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1

Triterpene saponins of Maesa lanceolata stem wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytochemical analysis of aqueous MeOH extract of Maesa lanceolata stem wood has led to the isolation of four new triterpene saponins characterized as 16?,21?-diacetoxy-22?-angeloyl-28-hydroxyolean-12-ene 3-O-[?-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?? ? 6?)-?-glucopyranosyl-(1? ? 3')][?-glucopyranosyl-(1? ? 2')]-?-glucuronopyranoside (1), 16?-acetoxy-21?-hydroxy-22?-angeloyl-13?,28-oxydoolean-28?-ol 3-O-[?-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?? ? 6?)-?-glucopyranosyl-(1? ? 4')][?-glucopyranosyl-(1? ? 2')]-?-arabinopyranoside (2), 16?-acetoxy-21?,22?-diangeloyl-13?,28-epoxyoleanane 3-O-[?-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?? ? 6?)-?-glucopyranosyl-(1? ? 4')][?-glucopyranosyl-(1? ? 2')]-?-xylopyranoside (3), and 16?,22?-diacetoxy-13?,28-oxydoolean-28?-ol 3-O-[?-glucopyranosyl-(1? ? 2')][?-glucopyranosyl-(1? ? 3')]-?-glucuronopyranoside (4), together with the known compounds ?-acetylamyrin, physcion, emodin, chrysophanol, ursolic acid, 16?-hydroxy-12-oleanene 3-O-glucoside, ?-amyrin, sitosterol 3-O-?-glucoside, stigmasterol, and 3?,28-dihydroxyolean-12-ene. Their structural elucidation was accomplished by homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR technique as well as comparison with data from known compounds. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous MeOH extract was also investigated and zones of inhibition ranging from 32 ± 1.1 to 14 ± 0.2 mm were observed. Among the isolates, compound 1 was the most active with an minimum inhibitory concentration value of 25 ?g/ml against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23098176

Manguro, Lawrence Onyango A; Lemmen, Peter; Hao, Pang; Wong, Keng-Chong

2012-01-01

2

Comparison of bird communities in wood plantations and old fallow (southern Benin)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The birds have been used as an indicator of biodiversity in old fallows (after cultivation) and wood plantations (Tectonia grandis, Cocos nucifera and Elaeis guineensis). In the Tectonia woods, 89 species were observed whereas 77 in Cocos and 66 in the palm plantations. The old fallows are richer (68 sp.) than the young ones (33 sp. In these fallows, the bird community is much more diversified in woody vegetation cover (78 sp.) than the shrubby or herbaceous fallows (23 sp.).

2007-01-01

3

MDF/HDF Production from Plantation Wood Species  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the raw material base for the newly built MDF/HDF production line in Mohács, Hungary. The desired raw material for the factory is 80 % poplar and 20 % other species (conifers and broad leaved species. These raw materials should be obtained from wood plantations. Laboratory experiments were done in production of MDF and HDF boards with the following raw materials: 5 and 10 year old Pannonia poplar (Populus x euramericana Pannónia, I214 poplar (Populus x euramericana ‘I214’, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra. The selected trees were evaluated based on the following parameters: diameter, bark volume, ability for barking, ability for chipping, fiber yield, fiber quality, energy consumption of defibrating, chemical analysis of waste water after defibrating. MDF and HDF boards were made in laboratory from clear poplar species, and from a mixture of poplar and Austrian pine and poplar and black locust. In both cases of mixing, the ratio of poplar and other wood species was 80:20. Ureaformaldehyde adhesive and ammonium-sulphate hardener were used during board production. Also some paraffin was added to increase the moisture resistance. The following board characteristics were tested: bending strength, internal bond, modulus of elasticity, thickness swelling, density, moisture content, formaldehyde content. Except the values of internal bond, the results were very satisfactory, highly above the standard requirements. The reason for the low internal bond values is as follows: - in the laboratory we could not apply a proper blending of fibers and additives, - mat forming by hand. In spite of this, we are sure that an actual technological test production will give good results.

Tibor Alpár, Tibor Fáczán, István Rácz, Gabor Kátoli

2010-09-01

4

Growing, harvesting, and utilization of wood from fruit-growing plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fruit-production concentration in specialized enterprises necessitates studies on extraction and re-planting of large-production-area fruit plantations after an average production life of 20 years and on processing (chipping) and utilization of wood substance obtaining on the extracted areas. There problems were the object of interdisciplinary work at the Technical University of Dresden in the form of a youth project study. At the same time, this task is part of the research focus of forestry/wood. This is a report on initial results as to quantitative assessment of wood substance, to development of optimum technological processes for tree extraction and wood processing, to the development of a stump milling machine for fruit plantations as well as to quality assessment of chipping mixtures of fruit-tree wood and their utilization.

Blossfeld, O.; Luepke, R.

1983-01-01

5

Some Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Juvenile Wood from Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold Plantations  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some chemical, physical and mechanical properties of juvenile wood from black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold plantations. Black pine, one of the important softwood species covers the most of the plantations in Turkey. Black pines that naturally grow in Duzce were 20-23 years old with the dimensions of 13-17 cm utilized in this study. Specimens were prepared and tested according to Turkish standards. The physical properties were measured and air and oven dry wood densities were found to be 0.464 and 0.431 g cm–3, respectively. The volume weight was 0.383 g cm–3. The radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkage values were 4.05, 6.19 and 10.24%, respectively. The radial, tangential and volumetric swelling values were also found to be 3.69, 7.79 and 11.5%, respectively. The mechanical tests resulted in that the static bending and compression strengths were 79.1 and 42.4 N mm–2, respectively. In addition juvenile wood had higher lignin and lower holocellulose content compared to the mature wood. Conclusively, the physical and mechanical properties of juvenile pine wood examined in this study were observed to be lower compared to the mature pine wood.

Cengiz Guler

2007-01-01

6

PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AMONG WOOD PROPERTIES AND GROWTH IN WILD CHERRY PLANTATIONS  

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Full Text Available Italy is one of the major users of cherry wood (Prunus avium L., and its cultivation has been increasing since the early nineties, together with studies aimed at improving genotypes, with a selection usually based on growth, stem form, vigor, and tree adaptation. Here, the phenotypic correlations between growth rate and the physical and mechanical properties of wood are investigated in two wild cherry plantations. X-ray microdensitometry was also applied to analyze the age-age correlations of wood density. It was shown that growth rate did not affect wood properties, and density was confirmed to be the trait that best represents the main properties of wood. The absence of relationships between wood density and growth rate was confirmed by densitometric analysis, although an increase of wood density with an increase of ring width was detected for very narrow rings (less than 3 mm wide. The average density at age 7 to 8 was observed to be highly correlated (r > 0.90 to the average density of a 19-year-old tree, allowing reliable estimation of the wood properties of older trees by early investigation of young trees.

Michela Nocetti,

2012-06-01

7

Review of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discussions regarding the use of wood fuels for commercial energy production in the Netherlands began in the 1990's. The main reasons for using wood fuel are: the political demand for using renewable energy, the need to reduce CO2 emissions, and the lack of markets for surplus timber. Only 10 % of the area of Holland is forested. Therefore, early thinning and cleaning are important management tools for improving growth and producing better quality timber. The energy potential from early thinning and plantation cleaning could be between 400 000 and 570 000 dry tons annually. The Netherlands has not experience in harvesting energy wood. However, through the International Energy Agency/Bioenergy Agreement, knowledge gained in other countries, especially Denmark, Sweden and Finland, is being transferred to Holland. In 1996, there have been made field tests with Danish equipment. Although there are few technical barriers to wood fuel in the Netherlands, the economics of wood fuels consumption are affected by the low costs of fossil fuels and the high natural gas reserves. This is changing however, due to political concerns over the balance of greenhouse gases. In 1996, a small energy tax on fossil fuels was introduced and electricity suppliers are now selling an environmentally friendly 'green electricity'. Energy wood has a future in the Netherlands, although the total forest reserves would satisfy only a small percentage of energy requirements 5 refs

1998-01-01

8

Wood-polymer composites from Philippine tree plantation species by radiation polymerization I. Uptake and irradiation parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation catalyzed polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in various Philippine tree plantation species were investigated. Wood samples measuring 1x6cm were impregnated with monomer at reduced pressure and gamma irradiated for various doses at a dose rate of 0.53 kGy/h. The parameters used to assess the polymerization reaction were the uptake of monomer by the wood samples, monomer conversion, and polymer loading in the irradiated samples. The uptake and polymerization data indicate that coconut wood, rubber wood, bagras, and Moluccan sau could be potential raw materials for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPC). (author). 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

1993-01-01

9

Some Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Juvenile Wood from Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) Plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine some chemical, physical and mechanical properties of juvenile wood from black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantations. Black pine, one of the important softwood species covers the most of the plantations in Turkey. Black pines that naturally grow in Duzce were 20-23 years old with the dimensions of 13-17 cm utilized in this study. Specimens were prepared and tested according to Turkish standards. The physical properties were measured and air a...

Cengiz Guler; Yalcin Copur; Mehmet Akgul; Umit Buyuksari

2007-01-01

10

Variations in wood tratis in micro and macro propagated plantation woods of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh  

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Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison between intra-ramet, intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations in girth at breast height (gbh, fiber length, fiber diameter, wall thickness, vessel element length, vessel element diameter and specific gravity in the ramets of L34, G3 and S7C15 clones of Populus deltoides at the age of 6 years old produced from planting material grown by macro- and micro-propagation techniques. Variance ratio (F test indicated that intra-ramet variations were non-significant for all the characters except specific gravity for height in L34 for macro and specific gravity and vessel element diameter for radial locations for micro, and fiber length for G3 (micro for height, and specific gravity for radial location and fiber length for height for S7C15 clone for both the techniques. The clone L34 showed the significantly higher girth followed by G3 and S7C15. The variations were significant for girth, vessel element length and specific gravity between the wood produced from planting stocks grown by two techniques. Intra-clonal variations were significant for fiber length, fiber diameter and vessel element length. In general wood element’s dimensions and specific gravity increased from bottom to top and pith to periphery radial locations. G3 clone was different from the L34 and S7C15 clone for the wood traits. The three different clones of Populus deltoides showed variability in wood anatomical properties and specific gravity in the woods grown from macro- and micro-propagated planting stock. So, the plantation raised by two techniques could not produce similar type of wood even from the same clone. G3 clone was the exception as it did not show variation in wood traits for two techniques. Intra-clonal variations in all the three clones of P. deltoides indicated that wood traits were not stable within the population of same clone grown by either method.

Ramesh C. Dhiman

2010-10-01

11

THE EFFECT OF INITIAL STAND DENSITY ON CLEAR WOOD YIELD IN Loblolly pine PLANTATIONS  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzed the influence of initial stand density on mean tree dbh,mean top height, mean height at the lowest branch, mean total tree volume, clear meanvolume, mean volume at 25 cm, 18 and 8 cm diameter, in loblolly pine plantations insouthern Brazil. Special attention is given to clear wood yield. The experiment wasestablished in the Jaguariaíva county, Paraná State, on the Pisa Florestal S.A. lands. Theexperiment was evaluated at several occasions since its establishment, but onlydata collectedin the last measurement (1999, at age 12 were used. The results indicated that large initalspacing determine more remarkable increase in dbh and other related variables (mean totaltree volume, mean volume at 25 cm, 18 and 8 cm diameter. No significant effect of standdensity on mean top height was noticed. It was also noticed that stand density affects knot formation; the higher the density the lower the height at the lowest branch and the lower theclear volume. It was concluded that if the key objective is wood yield for veneer (andsawnwood in some cases, it is recommendable to use larger stand spacings in combinationwith artificial prunning. When pruning is not feasible, the intermediate spacings (as 2.5 x 2.8m should be used, which may result in same clear wood yield as compared to largerspacings (as 2.5 x 3.6 m or larger.

Carlos R. Sanquetta

2003-07-01

12

Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

Mehari, A.

1997-11-01

13

Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

A. Mehari

1997-01-01

14

Assessment of cost-efficiency for wood production in poplar plantations in Ravan Srem, based on internal rate of return  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the commercial cost efficiency analysis of poplar plantations, according to project evaluation indicator in agriculture and forestry - internal rate of return (IRR. The analysis was performed for planting poplar clone I-214 in the area of Ravan Srem, planting space 6×6 m, with different rotations and on different soil types. The methodology, used in this paper refers to the implementation of the dynamic method of economic research, which explains the discount rate, according to which, the current value of cash flow will be equal to the current value of the cash outflaw. The research goal was to check the justifica­tion of funds invested in wood production in poplar plantations, based on revenues and cost analysis in different plantation ages, using the IRR. The research showed that the IRR for 12 sample plots varied in interval 4.32-6.94% with average rate of 5.63%. The internal rates are larger for plantations on good quality soil types, regarding of poplar plantation (aluvial semigleyic soil, and for shorter rotations and vice versa. The IRR values higher than 12% were not found in researched framework of cost-revenues changes rate. The sensitive analysis proved that the project is very easily affected by cost-revenues changes. .

Ke?a Ljiljana

2010-01-01

15

Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha-1 (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem-soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed

2007-08-01

16

Effect of plantation population density on wood properties and quality of wood-based composition board from Leucaena in Taiwan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood density, compression strength and longitudinal modulus of rupture were determined in three-year-old Leucaena leucocephala growing at 2500, 5000 or 10,000 trees/ha in East Taiwan. Test properties tended to decrease as the tree population increased. Differences in modulus of elasticity were not significant and compression strength and wood density were not significantly different for trees growing at 5000 or 10,000 hectare. Amount of bark increased with tree population resulting in a decrease in particle sizes from whole tree chipping. The higher yield of fines in chips from trees grown with more stems/ha had a detrimental effect on bending strength of particleboard, though internal bond was not affected. It is concluded that metarials in this study were more suitable for medium density than low density particleboard.

Tang, J.L.; Ma, T.P.

1982-01-01

17

Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the method of pay back period  

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Full Text Available Poplar plantations are a category of fixed assets in forestry, i.e. the assets with a biological character. They are related to their site, they are cultivated for a relatively long time and they have a relatively long utilization cycle, with the yield development determined by the plantation growth and age. Plantations transfer their value gradually to the obtained products during the period of their harvesting, and, by the realization of the products, the means invested in the plantation establishment are reproduced. The period of investments in poplar growing can be relatively long, and so is the period of harvesting. Therefore, it is important to determine the time of the return of the capital invested in these and similar plantations. This paper presents the analysis of commercial profitability of poplar cultivation according to the indicator for the assessment of projects in agriculture and forestry - pay back period. The application of pay back period (PBP calculation can affect greatly the reliability of predicting the degree of economic effectiveness of investments, and also the potential risks for the investor in his decisions on the investments in poplar cultivation. The analysis of poplar clone I-214 plantations was carried out in the area of Ravni Srem, under different rotations and soil types. Based on the analysis of costs and receipts in different plantation ages, and using the method of pay back period, the objective of the study was to evaluate the possible pay back period of invested capital in wood production in poplar plantations. PBP is practically unacceptable by the investor under the discount rate of 6%. The most favorable situation is in the youngest stands, using the discount rate of 2%. The situation regarding the pay back period in the over-aged stands is utterly unfavorable, so the credit cannot be repaid under any conditions. This fact supports the idea that the production cycle length should be shortened.

Ke?a Ljiljana

2011-01-01

18

Relationship Between Wood Color Parameters Measured by the CIELab System and Extractive and Phenol Content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from Fast-Growth Plantations  

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Full Text Available The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b* of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

Carolina Tenorio

2012-03-01

19

Wood colour variation in sapwood and heartwood of young trees of Tectona grandis and its relationship with plantation characteristics, site, and decay resistance
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Les variations de couleur dans l'aubier et le duramen de jeunes arbres de Tectona grandis, en relation avec les caractéristiques des plantations, du site et de la durabilité
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

* Wood colour of Tectona grandis produced from fast-growth plantations is highly variable and the causes of this variation are relatively unknown.* With the purpose of understanding the colour variation, different fast-growth plantations were sampled with different growth rates, tree ages, and sites.* Wood colour was measured with a CIELab system, where three variables are estimated: coordinate L* for lightness, coordinate a* defines redness and coordinate b* defines yellowness.* Results show...

2010-01-01

20

Wood, charcoal and fixed carbon yield in Eucalyptus cloeziana plantations; Producao de madeira, carvao e carbono em plantacoes de Eucalyptus cloeziana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dry wood, charcoal and fixed carbon yields per hectare were estimated using data from an Eucalyptus cloeziana plantation growing in a 3.0 x 2.0 m spacing located in Paraopeba, Minas Gerais. Equations were obtained to predict volume, wood and charcoal dry weight per tree. The yield per hectare was obtained using the Bitterlich method. Charcoal gravimetric yield was 34.4% and the mean content of fixed carbon slightly below 77%. The rotation ages under maximum mean increment per month and the yields per hectare in volume, wood dry weight, charcoal and fixed carbon were, respectively, 84 months (165 m{sup 3}), 87 months (106.500 kg), 89 months (38.300 kg) and 89 months (29.300 kg). (author) 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Lopes, Carlos Roberto Gomes; Campos, Joao Carlos Chagas; Valente, Osvaldo Ferreira; Vital, Benedito Rocha [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
21

Cytogenetics off interpopulation Cuphea lanceolata hybrids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cuphea lanceolata Ait. (Lythraceae) is an annual diploid (x = 6) with medium-chain fatty acid rich seed oils. Wild C. lanceolata populations are classified as C. lanceolata f. silenoides or C. lanceolata f. lanceolata on the basis of flower pigment differences. Although these taxa are taxonomically close, their interfertility has not been demonstrated. We describe meiotic phenomena underlying the sterility of hybrids between C. lanceolata f. silenoides (LNS-43) and C. lanceolata f. lanceolata (LNC-78) populations. We assayed metaphase and anaphase I microsporocytes of the parent and hybrid populations. The hybrids were female and male sterile. The mean percentage of stainable pollen was 94.9% for the parents and 1.1% for the hybrids. Chromosomes paired and disjoined normally in the parents (LNS-43 and LNC-78) and abnormally in the hybrids (LNS-43 x LNC-78 and LNC-78 x LNS-43). Univalents, unequal chromosome distributions, and laggards were observed in the hybrids. The mean number of univalents per cell was 0.00 for the parents and 5.95 for the hybrids, the mean number of bivalents per cell was 6.00 for the parents and 1.51 for the hybrids, and the mean number of chiasmata per cell was 9.19 for the parents and 4.04 for the hybrids. The most frequently observed (75%) anaphase I chromosome distribution for the hybrids was 7:5:0 (pole-pole-laggards). The genome affinities of the hybrids were half those of the parents (a mean of 0.5 for the hybrids as opposed to 1.0 for the parents). Although C. lanceolata f. silenoides and C. lanceolata f. lanceolata freely hybridize, their progeny are sterile, and the genetic diversity of LNC-78, and perhaps of C. lanceolata f. lanceolata as a whole, cannot be accessed through hybrids with C. lanceolata f. silenoides or C. viscosissima. PMID:18470238

Ali, M S; Knapp, S J

1995-12-01

22

The potential of plantations of Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels for wood and biomass production (Mayombe Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the 1940s-1950s, large limba (Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels) plantations were established in the Democratic Republic of Congo to reduce the pressure on the natural forests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of these long-rotation plantations as production forests (timber) and carbon sinks. Five different plantations, between 50 and 58 years old, were sampled. Over a sample surface of more than 73 ha, the diameter above buttresses of 2 680 trees, bole height of 26...

2010-01-01

23

Juglans regia L. tree plantations for wood production in mining area of S. Barbara (AR. Evaluation of N-fixing accessory trees effect  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out in experimental plots located in the Arno valley (Cavriglia, province of Arezzo - Italy. The experimental plots, walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations both pure and mixed to accessory trees (Alnus cordata Loisel., Corylus avellana L., Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L., were established in 1986 and 1989. Data on grown and architectural characteristics were collected in different periods on trees aged 9, 13 and 16. Walnut trees grown with accessory trees showed the best performances, especially if associated with N-fixing species. These positive effects are probably due to many co-occuring favourable causes, a remarkable aspect of which is the higher availability of N. To better investigate the above effect, N concentration in the soil and in walnut leaves was measured in plantations both pure and mixed with Italian alder (Alnus cordata or black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, and N concentration values were compared with growth characteristics. The results showed that Juglans regia trees associated with Italian alder grow faster, with straighter stems and better stem shapes for qualified wood production. Even if walnut trees growing in plantations with black locust show similar N concentration values, growth performances are worse.

Tani A

2006-01-01

24

Assessment of cost-efficiency for wood production in poplar plantations in Ravan Srem, based on internal rate of return  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents the commercial cost efficiency analysis of poplar plantations, according to project evaluation indicator in agriculture and forestry - internal rate of return (IRR). The analysis was performed for planting poplar clone I-214 in the area of Ravan Srem, planting space 6×6 m, with different rotations and on different soil types. The methodology, used in this paper refers to the implementation of the dynamic method of economic research, which explains the discount rate, accord...

2010-01-01

25

Wood dry weight yield of pine plantations. [P. caribaea, P. elliottii, P. Kesiya, P. oocarpa, P. patula  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood density was studied in 5-14 yr old Pinus caribaea (3 vars.), 6 and 12 yr old Pinus elliottii, 7-14 yr old Pinus kesiya, 6-13 yr old Pinus oocarpa, and 6-14 yr old Pinus patula grown in the state of Sao Paulo. Annual DM production of wood (t/ha) is estimated for each species. 6 references.

Ferreira, M.; Amaral, A.C.; Bertolani, F.; Nicolielo, N.

1980-01-01

26

Eucalyptus energy plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India has extensive plantations of eucalyptus, a fast-growing, native plant that can be used as wood, fuel, pulp, oil and honey, and erosion control. India raises eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, and E. Citriodara. The applications, environmental requirements, yields, and related species are summarized for each. 2 references. (DCK)

1982-05-01

27

Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the cost-benefit method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of polar cultivation was analyzed based on one of the indicators for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects - cost-benefit (r. Poplar plantations of the clone I-214 of different rotations and on different soil types were analyzed in the area of Ravni Srem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the justification of the invested financial means in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts at different plantation ages, using the cost-benefit method. It was found that in all 13 analyzed compartments, the average cost-benefit ratio was 0.36. This means that the costs at the discount rate of 12% are about 2.8 times higher than the receipts. Accordingly, it can be asserted that it is economically unjustified to invest in the projected stands, but only in the case when the value of social capital accounts for 12%. Based on the analysis of sensitivity of the cost-benefit method, it was concluded that cost benefit ratio for p=8-12% was below 1 within the study range of costs and receipts changes, while for p=4-6% this ratio was above 1 in some cases of decrease in costs, i.e. increase in receipts. It was noted that the change in r depending on the change in costs, developed by the exponential function, and the change in r depending on the change in receipts developed by the linear function. Also, it was concluded that at the lower discount rates, the values of r moved towards 1, so for 8% r=0.71, and for 6% r=0.94. The value at the discount rate of 4% indicates that the project is cost-effective and that the invested € 1 makes € 1.22. This fact is especially important when poplar cultivation projects are ranked. For this reason, this method is used for the evaluation of social benefits, i.e. for economic analyses. It is almost never applied in the analysis of private investments.

Ke?a Ljiljana

2011-01-01

28

Wood color variation in undried and kiln-dried plantation-grown lumber of Vochysia guatemalensis Variación del color de la madera aserrada en estado verde y seca al horno de Vochysia guatemalensis proveniente de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vochysia guatemalensis has been planted over large tropical areas to obtain lumber products. However, compared with naturally-grown material variations in wood color have been noted. In the current research, trees from two 8-year-old fast-grown plantations were sampled from different climatic conditions in order to identify the causes of color variation. The study evaluated the heartwood presence, grain pattern, distance from pith, height within the tree, and effect of drying schedules. The w...

Diana Aguilar-Tova; Róger Moya; Carolina Tenorio

2009-01-01

29

VENEER AND PLYWOOD PRODUCTION OF GUAPURUVU WOOD (Schizolobium parayba Blake. COMING FROM A MIXED PLANTATION OF BRAZILIAN TREE SPECIES  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the guapuruvu wood(Schizolobium parayba, coming a mixed plantings of Brazilian native species, for veneer and plywoodproduction. The peeling yield was 61%, linking green veneer and peeling wood. The obtained veneers, afterclipped and dried, they were graded according to Brazilian Standards (NBR 9531/1986. Thefollowing grades o veneer were obtained: 2% of grade A, 24% of grade B, 48% of grade C and 26%of grade D. After, it was manufactured plywood of grade B/C/B, glued with urea-formaldehydeadhesive, and their properties of static bending (MOR and MOE and bonding line strength in shear test (dry and wet were appraised. Treatments (1, 2 and 3 varied according to the formulation of theglue (35, 50 and 65% of wheat flour in relation to the pure adhesive. The results indicated that theguapuruvu wood has potential for veneer and plywood production. The plywood showed significantdifference between treatments in the static bending (perpendicular MOR and shear (dry and wet. Theplywood presents possibility of interior and intermediate use for the formulations 1 and 2, and interioruse for the formulation 3. The plywood has potential for use in furniture, packing and box factory.

Geraldo Bortoletto Júnior

2003-01-01

30

Morphology of 'Plantago lanceolata': Selection, Adaptation, Constraints.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the thesis was to elucidate the role of natural selection in the morphology of Plantago lanceolata, the Ribwort Plantain. The investigation attempts to look at the morphology from three viewpoints, (a) ecology: what are the demands of the diffe...

P. H. van Tienderen

1989-01-01

31

Immunosuppressive properties of Pluchea lanceolata leaves  

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Full Text Available Objective : To investigate the immunosuppressive potential of Pluchea lanceolata 50% ethanolic extract (PL and its bioactive chloroform fraction (PLC. Materials and Methods : Preliminary screening of the Pluchea lanceolata 50% ethanolic extract (PL was carried out with basic models of immunomodulation, such as, the humoral antibody response (hemagglutination antibody titers, cell-mediated immune response (delayed-type hypersensitivity, skin allograft rejection test, in vitro (C. albicans method, and in vivo phagocytosis (carbon clearance test. The extract was then fractionated with chloroform, n-butanol, and water to receive the respective fractions by partitioning. These fractions were employed for flow cytometry to study the T-cell specific immunosuppressive potential of these fractions. Results : Oral administration of PL at doses of 50 to 800 mg/kg in mice, with sheep red blood cells (SRBC as an antigen, inhibited both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, as evidenced by the production of the circulating antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitiviy reaction results, respectively, and the immune suppression was statistically significant (P < 0.01 in Balb/C mice. PL also decreased the process of phagocytosis both in vitro (31.23% and ex vivo (32.81% and delayed the graft rejection time (30.76%. To study the T-cell-specific activities, chloroform, n-butanol, and water fractions from P. lanceolata were tested for T-cell specific immunosuppressive evaluation, wherein only the chloroform fraction (PLC showed significant (P < 0.01 suppression of CD8+ / CD4+ T-cell surface markers and intracellular Th1 (IL-2 and IFN- Y cytokines at 25 - 200 mg/kg p.o. doses. PLC, however, did not show significant suppression of the Th2 (IL-4 cytokine. Conclusion : The findings from the present investigation reveal that P. lanceolata causes immunosuppression by inhibiting Th1 cytokines.

Bhagwat D

2010-01-01

32

Immunosuppressive properties of Pluchea lanceolata leaves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective : To investigate the immunosuppressive potential of Pluchea lanceolata 50% ethanolic extract (PL) and its bioactive chloroform fraction (PLC). Materials and Methods : Preliminary screening of the Pluchea lanceolata 50% ethanolic extract (PL) was carried out with basic models of immunomodulation, such as, the humoral antibody response (hemagglutination antibody titers), cell-mediated immune response (delayed-type hypersensitivity), skin allograft rejecti...

2010-01-01

33

Anatomia comparada do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. em áreas de cerrado e de plantação de Pinus elliottii Engelm. Comparative wood anatomy of Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. in "cerrado" and plantation area of Pinus elliottii Engelm.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A estrutura anatômica do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. foi analisada pela observação do caule e da raiz de espécimes provenientes de duas áreas de cerrado, uma com vegetação característica e outra, em que a vegetação original foi substituída por monocultura de Pinus elliotti Engelm. As duas áreas situam-se na Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu. As amostras foram coletadas pelo método não destrutivo. Os dados quantitativos das características analisadas foram obtidos mediante contagens e medições nos elementos de vasos, fibras e parênquima axial e radial, através das secções histológicas e tecido dissociado. Esses dados foram submetidos à prova não paramétrica de Mann-Whitney que mostrou diferenças significativas para 12 das 18 características analisadas. Dentre essas, apenas o diâmetro das pontoações intervasculares e das radiovasculares e a porcentagem de parênquima axial, apresentaram médias maiores para os espécimes da área de plantio. A análise estrutural do lenho demonstrou a presença de anéis de crescimento, delimitados pelo achatamento das paredes radiais das fibras, observada em todos os espécimes, indicando uma adaptação fisiológica e anatômica ao período de seca que ocorre anualmente na região. A baixa ocorrência de idioblastos secretores, nos espécimes da área de plantio, fornece indício sobre as possíveis alterações fisiológicas induzidas pela presença da plantação de Pinus elliottii em área de cerrado.The anatomical structure of Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. wood was analyzed comparing stem and root samples from a caracteristic "cerrado" area, and another area with cultivated monoculture of Pinus elliotti Engelm. Both areas are inside the "Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu". The samples were collected by non-destructive method. The quantitative analyzed characteristics data were obtained by counting and measuring in vessel elements, fibers, axial and radial parenchyma, in both histological sections and dissociated tissue. These data were submitted to the no parametric proof of Mann-Whitney that showed significant differences for 12 of the 18 analyzed characteristics. Among these, only intervessel pits diameter, vessel-ray pits diameter, and axial parenchyma percentage, showed larger averages for the plantation area specimens. Soil moisture data were obtained together with water soil retention curve. The structural analysis demonstrated the presence of growth rings delimited by radially flattened walls fibres observed in all studied specimens. This characteristic indicates a physiologic and anatomical adaptation of specimens to the drought period that occurs annually in the region. The low secretory idioblast occurrence in plantation area specimens indicates the possible physiologic alterations induced by the presence of Pinus elliottii plantation in "cerrado" area.

Agnes E. Luchi

2005-12-01

34

Anatomia comparada do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. em áreas de cerrado e de plantação de Pinus elliottii Engelm. / Comparative wood anatomy of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. in "cerrado" and plantation area of Pinus elliottii Engelm.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A estrutura anatômica do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. foi analisada pela observação do caule e da raiz de espécimes provenientes de duas áreas de cerrado, uma com vegetação característica e outra, em que a vegetação original foi substituída por monocultura de Pinus elliotti Engelm. As dua [...] s áreas situam-se na Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu. As amostras foram coletadas pelo método não destrutivo. Os dados quantitativos das características analisadas foram obtidos mediante contagens e medições nos elementos de vasos, fibras e parênquima axial e radial, através das secções histológicas e tecido dissociado. Esses dados foram submetidos à prova não paramétrica de Mann-Whitney que mostrou diferenças significativas para 12 das 18 características analisadas. Dentre essas, apenas o diâmetro das pontoações intervasculares e das radiovasculares e a porcentagem de parênquima axial, apresentaram médias maiores para os espécimes da área de plantio. A análise estrutural do lenho demonstrou a presença de anéis de crescimento, delimitados pelo achatamento das paredes radiais das fibras, observada em todos os espécimes, indicando uma adaptação fisiológica e anatômica ao período de seca que ocorre anualmente na região. A baixa ocorrência de idioblastos secretores, nos espécimes da área de plantio, fornece indício sobre as possíveis alterações fisiológicas induzidas pela presença da plantação de Pinus elliottii em área de cerrado. Abstract in english The anatomical structure of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. wood was analyzed comparing stem and root samples from a caracteristic "cerrado" area, and another area with cultivated monoculture of Pinus elliotti Engelm. Both areas are inside the "Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu". [...] The samples were collected by non-destructive method. The quantitative analyzed characteristics data were obtained by counting and measuring in vessel elements, fibers, axial and radial parenchyma, in both histological sections and dissociated tissue. These data were submitted to the no parametric proof of Mann-Whitney that showed significant differences for 12 of the 18 analyzed characteristics. Among these, only intervessel pits diameter, vessel-ray pits diameter, and axial parenchyma percentage, showed larger averages for the plantation area specimens. Soil moisture data were obtained together with water soil retention curve. The structural analysis demonstrated the presence of growth rings delimited by radially flattened walls fibres observed in all studied specimens. This characteristic indicates a physiologic and anatomical adaptation of specimens to the drought period that occurs annually in the region. The low secretory idioblast occurrence in plantation area specimens indicates the possible physiologic alterations induced by the presence of Pinus elliottii plantation in "cerrado" area.

Luchi, Agnes E.; Silva, Luiz C. Pereira; Moraes, Marcelo A..

35

Wood color variation in undried and kiln-dried plantation-grown lumber of Vochysia guatemalensis Variación del color de la madera aserrada en estado verde y seca al horno de Vochysia guatemalensis proveniente de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento  

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Full Text Available Vochysia guatemalensis has been planted over large tropical areas to obtain lumber products. However, compared with naturally-grown material variations in wood color have been noted. In the current research, trees from two 8-year-old fast-grown plantations were sampled from different climatic conditions in order to identify the causes of color variation. The study evaluated the heartwood presence, grain pattern, distance from pith, height within the tree, and effect of drying schedules. The wood color was measured by CIEL*a*b* systems.Wood color of Vochysia guatemalensis is a combination of different tonalities of lightness (L*, redness (a*, and yellowness (b*, however, the lightness and yellowness components were the dominant tones. The color of heartwood and sapwood were different before and after drying. A negative relationship was found between a* and L*, and a* and b* in the undried state, but no relationship was found between L* and b*. The L* index is only correlated with heartwood presence in undried wood. In dried wood, only a relationship between a* and L* is maintained, while other color parameters were affected by climate, drying schedule and heartwood presence, the L* parameter being the most affected. The dried wood displays a lighter surface than the wood before drying. The variations in the dried wood suggest that it is useful to establish dried lots of lumber according to the drying schedule, source and presence of sapwood and heartwood.La especie Vochysia guatemalensis ha sido plantada sobre largas áreas en regiones tropicales. Así mismo, han sido observadas grandes variaciones del color de su madera. En la investigación fueron muestreadas plantaciones de 8 años de edad en diferentes condiciones de clima con el fin de establecer las causes de variación de la madera. Fueron evaluadas la presencia de duramen, el patrón de aserrío, la distancia de la medula y el programa de secado. El color fue medido por el sistema CIELab. Fue encontrado que la madera de V. guatemalensis presenta una combinación de tonalidades de claros (L*, rojos (a* y amarrillos (b*, siendo los colores claros y amarrillos los tonos dominantes. El color del duramen y la albura fueron diferentes antes y después del secado. Una negativa correlación entre a* y L*, y a* y b* fue encontrada, pero ninguna correlación fue observada entre L* y b*. El índice L* fue el único parámetro correlacionado con el duramen en madera verde. En la madera seca, solamente se mantuvo la relación a* y L*, mientras que los parámetros del color fueron afectados por el clima, programa de secado y duramen, siendo L* el más afectado. La madera seca presentó una superficie más clara que la madera antes del secado. Las variaciones en madera seca sugieren la conveniencia de establecer lotes de secado de acuerdo al programa de secado aplicado, procedencia y presencia de albura y duramen.

