economic and financial crisis that befell the Cameroonian agro-industrial sector in the 1980s, using as a case study the plantation economy of the anglophone region of Cameroon. Two agro-industrial enterprises have dominated the plantation sector: a huge parastatal enterprise, the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC), and a private company, Plantations Pamol du Cameroun Ltd, a subsidiary of Unilever. The crisis of the 1980s brought both companies ...

Konings, P. J. J.

2011-01-01

360

The case for wood-fuelled heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article looks at the wood heating industry in the UK and examines the heat market and the growth potential in the domestic, public, agricultural and commercial sectors. The current status of wood-fueled heating technology is considered, along with log and chip boilers, and the use of pellet fuel. The economics of wood-fuelled heating, the higher level of utilisation of wood-fuelled heating by utilities in northern European countries compared with the UK, and the barriers to the exploitation of wood fuelled heating are examined

 
 
 
 
361

Wood as a home heating fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article describes the development of clean-burning technology in three types of wood-burning appliances: catalytic, non-catalytic, and pellet stoves. A recent study by the Washington State Energy Extension Office concluded that in homes that use both electricity and wood, 73 megawatts of electricity/yr were saved by using wood. Since wood-burning stoves can now meet air quality standards, wood could be considered to be a greenhouse-neutral fuel if more trees are planted as they are consumed

362

5000 sustainable workplaces - Wood energy provides work  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the results of a study made by the Swiss Wood Energy Association on the regional and national added value resulting from large wood-fired installations in Switzerland. The number of workplaces created by these installations is also noted. Wood energy is quoted as not only being a way of using forest wastes but also as being a creator of employment. Large wood-fired heating installations are commented on and efforts to promote this type of energy supply even further are discussed. The study indicates which professions benefit from the use of wood energy and quantifies the number of workplaces per megawatt of installed power that result.

363

Wood pellets : a worldwide fuel commodity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspects of the wood pellet industry were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Details of wood pellets specifications were presented, and the wood pellet manufacturing process was outlined. An overview of research and development activities for wood pellets was presented, and issues concerning quality control were discussed. A chart of the effective calorific value of various fuels was provided. Data for wood pellet mill production in Canada, the United States and the European Union were provided, and various markets for Canadian wood pellets were evaluated. Residential sales as well as Canadian overseas exports were reviewed. Production revenues for British Columbia and Alberta were provided. Wood pellet heat and electricity production were discussed with reference to prefabricated boilers, stoves and fireplaces. Consumption rates, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and fuel ratios for wood pellets and fossil fuels were compared. Price regulating policies for electricity and fossil fuels have prevented the domestic expansion of the wood pellet industry. There are currently no incentives for advanced biomass combustion to enter British Columbia markets, and this has led to the export of wood pellets. It was concluded that climate change mitigation policies will be a driving force behind market expansion for wood pellets. tabs., figs

364

Why Simulate a Sample of Recycled Wood?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Wood products follow the same cycle as other materials: manufacture, use and disposal. For certain applications, chemical additives are added to wood to increase its durability against biological and physical attack. At the end of life, waste wood is chipped or crushed before being recovered as raw [...] material for new products or as fuel for energy. In recycled wood, there is the potential that some wood particles are contaminated by hazardous substances, such as organic or heavy metal preservatives. Therefore there is a need for a quality control method of assessing recovered wood that is on the one hand sufficiently precise and on the other not too expensive to preclude the use of recycling wood in to new products. This paper covers some preliminary research that is part of a large study that aims to develop a robust analytical method for recovered wood. However the extreme variability of recovered wood makes it difficult to develop such protocols on real recovered wood samples. Consequently, model chip piles with known contamination levels were created to simulate real world recovered wood samples.

A, Bouslamti; M.A, Irle; Belloncle, C; V, Salvador; M, Bondu; S, Hulo; B, Caron.

365

Natural radionuclides and radiocaesium contained in wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity concentrations of natural (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radioactive elements in local and imported wood samples have been investigated during the last few years. Seven local and four imported wood types were measured. The activities of the natural isotopes in both local and imported wood samples were comparable. The Chernobyl accident didn't only affect European countries through contamination of the forested but also non-wood producing countries like Egypt. A fraction of the deposited fallout radionuclides has become incorporated into wood. Most of the imported samples (? 83%) showed measurable concentration of 137Cs. The average 137Cs activity levels in local and imported wood were 0.16 and 2.75 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. The result of this study has its importance to many other wood-importing countries. (author)

366

Wood-burning on the offensive  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the discovery of fire, people all over the world have been using bio energy in the form of wood. Today bio energy is available as wood, bark, chips, pellets, wood briquettes, straw, 'energy grass', waste, biogas s (from manure), landfill gas (from dump sites), alcohols and bio diesel. In Norway, bio energy is mostly used for heating. This is because of the availability of hydroelectric power, which is rather used for mechanical energy. No less than 25 per cent of Norwegian homes are using wood-burning as their most important energy source. More than 800 000 wood-burning stoves are in use in Norway and wood-burning for heating has increased during the last years. In many countries strict environmental requirements are imposed on the waste gases from wood-burning. As is discussed in this article, much work has been done to increase the efficiency of the stoves and to reduce their emissions. Economical considerations are also given

367

Characteristics of Wood ASH/OPC Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study presents the behaviour of wood ash / OPC concrete. Chemical analysis of wood ash, bulk density, sieve analysis and specific gravity of wood ash and aggregates, consistency, setting time and slump test of the fresh paste were conducted to determine the suitability of the materials for concrete making. Mix ratio of 1:2:4 and percentage replacement level of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 percents of cement by wood ash were used. 150mm´150mm cubes were cast, cured and crushed at 28 and 60 days to determine their compressive strength. Test result indicates that the wood ash is slightly pozzolanic, water demand increases as the ash content increases and the setting time of the paste increases as the ash content increases. Compressive strength of wood ash / OPC concrete it increases with age at curing with optimum replacement of cement by wood ash of 20%.

M. ABDULLAHI

2006-01-01

368

Diversidad de termitas (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae) en plantaciones de caucho en Puerto López (Meta, Colombia) / Diversity of termites (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae) in rubber-tree plantations in Puerto López (Meta, Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estimaron la diversidad y la abundancia relativa de termitas en asociación con plantaciones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis) de diferentes edades en un núcleo forestal de la altillanura bien drenada de los Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta). Se muestrearon tres edades de plantación en dos época [...] s climáticas: lluviosa de 2009 (mayo, julio) y seca de 2010 (febrero, marzo), utilizando el método de transecto con modificaciones. Se encontraron 10 especies pertenecientes a las familias Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae) y Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae). La diversidad de termitas en plantaciones de caucho mayores a dos años fue predominantemente xilófaga y humívora siendo Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus y Grigiotermes sp. las especies con mayor frecuencia. La diversidad y abundancia de termitas xilófagas en asociación con el cultivo del caucho fue favorecida por la disponibilidad de recursos en las plantaciones de mayor desarrollo pero en ningún caso se observó actividad dañina sobre el cultivo. Los resultados sugieren un papel importante de H. convexinotatus en el reciclaje de residuos de madera, especialmente, en los rodales de mayor edad. Abstract in english The diversity and relative abundance of termites in association with rubber-tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations was estimated for different aged stands in well-drained plateau in the Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta). Three plantation ages were surveyed in two climate seasons: rainy in 2009 ( [...] May, June) and dry in 2010 (February, March), using the transect method with modifications. Ten species were found belonging to the families Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae) and Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae). Termite diversity in rubber plantations older than two years was predominately xylophagous and saprophagous, with Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus and Grigiotermes sp. being the most common species. The diversity and abundance of xylophagous termites in association with rubber trees was favored by the availability of resources in the more well developed plantations, but in no case was any damaging activity observed in the crop. The results suggest an important role for H. convexinotatus in the recycling of wood residues, especially in the older tree plantations.

Olga Patricia, PINZÓN; Ana María, Hernández; Leonardo Andrés, Malagón.