Diana Aguilar-Tova

2009-01-01

36

Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational and production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.

Lopes Eduardo da Silva

2003-01-01

37

Financial Analysis of Keora (Sonneratia apetala) Plantations in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An attempt has been taken to compare economic performance of different ages of keora (Sonneratia apetala) Plantations in coastal zone in this paper. The main objective was to find out financial rotation and profitability of keora plantation. The existing market price of round wood per cubic meter and fuel wood per ton were found to be Tk. 2650 to Tk. 3530 and Tk. 670 to Tk. 940 respectively near plantation area in 2003. The harvesting and processing costs were estimated as 20% and 10% of the ...

Islam, S. S.; Abul Kalam Azad; Jonaed Kabir; Mohammed Abu Taher Hossain

2012-01-01

38

Monitoring of seeds of chronically irradiated plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of provocative ?-irradiation was used to study the radiosensitivity of seeds of three first post-accident reproductions of Plantago lanceolata L. within the thirty kilometer zone of Chernobyl. The radiation injury was severer among seeds taken in 1987-1988 from the areas with a higher level of radioactive contamination

1990-01-01

39

The potential of plantations of Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels for wood and biomass production (Mayombe Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo)*
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Le potentiel des plantations de Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels dans la production de bois et de biomasse (forêt de Mayombe, République Démocratique du Congo)
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

* In the 1940s-1950s, large limba (Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels) plantations were established in the Democratic Republic of Congo to reduce the pressure on the natural forests.* The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of these long-rotation plantations as production forests (timber) and carbon sinks. * Five different plantations, between 50 and 58 years old, were sampled. Over a sample surface of more than 73 ha, the diameter above buttresses of 2680 trees, bole height o...

2010-01-01

40

Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume em plantios de eucalyptus grandis Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume in eucalyptus grandis plantations  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha, 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal.This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and volume, the data have presented, approximately, normal distribution. Based on variogram analysis, trunk number and wood volume variables were found to be spatially structured. The exponential semi-variogram model was the best model fitted to the experimental semi-variograms of the variables in different plot shapes and sample intensities. The spatial continuity of the trunk number variable was detected at all sample intensities and plot shapes. Therefore, the use of spatial statistics to process this variable will increase the precision of the estimates. Considering the volume, at sample intensity 1:10, we could not evaluate the existence of a spatial continuity structure. Under this condition, classic statistics should be used to process the forest inventory.

José Márcio de Mello

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
41

Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume) em plantios de eucalyptus grandis / Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume) in eucalyptus grandis plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. [...] Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha), 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal. Abstract in english This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose [...] and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and volume, the data have presented, approximately, normal distribution. Based on variogram analysis, trunk number and wood volume variables were found to be spatially structured. The exponential semi-variogram model was the best model fitted to the experimental semi-variograms of the variables in different plot shapes and sample intensities. The spatial continuity of the trunk number variable was detected at all sample intensities and plot shapes. Therefore, the use of spatial statistics to process this variable will increase the precision of the estimates. Considering the volume, at sample intensity 1:10, we could not evaluate the existence of a spatial continuity structure. Under this condition, classic statistics should be used to process the forest inventory.

José Márcio de, Mello; Frederico Silva, Diniz; Antônio Donizette de, Oliveira; Carlos Rogério de, Mello; José Roberto Soares, Scolforo; Fausto Weimar, Acerbi Junior.

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Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, especie forestal con potencial para ser introducida en sistemas silvopastoriles / Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, forest species with potential to be submitted in sylvopastoral systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La utilización de especies forestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria contribuye a reducir la presión en los bosques naturales y se pueden incorporar en áreas no arboladas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad nutritiva, germinación, desarrollo de plántula en vivero y divers [...] idad de usos de Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. El material comestible y las semillas se colectaron en Tomatlán, Jalisco. Se realizaron análisis bromatológicos, pruebas de escarificación y evaluación de plántula en vivero sobre tres suelos con diferente pH. El experimento se analizó en un diseño completamente al azar con comparación de medias de Tukey (P ? 0.05). Además, se hicieron entrevistas a productores, una revisión bibliográfica y consulta de ejemplares en los herbarios para conocer los usos locales y potenciales de la especie. Los resultados indican alto contenido de materia seca (97.40 %) y proteína cruda (29.05 %), mayor germinación en los tratamientos térmicos, mejor desarrollo de la plántula en el suelo ligeramente ácido (6.57) y la diversidad de usos incluye leña, forraje y madera, entre otros. Por el alto valor nutritivo y diversidad de usos en el medio rural, L. lanceolata representa una opción viable para utilizarse en sistemas silvopastoriles del trópico seco. Abstract in english The usefulness of forest species in agricultural production systems is an option that helps to reduce the pressure in natural forests; they can also be used in treeless areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, germination, development of seedlings grown in nursery and va [...] riety of uses of Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. Edible material and seeds were collected in Tomatlán, Jalisco. Bromatologic analyses, scarification tests and the evaluation of seedlings grown in nursery using three soils with different pH values were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized, with Tukey (P?0.05) test for media comparison. A survey study, bibliographical revision and review of specimens in the herbariums were used to know the local and potential diversity of uses of this specie. Results show high content of dry matter (97.40 %) and crude protein (29.05 %), greater germination using heat treatments, better seedling development in slightly acid soil (6.57) and the diversity of uses including firewood, forage and timber among others. L. lanceolata represents a viable option to be used in dry tropical silvopastoral systems due to the high nutritional value and the diversity of uses in rural areas.

María L., Román-Miranda; Luis A., Martínez-Rosas; Antonio, Mora-Santacruz; Pablo, Torres-Morán; Agustín, Gallegos-Rodríguez; Adriana, Avendaño-López.

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The regulation of cambial activity in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) involves extensive transcriptome remodeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), a commercially important tree for the timber and pulp industry, is widely distributed in southern China and northern Vietnam, but its large and complex genome has hindered the development of genomic resources. Few efforts have focused on analysis of the modulation of transcriptional networks in vascular cambium during the transition from active growth to dormancy in conifers. Here, we used Illumina sequencing to analyze the global transcriptome alterations at the different stages of vascular cambium development in Chinese fir. By analyzing dynamic changes in the transcriptome of vascular cambium based on our RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data at the dormant, reactivating and active stages, many potentially interesting genes were identified that encoded putative regulators of cambial activity, cell division, cell expansion and cell wall biosynthesis and modification. In particular, the genes involved in transcriptional regulation and hormone signaling were highlighted to reveal their biological importance in the cambium development and wood formation. Our results reveal the dynamics of transcriptional networks and identify potential key components in the regulation of vascular cambium development in Chinese fir, which will contribute to the in-depth study of cambial differentiation and wood-forming candidate genes in conifers. PMID:23638988

Qiu, Zongbo; Wan, Lichuan; Chen, Tong; Wan, Yinglang; He, Xinqiang; Lu, Shanfa; Wang, Yanwei; Lin, Jinxing

2013-08-01

44

Neuroprotective Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata  

Science.gov (United States)

Codonopsis lanceolata has been used as an herbal medicine for several lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. Previously, we showed the neuroprotective effect of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, the treatment of HT22 cells with SFC decreased glutamate-induced cell death, suggesting that SFC protected HT22 cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. Based on these, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms of the neuro-protective effect of SFC by measuring the oxidative stress parameters and the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in HT22 cells. SFC reduced contents of ROS, Ca2+ and NO. Moreover, SFC restored contents of glutathione and glutathione reductase as well as inhibited Bax and caspase-3 activity in HT22 cells. These results indicate that steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) extract protected HT22 cells by anti-oxidative effect and inhibition of the expression of Bax and caspase-3.

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2014-01-01

45

Wood for energy production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents an overview of the present potential of wood as an alternative energy source. The availability and properties of wood are considered in detail as well as combustion technologies of wood in industry and in the home. Thermochemical conversions including pyrolysis, methanation reactors, methanol production from syngas, etc. are discussed. The harvesting and preparation techniques of wood for industrial applications are considered in detail as are wood preparation practices for the homeowner. The possibility of developing tree plantations specifically for energy production is proposed. Crop yields could be in excess of 3% solar energy conversion. In this case, less than 3% of the US land area would provide 1985 projected electric energy demands. Selected wood species, energy farm requirements, productivity, future developments, and world-wide implications are discussed. (MJJ)

Cheremisinoff, N.P.

1980-01-01

46

Financial Analysis of Keora (Sonneratia apetala Plantations in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt has been taken to compare economic performance of different ages of keora (Sonneratia apetala Plantations in coastal zone in this paper. The main objective was to find out financial rotation and profitability of keora plantation. The existing market price of round wood per cubic meter and fuel wood per ton were found to be Tk. 2650 to Tk. 3530 and Tk. 670 to Tk. 940 respectively near plantation area in 2003. The harvesting and processing costs were estimated as 20% and 10% of the standing value of the trees. The value of IRR and other economic determinants for timber were varied among Coastal Afforestation Divisions mainly due to different rates of siltation, salinity and other factors involved on the forest floor in coastal zone. However, applying the economic determinants throughout coastal zone, financially remarkable rotation age for timber was found to be within 14th to 16th year of plantation and rotation age forfuel wood as 9th year of plantation. Applying the same economic determinants keora plantation was also found as profitable in coastal zone in Bangladesh.

Jonaed Kabir

2012-01-01

47

Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in the assimilatory cells, especially from palisade parenchyma. The necrotic areas shows hypertrophied assimilatory cells with thick walls and tannin deposits. Solid deposits are present on both on upper and lower epidermis.

Irina Neta GOSTIN

2009-05-01

48

Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata with Steamed and Fermented Process on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) traditionally have been used as a tonic and to treat patients with lung abscesses. Recently, it was proposed that the extract and some compounds isolated from C. lanceolata reversed scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of cognitive enhancing effect of C. lanceolata by steam and fermentation process in scopolamine-induced memory impairment mice models by passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. The extract of C. lanceolata or the extract of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFCE) was orally administered to male mice at the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight. As a result, mice treated with steamed and fermented C. lanceolata extract (SFCE) (300 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) showed shorter escape latencies than those with C. lanceolata extract or the scopolamine-administered group in Morris water maze test. Also, it exerted longer step-through latency time than scopolamine treated group in passive avoidance test. Furthermore, neuroprotective effect of SFCE on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity was assessed in HT22 cells. Only SFCE-treated cells showed significant protection at 500 ?g/ml. Interestingly, steamed C. lanceolata with fermentation contained more phenolic acid including gallic acid and vanillic acid than original C. lanceolata. Collectively, these results suggest that steam and fermentation process of C. lanceolata increased cognitive enhancing activity related to the memory processes and neuroprotective effect than original C. lanceolata. PMID:24244829

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2013-09-30

49

Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata with Steamed and Fermented Process on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) traditionally have been used as a tonic and to treat patients with lung abscesses. Recently, it was proposed that the extract and some compounds isolated from C. lanceolata reversed scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of cognitive enhancing effect of C. lanceolata by steam and fermentation process in scopolamine-induced memory impairment mice models by passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. The extract of C. lanceolata or the extract of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFCE) was orally administered to male mice at the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight. As a result, mice treated with steamed and fermented C. lanceolata extract (SFCE) (300 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) showed shorter escape latencies than those with C. lanceolata extract or the scopolamine-administered group in Morris water maze test. Also, it exerted longer step-through latency time than scopolamine treated group in passive avoidance test. Furthermore, neuroprotective effect of SFCE on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity was assessed in HT22 cells. Only SFCE-treated cells showed significant protection at 500 ?g/ml. Interestingly, steamed C. lanceolata with fermentation contained more phenolic acid including gallic acid and vanillic acid than original C. lanceolata. Collectively, these results suggest that steam and fermentation process of C. lanceolata increased cognitive enhancing activity related to the memory processes and neuroprotective effect than original C. lanceolata.

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2013-01-01

50

Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal.This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sodium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

Caridad Carballo Guerra

2002-12-01

51

Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 [...] min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal. Abstract in english This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sod [...] ium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa) for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

Caridad, Carballo Guerra; Teresita, Alfaro López; Zoe, Palazón López; Raúl, Ramos Gálves; Carlos A, Rodríguez Ferrada; Cristina, Cabezas Landrian; Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Miralys, Reyes Arias.

52

Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata: A Behavioral and Biochemical Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory impairment. Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata) has been employed clinically for lung inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fermented C. lanceolata (300, 500, and 800?mg/kg) on learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine by using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. To elucidate possible mechanism of cognitive-enhancing activity, we measured acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) expression in the brain of mice. Administration of fermented C. lanceolata (800?mg/kg) led to reduced scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Accordingly, the administration of fermented C. lanceolata inhibited AchE activity. Interestingly, the level of CREB phosphorylation and BDNF expression in hippocampal tissue of scopolamine-treated mice was significantly increased by the administration of fermented C. lanceolata. These results indicate that fermented C. lanceolata can ameliorate scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mouse and may be an alternative agent for the treatment of AD.

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2014-01-01

53

Restriction fragment length polymorphism and allozyme linkage map of Cuphea lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cuphea lanceolata Ait. has had a significant role in the domestication of Cuphea and is a useful experimental organism for investigating how medium-chain lipids are synthesized in developing seeds. To expand the genetics of this species, a linkage map of the C. lanceolata genome was constructed using five allozyme and 32 restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) marker loci. These loci were assigned to six linkage groups that correspond to the six chromosomes of this species. Map length is 288 cM. Levels of polymorphism were estimated for three inbred lines of C. lanceolata and an inbred line of C. viscosissima using 84 random genomic clones and two restriction enzymes, EcoRI and HindIII. Of the probes 29% detected RFLPs between C. lanceolata and C. viscosissima lines. Crosses between these species can be exploited to expand the map. PMID:24202601

Webb, D M; Knapp, S J; Tagliani, L A

1992-02-01

54

High efficiency protoplast isolation from in vitro cultures and hairy roots of Maesa lanceolata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In vitro cultures of the medicinal plant Maesa lanceolata were established to enable the cultivation of plant material for the production of protoplasts. Callus cultures were initiated using leaves collected from shoot cultures and the root tips from hairy root cultures obtained upon Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. For the isolation of protoplast, the different explant material of M. lanceolata was exposed to an enzyme mixture consisting of 1.5% cellulase, 0.5% macerozyme R-10 and 0....

Lambert, Ellen; Geelen, Danny

2010-01-01

55

Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very ...

José Luiz Gava; José Leonardo de Moraes Gonçalves

2008-01-01

56

James River Plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

Floating down the James River through the Chesapeake Bay, one begins to take note of the stately plantations that line the banks of this body of water, particularly around Richmond. As part of their ongoing Travel Itinerary series, the National Park Service has created this tribute to the cultural and historic landscape along the James River. What is particularly striking about the site is its ability to tell the stories of these plantations in a way that is well rounded in its perspective and its incorporation of compelling maps and narrative descriptions. To get a better sense of the history of the region, visitors may want to start by reading one (or all) of the three essays offered on the site. Of course, the visually inclined may wish to look at an interactive map offered on the site that will allow them access to information about a number of the plantations, such as the ancestral manses of Kittiewan or Westover.

57

The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Carbon (C) conservation and sequestration in many developing countries needs to be accompanied by socio-economic improvements. Tree crop plantations can be a potential path for coupling climate change mitigation and economic development by providing C sequestration and supplying wood and non-wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops â?? cocoa (Theobroma cacao), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) â?? cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 tC/ha) and orange (76 tC/ha) plantations have a much lower C content, and oil palm (45 tC/ha) has the lowest C potential, assuming that the yield is not used as biofuel. There is considerable C sequestration potential in plantations if they are established on land with modest C content such as degraded forest or agricultural land, and not on land with oldgrowth forest. We also show that simple C assessment methods can give reliable results, which makes it easier for developing countries to partake in REDD+ or other payment schemes.

Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas

2013-01-01

58

Effects of Increased UVB radiation on plant-insect interactions: Plantago lanceolata and Junonia coenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of P. lanceolata were collected from a local population and 4 replicates of 42 maternal families were grown for 90 days in the greenhouse with at two levels of supplemental UVB radiation (6 and 12 kJ day-1 BE300). Higher UVB radiation increased leaf hair density and decreased plant size during early growth; family identity affected these also. Leaves excised from a subset of the plants were fed to ultimate instar larvae of J. coenia and assayed for iridoids. Increased UVB radiation did not alter the iridoid content of the leaves or the growth of the larvae. In a separate experiment, P. lanceolata growing under the two levels of UVB irradiation were infested with neonate larvae and larval growth was monitored. Larval growth was not markedly altered by enhanced UVB. These findings suggest that increased UVB is unlikely to alter the suitability of P. lanceolata as a host for J. coenia

1993-06-01

59

Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay. The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas árvores representativas das diferentes classes de diâmetro à altura do peito para avaliação de suas biomassas e para a análise de extrativos e componentes da madeira. Os atributos físicos do solo, sobretudo o teor de argila, diretamente relacionado à quantidade de água disponível, foram os que mais afetaram a produtividade e a qualidade da madeira. A densidade básica da madeira não se alterou nas diferentes classes de solo. O teor de lignina total diminuiu e o de holocelulose aumentou exponencialmente com o aumento do teor de argila do solo (até cerca de 350 a 400 g kg-1 de argila. O teor de extrativos da madeira não foi afetado pelos atributos do solo. O rendimento de celulose depurada relacionou-se exponencialmente com o teor de argila do solo.

José Luiz Gava

2008-01-01

60

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2 and 4 h (T4, were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7% and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4% were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata.

Orlando V. Sousa

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Energy plantation for solving the crisis of fuel and energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrated efforts are required for achieving better social foresty in rural areas of India. There are a large number of tree species that can be considered for energy plantations. Some of the fuel wood plants are described: subabul, eucalyptus, agathi, babul, ber, casuarina, imli, karanji, pardeshibabul, siris, jamun, and neem. Carbohydrate plants contain sugar and starch and serve as the source of energy in the form of food and fuel. The latex of some plants can be processed as fuel oil. (Refs. 29).

Singhal, O.P.

1985-10-01

62

Canadian wood energy trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada is considered a leader in the development of wood energy. Significant new opportunities exist to expand both pellet, heat and power production based on rising energy prices and demand for renewable fuels. Canadian wood energy opportunities were considered in this presentation. The presentation discussed mill residues. Mill residues were noted as being the cheapest source of fibre for energy purposes and that the only significant source of surplus was western Canada. British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan mill residues were also discussed. Several photographs were illustrated, including a typical bee-hive incinerator and a wood residue stockpile in Saskatchewan. Opportunities in Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces were also presented. A chart demonstrating a summary of Canadian mill residue estimates in 2004 was also presented. Other topics that were presented included harvesting residues; the mountain pine beetle power opportunities; standing timber as an energy source; and wood energy plantations. It was concluded that production of wood pellets and bio-oil for export were a growing opportunity but these industries were primarily focused on whitewood and not bark. 1 tab.

McCloy, B. [BW McCloy and Associates, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2007-07-01

63

Allelopathic potential of well water fromPluchea lanceolata-infested cultivated fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pluchea lanceolata, an allelopathic perennial weed, has an extensive deep root and rhizome system. The objective of the present study was to determine the allelopathic potential of well water collected from weed-infested cultivated fields. Results indicate that well water recovered fromP. lanceolata-infested cultivated fields inhibited the shoot growth of pea, chick pea, mustard, and wheat under greenhouse conditions. Two phenolic compounds, phenol and phloroglucinol, were isolated and identified from collected well water using UV spectroscopy. The allelopathic potential of the aqueous extract of the two compounds was determined by growth experiments with 10(4) M solutions of the compounds. As a consequence of repeated irrigation with well water fromP. lanceolata-infested fields, higher levels of phenolics can accumulate in the soil, which may contribue to increased interference to crop plants. The present study is of significance since it cautions on the use of well water for irrigating cultivated fields infested with the perennial allelopathic weed (P. lanceolata) with dense subterranean systems and emphasizes the importance of controlling such weeds in cultivated fields. PMID:24225932

Inderjit; Dakshini, K M

1996-06-01

64

Monitoring of seeds of chronically irradiated natural population of plantago Lanceolata L. Viability of seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the three-year study of Plantago lanceolata L., seeds growing within the thirty-kilometer zone of Chernobyl APS, in the areas differing in the radioactive contamination level, show no relationship between the variability of certain parameters indicating the quality of seeds and ?-background variations in places of growing

1990-01-01

65

Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates on growth and arsenic accumulation in Plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of indigenous and non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata L. growing on substrate originating from mine waste rich in As was assessed in a pot experiment. P. lanceolata inoculated with AMF had higher shoot and root biomass and lower concentrations of As in roots than the non-inoculated plants. There were significant differences in As concentration and uptake between different AMF isolates. Inoculation with the indigenous isolate resulted in increased transfer of As from roots to shoots; AMF from non-polluted area apparently restricted plants from absorbing As to the tissue; and plants inoculated with an AMF isolate from Zn–Pb waste showed strong As retainment within the roots. Staining with dithizone indicated that AMF might be actively involved in As accumulation. The mycorrhizal colonization affected also the concentration of Cd and Zn in roots and Pb concentration, both in shoots and roots. - Highlights: ? The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in As uptake was studied. ? Growth of Plantago lanceolata was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. ? Arsenic concentration and uptake significantly depended on the AMF isolate. ? Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may be useful for bioremediation of As contaminated wastes. - Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata strongly depends on the origin of fungal isolates.

2012-09-01

66

Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

Masvingwe, C.; Mavenyengwa, M.

2012-01-01

67

Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

C. Masvingwe

2012-07-01

68

The role of plantation sinks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper it is argued that in the long term biofuel should play a significant role in global climate policy. Recent technological developments, as well as sustainable development criteria, would favour growing biofuel in community- scale plantations in developing countries. It is also pointed out that the lead times involved in growing biofuels are so great that the inclusion of biofuel plantation sinks in the CDM for the first commitment period would be desirable. It is suggested that to meet opposition to the inclusion of plantation sinks in the first commitment period plantation, sinks should be linked to biofuels technology development and production, and a biofuels obligation for plantation sink projects in the CDM should be established. (Author)

2001-01-01

69

Contracciones y propiedades físicas de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas de plantación en Costa Rica / Skrinkages and physical properties of Acacia mangium Willd, Tectona grandis L. f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, plantation wood from Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish De acuerdo con las normas ASTM D 2395-02 y D 143-94, se determinó la contracción total y normal en dirección radial (CR), tangencial (CT) y volumétrica (CV) y el coeficiente CT/ CR total y normal de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas provenientes de p [...] lantación. También se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas como peso específico básico (PEB), PE12% y PEanhidro, densidad verde (DV) y normal (DN), punto de saturación de la fibra (PSF) y contenido de humedad (CH). Algunos criterios de clasificación, propuestos por otros investigadores, se aplicaron para categorizar la estabilidad dimensional y propiedades físicas de estas especies. Se encontró que la CR, CT, CV totales y CTtotal/CRtotal tienen diferencias significativas entre especies, al igual que las propiedades físicas PEB y PSF. El índice CTtotal/CRtotal indicó que T. grandis tiene mejor estabilidad dimensional. La relación lineal (R²= 0.7769) indicó que el PSF es un buen indicador de la magnitud de la CVtotal. Las especies de plantación de este estudio comparadas con las del bosque natural tienen estabilidad dimensional similar pero menor PEB. Abstract in english Based on ASTM standards D 2395-02 and D 143-94, total and normal shrinkage in radial (RS), tangential (TS) and volumetric (VS) directions and the total and normal TS/RS ratio were determined in the plantation woods Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L.f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev. Also, ph [...] ysical properties such as basic specific gravity (BSG), SG12% and SGovendry, green density (GD) and normal density (ND), fiber saturation point (FSP) and moisture content (MC) were determined. Some classification criteria, proposed by other researchers, were used to categorize the dimensional stability and physical properties of these species. Significant differences were found among the species for total RS, TS, VS and TStotal/RStotal, as well as for the physical properties BSG and FSP. The TStotal/RStotal ratio indicated that T. grandis has better dimensional stability. The linear regression (R²= 0.7769) indicated that FSP is a good indicator of VStotal magnitude. The plantation species of this study compared with those of the natural forest have similar dimensional stability but lower BSG.

Muñoz-Acosta, Freddy; Moreno-Perez, Pablo A..

70

Biomass plantations - energy farming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

Paul, S.

1981-02-01

71

Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiling to Elucidate Effectiveness of Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata fermented by lactic acid on controlling gene expression levels related to obesity was observed in an oligonucleotide chip microarray. Among 8170 genes, 393 genes were up regulated and 760 genes were down regulated in feeding the fermented C. lanceolata (FCL. Another 374 genes were up regulated and 527 genes down regulated without feeding the sample. The genes were not affected by the FCL sample. It was interesting that among those genes, Chytochrome P450, Dmbt1, LOC76487, and thyroid hormones, etc., were mostly up or down regulated. These genes are more related to lipid synthesis. We could conclude that the FCL possibly controlled the gene expression levels related to lipid synthesis, which resulted in reducing obesity. However, more detailed protein expression experiments should be carried out.

Woon Yong Choi

2014-04-01

72

Microarray-based gene expression profiling to elucidate effectiveness of fermented Codonopsis lanceolata in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata fermented by lactic acid on controlling gene expression levels related to obesity was observed in an oligonucleotide chip microarray. Among 8170 genes, 393 genes were up regulated and 760 genes were down regulated in feeding the fermented C. lanceolata (FCL). Another 374 genes were up regulated and 527 genes down regulated without feeding the sample. The genes were not affected by the FCL sample. It was interesting that among those genes, Chytochrome P450, Dmbt1, LOC76487, and thyroid hormones, etc., were mostly up or down regulated. These genes are more related to lipid synthesis. We could conclude that the FCL possibly controlled the gene expression levels related to lipid synthesis, which resulted in reducing obesity. However, more detailed protein expression experiments should be carried out. PMID:24717412

Choi, Woon Yong; Kim, Ji Seon; Park, Sung Jin; Ma, Choong Je; Lee, Hyeon Yong

2014-01-01

73

Soil erosion: perennial crop plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plantation agriculture is an important form of land-use in the tropics. Large areas of natural and regenerated forest have been cleared for growing oil palm, rubber, cocoa, coffee, and other perennial tree crops. These crops grown both on large scale plantations and by smallholders are important source of income for many farmers in tropical regions. It is generally assumed that a perennial tree cover protects the soil better against erosion than do annual crops. But tree crops may require se...

Hartemink, A. E.

2006-01-01

74

Structural and productive-developmental characteristics of white willow plantations of different density on humogley in Donji Srem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted in two plantations of white willow (Salix alba L. in Donji Srem on the humogley soil type (hydromorphic black soil, which belongs to a narrow-leaved ash forest with remote sedge (Carici remotae - Fraxinetum angustifoliae Jov. et Tom., 1979. The plantations are located in the same depression. The SP (sample plot-1 plantation is 21 years old with a 6×6 m planting spacing, and the SP-2 plantation is 27 years old with a 3×3m planting spacing. Elements of stem growth in the SP-1 plantation showed that with the white willow planting spacing of 6×6 m and a planned 25-year production cycle it is possible to obtain about 250 m3•ha-1 of timber volume, with an 80% net share of technical wood and a 20 % share of pulp wood. The plantation in SP-2 is at the age, which is well above the optimum age in terms of rational management, and the total volume at the age of 27 years is about 300 m3•ha-1, with a 53.7% net share of technical wood and a 46.3% share of pulpwood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: pra?enje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

Andrašev Siniša

2012-01-01

75

Differential Performance of a Specialist and Two Generalist Herbivores and Their Parasitoids on Plantago lanceolata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability to cope with plant defense chemicals differs between specialist and generalist species. In this study, we examined the effects of the concentration of the two main iridoid glycosides (IGs) in Plantago lanceolata, aucubin and catalpol, on the performance of a specialist and two generalist herbivores and their respective endoparasitoids. Development of the specialist herbivore Melitaea cinxia was unaffected by the total leaf IG concentration in its host plant. By contrast, the gener...

2011-01-01

76

Chemical defense, mycorrhizal colonization and growth responses in Plantago lanceolata L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Allelochemicals defend plants against herbivore and pathogen attack aboveground and belowground. Whether such plant defenses incur ecological costs by reducing benefits from plant mutualistic symbionts is largely unknown. We explored a potential trade-off between inherent plant chemical defense and belowground mutualism with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Plantago lanceolata L., using plant genotypes from lines selected for low and high constitutive levels of the iridoid glycosides (IG...

Deyn, G. B.; Biere, A.; Putten, W. H.; Wagenaar, R.; Klironomos, J. N.

2009-01-01

77

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (...

Meyer, Susan L. F.; Zasada, Inga A.; Roberts, Daniel P.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Lakshman, Dilip K.; Lee, Jae-kook; Chitwood, David J.; Carta, Lynn K.

2006-01-01

78

Reproductive behavior of Chiroxiphia Lanceolata (Pipridae: Birds in a forest of Tolima, Colombia Comportamiento reproductivo de Chiroxiphia lanceolata (Pipridae: aves en un bosque intervenido del Tolima, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reproductive behavior of Chiroxiphia lanceolata (Pipridae was studied in a secondary disturbed forest in the Hacienda El Paraiso (Ibague, Tolima, Colombia at 860 m over the sea level, between march to may 2002. The areas, sequence, frequency and length
of 5 fundamental behavioral phases were described to establish their variation during the day. The twig height and shape were the main features wed by males to select hangers. The males prefer slender, right or slightly bent, defoliated twigs between 0 and 2 meters over the soil. The activity peaks fluctuated along the day, due the availability of duet partners for displaying, females in the court and environmental conditions.Se estudió el comportamiento reproductivo de Chiroxiphia lanceolata (Pipridae en un bosque secundario intervenido en la hacienda El Paraíso (Ibagué, Tolima, Colombia a 860 m.s.n.m., entre marzo y mayo de 2002. Se describieron las áreas, la secuencia, la frecuencia y la duración de cinco fases fundamentales de comportamiento, para establecer su variación a lo largo del día. La altura y la forma de la rama fueron las características principales que los machos usaron para seleccionar perchas. Los machos prefieren ramas delgadas, rectas o ligeramente arqueadas y defoliadas, entre 0 y 2 m de altura. Los picos de actividad fluctuaron a lo largo del día, debido a la disponibilidad de compañeros de dúo para despliegues, de hembras en la corte y condiciones ambientales.

Laverde Oscar

2004-06-01

79

Screening of Fungi Capable of Degrading Lignocellulose from Plantation Forests  

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Full Text Available In an effort to prevent forest fires after the clear cutting of plantation forests, fungi capable of degrading lignocelluloses were isolated to make a fertilizer from the logging waste. Seventy five fungal species were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia in plantation forests of South and North Sumatera, Indonesia. Sixty three of the fungi were identified based on the appearance and morphological characteristics of their fruiting bodies and mycelia, as Pycnoporus sanguineus, Dacryopinax spathularia, Schizophyllum commune, Polyporus sp. and Trametes sp. Twenty fungi were categorized as white-rot fungi and 12 as brown-rot fungi. Moreover, isolates 371, 368, 265, 346, 345 and 338 were selected using indicators and tested for the ability to degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal over 1 to 4 weeks. Results showed that the 6 fungi could degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in wood meal. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of lignin and holo-cellulose. Isolate 371 was found to be best at degrading lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal.

Djarwanto

2009-01-01

80

The research of some physical properties of wood Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortuneii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The density, shrinkage and swelling of Paulownia elongata and P. fortuneii wood were researched. The study material was provided by Boda Vukovojac, B. Sc., who established the Paulownia plantation and sample plots on the territory of the Municipality Bela Crkva. The study results show the differences between the analyzed properties of these two species. The study results were also compared with the results of the similar species of wood. The data shows that the study wood can be used in wood ...

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Poplar plantations for paper and energy in the south of Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Once again Swedish forest industries are supposed to face a new threatening shortage of wood. Therefore, demonstration of new ideas of producing wood for pulp and fuels (heat, ethanol, hydrogen gas, dimethylether, electricity) in the most southern part of Sweden was very welcome. One example of new ideas is that some farmers planted hybrid poplars on abandoned farming land at Saangletorp (33 ha), Johannesholm (15 ha), Kadesjoe (11 ha) and Naesbyholm (2 ha) in the southernmost part of Sweden in 1991. Some of these plantations were harvested in 2004, but some are still growing. The harvested wood had been used for pulp and fuel. The results of the harvest and of the plantations that are still growing are analysed here from an economic, ecologic and energy point of view. (author)

Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 70 43, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

2008-11-15

82

Physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactures with tropical plantation species for structural use  

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Full Text Available Concrete, steel and plastics are the materials used for construction in Costa Rica. Meanwhile, wood from plantation are being introduced in the market. The present study aims to characterize and measured some physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactured with veneers of Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Acacia mangium coming from forest plantations for structural use. It was produced three plywood boards of each species and general characterization of them was done, and physical and mechanical properties were determined. The results shown that panels manufactured with T. grandis wood presented physical and mechanical properties higher than G. arborea and A. mangium. In accordance with standards of Voluntary Products Standart PS 1-95 and PS 1-09 of the United States, structural plywood of G. arborea can be grouped in grade 3, and plywood manufactured with T. grandis and A. mangium wood in grade 2. All species can be used in the manufacture of structural elements.

Diego Camacho

2012-06-01

83

Short-rotation plantations. Processes, economic efficiency and ecological balance; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Verfahren, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Oekobilanz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A short-rotation plantation is defined as the cultivation of fast-growing species of trees on agricultural land. Following the harvest, the trees sprout from the floor. Thus, the trees can be utilized repeatedly. The stocks produce enormous growth rates. Nearly 5,000 to 6,000 litre of heating oil can be conserved by means of the wood growing on an area of one hectare annually. The well organized harvest is decisive for the economic efficiency. The ecological balance presents the short-rotation plantations as a very extensive form of land use.

Burger, Frank [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft, Freising (Germany)

2012-11-15

84

Energy budgets in slash pine (Pinus elliottii) plantations at Dehra Dun  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sample trees were felled in 1978 in 10-, 20- and 40-year-old plantations and dry weight determined for wood, slash and roots. Litter was collected every month for one year. Solar radiation was measured in an adjacent open area. Calculations indicated that the plantations fixed 17.5 x 10/sup 8/ Kcal/ha in 10 year, 24.9 x 10/sup 8/ in 20 year and 57.5 x 10/sup 8/ in 40 year representing 3.3, 2.3 and 2.7% of photosynthetically active radiation respectively.