2012-12-01

369

Diversidad de termitas (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae en plantaciones de caucho en Puerto López (Meta, Colombia Diversity of termites (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae in rubber-tree plantations in Puerto López (Meta, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estimaron la diversidad y la abundancia relativa de termitas en asociación con plantaciones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis de diferentes edades en un núcleo forestal de la altillanura bien drenada de los Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta. Se muestrearon tres edades de plantación en dos épocas climáticas: lluviosa de 2009 (mayo, julio y seca de 2010 (febrero, marzo, utilizando el método de transecto con modificaciones. Se encontraron 10 especies pertenecientes a las familias Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae y Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae. La diversidad de termitas en plantaciones de caucho mayores a dos años fue predominantemente xilófaga y humívora siendo Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus y Grigiotermes sp. las especies con mayor frecuencia. La diversidad y abundancia de termitas xilófagas en asociación con el cultivo del caucho fue favorecida por la disponibilidad de recursos en las plantaciones de mayor desarrollo pero en ningún caso se observó actividad dañina sobre el cultivo. Los resultados sugieren un papel importante de H. convexinotatus en el reciclaje de residuos de madera, especialmente, en los rodales de mayor edad.The diversity and relative abundance of termites in association with rubber-tree (Hevea brasiliensis plantations was estimated for different aged stands in well-drained plateau in the Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta. Three plantation ages were surveyed in two climate seasons: rainy in 2009 (May, June and dry in 2010 (February, March, using the transect method with modifications. Ten species were found belonging to the families Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae and Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae. Termite diversity in rubber plantations older than two years was predominately xylophagous and saprophagous, with Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus and Grigiotermes sp. being the most common species. The diversity and abundance of xylophagous termites in association with rubber trees was favored by the availability of resources in the more well developed plantations, but in no case was any damaging activity observed in the crop. The results suggest an important role for H. convexinotatus in the recycling of wood residues, especially in the older tree plantations.

Olga Patricia PINZÓN

2012-12-01

370

Photodegradation of pesticides in float system effluent from tobacco plantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Several crops can generate liquid effluent containing pesticide residues. In the region of the Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brazil, one type of effluent results from the float system used in the tobacco seedling plantation. This system is an alternative that substitutes for the conventional seedbeds of to [...] bacco production. The tobacco is germinated on polystyrene tray beds on a water blade that may contain pesticides residues following the transplant of seedlings to the farm. In this paper, we have simulated in the laboratory, the photo-degradation of the pesticides present in the effluent of the float system, including the pesticides metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid. Photolysis and photoperoxidation were the methods used. The experiments were performed with a mercury vapor light bulb of 80, 125 and 250 W. The obtained results show that the photodegradation of the metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid in an optimized system presents considerable reproducibility and high degradation, requiring less time.

R. de C. de S., Schneider; B. V., Trolli; M. da S., Mazuim; G., Hauch; N. de M., Baccar; E. L., Machado.

2009-12-01

371

SOCIAL EXCLUSION: GUATEMALAN YOUTH WITHIN COFFEE PLANTATIONS AT SOCONUSCO CHIAPAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mexico's southern border is the entry point for different migratory flows, mainly from Central America, these flows have taken place under socioeconomic contexts and conditions which demand the constant livelihood strategies pursuit from people. This paper is focused on the agricultural laborers from Guatemalan origin, within coffee plantation farms at the Soconusco, Chiapas. The main objective is arguing how the lack of access -or restricted access- to education and the precarious inclusion to work and migration, have positioned youth population of migrant laborers, from Guatemalan origin, into social processes of social exclusion and vulnerability. It is concluded that conditions generated from these processes, preclude the generation of different work expectations, the access to a higher quality of life and the social mobility in a men and woman development crucial stage. The exposed information comes from quantitative and qualitative research methods. A nonrandom survey was applied to 129 families; 20 semi-structured interviews for children and adolescents within farms and 25 to actors involved in the recognition and performance of the human rights of migrant children in the southern Mexican border area.

Laura Itzel Ramírez-Ramos

2014-07-01

372

GIS-facilitated spatial narratives : Danish plantations in Ghana  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper examines the implementation and dissemination of spatial narratives within a geographical information system context with specific reference to portable GPS-enabled devices. The overall goal is to establish a framework for the creation of computer assisted 'guided tours' based on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML-file defines extended functionality for navigating within the narrative as well as additional data layers.

MØller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik

2008-01-01

373

Cover crops for erosion control in bioenergy hardwood plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of cover crops between tree rows has been suggested as a means of reducing soil erosion in short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) plantations for bioenergy production. This study is designed to test whether cover crops could reduce erosion without significantly reducing the growth and biomass yield of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) planted as the SRWC at a 1.5 X 3 in spacing. Four cover crops, winter rye grass (Lolium multigeonum L., a winter annual grass); tall fescue (Fescuta eliator L., a winter perennial grass); crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L., a winter annual legume); and interstate sericea (Lespedeza ameata L., a growing season perennial legume), are tested at two different strip widths (1.22 and 2.44 m) as well as a control with complete competition control. Small berms were built to direct runoff to a sediment fence installed at the down slope ends of each plot. Soil erosion is measured by sediment accumulation near the fence. Height, ground-line diameter and crown width of trees were measured on a monthly basis. During the first growing season all cover crops reduced growth of trees. There were some significant differences among cover crop regimes. Slight differences in soil erosion were detected during the first growing season. The control plots lost more soil per hectare than cover crops, however, strip widths and cover crops did not show any significant difference.

Malik, R.K.; Green, T.H.; Mays, D. [Alabama A& M Univ., Normal, AL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

374

Treating wood with chemical preservatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the Canadian wood is treated with chemicals to protect it against fungi. Some is treated to preserve its appearance until it is installed in a building, while other wood, used for windows, doors and outdoor furniture, is treated more extensively to protect it from decay for many years, and also from insects. Some of the chemicals used are: IPBC - 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate; TBTO - tributyltin oxide; and CCA - chromated copper arsenate. The problem facing the lumber industry was quality assurance: how to ensure that the correct amount of chemical was applied. The required amounts were well known from previous studies, but application of the correct amounts was not always achieved at the lumber mill. The problem then became how to measure the amounts of the chemicals in large numbers of wood samples quickly and reliably. Classical methods of chemical analysis, which require dissolving the sample, could not be used for two reasons. First, they are not reliable, because the chemical may form insoluble species in the wood; even if the chemical is soluble, it is still necessary to dissolve the whole piece of wood to be able to measure it. Second, they are too labour-intensive and costly. Even modern instrumental techniques that shine light or charged particles onto the piece of wood will not do the job, because they only see the chemicals at the surface, not what has penetrated. The answer is a nuclear technique. Only neutrons and high energy g radiation can neutrons and high energy g radiation can easily penetrate a piece of wood several millimetres thick to probe what is inside. In neutron activation analysis (NAA) the sample is bombarded with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. The neutrons cause nuclear reactions in the atoms of heavy elements (but not of the light elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen found in wood) and turn them into radioactive isotopes. After a few seconds the sample is removed from the reactor and placed in front of a ? ray detector. The radioactive heavy elements emit ? rays of variable energy and g rays at specific energies characteristic of the element. The g rays are detected with a germanium semiconductor spectrometer and the number of ? rays detected at an element's energy gives the amount of the element. At Ecole polytechnique in Montreal we have a small nuclear reactor called SLOWPOKE (only 5 kg uranium) that is easy to use and that is routinely used for NAA. It produces enough neutrons to easily activate the iodine in IPBC, the tin in TBTO or the arsenic in CCA. We needed to optimize our NAA method for the fast and reliable analysis of large numbers of wood samples. The NAA technique is accurate and reliable because it is simple and direct. The expertise we have developed in this field has made us the authority in several disputed cases