Kaul, O.N.; Srivastava, V.K.

1985-01-01

85

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01

86

Wood opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines the impacts of the new Clean Air Act amendments on wood-fired power plant projects. The topics of the article include identifying areas of the amendments where there are potential constraints and opportunities for wood-fired power plant projects, geography, waste wood scenarios, sorting out the rules, acid rain advantages, a boost for renewables, and resources for further investigation

1991-01-01

87

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine sh...

Sousa, Orlando V.; Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira; Alves, Maria S.; Arau?jo, Ai?lson A. L.; Pinto, Mi?riam A. O.; Amaral, Maria P. H.; Rodarte, Mi?rian P.; Kaplan, Maria A. C.

2012-01-01

88

Micropropagation of Pluchea lanceolata (Oliver & Hiern.) – A potent anti-arthritic medicinal herb  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an efficient protocol for micropropagation of a medicinally potent anti-arthritic, threatened herb Pluchea lanceolata using shoot tip explants. Shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) basal medium supplemented with different cytokinins and auxins singly as well as in combinations. Multiple shoot (20.8±0.56) proliferation was obtained on MS medium fortified with 0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.5 mg/l Kinetin (Kn). Elongation and further developm...

2013-01-01

89

Pluchea lanceolata (Rasana): Chemical and biological potential of Rasayana herb used in traditional system of medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, (Family: Asteraceae) is a rapidly spreading perennial herb, considered valuable for the management of anti-inflammatory disease. Scientific reports dealing with phytochemical and pharmacological research and its traditional have been reviewed. Reports have also suggested that its prominent constituents viz. triterpenoids, sterols, flavonoids and lactones originate from this plant arbitrate their effects by modulating several therapeutic targets.Out of about 80 species of Pluchea, some of them are on extinct and only 16 have traditional uses in several countries of Asian, Middle East and North American region. The present review covers the period 1935-2011. PMID:22877846

Srivastava, Pooja; Shanker, Karuna

2012-12-01

90

THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD  

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Full Text Available Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to review the current status of oil palm biomass, including the availability of this tree, in order to illustrate the potential of oil palm biomass as an alternative source for compressed wood. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of compressed wood from oil palm trunk. This paper will cover the background of compressed wood and the possibilities of producing compressed wood using oil palm trunk as a raw material.

Othman Sulaiman,

2012-06-01

91

Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.  

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Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut growth and especially on radial increment, a very important matter being common walnut the target species with a very appreciated and valuable wood.

Giannini T

2009-01-01

92

Effect of cultivation on allelopathic interference success of the weed,Pluchea lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pluchea lanceolata, a perennial noxious weed, is rapidly spreading into cultivated fields in semiarid regions of India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cultivation on the interference success ofPluchea lanceolata by comparing chemical characteristics of the weed and its associated topsoil and subsoil in cultivated and uncultivated habitats. Weed plants from both cultivated and uncultivated habitats were analyzed for four biotic characteristics. Leaves were analyzed for nine chemical characteristics. Soils (topsoil and subsoil) were analyzed for 13 chemical characteristics. Nutrient concentrations of the weed and its associated soils, both in cultivated and uncultivated habitats, showed that plant response with reference to nutrient uptake was inversely related to that of soils. Thus, the weed does not create nutrient stress. With cultivation, leaf area and Cu and Na contents increased, while leaf ash, leaf weight, and Mg and Ca decreased. In the topsoil and subsoil, however, concentrations of total carbonates, total phenolics, and Ca increased with cultivation, while organic carbon, phosphate, and K decreased. High phenolic content of the cultivated fields could be explained due to leaching of water-soluble compounds from the plant parts either through natural leaching or through various agricultural practices such as ploughing and irrigation. We concluded that water-soluble phenolics, leached from the weed into the soil, increased with cultivation. PMID:24242313

Inderjit; Dakshini, K M

1994-05-01

93

Pluchea lanceolata attenuates cadmium chloride induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium intoxication induces lipid peroxidation and causes oxidative damage to various tissues by altering antioxidant defence system enzymes. At 24 h after treatment with a single intraperitoneal dose of cadmium chloride (5 mg kg-1), Swiss albino mice showed a significant increase in the levels of malanodialdehyde and xanthine oxidase (PPluchea lanceolata extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 for 7 consecutive days before CdCl2 intoxication caused a significant reduction in malanodialdehyde formation and xanthine oxidase activity (P<0.001). A significant restoration of the activity of antioxidant defence system enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05), glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase (P<0.001) was observed. A significant dose-dependent decrease in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation was also observed (P<0.05). The results indicate that pre-treatment with P. lanceolata attenuates cadmium chloride induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity by altering antioxidant enzymes and reducing chromatid breaks and micronuclei formation. PMID:16105241

Jahangir, Tamanna; Khan, Tajdar Husain; Prasad, Lakshmi; Sultana, Sarwat

2005-09-01

94

Effect of Pluchea lanceolata bioactives in LPS-induced neuroinflammation in C6 rat glial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroinflammation plays a significant role in various chronic and acute pathological conditions of the central nervous system. In the Indian system of medicine, Pluchea lanceolata is used to treat the neurological disorders. We investigated the effect of major pentacyclic triterpene and its naturally occurring acetate derivative isolated from P. lanceolata on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neuroinflammatory condition associated to inflammatory cytokine production in rat astrocytoma cell line (C6). The log concentration dependence of Pluchea bioactive taraxasterol (Tx) significantly (p??0.05). Surflex-Dock molecular modeling study was performed to simulate the binding capacity of compounds into the active site of the TNF-? (2AZ5), tumor protein P53 (2VUK), and NF-kappa-B (1RAM). The differential inhibition of cytokines by Tx and TxAc was further confirmed by high docking scores showing the high affinity to target proteins. Findings of the study demonstrated the comparatively greater role of Pluchea triterpene than its in situ produced acetate derivate in neuroinflammation-associated disorders. PMID:24101125

Srivastava, Pooja; Mohanti, Shilpa; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao; Khan, Feroz; Shanker, Karuna

2014-02-01

95

Elevated ozone affects the genetic composition of Plantago lanceolata L. populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The genetic composition and diversity of Plantago lanceolata L. populations were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to test for differences in an old semi-natural grassland after five years of treatment with ambient or elevated ozone (O3) using a free-air fumigation system. Genetic diversity in populations exposed to elevated O3 was slightly higher than in populations sampled from control plots. This effect was significant for AFLP-based measures of diversity and for SSR markers based on observed heterozygosity. Also, a small but significant difference in genetic composition between O3 treatments was detected by analysis of molecular variance and redundancy analysis. The results show that micro-evolutionary processes could take place in response to long-term elevated O3 exposure in highly diverse populations of outbreeding plant species. - Five years of exposure indicated a small but significant influence of elevated O3 on genetic composition and diversity of Plantago lanceolata L. populations

2008-03-01

96

Plant Community Diversity Influences Allocation to Direct Chemical Defence in Plantago lanceolata  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Forecasting the consequences of accelerating rates of changes in biodiversity for ecosystem functioning requires a mechanistic understanding of the relationships between the structure of biological communities and variation in plant functional characteristics. So far, experimental data of how plant species diversity influences the investment of individual plants in direct chemical defences against herbivores and pathogens is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Plantago lanceolata as a model species in experimental grasslands differing in species richness and composition (Jena Experiment) to investigate foliar concentrations of the iridoid glycosides (IG), catalpol and its biosynthetic precursor aucubin. Total IG and aucubin concentrations decreased, while catalpol concentrations increased with increasing plant diversity in terms of species or functional group richness. Negative plant diversity effects on total IG and aucubin concentrations correlated with increasing specific leaf area of P. lanceolata, suggesting that greater allocation to light acquisition reduced the investment into these carbon-based defence components. In contrast, increasing leaf nitrogen concentrations best explained increasing concentrations of the biosynthetically more advanced IG, catalpol. Observed levels of leaf damage explained a significant proportion of variation in total IG and aucubin concentrations, but did not account for variance in catalpol concentrations. Conclusions/Significance Our results clearly show that plants growing in communities of varying species richness and composition differ in their defensive chemistry, which may modulate plant susceptibility to enemy attack and consequently their interactions with higher trophic level organisms.

Mraja, Anne; Unsicker, Sybille B.; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Roscher, Christiane

2011-01-01

97

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Babanezhad, M. [Department of statistics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vitharana, U.W.A. [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Wuytack, T.; Potters, G. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Samson, R., E-mail: Roeland.Samson@ua.ac.b [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

2010-03-15

98

The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

1991-03-18

99

Morfoanatomia e ontogênese dos frutos e sementes de Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae = Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruits and seeds of Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clusia lanceolata Cambess é espécie arbustiva da Mata Atlântica. Caracteriza-se por ser dioica, com flores estaminadas e pistiladas grandes, vistosas, de coloração rosa, apresentando a parte interna vinácea. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie, visando classificar corretamente o seu tipo de fruto e, também, confirmar a origem do apêndice carnoso que envolve as sementes. O material botânico utilizado constou de flores em antese e frutos, em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento, coletados de dois espécimes. Os estudos morfológicos e anatômicos foram realizados segundo técnicas usuais. O fruto é cápsula septífraga, esférica, de coloração verde-avermelhado. O exocarpo é unisseriado; o mesocarpo parenquimático contém numerosos ductos secretores e feixes vasculares, de disposição principalmente longitudinal. O endocarpo é derivado da epiderme interna do ovário e de três a quatro camadas subepidérmicas, cujas células alongam-se tangencialmente e a parede que delimita o lóculo sofre lignificação. A abertura se faz pela sutura carpelar, por meio de uma faixa de células parenquimáticas de tamanho reduzido, que se bifurca em direção aos lóculos no meio dos septos. Os óvulos anátropos bitegumentados, com endotélio e hipóstase, originam sementes também anátropas, exotégmicas e envolvidas por arilo de origem funicular e exostomal. O embrião é hipocotilar.Clusia lanceolata Cambess. is a shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. The plant is dioecious, with large, showy, pink staminate and pistillate flowers that are wine-colored internally. The morphological and structural aspects of the fruits and seeds of this species are described here in order to correctly classify the fruit type and to determine the origin of the fleshy appendage that surrounds the seeds. The botanical material utilized here contained flowers in anthesis and fruits in four stages of development, and were collected from two different plants. The morphological and anatomical studies were performed according to traditional techniques. The fruit is a septifrage, spherical capsule with a reddish-green coloration. The exocarp is uniseriate; the parenchymatous mesocarp contains numerous secretory ducts and vascular bundles arranged in predominantly longitudinal positions. The endocarp is derived from the internal epidermis of the ovary and has from three to four subepidermal layers whose component cells are tangentially elongated, and the cell walls lining the locule become lignified. The fruits open by means of the carpelar suture, along a stand of small parenchymous cells that bifurcate in the direction of the locules, in the midst of the septum. The anatropous bitegumentedovules, with an endothelium and hypostase, give rise to seeds that are likewise anatropous, exotegmic, and wrapped in an aril that has a funicular and exostomal origin. The embryo is hypocotylar.

Juliana Marzinek

2010-10-01

100

Antilipogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice Hepatic Tissues after Chronic Ethanol Feeding  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the antilipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata) root extract in mice with alcohol-induced fatty liver and elucidated its underlying molecular mechanisms. Ethanol was introduced into the liquid diet by mixing it with distilled water at 5% (wt/v), providing 36% of the energy, for nine weeks. Among the three different fractions prepared from the C. lanceolata root, the C. lanceolata methanol extract (CME) exhibited the most remarkable attenuation of alcohol-induced fatty liver with respect to various parameters such as hepatic free fatty acid concentration, body weight loss, and hepatic accumulations of triglyceride and cholesterol. The hepatic gene and protein expression levels were analysed via RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. CME feeding significantly restored the ethanol-induced downregulation of the adiponectin receptor (adipoR) 1 and of adipoR2, along with their downstream molecules. Furthermore, the study data showed that CME feeding dramatically reversed ethanol-induced hepatic upregulation of toll-like receptor- (TLR-) mediated signaling cascade molecules. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of CME against alcoholic fatty livers of mice appear to be with adenosine- and adiponectin-mediated regulation of hepatic steatosis and TLR-mediated modulation of hepatic proinflammatory responses.

Cha, Areum; Choi, Youngshim; Jin, Yoojeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Koo, Yun-Chang; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Taesun

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Wood Preservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Fire proofing; Wear or failure; Fungi and insects; Preparation of wood before treatment; Method of treatment; (Brushing, dipping, pressure process, boucherie process, dip diffusion); Absorption required.

F. J. Hitie A. W. Owadally

1984-01-01

102

Molecular genetic tools to infer the origin of forest plants and wood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most forest tree species exhibit high levels of genetic diversity that can be used to trace the origin of living plants or their products such as timber and processed wood. Recent progress to isolate DNA not only from living tissue but also from wood and wood products offers new opportunities to test the declared origin of material such as seedlings for plantation establishment or timber. However, since most forest tree populations are weakly differentiated, the identification of genetic mark...

Finkeldey, Reiner; Leinemann, Ludger; Gailing, Oliver

2010-01-01

103

THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN.) WOOD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and co...

Unsal, O.; Korkut, S.; Atik, C.

2003-01-01

104

Coconut lumber for wood decks (Cocos nucifera L.):decay resistance against Basidiomycetes fungi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since a couple of years, manufactured products of coconut wood for outdoor uses like wood decks have been proposed on the European market. These are presented as an alternative for traditional tropical timbers. In the past, coconut wood was neglected and burned for sanitary reasons and lack of interest at industrial scale. Plantation coconut trees at end of production of copra constitute a renewable resource with high added value. In order to convince the markets, natural durability for outdo...

Jourez, Benoi?t; Verheyen, Ce?cile; Acker, Joris

2011-01-01

105

Estonian energy forest plantations - General information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to promote research and application of fast-growing, short rotation forestry in Estonia, seven energy forest plantations were established within the frame of scientific cooperation of multiple Estonian research institutions and SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) in 1993-1995. This paper presents a general description of the Estonian energy forest plantations and a short review of the research, which is carried out on the basis of these plantations. 9 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

Koppel, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tartu (Estonia). Inst. of Zoology and Botany; Perttu, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry; Ross, J. [Tartu Observatory, Tartumaa (Estonia)

1996-12-31

106

ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 ?m, and 7.1 ?m, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre...

2011-01-01

107

Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

2010-12-15

108

Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

2010-12-01

109

Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta" ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó un potrero de igual composición botánica, pero con una baja carga parasitaria, y el grupo de terneros "Plantago" pastoreó un potrero sembrado con P. lanceolata, también con una baja carga parasitaria. Este manejo se mantuvo durante 60 días. Cada semana se pesaron todos los animales y se les tomaron muestras fecales para realizar recuento de huevos y diferenciación genérica de larvas. Cada dos semanas se estableció la carga parasitaria del pasto de los potreros utilizados. La pluviosidad se registró diariamente. La carga parasitaria del pasto del potrero contaminado fue alta durante todo el ensayo. A las tres semanas de iniciado el período de suplementación se inició en ambos grupos un aumento de los recuentos (hpg promedio de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus que se diferenciaron significativamente (P 0,05. Se concluye que la suplementación con Plantago lanceolata redujo significativamente la oviposición de los parásitos gastrointestinales.The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Plantago lanceolata (narrow leaf plantain, as a supplemental forage, reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. The trial was conducted on a farm in the 10th Region, Chile. Two groups of 15 calves weighing 171.4 ± 19.8 kg grazed 17 hours a day on a pasture composed mainly of gramineous and with a high infestation of trichostrongylid nematode larvae. During the remaining 7 hours, the "control" group grazed in a pasture of similar botanic composition but with a low parasite burden; the "plantago" group grazed in a pasture specially sown with P. lanceolata with also a low parasite burden. This regimen was maintained for 60 days. Each week the animals were weighed and faecal samples were gathered to determine the nematode egg count (epg and larvae generic differentiation. Grass samples were taken every two weeks from all pastures to establish their level of parasite burden. Precipitation was measured daily. The parasite burden of grass in the contaminated pasture was high during the whole period. Three weeks after the initiation of the trial, an increase in the average of eggs per gram of faeces (epg was observed. A significant difference (P 0.05. It is concluded that the inclusion of P. lanceolata as a supplemental forage significantly reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal parasites.

G Sievers

2006-01-01

110

Rapid quantification of 14 saponins of Maesa lanceolata by UPLC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saponins are high molecular weight glycosides which are known for their broad range of biological activities. In case of Maesa lanceolata, a tree growing in African countries, the maesasaponins showed virucidal, haemolytic, molluscicidal and anti-angiogenic activity. Since the different activities are dependent on the structure of the saponins, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of the individual saponins in this plant. Since the saponins were only present in small amounts, it was necessary to develop a very sensitive analytical method. For the fast and sensitive analysis of the extracted and purified plant samples ultra-performance liquid chromatography was coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for MS/MS detection. A method in positive ESI mode, using sodium acetate in the mobile phase, was developed. The sodium adduct ion was selected as the precursor ion since it provided better sensitivity and a better, more stable fragmentation compared to the deprotonated and protonated ions. The intensity of the signal obtained by fragmentation of the sodium adducts of the saponins, was optimized by the addition of different concentrations of sodium acetate to the mobile phase. Reference standards were not available for all 14 saponins. Therefore, a relative MS/UV response was calculated allowing the estimation of the saponins in real samples. alpha-Hederin was used as external standard. The method was linear over the investigated concentration range with a good correlation coefficient (>0.99). The intra- and inter-day precisions were below 15% for most maesasaponins with the exception of maesasaponin II, which showed a precision within 20%. The recoveries of the spiked pure compounds maesasaponin IV.1 and VII.1 were 96.6% and 85.5%, respectively. The validated method can be applied in the investigation of the content of 14 saponins in transgenic and non-transgenic plant material of M. lanceolata. PMID:20441893

Foubert, K; Cuyckens, F; Vleeschouwer, K; Theunis, M; Vlietinck, A; Pieters, L; Apers, S

2010-06-15

111

Purification and characterization of the main allergen of Plantago lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) pollen is an important cause of pollinosis in the temperate regions of North America, Australia and Europe. However, very little is known about its allergen composition. The aim of this study was to identify plantain allergens, and to isolate and characterize a major allergen. Allergens were identified by immunoblotting with individual allergic patients' sera. Isolation of the major allergen was achieved by sequential reverse-phase and size-exclusion HPLC. Allergenic characterization was performed by ELISA and immunoblotting after SDS-PAGE with sera from plantain-allergic patients. N-terminal amino acid sequence was established by Edman degradation. Allergograms showed that 13 out of the 14 sera assayed had IgE to a group of proteins with a molecular weight in the range of 16-20 kd, that turned out to be different isoforms or variants of the major allergen Pla l l. Eighteen amino acid residues from the N-terminal end of one of the isoforms, and 10 of three others, were sequenced, and a partial sequence identity with Ole e 1 was found. Prevalence of specific IgE to purified Pla l 1 in plantain allergic patients was 86%, and represents about 80% of the total IgE-binding capacity of the plantain extract. The most relevant allergen from P.lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1, has been purified and characterized. This contributes to a greater knowledge of the allergen composition of this important weed, and clears the way for the standardization of plantain allergen products in terms of major allergen content. PMID:11251634

Calabozo, B; Barber, D; Polo, F

2001-02-01

112

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (10% w/v) was prepared in water and another in methanol. Treatments included extract concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, and water controls. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was recorded after 7-day exposure to the treatments, and second-stage juvenile (J2) activity after 48 hours. All extracts were toxic to eggs and J2, with P. lanceolata shoot extract tending to have the most activity against M. incognita. Numbers of active J2 remained the same or decreased in a 24-hour water rinse following the 48-hour extract treatment, indicating that the extracts were lethal. When data from water- and methanol-extracted roots and shoots of both plant species were combined for analysis, J2 tended to be more sensitive than eggs to the toxic compounds at lower concentrations, while the higher concentrations (75% and 100%) were equally toxic to both life stages. The effective concentrations causing 50% reduction (EC(50)) in egg hatch and in J2 viability were 44.4% and 43.7%, respectively. No extract was toxic to any of the bacteria or fungi in our assays. PMID:19259537

Meyer, Susan L F; Zasada, Inga A; Roberts, Daniel P; Vinyard, Bryan T; Lakshman, Dilip K; Lee, Jae-Kook; Chitwood, David J; Carta, Lynn K

2006-09-01

113

Federal tax incentives and disincentives for the adoption of wood-fuel electric-generating technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we estimate the effects of current federal tax policy on the financial criteria that investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) and non-utility electricity generators (NUGs) use to evaluate wood-fuel electric-generating technologies, distinguishing between dedicated-plantation and wood-waste fuels. Accelerated tax depreciation, the 1.5 cent/kWh production tax credit for the dedicated-plantation technology, and the alternative minimum tax are the most important tax provisions. The results indicate that federal tax laws have significantly different effects on the evaluation criteria, depending on the plant's ownership (IOU vs NUG) and type of fuel (dedicated-plantation vs wood-waste). (Author)

1995-01-01

114

WOOD WELDING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in the rubbed surfaces reaching 170 ºC, and the consequent change of state of the lignin and hemicelluloses, that then melt and flow. The process results in the detachment of wood cells, and in a formation of a fibers entanglement network immersed in a matrix of molten material which then solidifies. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs obtained shows a considerable physic-chemical reorganization in the bulk of the joint. This new composition of detachment wood cells/fibers of the two surfaces, a entanglement network immersed in a matrix of molten polymericmaterial, mainly melted lignin, yields in the interface of the welding a bond of considerable strength.

Marcos Theodoro Muller

2010-05-01

115

ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

Thais Cunha Ferreira

2004-07-01

116

An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

2010-12-01

117

Water use, water limitation, and water use efficiency in a Eucalyptus plantation Utilización del agua, limitación hídrica y eficiencia del uso del agua en una plantación de Eucalyptus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production worldwide, but the ecophysiology of resource limitation on growth remains poorly quantified. We investigated the production ecology of a 3.4- to 5.4- year-old plantation of clonal Eucalypus grandis x urophylla in northeastern Brazil on a sandy Oxisol during two years (one wet, and one with normal rainfall). We measured wood production and estimated water use (transpired water) in control and irrigated treatments. W...

JOSE LUIZ STAPE; DAN BINKLEY; Ryan, Michael G.; ANTONIO DO NASCIMENTO GOMES

2004-01-01

118

Qualitative analysis of Plantago Lanceolata L seeds in chromically irradiated phytocenosis of the 30 km ChNPP area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation monitoring of Plantago Lanceolata L seeds growing in differently contaminated parts of the 30 km ChNPP area was performed in 3 years after the accident. By the end of the third year inhomogeneity of native populations had been displayed in more vivid vulnerability of seeds from mostly contaminated locations during intense gamma-radiation of seeds with high dose rates. refs. 5; figs. 2; tabs. 2

1988-05-10

119

Effects of probiotic fermentation on the enhancement of biological and pharmacological activities of Codonopsis lanceolata extracted by high pressure treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to evaluate the enhancement of antioxidant, antimicrobial, enzymatic, cytotoxic, and cognitive activities of Codonopsis lanceolata extracted by high pressure treatment followed by probiotic fermentation. Dried C. lanceolata samples were subjected to 400 MPa for 20 min and then fermented with Bifidobacterium longum B6 (HPE-BLF) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HPE-LRF) at 37 °C for 7 days. Compared to conventional extraction (CE-NF, 6.69 mg GAE/g), the phenol amounts of HPE-BLF and HPE-LRF were significantly increased to more than 8 mg GAE/g, while the lowest flavonoid contents were observed for HPE-BLF (0.44 mg RE/mL) and HPE-LRF (0.45 mg RE/mL) (pLRF, with minimum EC(50) values of 1.26 and 1.18 mg/mL, respectively. The HPE-BLF and HPE-LRF samples exhibited the most noticeable antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Shigella boydii (MICs<15 mg/mL). The fermented C. lanceolata samples effectively inhibited ?-glucosidase and tyrosinase activities and potentially improved a scopolamine-induced memory deficit in mice. The application of a fermentation process can effectively improve the biological and pharmacological activities of high-pressure-extracted C. lanceolata by increasing the extraction efficacy and inducing probiotic conversion. The results suggest that the combined treatment of HPE and a fermentation process could be used as alternative extraction method over CE. PMID:21543255

He, Xinlong; Zou, Yunyun; Yoon, Won-Byong; Park, Sung-Jin; Park, Dong-Sik; Ahn, Juhee

2011-08-01

120

Wood density variation and tree ring distinctness in Gmelina arborea trees by x-ray densitometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to its relationship with other properties, wood density is the main wood quality parameter. Modern, accuratemethods such as X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the spatial distribution of density in wood sections and to evaluatewood quality. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of growing conditions on wood density variation andtree ring demarcation of gmelina trees from fast growing plantations in Costa Rica. The wood density was determined by X-raydensitometry method. Wood samples were cut from gmelina trees and were exposed to low X-rays. The radiographic films weredeveloped and scanned using a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the wood density was determined by CRAD and CERDsoftware. The results showed tree-ring boundaries were distinctly delimited in trees growing in site with rainfall lower than 2510 mm/year. It was demonstrated that tree age, climatic conditions and management of plantation affects wood density and its variability. Thespecific effect of variables on wood density was quantified by for multiple regression method. It was determined that tree yearexplained 25.8% of the total variation of density and 19.9% were caused by climatic condition where the tree growing. Wood densitywas less affected by the intensity of forest management with 5.9% of total variation.

Roger Moya

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

DETERMINING THE TRANSITION AGE FROM JUVENILE TO MATURE WOOD IN Pinus patula SCHL. et CHAM.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to compare several criteria to estimate the transition age from juvenile to mature wood formation in a 16-year-old Pinus patula plantation, radial trends of latewood proportion, wood density and tracheid length were identified in a sample of 100 trees. A wood sample from each tree was taken with an increment borer at 50 cm stem height. Latewood proportion increased gradually from pith to bark, but after 14 years old showed a higher rate of increase; wood density decreased initially a...

2005-01-01

122

Conference: 'Heating with Wood'. An alternative to fossil fuels? Status and perspectives. Documentation; Tagung: 'Heizen mit Holz'. Eine Alternative zur fossilen Energie? Stand der Technik und neue Perspektiven. Dokumentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main topics of the meeting ''Heating with wood'' were: resource assessment, economical aspects, logistics, cogeneration, district heating, plantation and harvesting of fast growing trees, new heating systems.(uke)

NONE

1999-07-01

123

Lancemaside A from Codonopsis lanceolata Modulates the Inflammatory Responses Mediated by Monocytes and Macrophages  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we aimed to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of lancemaside A from Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) in the inflammatory responses of monocytes (U937 cells) and macrophages (RAW264.7 cells). Lancemaside A significantly suppressed the inflammatory functions of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the production of nitric oxide (NO), the expression of the NO-producing enzyme inducible NO synthase (iNOS), the upregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD80, and the morphological changes induced by LPS exposure. In addition, lancemaside A diminished the phagocytic activity of RAW264.7 cells and boosted the neutralizing capacity of these cells when treated with the radical generator sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Interestingly, lancemaside A strongly blocked the adhesion activity of RAW264.7 cells to plastic culture plates, inhibited the cell-cell and cell-fibronectin (FN) adhesion of U937 cells that was triggered by treatment with an anti-?1-integrin (CD29) antibody and immobilized FN, respectively. By evaluating the activation of various intracellular signaling pathways and the levels of related nuclear transcription factors, lancemaside A was found to block the activation of inhibitor of ?B kinase (IKK) and p65/nuclear factor- (NF-) ?B. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory function of lancemaside A is the result of its strong antioxidative and IKK/NF-?B inhibitory activities.

Kim, Eunji; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Han Gyung; Ko, Jaeyoung; Hong, Yong Deog; Rho, Ho Sik; Shin, Song Seok; Sung, Gi-Ho

2014-01-01

124

Pluchea lanceolata protects against Benzo(a) pyrene induced renal toxicity and loss of DNA integrity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence from epidemiological, experimental and clinical trial data indicates that a plant based diet can reduce the risk of chronic diseases and reduces toxic effects. In the present study, we report the antioxidant and anticlastogenic activity of Pluchea lanceolata (PL), an important medicinal plant, in both in vitro and in vivo model. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) administration leads to depletion of renal glutathione and its metabolizing enzymes. Pretreatment with PL (100 and 200 mg /kg b.wt) restored renal glutathione content and its dependent enzymes significantly (p<0.001) with simultaneous increase in catalase(CAT), quinone reductase(QR) in mouse kidney. Prophylactic administration of PL prior to B (a) P administration significantly decreased the malondialdehyde(MDA), H2O2 and xanthineoxidase (XO) levels at a significance of p<0.001, at both the doses. PL extract pretreated groups showed marked inhibition in B(a)P induced micronuclei formation in mouse bone marrow cells with simultaneous restoration of DNA integrity, viz. alkaline unwinding assay and DNA damage shown by gel-electrophoresis. HPTLC confirms the presence of quercetin in plant extract which could be responsible for PL protecting efficacy. In conclusion, the present findings strongly support the antioxidant efficacy of PL, possibly by modulation of antioxidant armory. PMID:24170979

Jahangir, Tamanna; Safhi, Mohammed M; Sultana, Sarwat; Ahmad, Sayeed

2013-03-01

125

CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

2005-09-01

126

Dendrothermal plantations in the Philippines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dendrothermal power plant (using Leucaena leucocephala fuel wood) can generate electricity at rates competitive with oil-fired plants. Construction of dendrothermal plants - in addition to supplying electricity from local sources - would generate local employment and contribute to reforestation of denuded land. A programme is outlined for construction and for planting on part of the available land. The extent of such planting would be limited by rural demand for electricity, which is likely to remain modest for some time.

Denton, F.H.

1981-01-01

127

Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD7, 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha-1, respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

1995-09-24

128

Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91. The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein

2012-11-01

129

Wood density variation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wood density constitutes the main wood quality parameter by its relationship with anatomical, physical and chemical properties and wood utilization. The modern and accurate methods - like X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the density spatial distribution in wood sections and pith-bark direction. On the other hand, emphasis to wood utilization from fast growing plantations, like Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica, has been done. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of 2 climatic conditions of Costa Rica on radial wood density variation of gmelina trees form fast growing plantations using the X-ray densitometry method. Wood samples were cut at DBH of gmelina trees and transversal thin laths were selected at north-south direction and conditioned at 12% moisture content equilibrium and X-rayed. The radiographic films were revealed and scanned a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the intra tree-ring density were determined by CRAD and CERD software. The results demonstrated that the climatic and forest management affects the wood density variability and the distinctness of tree-ring boundaries of gmelina trees, as well as, the applicability of X-ray densitometry in wood quality analysis. (author)

2005-09-02

130

DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF METHYL METHACRYLATE HARDENED HYBRID POPLAR WOOD  

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Full Text Available This study examines the dimensional stability of fast-growing poplar clones wood after treatment by impregnation with methyl methacrylate (MMA. Six hybrid poplar clones from one plantation in Quebec were sampled. The effects of hardening with MMA on density as well as longitudinal, radial, tangential, and volumetric swelling properties (S, water uptake capacity (D, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE, and water repellent efficiency (WRE after soaking were investigated. Hardening treatment increased the density of all poplar woods by 1.2 to 1.6 and decreased the inner water migration rate during soaking. S and D values of hardened woods were significantly lower than those of controls, depending on the clone type. ASE and WRE values suggested that incorporating MMA effectively improved the dimensional stability of poplar wood at the early soaking stage, but was less effective in the long term.

Wei-Dan Ding,

2011-11-01

131

Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration of carbon. The same is likely to be true for managed forests in other temperate regions. If wood from additional felling is used, it would be most effective to use it in products that stay in circulation for a long time, only to be used for energy at the end of its service life. An increase in wood demand may lead to an intensification of forest management, which may temporarily increase carbon sequestration rates and biomass yields. This would eventually reduce the payback times. However, it must be noted that it would still take a substantial amount of time for the intensification of forest management to become effective, especially when it includes drastic measures, such as converting natural forests into plantations. Short rotation plantations with fast growing trees on agricultural land may be another option, but in these cases there are similarities with the direct and indirect land-use change effects related to energy crops. Further analysis is required to enable a clear judgment on the impact of these options. Products are not the only place of storing carbon with a beneficial effect on climate change. The combination of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) on large industrial sites where biomass is converted into energy carriers, such as transport fuel and electricity, is projected to be beneficial, as well. Even landfill sites may serve as storage of carbon in wood waste, as pieces of wood hardly degrade.

Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

2013-08-15

132

Regulation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in embryos and microsomal preparations from the developing seeds of Cuphea lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryos of Cuphea lanceolata have more than 80 mol% of decanoic acid ('capric acid') in their triacylglycerols, while this fatty acid is virtually absent in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Seed development was complete 25-27 days after pollination, with rapid triacylglycerol deposition occurring between 9 and 24 days. PtdCho amounts increased until day 15 after pollination. Analysis of embryo lipids showed that the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool consisted of mainly long-chain molecular species, with a very small amount of mixed medium-chain/long-chain glycerols. Almost 100% of the fatty acid at position sn-2 in triacylglycerols (TAG) was decanoic acid. When equimolar mixtures of [14C]decanoic and [14C]oleic acid were fed to whole detached embryos, over half of the radioactivity in the DAG resided in [14C]oleate, whereas [14C]decanoic acid accounted for 93% of the label in the TAG. Microsomal preparations from developing embryos at the mid-stage of TAG accumulation catalysed the acylation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate with either decanoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA, resulting in the formation of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), DAG and TAG. Very little [14C]glycerol entered PtdCho. In combined incubations, with an equimolar supply of [14C]oleoyl-CoA and [14C]decanoyl-CoA in the presence of glycerol 3-phosphate, the synthesized PtdCho species consisted to 95% of didecanoic and dioleic species. The didecanoyl-glycerols were very selectively utilized over the dioleoylglycerols in the production of TAG. Substantial amounts of [14C]oleate, but not [14C]decanoate, entered PtdCho. The microsomal preparations of developing embryos were used to assess the acyl specificities of the acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 2.3.1.15) and the acyl-CoA:sn-1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (LPAAT, EC 2.3.1.51) in Cuphea lanceolata embryos. The efficiency of acyl-CoA utilization by the GPAT was in the order decanoyl = dodecanoyl greater than linoleoyl greater than myristoyl = oleoyl greater than palmitoyl. Decanoyl-CoA was the only acyl donor to be utilized to any extent by the LPAAT when sn-decanoylglycerol 3-phosphate was the acyl acceptor. sn-1-Acylglycerol 3-phosphates with acyl groups shorter than 16 carbon atoms did not serve as acyl acceptors for long-chain (greater than or equal to 16 carbon atoms) acyl-CoA species. On the basis of the results obtained, we propose a schematic model for triacylglycerol assembly and PtdCho synthesis in a tissue specialized in the synthesis of high amounts of medium-chain fatty acids. PMID:2264835

Bafor, M; Jonsson, L; Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

1990-11-15

133

ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD  

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Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ? 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ? 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

Adriano Wagner Ballarin

2003-01-01

134

IMPORTANCE OF THE FORESTS PLANTATIONS OF Eucalyptus  

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SUMMARYThe worldwide consumption of wood is distributed between the energy necessities, firewood and charcoal (more than 50 %), the sawmill wood, posts, dismount and construction (20 %) and the dedicated to the industry of the cellulose and the paper (27 %). The world previsions for the wood consumption in the year 2000 surpasses the 4000 m3 millions, what supposes a shortage of 1000 millions. There is a shortage in the world of wood as of energy, what converts to the forest production in pri...

2006-01-01

135

Evaluation of Mycosphaerella impact on eucalypts plantations in Portugal  

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Full Text Available Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD is one of the most important diseases of eucalypts plantations worldwide. However, only recently it has become relevant in Portugal. Caused by a complex of Mycosphaerella species, this disease reduces the photosynthetic area and can cause tree defoliation. In extreme cases it causes reduction in the volume of wood produced. In order to relate the observed symptoms of MLD with the presence of the pathogen and at the same time obtaining an evaluation of eucalypt clones and family susceptibility, two experimental plantations were established in places where the disease has been detected. Data on the percentage of affected crown (necrosis or defoliation were collected and some of the Mycosphaerella species present were identified (M. africana, M. communis, M. grandis, M. lateralis, M. marksii, M. nubilosa, M. parva, M. vespa and M. walkeri.A doença das manchas das folhas do eucalipto é uma das mais importantes nas plantações de eucalipto, tendo-se só recentemente tornado relevante em Portugal. Esta doença, causada por um complexo de espécies de Mycosphaerella, reduz a área fotossintética da árvore, podendo causar desfolha, com consequente redução da taxa de crescimento e do volume de madeira produzido. Com o objectivo de relacionar os sintomas observados com a presença do agente patogénico e avaliar a susceptibilidade de clones e famílias de eucalipto, foram estabelecidas duas plantações experimentais em locais onde foi detectada a doença. Foram recolhidos dados relativos à percentagem de área da copa afectada (por necroses ou desfolha e identificadas as espécies de Mycosphaerella associadas (M. africana, M. communis, M. grandis, M. lateralis, M. marksii, M. nubilosa, M. parva, M. vespa e M. walkeri.

Márcia Silva

2008-12-01

136

Impact of defoliation on the regrowth capacity and the shoot metabolite profile of Plantago lanceolata L.  

Science.gov (United States)

After defoliation challenges, plants should invest their resources in a way that maximizes their fitness, which may lead to trade-offs in investment in physiological versus chemical traits. Thereby, the regrowth capacity of plants may highly depend on the type and the severity of defoliation. In the present study, we investigated the phenotypic plasticity of Plantago lanceolata L. in response to different defoliation events in a comprehensive way, measuring various traits. This herbaceous species grows on ruderal sites and typically suffers from repeated substantial losses of shoot biomass due to mowing and/or herbivory during the growing season. To study treatment-specific effects of defoliation on resource allocation and induction of defence responses, plants were exposed either to (repeated) mechanical clipping or to herbivory by the generalist Grammia incorrupta (Lepidoptera). Next to regrowth and physiological leaf traits such as the water content, the specific leaf area and C/N ratios of these plants, primary and secondary metabolites in leaves were analyzed with a metabolite profiling approach using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The different defoliation treatments strongly affected the regrowth capacity of clipped and herbivore-treated plants, leading to additive changes in physiological leaf traits. As a response to the defoliation treatments, clipped and herbivore-treated plants reduced mainly carbon-based primary metabolites such as sorbitol, and glucose, suggesting that the different defoliation challenges similarly limited the ability of carbon fixation. Yet, only in response to herbivory but not to clipping, plants induced defence compounds, which indicates the importance of treatment-specific responses despite severe resource limitations. Overall, the different responses to defoliation by clipping and herbivory may reflect allocation constraints and/or adaptive plasticity. PMID:24036062

Pankoke, Helga; Müller, Caroline

2013-10-01

137

Fuel plantation research. Progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research in chemical induction of lightwood is summarized. Four large-scale proof of concept studies have been installed that test five paraquat treatments on a total of 71,228 trees. This wood will be used in actual pulp mill and extraction plant runs to determine oleoresin recovery and possible processing problems. Nearly 3,000 wood samples have been collected to ascertain duration of treatment effects. Results of complementary studies are also reported; most of these are concerned with optimization of paraquat application techniques and the effect of species differences on these methods. A large study was installed to field screen selected insecticides for insect pest control in lightwood operations, and interim results are presented. Dowco 214 (Reldon) proved to be an adequate substitute for BHC and 0.5% concentrations were as effective as 1%. Ten northern and seven western conifer species were tested for their reaction to paraquat treatment. All members of genus Pinus showed appreciable resin soaking but other coniferous genera did not. Feasibility of oleoresin substitution for petrochemicals was investigated.

Stubbs, J.

1977-08-01

138

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli...

Sousa, Orlando V.; Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira; Alves, Maria S.; Arau?jo, Ai?lson A. L.; Pinto, Mi?riam A. O.; Amaral, Maria P. H.; Rodarte, Mi?rian P.; Kaplan, Maria A. C.

2012-01-01

139

INTERFERENCE IN THE EUCALYPTUS PULP QUALITY AND YIELD DUE TO WOOD MULTIPLE USE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 7-year plantation of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid established in the vicinity of Mogi-Guaçu/SP was evaluated, according to a simulation of multiple use of the wood. Part of the raw material produced was sent to sawn wood industry. The quality and yield of the cellulose produced in laboratory of three wood portions of the plantation was compared. In Treatment 1, the cellulose produced from the whole wood of the trees was evaluated; in Treatment 2 only the first portion of the tree was used, from wood of the soil base up to 4m height, wood that would be destined to sawnwood in a multiple use situation; finally, Treatment 3 evaluated the portion of the wood above 4 m of height. The possible interferences of multiple use of the wood in the yield and quality of the cellulose were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the retreat of the most vigorous logs of the trees didn't harm the quality and yield of the cellulose.

Alexandre Monteiro de Carvalho

2004-07-01

140

The research of some physical properties of wood Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortuneii  

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Full Text Available The density, shrinkage and swelling of Paulownia elongata and P. fortuneii wood were researched. The study material was provided by Boda Vukovojac, B. Sc., who established the Paulownia plantation and sample plots on the territory of the Municipality Bela Crkva. The study results show the differences between the analyzed properties of these two species. The study results were also compared with the results of the similar species of wood. The data shows that the study wood can be used in wood products that are not subject to great loads during exploitation. Further study should investigate the liability of these wood species to form tension wood and deformations in the conditions of variable hygroscopic moisture.

Šoški? Borislav

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Fire retardants for wood  

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Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount ...

2009-01-01

142

Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Cuphea lanceolata encoding a beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), an integral part of the fatty acid synthase type II, was cloned from Cuphea lanceolata. This cDNA of 1276 bp codes for a polypeptide of 320 amino acids with 63 N-terminal residues presumably representing a transit peptide and 257 residues corresponding to the mature protein of 27 kDa. The encoded protein shows strong homology with the amino-terminal sequence and two tryptic peptides from avocado mesocarp beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, and its total amino acid composition is highly similar to those of the beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductases of avocado and spinach. Amino acid sequence homologies to polyketide synthase, beta-ketoreductases and short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases are discussed. An engineered fusion protein lacking most of the transit peptide, which was produced in Escherichia coli, was isolated and proved to possess beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase activity. Hybridization studies revealed that in C. lanceolata beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase is encoded by a small family of at least two genes and that members of this family are expressed in roots, leaves, flowers and seeds. PMID:1376402

Klein, B; Pawlowski, K; Höricke-Grandpierre, C; Schell, J; Töpfer, R

1992-05-01

143

[Dynamics of biomass- and nutrient accumulation in a Chinese-fir plantation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the over 30 years observation data in Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem under Chinese Academy of Sciences and related literatures, this paper analyzed the dynamics of the biomass- and nutrient accumulation and allocation in a Chinese-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation, and the effects of rotation length and harvest intensity on the nutrient input/output. The results showed that stand age was the main factor affecting the biomass- and nutrient accumulation and allocation, and different organs had significant differences in their biomass- and nutrient storage. Stand age and different organs explained 37.1% and 40.3% of the variations of biomass- and nutrient storage, respectively. With the increase of stand age, the proportions of biomass and nutrients allocated to stem increased, while those allocated to foliage decreased. The accumulation rates of biomass and nutrients peaked at the age of 17 and 13, respectively, indicating that the nutrients reached their maximum accumulation rate ahead of the biomass. The nutrient requirement per unit dry biomass production decreased rapidly from the stand age 3 to 20 and reached a steady state after then, suggesting that the nutrient use efficiency increased with stand age. The analysis of different harvest scenarios showed that to prolong rotation length and to lower utilization intensity could reduce nutrient output. For example, if the rotation length was prolonged from 28 years to 56 years and only stem was harvested, the harvested biomass would be decreased by 31.57%, and the output of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg would be decreased by 42.02%, 58.93%, 27.70%, 31.07%, and 45.26%, respectively. PMID:20879522

Yang, Ming; Wang, Si-long; Zhang, Wei-dong; Wang, Qing-kui

2010-07-01

144

Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

Makombu, G.

2010-01-01

145

Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha-'1) and 86 % higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

2011-01-01

146

THE VIBRATIONAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR WOOD DURING MOISTURE SORPTION PROCESS  

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Full Text Available The vibrational properties of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata wood were investigated in this study as a function of changes in moisture content (MC and grain direction. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE and logarithmic decrement (? were examined using a cantilever beam vibration testing apparatus. It was observed that DMOE and ? of wood varied widely during moisture adsorption and desorption. The DMOE of wood conditioned by the adsorption process showed significant increases during the later stages of conditioning when the MC scarcely changed. However, with the desorption process, the DMOE did not increase as much during the later stages of conditioning, though they increased during the early stages of conditioning when the MC greatly decreased. These results suggest that wood in an unstable state, caused via the existing state of moisture, shows different vibrational behaviors. Furthermore, the parallel to grain direction showed much higher DMOE and lower ? when compared to the perpendicular to grain direction. The variation of vibrational properties between parallel and perpendicular to grain direction under constant MC and during moisture adsorption process could be attributed due to the microscopic, macroscopic molecular, as well as chemical constituents of wood.

Jiali Jiang,

2012-06-01

147

High incidence of teratologic changes in Plantago Lanceolata L. seedlings of the fifth post-disaster reproduction within the thirty kilometer zone of Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was for the first time that of the fifth year of monitoring of Plantago Lanceolata L., reproduced within the thirty kilometer zone of Chernobyl NPP disaster, the authors discovered incidence of seedlings with various morphological abnormalities. It is suggested that the damages observed are related to the cumulative effect of radiation

1993-01-01

148

Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P < 0.001), and followed by Sa plantation (69 Mg ha-1 and 32 Mg ha-1), Am plantation (25 Mg ha-1 and 27 Mg ha-1) and Ao plantation (21 Mg ha-1 and 26 Mg ha-1). The total carbon stock in biomass was 73 Mg C ha-1 in NR stand, 43 Mg C ha-1 in Sa plantation, 21 Mg C ha-1 in Am plantation and 18 Mg C ha-1 in Ao plantation respectively. The averaged total soil carbon stock up to 1 m soil depth in plantation site was estimated to be 167 ± 58 Mg C ha-1 which was nearly two times higher than that of current paddy fields 85 ± 17 Mg C ha-1. These facts suggest the feasibility of the mangrove plantation and induced natural regeneration as a carbon sequestration tool. The establishment of mangrove plantations appeared to be one measure for reducing the risk of cyclone damage after the Cyclone Nargis. This may reduce future human loss by cyclones and also improve the life of local people by increasing timber resources and environmental services.

Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

2011-12-01

149

Comparison of Juglans regia L. bare-root nursery stocks for plantations: morphological characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Good results in plantations are strictly related to the fitness of the nursery stock. Plant fitness, or quality, depends on inherent genetic characters and on physiological and physical (dimensional, morphological and nutritional characteristics. In arboriculture for wood production the role of stock quality is essential for a prompt expression of plant growth potential. So the necessity to define stock quality standards is widely recognized, though is still discussed how to assess stock cultural value by characteristics easy to measure. First step in such activities is to individuate in the above-ground part of the plantlets some traits related to the root system development. The study was carried out in two public forest nurseries (property of Regione Piemonte on 163 Juglans regia seedlings and transplants produced for wood plantations. In order to evaluate Walnut nursery stock production, different kinds of bare-root seedlings and transplants have been compared. For each kind, shoot and root system dimensional and morphological traits have been investigated after assignment of plants in 3 dimensional (height categories. Relations between shoots and roots traits have been studied to allow a visual evaluation of nursery plants based on data easy to collect. This study is to be considered a preliminary survey in the evaluation of stock quality based on field performance.

Tani A

2007-01-01

150

The role of acyl carrier protein isoforms from Cuphea lanceolata seeds in the de-novo biosynthesis of medium-chain fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the role of acyl carrier protein (ACP) in determining the fate of the acyl moieties linked to it in the course of de-novo fatty acid biosynthesis in higher plants, we carried out in vitro experiments to reconstitute the fatty acid synthase (FAS) reaction in extracts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves, rape (Brassica napus L.) seeds and Cuphea lanceolata Ait. seeds. The action of two major C. lanceolata ACP isoforms (ACP 1 and ACP 2) compared to ACP from Escherichia coli was monitored by saponification of the corresponding FAS products with subsequent analysis of the liberated fatty acids by high-performance liquid chromatography. In a second approach the preference of the medium-chain acyl-ACP-specific thioesterase (EC 3.1.2.14) of C. lanceolata seeds for the hydrolysis of acyl-ACPs prepared from the three ACP types was investigated. Both ACP isoforms from C. lanceolata seeds supported the synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in a reconstituted FAS reaction of spinach leaf extracts. Compared to the isoform ACP 1, ACP 2 was more effective in supporting the synthesis of such fatty acids in the FAS reaction of rape seed extracts and caused a higher accumulation of FAS products in all experiments. No preference of the medium-chain thioesterase for one specific ACP isoform was observed. The results indicate that the presence of ACP 2 is essential for the synthesis of decanoic acid in C. lanceolata seeds, and its expression in the phase of accumulation of high levels of this fatty acid provides an additional and highly efficient cofactor for stimulating the FAS reaction. PMID:9637071

Schütt, B S; Brummel, M; Schuch, R; Spener, F

1998-06-01

151

Molecular genetic tools to infer the origin of forest plants and wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most forest tree species exhibit high levels of genetic diversity that can be used to trace the origin of living plants or their products such as timber and processed wood. Recent progress to isolate DNA not only from living tissue but also from wood and wood products offers new opportunities to test the declared origin of material such as seedlings for plantation establishment or timber. However, since most forest tree populations are weakly differentiated, the identification of genetic markers to differentiate among spatially isolated populations is often difficult and time consuming. Two important fields of "forensic" applications are described: Molecular tools are applied to test the declared origin of forest reproductive material used for plantation establishment and of internationally traded timber and wood products. These applications are illustrated taking examples from Germany, where mechanisms have been developed to improve the control of the trade with forest seeds and seedlings, and from the trade with wood of the important Southeast Asian tree family Dipterocarpaceae. Prospects and limitations of the use of molecular genetic methods to conclude on the origin of forest plants, wood, and wood products are discussed. PMID:19911178

Finkeldey, Reiner; Leinemann, Ludger; Gailing, Oliver

2010-02-01

152

Who's Counting Dead Wood ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

2009-01-01

153

Wood heater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Design of wood heater having an elongated cylindrical firebox with a door access at one end is presented. A secondary heat chamber is located on a top side of the firebox, interconnecting the firebox to a flue adapter ring. Hot combustion gases are directed from the firebox through the second heat chamber to the flue adapter ring. A heat exchanger is positioned above the firebox within the heat chamber to extract heat from the burning gases and to direct the heat outwardly of the firebox and into the adjacent room. A window case protrudes from one side of the firebox and includes a glass pane for viewing the fire. The window case includes a shutter plate assembly that selectively closes off the fire from view through the window. The shutter plate has the additional function of directing ventilation air from the window vent aperture to cool the glass within the window case, protecting the glass pane from excessive heat, and preventing build-up of soot along the inwardly exposed surface thereof.

Starr, M.E.

1982-01-12

154

[Effects of different type urban forest plantations on soil fertility].  

Science.gov (United States)

Aimed to study the effects of different urban forest plantations on soil fertility, soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Picea koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in Northeast Forestry University's Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base in the 1950s, with two sites of neighboring farmland and abandoned farmland as the control. The soils in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica were near neutral, those in mixed plantation, L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis were slightly acidic, and that in Q. mongolica was acidic. The contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, available P and K, and hydrolysable N tended to decrease with soil depth. There existed significant differences in the chemical indices of the same soil layers among different plantations. The soil fertility was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > B. platyphylla > abandoned farmland > farmland > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > L. gmelinii > Q. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, suggesting that the soil fertility in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica and in mixed plantation increased, while that in needle-leaved forest plantations tended to decrease. PMID:20353050

Sun, Hui-zhen; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

2009-12-01

155

Investigaciones agrícolas en especies de uso frecuente en la medicina tradicional: IV. Llantén menor. Plantago lanceolata L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Plantago lanceolata (Llantén menor), es una especie apreciada popularmente como medicinal. En la actualidad se encuentra entre las plantas que se ha aprobado su empleo como droga seca y extracto fluido por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba para su incorporación al Sistema Nacional de Salud, por [...] lo que se requieren grandes cantidades de material vegetal obtenidos a través de su cultivo. En la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se realizaron una serie de investigaciones que permitieron aconsejar efectuar los semilleros entre mediados de octubre e inicios de noviembre, su plantación a distancia de 45 x 20 cm y la realización de 3 recolecciones del material vegetal; la primera alrededor de los 45 d después del trasplante, las restantes con frecuencia de 30 d, lográndose un rendimiento total fresco de más de 20 toneladas por hectárea. Abstract in english Plantago lanceolata (Plantago minor) is popularly considered as a medicinal species. At present, it is among the plants whose use as a dry drug and as a fluid extract in the National Health System has been approved by the Ministry of Public Health. That´s why, it is necessary to obtain large quantit [...] ies of vegetable material through its growth. A series of investigations made at "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay" Experimental Station allowed to recommend the preparation of seed plots between mid-October and the beginning of November, to plant the seed at a distance of 45 x 20 cm and to harvest the vegetable material 3 times; the first at about 45 days after transplantation and the rest at intervals of 30 days, achieving a total fresh yield of 20 tons by hectare.

Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Víctor, Fuentes Fiallo; Carlos, Rodríguez Ferradá.

156

Investigaciones agrícolas en especies de uso frecuente en la medicina tradicional: IV. Llantén menor. Plantago lanceolata L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plantago lanceolata (Llantén menor, es una especie apreciada popularmente como medicinal. En la actualidad se encuentra entre las plantas que se ha aprobado su empleo como droga seca y extracto fluido por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba para su incorporación al Sistema Nacional de Salud, por lo que se requieren grandes cantidades de material vegetal obtenidos a través de su cultivo. En la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se realizaron una serie de investigaciones que permitieron aconsejar efectuar los semilleros entre mediados de octubre e inicios de noviembre, su plantación a distancia de 45 x 20 cm y la realización de 3 recolecciones del material vegetal; la primera alrededor de los 45 d después del trasplante, las restantes con frecuencia de 30 d, lográndose un rendimiento total fresco de más de 20 toneladas por hectárea.Plantago lanceolata (Plantago minor is popularly considered as a medicinal species. At present, it is among the plants whose use as a dry drug and as a fluid extract in the National Health System has been approved by the Ministry of Public Health. That´s why, it is necessary to obtain large quantities of vegetable material through its growth. A series of investigations made at "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay" Experimental Station allowed to recommend the preparation of seed plots between mid-October and the beginning of November, to plant the seed at a distance of 45 x 20 cm and to harvest the vegetable material 3 times; the first at about 45 days after transplantation and the rest at intervals of 30 days, achieving a total fresh yield of 20 tons by hectare.

Lérida Acosta de la Luz

2000-12-01

157

Managing declining yields from ageing tea plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strong growth in the demand for tea requires further increases in the productivity of plantations. Declining or stagnant yields are commonly observed in older plantations. Possible controlling factors for yield decline are reviewed including ageing of plants, chronic disease and sub-optimal soil conditions such as excess soil acidity and low soil organic matter. Management options for addressing these factors are evaluated, including replanting. A systematic approach to decision-making about replanting is presented. Practice for replanting is reviewed and it is concluded that evidence to support a general case for replanting is limited, unless based on the introduction of more productive clones and/or better plant spacing. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24464583

Kibblewhite, Mark G; Prakash, Sudhir; Hazarika, Mridul; Burgess, Paul J; Sakrabani, Ruben

2014-06-01

158

Energy Characteristics of Wood-Chips Produced from Salix Viminalis - Clone ULV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores the energy characteristics of wood-chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV, which was cultivated in an energy plantation. The higher heating value of wood and bark of Salix viminalis was assessed through an experimental measurement in a special calorimeter for solid fuels, model IKA C 200. The lower heating value of wood and bark was calculated from the higher heating value Qs, taking into account hydrogen Hdaf and water contentWr in fuel samples that were assessed in a laboratory. The higher heating value and lower heating value of a dry Salix viminalis wood (QSW = 19 520 kJ/kg and QnW =18 044 kJ/kg were assessed by these analyses. The higher heating value and lower heating value of a dry Salix viminalis bark were also assessed (QSB = 19 389 kJ/kg, and QnB = 17 997 kJ/kg. The share of bark of 19.35%was assessed in wood-chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV, in accordance with the Slovak Technical Norm STN 48 0058 for wood assortments, wood chips containing leaves, and sawdust. The lower heating value of wood chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV in dry state was calculated, based on the lower heating value of salix wood, the lower heating value of salix bark, and the share of bark in wood chips as a weighted average Qn CH = 18 035 kJ/kg.

Ladislav Dzurenda

2010-03-01

159

CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

Hamid Reza Naji,

2011-10-01

160

Crop modelling of eucalyptus plantations in Nicaragua  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Nicaragua, at this moment, there is a potential for sugarmills to extend their power production and sell power to the national grid, both during and outside the sugarcane crushing season. During the sugarcane crushing season bagasse can be used as an energy source. An off-season fuel is eucalyptus from dedicated energy plantations. In Nicaragua two sugarmills ( "San Antonio" and "Victoria de Julio") have taken the initiative to implement this concept.

Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Growth and water use of forest plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This symposium was held February 4-7, 1991 in Bangalore, India for the purpose of providing a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on plant growth and water use by forest plantations. Attention is focused on Eucalyptus species. Their high growth rates and their ability to grow within a wide range of site conditions make them attractive species for both commercial and social forestry applications. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

1991-02-17

162

Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01

163

Hydrological impact of Eucalyptus plantation in India  

Science.gov (United States)

A brief review is given of the results of hydrological studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species on water resources, erosion and soil nutrients at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. New results on the impacts of the plantations on raindrop-induced erosion and preliminary results from studies that are aimed at improving the water use efficiency of the plantations are also presented. The erosion studies indicate that soil detachment resulting from net rainfall beneath Eucalyptus camaldulensis will be greater than beneath Pinus caribaea but less than that beneath the indigenous species, Tectona grandis. The water use efficiency studies, which make use of a controlled environment facility, have confirmed that in the dry zone of southern India water availability is the principal limiting factor on growth although, when water is available, nutrient limitations become important. Removal of both water and nutrient stress results typically in a fivefold increase in volume growth for the first year of growth.

Calder, Ian R.; Hall, Robin L.; Prasanna, K. T.

1993-10-01

164

Applications in wood plastics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today the radiation production of wood plastic composites or wood acrylic composites is a very viable and commercial industry. The goal of this paper is to briefly review the current status of wood acrylics in the United States. The first step will be a description of wood acrylics. That is, what are the physical and chemical properties of wood acrylics that make them of interest to the scientist and even more important, to the consumer. Next, highlights of the production process will be described, followed by a discussion of current wood acrylic applications and the basis for these applications. Finally, potential areas for future expansion will be summarized. (author)

1976-05-13

165

Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering- och tungmetallfloeden'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

Eriksson, Hillevi; Nilsson, Torbjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

2001-12-01

166

Wood's lamp illumination (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

167

Wood-plastic combination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

1978-01-01

168

Mechanics of Wood Machining  

CERN Multimedia

Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

Csanády, Etele

2013-01-01

169

FORMULATION OF OIL CONTAINING PLUCHEA LANCEOLATA EXTRACT OBTAINED THROUGH DIFFERENT ORGANIC SOLVENTS AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY BY TOPICAL APPLICATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pluchea lanceolata has been used in massage oil as well as in traditional ayurveda as a potent pain reliever. The traditional Method of obtaining oil is simply based on taking water as the medium for extraction. The water extract obtained is then boiled with oil, till the water is completely evaporated. Here, our aim is to replace water by different organic solvents and obtain oil which has much better efficacy than the traditionally extracted oil. The idea here is to obtain more efficacious ...

2012-01-01

170

Fire retardants for wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

Vlatka Jirouš-Rajkovi?

2009-06-01

171

Beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase IV: a key enzyme for regulation of medium-chain fatty acid synthesis in Cuphea lanceolata seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of elucidating the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in Cuphea lanceolata Ait., a crop accumulating up to 90% decanoic acid in seed triacylglycerols, cDNA clones of a beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase IV (clKAS IV, EC 2.3.1.41) were isolated from C. lanceolata seed embryos. The amino acid sequence deduced from clKAS IV cDNA showed 80% identity to other plant KAS II-type enzymes, 55% identity towards plant KAS I and over 90% towards other Cuphea KAS IV-type sequences. Recombinant clKAS IV was functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and substrate specificity of purified enzyme showed strong preference for elongation of short-chain and medium-chain acyl-ACPs (C4- to C10-ACP) with nearly equal activity. Further elongation steps were catalysed with distinctly less activity. Moreover, short- and medium-chain acyl-ACPs exerted a chain-length-specific and concentration-dependent substrate inhibition of clKAS IV. Based on these findings a regulatory mechanism for medium-chain fatty acid synthesis in C. lanceolata is presented. PMID:12244451

Schütt, Burkhardt Siegfried; Abbadi, Amine; Loddenkötter, Brigitte; Brummel, Monika; Spener, Friedrich

2002-09-01

172

Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies  

Science.gov (United States)

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information, thus helping to understand the dynamics of the rubber tree resource. The decrease in the area of rubber plantations and the increase in the area of mixed crops from 1989--1993 in south of KL were partly attributed to the adoption of a crop diversification policy which was driven by relatively poor natural rubber prices during that time. The decrease in the areas of rubber plantations from 1993--1999 in this area was primarily due to rapid urbanization and infrastructure development driven by demographic expansion in the area south of KL. This thesis makes a practical contribution to the development of methods for inventory of forest plantations by linking ground information with model projections based on satellite data. Additionally, the thesis demonstrates the development of monitoring tools to assess resource availability and variability over time, and establish its linkages to policies. The inventory information, models, and monitoring protocols are needed for effective resource management planning aimed at maximizing the potential benefits of rubber tree crops for wood and natural rubber supply in Malaysia.

Suratman, Mohd Nazip

2003-06-01

173

Floodplains and wood  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions between floodplains and wood date to the Carboniferous, when stable, multithread channel deposits appear with the evolution of tree-like plants. Foundational geologic texts, such as Lyell's, 1830Principles of Geology, describe floodplain-wood interactions, yet modern technical literature describes floodplain-wood interactions in detail for only a very limited range of environments. This likely reflects more than a century of deforestation, flow regulation, and channel engineering, including instream wood removal, which has resulted in severe wood depletion in most of the world's river networks. Instream wood affects floodplain form and process by altering flow resistance, conveyance and channel-floodplain connectivity, and influencing lateral and vertical accretion of floodplains. Instream wood reflects floodplain form and process as the floodplain influences wood recruitment via bank erosion and overbank flow, and wood transport and storage via floodplain effects on stage-discharge relations and flow resistance. Examining turnover times for instream wood at the reach scale in the context of a wood budget, floodplain characteristics influence fluvial transport and dynamics (wood recruitment), valley geometry (wood transport and storage), and hydraulics and river biota (wood decay and breakage). Accumulations of wood that vary from in situ jams and beaver dams in small channels to transport jams and log rafts in very large rivers can create stable, multithread channels and floodplain wetlands. Floodplain-wood interactions are best understood for a subset of small to medium-sized rivers in the temperate zone. We know little about these interactions on very large rivers, or on rivers in the tropical or boreal regions. This review suggests that most, if not all, channels and floodplains within forested catchments in the temperate zone historically had much greater wood loads and consequently much more obvious and important influences from wood than do heavily modified contemporary catchments. For many rivers in the temperate zone, direct and indirect removal of instream wood very likely caused a fundamental shift in channel and floodplain process and form, as has been demonstrated in detail for specific rivers of diverse size in several regions. Failure to explicitly include floodplain-wood interactions creates a misleading conceptual model of floodplain dynamics in forested catchments.

Wohl, Ellen

2013-08-01

174

Energy from wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proceedings of a conference dealing with the themes 'Energy from wood - heating systems - making residual wood profitable' held jointly by the Carinthian Forestry Association, the Federal Forestry Training Centre, Ossiach (Austria), and the Austrian Forestry Association, on 26-28 March, 1981 at Ossiach are presented. A review is included of machinery displayed at the conference. Seven papers discussed here give heat-values (in joules) for various Austrian woods, give methods of converting wood biomass to energy, and disucss wood burning installations.

Sonnleitner, G. (ed)

1981-01-01

175

Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with MultilureRM Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton only 2 tephritids were captured: 1 A. striata and 1 A. obliqua. These results show the great diversity of tephritids in the fruit orchards studied. Most of these tephritid pests are poliphagous and able to use the same hosts. (author)

2005-05-09

176

Les Plantations D’alignements En Turquie  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L’état actuel des forets de Turquie est insuffisant pour les besoins en bois. ?l est indispensable de chercher denouvelles alternatives pour enrichir les produits du bois en dehors de la source forestière. Les plantationsd’alignements peuvent etre les ressources assez abondantes.Actuellement les pays qui font les plantations d’alignements sont: France, L’?talie, Belgique, Pays-Bas,L’Allemange, L’Angleterre, Hongrie, Turquie, Grèce; L’Iraq, L’?ran, Au Japonais, Aux Etat-U...

2008-01-01

177

Wood frame systems for wood homes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

Julio Cesar Molina

2010-12-01

178

Efecto del raleo en el crecimiento y algunas propiedades de la madera de Eucalyptus nitens en una plantación de 15 años / Effect of thinning on growth and some properties of wood of Eucalyptus nitens in a plantation of 15 years old  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El raleo tiene implicancias económicas y técnicas tanto para producción forestal como para la actividad industrial. En el presente estudio se realizó la evaluación de un ensayo de intensidad de raleo en E. nitens, de 15 años de edad, intervenido a los 7 y 9 años, con densidades residuales de 300, 40 [...] 0, 500, 700 y un tratamiento testigo con 1070 arb ha-1. El objetivo es conocer el efecto del raleo en el diámetro y altura de los árboles, coeficiente de esbeltez, en los índices de competencia área potencialmente aprovechable (APA), área de proyección de copas (APC) y en las propiedades de la madera, densidad básica, módulo de elasticidad dinámico (MOEd) y las tensiones de crecimiento evaluadas con la deformación residual longitudinal de la fibra (DRL). Los resultados mostraron que el raleo afectó el diámetro, coeficiente de esbeltez, APA y APC, no así la altura. El raleo tampoco tuvo efecto en la densidad básica de la madera y en el DRL. Por otra parte el MOEd fue afectado por el raleo, pero sin mostrar claras tendencias respecto de su intensidad. El efecto de la orientación del fuste en el MOEd y el DRL, mostró valores significativamente mayores en la orientación Sur. Abstract in english Thinning has significant technical and economic implications for both forest managers and industrial end users. In the present study a 15 year old Eucalyptus nitens thinning experiment was evaluated. Thinnings operations were carried out at 7 and 9 years, with final stockings of 300, 400, 500, 700 a [...] nd a control treatment of 1070 trees ha-1. The aim was to determine the effect of thinning on (i) stem diameter and tree height, stem slenderness ratio, (ii) competition indices: potentially usefull area (PUA), crown projection area (CPA) and (iii) wood properties: basic density, dynamic modulus of elasticity (Moed) and growth stresses evaluated using the residual deformation of the fiber length (DRL). The results showed that thinning affected tree diameter, slenderness index, PUA and CPA, but not total height. Thinning had no effect on basic density and DRL. On the other hand Moed was affected by thinning, but did not show a clear trend with thinning intensity. The effect of the stem orientation on DRL and Moed showed significantly higher values on the South side.

Díaz Bravo, Sandro; Espinosa, Miguel; Valenzuela, Luis; Cancino, Jorge; Lasserre, Jean P.

179

Efecto del raleo en el crecimiento y algunas propiedades de la madera de Eucalyptus nitens en una plantación de 15 años Effect of thinning on growth and some properties of wood of Eucalyptus nitens in a plantation of 15 years old  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El raleo tiene implicancias económicas y técnicas tanto para producción forestal como para la actividad industrial. En el presente estudio se realizó la evaluación de un ensayo de intensidad de raleo en E. nitens, de 15 años de edad, intervenido a los 7 y 9 años, con densidades residuales de 300, 400, 500, 700 y un tratamiento testigo con 1070 arb ha-1. El objetivo es conocer el efecto del raleo en el diámetro y altura de los árboles, coeficiente de esbeltez, en los índices de competencia área potencialmente aprovechable (APA, área de proyección de copas (APC y en las propiedades de la madera, densidad básica, módulo de elasticidad dinámico (MOEd y las tensiones de crecimiento evaluadas con la deformación residual longitudinal de la fibra (DRL. Los resultados mostraron que el raleo afectó el diámetro, coeficiente de esbeltez, APA y APC, no así la altura. El raleo tampoco tuvo efecto en la densidad básica de la madera y en el DRL. Por otra parte el MOEd fue afectado por el raleo, pero sin mostrar claras tendencias respecto de su intensidad. El efecto de la orientación del fuste en el MOEd y el DRL, mostró valores significativamente mayores en la orientación Sur.Thinning has significant technical and economic implications for both forest managers and industrial end users. In the present study a 15 year old Eucalyptus nitens thinning experiment was evaluated. Thinnings operations were carried out at 7 and 9 years, with final stockings of 300, 400, 500, 700 and a control treatment of 1070 trees ha-1. The aim was to determine the effect of thinning on (i stem diameter and tree height, stem slenderness ratio, (ii competition indices: potentially usefull area (PUA, crown projection area (CPA and (iii wood properties: basic density, dynamic modulus of elasticity (Moed and growth stresses evaluated using the residual deformation of the fiber length (DRL. The results showed that thinning affected tree diameter, slenderness index, PUA and CPA, but not total height. Thinning had no effect on basic density and DRL. On the other hand Moed was affected by thinning, but did not show a clear trend with thinning intensity. The effect of the stem orientation on DRL and Moed showed significantly higher values on the South side.

Sandro Díaz Bravo

2012-11-01

180

Impacts of fertilization on water quality of a drained pine plantation: a worst case scenario.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensive plantation forestry will be increasingly important in the next 50 yr to meet the high demand for domestic wood in the United States. However, forest management practices can substantially influence downstream water quality and ecology. This study analyses, the effect of fertilization on effluent water quality of a low gradient drained coastal pine plantation in Carteret County, North Carolina using a paired watershed approach. The plantation consists of three watersheds, two mature (31-yr) and one young (8-yr) (age at treatment). One of the mature watersheds was commercially thinned in 2002. The mature unthinned watershed was designated as the control. The young and mature-thinned watersheds were fertilized at different rates with Arborite (Encee Chemical Sales, Inc., Bridgeton, NC), and boron. The outflow rates and nutrient concentrations in water drained from each of the watersheds were measured. Nutrient concentrations and loadings were analyzed using general linear models (GLM). Three large storm events occurred within 47 d of fertilization, which provided a worst case scenario for nutrient export from these watersheds to the receiving surface waters. Results showed that average nutrient concentrations soon after fertilization were significantly (alpha = 0.05) higher on both treatment watersheds than during any other period during the study. This increase in nutrient export was short lived and nutrient concentrations and loadings were back to prefertilization levels as soon as 3 mo after fertilization. Additionally, the mature-thinned watershed presented higher average nutrient concentrations and loadings when compared to the young watershed, which received a reduced fertilizer rate than the mature-thinned watershed. PMID:20048317

Beltran, Bray J; Amatya, Devendra M; Youssef, Mohamed; Jones, Martin; Callahan, Timothy J; Skaggs, R Wayne; Nettles, Jami E

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Macrofungi Community in Rubber Plantations and a Forest of Edo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Permanent plots in rubber plantations and a lowland forest, each measuring 25x25 m, were randomly laid out using coloured ribbons and studied twice a month for macrofungi for a period of 14 months. A total of 435 fruit bodies belonging to 93 different species of macrofungi were encountered, 70% of which were identified. Identified taxa were distributed into 4 Classes, 9 Orders and 28 Families with the class Hymenomycetes and family Tricholomataceae as the best represented taxa. Agaric (52% and polypores mushrooms (31% were also recorded as the best represented life-forms while wood-based substrates recorded 70% of the total mushroom taxa encountered during the study. The species richness and diversity estimate of 100 randomization accumulation sample order of mushroom abundance data from each of the sampled plots showed that the forest (Plot E had the best species richness and diversity index values compared to plot A, B, C and D.

O.O. Osemwegie

2010-01-01

182

Tracking deforestation, tree plantation expansion, and forest regrowth in a Costa Rican biological corridor using a Landsat time series  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood demand and voluntary carbon markets have driven a rapid global expansion in tropical tree plantations. To effectively monitor this expansion, new remote sensing-based methods are needed that can overcome difficulties in distinguishing between tree plantations, mature forests, and forest regrowth using low-cost moderate-resolution (10-100 m) satellite sensors. The objective of this study was to accurately map changes in the area of these three forest types in northern Costa Rica using Landsat imagery spanning a 25 year period (1986-2011). We mapped forest and tree plantation cover in a fragmented tropical landscape spanning approximately 2500 km2: the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC). In 1996, the Costa Rican government banned deforestation country-wide and concentrated payments for environmental services (PES) within Biological Corridors to promote native tree plantations and protect forests on private land. To evaluate this program's long-term success, we first tracked forest cover change over time and then distinguished between spectrally-similar forest types. We classified five dates (1986, 1996, 2001, 2005, and 2011) of multispectral Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (30 m resolution). Using Random Forests, we classified each single-date Landsat image first to forest/nonforest and then to thirteen land cover classes (Figures 1-3). To improve mapping of reforestation, final land cover classification was constrained by forest masks integrated over the time series. Training and validation data (1932 polygons covering 2185 ha) were collected using field data and aerial photography; final accuracy analysis was conducted by withholding twenty bootstrapped samples of the training data. Overall mean change-detection accuracy for the forest mask time series was 95.1% (Kappa= 0.93) and the overall land cover accuracy for all maps was greater than 80%. For tree plantations, the inclusion of multitemporal data improved classification accuracy over single-date imagery alone; in the 2011 classification, the user's accuracy for native tree plantations increased from 56% to 77%. Results indicate that, over the last 15 years, the deforestation ban and PES payments have been effective in protecting mature forests, especially within the Corridor. The area of regrowth forest declined however, indicating that agricultural pressures on easily-clearable land are increasing. Tree plantations expanded rapidly over the time period analyzed, although the largest increases occurred in exotic tree plantations outside the corridor. We found that it is possible to accurately distinguish tropical tree plantations, secondary forest, and mature forest using moderate-resolution optical sensors like Landsat, but extensive training data and multitemporal imagery was necessary to accurately map tree plantations in this area. Despite the effectiveness of the deforestation ban, it did not prevent an expansion of intensive agriculture and the long-term clearing of forest regrowth.

Fagan, M. E.; Sesnie, S.; Arroyo, J.; Walker, W. S.; Soto, C.; Chazdon, R. L.; Sanchun, A.; DeFries, R. S.

2012-12-01

183

Modulatory effects of Pluchea lanceolata against chemically induced oxidative damage, hyperproliferation and two-stage renal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a well-established renal carcinogen. Here, we have shown that Pluchea lanceolata (PL) belonging to the family Asteraceae. PL attenuates Fe-NTA induced renal oxidative stress, hyperproliferative response and renal carcinogenesis in rats. It promoted DEN (N-diethyl nitrosamine) initiated renal carcinogenesis by increasing the percentage incidence of tumors and induces early tumor markers viz. ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and renal DNA synthesis. Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) also enhances renal lipid peroxidation (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation with reduction in renal glutathione content (GSH), antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phase-II metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase (QR). It also enhances blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Oral treatment of rats with PL extract (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO), H(2)O(2) generation, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, renal ODC activity, DNA synthesis (p < 0.001) and incidence of tumors. Renal glutathione content (p < 0.01), its metabolizing enzymes (p < 0.001) and antioxidant enzymes were also recovered to significant level (p < 0.001). Thus, present study supports PL as a potent chemopreventive agent and suppresses Fe-NTA-induced renal carcinogenesis and oxidative damage response in Wistar rat. PMID:16767495

Jahangir, Tamanna; Sultana, Sarwat

2006-10-01

184

Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

2010-01-01

185

Complex geometries in wood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners.

Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

2009-01-01

186

[Aboveground biomass of three conifers in Qianyanzhou plantation].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the regressive models of the aboveground biomass of Pinus elliottii, P. massoniana and Cunninghamia lanceolata in Qianyanzhou of subtropical China were established, and the regression analysis on the dry weight of leaf biomass and total biomass against branch diameter (d), branch length (L), d3 and d2L was conducted with linear, power and exponent functions. Power equation with single parameter (d) was proved to be better than the rests for P. massoniana and C. lanceolata, and linear equation with parameter (d3) was better for P. elliottii. The canopy biomass was derived by the regression equations for all branches. These equations were also used to fit the relationships of total tree biomass, branch biomass and foliage biomass with tree diameter at breast height (D), tree height (H), D3 and D2H, respectively. D2H was found to be the best parameter for estimating total biomass. For foliage-and branch biomass, both parameters and equation forms showed some differences among species. Correlations were highly significant (P <0.001) for foliage-, branch-and total biomass, with the highest for total biomass. By these equations, the aboveground biomass and its allocation were estimated, with the aboveground biomass of P. massoniana, P. elliottii, and C. lanceolata forests being 83.6, 72. 1 and 59 t x hm(-2), respectively, and more stem biomass than foliage-and branch biomass. According to the previous studies, the underground biomass of these three forests was estimated to be 10.44, 9.42 and 11.48 t x hm(-2), and the amount of fixed carbon was 47.94, 45.14 and 37.52 t x hm(-2), respectively. PMID:17066688

Li, Xuanran; Liu, Qijing; Chen, Yongrui; Hu, Lile; Yang, Fengting

2006-08-01

187

Study of Wood Polymer Combinations from Woods of Kashmir.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the studies conducted to upgrade inferior woods of Kashmir by the application of radiation polymerization process. The process has brought about improvements in the physical and mechanical properties of wood. Wood polymer composite s...

V. P. Garg Hari Mohan K. N. Rao

1983-01-01

188

Wood pellet seminar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

2001-04-18

189

Variations in wood tratis in micro and macro propagated plantation woods of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents a comparison between intra-ramet, intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations in girth at breast height (gbh), fiber length, fiber diameter, wall thickness, vessel element length, vessel element diameter and specific gravity in the ramets of L34, G3 and S7C15 clones of Populus deltoides at the age of 6 years old produced from planting material grown by macro- and micro-propagation techniques. Variance ratio (F) test indicated that intra-ramet variations were non-significant fo...

Pande, Pramod K.; Dhiman, Ramesh C.

2010-01-01

190

Effects of oil-palm plantations on diversity of tropical anurans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculturally altered vegetation, especially oil-palm plantations, is rapidly increasing in Southeast Asia. Low species diversity is associated with this commodity, but data on anuran diversity in oil-palm plantations are lacking. We investigated how anuran biological diversity differs between forest and oil-palm plantation, and whether observed differences in biological diversity of these areas is linked to specific environmental factors. We hypothesized that biological diversity is lower in plantations and that plantations support a larger proportion of disturbance-tolerant species than forest. We compared species richness, abundance, and community composition between plantation and forest areas and between site types within plantation and forest (forest stream vs. plantation stream, forest riparian vs. plantation riparian, forest terrestrial vs. plantation terrestrial). Not all measures of biological diversity differed between oil-palm plantations and secondary forest sites. Anuran community composition, however, differed greatly between forest and plantation, and communities of anurans in plantations contained species that prosper in disturbed areas. Although plantations supported large numbers of breeding anurans, we concluded the community consisted of common species that were of little conservation concern (commonly found species include Fejervarya limnocharis, Microhyla heymonsi, and Hylarana erythrea). We believe that with a number of management interventions, oil-palm plantations can provide habitat for species that dwell in secondary forests. PMID:23692022

Faruk, Aisyah; Belabut, Daicus; Ahmad, Norhayati; Knell, Robert J; Garner, Trenton W J

2013-06-01

191

ADVANCES IN THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF Cuphea aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata : EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea lanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina tradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h, el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de variosórganos de C. aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata . Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH + y ABTS + y el de poder reductor del fosfomolibdeno. La concentración más alta de compuestos fenólicos se presentó en las flores de C. lanceolata (62.79 0.06 mg equivalentes deácido gálico (EAG / g peso seco (PS; mientras que la de flavonoides en las hojas de C. aequipetala (196.83 2.9 mg equivalentes de quercetina (EQ / g PS. Las hojas de C. aequipetala var. hispida presentaron la actividad de captura de radicales libres DPPH (173.33 2.12 mol trolox / g PS, las flores de C. aequipetala la de captura de radicales libres ABTS (541.10 2.32 mol trolox / g PS mientras que el poder reductor más alto se observó en las hojas de C. aequipetala (1186.25 3.17 mol trolox / g PS. Se encontró una correlación positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes. El análisis químico cualitativo mediante TLC indicó la prescencia del flavonoide quercetina 3- - D -glucósido en todas las especies de Cuphea y de otros flavonoides menos polares en C. aequipetala var. hispida . Cuphea spp. es una fuente natural de compuestos fenólicos.

B.A. Cardenas-Sandoval

2012-01-01

192

Ratings for Craigshill Wood  

Ratings for Craigshill Wood Back to station Rating History for: Saint Neot at Craigshill Wood (48009) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Ref Limb Details Equation Start Date Max Stage End Date 1 a Q = 3.476*(h + 0.00)^1.501 10/03/1971 0…

193

POT for Craigshill Wood  

POT for Craigshill Wood Back to station POT Data for: Saint Neot at Craigshill Wood (48009) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 12 30/11/1971 08:15 0.902 8.80 In Range Digital Archive…

194

AMAX for Easton Wood  

AMAX for Easton Wood Back to station AMAX Data for: West Glen at Easton Wood (31023) QMED = 1.89m 3/s Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Water Year Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Available Data Comments 35 1971-72 07/03/1972…

195

AMAX for Craigshill Wood  

AMAX for Craigshill Wood Back to station AMAX Data for: Saint Neot at Craigshill Wood (48009) QMED = 8.13m 3/s Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Water Year Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Available Data Comments 13 1970-71…

196

Ratings for Craigshill Wood  

Ratings for Craigshill Wood Back to station Rating History for: Saint Neot at Craigshill Wood (48009) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Ref Limb Details Equation Start Date Max Stage End Date 1 a Q = 3.476*(h + 0.00)^1.501 10/03/1971…

197

Ratings for Easton Wood  

Ratings for Easton Wood Back to station Rating History for: West Glen at Easton Wood (31023) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Ref Limb Details Equation Start Date Max Stage End Date 2 a 1m removed Q = 15.957*(h + 0.00)^2.511 01/02/1972…

198

How James Wood Works  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

199

Formononetin 7-O-glucoside (ononin), an additional growth inhibitor in soils associated with the weed,Pluchea lanceolata (DC) C.B. Clarke (Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Formononetin 7-O-glucoside (ononin), an isoflavonoid, was isolated from the soils of cultivated areas associated with the perennial weed,Pluchea lanceolata. Aqueous solutions of this compound inhibited significantly root and shoot growth of mustard at 1×10(-4) M, 5×10(-4) M, and 1×10(-3)M. The level of inhibition was similar to that of hesperidin and taxifolin 3-arabinoside, as reported earlier. The potential allelopathic effect of this compound under field conditions is discussed. PMID:24253965

Inderjit; Dakshini, K M

1992-05-01

200

Hesperetin 7-rutinoside (hesperidin) and taxifolin 3-arabinoside as germination and growth inhibitors in soils associated with the weed,Pluchea lanceolata (DC) C.B. Clarke (Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Hesperetin 7-rutinoside (Hesperidin) and taxifolin 3-arabinoside were detected in the soils associated with the rapidly spreading perennial weed,Pluchea lanceolata. In the present investigations, inhibitory potential of the aqueous extracts of the two compounds was established and confirmed through growth experiments pertaining to seed germination and seedling growth of radish, mustard, and tomato, with 10(-4) M solutions of the authentic samples. The significance of the water-soluble compounds present in the rhizosphere zones of the weed and its interference potential is commented upon. PMID:24257882

Inderjit; Dakshini, K M

1991-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Ecological-geographic testing of Plantago Lanceolata L. seed generation of from the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current work sums up ecological-geographical testing within the northern nursery (Syktyvkar) that was carried out with poster of some postaccidental reproductions of Plantago lanceolata L. It experienced radioactive load of uncommon intensity in different accidental points of the zone (from 0.08 up to 800 mr/hour). Morphological variability analysis proved the absence of visible changes in genetic structure of plantain aborigenic population during the research period (1986-1991). Although by (1990-1991) there was a tendency for survival increase of plantain posterity within nursery conditions from the most contaminated sites of matarnate plant growth

1996-10-03

202

Ecological and genetic experience of Plantago Lanceolata L. seed generation of from the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current work sums up ecological-geographical testing within the northern nursery (Syktyvkar) that was carried out with poster of some postaccidental reproductions of Plantago lanceolata L. It experienced radioactive load of uncommon intensity in different accidental points of the zone (from 0.08 up to 800 mr/hour). Morphological variability analysis proved the absence of visible changes in genetic structure of plantain aborigenic population during the research period (1986-1991). Although by (1990-1991) there was a tendency for survival increase of plantain posterity within nursery conditions from the most contaminated sites of matarnate plant growth

1996-10-03

203

Predicting Specific Gravity of Plantation-Grown Red Pine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Equations are established for predicting tree specific gravity from the specific gravity of increment cores and from other tree characters of Wisconsin plantation-grown red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.). Multiple regressions are shown for two variables; thes...

R. R. Maeglin

1966-01-01

204

Green Gold. On variations of truth in plantation forestry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined by the world's largest environmental organization WWF and an insurance and banking company called OHRA in 1993. Thousands of people invested, many millions of Guilders were transferred and about a...

Romeijn, P.

1999-01-01

205

Disaster risk assessment at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004) and the United Nations International Strategy...

Makhado, Rudzani A.; Saidi, Amani T.

2013-01-01

206

Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible.

Fledderman, P.D.

2000-10-30

207

[Effects of spectral pretreatment on the prediction of crystallinity of wood cellulose using near infrared spectroscopy].  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystallinity of wood has an important effect on the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of cellulose fibers. The aims of this study were to investigate the ability of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to predict the crystallinity of wood cellulose and the effect of spectral pretreatment on the prediction of crystallinity in wood cellulose using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra were collected from wood powder with a fiber-optical probe and the crystallinity of wood was determined by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) in this experiment. The results showed that near infrared spectroscopy coupled with partial least square (PLS) regression could be correlated with the crystallinity of plantation wood, and the ability of NIR prediction based on original spectra was better than that based on the first derivative or second derivative treated spectra. There was a significant correlation between NIR spectra and XRD determined crystallinity with a correlationcoefficient of 0.950 and a low RMSEP. Near infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data anlaysis has proven to be an accurate and fast method for rapid prediction of wood crystallinity. PMID:17554892

Jiang, Ze-hui; Fei, Ben-hua; Yang, Zhong

2007-03-01

208

Occurrence of Platypus mutatus Chapuis (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) in a brazilwood experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil Ocorrência de Platypus mutatus Chapuis (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) em um bosque experimental no sudeste do Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hardwood of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood, Pernambuco, ibirapitanga) is currently the most profitable material used for violin bow due to the unique vibrational properties and dimensional stability. Although this species is resistant to the wood decay caused by termites and rot fungi, an experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil has been attacked by the ambrosia beetle Platypus mutatus Chapuis (= Megaplatypus mutatus and P. sulcatus). This species invaded ca. 3% of the indivi...

Girardi, Graziele S.; Gime?nez, Rosana A.; Braga, Ma?rcia R.

2006-01-01

209

Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives. PMID:17011772

Mazela, Bart?omiej

2007-01-01

210

Wood wastes: Uses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

1993-02-01

211

Of peasants, plantations, and immigrant proletarians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] Dominican Sugar Plantations: Production and Foreign Labor Integration. MARTIN F. MURPHY. New York: Praeger, 1991. xii + 186 pp. (Cloth US$49.95 Peasants in Distress: Poverty and Unemployment in the Dominican Republic. ROSEMARY VARGAS-LUNDIUS. Boulder CO: Westview 1991. xxi + 387 pp. (Paper US$ 32.95 Few other places in the Caribbean region have as great a potential for international conflict as the island of Hispaniola. The historical antagonism between Haiti and the Dominican Republic is no doubt known to readers of this journal, as is the recent upsurge in tension between the two countries, which culminated in the expulsion of tens of thousands of Haitian immigrants from the Dominican Republic, from June to September 1991. The quickening pace of events, added to the worsening spiral of economic hardship gripping both nations, threaten to render obsolete even the most recent analyses of relations between the two countries. Even so, against the background of an increasingly acrimonious debate between the Dominican government and international human rights organizations accusing it of enslaving Haitian immigrants in the cane flelds, the appearance of two works by long-time students of the migration of Haitians as cane workers to the Dominican Republic is particularly timely.

Samuel Martí­nez

1993-01-01

212

Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester.

Eggen, David L. (Rte. 1, Box 257, Moose Lake, MN 55767)

1988-11-15

213

Wood Tiger (Parasemia plantaginis)  

...Nature ReservesResearchSurveillance and MonitoringNatural Heritage Grant ProgrammePrioritised Action FrameworkWood Tiger (Parasemia plantaginis)Last updated: 31 December 2010Description: Wingspan 34-42mm. A...

214

Profile: Susan Wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

When US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) official Susan Wood resigned over foot-dragging on Plan B, she found herself at the center of a maelstrom concerning political interference in agency decision-making. PMID:17483824

Wilan, Ken

2007-05-01

215

Lenaghan Wood ASSI  

...with occasional bilberry. Where the soils are richer, species such as primrose, lesser celandine, barren strawberry, water avens and wood-sedge are common. Opposite-leaved golden saxifrage, meadowsweet, creeping buttercup...

216

Definition and characteristic of wood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wood as a topic set is included in a school curriculum for sixth graders within the crafts and arts subject. Students learn about the characteristics of wood, the procedures of testing them and also about machines used in working with wood. They also make the sample product using the skills and learning they recived in the class. Wood characteristics: physical, mechanic, esthetic, chemical and physical and also wood inflammability are thoroughly presented in the work. The procedures for...

2013-01-01

217

POT for Easton Wood  

POT for Easton Wood Back to station POT Data for: West Glen at Easton Wood (31023) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 110 27/06/1973 00:00 0.320 0.91 In Range CEHPOT 27 Feb 1987 15:56…

218

Welding of solid wood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the up-to-date knowledge and results of the application of wood welding techniques at the Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb. Wood welding technologies have been developed as a new way of bonding timber by using high temperature generatedby friction and pressure. Timber is assembled without any adhesives. During the process the surface layer of timber (lignin), which is in direct contact with its counterpart, melts due to high pressure and temperature, which is usual...

2008-01-01

219

Transportation fuels from wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

1980-01-01

220

Changes in Whole-Tree Water Use Following Live-Crown Pruning in Young Plantation-Grown Eucalyptus pilularis and Eucalyptus cloeziana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pruning of live branches is a management option to enhance wood quality in plantation trees. It may also alter whole-tree water use, but little is known about the extent and duration of changes in transpiration. In this study, sap flow sensors were used to measure transpiration for 14 days prior to, and 75 days following the removal, through pruning, of the lower 50% of the live-crown length of 10–11 m tall four-year old Eucalyptus pilularis Sm. and E. cloeziana F. Muell. trees. Pruning had...

Alcorn, Philip J.; Forrester, David I.; Thomas, Dane S.; Ryde James; Smith, R. Geoff B.; Nicotra, Adrienne B.; Jürgen Bauhus

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere of the major land use types of the tropical rain forest margin area in South East Asia and quantification of the impact that land use change from undisturbed primary rain forest to pasture has on these interactions is task of subprogramme B1 within the DFG-funded project STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins). In order to fulfill the projects tasks the different major land use types have to be investigated and each ecosystem characterized one by one and compared to a reference site in an undisturbed primary rain forest, to see the changes in the atmosphere-biospheric interactions, i. e. in water and carbon household, with land use change and thus the impact on regional climate. One of the major land use types in the valleys around the Lore Lindu National Park on Sulawesi are Cacao plantations, Theobroma cacao. A site in the Palolo valley near the village Nopu was chosen as research site since the area there is covered with small Cacao fields which form to one big area of Cacao and matches the requirements of the applied research approach. Since Cacao trees need to be shaded especially when younger, shadow trees had been planted and trees of the former forest had been left standing to serve as wind breaks and sun shades. The plantations in Nopu, Palolo valley, consist not only of fields of cultivated Cacao, but also serve as environment and home to the farmers and their families. The whole area of Cacao plantation is interspersed with wooden farm houses, which are also sources of carbon dioxide due to cooking or small power plants etc. and thus have to be taken into account when looking at the carbon household of this specific ecosystem. An estimation of the components of the carbon and water household and the contribution of the humans living within this environment to the carbon household of Cacao plantations of this ecosystem is subject of this presentation. From December 2001 until April 2002 and June 2002 until now eddy-covariance measurements have been performed above a Cacao plantation in Nopu measuring time series of water vapour, CO2, air temperature, three-dimensional wind vector, photosyntetic active radiation and the surface temperature of the Cacao canopy at 10 Hz. Additionally, net radiation balance and soil heat fluxes have been measured. In order to assess the carbon input caused by the humans living in the ecosystem, a mapping of the site area has been carried out, including investigations of consumption of fire wood and use of machines, like generators for example. In order to obtain the energy balance equation of the canopy surface, also the radiation balance and the heat flux into the canopy have to be evaluated.

Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

2003-04-01

222

Wood pellet research program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood pellets are composed of waste wood materials such as sawmill residue, municipal landfill waste and grain crops. Due to the high temperature combustion used to form the waste materials into the pellet, no additives or glues are necessary to bind them. The pellets are typically used for home heating; heat and power production; poultry bedding; and in biorefineries. This presentation provided an outline of the University of British Columbia wood pellet research and development program. Research at the university is being conducted to develop new types of pellets. Researchers at the program also analyze the physical and chemical properties of pellets in order to optimize pellet density and heating values. Wood pellet modelling and simulation studies are carried out, and various training and education programs are also offered. Research is currently being conducted to develop a reactor for off-gassing experiments. This presentation also provided details of a study investigating the economics of wood pellet production and transport. Pellet production costs and feedstock costs were compared. A summary of the costs and energy inputs of pellet production included details of product storage; transportation and transfer; handling; and transportation to energy plants. It was concluded that more than 35 per cent of the energy content of biomass is used up in the processing and transport of Canadian wood pellets to Europe. refs., tabs., figs

2006-08-31

223

Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood pro­duction in Ravni Srem by applying the net present value method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The commercial cost-effectiveness of poplar cultivation was analyzed based on the indicator for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects-net present value (NPV). The analysis was made for the plantations of poplar clone I-214 in the area of Ravni Srem, under different rotations and on different soil types. The aim of the research was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the invested financials in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts in d...

Ke?a Ljiljana

2010-01-01

224

Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

2013-03-01

225

Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

2006-05-04

226

Understanding interception losses under sugarcane plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being planted around 20 million hectares in over 70 countries. The Brazil is a leader in terms of area harvested and production with 9.5 million hectares and 715 million tons in 2011, respectively. Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop which is planted and after the first harvesting, the re-growth is harvested several times (five to eight times) until replanting is needed mainly due to yield decline. The rainfall interception loss is an important process in the hydrological cycle which has a key role on climate change. Details on sugarcane canopy interception are still not well understood in particular within the tropics. In this study, rainfall interception was measured during the complete ratoon crop cycle of the sixth re-growth, observing their growth stage. Five through (each with an area of 2000 cm2) were installed randomly on the plantation. The gross rainfall for the study period of one year was 1413 mm, while the throughfall was 972 mm (69%). Thus, annual rainfall interception loss was 441 mm (31%). The interception losses started to occur in the third stage of plant development (between 110 and 240 days after the onset of re-growth period). During the formation of the stems, the interception was 25.5%. Furthermore, at stage when the plant reached maturity (240 to 385 days), interception loss was increased to 57.5%. Our results indicate that interception losses are an important component of water use in sugarcane crops and the annual values of interception losses from sugarcane may be similar to some results found in tropical and temperate forests.

Costa Silva, R. W.; Salemi, L.; Andrade, T. M.; Fernandes, R. P.; de Moraes, J. M.; Camargo, P. B.; Martinelli, L.

2012-12-01

227

Taper Equation and Volume Tables for Plantation-Grown Red Alder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A taper equation and associated tables are presented for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees grown in plantations. The data were gathered from variable-density experimental plantations throughout the Pacific Northwest. Diameter inside bark along the stem ...

A. A. Bluhm D. E. Hibbs S. M. Garber

2007-01-01

228

Earthworm Abundance and Species Composition in Abandoned Tropical Croplands: Comparisons of Tree Plantations and Secondary Forests.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared patterns of earthworm abundance and species composition in tree plantations and secondary forests of Puerto Rico. Tree plantations included pine (Pinus carbibaea Morelet) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) established in the 1930s; 1960...

G. Gonzalez X. Zou S. Borges

1996-01-01

229

"Wood for the Trees”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

Rob Garbutt Moya Costello

2013-05-01

230

[Preparation and properties of wood/modified UF prepolymer composite materials].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present research, the urea-formaldehyde prepolymer and multilayer hot-press drying were used to modify poplar plantation. The prepolymer was impregnated into cell lumen space by pulse-dipping machine. Then the timbers were compressed and dried by the multilayer hot-press drying kiln. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of poplar were changed in this investigation. The basic density of modified wood increased 1.06 times compared with the natural wood, and the bending strength increased 33% for modified wood, compressive strength parallel to grain increased 74%, the water absorption decreased to 97% from 104%. The crystallinity decreased slightly from 39.65 to 36.89 because of the modifier impregnated. TGA analysis showed that the heat resistance of modified wood increased, the three exothermic peaks in DTA curve of modified wood were 280, 360 and 485 degrees C which were higher than natural wood in the corresponding position FTIR analysis showed that the hydroxyl modified material has a good association phenomenon, and carbonyl content decreased. The SEM spectrum showed the distribution of the prepolymer in the modified timber. PMID:21714265

Wu, Guo-Feng; Jiang, Yi-Fei; Song, Shu-Ping; Qu, Ping; Yao, Sheng; Pu, Jun-Wen

2011-04-01

231

Shady Plantations : Theorizing Coastal Shelter in Tamil Nadu  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between these, as they are realized in social encounters. This calls for a view of theory and analysis as generative of objects in the world, rather than applied to them from some fictitious elsewhere or posterity. Exploring the plantation and the shelter it offers as an intertwinement and simultaneity of practice and analysis, data and theory, I discuss anthropological knowledge-making as a truly lateral endeavour that engages in describing and cultivating a shared capacity for world-making, the challenge then being to find the right story of sameness and difference, without ascribing fixity and inevitability to our objects of knowledge.

Hastrup, Frida

2011-01-01

232

First World-Wide Study of the Wood and Wood Processing Industries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: The wood and wood processing sector in the world; Logging and transport; Possibilities and prerequisites for mechanical wood processing industries in developing countries; International trade in wood and wood products; Some policy related issues...

1983-01-01

233

Wood plastic combination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

1976-01-01

234

Economic evaluation of the growing of Scots pine plantations up to canopy closure on drained lands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed comparative summary is made of the costs of different methods of plantation establishment on various drained sites in the Ukraine, the growth of the pine plantations, and the economic effectiveness of the expenditure on plantation establishment. Some general recommendations are made on the use of equipment for site preparation on peatlands. (Refs. 4).

Myastkovskii, P.N.

1980-01-01

235

The most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and Scots pine plantations in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Austrian pine plantations in Serbia, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Mycosphaerella pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cenangium ferruginosum, Germmeniella abietina (in the mountain regions) and occasionally Armillaria spp., Lophodermium spp. (seditiosum, conigenum, pinastri) and Cyclaneusma niveum. In Scots pine plantations, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Heterobasidion annosum (especially in plantations on sandy soils), Armillaria spp, Lophodermium seditiosum, L. pinastri,...

Karadži? Dragan; Milijaševi? Tanja

2008-01-01

236

Canker diseases that limit the establishment of energy plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pathogens of generally minor importance, but endemic to the geographic location of tree farms, can very significantly limit the economic viability of these plantations since the intensive cultivation, characteristic of energy plantations, create favorable conditions for disease development. Canker diseases of stems and branches are the most destructive; among these the Septoria canker is the most serious. Strategies, objectives, and results of experiments to date to develop new clones of fast-growing poplar hybrids that are resistant to Septoria canker were described. 22 refs.

Hubbes, M.; Lin, D. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry

1996-09-01

237

Analysis of commercial cost-effectiveness of poplar plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The commercial cost-effectiveness of poplar cultivation and commercial cost-effectiveness of long-rotation (42-year poplar plantation were analyzed. The aim of the research is, based on analysis of expenses and receipts during the period of 42 years and by applying the method of analysis of the project commercial cost-effectiveness, to show the justification of long rotations in poplar plantations. Modern methods of investment valuation were applied and consequently their practical application in forestry was confirmed.

Ke?a Ljiljana

2005-01-01

238

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

Semere, T.; Slater, F.

2005-07-01

239

Predicting basal area growth in thinned slash pine plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long-term remeasurement data were used to evaluate different approaches to predicting basal area growth in thinned slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) plantation plots at four locations in South Africa. These data clearly indicated that a single projection model for both unthinned and thinned plantation plots, based on basal area and age at the start of the projection period, was inappropriate. Precision of the basal area projections were improved significantly when a measure of the thinning intensity was included in this model. Even better projections of basal area growth in thinned plots were obtained with an approach that utilized an index of suppression to modify the expected growth in comparable unthinned stands.

Pienaar, L.V.; Shiver, B.D.; Grider, G.E.

1985-01-01

240

Surveying black pine plantations in the province of Rieti (Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last century large afforestation programs were carried out in the Apennines to recover degraded lands, mainly by Pinus nigra plantations. Currently, many Authors have proposed management guidelines to foster the naturalization of such woodlands. However, such an option requires the availability of detailed surveys. The aim of this note is to propose a survey protocol for qualifying the landscape pattern of pine reafforestations and for mapping their growing stock on the basis of the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN techniques. A case study application by Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery is here reported concerning the Pinus nigra plantations in the province of Rieti (Central Italy.

Piermaria Corona

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Net carbon storage in a poplar plantation (POPFACE) after three years of free-air CO2 enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-density plantation of three genotypes of Populus was exposed to an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]; 550 micromol mol(-1)) from planting through canopy closure using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) technique. The FACE treatment stimulated gross primary productivity by 22 and 11% in the second and third years, respectively. Partitioning of extra carbon (C) among C pools of different turnover rates is of critical interest; thus, we calculated net ecosystem productivity (NEP) to determine whether elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] will enhance net plantation C storage capacity. Free-air CO(2) enrichment increased net primary productivity (NPP) of all genotypes by 21% in the second year and by 26% in the third year, mainly because of an increase in the size of C pools with relatively slow turnover rates (i.e., wood). In all genotypes in the FACE treatment, more new soil C was added to the total soil C pool compared with the control treatment. However, more old soil C loss was observed in the FACE treatment compared with the control treatment, possibly due to a priming effect from newly incorporated root litter. FACE did not significantly increase NEP, probably as a result of this priming effect. PMID:16105807

Gielen, B; Calfapietra, C; Lukac, M; Wittig, V E; De Angelis, P; Janssens, I A; Moscatelli, M C; Grego, S; Cotrufo, M F; Godbold, D L; Hoosbeek, M R; Long, S P; Miglietta, F; Polle, A; Bernacchi, C J; Davey, P A; Ceulemans, R; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G E

2005-11-01

242

Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (?E(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. PMID:23123593

Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

2012-12-01

243

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30

244

FORMULATION OF OIL CONTAINING PLUCHEA LANCEOLATA EXTRACT OBTAINED THROUGH DIFFERENT ORGANIC SOLVENTS AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY BY TOPICAL APPLICATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata has been used in massage oil as well as in traditional ayurveda as a potent pain reliever. The traditional Method of obtaining oil is simply based on taking water as the medium for extraction. The water extract obtained is then boiled with oil, till the water is completely evaporated. Here, our aim is to replace water by different organic solvents and obtain oil which has much better efficacy than the traditionally extracted oil. The idea here is to obtain more efficacious oil than the marketed sample which is majorly extracted using water as solvent. Here, the different organic solvents used are methanol, ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform. The oil obtained was checked for its anti-inflammatory activity with the carrageenan induced rat paw edema. The prepared oil was compared with the marketed sample of mahanarayan oil. The ethanolic extract has showed to be having high extract yield in literature.

Killol S. Chokshi et al

2012-10-01

245

Methane from wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

2005-01-01

246

A NOVEL ACYLATED FLAVONOIDIC GLYCOSIDE FROM THE WOOD OF CULTIVATED ACACIA NILOTICA (L. WILLD. EX. DELILE.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acacia is a fast-growing plant that has high potential in commercial plantations in tropical areas. It is already being grown as a plantation crop for building and industrial raw materials, as well as for reforestation of difficult sites. Extensive cultivation of this promising tree would enrich the natural resources besides being useful for industrial raw material, waste land management, and afforestation. In addition, Acacia exhibits extensive medicinal values. In view of the medicinal importance of Acacia nilotica and the therapeutic utility of flavonoids, an attempt has been made to isolate novel flavonoids from the wood of cultivated A. nilotica. The extraction of crude ethanol extract from the A. nilotica wood was followed by fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol in increasing order of polarity of the solvent. The mixed ethyl acetate and methanol extract afforded three pure compounds through column chromtomatography and fractional crystallization. Among the isolated phenolic compounds, a new acylated flavonoidic glycoside, tricin-4?-O-?-(6??-hydroxycinnamic-glucoside (1 was isolated from the wood of A. nilotica together with two known compounds, gallic acid and apigenin. Their structures were established by chemical evidence, spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and ESI-MS, and by comparison with already existing spectroscopic data. The yield of novel tricin glucoside showed that it make up to 0.0786% of mixed ethyl acetate and acetone extract.

Zakia Khanam

2011-07-01

247

Wood - raw material or fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In view of the tense situation on the raw oil market, the call for alternative energy sources is growing. May wood, the most important fuel of past centuries, contribute appreciably to the solution of the energy problem. To what degree will an increasing utilization of fuel wood influence the raw wood market. In this paper, an attempt is made to answer these questions which are of vital interest to the wood-based board industry. On the basis of numerical values it is shown that in the Federal Republic of Germany wood plays and will play a minor role in the supply of energy. A considerably increasing and systematical utilization of industrial wood residues as fuel, however would cause a serious bottleneck in the supply of wood for the wood and paper industry.

Seeger, K.

1980-01-01

248

Status of wood energy applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

1991-03-18

249

War on the Home Front: Hardships on the Burroughs Plantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Booker T. Washington National Monument preserves and protects the birth site and childhood home of Booker T. Washington while interpreting his life experiences and significance in U.S. history as the most powerful African American between 1895 and 1915. The programs and activities included in this guide about the Burroughs Plantation

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

250

Soil physical properties influence "black truffle" fructification in plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the important effects of pH and carbonate content of soils on "black truffle" (Tuber melanosporum) production are well known, we poorly understand the influence of soil physical properties. This study focuses on physical soil characteristics that drive successful production of black truffles in plantations. Seventy-eight Quercus ilex ssp. ballota plantations older than 10 years were studied in the province of Teruel (eastern Spain). Soil samples were analyzed for various edaphic characteristics and to locate T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizae. The influence of cultivation practices, climatic features, and soil properties on sporocarp production was assessed using multivariate analyses. Low contents of fine earth and silt and high levels of bulk density, clay content, and water-holding capacity appear to promote fructification. Watering is also highly positive for truffle fructification. We develop and discuss a logistic model to predict the probability of truffle fructification in field sites under consideration for truffle plantation establishment. The balance between water availability and aeration plays a crucial role in achieving success in black truffle plantations. PMID:24487451

Alonso Ponce, Rafael; Ágreda, Teresa; Águeda, Beatriz; Aldea, Jorge; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Modrego, María Pilar

2014-04-01

251

Wood dust exposure in wood industry and forestry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to determine occupational exposure in Croatian wood processing industry and forest workers to harmful effects of wood dust on the risk of nose, nasal cavity and lung carcinoma. Mass concentrations of respirable particles and total wood dust were measured at two wood processing plants, three woodwork shops, and one lumbering site, where 225 total wood dust samples and 221 respirable particle samples were collected. Wood dust mass concentration was determined by the gravimetric method. Mass concentrations exceeding total wood dust maximal allowed concentration (MAC, 3 mg/m3) were measured for beechwood and oakwood dust in 38% (79/206) of study samples from wood processing facilities (plants and woodwork shops). Mass concentrations of respirable particles exceeding MAC (1 mg/m3) were recorded in 24% (48/202) of samples from wood processing facilities (mean 2.38 +/- 2.08 mg/m3 in plants and 3.6 +/- 2.22 mg/m3 in woodwork shops). Thus, 13% (27/206) of work sites in wood processing facilities failed to meet health criteria according to European guidelines. Launching of measures to reduce wood dust emission to the work area is recommended. PMID:16117324

Puntari?, Dinko; Kos, Ankica; Smit, Zdenko; Zeci?, Zeljko; Sega, Kresimir; Beljo-Luci?, Ruzica; Horvat, Dubravko; Bosnir, Jasna

2005-06-01

252

Wood waste in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today's percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December's 1997 'Climate Change Summit' in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab

1997-09-01

253

Document: wood energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the greenhouse gases control, the biomass and more specially the wood energy are developing. Meanwhile this energy presents some limitations and must be seriously managed. This document presents the advantages and the situation in the world and discusses the limits of the available resources, its management, transformation and distribution. (A.L.B.)

2006-09-01

254

Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted a new resource on birds. This resource describes the habitat requirements of the Wood Duck, and is designed to assist in the development of a "comprehensive management plan." The resource is accompanied by figures and may be browsed online or downloaded as a zip file.

255

Wood residues in Alberta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The forest products industry is the third largest economic sector in Alberta, producing pulp and paper, dimensional lumber, paneling, and value added products, providing some 40,000 jobs . 'Value added' is a key component of expanding economic activity within the forest products sector. Wood residues can play a key role in obtaining more value from forest resources by providing new products, serving as feedstock to energy and chemical production, and playing a role in agriculture and land reclamation. One of the principal roles of the Forest Products Development Branch of the Alberta Economics Department is to encourage the development of the industry by creating new uses for these materials and developing awareness of the scope of the resource. Distances to markets, economic competition from conventional energy sources and coordination of research efforts are substantial barriers to further development that the Forest Products Development Branch has to face daily. Some notable successes in recent years are described. These include the Wood Residue Inventory and the Wood Residue Database that provide data on availability and principal location of wood residues, also a listing of contacts at the mills who produce the materials

1999-05-25

256

Enzymic hydrolysis of wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vast, annually renewed, cellulosic raw material is a potential substrate for single-cell protein, sugars, and other chemicals. Wood samples of Pinus pinaster (gymnosperm) and Eucalyptus globulus (angiosperm) were pretreated with NaOH and saccharified with concentrated cellulases from the Myco 9414 mutant of Trichoderma reesei. The resulting syrup from E. Globulus has concentration of 26% sugar (glucose + cellobiose + xylose).

Beja da Costa, M.

1980-01-01

257

The response of macroinvertebrates to artificially enhanced detritus levels in plantation streams  

Science.gov (United States)

The leaves and wood from vegetation surrounding headwater streams constitute a major food source for aquatic invertebrates, providing they are retained upon the streambed and not transported downstream. This study investigated the response of aquatic invertebrates to artificially increased detritus retention, in an effort to reproduce the naturally occurring build up of dead organic matter associated with streams in old-growth forest. The background detrital standing stock in streams in Kielder Forest (Northumberland, UK) was low, approximately 32 gm-2. Two streams flowing through dense conifer plantation and one in open broadleaved woodland were manipulated by the addition of logs over a 10 m stream reach. After several months, log addition significantly enhanced detrital standing stocks in both conifer and broadleaved streams. Total invertebrate abundance, taxon richness and the numbers of certain numerically dominant families were significantly higher in experimental than reference reaches in both conifer and broadleaved streams. This response was most marked for detritivores, whilst non-detritivore groups often showed no response to the manipulation. Whilst in the short term the responses to enhanced retention may reflect a redistribution of the local fauna, it is argued that over a longer time-scale, a genuine increase in invertebrate density and diversity could occur. Allowing old-growth forest to develop in planted valley bottoms may be a viable management option for conservation. If established alongside streams, it would ensure continuous input of woody material and the fauna may benefit from the resulting increase in detritus retention.

Pretty, J. L.; Dobson, M.

258

Trickle irrigation of cottonwoods at the Blair Bend energy crop demonstration plantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irrigation may significantly increase the growth and yield of Short Rotation Woody Crops (SRWC) grown for biomass fuel in the TVA region. Large losses in growth occur annually because of water stress. The extent of growth lost due to water stress is not realized because reliable data are not available to show how much more growth and wood production would have otherwise occurred. The Blair Bend energy crop demonstration plantation includes plantings of cottonwood (Populus deltoides) that were established in April 1994. A simple low-cost trickle system is installed to determine the effects of irrigation on the growth and yield of cottonwood trees for biomass. The irrigation treatment has a significant effect on both height and diameter growth. The positive effect is even more significant when considered in terms of tree biomass (volume) growth. Any enhanced biomass yields achieved by trickle irrigation must outweigh the increased production costs incurred from installing and operating the irrigation system. If a low cost system can be engineered with significant economies of scale, high yields of woody biomass may be achievable in the TVA region.

Daly, M.J. [Univ. of Tennessee Management Science Program, Knoxville, TN (United States); Joslin, D.; Wolfe, M. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (United States)

1996-12-31

259

Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-03-15

260

Advances in the phytochemistry of Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata: Extraction and quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity / Avances en la fitoquímica de Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata: Extracción y cuantificación de los compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea tanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina iradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h), el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de v [...] arios órganos de C. aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata. Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH•+ y ABTS•+) y el de poder reductor del fosfomolibdeno. La concentración mas alta de compuestos fenólicos se presentó en las flores de C. lanceolata (62.79±0.06 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico (EAG)/g pesos seco (PS); mientras que la de flavonoides en las hojas de C. aequipetala (196.83±2.9 mg equivalentes de quercetina (EQ)/g PS). Las hojas de C. aequipetala var. hispida presentaron la actividad de captura de radicales libres DPPH (173.33±2.12 ?mol trolox/g PS), las flores de C. aequipetala la de captura de radicales libres ABTS (541.10±2.32 ?mol trolox/g PS) mientras que el poder reductor más alto se observó en las hojas de C. aequipetala (1186.25±3.17 ?mol trolox/g PS). Se encontró una correlación positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes. El análisis químico cualitativo mediante TLC indicó la prescencia del flavonoide quercetina 3-3-D-glucosido en todas las especies de Cuphea y de otros flavonoides menos polares en C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. es una fuente natural de compuestos fenólicos. Abstract in english Cuphea aequipetala and Cuphea lanceolata native to Mexico are used in folk medicine. Extraction procedure standardization was performed and the amount of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids was determined in methanol extracts (obtained by stirring for 24 h) from various organs of C. aequipetala, [...] C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata. The antioxidant properties of extracts were compared using in vitro free radical-scavenging assays (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•+) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+)) and the reducing power of phosphomolybdenum (PPM). A significant correlation was found between antioxidant activity and the amount of antioxidant components. Flowers of C. lanceolata showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (62.79±0.05 mg gallic acid equivalfnts (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) and the highest content of flavonoids was found in leaves of C. aequipetala (196.83±2.9 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g DW). The highest free radical-scavenging fctivity against DPPH•+ was found in -eaves of C. aeqrnpetala var. hispida (173.33±2.12 ?mol trolox/g DW), for ABTS- in flowers ol C. aequipetala (541.10±2.32 ?mol trolox/g DW) and for 5PM in leaves oS C. aequipetala (1186.25±3.17 ?mol trolox/g DW). Qualitative analysis indicated the presence of the flavonoid quercetin 3-?-D-glucoside in all the species of Cuphea amongst other less polar flavonoids in C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. are prospective sources of phenolic compounds.

Cardenas-Sandoval, B.A.; López-Laredo, A.R.; Martínez-Bonfil, B.P.; Bermúdez-Torres, K.; Trejo-Tapia, G..

 
 
 
 
261

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L., extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L., sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2 hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates para el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos.

Milena A Ferrari Mateus

2013-04-01

262

Brush-eating device promises reforestation, wood energy aid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An invention which began as a low-ground-pressure skidder developed into a machine which clears brush, thins plantations, and can harvest wood for energy. First came the notion of an extra-low-ground-pressure log skidder. A swinging chopper was added to the front to clear the skid roads. Working in manzanita brush 10 to 12 foot tall, and with stems up to 18 inches in diameter, the Shar 20 can clear one to two and a half acres an hour. The 30 will be able to clear two to five acres an hour. The big machine will have two chopper heads rotating in opposite directions to force the chopped wood into a chipper built into the machine. Chips will be blown to a van following the harvester so they can be used for hog fuel or as feedstock for methanol production. The head spins at a relatively slow 450 rpm - a safety factor. Surrounding brush catches most of the cut material, but an occasional chunk of wood does fly several yards. Companies are paying more attention to reforestation. Clearing the land will leave a mulch-like debris on the ground. This offers some shade and helps retain soil moisture. Even when brush is harvested for energy, about 10% of the material is left on the ground. California's Department of Forestry wants to start a five-year clearing cycle for the chaparral stands, ''mowing'' a million acres a year and returning every fifth year to reclear the brush. California alone has 27 million acres of brushland not suitable for timber. A brushy acre averages from 30 to 200 tons of wood at 10% moisture content. The machines are designed to run at up to 12 mph when moving.

Blackman, T.

1981-01-01

263

Effectiveness of selected preservatives in protecting Ugandan grown Eucalyptus grandis wood against termite attack  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Termites are one of the major wood destroying agents in the tropics and with the increasing rate of deforestation, there is a need to protect wood from biodegradation in order to extend its service life. In this study the incidence and severity of termite attack on Eucalyptus grandis sapwood treated with CCA, used engine oil and neem extract were investigated. Sixty samples (20 × 20 × 300mm were prepared from the sapwood at mid-height of the tree of E. grandis and air seasoned for two weeks then treated with the preservatives. An area of 20m by 20m in a pine plantation and 15 plots of 1m by 1m were selected at random. Four samples, one from each treatment, were placed at the corners of the selected plots. Inspection and evaluation of stakes was made by visual assessments after every 30 days for any sign of termite attack for a period of 8 months. The specimens were removed from the ground, damage assessed and returned to the ground. After 4 weeks all the untreated wood samples had been attacked, neem extract treated wood samples were attacked after 17 weeks and used engine oil treated samples after 30 weeks. None of the CCA treated wood samples were attacked by the end of study period. Chi square analysis showed a high association between treatment and incidence as well as between treatment and severity. It was recommended that further research be carried out on neem extract using different concentrations.

I. E Ssemaganda

2011-01-01

264

Potentials of Liquefied CCB Treated Waste Wood for Wood Preservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recovered wood is frequently contaminated with biocides and therefore its use is limited. Even more, wood, impregnated with classical chromated copper arsenate (CCA preservatives is classified as a hazardous waste, therefore solutions for reuse or recovery of this material are sought. One of the options, discussed in this paper is liquefaction and further applications of liquefied wood containing biocide remainings. In order to elucidate this possibilty, spruce and beech wood was impregnated with liquefi ed CCB treated and untreaded spruce wood of various concentrations and exposed to wood decay fungi according to the EN 113 procedure. In paralel, the leaching experiments (ENV 1250-2 were performed as well. The results do not clearly show that liquefied wood is bio-inactive. In most cases the mass loss by fungal attack is decreased compared to the untreated controls. On the other hand, copper leaching from spruce wood, impregnated with the liquefi ed CCB treated wood was significantly reduced. Thus, there are indications that the liquefied wood could be utilized as a binding agent for inorganic biocides.

Miha Humar

2011-09-01

265

Wood-burning stove  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.

Squires, W.

1983-09-06

266

Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

2012-11-01

267

Radioactivity of wood ash  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg-1, in decreasing order: 137Cs, 40K, 90Sr, 210Pb,226Ra, 232Th, 134Cs, 235U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210Pb was hardly detectable. The NH4Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

2000-01-01

268

Method of stabilizing wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood is impregnated with vinyl monomers in a solution of organic solvents and in the presence of a swelling agent. The impregnation mixture contains a diolefinic hydrocarbon and/or a solid chlorinated or bromated compound with the melting point exceeding 30 degC and less than 10 % of an organosilicon compound. Polymerization is effected by ionizing radiation and a subsequent action of temperature in a range of 40 to 150 JegC. (B.S.)

1975-01-01

269

Wood furniture finishing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter will focus on pollution prevention opportunities and options associated with the manual air-spray finishing of wood furniture with conventional, organic solvent-based lacquers. This finishing systems represents a level of ``no control`` with regard to air emissions, other than particulates. All other coating systems can be viewed as improvements over this ``no control`` system. In short, new levels or norms of control have been the result of innovative manufacturing, made possible by coatings research and improved application technology.

Heltzer, J.M. [Virginia Dept. of Environmental Quality, Richmond, VA (United States). Office of Pollution Prevention

1995-09-01

270

Wood burning stove  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter means when additional fuel is added to the stove.

Allaire, R.A.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

1982-08-24

271

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution  

Science.gov (United States)

Located in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, WHOI, the largest independent oceanographic institution in the world, is a private, non-profit research facility dedicated to the study of marine science and to the education of marine scientists. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, facilities, and more. An abundance of information on the research program and its vessels, including an extensive collection of Deep Submergence Vehicle Alvin material. Also includes downloadable data, photos, and video.

272

Fatigue Damage in Wood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep is observed. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and attempted explained at a microstructural level. The outline of a model explaining the interaction of the effect of load duration and the effect of the loading sequences is presented.

Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre

1996-01-01

273

Radiographic testing of wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

2007-05-14

274

Wood Composite Adhesives  

Science.gov (United States)

The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

275

Optimized wood manufacturing with main focus on wood drying  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Optimization is performed on two applications from woodmanufacturing, with the main focus on wood drying. As anintroductory study of optimization, the design of a modernracing ski is investigated. The skating ski, which is partlybuilt up by wood, is optimized against maximum stiffness withthe restriction of a limited upper weight. Wood drying is treated as an optimization problem. The totaldrying time is minimized, at the same time as restrictions onmoisture content, stresses and deformations...

2000-01-01

276

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the...

Ferrari Mateus, Milena A.; Duarte Rios Faria¹, Cacilda M.; Botelho, Renato V.; Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta; Martins Ferreira, Silvana G.; Zaluski, Welton L.

2013-01-01

277

Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

1999-08-24

278

Vanuatu’s largest coconut plantation goes organic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vanuatu is a cluster of 83 tropical islands in the Pacific Ocean, 1800 km north east of Australia. Over 80% of the population are engaged in agriculture. In 2012, Vanuatu reported 2664 hectares of organic agriculture but this is set to double. Australia’s leading organic certifier, Biological Farmers of Australia (BFA), reports that Vanuatu’s largest coconut grove, the 1550 hectare Plantation Russet du Vanuatu is converting to organic. Also in conversion to organic is the community grower...

2013-01-01

279

Pilot study for irrigation modelling of a pear plantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our investigation was carried out in the area of Fruit growing Research and Consultant non-profit company, at Újfehértó. The pear requires large water quantity, but this pear plantation hasn't irrigation system not yet. This study reviews the drainage conditions of the area based on digital elevation model, and examined the canopy cover of pear trees by evaluating of the hyperspectral image. Our aims were to determine the exact watershed based irrigation modelling and determining of the ca...

Tamás János; Fórián Tünde; Nagy Attila; Nyéki József; Soltész Miklós; Fórián Tünde (1978-) (geográfus)

2010-01-01

280

Pruning in poplar plantations by mechanized device Stihl HT-75  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of branch pruning device Stihl HT-75 were researched on sample plots in FA Kupinovo and FA Klenak, in poplar plantations of Populus×euramericana 'I-214', Populus×euramericana 'M1' and Populus deltoides of different planting spaces and different ages. The analysed factors were: pruning method, site conditions, number of pruned branches, pruning height, branch diameter, etc. Time measurement was performed by the flow method, and the required number of measurements was calculated b...

Danilovi? Milorad; ?or?evi? Zoran

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Caring for ice-damaged woodlots and plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information regarding what to do with ice-damaged woodlots or plantations was presented. The ice storm of January 1998 caused widespread damage to trees. These notes provide information on how to save damaged trees and to encourage sprouting. Tips on pruning, repairing torn bark, wound dressings, and tree care are provided. The need for professional advice and help was emphasized in all cases where safety might be a legitimate concern. tabs., figs.

NONE

1998-12-31

282

Photodegradation of pesticides in float system effluent from tobacco plantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several crops can generate liquid effluent containing pesticide residues. In the region of the Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brazil, one type of effluent results from the float system used in the tobacco seedling plantation. This system is an alternative that substitutes for the conventional seedbeds of tobacco production. The tobacco is germinated on polystyrene tray beds on a water blade that may contain pesticides residues following the transplant of seedlings to the farm. In this paper, we have ...

Schneider, R. C. S.; Trolli, B. V.; Mazuim, M. Da S.; Hauch, G.; Baccar, N. M.; Machado, E. L.

2009-01-01

283

Land Conversion and Agrofuel Plantations in Mindanao: Promises and Uncertainties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Philippines enacted the Biofuels Act of 2006 (RA 9367). Signed into law in January 2007, it aims for the phasing out of harmful gasoline additives and/or oxygenates, and the mandatory use of biofuels with one percent biodiesel blend and five percent bioethanol blend for all diesel and gasoline fuels, respectively. This policy has led to frenzied development of biofuel plantations, particularly sugarcane, cassava, and sweet sorghum for bioethanol produ...

2011-01-01

284

Energy wood harvesting methods; Energiapuun korjuumenetelmaet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following topics are discussed in this newsletter: Energy wood and harvesting targets; Harvesting chains and energy wood; Integrated harvesting methods for industrial and energy wood; Separate harvesting methods for energy wood; Delivery harvesting methods for forest owners; Harvesting equipment for energy wood and harvesting technology; Felling and piling of timber; Forest haulage; Chipping; and Long-distance transportation 13 figs.

Anon.

1997-12-31

285

De novo characterization of the Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata transcriptome and analysis of candidate genes involved in cellulose and lignin biosynthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata is an important timber species that accounts for 20–30% of the total commercial timber production in China. However, the available genomic information of Chinese fir is limited, and this severely encumbers functional genomic analysis and molecular breeding in Chinese fir. Recently, major advances in transcriptome sequencing have provided fast and cost-effective approaches to generate large expression datasets that have proven to be powerful tools to profile the transcriptomes of non-model organisms with undetermined genomes. Results In this study, the transcriptomes of nine tissues from Chinese fir were analyzed using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. Approximately 40 million paired-end reads were obtained, generating 3.62 gigabase pairs of sequencing data. These reads were assembled into 83,248 unique sequences (i.e. Unigenes with an average length of 449 bp, amounting to 37.40 Mb. A total of 73,779 Unigenes were supported by more than 5 reads, 42,663 (57.83% had homologs in the NCBI non-redundant and Swiss-Prot protein databases, corresponding to 27,224 unique protein entries. Of these Unigenes, 16,750 were assigned to Gene Ontology classes, and 14,877 were clustered into orthologous groups. A total of 21,689 (29.40% were mapped to 119 pathways by BLAST comparison against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database. The majority of the genes encoding the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathways of cellulose and lignin were identified in the Unigene dataset by targeted searches of their annotations. And a number of candidate Chinese fir genes in the two metabolic pathways were discovered firstly. Eighteen genes related to cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were cloned for experimental validating of transcriptome data. Overall 49 Unigenes, covering different regions of these selected genes, were found by alignment. Their expression patterns in different tissues were analyzed by qRT-PCR to explore their putative functions. Conclusions A substantial fraction of transcript sequences was obtained from the deep sequencing of Chinese fir. The assembled Unigene dataset was used to discover candidate genes of cellulose and lignin biosynthesis. This transcriptome dataset will provide a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetics research of C. lanceolata.

Huang Hua-Hong

2012-11-01

286

Rural Fuel-wood and Poles Research Project in Malawi: a general account  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rural Fuel-wood and Poles Research Project was initiated to provide information about afforestation in the dry silvicultural zones. Plantation forestry in Malawi has concentrated on production of timber, poles, and pulpwood. It is estimated that 90% of Malawi's population of 5.5 million live in rural communities, and that the purely domestic wood requirement is 4.05 cubic m per family (of five) annually. In addition, wood is required for agricultural purposes such as tobacco curing. The remaining indigenous forest cannot meet the demand. There is an urgent need for plantations. Rather than simply planting trees, the aim is to make local communities self-sufficient in forest products. In view of the shortage of land, great emphasis is placed on trying species which have many end-uses-- e.g., poles, fuel-wood, mulch, fodder, and shade--and those which can be grown together with farm crops, a concept known as ''agroforestry.'' Over 20 ha of trials were established at locations in the three regions of the country. Acacia albida allows maize and other farm crops to grow under it, provides good shade and fodder, and--as legume--enriches the soil with nitrogen. Eucalypts were included because most produce straight poles for construction, are drought-hardy, and are rated higher than Gmelina arborea in calorific value, durability, and strength. Another tree favored for its multiple uses is Leucaena leucocephala (Hawaiian giant), but it appears that there is considerable mixture of varieties in the seeds. With the exception of one trial at Bwanje, trials have not included farm crops, but the agroforestry element will be a very important consideration in future trials.

Nkaonja, R.S.W.

1981-01-01

287

Pruning in poplar plantations by mechanized device Stihl HT-75  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of branch pruning device Stihl HT-75 were researched on sample plots in FA Kupinovo and FA Klenak, in poplar plantations of Populus×euramericana 'I-214', Populus×euramericana 'M1' and Populus deltoides of different planting spaces and different ages. The analysed factors were: pruning method, site conditions, number of pruned branches, pruning height, branch diameter, etc. Time measurement was performed by the flow method, and the required number of measurements was calculated by variation statistics. The results of the analysis of variance show the statistical significance of the differences between pruning times of different clone species, different planting spaces and different plantation ages. The results of the analysis of variance and statistical tests show that there are no statistically significant differences between the average time of poplar pruning in plantations of the same age and different planting spaces. The correlation of branch pruning time and the number of pruned branches is represented by the power function model, which according to the results of the regression analyses, is the best representation of the nature of this dependence. Exponential function represents the correlation of the average diameter of pruned branches and the time of pruning. Also, there is a correlation of the average diameter of pruned branches and fuel consumption. Pruning time of poplar trees increases with the increase of the average diameter of pruned branches.

Danilovi? Milorad

2009-01-01

288

Biomass production in an age series of Bambusa bambos plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biomass production in an age series of Bambusa bambos plantations was estimated, and compared with its interspecies natural stands and between genera of natural and plantation stands. There was a linear increase of the total biomass of all compartments with the age of the plantation. In the above-ground biomass, the percentage contribution of culms (81%), branches (14%) and leaves (1%) was 96%, whereas in the below-ground rhizome contribution was 4%. The total biomass ranged from 2.3 tDM ha{sup -1} (I year) to 297.9 tDM ha{sup -1} (6 year). The mean annual biomass production was 49.6 tDM ha{sup -1}, over the 6 year period. The mean periodic increment and net primary production was highest in the 5th year, during which a peak of 124.1 t DM ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in net primary production was obtained. (Author)

Shanmughavel, P.; Muthukumar, T. [Bharathiar Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Botany; Peddappaiah, R.S. [Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore (India)

2001-07-01

289

Financial and energy analyses of woody biomass plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an economic analysis of a short rotation woody crop (SRWC) plantation system established the financial and energy costs of woody biomass and related net values for the total system. A production model for commercial-sized Populus plantations was developed from a series of research projects sponsored by the U.S,. Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. The design was based on hybrid poplar planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cutting ha-1. Growth was forecast at 16 Mg(OD) ha-1 yr-1 on a six-year rotation cycle. All inputs associated with plantation establishment, annual operations, and land use were identified on a financial and energy cost basis (Strauss et al. 1989). Net values for the system projected a minimum financial profit and a major net energy gain. Financial profit was limited by the high market value of energy inputs as compared to the low market value of the energy output. The net energy gain was attributed to the solar energy captured through photosynthesis. Principal input costs to the overall system, on both a financial and energy basis, were land rent and the harvesting/transportation requirements

1991-01-07

290

MECHANICALLY-INDUCED WOOD WELDING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanically-induced vibration welding of flat wood surfaces and rotation welding of wood dowels, without any adhesives, gave strength values comparable to those obtained with adhesive bonded joints. The joints obtained have strength up to structural level but can only be used for interior joinery and furniture. The reasons of the welding effect are presented and explained both at the wood anatomical and molecular level

Antonio Pizzi

2003-01-01

291

MECHANICALLY-INDUCED WOOD WELDING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mechanically-induced vibration welding of flat wood surfaces and rotation welding of wood dowels, without any adhesives, gave strength values comparable to those obtained with adhesive bonded joints. The joints obtained have strength up to structural level but can only be used for interior joinery and furniture. The reasons of the welding effect are presented and explained both at the wood anatomical and molecular level

Antonio Pizzi,; Milena Properzi; Jean-Michel Leban; Michela Zanetti; Frederic Pichelin

2003-01-01

292

Do changes in carbon allocation account for the growth response to potassium and sodium applications in tropical Eucalyptus plantations?  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the underlying mechanisms that account for the impact of potassium (K) fertilization and its replacement by sodium (Na) on tree growth is key to improving the management of forest plantations that are expanding over weathered tropical soils with low amounts of exchangeable bases. A complete randomized block design was planted with Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) to quantify growth, carbon uptake and carbon partitioning using a carbon budget approach. A combination of approaches including the establishment of allometric relationships over the whole rotation and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall at the end of the rotation were used to estimate aboveground net production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux and gross primary production (GPP). The stable carbon isotope (?(13)C) of stem wood ?-cellulose produced every year was used as a proxy for stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Potassium fertilization increased GPP and decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground. Aboveground net production was strongly enhanced, and because leaf lifespan increased, leaf biomass was enhanced without any change in leaf production, and wood production (P(W)) was dramatically increased. Sodium application decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground in a similar way, and enhanced GPP, ANPP and P(W), but to a lesser extent compared with K fertilization. Neither K nor Na affected ?(13)C of stem wood ?-cellulose, suggesting that water-use efficiency was the same among the treatments and that the inferred increase in leaf photosynthesis was not only related to a higher stomatal conductance. We concluded that the response to K fertilization and Na addition on P(W) resulted from drastic changes in carbon allocation. PMID:22021011

Epron, Daniel; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Almeida, Julio C R; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Ponton, Stephane; Sette, Carlos R; Delgado-Rojas, Juan S; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Nouvellon, Yann

2012-06-01

293

Food preferences of the rubber plantation litter beetle, Luprops tristis, a nuisance pest in rubber tree plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Massive invasion of the litter dwelling beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), numbering about 0.5 to 4 million per residential building following summer showers, and their prolonged stay in a state of dormancy, make them an extreme nuisance in rubber tree plantation belts of the Western Ghats in south India. Food preference of post-dormancy adults, larvae and teneral adults stages towards tender, mature and senescent leaves were assessed in three choice and no choice leaf disc tests. All stages have strong preference towards fallen tender leaves and lowest preference towards senescent leaves indicating that leaf age is a major attribute determining food selection and food preference of L. tristis. Ready availability of the preferred, prematurely fallen, tender rubber tree leaves as a food resource is suggested as being responsible for the exceptionally high abundance of L. tristis in rubber tree plantation belts. PMID:20050783

Sabu, Thomas K; Vinod, K V

2009-01-01

294

Reviewing the Potential of Forest Bioenergy Plantations: Woody Energy Crop Plantations Management and Breeding for Increasing Biomass Productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interest for sustainable biomass energy sources has increased notably in the last years, given the current rise in oil prices and global concern for climate change. Woody energy crops constitute a key strategy for bioenergy production and are necessary for assuring the sustainability of the emerging biomass sector. Several biomass energy plants have been recently constructed, and high expectations for developing the biomass sector based on woody energy crops in the next years exist in many countries worldwide. The commercial feasibility of woody energy crops is ery dependent on a good choice of species and/or varieties more suited to site conditions, appropriate plantation design and the selection of the optimum management practices. The purpose of this article is to offer an illustrative view of relevant studies in woody energy crop plantations. The potential of plant breeding and management optimization for increasing energy crop cultivation profitability is highlighted in this contribution

Vega-Nieva, Daniel J.; Dopazo, Raquel; Ortiz, Luis (Forest Technical Univ. School, Pontevedra (Spain)). E-mail: DanielJVN@gmail.com

2008-10-15

295

Parameterization of the Hydric Transfer Models in Three Eucalyptus Plantations in Congo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantifying soil water repartition and hydric fluxes is essential to understand soil-plant relationships. Eucalyptus plantations in Pointe-Noire region are on sandy soils, a good knowledge of water behavior in the soil is important to sustainable management of eucalyptus plantations as well as for measuring the impacts of these plantations on the region water resource. The objective of this study is to parameterize a model of hydric transfer in the soil of three, using the HYDRUS 1D software ...

Moukandi-nkay, D. G.; Nganga, D.; Mabiala, B.; Thaty, C.; Deleport, P.

2011-01-01

296

Control of termites in tea (Camellia sinensis L(0) Kuntz) plantations of Barak Valley, Assam, (India)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Termites cause serious damage to tea plantations in Barak Valley, Assam (India) especially during the dry season (i.e. September-March). Tea plantations in the southwest facing slopes are worst affected possibly due to poor soil moisture and shade. Termites also cause considerable damage to the vegetation growing in and around tea plantations. Both chemical and phytopesticides were effective for the control of termites. Among chemical pesticides, endosulphan, chloropyriphos and phorate were e...

2005-01-01

297

Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura (India).  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative analysis of earthworm communities was carried out in the rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) of different age groups in West Tripura to understand the impact of such exotic and monoculture plantation in biodiversity conservation. Earthworm communities were studied on monthly basis over a period of one year (2006-2007) in the 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 year-old plantations. Among twelve earthworm species collected from the studied sites, six species belonged to Octochaetidae [Eutyphoeus assomensis Stephenson, Eutyphoeus comillahnus Michaelsen, Lennogaster chittagongensis (Stephensen), Octochaetona beatrix Gates, Dichogaster offinis Michaelsen, Lennogaster yeicus (Stephensen)], two species each to Megascolecidae [Metaphire houlleti (Perrier), Konchurio sp. 1] and Moniligastridae [Drowida nepalensis Michaelsen, Drawida papillifer papillifer Stephenson], one species each to Glossoscolecidae [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller)] and Ocnerodrilidae [Gordiodrilus elegans Beddard]. Exotic species P corethrurus, M. houlleti and native peregrine species like D. nepolensis and D. papillifer papillifer were distributed in all the age groups of plantation, while other species showed restricted distribution. P. corethrurus contributed more than 60% biomass and 70% density of earthworm communities in rubber plantation. With aging of rubber plantations both the densities and biomasses of earthworms increased. High contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin in the litters of 3 and 10 year-old-rubber plantations through their effects on food intake, probably resulted to low biomass values of earthworms in those age groups of plantation. With further increase in the age of plantations beyond 10 years, polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin contents decreased. Accordingly the biomass of earthworms increased with increase in the age of plantation. Soil moisture increased with increase in the age of plantation and there was a good positive correlation between soil moisture and earthworm biomass (p < 0.01). Density, biomass and dominance of earthworms increased while species diversity, species richness and species evenness of earthworm community were decreased with increase in the age of rubber plantation. PMID:24006808

Chaudhuri, P S; Bhattacharjee, Subhalaxmi; Dey, Animesh; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Bhattacharya, Dipto

2013-01-01

298

Phytocoenological characteristics in poplar plantations in the protected region of the central Danube basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following the water regulation along the Danube river, the area of natural forests decreases and the vegetation is fragmented. The goal of the study was to survey the recent phytocenological characteristics of the region of the protected floodplain outside the dam. We surveyed three site types in poplar plantations near Novi Sad. In the poplar plantations phytocoenological relevés were made. The elevation of the study plantations is between 75 and 76 m a.s.l. The most represented speci...

Gali? Z.; Orlovi? S.; Vasi? Verica; Galovi? Vladislava; Klašnja Bojana; Stojanovi? D.; Babi? Violeta

2011-01-01

299

Sustainable Management of a Matured Oil Palm Plantation in UPM Campus, Malaysia Using Airborne Remote Sensing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate and reliable near-real time information is needed for a sustainable oil palm plantation management, especially on plant quality and health. Airborne remote sensing provides the effective recent agricultural crop information for the oil palm plantation industry planning, management and sustainable development. A study on the characteristic of a matured oil palm plantation in UPM campus was conducted using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing technique. Airborne hyperspectral remote sensing can be used as an effective tool in monitoring the characteristic of oil palm plantation in order to predict and manage the oil palm production. The general objective of this study is to assess the capability and usefulness of UPM-APSB’s AISA airborne hyperspectral sensor to determine the characteristic of a matured oil palm plantation for its sustainable development while the specific objective is to identify, classify and produce the thematic map of matured oil palm plantation in the study site. The age of the oil palm plantation used in this study is 27 years old. Sobel filtering was used to enhance the image. Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM analysis was then used to classify the characteristic of the plantation within the study area. A thematic map of 27 years old matured oil palm plantation was produced and the characteristic of the oil palm plantation in the study site was identified as 173 healthy, 7 dead, 9 stressed oil palm trees and open areas in the plantation with a mapping accuracy of 93.33%. This has shown that UPM-APSB’s AISA airborne hyperspectral sensor is capable of mapping a matured oil palm plantation with such characteristics for its sustainable management and future development.

Kamaruzaman Jusoff

2009-10-01

300

Food Preferences of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, a Nuisance Pest in Rubber Tree Plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Massive invasion of the litter dwelling beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), numbering about 0.5 to 4 million per residential building following summer showers, and their prolonged stay in a state of dormancy, make them an extreme nuisance in rubber tree plantation belts of the Western Ghats in south India. Food preference of post-dormancy adults, larvae and teneral adults stages towards tender, mature and senescent leaves were assessed in three choice and no choice ...

Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K. V.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Methanogenic gasification of wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic digestion of woody species is generally not considered technically feasible without some type of pretreatment for dissociation of biodegradable components, such as cellulose and hemicellulose, from a nonbiodegradable component, such as lignin. Work conducted at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has demonstrated that significant conversion of different hardwood species for methane production can be accomplished without pretreatment other than particle size reduction and also without adding expensive nutrients. These studies utilized a novel wood inoculum developed at IGT using enrichment techniques. 25 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Srivastava, V.J.; Conrad, J.R.; Fannin, K.J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-01-01

302

Wood-plastic composites using woods native to Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation induced polymerization of methylmethacrylate and copolymerization of styrene-acrylonitrile mixture in mamrase Carpinus betulus was carried out by means of ?-ray, under different moisture levels and additives. Under all conditions the degree of polymerization was as high as 60%. No pronounced differences were observed in the kinetics of the polymerization of MMA either with moisture content of wood nor with kind and amount of additives. At high moisture (80% RH) content the dimensional stability of wood-PMMA was increased four fold as compared with untreated wood. The hardness increased about 100% for a weight conversion of monomer of about 30 to 40%. Hardness of this wood-polymer composite is comparable to that of the best noble woods in the world. (author)

1978-10-26

303

Optimizing the extraction yield of polyprenols from needles of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook using response surface methodology and its antioxidative activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An improved optimization method was used, combining a single-factor experiment and Response Surface Methodology to optimize the medium for the extraction yield of polyprenols from the needles of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was used with extraction temperatures, extraction times, and liquid-solid ratio as independent variables to understand and optimize the extraction yield of polyprenols. A mathematical model with a high coefficient of determination was obtained and could be employed to optimize polyprenols extraction. From the optimized values of extraction temperature 71.4 ?, extraction time 5.96 h, and liquid-solid ratio 9.3:1, the extraction yield of polyprenols was 1.22 ± 0.04% (N = 3, which agreed closely with the predicted value (1.27%. Besides, polyprenols were demonstrated to have a strong antioxidative ability in vitro. Scavenging percentages of superoxide radical and DPPH by polyprenols were up to 75.6% and 56.9%, respectively.

Ping Jiang

2013-02-01

304

ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 ?m, and 7.1 ?m, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70°C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

Ahmad Jahan Latibari,

2011-11-01

305

Wood-energy; Bois-energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wood energy presents many social and environmental interests: local employment, climatic change fight and forests maintenance. To inform the public and develop the wood-energy channel, the ITEBE organizes meetings and published documentation on the wood energy possibilities. This papers is especially devoted to the solar-wood complementarity, the Felletin cogeneration realization, the wood district heating, the wood pellets market and the quality Charter. (A.L.B.)

Douard, F.; Brassoud, J.; Segovia, P. [Institut Technique Europeen du Bois Energie (ITEBE), 39 - Lons le Saunier (France); Ferry, J.M. [Quercy Energies, 46 - Cahors (France); Boussard, Y. [Centre Energies Habitat, 18 - Massay (France); Pouet, J.Ch. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)

2003-10-01

306

Compressive Fatigue in Wood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation is observed between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and an explanation at a microstructural level is attempted. The outline of a model explaining the interaction of the effect of load duration and the effect of the loading sequences is presented.

Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre

1999-01-01

307

Preservation of forest wood chips  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

1999-01-01

308

Moisture Sorption Hysteresis in Wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of moisture sorption hysteresis in wood, and several proposed theories for explaining it, are discussed. Hysteresis is shown to be beneficial when wood is in use because it reduces changes in moisture content (lower effective slope of the s...

C. Skaar

1979-01-01

309

Some remarks about wood firing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In gridless bottom hearths as they are used for smoking meat and fish, the wood is placed on the floor at the centre of which a pile of ashes will form. This wood ash sustains the heat of the embers while oxygen penetrates the porous structure of the red-hot wood all by itself. With hearths equipped with a grid, combustion will take place as long as flames will issue from the wood. In the red hot stage, however, the air stream is much too strong and will cool the fuel resulting in visible blue smoke (unburnt proportion of pollution gas). With the bottom hearth, combustion of the wood regulates by itself the amount of combustion air in a rather ideal way. On adding new wood, light and easily combustible gases and vapour escape, burning with long flames. This increases waste gas temperature thus leading to stronger chimney draft. Thick wood makes for long-burning fires. A separate chimney is needed with the open fireplace. As fireplace wood, dried birch is best suited; it will burn even when wet and does not tend to sparking like fir or spruce do. A medium-mesh-size wire fabric is better suited to guard against sparks than a closed door or a lattice panel.

Eisenschink, A.

310

Light Absorption of Wood Smoke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Smoke from wood burning is a significant source of air pollution in many parts of the world. When several sources simultaneously cause air pollution, it is often difficult to determine how much stems from wood burning. A new approach is described where such identification is performed by the particle light absorption behaviour. (author)

Schmidhauser, R. [ETH Zuerich and PSI (Switzerland); Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

2004-03-01

311

Predicting the morphological characteristics and basic density of Eucalyptus wood using the NIRS technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed to apply the near infrared spectroscopy technique (NIRS for fast prediction of basic density and morphological characteristics of wood fibers in Eucalyptus clones. Six Eucalyptus clones aged three years were used, obtained from plantations in Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce and Santa Bárbara, in Minas Gerais state. The morphological characteristics of the fibers and basic density of the wood were determined by conventional methods and correlated with near infrared spectra using partial least square regression (PLS regression. Best calibration correlations were obtained in basic density prediction, with values 0.95 for correlation coefficient of cross validation (Rcv and 3.4 for ratio performance deviation (RPD, in clone 57. Fiber length can be predicted by models with Rcv ranging from 0.61 to 0.89 and standard error (SECV ranging from 0.037 to 0.079 mm. The prediction model for wood fiber width presented higher Rcv (0.82 and RPD (1.9 values in clone 1046. Best fits to estimate lumen diameter and fiber wall thickness were obtained with information from clone 1046. In some clones, the NIRS technique proved efficient to predict the anatomical properties and basic density of wood in Eucalyptus clones.

Lívia Cássia Viana

2009-12-01

312

In situ FT-IR microscopic study on enzymatic treatment of poplar wood cross-sections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy to monitor in situ the enzymatic degradation of wood was investigated. Cross-sections of poplar wood were treated with cellulase Onozuka RS within a custom-built fluidic cell. Light-optical micrographs and FT-IR spectra were acquired in situ from normal and tension wood fibers. Light-optical micrographs showed almost complete removal of the gelatinous (G) layer in tension wood. No structural and spectral changes were observed in the lignified cell walls. The accessibility of cellulose within the lignified cell wall was found to be the main limiting factor, whereas the depletion of the enzyme due to lignin adsorption could be ruled out. The fast, selective hydrolysis of the crystalline cellulose in the G-layer, even at room temperature, might be explained by the gel-like structure and the highly porous surface. Young plantation grown hardwood trees with a high proportion of G-fibers thus represent an interesting resource for bioconversion to fermentable sugars in the process to bioethanol. PMID:18636773

Gierlinger, Notburga; Goswami, Luna; Schmidt, Martin; Burgert, Ingo; Coutand, Catherine; Rogge, Tilmann; Schwanninger, Manfred

2008-08-01

313

The Swedish wood fuel market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

1998-09-20

314

Biomass and nutrient removal by willow clones in experimental bioenergy plantations in New York State  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of short-rotation intensive cultural (SRIC) willow systems as a source of bioenergy and bioproducts is growing in the northeastern and midwestern United States. Important data for sustainable management such as nutrient removal and nutrient use efficiency in willow bioenergy plantations is lacking. This study reports wood biomass production, annual removal of nutrients, and nutrient use efficiency in experimental plantings of SRIC willow and poplar at Tully, New York. Effects of clone, fertilization, irrigation, planting density, and harvesting cycle were analyzed. Annual biomass production of 15-22 dry Mg/ha removed 75-86, 10-11, 27-32, 52-79 and 4-5 kg/ha/year of N, P, K, Ca and Mg, respectively. For all the variables studied, the response depended on clone. Fertilization and irrigation increased rates of nutrient removal by means of increased biomass production. Unlike planting density, harvest cycle significantly affected rats of nutrient removal and nutrient use efficiency. For clone SV1 (Salix dasyclados), an irrigated and fertilized planting with a density of 36,960 trees/ha harvested on a 3-year rotation had the highest biomass production and nutrient use efficiency, and the lowest rates of nutrient removal. The annual harvest cycle had the lowest nutrient use efficiency and the highest annual removal of nutrients suggesting that this choice would be most appropriate for biomass crops that are to be used as buffer strips to manage nutrient runoff from agricultural fields. An appropriate choice of clone, planting density, and harvest cycle could tailor rates of nutrient removal and nutrient use efficiency to match the objective of the planting. (Author)

Adegbidi, H.G. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). School of Forest Resources and Conservation; Volk, T.A.; White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Briggs, R.D.; Bickelhaupt, D.H. [State University of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). College of Environmental Science and Forestry

2001-07-01

315

Field Study of Rainfall Redistribution in Japanese Cypress Plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the spatial patterns and temporal variation of rainfall redistribution characteristics in forest plantations, field observation of throughfall was conducted in three forest stands consisting of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtuse), and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), in Tochigi and Kochi prefecture, Japan. Throughfall in 8m × 8m plot was measured at 10 minutes intervals using 20 rain gauges set in a lattice-like arrangement. Throughfall data during the whole observation period were used and divided into several meteorological condition groups according to rainfall and wind characteristics. These data demonstrated that the spatial pattern of throughfall was strongly influenced by rainfall event size.

Kato, H.; Onda, Y.; Nanko, K.; Gomi, T.

2010-12-01

316

Choice of site for fast-growing plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principles are discussed for site selection for intensively-managed fast-growing plantations of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the southern and central taiga zones in the Leningrad region. The criteria for evaluating site fertility are: content of clay, depth of the impermeable layer in the soil profile, and humus type. An edaphic grid is presented showing site classes for Scots pine and Norway spruce for nine different sites (edatopes) characterized by soil type (stands, sandy loams, clay loams) and moisture status (well drained, inadequately drained, poorly drained). 1 reference.

Ryabinin, B.N.; Chertov, O.G.

1983-01-01

317

Stand age characteristics and soil properties affect species composition of vascular plants in short rotation coppice plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Woody biomass plantations on agricultural sites are an attractive source of biomass for bioenergy, but their effects on local biodiversity are unclear. This study’s objective was to evaluate the influences of light availability, plantation age, and soil properties on phytodiversity in short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations. Ground vegetation mapping, irradiance measurement (PAR), and surface soil analyses were conducted in 15 willow and poplar SRC plantations in Central Sweden and Norther...

Baum, Sarah; Weih, Martin; Bolte, Andreas

2012-01-01

318

Plantation Pedagogy: A Postcolonial and Global Perspective. Global Studies in Education. Volume 16  

Science.gov (United States)

"Plantation Pedagogy" originates from an Afro-Caribbean primary school teacher's experience. It provides a discourse which extends and illuminates the limitations of current neo-liberal and global rationalizations of the challenges posed to a teacher's practice. Plantation pedagogy is distinguished from critical pedagogy by its historical presence…

Bristol, Laurette S. M.

2012-01-01

319

[Wind-attenuation effect of Sonneratia apetala and Kandelia obovata plantations].  

Science.gov (United States)

A field monitoring was conducted to examine the wind-attenuation effect of mangrove plantations at the Sanjiang Bay of Dongzhai Harbor, Hainan Province of South China. The wind speed and wind direction were measured at a site 50 m away from the offshore forest fringes of Sonneratia apetala and Kandelia obovata plantations and 2 m above the ground. Both the S. apetala and the K. obovata plantations had obvious effect in attenuating the speed of the wind from northerly to the shore, with the mean wind speed decreased by > 85% and the better effect of K. obovata plantation. With the increase of the wind speed, the wind-attenuation effect of the plantations presented a trend of decreasing first and remained stable then. At 50 m away from the offshore forest fringe of S. apetala plantation, the wind-attenuation rate was higher than 89.8% when the mean wind speed was lower than 5 m x s(-1), tended to be stable when the mean wind speed was 10 m x s(-1), and turned to be 58.9%-63.6% when the mean wind speed was higher than 15 m x s(-1). The S. apetala plantation had better wind attenuation effect in warmer season than in colder season. Under the extremely adverse weather like typhoon, the mean wind speed and extreme wind speed at 50 m away from the offshore forest fringe of S. apetala plantation were decreased by 59.4% and 53.2%, respectively. PMID:22803460

Chen, Yu-Jun; Liao, Bao-Wen; Li, Mei; Chen, Bu-Feng; Chen, Yuan-Hai; Zhong, Cai-Rong; Li, Hua-Liang; Lin, Wei-Hai

2012-04-01

320

USE OF VARITIES-CRABS FOR CREATION OF MONOVARIETAL APPLE-TREE PLANTATIONS ????????????? ?????? — ?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There was shown the perspective of variety-crab use as pollinators of apple-tree plantations. There were shown the economic characteristics of varieties-crabs (terms and length of pollen fertility etc. There was made the selection of pollinators (crabs and main industrial varieties for creation of monovarietal apple-tree plantations

Dubravina I. V.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Cooling of wood briquettes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

Adži? Miroljub M.

2013-01-01

322

Variation in Wood Properties and Growth in Some Clones of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh  

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The present paper deals with within ramet radial, intra- and inter-clonal variations in the wood element’s dimensions and specific gravity of 10 clones of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. The growth parameters namely ramet height and DBH were also considered for the study. Study material was collected from the 10 clones of Populus deltoids raised by WIMCO Plantations Ltd. at Rudrapur (Udhamsingh Nagar), India. Three clones were parent viz. G48, S7C8 (female) and G3 (male). Other clones re...

Pande, P. K.

2011-01-01

323

Wood would burn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 oC and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by increasing the combustion pressure to above 80 bar, resulting in the recovered latent heat being available at more than 200 oC. It can then be used to increase the cycle efficiency by about 15% by pre-heating the boiler water and/or combustion air etc. A further advantage is that the high pressure of the combustion gases also reduces the superheater tube stress since it can balance the steam pressure. The key advantage of this high pressure flue gas is that it is above the pressure at which carbon dioxide 'condenses' to a liquid or supercritical gas at atmospheric temperature. Thus when used with oxy-fuel combustion, the carbon dioxide flue gas from which the moisture has been condensed can be cooled to atmospheric temperature and the supercritical CO2 can be fed directly into the pipes leading to the sequestration site. An important consideration of these strategies is to ensure that non-condensable gases in the exhaust, including oxygen and nitrogen, do not adversely affect the 'condensation' processes. When oxy-fuel combustion is used, the flame temperature must be moderated by a cool diluent. Recycled carbon dioxide is often proposed for this duty. However, since the latent heat is recovered, the moisture or even additional water can fulfil this role. This latter option may be advantageous since it is more efficient to pump wood chip fuel in water into the high pressure zone rather than feed solid wood particles. Surplus water can be simply drained and the wet wood chips are a good fuel when the latent heat of the moisture in the fuel gases is recovered into the power cycle. Bearing in mind that it is much more efficient to pump a liquid to high pressure than to compress the same material as a gas, indicates that cryogenic oxygen is a suitable material to use for an efficient power station that generates energy from biomass (or other fuels such as coal etc). Finally, combustion of the hydrogen from the water-gas reaction with oxygen allows the steam temperature in the turbine to be increased to the 'gas-turbine engine' range of 1000-1400 oC and hence the biomass and/

2011-03-01

324

Life History, Aggregation and Dormancy of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, from the Rubber Plantations of Moist South Western Ghats  

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Life history, aggregation and dormancy of rubber plantation litter beetle Luprops tristis Fabricius, (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) is described from rubber plantation belts in the western slopes of Western Ghats from the south Indian state of Kerala. The life cycle lasted 12 months, including the 5 larval instars lasting 1 month, the 3 day pupal stage, and the adult stage that can last 11 months. The adult stage includes an inactive dormancy phase of 9 months in shelters and 1 month each of act...

Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K. V.; Jobi, M. C.

2008-01-01

325

USANS study of wood structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood performs a vascular and structural function in trees. In this study we used the double-crystal diffractometer BT5 at the NIST Center for Neutron Scattering (Gaithersburg, USA) to study the pore structure inside wood sections. The slit-smeared intensity of scattered neutrons was measured from wood sections in directions parallel, orthogonal and transverse to the tree's trunk axis over a scattering vector range 0.00004-0.002 A-1. The interpretation of the data in terms of a reductionist model consisting of infinitely long cylinders (cell lumens) is discussed

2006-11-15

326

Wood fuels sources and markets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

Koopmans, Auke [Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Regional Wood Energy Development Programme, Bangkok (Thailand)

2003-07-01

327

FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

PURCELL, FRANK X.

328

Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development,it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in termof polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province.These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.

Afrooz Alimohamadi

2012-11-01

329

The role and process of monitoring willow biomass plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Short rotation woody crop programs are growing in prominence in the United States. Programs have progressed from field experiments to commercial-scale operations across the country. Production systems have generally been developed using small-scale field experiments. Commercial-scale plantations are often established and maintained in ways unknown to the production system. Monitoring is critical to learn about the effects of scale-up. An adaptive management approach is useful, wherein each planting is treated as an experimental unit, management activities are viewed as treatments, and monitoring is used to quantify treatment effects, the results of which are reported to the manager to improve the system. After a decade of research on short rotation willow biomass crops, efforts are underway to expand the area of plantations to move the system towards commercialization. The State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), in conjunction with the Salix Consortium, is in the second year of this effort, as part of the Department of Energy's Biomass Power for Rural Development program. SUNY-ESF has been developing an adaptive management/monitoring program in support of scale-up operations, as described in this paper. (author)

Nowak, C.A.; Volk, T.A.; Ballard, B.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Filhart, R.C; Kopp, R.F.; Bickelhaupt, D.; White, E.H. [State University of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States)

1999-07-01

330

Biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar plantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 3-year study measured the effects of ground cover treatments and nitrogen fertilization on biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. x P. trichocarpa Torr. and Gray, clone NC-9922) plantation in northern Wisconsin. Annually fertilized (112 kg N/ha/yr) and unfertilized plots were either maintained weed-free (bare soil), allowed to revegetate with native weeds, or seeded to birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Trees in bare soil plots responded to fertilization primarily in the third growing season, but total biomass of 3-year-old trees was not increased by annual fertilization. High nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the soil solution suggested significant leaching in both unfertilized and fertilized bare soil plots in the first growing season, and in fertilized plots the second season. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations declined sharply in fertilized bare soil plots during the third growing season. Cover crop biomass was greatest in the second year and declined thereafter due to declines in below-ground components. Fertilization increased tree growth in these plots, but cover crop treatments had no effect. Results of this study suggest that, under irrigated conditions, a cover crop can substantially reduce leaching losses of nutrients and serve as a slow-release pool of nitrogen after the trees achieve crown closure. Fertilization is not recommended in these plantations until the second growing season if a cover crop is present and the third growing season if complete weed control is practiced.

McLaughlin, R.A.

1985-01-01

331

Stand-level patterns of carbon fluxes and partitioning in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation across a gradient of productivity, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood production represents a large but variable fraction of gross primary production (GPP) in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. Assessing patterns of carbon (C) partitioning (C flux as a fraction of GPP) between above- and belowground components is essential to understand mechanisms driving the C budget of these plantations. Better knowledge of fluxes and partitioning to woody and non-woody tissues in response to site characteristics and resource availability could provide opportunities to increase forest productivity. Our study aimed at investigating how C allocation varied within one apparently homogeneous 90 ha stand of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) in Southeastern Brazil. We assessed annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP: stem, leaf, and branch production) and total belowground C flux (TBCF: the sum of root production and respiration and mycorrhizal production and respiration), GPP (computed as the sum of ANPP, TBCF and estimated aboveground respiration) on 12 plots representing the gradient of productivity found within the stand. The spatial heterogeneity of topography and associated soil attributes across the stand likely explained this fertility gradient. Component fluxes of GPP and C partitioning were found to vary among plots. Stem NPP ranged from 554 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with lowest GPP to 923 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with highest GPP. Total belowground carbon flux ranged from 497 to 1235 g C m(-2) year(-1) and showed no relationship with ANPP or GPP. Carbon partitioning to stem NPP increased from 0.19 to 0.23, showing a positive trend of increase with GPP (R(2) = 0.29, P = 0.07). Variations in stem wood production across the gradient of productivity observed at our experimental site were a result of the variability in C partitioning to different forest system components. PMID:22543478

Campoe, Otávio C; Stape, José Luiz; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Marsden, Claire; Nouvellon, Yann

2012-06-01

332

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 / Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates pa [...] ra el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2)nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne [...] incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2) hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.

Milena A, Ferrari Mateus; Cacilda M, Duarte Rios Faria¹; Renato V, Botelho; Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Silvana G, Martins Ferreira; Welton L, Zaluski.

333

Wood characteristics of Terminalia amazonia, Vochysia guatemalensis and Hyeronima alchorneoides planted in Costa Rica Características de la madera de Terminalia amazonia, Vochysia guatemalensis y Hyeronima alchorneoides plantadas en Costa Rica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the esthetic and structural characteristics, as well as the wood decay resistance of Terminalia amazonia, Vochysia guatemalensis, and Hyeronima alchorneoides trees from fast-growth condition in a tropical humid region of Costa Rica. A total of 10 trees of T. amazonia, V. guatemalensis and H. alchorneoides each, were randomly selected for harvesting from forest plantations. Young trees of all three species showed very poor esthetic characteristics i...

Róger Moya; Laura Leandro; Olman Murillo

2009-01-01

334

Radiation disinfestation of wood products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Infestation of wood by insects, fungi and nematodes has been, for decades, a major challenge to trade in wood products around the world. The damage that can be inflicted on plants and animals through the introduction of unwanted pests into importing regions can reach hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Now that Methyl Bromide's days appear to be numbered, alternative methods of pest eradication in wood products for export must be sought at once, so as to avoid last minute scrambling by the industry when Methyl Bromide becomes finally and irreversibly unavailable. Other existing technologies are either costly (e.g. kiln drying) or still under development (e.g. RF vacuum drying and RF steam sterilization). This paper examines a variety of risk mitigation methods and presents an outline of a radiation processing system for wood disinfestation

1998-06-01

335

Specific Heat Capacity of Wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Specifi c heat capacity is defi ned as the amount of heat that a kilogram of a given substance is required to absorb in order to increase its temperature by one degree. The temperature of a given substance can change either at constant pressure or at constant volume, so we differentiate between specifi c heat capacity at constant pressure (cp and specifi c heat capacity at constant volume (cv. When doing research into the heat propertiesof wood, the quantity that most frequently remains constant is pressure, thus restricting our study on specifi c heat capacity to cp. This paper provides an overview of the research that has so far been carried out into the specifi c heat capacity of wood depending on the temperature and moisture content. An analytical and graphical comparison has been performed of the results published in the Wood Industry Manual (1967 (DIP, Wood Handbook (1999 (WH and work published by Deliiski (2012 (DEL.

Kristijan Radmanovi?

2014-06-01

336

Acetylation of wood causes photobleaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the photobleaching of acetylated wood. The acetylated spruce wood was irradiated by artificial sunlight emitted from xenon lamp with covering several kinds of band-pass filter. The lightness (L(*)) of acetylated wood increased with integral irradiance. The chroma (?C(*)) decreased by light-irradiation with wavelength from 430nm to 500nm. However, the light-irradiation including ultraviolet ray region made it decrease after increase with integral irradiance. The visible light made hue angle (h°) increase, however, the ultraviolet ray made it decrease. The lignin degradation and the production of carbonyl groups were observed by light-irradiation including ultraviolet ray. However, no remarkable changes in IR spectra were observed by visible light-irradiation. Photobleaching of acetylated wood was caused by mainly visible light without modifying the IR spectra of lignin. PMID:20696591

Mitsui, Katsuya

2010-12-01

337

Organosilicon compounds as potential wood protecting agents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wood is very diverse and has specific features making it easily distinguishable from other materials. Due to its properties it can be applied both inside and outside, making it a rewarding material to work with. However, when applied outside it is liable to weathering, inducing changes to the wood, like i.e. surface discolouration, dimensional changes or even wood rot, which are not appreciated by end-users. Therefore wood constructors are looking for protection methods of wood, leading to lo...

Vetter, Liesbeth

2009-01-01

338

Why Simulate a Sample of Recycled Wood?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wood products follow the same cycle as other materials: manufacture, use and disposal. For certain applications, chemical additives are added to wood to increase its durability against biological and physical attack. At the end of life, waste wood is chipped or crushed before being recovered as raw material for new products or as fuel for energy. In recycled wood, there is the potential that some wood particles are contaminated by hazardous substances, such as organic or heavy metal preservat...

2012-01-01

339

Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchan...

2005-01-01

340

Anatomical changes in Willow Wood Decayed by the brown rot fungus Coriolellus malicola (Basidiomycota) Modificaciones anatómicas en madera de sauce por acción Coriolellus malicola (Aphyllophorales) agente de pudrición castaña  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Argentina, Salix wood is employed mainly in pulp and paper industry. In this country, the brown rotter C oriolellus malicola was found in association with willow plantations. The purpose of this work was to study the anatomical changes caused by C. malicola in willow wood in order to provide information on the effects of brown rot decay in the yield and quality of pulp. Two willow clones were employed: Salix nigra 4 and Salix babylonica x Salix alba cv I 131-25 . Two exposure times were us...

Murace, Mo?nica A.; Luna, Mari?a L.; Keil, Gabriel D.; Cristo?fano, Natalia N.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Morfoanatomia e ontogênese dos frutos e sementes de Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.3567 Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruits and seeds of Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.3567  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clusia lanceolata Cambess é espécie arbustiva da Mata Atlântica. Caracteriza-se por ser dioica, com flores estaminadas e pistiladas grandes, vistosas, de coloração rosa, apresentando a parte interna vinácea. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie, visando classificar corretamente o seu tipo de fruto e, também, confirmar a origem do apêndice carnoso que envolve as sementes. O material botânico utilizado constou de flores em antese e frutos, em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento, coletados de dois espécimes. Os estudos morfológicos e anatômicos foram realizados segundo técnicas usuais. O fruto é cápsula septífraga, esférica, de coloração verde-avermelhado. O exocarpo é unisseriado; o mesocarpo parenquimático contém numerosos ductos secretores e feixes vasculares, de disposição principalmente longitudinal. O endocarpo é derivado da epiderme interna do ovário e de três a quatro camadas subepidérmicas, cujas células alongam-se tangencialmente e a parede que delimita o lóculo sofre lignificação. A abertura se faz pela sutura carpelar, por meio de uma faixa de células parenquimáticas de tamanho reduzido, que se bifurca em direção aos lóculos no meio dos septos. Os óvulos anátropos bitegumentados, com endotélio e hipóstase, originam sementes também anátropas, exotégmicas e envolvidas por arilo de origem funicular e exostomal. O embrião é hipocotilar.Clusia lanceolata Cambess. is a shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. The plant is dioecious, with large, showy, pink staminate and pistillate flowers that are wine-colored internally. The morphological and structural aspects of the fruits and seeds of this species are described here in order to correctly classify the fruit type and to determine the origin of the fleshy appendage that surrounds the seeds. The botanical material utilized here contained flowers in anthesis and fruits in four stages of development, and were collected from two different plants. The morphological and anatomical studies were performed according to traditional techniques. The fruit is a septifrage, spherical capsule with a reddish-green coloration. The exocarp is uniseriate; the parenchymatous mesocarp contains numerous secretory ducts and vascular bundles arranged in predominantly longitudinal positions. The endocarp is derived from the internal epidermis of the ovary and has from three to four subepidermal layers whose component cells are tangentially elongated, and the cell walls lining the locule become lignified. The fruits open by means of the carpelar suture, along a stand of small parenchymous cells that bifurcate in the direction of the locules, in the midst of the septum. The anatropous bi-tegumented ovules, with an endothelium and hypostase, give rise to seeds that are likewise anatropous, exotegmic, and wrapped in an aril that has a funicular and exostomal origin. The embryo is hypocotylar.

Juliana Marzinek

2010-11-01

342

Tribology in secondary wood machining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Secondary wood manufacturing covers a wide range of products from furniture, cabinets, doors and windows, to musical instruments. Many of these are now mass produced in sophisticated, high speed numerical controlled machines. The performance and the reliability of the tools are key to an efficient and economical manufacturing process as well as to the quality of the finished products. A program concerned with three aspects of tribology of wood machining, namely, tool wear, tool-wood friction characteristics and wood surface quality characterization, was set up in the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute (IMTI) of the National Research Council of Canada. The studies include friction and wear mechanism identification and modeling, wear performance of surface-engineered tool materials, friction-induced vibration and cutting efficiency, and the influence of wear and friction on finished products. This research program underlines the importance of tribology in secondary wood manufacturing and at the same time adds new challenges to tribology research since wood is a complex, heterogeneous, material and its behavior during machining is highly sensitive to the surrounding environments and to the moisture content in the work piece.

Ko, P.L.; Hawthorne, H.M.; Andiappan, J.

1998-07-01

343

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01

344

Mangrove Plantation as a Tourist Attraction in San Juan Batangas, Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study about the Mangrove Plantation in San Juan, Batangas, Philippines aimed to identify the potential of mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction; to describe the status of mangroves, the programs offered by the government; to determine the level of support given by the government; to determine the benefits of the mangroves; and to propose an action plan that will develop the mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction. The study used descriptive method in order to determine the needed information regarding the current status of mangrove plantation as tourist attraction. The study concluded that the status of the mangroves in the coastal areas of San Juan, Batangas is continuously propagating and the local government does not neglect the mangrove plantations in the said community, as such, it is properly protected; the government’s level of support given to the mangrove plantation in terms of policies, management and planning and budget are highly implemented while in terms of promotion is implemented only; mangroves are beneficial to the residents of San Juan particularly in terms of environmental/ecological, economic and health, and ; proposed an action plan regarding development of Mangrove Plantation was designed by the researchers.

Sarah Jane M. Miranda

2013-08-01

345

Characteristics of Soil Fauna Communities and Habitat in Small-Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The composition of soil fauna community have played an important role in regulating decomposition and nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystems (include cocoa plantation. Changes in food availability and conditions in the soil habitat can affect the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. This study aimed: (i to analyze the pattern of changes in soil fauna community composition and characteristic of soil habitat based on the increasing age of cocoa plantation, and (ii to identify taxa of soil fauna and factors of soil habitat which differentiate among the cocoa plantations. Sampling of soil, roots and soil fauna was conducted from cocoa plantation aged of 4, 5, 7, 10, and 16 years. Difference in composition of the soil fauna community between ages of the cocoa plantation was significant. Profile of soil habitats was differ significantly between the cocoa plantations, except 5 and 7 years aged. A group of soil fauna had relatively limited in its movement, and sensitively to changes in temperature, soil acidity, and the availability of food and nitrogen were taxa differentiating between soil fauna communities. Soil physic-chemical conditions that affected metabolic activity, movement, and the availability of food for soil fauna were a distinguishing factors of the characteristics of the soil habitat between different ages of smallholder cocoa plantations.

Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid

2013-05-01

346

Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations. PMID:24156089

Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

2013-01-01

347

Energy dynamics and bioenergy production of Populus deltoides G-3 Marsh plantation in eastern India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy content of stems, branches, roots and litter was determined using an oxygen bomb calorimeter, and these data were used to estimate energy storage, net energy fixation and energy transfer within poplar (Populus deltoides G-3 Marsh) plantations of two ages at the Research Farm of Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar, India. Energy fixation, storage and energy released and exit from the 7-year-old plantation were 1.69, 2.11 and 1.53 times that of the 5-year-old plantation. The net energy fixation was 243.08 GJ ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} in 5-year-old and 410.57 GJ ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} in 7-year-old plantation. The energy conservation efficiency in the 7-year-old plantation was higher (1.51%) than that of the 5-year-old plantation (0.89%). The 5-year-old plantation showed lower energy accumulation ratio (2.02) resulting from less energy accumulation in components of poplar tree and greater annual turnover in terms of litter fall. The energy stored in the above-ground tree components from 2131.87 ha (5-year old) and 1002.88 ha (7-year old) or in the above-ground net annual production from 3924.15 ha (5-year old) and 2386.37 ha (7-year old) of poplar plantations is sufficient to operate a 5 MW generating station for 1 year. Above-ground biomass and net production from 1 ha of 5-year-old and 7-year-old poplar plantations is sufficient to meet the energy need of an average household in eastern India for 8.5 and 18.0 years and 4.6 and 7.6 years, respectively. (author)

Das, D.K. [Department of Forestry, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa 848 125 Samastipur, Bihar (India); Chaturvedi, O.P. [National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi 284 003, UP (India)

2009-01-15

348

Tropical forest plantation resources. Assessment of extent and methods for yield estimation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis the role of tropical forest plantations in economic development and in reverting deforestation in the tropical countries has been addressed. The development of the forest plantation resource over years has been described. Recent trends indicate that countries generally lay emphasis on increasing the gross area of plantations and inadequate attention to technical as well as policy and legislation aspects. The total reported area of plantations in 1990 was 43.9 million ha. Eucalypts covered the largest area of 23 percent. The plantation area increased during 1981-90 at the rate of 2.6 million ha annually. Based on 56 inventories of plantations in 18 countries, the net plantation area has been estimated at 70 percent of the reported area. In a review, it was found that reliable growth and yield studies to estimate yields of tropical plantations even at a national level, were inadequate. To address this deficiency a generic model for estimating potential yield by climatic factors has been formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L.F.), as a case study. Available yield plot data of teak from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast were used in the study. Climatic factors explained 59 percent of the variation in potential yield of teak (MAI at 50 years). The annual rainfall and relative humidity were the most important explanatory variables. However, the increase in their values above 2000 mm and 70 percent, respectively, resulted in successively less influence. The length of growing season and the maximum temperature of the warmest months of the growing season were also significant. Based on the studies, recommendations for realizing the potential value of tropical plantations and future assessment have been made. 49 refs

Pandey, D. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics

1996-12-01

349

Effectiveness of selected preservatives in protecting Ugandan grown Eucalyptus grandis wood against termite attack  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Termites are one of the major wood destroying agents in the tropics and with the increasing rate of deforestation, there is a need to protect wood from biodegradation in order to extend its service life. In this study the incidence and severity of termite attack on Eucalyptus grandis sapwood treated [...] with CCA, used engine oil and neem extract were investigated. Sixty samples (20 × 20 × 300mm) were prepared from the sapwood at mid-height of the tree of E. grandis and air seasoned for two weeks then treated with the preservatives. An area of 20m by 20m in a pine plantation and 15 plots of 1m by 1m were selected at random. Four samples, one from each treatment, were placed at the corners of the selected plots. Inspection and evaluation of stakes was made by visual assessments after every 30 days for any sign of termite attack for a period of 8 months. The specimens were removed from the ground, damage assessed and returned to the ground. After 4 weeks all the untreated wood samples had been attacked, neem extract treated wood samples were attacked after 17 weeks and used engine oil treated samples after 30 weeks. None of the CCA treated wood samples were attacked by the end of study period. Chi square analysis showed a high association between treatment and incidence as well as between treatment and severity. It was recommended that further research be carried out on neem extract using different concentrations.

I. E, Ssemaganda; P, Mugabi; S. B, Tumwebaze.

350

Swelling of acetylated wood in organic solvents  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

Obataya, E.; Shibutani, S.

2005-08-01

351

Carbon stocks and productivity in forest plantations (Kyoto forests in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aboveground biomass, increment and carbon stock in a 36 forest plantations chronosequence of different ages were quantified. Results have been extrapolated in time using the Richard’s model. Maximum carbon stock was measured in 23 years old plantations (37 tC ha-1 and annual carbon stock rate occurs at 9 years (3.4 tC ha-1 year-1. After this age it decreases to reach 0.40 tC ha-1 year-1 at 23 years after plantation.

Alberti G

2006-01-01

352

Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E). The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane...

Moundzeo, L.; Nganga, D.; Dzaba, D.; Pandzou, J.

2011-01-01

353

Proposal of a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations, to identify areas where eucalyptus planting could be developed, and to determine suitability of such areas. The study area was the County of Vassouras, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, considering physical data, environmental legislation, urban areas, and the municipal land use plan. The areas for permanent preservation, as well as the conservation units and areas for industrial expansion, as defined in the county land use plan, plus areas nearby the city were considered restricted for the planting of eucalyptus trees. Vassouras is 552 km² large. Approximately 144 km² are suitable eucalyptus planting, of which 97% are now used for pastures. Approximately 50% of the area suitable for eucalyptus is of average suitability, whereas the class of highest suitability occupies about 30%. The less suitable areas correspond to 20% of the remaining 144 km2.

Leonardo Duarte Batista da Silva

2012-06-01

354

Acute formic acid poisoning in a rubber plantation worker  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the workers in a rubber plantation in South India, ingestion of formic acid either accidentally or with suicidal intention is a common problem. Formic acid is diluted and used for coagulation of rubber latex. Easy availability makes formic acid a common poison. The aim of this article is to study the case of formic acid poisoning, its complications and management. Patient was managed symptomatically. Antidote was not used and no nasogastric aspiration was done. Patient had dysphagia; nutrition was maintained with open gastrostomy done on day 5 and subsequent enteral feeding. Measures to prevent anticipated complications were undertaken. Stricture of the esophagus is a common complication leading to long-term morbidity. After initial management, all patients should be on follow-up for prevention and management of strictures. Workers should be educated on complications of formic acid poisoning and easy availability should be curtailed by enforcing remedial measures.

More, Dattatrai Kashinath; Vora, Mahmedsaeed; Wills, Vimod

2014-01-01

355

Nutrient losses in forest plantations in Sabah, Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic nutrients are lost from terrestrial ecosystems through the harvesting of plant products, leaching, soil erosion and volatilization of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. In this study, carried out in a tropical rain forest ecosystem in Sabah, Malaysia, losses of inorganic nutrients through log removal and runoff/leaching to stream water were compared in clear-fellings, harvested and prepared for planting in two different ways: (i) tractor logging/burning; (ii) and manual logging/no burning. The major findings of the study were that nutrient losses in stream water were reduced by 50% and growth of the planted forest was twice as fast on the catchment where soil disturbance was minimized and burning not used. Weeds were more abundant after burning, and the extra weeding needed increased costs for plantation establishment. Ways of decreasing the loss of inorganic nutrients when clear-felling tropical rain forests are discussed. 32 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

1994-05-01

356

wood burns down  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new Russian architects appeared. With their own aesthetics.After Pavlov had left Irkutsk, near his house appeared another one, it was not a log house, and its style was glaringly unfriendly. And soon the Fisherman's House burnt down. Not with vexation, but naturally, with smoke and fire. The author of the building next door considers the rebuilding of the lost house unpractical.

Vladimir Bukh

2004-11-01

357

Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations / Balanço de N em solos sob plantações de eucalipto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O entendimento da participação de reservas orgânicas de N no suprimento de plantações de eucalipto é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que maximizem a eficiência no uso de N por essa cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de reservas orgânicas de N em diferente [...] s compartimentos no sistema solo-planta e a contribuição desses compartimentos no suprimento de N em plantações de eucalipto em diferentes idades de cultivo (1, 3, 5 e 13 anos). Para estimar a contribuição das reservas orgânicas, foram empregados três modelos: o modelo I considerou os estoques do N contido na serapilheira e na biomassa microbiana do solo e o N disponível no solo (N mineral); o modelo II considerou os estoques de N no solo, o N potencialmente mineralizável e a exportação de N na colheita da madeira; e o modelo III (balanço de N) foi definido pela diferença entre o estoque inicial de N no solo (0-10 cm) e a exportação de N, somada a uma aplicação de fertilizante nitrogenado. O modelo I mostrou que as reservas de N poderiam suprir de 27 a 70 % da demanda de N pelo eucalipto entre as idades. O modelo II mostrou que o estoque de N no solo pode ser suficiente para quatro a cinco rotações de cinco anos. Pelo balanço de N, o estoque de N seria suficiente para suprir a demanda desse nutriente pelo eucalipto por mais de 15 rotações de cinco anos. As reservas orgânicas contribuem para o fornecimento de N em diferentes magnitudes e, em conjunto, são suficientes para atender à demanda de N pelo eucalipto por várias rotações de cultivo. Abstract in english An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N) pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the so [...] il-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years). Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N); Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance) was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm) and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.

Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt, Barreto; Antonio Carlos da, Gama-Rodrigues; Emanuela Forestieri da, Gama-Rodrigues; Nairam Félix de, Barros.

358

WOOD MODIFICATION BY HEAT TREATMENT: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wood heat treatment has increased significantly in the last few years and is still growing as an industrial process to improve some wood properties. The first studies on heat treatment investigated mainly equilibrium mois-ture, dimensional stability, durability and mechanical properties. Mass loss, wettability, wood color, and chemical transformations have been subsequently extensively studied, while recent works focus on quality control, modeling, and study the reasons for the improvements. This review explains the recent interest on the heat treatment of wood and synthesizes the major publications on this subject on wood properties, chemical changes, wood uses, and quality control.

Bruno M. Esteves

2009-02-01

359

SMALL WOODEN OBJECTS USING EUCALYPT SAWMILL WOOD WASTE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forest industries look for multiple utilizations for their timber production. In Brazil, the genus Eucalyptus has a great potential for solid wood products; however, only a small amount of Eucalyptus is used as sawn timber. About 50% of the log volume ends up as waste during mechanical processing, resulting in serious economic and environmental problems. In most cases, such residue is discarded at random or used as fuel, and in this context the sustainable management of processing industrial waste is an urgent necessity. Parallel to this, Eucalyptus has not been employed for small wooden object (SWO production. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of small wooden objects produced with Eucalyptus urophylla, E. camaldulensis, and E. grandis waste from sawmilling. Brazilian craftsmen manufactured SWOs with Eucalyptus, and these crafted objects were presented at exhibits and trade fairs for assessment. The proposed small wooden objects made with Eucalyptus residues exhibited satisfactory performance and achieved excellent acceptance by the visitors. This work gave evidence that the use of sawmill waste as raw material for small wooden object manufacture has potential to generate income for economically underprivileged communities near to a plantation.

Renato da Silva Vieira

2010-05-01

360

Perspectives of Wood to Bioethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioethanol from wood is one promising option for the 2nd generation of biofuels, that might contribute to a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in transport sector and might substantially increase the share of biofuels in the market after 2010. Bioethanol from wood requires the following processes: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and purification and lignin use. The cellulose and the hemicellulose in wood are converted to C5 and C6 sugars, whereas the lignin is used e.g. to produce heat and electricity for the process. Six concepts for a 100,000 t per year wood to bioethanol plant with different by-products (electricity and heat or lignin as a solid fuel) and process integration with dilute acid or enzymatic hydrolysis were developed and evaluated for the Austrian situation. The bioethanol costs for the concepts with dilute acid or enzymatic hydrolysis and different use of the lignin are in a range of 17-34 Euro/GJ with a total energy efficiency of 47-84%.To create optimal synergies of existing infrastructure and technological competence a wood to bioethanol plant should be integrated e.g. in a conventional sugar and starch based bioethanol production plant. The next steps are to develop an integrated process in cooperation with industrial partners to demonstrate the integrated process

Lingitz, Angelika; Jungmeier, Gerfried (Joanneum Research, Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria)). e-mail: gerfried.jungmeier@joanneum.at; Reith, Hans (ECN, Petten (Netherlands)) (and others)

2008-10-15

 
 
 
 
361

Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment rate fully comparable to a tertiary effluent quality with regard to biodegradable organic material and eutrophying nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Introductory analyses of the costs of a wastewater irrigated willow plantation for bio-fuel production indicate that the benefits of the wastewater treatment per se appear to be greater than the benefits from the increased production of wood chips. The risks of contamination via faecal micro-organisms of animals and humans seem possible to reduce or eliminate if proper precautions are taken. The awareness of the hygienic aspects is among the most important issues to deal with concerning the public acceptance. The gathered opinion from the members of the multidisciplinary project team is that the concept of recycling wastewater or fractions of wastewater within willow plantations for combined energy production and wastewater treatment would be worth developing on a wider scale. Experiences from a few full-scale facilities in Sweden are well in accordance with the findings outlined here. The fact that wastewater could be treated at reasonable costs might encourage the municipal sector as well as the energy and agricultural industry in Europe to further expand the concept with increased willow plantation areas as a consequence. This would increase the opportunities for an over all better environment for generations to come.

Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

2003-01-01

362

Parameterization of the Hydric Transfer Models in Three Eucalyptus Plantations in Congo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantifying soil water repartition and hydric fluxes is essential to understand soil-plant relationships. Eucalyptus plantations in Pointe-Noire region are on sandy soils, a good knowledge of water behavior in the soil is important to sustainable management of eucalyptus plantations as well as for measuring the impacts of these plantations on the region water resource. The objective of this study is to parameterize a model of hydric transfer in the soil of three, using the HYDRUS 1D software i to compare the behavior hydric of sites and (ii to establish the hydric settlements assessment of Eucalyptus at various stages of development. The results showed different hydrodynamic characteristics according to sites, these differences are ascribable with the geometry and the pores morphology and the farming part of the soils. The hydric statements of four development states of the plantations are established, the implication of these results is discussed.

C. Thaty

2011-01-01

363

On the Ecology and Distribution of Ixoid Ticks in Plantation Forests of the Ukrainian Steppe Zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among ixodid ticks of plantation forests the following species were widespread: I. ricinus, R. rossicus, and D. marginatus, which have a broad ecological and geographical distribution. The presence of Hyalomma plumbeum and Haemaphysalis punctata was recor...

S. M. Brovko

1969-01-01

364

Marketing wood waste for fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The value of waste wood to the buyer is the price at the plant gate with value reduced by any transportation costs and value increased by applicable tax credits. To assure the buyer of competitiveness fuels can be priced as a percentage of the competing fuel price. For example, wood can be priced at 80% of coal prices on a Btu basis. In addition to fuel price, there are several other benefits associated with the use of wood fuels. The fuel is renewable, locally supplied, and usually available from more than one source. It also may be stockpiled for several months. These advantages give the buyer better security than than purchasing fuel from a distant, impersonal source that is more likely to increase prices or withhold fuel for various reasons. 3 tabs.

Badger, P.C. (Tenessee Valley Authority Environmental Research Center, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States))

1995-01-01

365

FLEXURAL FATIGUE OF LAMINATED WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement. Local damage accumulation in goods and construction elements ultimately leading to a failure occurs due to fluctuating load effect. Results and conclusions. The results of the analysis of the experimentally obtained analytical dependences of strength characteristics and resistance to cracks of profiled laminated wood during bending in products and designs are presented. This products and designs operate under static and cyclic loading. Stresses under which cracks form in pilot samples are established from the results, as well as maximum permissible lengths of cracks for static and cyclic load. Effect of natural and technological defects of laminated wood is taken into account. Recommendation on application of laminated wood in products and designs which experience force cyclic loading under operation are given.

B. A. Bondarev

2010-12-01

366

Improved wood-gas ignition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood gas burns more slowly in an internal combustion engine than gasoline does, requiring much greater spark advance and consequent loss of power. This factor limits the use of wood gas as a replacement for gasoline. This research examined plasma jet spark plugs, multiple discharge sparks, extended duration sparks and hydride fueled plasma plugs to see if any of these devices would improve the ignition of wood gas fueled engines. These devices have all been developed for burning very lean gasoline/air mixtures in which similar slow burning also results in power loss. The actual comparison was made by taking high speed Schlieren photographs of the burning flame front, providing thereby a measurement of relative flame velocities.

Shipman, G.R.; Eoff, K.M.

1982-09-01

367

[Soil heavy metals concentration in different type plantations in Harbin City].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the soil heavy metals characteristics in different type plantations in Harbin City, 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Pinus koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in the Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base of Northeast Forestry University in the 1950s to analyze the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, and As, and the comprehensive pollution index was used to assess the soil heavy metals pollution in the plantations, based on the background values of black soil in the City. There existed significant differences in the heavy metals concentration in the same soil layers among different type plantations. In the test plantations, the concentrations of soil heavy metals except As and Ni tended to decrease with soil depth. In the same soil layers, Zn had the highest concentration (62.29-126.35 mg x kg(-1)), while Cd had the lowest one (0.06-0.47 mg x kg(-1)). The abundance and accumulation tendency of test heavy metals in the plantations was in the order of Zn>Pb>Cu(Ni)> Ni(Cu)>As>Cd, and Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu>Ni>As, respectively. There existed positive correlations among soil Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations in the plantations except F. mandshurica, and the concentrations of these four heavy metals in the plantations except F. mandshurica and Q. mongolica were positively correlated with soil organic matter, N, P, and K. The concentrations of soil Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were higher than the background values, suggesting the anthropogenic inputs; while those of Ni and As were similar to or lower than the background values, suggesting the origin from soil materials. The soil comprehensive pollution index of the plantations was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis > L. gmelinii >B. platyphylla > Q. mongolica. PMID:21657015

Sun, Hui-zhen; Lu, Xiao-jing; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

2011-03-01

368

Harvest of Short-Rotation Woody Crops in Plantations with a Biobaler  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The biobaler is an alternative to the modified self-propelled forage harvester to cut and collect short rotation woody crops (SRWC). It is less capital intensive and more versatile, being able to harvest woody crops on plantations, on abandoned farmland, on brush land or within forest understory. The biobaler was evaluated specifically on five different plantations over 19 experimental units (546 bales harvested with an aver...

Philippe Savoie; Pierre-Luc Hébert; François-Simon Robert; Derek Sidders

2013-01-01

369

Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation) stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests). Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhin...

2011-01-01

370

Soil carbon stocks decrease following conversion of secondary forests to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha(-1) in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha(-1) to an increase of 8 Mg C ha(-1). In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes. PMID:23894456

de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

2013-01-01

371

A case study in Bangka Island, Indonesia on the utilization of pesticides in black pepper plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Habits and consequences of pesticide use in pepper plantations were studied in Indonesia. The first study was conducted by questioning 117 farmers about their habits in pesticide use and determining pesticide residues on pepper berries on Bangka Island. Meanwhile, the second study was completed by analyzing exposure levels of pesticide in farmers' bodies before and after pesticide application to pepper plantations at Sukamulya, West Java. Risks of pesticide exposure to below ground terrestria...

Wiratno; Taniwiryono, D.; Brink, P. J.; Rietjens, I. M. C. M.; Murk, A. J.

2007-01-01

372

Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) Plantations Provide Additional Habitats for Vascular Plant Species in Agricultural Mosaic Landscapes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing loss of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes is often debated in the bioenergy context, especially with respect to non-traditional crops that can be grown for energy production in the future. As promising renewable energy source and additional landscape element, the potential role of short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations to biodiversity is of great interest. We studied plant species richness in eight landscapes (225 km2) containing willow and poplar SRC plantations (1,600 m...

Baum, Sarah; Bolte, Andreas; Weih, Martin

2012-01-01

373

Selection of trees for rubbing by red and roe deer in forest plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antler rubbing is a form of behaviour by which deer may damage and ultimately induce mortality of trees. Understanding factors affecting selection of trees for rubbing may contribute to mitigation of negative effects of such behaviour in plantations or woodlands. We analysed characteristics of trees rubbed by red and roe deer along transects established in plantations of Pinus pinaster (Aiton), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, Betula alba L. and Quercus robur L. in Northeast Portugal. T...

2006-01-01

374

Estimation and economic evaluation of aboveground carbon storage of Tectona grandis plantations in Western Panama  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tropical tree plantations may play an important role in mitigating CO2 emissions through their potential to capture and sequester carbon from the atmosphere. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as well as voluntary initiatives provide economic incentives for afforestation and reforestation efforts through the generation and sale of carbon credits. The objectives of our study were to measure the carbon (C) storage potential of 1, 2 and 10-years old Tectona grandis plantations in the provinc...

Derwisch, Sebastian; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Olschewski, Roland; Ho?lscher, Dirk

2008-01-01

375

Pilot study on the feasibility of establishing willow energy plantations in Newfoundland. ENFOR project P-172  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary studies on whether to establish willow (genus Salix) in Newfoundland examined land and plant suitability, potential markets for fuelwood, plantation energy requirements, and the economics of energy plantations. The report presents a case study conducted on Cochrane Pond and the feasibility study results, which show that Newfoundland can produce a yield of 8-11 tons/hectare/year if certain willow clones are rotated on a two-three year basis. 32 references, 7 tables.

Dyer, A

1983-01-01

376

An Assessment of Tree Plantation Activity among Smallholders in the District of Ranau, Sabah  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the tree plantation activity among smallholders in the District of Ranau, Sabah. There were six range areas involved, namely Kundasang, Randagong, Nalapak, Lohan-Bongkud, Timbua and Perancangan. The objectives of the study have been to identify the type of tree species planted, the distribution of tree plantation areas, the planting practiced, and the perception of small holders towards tree plantation activity. Data were gathered by direct observation, interviews, questionnaire, as well as secondary data, which were collected from related agencies such as the Agricultural Department and the Rubber Industrial Board in Ranau. There were 47 observations of plantation areas recorded, and the farmers involved were interviewed. The study has identified that Hevea brasiliensis and Durio zibethinus of the agriculture crops' tree were the most types planted by the small holders. Species planted under the category of other selected plantation trees were Acacia sp. (40 %, Tectona grandis (29 %, Pinus sp. (18 %, Azadirachta excels, Neolamarckia cadamba, Octomeles sumatrana and Eucalyptus sp.(13 %. The species of Acacia sp., Tectona grandis, Octomeles sumatrana and Eucalyptus sp. were found at Randagong, Lohan-Bongkud, Timbua and Perancangan while Pinus sp. was mainly found at Kundasang. Azadirachta excelsa, Neolamarckia cadamba and Octomeles sumatrana were only found at Timbua, Lohan and Nalapak. The study has also revealed that the tree plantations among the small holders in Ranau were influenced by land areas owned by the farmer, and the willingness to wait for the long term outcome of the investment. Integrated planting among trees and various crops was applied in order to maximize the usage of the available land. The tree plantation under the category of agriculture crops was mainly for the purpose of economic income, while other selected plantation trees were cultivated for landscaping, long term investment and also for soil protection.

Walter Lintangah

2010-08-01

377

Redistribution of the solar radiation and the rain inside of coffee plantations (Arabic Coffea L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following review presents a series of studies on microclimates of non-shaded and shaded conditions of coffee plantations (Coffea arabica L.) in Colombia. Likewise, The redistribution of solar radiation and the temperature, as well as the energy balance, of the coffee plant and the crop are described. The results on the components of water balance and transport of nutrients within the coffee plantations are reported

2005-09-01

378

Wood pellets for stoker burner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author of this article has had a stoker for several years. Wood chips and sod peat has been used as fuels in the stoker, either separately or mixed. Last winter there occurred problems with the sod peat due to poor quality. Wood pellets, delivered by Vapo Oy were tested in the stoker. The price of the pellets seemed to be a little high 400 FIM/500 kg large sack. If the sack is returned in good condition 50 FIM deposit will be repaid to the customer. However, Vapo Oy informed that the calorific value of wood pellets is three times higher than that of sod peat so it should not be more expensive than sod peat. When testing the wood pellets in the stoker, the silo of the stoker was filled with wood pellets. The adjustments were first left to position used for sod peat. However, after the fire had ignited well, the adjustments had to be decreased. The content of the silo was combusted totally. The combustion of the content of the 400 litter silo took 4 days and 22 hours. Respectively combustion of 400 l silo of good quality sod peat took 2 days. The water temperature with wood pellets remained at 80 deg C, while with sod peat it dropped to 70 deg C. The main disadvantage of peat with small loads is the unhomogenous composition of the peat. The results of this test showed that wood pellets will give better efficiency than peat, especially when using small burner heads. The utilization of them is easier, and the amount of ash formed in combustion is significantly smaller than with peat. Wood pellets are always homogenous and dry if you do not spoil it with unproper storage. Pellets do not require large storages, the storage volume needed being less than a half of the volume needed for sod peat. When using large sacks the amount needed can even be transported at the trunk of a passenger car. Depending on the area to be heated, a large sack is sufficient for heating for 2-3 weeks. Filling of stoker every 2-5 day is not an enormous task

2000-01-01

379

Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

2001-07-01

380

The environmental assessment of the wood combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the authors analysed the emissions from residential boilers burning wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. Three boilers, selected with respect to age, design, connection to heat storage tank, and type of biofuel, were included in the study. The emissions captured comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAC) and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). We have used the Life Cycle Inventory method in order to identify the main stressors generated by the wood combustion stage. In this purpose, we have analysed one type of old boiler, one type of modern boiler and a multi-fuel boiler, which can burn wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. In this article, we selected only the wood combustion stage because it is the most important according to the emissions produced. (authors)

2007-11-22

 
 
 
 
381

The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

Tiemann, Harry D

1919-01-01

382

China's Support Programs For Selected Industries: Wood and Wood Products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abundant labor supply and large capital investment has turned China into a major processing center in the global supply chain for wood products. Chinese factories supply IKEA with one-fourth of its global stock. Home Depot similarly sources a significant ...

T. P. Stewart

2007-01-01

383

A Comparison of Litterfall Dynamics in Three Coniferous Plantations of Identical Age under Similar Site Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate litterfall dynamics in three adjacent coniferous treeplantations (larch: Larix leptolepis; red pine: Pinus densiflora; rigitaeda pine: P. rigitaeda planted in the sameyear (1963, and growing under similar environmental conditions in the Sambong Exhibition Forests, Hamyanggun,Gyeongsangnam-do. Litter was collected monthly between July 2006 and June 2008. Needle, broad leafand total litter inputs followed a similar monthly pattern in the three coniferous plantations. The amounts ofneedles, flowers, and miscellaneous litter were significantly lower in the larch than in the two pine plantations,while branch litter was significantly higher in the larch than in the two pine plantations. Average total litterfallfor two years was significantly higher for the pine (5,475 kg ha-1 yr-1 for red pine and 5,290 kg ha-1 yr-1 forrigitaeda pine plantations than for the larch (3,953 kg ha-1 yr-1 plantation. Needle litter comprised about 73.1%of total litterfall for the rigitaeda pine, 70.8% for the red pine and 62.9% for the larch plantations. Our resultsdemonstrate that litterfall inputs can be affected by tree species.

Jeong, Jaeyeob

2009-05-01

384

Factors for converting hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) into black alder (Alnus glutinosa Yalt.) plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hazelnut plantations, which are a major source of income for the villagers in the eastern Black sea region are notable to provide sufficient income to the villagers due to price fluctuations and sudden falls witnessed in recent years. Alternative investments in place of hazelnut cultivation are being investigated in order to prevent migration to urban areas and to increase the welfare of the rural population in the region. Black alder plantation investments have been assessed as one of the most essential alternative investment tools within the framework of the study Assessment was carried out by comparing expected possible net present values (NPV). Although value increase occurs 12-18 years later more income can be obtained through black alder than hazelnut plantation. In hazelnut plantations, the best NPV emerged in the lower zone. NPV was positive in the moderate zone but values were close to zero. In upper zone, positive NPV couldn't emerge. As a result, it was understood that black alder plantation investment is an effective alternative for hazelnut plantations. PMID:20120499

Durkaya, Ali; Durkaya, Birsen

2009-07-01

385

Evaluation of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Poplar Plantations in North of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil physical and chemical properties and some quantitative characteristics of Populus deltoides Marsh (clone 79.51 plantations and relationships between them were evaluated in Guilan plain of north of Iran. Two same aged poplar plantations with low and high qualities were selected. In each poplar plantation, fifteen sample plots with systematic sampling method were selected. In each sample plot diameter at breast height (DBH as well as height of all trees within them was determined. Soil samples were taken from 0-20cm in each plot and soil texture, water holding capacity (WHC, bulk density (B.D and particle density (P.D as well as soil porosity, O.C, N, available P and exchangeable K were determined for each soil sample in laboratory. Tree data and soil properties between two plantations were analysed using independent samples t-test (Student’s t test at p < 0.05. The results showed that among soil physical properties, percentage of clay, sand, B.D and WHC and amongst soil chemical properties O.C, N, available P and exchangeable K were significantly different between two plantations. Heavy textured soils with high B.D are undesirable for growing of populus deltoides in study area. The results also indicated that poor quality plantations has negative effect on soil nutrient and reduces its fertility. Reduction of nutrient availability had negative effects on quantity and quality of poplar trees.

Ali Salehi

2012-12-01

386

Avian species diversity in oil palm plantations of Agusan Del Sur and Compostela Valley, Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil palm trees have become the most expanding equatorial crops in the world and theirproduct, palm oil, is produced, traded and used more than any other vegetable oil worldwide. Theexpansion of oil palm cultivation, however, is frequently cited as a major factor causing deforestationthat may result in biodiversity losses in tropical countries. In this study, an assessment of the avifaunain oil palm plantations in Agusan del Sur and Compostela Valley, Mindanao, Philippines was done fromApril 2010 to July 2010. Sampling sites were categorized based on the age/growth of palm trees. Linetransect method, mist netting and birdwatching were used to gather data on avifauna. Eighty-eightspecies were recorded. Species richness, abundance, and number of endemic species were also recordedto be higher in mature plantations than in young plantations. A significant difference was noted in birdabundance found in the different age groups of oil palm plantations in Agusan del Sur. Thirty-oneendemic species were recorded, one of which is Mindanao endemic. Three vulnerable species,Gallicolumba criniger (Mindanao bleeding-heart, Alcedo argentata (silvery kingfisher and Ficedulabasilanica (little slaty flycatcher were recorded both in the young and mature plantations. TheAethopyga primigenius (grey-hooded sunbird, a near threatened species was recorded in matureplantations only. The presence of these vulnerable species in all study sites indicates the need to protectthe degraded secondary residual forest and forest patches along the plantation.

Beverly M. Cagod

2012-08-01

387

[Dynamics of nutrients in an age sequence of Pinus massoniana plantation].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using a chronosequence approach, this paper studied the nutrients accumulation, allocation, and cycling in 7-, 17-, 31-, and 51-year-old Masson pine plantations, aimed to analyze the dynamics of nutrients in Masson pine plantation at its different developmental stages. The results showed that 1) nutrient accumulation was not synchronized with biomass accumulation, with the accumulation rate of biomass being 3.3, 5.4, 3.3, 3.7, and 9.8 times of that of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg from age 17 to 51, respectively, 2) nutrient allocation to a specific component was related to the growth rate of the nutrient pool in the component, and the nutrient allocation to stem as well as the ratio of nutrient allocation to root/shoot increased with plantation age, and 3) the biomass production per unit nutrient, i. e., nutrient use efficiency, and the nutrient cycling coefficient also increased with plantation age, being higher for 51-year-old plantation than for younger plantations, suggesting that shortening the rotation length could reduce the possibility to raise the nutrient use efficiency. It was suggested that both extending the current rotation length to as long as 50 years and reducing the harvest intensity could be helpful to conserve the nutrients and to maintain long-term productivity. PMID:21043094

Yang, Hui-Xia; Wang, Si-Long; Fan, Bing; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Wei, Cui-E

2010-08-01

388

Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education…

Mative, John M.

2005-01-01

389

WOOD COLOR CHANGES BY AMMONIA FUMING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of ammonia gas on wood color changes in response to an increasing demand for dark colored wood specimens. The darker wood color in ammonia fuming is accomplished through chemical reactions between ammonia gas and wood compounds. We exposed oak, maple, spruce, and larch wood samples to ammonia gas for 16 days. During fuming, the color changes were studied using CIE L*a*b* parameters. After fuming, the changes in extractives content, tannin, and nitrogen content were analyzed. The chemical changes of wood and residues of wood extractives after fuming were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Oak wood reacted intensively with ammonia gas in a very short time, and the darkening was prominent for all the investigated wood species. It was established that tannin had no major influence on color changes of maple and larch wood in the ammonia-fuming process. The FTIR spectra of fumed wood indicated involvement of carbonyl groups, and the FTIR spectra of wood extractives indicated involvement of carbonyl, aromatic, and alcohol groups in reaction with ammonia gas.

Josip Mikle?i?,

2012-06-01

390

Balsa wood as an energy dissipator  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have been undertaken to determine response of balsa wood in variety of environmental conditions. Response is dependent upon state of balsa wood as well as environment to which it is exposed, but certain combinations of conditions serve to increase significantly energy-dissipating capacity of wood relative to its normal capacity.

Knoell, A. C.

1973-01-01

391

[Wood Waste Commodity Market Summary.pdf  

…regions from which purchases can be collected. Managing uncertainty in the wood waste sector 9 The anticipated growth in biomass energy generation is driving uncertainties within the wood waste sector, in particular in respect of certainty of supply. However, those that use wood waste are finding new…

392

Control of a wood biquetting machine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes the renewal and modernization of an old wood briquetting machine. Wood briquetting machine is a machine that is used in the timber industry to compress fine wood waste material. The machine outputs woden briquettes, which are biomass, suitable for heating in the kiln. Machinery itself consists of a hardware and software part.

2012-01-01

393

Saint Neot at Craigshill Wood (48009)  

Saint Neot at Craigshill Wood (48009) Back to search results Saint Neot at Craigshill Wood in Cornwall Area * Station name Craigshill