375

Estimating the bioenergy potential of Pinus radiata plantations in Chile / Estimación del potencial bioenergético de las plantaciones de Pinus radiata, en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se estimó el potencial bioenergético para la producción de electricidad y bioetanol de las plantaciones de Pinus radiata D. Don en Chile, usando como base datos la superfcie de plantaciones por clase de edad y región administrativa. Mediante ecuaciones de densidad de la madera por clase de edad y re [...] gión, contenido de humedad de la madera y efciencia de una hipotética planta generadora de energía eléctrica, se estimó la electricidad producida por la biomasa a la edad de cosecha incluyendo los residuos de ésta. La producción de bioetanol fue estimada en 275 L por tonelada seca. El análisis de incertidumbre de la producción de bioenergía se obtuvo mediante funciones de densidad de probabilidades y un supuesto de 1,83 millones de ha de plantaciones de P. radiata al año 2030. Los parámetros empleados incluyen la edad de rotación, incremento medio anual, tasa de plantación anual, producción de residuos según edad de rotación y efciencia de la planta eléctrica. Las simulaciones fueron realizadas para un horizonte de 20 años (2010-2030). El modelo seguido estima que el potencial de generación de biomasa de los residuos de cosecha forestal y de la madera fustal de las plantaciones de P. radiata, podría cubrir el 83,4% de la capacidad instalada de energía eléctrica del Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC), que asciende a 294,8 PJ el año 2008 y casi cuadriplica (381%) al año 2030. Según el modelo, la biomasa de residuos podría suplir el 25% o el 15% de la mezcla de un 2 y 5% de gasolina con bioetanol, respectivamente, para el 2010. Si se considera además la biomasa fustal estos valores ascienden a 190 y 76%, respectivamente. Abstract in english The bioenergy potential for electricity and ethanol production of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Chile was modeled, on a regional basis, using radiata pine plantations areas by age class. Wood basic density equations based on age and growing region, wood moisture content variability, and the ef [...] fciency of a hypothetical power plant were used to estimate the amount of electricity produced by biomass at harvesting age including logging residues. Bioethanol yield was estimated at 275 L t-1 of dry biomass. The uncertainty of the bioenergy production were analyzed using probabilistic distribution functions and an estimate of 1.83 million ha-1 of radiata pine plantations by year 2030. Parameters considered for the uncertainty analyses included the rotation age, mean annual increment, annual planting rate, logging residue production by harvesting age, and power plant effciency. Simulations were projected for 20 years (2010-2030). The results of our model suggest that biomass of logging residues and bolewood of radiata pine plantations would produce 294.8 PJ by 2008, which would cover 83.4% of the current installed capacity of the Chile Power Central Interconnected System, and could increase to four times the 2008 estimate (381%) by 2030. Model predictions suggest that bioethanol produced using biomass residues could supply 15 to 25% of gasoline blends at 2% (E98) and 5% (E95), respectively, by year 2010. Bolewood biomass could supply 76% and 190%.

Eduardo, Acuña; Miguel, Espinosa; Jorge, Cancino; Rafael, Rubilar; Fernando, Muñoz.

2010-04-01

376

Impact of logging and forest conversion to oil palm plantations on soil bacterial communities in Borneo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil bacteria, which constitute a large proportion of total biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, is a major conservation frontier. Here we studied the effects of logging history and forest conversion to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo, on the soil bacterial community. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, to compare the bacterial communities in primary, once-logged, and twice-logged forest and land converted to oil palm plantations. Bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity level, and OTU richness and local-scale ?-diversity showed no difference between the various forest types and oil palm plantations. Focusing on the turnover of bacteria across space, true ?-diversity was higher in oil palm plantation soil than in forest soil, whereas community dissimilarity-based metrics of ?-diversity were only marginally different between habitats, suggesting that at large scales, oil palm plantation soil could have higher overall ?-diversity than forest soil, driven by a slightly more heterogeneous community across space. Clearance of primary and logged forest for oil palm plantations did, however, significantly impact the composition of soil bacterial communities, reflecting in part the loss of some forest bacteria, whereas primary and logged forests did not differ in composition. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacteria of tropical forest are to some extent resilient or resistant to logging but that the impacts of forest conversion to oil palm plantations are more severe. PMID:24056463

Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Edwards, David P; Tripathi, Binu M; Adams, Jonathan M

2013-12-01

377

FUEL MODELING IN Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTATIONS IN TRÊS BARRAS COUNTY, SC, BRAZIL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An inventory was conducted in the Três Barras county, state of Santa Catarina,Brazil (latitude 26o15’ S; longitude 50o48’W, in order to develop predicting models for fuelloading in Eucalyptus dunnii plantations. Sampling was done in stands with 22, 34, 55, 78,92, 103, 113 and 124 months of age, covering the whole rotation of the plantations. Twentyplots (1.0x1.0m were randomly located in each stand, totalizing 160 plots. The independentvariables measured in the stands were age (in months, DBH (cm, dominant DBH (cm,dominant height (m of the trees, basal area (m2, and understory vegetation height (m. Thedependent variables were live surface fuel, dead foliage, dead woody fuel (separated by sizeclasses, and total fuel load, measured in ton.ha-1. Results showed good correlation betweenage of the plantations and most of the dependent (fuel related variables. Live surface fuelonly presented significant correlation with the understory vegetation height. Models weredeveloped to estimate the following variables: live surface fuel (Wv, dead fuel up to 10 hour(Æ £ 2.5cm timelag (Wd, dead foliage (Wf, and total fuel load (WT. Independent variableswere chosen not only by the correlation coefficients, but also for the measuring facility, andbased on these principles age (I, basal area (G, and understory vegetation height (Hv wereselected. Plantations age was the variable that provided best fits for all predicting models,except live surface fuel, that was best predicted through the understory vegetation height and basal area. The selected model to estimate total fuel loading was: WT = 17.256106 –0.28177*I + 0.003182*I2. Total fuel load in the Eucalyptus dunnii plantations in the studiedsite ranged from approximately 8.0 to 31.0 ton.ha-1, depending on the plantation’s age.

Luiz Joaquim Bacelar de Souza

2003-07-01

378

Discover the benefits of residential wood heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellets of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

379

Biomass Production of Common Alder (Alnus glutinosa /L./ Gaertn. in Pure Plantations and Mixed Plantations with Willow Clones (Salix sp. in Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last two decades, Croatian energy policy was directed towards the increase of renewable energy sources in the total balance. It resulted in an increased interest for breeding fast-growing hardwoods in short rotations. Although common alder is not so productive in short rotations as some willows and poplars, insufficient development of the biomass market and increased awareness for conservation of domestic forest tree species, makes it favorable for raising plantations as it is the indigenous forest tree species that can be grown in longer rotations, if needed. The estimate of above-ground dry biomass per tree (trunk and branches up to 7 cmin diameter as well as production of biomass per hectare was made in 4 experimental plantations. The research included two mixed plantations of common alder open-pollinated families with willow clones (Salix sp. and two pure common alder plantations. Experimental plantations, aged 14 and 16 years, are located in two different sites. The estimated family mean values for dry biomass varied between 12.5 and 70.9 kg per tree. The results showed considerable differences between families as well as between different silvicultural treatments. The estimated production of the common alder dry biomass varied between 27.4 and 87.5 t/ha with mean annual increments (MAI between 1.9 and 6.3 t ha –1 year –1. It was shown that willow clones have a negative influence on the alder biomass in mixed plantations, at the studied plantation age. Willow clones have shown greater biomass production, compared with common alder, in spite the fact that its planting density was far lower. Although the planting density of common alder trees was lower compared to other studies, the average biomass production is within the framework of other results, which indicates significant potential of biomass production in local conditions. The additive variance was not statistically significant for the biomass trait, which was probably caused by the dominant influence of microenvironmental factors (weed, game during the growth, but also by a small number of studied families. Statistically significant interactions of investigated families with silvicultural treatments and sites have been shown, which directs to the genetically caused differences in the adaptability of families on studied site and growth differences.

Ante Seletkovi?

2009-12-01

380

[Nutrient accumulation and cycling in pure and mixed plantations of Azadirachta indica and Acacia auriculiformis in a dry-hot valley, Yunnan Province, southwest China].  

Science.gov (United States)

To ease the implementation of effective nutrient management for plantations with different vegetation restoration patterns and to assist in the selection of appropriate species and forestation patterns, nutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) accumulation and cycling were investigated and compared in three plantations (10-year-old Azadirachta indica, Acacia auriculiformis and mixed A. indica--A. auriculiformis plantations) in Yuanmou Valley, a dry-hot valley of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China. The result showed that total nutrient accumulations were 333.05, 725.61 and 533.85 kg x hm(-2) in pure plantations of A. indica and A. auriculiformis, and in A. indica--A. auriculiformis mixed plantation, respectively. The nutrient accumulation of various organs was ranked as branches > stems > roots > leaves > bark in the A. indica plantation and branches > stems > leaves > roots > bark both in the A. auriculiformis plantation and in the mixed plantation. Changes in accumulation of various nutrients in the mixed plantation were similar to that in the A. auriculiformis plantation (Ca > N > K > Mg > P), which were different from the A. indica plantation (Ca > K > N > Mg > P). Annual net nutrient accumulation, return and absorption in these plantations ranged from 62.72 to 162.19 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1), 48.82 to 88.86 kg x hm-2 a-1 and 111.54 to 251.05 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively, which were all the highest in the A. auriculiformis planta- tion, followed by the mixed plantation, and were the lowest in the A. indica plantation. The nutrient utilization coefficient, the cycling coefficient and the recycling period were estimated to be from 0.34 to 0.39, 0.35 to 0.44, and 6.54 to 8.17 a, respectively. The lower nutrient return and circulation rate of N or P in the A. indica plantation showed that this plantation had a poor ability to maintain soil fertility, while the highest nutrient circulation rate of N or P was observed in the A. auriculiformis plantation that displayed the advantage in maintaining soil nutrients and stand productivity. The nutrient return and nutrient absorption in the mixed plantation were 167.2% and 186.2%, of those in the A. indica plantation, and the circulation rate of N, P and K were higher than those in the A. indica plantation, while the recycling period of Ca in mixed plantation was 50% shorter than that in A. auriculiformis plantation. Soil fertility and nutrient supply were improved in the A. indica and A. auriculiformis mixed plantation. PMID:25345036

Gao, Cheng-Jie; Li, Kun; Tang, Guo-Yong; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Li, Bin

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Perception of Wood in River Channels  

Science.gov (United States)

In managing river channels, wood is often perceived as hazardous and has traditionally been removed. On the other hand, wood provides many benefits including food and habitat for fish and mechanisms for energy dissipation. Increasing recognition of the positive role of wood has encouraged the reintroduction of wood to restore rivers. However, it is not clear how widely this practice is accepted, and whether traditional views of wood hazards may influence the success of such restoration projects. This paper describes a large-scale effort to increase understanding of how wood is perceived in stream channels. This project, led by H. Piegay and K.J. Gregory, involves an international group of workers from 9 countries in contrasting parts of the world. A total of 1886 surveys were given to students 20-25 years of age to test the hypothesis that the perception of wood is related to one's socio-cultural environment. Students were asked to view a set of 20 standard photographs, 10 with wood and 10 without, and to answer a set of questions related to how hazardous the scenes are perceived. Results show clear differences in perception, with students from Texas, USA, viewing streams with wood to be more dangerous, less aesthetic, and to need more improvement than those without. These perceptions contrast with those from the Pacific northwest and some areas around the world, providing clues to the potential success and acceptance of reintroducing wood in stream restoration.

Chin, A.

2003-12-01

382

WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

Gradimir Danon

2010-01-01

383

Crack propagation in biodegraded wood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

* Fungal attack in wood involves severe mechanical losses, even in the early stages, due to depolymerisation of polysaccharides. The safety of building components could therefore be affected. It is believed that fracture properties could be much more sensitive to decay than conventionally measured properties, such as weight loss.* In this study, we propose the application of a fracture mechanics test, which measures the fracture toughness, KIC, during the biodegradation process. Two softwoods...

Surini, Thibaud; Chaplain, Myriam; Castera, Patrick; Valentin, Ge?rard

2010-01-01

384

Blood parasites of wood ducks  

Science.gov (United States)

Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O., Jr.; Knipling, G.D.

1971-01-01

385

Carbon sequestration via wood burial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried