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1

[Characteristics of soil microbial community structure in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By using dilution plate, fumigation extraction, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methods, this paper studied the quantities of soil microbial populations and the characteristics of soil microbial community structure in a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation converted from an evergreen broadleaved forest. The results showed that, during the vegetation change from evergreen broadleaved forest to Chinese fir plantation, the microbial biomass carbon and the quantities of culturable bacteria and actinomyces were decreased. The total PLFAs, bacterial PLFAs, and fungi PLFAs in the woodland soil from Chinese fir plantation were decreased by 49.4%, 52.4%, 46.6%, simultaneously. And G+ and G- bacterial PLFAs in Chinese fir plantation were lower than in evergreen broadleaved forest. As compared with those in rhizosphere soil from Chinese fir plantation, the microbial biomass carbon and the quantities of culturable bacteria and actinomyces in bulk soil were decreased. The total PLFAs, bacterial PLFAs, and G+ and G- bacterial PLFAs in the rhizosphere soil were increased, while the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs was lowered. The principal component analysis of the soil microbial community structure indicated that the first principal component (PC1) and the second principal component (PC2) together accounted for 78.2% of total variation of soil microbial community structure. This study showed there were some differences in the soil microbial community structure between evergreen broadleaved forest and Chinese fir plantation.

Xia ZC; Kong CH; Wang P; Chen LC; Wang SL

2012-08-01

2

[Effects of broadleaf plantation and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation on soil carbon and nitrogen pools].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comparative study was conducted on the soil C and N pools in a 19-year-old broadleaf plantation and a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation in subtropical China, aimed to understand the effects of tree species on the soil C and N pools. In the broadleaf plantation, the C and N stocks in 0-40 cm soil layer were 99.41 Mg.hm-2 and 6. 18 Mg.hm-2, being 33.1 % and 22. 6 % larger than those in Chinese fir plantation, respectively. The standing biomass and the C and N stocks of forest floor in the broadleaf plantation were 1.60, 1.49, and 1.52 times of those in Chinese fir plantation, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant. There was a significant negative relationship between the forest floor C/N ratio and the soil C and N stocks. In the broadleaf plantation, the fine root biomass in 0-80 cm soil layer was 1.28 times of that in the Chinese fir plantation, and the fine root biomass in 0-10 cm soil layer accounted for 48. 2 % of the total fine root biomass. The C and N stocks in the fine roots in the broadleaf plantation were also higher than those in the Chinese fir plantation. In 0-10 cm soil layer, its C stock had a significant positive relationship with the fine root C stock. It was suggested that as compared with Chinese fir plantation, the soil in broadleaf plantation had a greater potential to accumulate organic carbon.

Wan XH; Huang ZQ; He ZM; Hu ZH; Yang JY; Yu ZP; Wang MH

2013-02-01

3

Effects of increased nitrogen deposition and rotation length on long-term productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in southern China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. has been widely planted in subtropical China to meet increasing timber demands, leading to short-rotation practices that deplete soil nutrients. However, increased nitrogen (N) deposition offsets soil N depletion. While long-term experimental data investigating the coupled effects related to short rotation practices and increasing N deposition are scarce, applying model simulations may yield insights. In this study, the CenW3.1 model was validated and parameterized using data from pure C. lanceolata plantations. The model was then used to simulate various changes in long-term productivity. Results indicated that responses of productivity of C. lanceolata plantation to increased N deposition were more related to stand age than N addition, depending on the proportion and age of growing forests. Our results have also shown a rapid peak in growth and N dynamics. The peak is reached sooner and is higher under higher level of N deposition. Short rotation lengths had a greater effect on productivity and N dynamics than high N deposition levels. Productivity and N dynamics decreased as the rotation length decreased. Total productivity levels suggest that a 30-year rotation length maximizes productivity at the 4.9 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) deposition level. For a specific rotation length, higher N deposition levels resulted in greater overall ecosystem C and N storage, but this positive correlation tendency gradually slowed down with increasing N deposition levels. More pronounced differences in N deposition levels occurred as rotation length decreased. To sustain C. lanceolata plantation productivity without offsite detrimental N effects, the appropriate rotation length is about 20-30 years for N deposition levels below 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and about 15-20 years for N deposition levels above 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). These results highlight the importance of assessing N effects on carbon management and the long-term productivity of forest ecosystems.

Zhao M; Xiang W; Tian D; Deng X; Huang Z; Zhou X; Peng C

2013-01-01

4

Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

2010-01-01

5

Some Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Juvenile Wood from Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) Plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine some chemical, physical and mechanical properties of juvenile wood from black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantations. Black pine, one of the important softwood species covers the most of the plantations in Turkey. Black pines that naturally grow in Du...

Cengiz Guler; Yalcin Copur; Mehmet Akgul; Umit Buyuksari

6

Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. An international review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Activities 1.2 (Forest management) and 1.2 (Harvesting) of Task XII/IEA Bioenergy Agreement carried out an international review of wood fuel from plantation cleaning and early thinning. The participating countries were Canada, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The individual country reviews and an international summary are presented in this paper. Each report gives country-related background information on forestry and wood utilization, energy potential from plantation cleaning and early thinning, environmental considerations from the viewpoint of wood fuel recovery, silvicultural systems and methods, cost of wood fuel, and knowledge gaps and problems

1998-01-01

7

MDF/HDF Production from Plantation Wood Species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the raw material base for the newly built MDF/HDF production line in Mohács, Hungary. The desired raw material for the factory is 80 % poplar and 20 % other species (conifers and broad leaved species). These raw materials should be obtained from wood plantations. Laboratory experiments were done in production of MDF and HDF boards with the following raw materials: 5 and 10 year old Pannonia poplar (Populus x euramericana Pannónia), I214 poplar (Populus x euramericana ‘I214’), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra). The selected trees were evaluated based on the following parameters: diameter, bark volume, ability for barking, ability for chipping, fiber yield, fiber quality, energy consumption of defibrating, chemical analysis of waste water after defibrating. MDF and HDF boards were made in laboratory from clear poplar species, and from a mixture of poplar and Austrian pine and poplar and black locust. In both cases of mixing, the ratio of poplar and other wood species was 80:20. Ureaformaldehyde adhesive and ammonium-sulphate hardener were used during board production. Also some paraffin was added to increase the moisture resistance. The following board characteristics were tested: bending strength, internal bond, modulus of elasticity, thickness swelling, density, moisture content, formaldehyde content. Except the values of internal bond, the results were very satisfactory, highly above the standard requirements. The reason for the low internal bond values is as follows: - in the laboratory we could not apply a proper blending of fibers and additives, - mat forming by hand. In spite of this, we are sure that an actual technological test production will give good results.

Tibor Alpár, Tibor Fáczán, István Rácz, Gabor Kátoli

2010-01-01

8

Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation clearing in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning offer opportunities for increasing the availability of wood fuel in Canada. In 1992, approximately 130 000 ha were treated with precommercial thinning or stand cleaning. Manual methods predominate in these silvicultural activities; however, at stand densities greater than 10 000 - 15 000 stems/ha, mechanized systems are more economical. Recovering this biomass for wood fuel would require changes to silvicultural systems and harvesting technology

Puttock, D. [Silv-Econ Ltd, Newmarket, Ontarion (Canada)

1998-12-31

9

Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation clearing in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning offer opportunities for increasing the availability of wood fuel in Canada. In 1992, approximately 130 000 ha were treated with precommercial thinning or stand cleaning. Manual methods predominate in these silvicultural activities; however, at stand densities greater than 10 000 - 15 000 stems/ha, mechanized systems are more economical. Recovering this biomass for wood fuel would require changes to silvicultural systems and harvesting technology

1998-01-01

10

Some Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Juvenile Wood from Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) Plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some chemical, physical and mechanical properties of juvenile wood from black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantations. Black pine, one of the important softwood species covers the most of the plantations in Turkey. Black pines that naturally grow in Duzce were 20-23 years old with the dimensions of 13-17 cm utilized in this study. Specimens were prepared and tested according to Turkish standards. The physical properties were measured and air and oven dry wood densities were found to be 0.464 and 0.431 g cm–3, respectively. The volume weight was 0.383 g cm–3. The radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkage values were 4.05, 6.19 and 10.24%, respectively. The radial, tangential and volumetric swelling values were also found to be 3.69, 7.79 and 11.5%, respectively. The mechanical tests resulted in that the static bending and compression strengths were 79.1 and 42.4 N mm–2, respectively. In addition juvenile wood had higher lignin and lower holocellulose content compared to the mature wood. Conclusively, the physical and mechanical properties of juvenile pine wood examined in this study were observed to be lower compared to the mature pine wood.

Cengiz Guler; Yalcin Copur; Mehmet Akgul; Umit Buyuksari

2007-01-01

11

Basic physical properties of spruce wood (Picea abies Karst) from plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basic physical properties of spruce wood from plantations in the surroundings of Banja Luka were researched. The dependence of growth ring diameter and wood density, density, volume porosity, shrinkage, fibre saturation point and absorption of moisture were analysed on three trees average age about 16 years. The data for breast height and for all specimens from breast height to 9.3 m were statistically processed. The research and analysis of the basic physical properties of plantation-grown spruce wood shows that the effect of growth ring diameter on the density is negative and that the dependence is logarithmic, which confirms the previous results. Average value of wood density is lower than the usual value reported in references. Average value of radial shrinkage is 3.90%, and tangential 8.10%. This research confirms the linear dependence between the nominal density and volumetric shrinkage of spruce wood and that density has a negative effect on the coefficient of surface anisotropy. At breast height, average value of the coefficient of surface anisotropy is 2.16, volume porosity 72%, and fibre saturation point 32.6%. Average rate of absorption is 3.42% per day, for the first 7 days, and 0.12% per day for the last 30 days. The study results were compared to the results reported by other authors.

Šoški? Borislav; Govedar Zoran; Todorovi? Nebojša; Petrovi? Danijela

2007-01-01

12

PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AMONG WOOD PROPERTIES AND GROWTH IN WILD CHERRY PLANTATIONS  

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Full Text Available Italy is one of the major users of cherry wood (Prunus avium L.), and its cultivation has been increasing since the early nineties, together with studies aimed at improving genotypes, with a selection usually based on growth, stem form, vigor, and tree adaptation. Here, the phenotypic correlations between growth rate and the physical and mechanical properties of wood are investigated in two wild cherry plantations. X-ray microdensitometry was also applied to analyze the age-age correlations of wood density. It was shown that growth rate did not affect wood properties, and density was confirmed to be the trait that best represents the main properties of wood. The absence of relationships between wood density and growth rate was confirmed by densitometric analysis, although an increase of wood density with an increase of ring width was detected for very narrow rings (less than 3 mm wide). The average density at age 7 to 8 was observed to be highly correlated (r > 0.90) to the average density of a 19-year-old tree, allowing reliable estimation of the wood properties of older trees by early investigation of young trees.

Michela Nocetti,; Michele Brunetti,; Fulvio Ducci,; Manuela Romagnoli,; Philippe Rozenberg,; Frédérique Santi

2012-01-01

13

Review of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Discussions regarding the use of wood fuels for commercial energy production in the Netherlands began in the 1990's. The main reasons for using wood fuel are: the political demand for using renewable energy, the need to reduce CO2 emissions, and the lack of markets for surplus timber. Only 10 % of the area of Holland is forested. Therefore, early thinning and cleaning are important management tools for improving growth and producing better quality timber. The energy potential from early thinning and plantation cleaning could be between 400 000 and 570 000 dry tons annually. The Netherlands has not experience in harvesting energy wood. However, through the International Energy Agency/Bioenergy Agreement, knowledge gained in other countries, especially Denmark, Sweden and Finland, is being transferred to Holland. In 1996, there have been made field tests with Danish equipment. Although there are few technical barriers to wood fuel in the Netherlands, the economics of wood fuels consumption are affected by the low costs of fossil fuels and the high natural gas reserves. This is changing however, due to political concerns over the balance of greenhouse gases. In 1996, a small energy tax on fossil fuels was introduced and electricity suppliers are now selling an environmentally friendly 'green electricity'. Energy wood has a future in the Netherlands, although the total forest reserves would satisfy only a small percentage of energy requirements 5 refs

1998-01-01

14

Wood-polymer composites from Philippine tree plantation species by radiation polymerization I. Uptake and irradiation parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiation catalyzed polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in various Philippine tree plantation species were investigated. Wood samples measuring 1x6cm were impregnated with monomer at reduced pressure and gamma irradiated for various doses at a dose rate of 0.53 kGy/h. The parameters used to assess the polymerization reaction were the uptake of monomer by the wood samples, monomer conversion, and polymer loading in the irradiated samples. The uptake and polymerization data indicate that coconut wood, rubber wood, bagras, and Moluccan sau could be potential raw materials for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPC). (author). 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

1993-01-01

15

Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper deals with the biomass potential, silvicultural considerations, cost of recovery and environmental aspects in conjunction with the energy use of small trees from plantation cleanings and early thinnings in Finland. Repeated thinnings from below are an essential characteristic of the Finnish forest management system. Due to high operational costs, plantation cleanings and first commercial thinnings are currently a critical link in the management chain. These young forests possess a high potential as a source of renewable energy, 4 to 6 million m{sup 3} or 8 to 12 TWh per year. Utilization of small-tree biomass for energy is constrained by the high costs compared to peat, coal, oil or even wood chips produced from residues such as bark, sawdust or logging slash from clearcuts 3 refs.

Mielikaeinen, K.; Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

1998-12-31

16

Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper deals with the biomass potential, silvicultural considerations, cost of recovery and environmental aspects in conjunction with the energy use of small trees from plantation cleanings and early thinnings in Finland. Repeated thinnings from below are an essential characteristic of the Finnish forest management system. Due to high operational costs, plantation cleanings and first commercial thinnings are currently a critical link in the management chain. These young forests possess a high potential as a source of renewable energy, 4 to 6 million m3 or 8 to 12 TWh per year. Utilization of small-tree biomass for energy is constrained by the high costs compared to peat, coal, oil or even wood chips produced from residues such as bark, sawdust or logging slash from clearcuts 3 refs

1998-01-01

17

Variations in wood tratis in micro and macro propagated plantation woods of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison between intra-ramet, intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations in girth at breast height (gbh), fiber length, fiber diameter, wall thickness, vessel element length, vessel element diameter and specific gravity in the ramets of L34, G3 and S7C15 clones of Populus deltoides at the age of 6 years old produced from planting material grown by macro- and micro-propagation techniques. Variance ratio (F) test indicated that intra-ramet variations were non-significant for all the characters except specific gravity for height in L34 for macro and specific gravity and vessel element diameter for radial locations for micro, and fiber length for G3 (micro) for height, and specific gravity for radial location and fiber length for height for S7C15 clone for both the techniques. The clone L34 showed the significantly higher girth followed by G3 and S7C15. The variations were significant for girth, vessel element length and specific gravity between the wood produced from planting stocks grown by two techniques. Intra-clonal variations were significant for fiber length, fiber diameter and vessel element length. In general wood element’s dimensions and specific gravity increased from bottom to top and pith to periphery radial locations. G3 clone was different from the L34 and S7C15 clone for the wood traits. The three different clones of Populus deltoides showed variability in wood anatomical properties and specific gravity in the woods grown from macro- and micro-propagated planting stock. So, the plantation raised by two techniques could not produce similar type of wood even from the same clone. G3 clone was the exception as it did not show variation in wood traits for two techniques. Intra-clonal variations in all the three clones of P. deltoides indicated that wood traits were not stable within the population of same clone grown by either method.

Pramod K. Pande; Ramesh C. Dhiman

2010-01-01

18

(Research in fuel technology - Energy research 1987-1990. Wood, peat energy plantation) Domestic fuels - Research program 1987-90. Wood, peat, energy plantation. [SWEDEN]. Braensleteknisk forskning - energiforskning 1987-1990. Traedbraenslen, torv, energiodling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the National Energy Administration research and development plans for the three-year period in the field of domestic fuels - wood, peat, and energy plantation, i.e. energy forests and straw. Plans of the present type should above all be perceived as a presentation of the general aim and direction of the activities. (G.B.).

1988-03-23

19

THE EFFECT OF INITIAL STAND DENSITY ON CLEAR WOOD YIELD IN Loblolly pine PLANTATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzed the influence of initial stand density on mean tree dbh,mean top height, mean height at the lowest branch, mean total tree volume, clear meanvolume, mean volume at 25 cm, 18 and 8 cm diameter, in loblolly pine plantations insouthern Brazil. Special attention is given to clear wood yield. The experiment wasestablished in the Jaguariaíva county, Paraná State, on the Pisa Florestal S.A. lands. Theexperiment was evaluated at several occasions since its establishment, but onlydata collectedin the last measurement (1999, at age 12) were used. The results indicated that large initalspacing determine more remarkable increase in dbh and other related variables (mean totaltree volume, mean volume at 25 cm, 18 and 8 cm diameter). No significant effect of standdensity on mean top height was noticed. It was also noticed that stand density affects knot formation; the higher the density the lower the height at the lowest branch and the lower theclear volume. It was concluded that if the key objective is wood yield for veneer (andsawnwood in some cases), it is recommendable to use larger stand spacings in combinationwith artificial prunning. When pruning is not feasible, the intermediate spacings (as 2.5 x 2.8m) should be used, which may result in same clear wood yield as compared to largerspacings (as 2.5 x 3.6 m or larger).

Carlos R. Sanquetta; Julio E. Arce; Anabel A. de Mello; Eduardo Q. da Silva; Nilton Barth Filho; Selma L.S. Matoski

2003-01-01

20

Wood dimensions and value in the Austrian pine plantations in Forest Estate "Sombor"-Forest Unit "Subotica"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship and interaction between quantitative (number and dimensions of trees) and value indicators in Austrian pine plantations were researched in Forest Management Unit „Suboti?ke Šume” (Forest Estate „Sombor” - FA „Subotica”). As the measurement of quantitative elements is more simple, their effect on wood value can be used as a rather reliable support in the value estimation of standing trees. The analysis of the research results shows that there is a strong inter-relationship of the study elements, so they can be a good foundation for the estimation of standing timber value in artificial Austrian pine plantations at the given site.

Rankovi? Nenad; Vu?kovi? Milivoj

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

Mehari, A.

1997-11-01

22

Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

A. Mehari

1997-01-01

23

Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha-1 (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem-soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed.

2007-08-01

24

Comparative study of the thermal behavior of wood and bark of young shoots obtained from an energy plantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have performed thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS) analysis of young wood samples from a short rotation forestry plantation to get information about their thermal behavior. Poplar (Populus x euramericana, Populus x interamericana), willow (Salix alba) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) species have been studied. The ratio of wood and bark in these young shoots is significantly different from that of an older wood. That is why great emphasis has been put on the comparative study of the decomposition characteristics of wood and bark. Considerable differences have been found in these investigations: more volatiles are produced from wood than from bark; the temperature range and the rate of decomposition also differ. The TG/MS results are interpreted in terms of the chemical composition characterized by Klason lignin and ash content. One of the main differences between the chemical composition of wood and bark is the amount of inorganic ions: the mineral matter content is significantly higher in the bark than in the wood. We have pretreated the samples with a hot water washing procedure in order to eliminate a significant part of these inorganic components and investigate their effects on the thermal decomposition of the samples. The results imply that the thermal behavior of wood and bark are still considerably different after the elimination of some of the inorganic components, however, the macromolecular components decompose at similar temperatures in wood and bark. Since we had a large number of samples and TG/MS data, we have employed a chemometric tool, principal component analysis (PCA) to help the evaluation of the results and the comparison of the samples.

Meszaros, E.; Jakab, E.; Varhegyi, G. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 17, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Szepesvary, P. [Department of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Marosvoelgyi, B. [Institute of Energetics, University of West Hungary, Sopron (Hungary)

2004-11-01

25

Short-rotation plantations. Wood from the acre - that's the way; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Holz vom Acker - So geht's  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poplar or willow instead of rapeseed and wheat? It is not quite obviously: There is no question that one may achieve still more profits by means of cultivation of quality wheat than the cultivation of fast growing wood. However, under certain circumstances birch trees, robinia et cetera may be a very lucrative alternative to grassland or low yield rye cultivation. Especially with currently rising timber prices. The book under consideration is a practical decision support for whom a short-rotation plantations is worthwhile as well as how to create and maintain a short-rotation plantation.

Setzer, Frank [Deutsche Landwirtschaftsgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Fachgebiet Forstwirtschaft und Bioenergie; Landgraf, Dirk

2012-07-01

26

Effect of plantation population density on wood properties and quality of wood-based composition board from Leucaena in Taiwan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood density, compression strength and longitudinal modulus of rupture were determined in three-year-old Leucaena leucocephala growing at 2500, 5000 or 10,000 trees/ha in East Taiwan. Test properties tended to decrease as the tree population increased. Differences in modulus of elasticity were not significant and compression strength and wood density were not significantly different for trees growing at 5000 or 10,000 hectare. Amount of bark increased with tree population resulting in a decrease in particle sizes from whole tree chipping. The higher yield of fines in chips from trees grown with more stems/ha had a detrimental effect on bending strength of particleboard, though internal bond was not affected. It is concluded that metarials in this study were more suitable for medium density than low density particleboard.

Tang, J.L.; Ma, T.P.

1982-01-01

27

Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the method of pay back period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poplar plantations are a category of fixed assets in forestry, i.e. the assets with a biological character. They are related to their site, they are cultivated for a relatively long time and they have a relatively long utilization cycle, with the yield development determined by the plantation growth and age. Plantations transfer their value gradually to the obtained products during the period of their harvesting, and, by the realization of the products, the means invested in the plantation establishment are reproduced. The period of investments in poplar growing can be relatively long, and so is the period of harvesting. Therefore, it is important to determine the time of the return of the capital invested in these and similar plantations. This paper presents the analysis of commercial profitability of poplar cultivation according to the indicator for the assessment of projects in agriculture and forestry - pay back period. The application of pay back period (PBP) calculation can affect greatly the reliability of predicting the degree of economic effectiveness of investments, and also the potential risks for the investor in his decisions on the investments in poplar cultivation. The analysis of poplar clone I-214 plantations was carried out in the area of Ravni Srem, under different rotations and soil types. Based on the analysis of costs and receipts in different plantation ages, and using the method of pay back period, the objective of the study was to evaluate the possible pay back period of invested capital in wood production in poplar plantations. PBP is practically unacceptable by the investor under the discount rate of 6%. The most favorable situation is in the youngest stands, using the discount rate of 2%. The situation regarding the pay back period in the over-aged stands is utterly unfavorable, so the credit cannot be repaid under any conditions. This fact supports the idea that the production cycle length should be shortened.

Ke?a Ljiljana

2011-01-01

28

Relationship Between Wood Color Parameters Measured by the CIELab System and Extractive and Phenol Content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from Fast-Growth Plantations  

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Full Text Available The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b*) of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

Róger Moya; Roy Soto Fallas; Pablo Jiménez Bonilla; Carolina Tenorio

2012-01-01

29

Comprehensive study on the chemical structure of dioxane lignin from plantation Eucalyptus globulus wood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results of a comprehensive study on the chemical structure of lignin from plantation Eucalyptus globulus Labill are presented. Lignin has been isolated by a modified mild acidolysis method and thoroughly characterized by functional group analysis, by a series of degradation techniques (nitrobenzene oxidation, permanganate oxidation, thioacidolysis, and Py-GC-MS), and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Plantation Eucalyptus globulus lignin was found to be of the S/G type with an extremely high proportion of syringyl (S) units (82-86%) and a minor proportion of p-hydrophenyl propane (H) units (roughly 2-3 mol %). Unknown C-6 substituted and 4-O-5' type syringyl substructures represent about 65% of lignin "condensed" structures. Eucalypt lignin showed high abundance of beta-O-4 (0.56/C(6)) structures and units linked by alpha-O-4 bonds (0.23/C(6)). The proportion of phenylcoumaran structures was relatively low (0.03/C(6)). Different kinds of beta-beta substructures (pino-/syringaresinol and isotaxiresinol types) in a total amount of 0.13/C(6) were detected. ESI-MS analysis revealed a wide molecular weight distribution of lignin with the center of gravity of mass distribution around 2500 u.

Evtuguin DV; Neto CP; Silva AM; Domingues PM; Amado FM; Robert D; Faix O

2001-09-01

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Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning: New Zealand opportunities and experiences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] There are currently no precommercial thinning operations on harvesting of wood fuels in New Zealand. Precommercial thinning of New Zealand's planted production forests for wood fuel could, however, provide over 7 % (about 400 PJ) of New Zealand's energy needs between the years 2000 and 2010. The dispersed nature of the resource, the likely environmental impacts (nutrient removal and soil damage), availability of substantial quantities of lower cost residue from cleafell harvesting operations and the competition for the resource from conventional fiber users may result in the potential not being quickly realized 13 refs

1998-01-01

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Equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para plantio de Ocotea porosa Estimating wood volume in plantation of Ocotea porosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conhecer o volume de madeira de uma floresta é de extrema relevância. Equações de volume para espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista se restringem quase que exclusivamente a araucária. Equações de volume para imbuia Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart.) Barroso são inexistentes. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo desenvolver equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para árvore individual de Ocotea porosa na região de Rio Negro, PR. Foram derrubadas 12 árvores, com DAP entre 3,98 cm e 43,13 cm e altura entre 5,1 m e 20,4 m. Foi feita cubagem rigorosa de cada uma das árvores. Para desenvolvimento da equação de volume, foram testados onze modelos matemáticos. Os critérios utilizados para a seleção da melhor equação foram o coeficiente de determinação ajustado, o erro padrão da estimativa em porcentagem, o valor de F calculado e análise gráfica de resíduos. O modelo de Kopezky-Gehrart apresentou alto coeficiente de determinação ajustado (0,97), baixo erro padrão da estimativa (16,7%) e alto valor de F calculado (382,6), com boa distribuição de resíduos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o modelo pode ser utilizado para quantificação de volume com casca, o que é muito importante em conjunto com outras informações, para tomada de decisão no manejo florestal. doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13To know the volume of wood from a forest is extremely important. Volume equations for species from the Araucaria Forest are restricted almost exclusively to plantations of araucaria. Equations for Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart.) Barroso plantations are inexistent. The present work aims to develop equation for individual tree volume and hypsometric relation from an Ocotea porosa, established in the region of Rio Negro, PR. Twelve trees were logged with DBH from 3.98 cm to 43.13 cm and height from 5.1 m to 20.4 m. All the trees were measured and cubed. Eleven mathematical models were tested for the development of the volume equation. The criteria used for selecting the best equation were the adjusted coefficient of determination, the standard error of estimative in percentage, the value of F calculated and graphical analysis of the residuals. The model-Kopezky Gehrart, presented a high coefficient of determination (0.97), low standard error of estimate (16.7%) and high value of calculated F (382.6), with good distribution of residuals. The results indicate that this model can be used to quantify the volume with bark, which is very important in conjunction with other information for decision making in forest management. doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

Andreia Taborda dos Santos; Patricia Povoa de Mattos; Evaldo Muñoz Braz; Nelson Carlos Rosot

2012-01-01

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Cytogenetics off interpopulation Cuphea lanceolata hybrids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cuphea lanceolata Ait. (Lythraceae) is an annual diploid (x = 6) with medium-chain fatty acid rich seed oils. Wild C. lanceolata populations are classified as C. lanceolata f. silenoides or C. lanceolata f. lanceolata on the basis of flower pigment differences. Although these taxa are taxonomically close, their interfertility has not been demonstrated. We describe meiotic phenomena underlying the sterility of hybrids between C. lanceolata f. silenoides (LNS-43) and C. lanceolata f. lanceolata (LNC-78) populations. We assayed metaphase and anaphase I microsporocytes of the parent and hybrid populations. The hybrids were female and male sterile. The mean percentage of stainable pollen was 94.9% for the parents and 1.1% for the hybrids. Chromosomes paired and disjoined normally in the parents (LNS-43 and LNC-78) and abnormally in the hybrids (LNS-43 x LNC-78 and LNC-78 x LNS-43). Univalents, unequal chromosome distributions, and laggards were observed in the hybrids. The mean number of univalents per cell was 0.00 for the parents and 5.95 for the hybrids, the mean number of bivalents per cell was 6.00 for the parents and 1.51 for the hybrids, and the mean number of chiasmata per cell was 9.19 for the parents and 4.04 for the hybrids. The most frequently observed (75%) anaphase I chromosome distribution for the hybrids was 7:5:0 (pole-pole-laggards). The genome affinities of the hybrids were half those of the parents (a mean of 0.5 for the hybrids as opposed to 1.0 for the parents). Although C. lanceolata f. silenoides and C. lanceolata f. lanceolata freely hybridize, their progeny are sterile, and the genetic diversity of LNC-78, and perhaps of C. lanceolata f. lanceolata as a whole, cannot be accessed through hybrids with C. lanceolata f. silenoides or C. viscosissima. PMID:18470238

Ali, M S; Knapp, S J

1995-12-01

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Cytogenetics off interpopulation Cuphea lanceolata hybrids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cuphea lanceolata Ait. (Lythraceae) is an annual diploid (x = 6) with medium-chain fatty acid rich seed oils. Wild C. lanceolata populations are classified as C. lanceolata f. silenoides or C. lanceolata f. lanceolata on the basis of flower pigment differences. Although these taxa are taxonomically close, their interfertility has not been demonstrated. We describe meiotic phenomena underlying the sterility of hybrids between C. lanceolata f. silenoides (LNS-43) and C. lanceolata f. lanceolata (LNC-78) populations. We assayed metaphase and anaphase I microsporocytes of the parent and hybrid populations. The hybrids were female and male sterile. The mean percentage of stainable pollen was 94.9% for the parents and 1.1% for the hybrids. Chromosomes paired and disjoined normally in the parents (LNS-43 and LNC-78) and abnormally in the hybrids (LNS-43 x LNC-78 and LNC-78 x LNS-43). Univalents, unequal chromosome distributions, and laggards were observed in the hybrids. The mean number of univalents per cell was 0.00 for the parents and 5.95 for the hybrids, the mean number of bivalents per cell was 6.00 for the parents and 1.51 for the hybrids, and the mean number of chiasmata per cell was 9.19 for the parents and 4.04 for the hybrids. The most frequently observed (75%) anaphase I chromosome distribution for the hybrids was 7:5:0 (pole-pole-laggards). The genome affinities of the hybrids were half those of the parents (a mean of 0.5 for the hybrids as opposed to 1.0 for the parents). Although C. lanceolata f. silenoides and C. lanceolata f. lanceolata freely hybridize, their progeny are sterile, and the genetic diversity of LNC-78, and perhaps of C. lanceolata f. lanceolata as a whole, cannot be accessed through hybrids with C. lanceolata f. silenoides or C. viscosissima.

Ali MS; Knapp SJ

1995-12-01

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Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area

2001-01-01

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METHOD OF RAISING PLANTATIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: agriculture. ^ SUBSTANCE: proposed method of raising plantations involves planting alternating rows of drought-resistant and hygrophilous species of wood. On raised and levelled ground features, rows are made entirely from draught resistant species. The outer most rows of the plantation are made from draught resistant species. On depressions, rows are made from hygrophilous species. ^ EFFECT: reduced number of seedlings used, increased gain of biomass and increased biodiversity of the plantation due to differential growing of hygrophilous and draught resistant species of wood. ^ 3 cl, 1 dwg

KONONOV VIKTOR MIKHAJLOVICH; KONONOVA NINA DMITRIEVNA; ZUENKOVA GALINA GRIGOR EVNA

36

Juglans regia L. tree plantations for wood production in mining area of S. Barbara (AR). Evaluation of N-fixing accessory trees effect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out in experimental plots located in the Arno valley (Cavriglia, province of Arezzo - Italy). The experimental plots, walnut (Juglans regia L.) plantations both pure and mixed to accessory trees (Alnus cordata Loisel., Corylus avellana L., Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L.), were established in 1986 and 1989. Data on grown and architectural characteristics were collected in different periods on trees aged 9, 13 and 16. Walnut trees grown with accessory trees showed the best performances, especially if associated with N-fixing species. These positive effects are probably due to many co-occuring favourable causes, a remarkable aspect of which is the higher availability of N. To better investigate the above effect, N concentration in the soil and in walnut leaves was measured in plantations both pure and mixed with Italian alder (Alnus cordata) or black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), and N concentration values were compared with growth characteristics. The results showed that Juglans regia trees associated with Italian alder grow faster, with straighter stems and better stem shapes for qualified wood production. Even if walnut trees growing in plantations with black locust show similar N concentration values, growth performances are worse.

Tani A; Maltoni A; Mariotti B; Buresti Lattes E

2006-01-01

37

Eucalypt plantations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reviews the historical development of the use of the eucalypt over 200 years, from its curiosity status in the botanical gardens of Europe to its extensive use as a fuelwood for the wood-burning locomotives of the national railway systems, and then to its more recent use as a major source of biomass for paper pulp, fiberboard, industrial charcoal, and fuelwood. Ecological and biological aspects of the genus Eucalyptus have made it successful as an exotic in industrial monocultures and as a multipurpose tree of benefit to small landholders. Social, policy, and economic aspects of growing Eucalyptus are examined, as are prospects for using the eucalypt in the twenty-first century as an industrial plantation tree and as a component of farming systems in the rural landscape.

Turnbull JW

1999-01-01

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Eucalyptus energy plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India has extensive plantations of eucalyptus, a fast-growing, native plant that can be used as wood, fuel, pulp, oil and honey, and erosion control. India raises eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, and E. Citriodara. The applications, environmental requirements, yields, and related species are summarized for each. 2 references. (DCK)

1982-05-01

39

Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the cost-benefit method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of polar cultivation was analyzed based on one of the indicators for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects - cost-benefit (r). Poplar plantations of the clone I-214 of different rotations and on different soil types were analyzed in the area of Ravni Srem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the justification of the invested financial means in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts at different plantation ages, using the cost-benefit method. It was found that in all 13 analyzed compartments, the average cost-benefit ratio was 0.36. This means that the costs at the discount rate of 12% are about 2.8 times higher than the receipts. Accordingly, it can be asserted that it is economically unjustified to invest in the projected stands, but only in the case when the value of social capital accounts for 12%. Based on the analysis of sensitivity of the cost-benefit method, it was concluded that cost benefit ratio for p=8-12% was below 1 within the study range of costs and receipts changes, while for p=4-6% this ratio was above 1 in some cases of decrease in costs, i.e. increase in receipts. It was noted that the change in r depending on the change in costs, developed by the exponential function, and the change in r depending on the change in receipts developed by the linear function. Also, it was concluded that at the lower discount rates, the values of r moved towards 1, so for 8% r=0.71, and for 6% r=0.94. The value at the discount rate of 4% indicates that the project is cost-effective and that the invested € 1 makes € 1.22. This fact is especially important when poplar cultivation projects are ranked. For this reason, this method is used for the evaluation of social benefits, i.e. for economic analyses. It is almost never applied in the analysis of private investments.

Ke?a Ljiljana

2011-01-01

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Wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structure of wood and its chemical constituents are discussed at length. There are separate chapters on the main components of wood (i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), their reaction to acid, alkaline or enzymatic hydrolysis, their chemical composition and degradability. Further sections discuss paper production, esterification and etherification of cellulose, and the use of wood as a chemical feedstock or energy source. Each chapter has a detailed bibliography.

Fengel, D.; Wegener, G.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Further Aporphine Alkaloids from Phoebe lanceolata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stem bark of Phoebe lanceolata was extracted with ethanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate yielded soluble and insoluble fractions. Ethyl acetate insoluble fraction was subjected to column chromatography afforded two oxalyl-fused didehydroaporphine alkaloids, N-6/C-7 oxalyl-fused 2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxy 6a,7-didehydroaporphine and N-6/C-7 oxalyl-fused 1,2,9,10-tetramethoxy 6a,7-didehydroaporphine along with well known ?-sitosterol and ?-sitosterol glucoside. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by chemical and spectral analysis.

Deepak K. Semwal; Usha Rawat; G. J. P. Singh

2008-01-01

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Diseases in poplar plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of poplar plantation is in great part in correlation with its health condition. Big areas under the trees of the same age and almost identical (sort) or identical (clones) genetical characteristics are ideal environment for occurrence and development of different diseases. They could easy reach epyphitotic intensity, in such conditions and start to endanger wood mass production and cause big financial loss. Aim of paper was to present the most important diseases worldwide, which are reported on poplar species of sections: Leuce, Aigeiros and Tacamahaca. Beside the most important diseases in paper are presented fungi which were found during many years of study of natural stands and plantations of poplars in Serbia.

Ke?a Nenad

2008-01-01

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Alkaloids from Cephalotaxus lanceolata and their cytotoxicities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A phytochemical investigation of the branches and leaves of Cephalotaxus lanceolata resulted in the isolation of three new cephalotaxus alkaloids, cephalancetines A, B, and D (1, 2, and 4, resp.), together with ten known alkaloids, 3 and 5-13. The structures of the alkaloids were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against four human tumor cell lines, A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2. Compounds 12 and 13 showed remarkable activities against A549, HCT116, and HepG2 cell lines.

He YR; Shen YH; Li B; Li B; Lu L; Tian JM; Zhang WD

2013-04-01

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Alkaloids from Cephalotaxus lanceolata and their cytotoxicities.  

Science.gov (United States)

A phytochemical investigation of the branches and leaves of Cephalotaxus lanceolata resulted in the isolation of three new cephalotaxus alkaloids, cephalancetines A, B, and D (1, 2, and 4, resp.), together with ten known alkaloids, 3 and 5-13. The structures of the alkaloids were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against four human tumor cell lines, A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2. Compounds 12 and 13 showed remarkable activities against A549, HCT116, and HepG2 cell lines. PMID:23576344

He, Yi-Ren; Shen, Yun-Heng; Li, Bo; Li, Bo; Lu, Lu; Tian, Jun-Mian; Zhang, Wei-Dong

2013-04-01

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Reproductive traits associated with invasiveness in Coreopsis lanceolata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims The invasive plant Coreopsis lanceolata can reproduce sexually and clonally, but the relative importance of these remains largely unknown. Our objective was to determine if reproductive characteristics affect the invasiveness of C. lanceolata.Methods We observed the flowering dynamics of inflorescence, self-compatibility, germination traits of seed and clonal reproductive traits of C. lanceolata.Important findings Most C. lanceolata flowered and fruited between April and November. The florescence of a single capitulum persisted approximately 5 to 6 days, and the fruits matured after 18 days. Bagged capitula showed there were no seed set in single capitulum, and they were geitonogamous, which indicated self-incompatibility. The pollen-ovule (P/O) ratio was 103 549.40 ± 7 162.44. There was high pollen viability during flowering, and pollinator movement ensured endogamy, which improved the rate of out-crossing. Under natural conditions, the germination percentage is >50%, and germination occurs within 2–3 days. Coreopsis lanceolata has strong asexual capacity; there were many phalanx ramets from roots during the growing season, and the guerrilla ramets only occurred beginning in the last ten days of August, which is beneficial to C. lanceolatain excluding other species and forming mono-culture populations. These results suggest that the invasiveness of C. lanceolata is closely related to its reproductive traits.

ZENG Jian-Jun; XIAO Yi-An; SUN Min

2010-01-01

46

Energy plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief discussion of the need to find replacements for fossil fuels in the Philippines is followed by outlines of the establishment, management and costs of fuelwood plantations and hydrocarbon-producing plant species. Tables show species of Euphorbiaceae that are potential sources of crude oil and plant sources of oils and resins that are endemic in the Philippines. 17 references.

Zabala, N.Q.

1984-01-01

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EVALUACIÓN DE PROCEDIMIENTOS SIMPLIFICADOS EN LA CUANTIFICACIÓN VOLUMÉTRICA DE UNA PLANTACIÓN DE PINO/ Evaluation of simplified procedures for quantifying wood volume in a plantation of pine/ Avaliação dos procedimentos simplificados na quantificação volumétrica de uma plantação de pino  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A quantificação do volume sólido de madeira em plantações florestais é essencial para a gestão adequada dos povoamentos florestais e sua correspondente comercialização. Os métodos de amostragem tradicionalmente usados em inventários florestais são onerosos e dispendiosos, sendo de fundamental importância a obtenção de métodos rápidos, baratos e precisos que facilitem a quantificação volumétrica adequada, especialmente em plantações de áreas relativa (more) mente pequenas. O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em comparar quatro métodos de amostragem para determinar o volume de madeira de uma plantação de Pinus. Três dos métodos foram baseados unicamente em medições do diâmetro e o quarto correspondeu ao procedimento para o dimensionamento de 553 árvores. Em oito terrenos circulares de 600 m2 cada um situados aleatoriamente. Obteve-se o volume de madeira por hectare. Observou-se que os métodos de obtenção do volume não diferiram significativamente para um erro máximo permissível de 10%, considerando o nível de significância de ? = 0.05. Os métodos permitiram a estimativa confiável do volume de madeira por unidade de área, com uma pequena vantagem do método que utilizou o diâmetro de Hohenadl. Abstract in spanish La cuantificación del volumen sólido de madera en plantaciones forestales es imprescindible para la adecuada ordenación de los rodales y su correspondiente comercialización. Los métodos de muestreo utilizados tradicionalmente en los inventarios forestales son onerosos y dispendiosos siendo de fundamental importancia la obtención de métodos rápidos, baratos y precisos que faciliten la correspondiente cuantificación volumétrica sobre todo en plantaciones de áreas (more) relativamente pequeñas. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en comparar cuatro métodos de muestreo para determinar el volumen de madera de una plantación de Pinus. Tres de los métodos se fundamentaron exclusivamente en mediciones del diámetro y el cuarto correspondió al procedimiento de la cubicación de 553 árboles. En ocho parcelas circulares de 600 m² cada una ubicadas aleatoriamente se obtuvo el volumen de madera por hectárea. Se observó que los métodos de obtención del volumen no presentaron diferencias significativas para un error máximo admisible de 10% considerado del nivel de significancia de ? = 0.05. Los métodos permitieron la estimación confiable del volumen de madera por unidad de área, con una pequeña ventaja del método que utilizó el diámetro de Hohenadl. Abstract in english Quantification of wood volume in forests stands is necessary for forest management of plantations particularly with respect to the timber trade. Traditional sampling methods used in forest inventories are onerous and costly. Development of rapid, cheap and precise methods which facilitate the corresponding volumetric quantification are desirable. It was compared four sampling methods for determining wood volume in a Pinus plantation. Three of those methods are based exclu (more) sively on diameter measurement, whereas the fourth is based on wood volume. Eight randomly located 600 m² plots were used where each method was applied to determine the wood volume per hectare. There were no significant differences in methods for determining wood volume with a permitted maximum error of 10%, and a significance level of ? = 0.05. All methods provided reliable estimations of wood volume per unit area, although the Hohenadl diameter method performed slightly better.

Pereira, Eder Miguel; Imaña-Encinas, José; Valéria Rezende, Alba

2012-06-01

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Wood color variation in undried and kiln-dried plantation-grown lumber of Vochysia guatemalensis Variación del color de la madera aserrada en estado verde y seca al horno de Vochysia guatemalensis proveniente de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vochysia guatemalensis has been planted over large tropical areas to obtain lumber products. However, compared with naturally-grown material variations in wood color have been noted. In the current research, trees from two 8-year-old fast-grown plantations were sampled from different climatic conditions in order to identify the causes of color variation. The study evaluated the heartwood presence, grain pattern, distance from pith, height within the tree, and effect of drying schedules. The wood color was measured by CIEL*a*b* systems.Wood color of Vochysia guatemalensis is a combination of different tonalities of lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*), however, the lightness and yellowness components were the dominant tones. The color of heartwood and sapwood were different before and after drying. A negative relationship was found between a* and L*, and a* and b* in the undried state, but no relationship was found between L* and b*. The L* index is only correlated with heartwood presence in undried wood. In dried wood, only a relationship between a* and L* is maintained, while other color parameters were affected by climate, drying schedule and heartwood presence, the L* parameter being the most affected. The dried wood displays a lighter surface than the wood before drying. The variations in the dried wood suggest that it is useful to establish dried lots of lumber according to the drying schedule, source and presence of sapwood and heartwood.La especie Vochysia guatemalensis ha sido plantada sobre largas áreas en regiones tropicales. Así mismo, han sido observadas grandes variaciones del color de su madera. En la investigación fueron muestreadas plantaciones de 8 años de edad en diferentes condiciones de clima con el fin de establecer las causes de variación de la madera. Fueron evaluadas la presencia de duramen, el patrón de aserrío, la distancia de la medula y el programa de secado. El color fue medido por el sistema CIELab. Fue encontrado que la madera de V. guatemalensis presenta una combinación de tonalidades de claros (L*), rojos (a*) y amarrillos (b*), siendo los colores claros y amarrillos los tonos dominantes. El color del duramen y la albura fueron diferentes antes y después del secado. Una negativa correlación entre a* y L*, y a* y b* fue encontrada, pero ninguna correlación fue observada entre L* y b*. El índice L* fue el único parámetro correlacionado con el duramen en madera verde. En la madera seca, solamente se mantuvo la relación a* y L*, mientras que los parámetros del color fueron afectados por el clima, programa de secado y duramen, siendo L* el más afectado. La madera seca presentó una superficie más clara que la madera antes del secado. Las variaciones en madera seca sugieren la conveniencia de establecer lotes de secado de acuerdo al programa de secado aplicado, procedencia y presencia de albura y duramen.

Diana Aguilar-Tova; Róger Moya; Carolina Tenorio

2009-01-01

49

Wood color variation in undried and kiln-dried plantation-grown lumber of Vochysia guatemalensis/ Variación del color de la madera aserrada en estado verde y seca al horno de Vochysia guatemalensis proveniente de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La especie Vochysia guatemalensis ha sido plantada sobre largas áreas en regiones tropicales. Así mismo, han sido observadas grandes variaciones del color de su madera. En la investigación fueron muestreadas plantaciones de 8 años de edad en diferentes condiciones de clima con el fin de establecer las causes de variación de la madera. Fueron evaluadas la presencia de duramen, el patrón de aserrío, la distancia de la medula y el programa de secado. El color fue medi (more) do por el sistema CIELab. Fue encontrado que la madera de V. guatemalensis presenta una combinación de tonalidades de claros (L*), rojos (a*) y amarrillos (b*), siendo los colores claros y amarrillos los tonos dominantes. El color del duramen y la albura fueron diferentes antes y después del secado. Una negativa correlación entre a* y L*, y a* y b* fue encontrada, pero ninguna correlación fue observada entre L* y b*. El índice L* fue el único parámetro correlacionado con el duramen en madera verde. En la madera seca, solamente se mantuvo la relación a* y L*, mientras que los parámetros del color fueron afectados por el clima, programa de secado y duramen, siendo L* el más afectado. La madera seca presentó una superficie más clara que la madera antes del secado. Las variaciones en madera seca sugieren la conveniencia de establecer lotes de secado de acuerdo al programa de secado aplicado, procedencia y presencia de albura y duramen. Abstract in english Vochysia guatemalensis has been planted over large tropical areas to obtain lumber products. However, compared with naturally-grown material variations in wood color have been noted. In the current research, trees from two 8-year-old fast-grown plantations were sampled from different climatic conditions in order to identify the causes of color variation. The study evaluated the heartwood presence, grain pattern, distance from pith, height within the tree, and effect of dr (more) ying schedules. The wood color was measured by CIEL*a*b* systems.Wood color of Vochysia guatemalensis is a combination of different tonalities of lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*), however, the lightness and yellowness components were the dominant tones. The color of heartwood and sapwood were different before and after drying. A negative relationship was found between a* and L*, and a* and b* in the undried state, but no relationship was found between L* and b*. The L* index is only correlated with heartwood presence in undried wood. In dried wood, only a relationship between a* and L* is maintained, while other color parameters were affected by climate, drying schedule and heartwood presence, the L* parameter being the most affected. The dried wood displays a lighter surface than the wood before drying. The variations in the dried wood suggest that it is useful to establish dried lots of lumber according to the drying schedule, source and presence of sapwood and heartwood.

Aguilar-Tova, Diana; Moya, Róger; Tenorio, Carolina

2009-01-01

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Anatomia comparada do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. em áreas de cerrado e de plantação de Pinus elliottii Engelm. Comparative wood anatomy of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. in "cerrado" and plantation area of Pinus elliottii Engelm.  

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Full Text Available A estrutura anatômica do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. foi analisada pela observação do caule e da raiz de espécimes provenientes de duas áreas de cerrado, uma com vegetação característica e outra, em que a vegetação original foi substituída por monocultura de Pinus elliotti Engelm. As duas áreas situam-se na Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu. As amostras foram coletadas pelo método não destrutivo. Os dados quantitativos das características analisadas foram obtidos mediante contagens e medições nos elementos de vasos, fibras e parênquima axial e radial, através das secções histológicas e tecido dissociado. Esses dados foram submetidos à prova não paramétrica de Mann-Whitney que mostrou diferenças significativas para 12 das 18 características analisadas. Dentre essas, apenas o diâmetro das pontoações intervasculares e das radiovasculares e a porcentagem de parênquima axial, apresentaram médias maiores para os espécimes da área de plantio. A análise estrutural do lenho demonstrou a presença de anéis de crescimento, delimitados pelo achatamento das paredes radiais das fibras, observada em todos os espécimes, indicando uma adaptação fisiológica e anatômica ao período de seca que ocorre anualmente na região. A baixa ocorrência de idioblastos secretores, nos espécimes da área de plantio, fornece indício sobre as possíveis alterações fisiológicas induzidas pela presença da plantação de Pinus elliottii em área de cerrado.The anatomical structure of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. wood was analyzed comparing stem and root samples from a caracteristic "cerrado" area, and another area with cultivated monoculture of Pinus elliotti Engelm. Both areas are inside the "Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu". The samples were collected by non-destructive method. The quantitative analyzed characteristics data were obtained by counting and measuring in vessel elements, fibers, axial and radial parenchyma, in both histological sections and dissociated tissue. These data were submitted to the no parametric proof of Mann-Whitney that showed significant differences for 12 of the 18 analyzed characteristics. Among these, only intervessel pits diameter, vessel-ray pits diameter, and axial parenchyma percentage, showed larger averages for the plantation area specimens. Soil moisture data were obtained together with water soil retention curve. The structural analysis demonstrated the presence of growth rings delimited by radially flattened walls fibres observed in all studied specimens. This characteristic indicates a physiologic and anatomical adaptation of specimens to the drought period that occurs annually in the region. The low secretory idioblast occurrence in plantation area specimens indicates the possible physiologic alterations induced by the presence of Pinus elliottii plantation in "cerrado" area.

Agnes E. Luchi; Luiz C. Pereira Silva; Marcelo A. Moraes

2005-01-01

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Anatomia comparada do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. em áreas de cerrado e de plantação de Pinus elliottii Engelm./ Comparative wood anatomy of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. in "cerrado" and plantation area of Pinus elliottii Engelm.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A estrutura anatômica do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. foi analisada pela observação do caule e da raiz de espécimes provenientes de duas áreas de cerrado, uma com vegetação característica e outra, em que a vegetação original foi substituída por monocultura de Pinus elliotti Engelm. As duas áreas situam-se na Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu. As amostras foram coletadas pelo método não destrutivo. Os dados quantitativos da (more) s características analisadas foram obtidos mediante contagens e medições nos elementos de vasos, fibras e parênquima axial e radial, através das secções histológicas e tecido dissociado. Esses dados foram submetidos à prova não paramétrica de Mann-Whitney que mostrou diferenças significativas para 12 das 18 características analisadas. Dentre essas, apenas o diâmetro das pontoações intervasculares e das radiovasculares e a porcentagem de parênquima axial, apresentaram médias maiores para os espécimes da área de plantio. A análise estrutural do lenho demonstrou a presença de anéis de crescimento, delimitados pelo achatamento das paredes radiais das fibras, observada em todos os espécimes, indicando uma adaptação fisiológica e anatômica ao período de seca que ocorre anualmente na região. A baixa ocorrência de idioblastos secretores, nos espécimes da área de plantio, fornece indício sobre as possíveis alterações fisiológicas induzidas pela presença da plantação de Pinus elliottii em área de cerrado. Abstract in english The anatomical structure of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. wood was analyzed comparing stem and root samples from a caracteristic "cerrado" area, and another area with cultivated monoculture of Pinus elliotti Engelm. Both areas are inside the "Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu". The samples were collected by non-destructive method. The quantitative analyzed characteristics data were obtained by counting and measuring in vessel elements, fibers, ax (more) ial and radial parenchyma, in both histological sections and dissociated tissue. These data were submitted to the no parametric proof of Mann-Whitney that showed significant differences for 12 of the 18 analyzed characteristics. Among these, only intervessel pits diameter, vessel-ray pits diameter, and axial parenchyma percentage, showed larger averages for the plantation area specimens. Soil moisture data were obtained together with water soil retention curve. The structural analysis demonstrated the presence of growth rings delimited by radially flattened walls fibres observed in all studied specimens. This characteristic indicates a physiologic and anatomical adaptation of specimens to the drought period that occurs annually in the region. The low secretory idioblast occurrence in plantation area specimens indicates the possible physiologic alterations induced by the presence of Pinus elliottii plantation in "cerrado" area.

Luchi, Agnes E.; Silva, Luiz C. Pereira; Moraes, Marcelo A.

2005-12-01

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Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational and production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.

Lopes Eduardo da Silva; Machado Carlos Cardoso; Souza Amaury Paulo de; Ribeiro Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares

2003-01-01

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Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume) em plantios de eucalyptus grandis Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume) in eucalyptus grandis plantations  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha), 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal.This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and volume, the data have presented, approximately, normal distribution. Based on variogram analysis, trunk number and wood volume variables were found to be spatially structured. The exponential semi-variogram model was the best model fitted to the experimental semi-variograms of the variables in different plot shapes and sample intensities. The spatial continuity of the trunk number variable was detected at all sample intensities and plot shapes. Therefore, the use of spatial statistics to process this variable will increase the precision of the estimates. Considering the volume, at sample intensity 1:10, we could not evaluate the existence of a spatial continuity structure. Under this condition, classic statistics should be used to process the forest inventory.

José Márcio de Mello; Frederico Silva Diniz; Antônio Donizette de Oliveira; Carlos Rogério de Mello; José Roberto Soares Scolforo; Fausto Weimar Acerbi Junior

2009-01-01

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Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume) em plantios de eucalyptus grandis/ Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume) in eucalyptus grandis plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas (more) intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha), 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal. Abstract in english This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1: (more) 10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and volume, the data have presented, approximately, normal distribution. Based on variogram analysis, trunk number and wood volume variables were found to be spatially structured. The exponential semi-variogram model was the best model fitted to the experimental semi-variograms of the variables in different plot shapes and sample intensities. The spatial continuity of the trunk number variable was detected at all sample intensities and plot shapes. Therefore, the use of spatial statistics to process this variable will increase the precision of the estimates. Considering the volume, at sample intensity 1:10, we could not evaluate the existence of a spatial continuity structure. Under this condition, classic statistics should be used to process the forest inventory.

Mello, José Márcio de; Diniz, Frederico Silva; Oliveira, Antônio Donizette de; Mello, Carlos Rogério de; Scolforo, José Roberto Soares; Acerbi Junior, Fausto Weimar

2009-02-01

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Malaysianol B, an oligostilbenoid derivative from Dryobalanops lanceolata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new oligostilbenoid tetramer, malaysianol B (1), was isolated from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Dryobalanops lanceolata along with seven oligostilbenoids tetramers; hopeaphenol (2), stenophyllol A (3), nepalensinol B (4), vaticanol B (5) and C (6), upunaphenol D (7), and flexuosol A (8). The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data evidence. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated using resazurin microtitre-plate assay.

Wibowo A; Ahmat N; Hamzah AS; Low AL; Mohamad SA; Khong HY; Sufian AS; Manshoor N; Takayama H

2012-12-01

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Malaysianol B, an oligostilbenoid derivative from Dryobalanops lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new oligostilbenoid tetramer, malaysianol B (1), was isolated from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Dryobalanops lanceolata along with seven oligostilbenoids tetramers; hopeaphenol (2), stenophyllol A (3), nepalensinol B (4), vaticanol B (5) and C (6), upunaphenol D (7), and flexuosol A (8). The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data evidence. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated using resazurin microtitre-plate assay. PMID:22982329

Wibowo, A; Ahmat, N; Hamzah, A S; Low, A L M; Mohamad, S A S; Khong, H Y; Sufian, A S; Manshoor, N; Takayama, H

2012-09-13

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Nematicidal activities of acetylene compounds from Coreopsis lanceolata L.  

Science.gov (United States)

1-Phenylhepta-1,3,5-triyne (1), 5-phenyl-2-(1'-propynyl)-thiophene (2), and 2-(3'-acetoxy-1'-propynyl)-5-phenylthiophene (3) were isolated from Coreopsis lanceolata L., and their structures identified by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 showed effective nematicidal activities against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans, but had hardly any effect against Pratylenchus penetrans. Compound 3 did not show any effective nematicidal activity. PMID:19227832

Kimura, Yasuo; Hiraoka, Kensuke; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Fujioka, Shozo; Shimada, Atsumi

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Financial Analysis of Keora (Sonneratia apetala) Plantations in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available An attempt has been taken to compare economic performance of different ages of keora (Sonneratia apetala) Plantations in coastal zone in this paper. The main objective was to find out financial rotation and profitability of keora plantation. The existing market price of round wood per cubic meter and fuel wood per ton were found to be Tk. 2650 to Tk. 3530 and Tk. 670 to Tk. 940 respectively near plantation area in 2003. The harvesting and processing costs were estimated as 20% and 10% of the standing value of the trees. The value of IRR and other economic determinants for timber were varied among Coastal Afforestation Divisions mainly due to different rates of siltation, salinity and other factors involved on the forest floor in coastal zone. However, applying the economic determinants throughout coastal zone, financially remarkable rotation age for timber was found to be within 14th to 16th year of plantation and rotation age forfuel wood as 9th year of plantation. Applying the same economic determinants keora plantation was also found as profitable in coastal zone in Bangladesh.

S. S. Islam; Abul Kalam Azad; Jonaed Kabir; Mohammed Abu Taher Hossain

2012-01-01

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Euphane triterpenoids of Cassipourea lanceolata from the Madagascar rainforest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fractionation of an ethanol extract of a Madagascar collection of the leaves and fruit of Cassipourea lanceolata Tul. led to the isolation of three euphane triterpenoids 1-3. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of all compounds were fully assigned using a combination of 2D NMR experiments, including COSY, TOCSY, HSQC (HMQC), HMBC and ROESY sequences. The three compounds showed weak antiproliferative activities against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line, with IC(50) values of 25, 25 and 32 microM, respectively.

Hou Y; Cao S; Brodie PJ; Miller JS; Birkinshaw C; Andrianjafy MN; Andriantsiferana R; Rasamison VE; TenDyke K; Shen Y; Suh EM; Kingston DG

2010-04-01

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[Soil quality assessment of forest stand in different plantation esosystems].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After a clear-cutting of the first generation Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in 1982, three plantation ecosystems, pure Michelia macclurei stand (PMS), pure Chinese-fir stand (PCS) and their mixed stand, were established in spring 1983, and their effects on soil characteristics were evaluated by measuring some soil physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical parameters. After 20 years' plantation, all test indices showed differences among different forest management models. Both PMS and MCM had a favorable effect on soil fertility maintenance. Soil quality assessment showed that some soil functions, e.g., water availability, nutrient availability, root suitability and soil quality index were all in a moderate level under the mixed and pure PMS stands, whereas in a relatively lower level under successive PCS stand. The results also showed that there existed close correlations between soil total organic C (TOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), microbial biomass-C (Cmic) and other soil physical, chemical and biological indices. Therefore, TOC, CEC and Cmic could be used as the indicators in assessing soil quality in this study area. In addition, there were also positive correlations between soil microbial biomass-C and TOC, soil microbial biomass-N and total N, and soil microbial biomass-P and total P in the present study.

Huang Y; Wang S; Feng Z; Gao H; Wang Q; Hu Y; Yan S

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L  

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Full Text Available Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal.This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sodium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa) for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

Caridad Carballo Guerra; Teresita Alfaro López; Zoe Palazón López; Raúl Ramos Gálves; Carlos A Rodríguez Ferrada; Cristina Cabezas Landrian; Lérida Acosta de la Luz; Miralys Reyes Arias

2002-01-01

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Chemical constituents of Coreopsis lanceolata L. and their physiological activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Petals from Coreopsis lanceolata L. were extracted in methanol and subjected to solvent-solvent partitioning to yield four fractions: hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and aqueous. These fractions were screened using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and an active oxygen inhibition assay. The ethyl acetate extract contained the highest level of active components. Four compounds isolated from this fraction by HPLC were screened for antioxidant activity and anti-allergic activity. Anti-allergic activity was assessed by measuring release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells. One compound, termed laceolin, was characterized by spectroscopic analysis, including extensive NMR and mass spectra. This compound had significant radical scavenging activity, with an SC50 (scavenging concentration of 50%) value of 2.6 microg/mL and superoxide dismutase activity of 46.2%. PMID:19202312

Tanimoto, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Inoue, Toshio; Okada, Yoshiharu; Nomura, Masato

2009-01-01

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Chemical constituents of Coreopsis lanceolata L. and their physiological activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Petals from Coreopsis lanceolata L. were extracted in methanol and subjected to solvent-solvent partitioning to yield four fractions: hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and aqueous. These fractions were screened using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and an active oxygen inhibition assay. The ethyl acetate extract contained the highest level of active components. Four compounds isolated from this fraction by HPLC were screened for antioxidant activity and anti-allergic activity. Anti-allergic activity was assessed by measuring release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells. One compound, termed laceolin, was characterized by spectroscopic analysis, including extensive NMR and mass spectra. This compound had significant radical scavenging activity, with an SC50 (scavenging concentration of 50%) value of 2.6 microg/mL and superoxide dismutase activity of 46.2%.

Tanimoto S; Miyazawa M; Inoue T; Okada Y; Nomura M

2009-01-01

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Sistema de policultivos en plantas medicinales: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata y Plantago major System of polycultures in medicinal plants: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major  

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Full Text Available Fundamentos: existe una tendencia creciente por los agricultores a desarrollar las producciones agrícolas mediante sistemas de policultivos. Objetivos: demostrar las ventajas del sistema de policultivo sobre el monocultivo basados en el incremento del rendimiento de masa vegetal de las especies que lo integran. Métodos: en la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se investigó sobre suelo ferralítico rojo hidratado (ferralsols), en una plantación establecida de Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm. cultivo perenne y principal, el intercalamiento de varias especies: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L.; cultivos de períodos vegetativos cortos para aprovechar el espacio entre surcos que requiere esta planta; se determinó el rendimiento de masa vegetal fresca en cada una de las especies de esta compleja asociación y se compararon con los de sus respectivos cultivos únicos o monocultivos. Los valores obtenidos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza, además se calculó el incremento productivo a partir del cual se determinó el uso equivalente de la tierra. Resultados: de forma general, se encontró en todas las especies componentes del policultivo (cultivo permanente y plantas intercaladas) ventajas sobre el monocultivo en cuanto a sus rendimientos, sin afectación de los principios activos, así como el aumento de la eficiencia productiva de los suelos. Conclusiones: se demostró en las especies estudiadas la superioridad que ofrece el sistema de siembra por policultivo.Foundations: there is an increasing trend on the part of the agriculturists to develop productions by polyculture systems. Objectives: to show the advantages of the polyculture system over the monoculture based on the increase of the yield of plant mass of the species included. Methods: in an established plantation of Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm., perennial and main culture, with hydrated red ferriferous soil (ferralsols), at "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants, it was investigated the intercropping of various species: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.; cultures of short vegetative periods used to avail the space between furrows required by this plant. The yielding of fresh plant mass was also determined in each of the species of this complex association and they were compared with those of their respective unique cultures or monocultures. The values obtained were analyzed by variance analysis. The productive growth from which the equivalent use of the soil was determined was calculated, too. Results: generally, in all the species composing the polyculture (permanent culture and intercropped plants) there were advantages over the monoculture as regards their yieldings without affecting the active principles. An increase of the productive efficiency of the soils was also observed. Conclusions: the superiority of the polyculture system was proved in the studied species.

Lérida Acosta de la Luz; Horacio Rodríguez González; Isabel Hechevarría Sosa; Masgloiris Milanés Figueredo; Carlos Rodríguez Ferradá

2008-01-01

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James River Plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

Floating down the James River through the Chesapeake Bay, one begins to take note of the stately plantations that line the banks of this body of water, particularly around Richmond. As part of their ongoing Travel Itinerary series, the National Park Service has created this tribute to the cultural and historic landscape along the James River. What is particularly striking about the site is its ability to tell the stories of these plantations in a way that is well rounded in its perspective and its incorporation of compelling maps and narrative descriptions. To get a better sense of the history of the region, visitors may want to start by reading one (or all) of the three essays offered on the site. Of course, the visually inclined may wish to look at an interactive map offered on the site that will allow them access to information about a number of the plantations, such as the ancestral manses of Kittiewan or Westover.

66

Diseases in poplar plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of poplar plantation is in great part in correlation with its health condition. Big areas under the trees of the same age and almost identical (sort) or identical (clones) genetical characteristics are ideal environment for occurrence and development of different diseases. They could easy...

Ke?a Nenad

67

Plantation silviculture in temperate regions with special reference to the British Isles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book is intended as an introduction to plantation silviculture for students, with emphasis on the biological principles that underlie silvicultural practices throughout the developed temperate region. There are 4 sections. Part A comprises 3 introductory chapters describing the role of plantations, primary production and long-term productivity, and climate and site. Part B contains 6 chapters dealing with the basic silviculture of plantations, concentrating mainly on conifers grown primarily for industrial wood production. Part C comprises 3 chapters on specialized forms of plantation silviculture; on derelict land; short-rotation crops; and for special purposes e.g. shelter, exudates, Christmas trees and food. Part D contains 4 chapters on protection from pests and pathogens, wind and fire, and the layout of plantations.

Savill, P.S.; Evans, J.

1986-01-01

68

The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Carbon (C) conservation and sequestration in many developing countries needs to be accompanied by socio-economic improvements. Tree crop plantations can be a potential path for coupling climate change mitigation and economic development by providing C sequestration and supplying wood and non-wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 tC/ha) and orange (76 tC/ha) plantations have a much lower C content, and oil palm (45 tC/ha) has the lowest C potential, assuming that the yield is not used as biofuel. There is considerable C sequestration potential in plantations if they are established on land with modest C content such as degraded forest or agricultural land, and not on land with oldgrowth forest. We also show that simple C assessment methods can give reliable results, which makes it easier for developing countries to partake in REDD+ or other payment schemes.

Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas

2012-01-01

69

Effects of Increased UVB radiation on plant-insect interactions: Plantago lanceolata and Junonia coenia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seeds of P. lanceolata were collected from a local population and 4 replicates of 42 maternal families were grown for 90 days in the greenhouse with at two levels of supplemental UVB radiation (6 and 12 kJ day[sup [minus]1] BE[sub 300]). Higher UVB radiation increased leaf hair density and decreased plant size during early growth; family identity affected these also. Leaves excised from a subset of the plants were fed to ultimate instar larvae of J. coenia and assayed for iridoids. Increased UVB radiation did not alter the iridoid content of the leaves or the growth of the larvae. In a separate experiment, P. lanceolata growing under the two levels of UVB irradiation were infested with neonate larvae and larval growth was monitored. Larval growth was not markedly altered by enhanced UVB. These findings suggest that increased UVB is unlikely to alter the suitability of P. lanceolata as a host for J. coenia.

McCloud, E.S.; Berenbaum, M.R. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

1993-06-01

70

Wood - is it an alternative energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood is an energy carrier which is produced continually by the conversion and storage of solar energy. For the main part of the world's population wood is not an alternative but the only energy source. The utilization of firewood and charcoal can be improved considerably. Wood cannot essentially relieve the energy deficit in the whole world. However, wood can considerably contribute to energy supply in some countries in tropical areas. Compared to the total energy demand a notable increase of energy supply by wood might not be possible in Europe. By utilizing waste and residual wood from forestry and timber industry wood could improve the energy situation regionally. By laying out energy plantations and using suitable cultivation methods of the forests the production of biomass for energy utilization can be increased considerably.

Fruehwald, A.; Liese, W.

1980-12-01

71

Policy analysis model for New Zealand's plantation forestry system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Roundwood supplies from New Zealand's plantation forests are expected to increase substantially over the next 30-40 years. Although most of the increase will be available for export, future export markets are uncertain. A system dynamics model is discussed, which has been developed to analyse at the national level the interaction between supply of and demand for wood from New Zealand's plantation forests. The model is used to investigate the effects on the plantation forestry system of different future demand scenarios, to measure the effects of demand forecasting errors, and to analyse alternative planting and cutting policies. 24 references.

Cavana, R.Y.; Coyle, R.G.

1984-01-01

72

Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay). The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas árvores representativas das diferentes classes de diâmetro à altura do peito para avaliação de suas biomassas e para a análise de extrativos e componentes da madeira. Os atributos físicos do solo, sobretudo o teor de argila, diretamente relacionado à quantidade de água disponível, foram os que mais afetaram a produtividade e a qualidade da madeira. A densidade básica da madeira não se alterou nas diferentes classes de solo. O teor de lignina total diminuiu e o de holocelulose aumentou exponencialmente com o aumento do teor de argila do solo (até cerca de 350 a 400 g kg-1 de argila). O teor de extrativos da madeira não foi afetado pelos atributos do solo. O rendimento de celulose depurada relacionou-se exponencialmente com o teor de argila do solo.

José Luiz Gava; José Leonardo de Moraes Gonçalves

2008-01-01

73

The potential effects of climate change on the distribution and productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Climate changes may have immediate implications for forest productivity and may produce dramatic shifts in tree species distributions in the future. Quantifying these implications is significant for both scientists and managers. Cunninghamia lanceolata is an important coniferous timber species due to its fast growth and wide distribution in China. This paper proposes a methodology aiming at enhancing the distribution and productivity of C. lanceolata against a background of climate change. First, we simulated the potential distributions and establishment probabilities of C. lanceolata based on a species distribution model. Second, a process-based model, the PnET-II model, was calibrated and its parameterization of water balance improved. Finally, the improved PnET-II model was used to simulate the net primary productivity (NPP) of C. lanceolata. The simulated NPP and potential distribution were combined to produce an integrated indicator, the estimated total NPP, which serves to comprehensively characterize the productivity of the forest under climate change. The results of the analysis showed that (1) the distribution of C. lanceolata will increase in central China, but the mean probability of establishment will decrease in the 2050s; (2) the PnET-II model was improved, calibrated, and successfully validated for the simulation of the NPP of C. lanceolata in China; and (3) all scenarios predicted a reduction in total NPP in the 2050s, with a markedly lower reduction under the a2 scenario than under the b2 scenario. The changes in NPP suggested that forest productivity will show a large decrease in southern China and a mild increase in central China. All of these findings could improve our understanding of the impact of climate change on forest ecosystem structure and function and could provide a basis for policy-makers to apply adaptive measures and overcome the unfavorable influences of climate change.

Liu Y; Yu D; Xun B; Sun Y; Hao R

2013-08-01

74

Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. barks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata.

Sousa OV; Del-Vechio-Vieira G; Alves MS; Araújo AA; Pinto MA; Amaral MP; Rodarte MP; Kaplan MA

2012-01-01

75

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata.

Orlando V. Sousa; Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira; Maria S. Alves; Aílson A. L. Araújo; Míriam A. O. Pinto; Maria P. H. Amaral; Mírian P. Rodarte; Maria A. C. Kaplan

2012-01-01

76

Growing willows with high tannin content in intensive plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An account is given of trial plantations established in 1977 at Novosibirsk. Data are presented on yields at 5 yr, viz. 4.4-4.9 t/ha of bark (oven-dry), the bark accounting for 14-17% of the total phytomass. These yields are some 5X superior to those of natural willow stands. Details are also given of the yields of wood (for chips) and foliage (for conversion to animal fodder). 6 references.

Suboch, G.N.

1984-01-01

77

Energy plantation for solving the crisis of fuel and energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrated efforts are required for achieving better social foresty in rural areas of India. There are a large number of tree species that can be considered for energy plantations. Some of the fuel wood plants are described: subabul, eucalyptus, agathi, babul, ber, casuarina, imli, karanji, pardeshibabul, siris, jamun, and neem. Carbohydrate plants contain sugar and starch and serve as the source of energy in the form of food and fuel. The latex of some plants can be processed as fuel oil. (Refs. 29).

Singhal, O.P.

1985-10-01

78

Role of catalysis in wood gasification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since catalysis is of such current interest, this paper presents a review of some of the literature which deals with the catalytic gasification of biomass. It also summarizes the preliminary results of a bench-scale fluid bed gasification study which employed Canadian hybrid poplar. The effect of such catalysts as potassium carbonate and calcium oxide on wood gasification is reported. Hybrid poplar was selected due to its rapid growth and, therefore, its relevance to the concept of wood energy plantations.

Fung, D.P.C.; Graham, R.

1980-01-01

79

Silviculture: growing more wood on less land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maximizing the production of a concentrated, homogeneous wood supply virtually dictates intensively managed plantations. This management system implies: (1) improving the composite genotype of plantation trees; (2) optimizing their morphological and physiological condition prior to and at planting time; (3) improving the physiological environment of the crop at all stages of development; (4) protecting the plantation from pests and catastrophic events; and (5) modifying the shapes, dimensions, and qualities of crop trees to enhance the utility and value of harvested timber. Beneficiation of forest residuals for fiber and fuel is pushing forest industry relentlessly toward total stand utilization. Relative to the productivity of undisturbed or partially logged humid tropical forests, plantation growth rates represent four-fold to ten-fold increases in volume production. Displacement of some proportion of shifting agriculture and natural forest management systems by intensively managed plantations is desirable and biologically feasible. A key to successful tropical forest management and preservation is population stability, a condition toward which integrated wood conversion facilities supplied by a reliable plantation system can make a major contribution. There are some pressing and many esoteric reasons for conserving forest resources but pressures for utilizing and renewing these resources are immediate and unavoidable.

Gladstone, W.T.

1980-01-01

80

Gujarat energy plantation project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of energy plantations is based on the systematic planting and raising of some quick-growing energy crop, and its use not only as a solid fuel in thermal power stations but also for the production of processed by-products that can produce energy, such as charcoal, methanol and ethyl alcohol. An energy plantation is one way of storing solar energy in a useful form over a long time, since the plants have the unique capacity of converting solar energy to organic matter by the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a continuous activity, creating organic material that burns as a safe fuel with less air pollution than fossil fuel. The planting of fast-growing varieties of hardy trees needing very little and infrequent watering, when grown in fallow or waste land, especially in semi-arid zones, has special significance in Third World countries. The choice of species is one of the most important factors determining the success of the project. High yields of fuel mass from energy plantations are possible when they are planted with denser than conventional spacing and harvested on shorter than conventional cycles; hence this can also be named 'high density, short duration forestry'.

Patel, H.B.

1983-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Plantation forestry in the tropics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the book is to give an account of plantation forestry in the tropics for the student in a developing country and as an introduction to those becoming concerned with the tropics and its development. It is an overview of plantation silviculture throughout the tropics with the broad purpose of setting silviculture in the context of development processes and the wider impacts plantations have in the environment. (Refs. 540).

Evans, J.

1982-01-01

82

Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Maesa lanceolata and Plectranthus punctatus against Haemonchus contortus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of the conventional anthelmintic drugs, has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep and goats and hence led to evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the leaves and fruits of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Maesa lanceolata and aerial parts of Plectranthus punctatus were evaluated on the egg and larvae of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay and larval development test. All extracts of plants tested have shown complete inhibition of egg hatching at or below 1 mg/ml. ED50 for egg hatch inhibition ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mg/ml, for both the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata. All extracts have shown dose dependent inhibition of larval development with variable results. The complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml) was obtained only for hydro-alcoholic extract of the fruits of Maesa lanceolata and the lowest inhibition (50.33%) was recorded for the hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves of the same plant. The overall findings of the present study has shown that Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of different extracts and fractions of these plants should be carried out.

Tadesse D; Eguale T; Giday M; Mussa A

2009-03-01

83

Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Maesa lanceolata and Plectranthus punctatus against Haemonchus contortus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of the conventional anthelmintic drugs, has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep and goats and hence led to evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the leaves and fruits of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Maesa lanceolata and aerial parts of Plectranthus punctatus were evaluated on the egg and larvae of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay and larval development test. All extracts of plants tested have shown complete inhibition of egg hatching at or below 1 mg/ml. ED50 for egg hatch inhibition ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mg/ml, for both the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata. All extracts have shown dose dependent inhibition of larval development with variable results. The complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml) was obtained only for hydro-alcoholic extract of the fruits of Maesa lanceolata and the lowest inhibition (50.33%) was recorded for the hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves of the same plant. The overall findings of the present study has shown that Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of different extracts and fractions of these plants should be carried out. PMID:19330920

Tadesse, Dereje; Eguale, Tadesse; Giday, Mirutse; Mussa, Abiy

2009-03-18

84

Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates on growth and arsenic accumulation in Plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of indigenous and non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata L. growing on substrate originating from mine waste rich in As was assessed in a pot experiment. P. lanceolata inoculated with AMF had higher shoot and root biomass and lower concentrations of As in roots than the non-inoculated plants. There were significant differences in As concentration and uptake between different AMF isolates. Inoculation with the indigenous isolate resulted in increased transfer of As from roots to shoots; AMF from non-polluted area apparently restricted plants from absorbing As to the tissue; and plants inoculated with an AMF isolate from Zn–Pb waste showed strong As retainment within the roots. Staining with dithizone indicated that AMF might be actively involved in As accumulation. The mycorrhizal colonization affected also the concentration of Cd and Zn in roots and Pb concentration, both in shoots and roots. - Highlights: ? The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in As uptake was studied. ? Growth of Plantago lanceolata was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. ? Arsenic concentration and uptake significantly depended on the AMF isolate. ? Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may be useful for bioremediation of As contaminated wastes. - Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata strongly depends on the origin of fungal isolates.

2012-01-01

85

PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA AND PLANTAGO RUGELII EXTRACTS ARE TOXIC TO MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA BUT NOT TO CERTAIN MICROBES  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Ph...

86

Energy plantations as an investment alternative: tax and legal aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report focuses on the tax aspects of investments in energy plantation business enterprises. Alternative tax treatments and associated tax issues are discussed in detail. This is followed by a discussion of investment structures appropriate for a range of investor types. The concluding section attempts to assess the impact of these tax considerations on the potential for energy plantations over the next twenty years. Findings indicate that energy plantation offer the potential to provide wood with a location utility second only to that of wood-processing plant residue. Energy plantations will become feasible as the location utility of available supplies of existing timber decreases. The availability of tax incentives should speed up the adoption of this technology. Unless it can be shown that the tax incentives available to producers of nonrenewable energy sources exceed those available to the producers of renewable energy sources, the application of the tax treatment afforded timber producers to energy plantation investors should be sufficient. The analysis reported herein concludes that trees grown for harvest as an energy source will qualify as ''timber'', and not as an agricultural crop under the Internal Revenue Code. It is expected that detailed investment analyses of alternative tax treatments and investment structures would confirm that treatment as timber would provide more favorable after-tax returns than treatment as a crop. An exception might be where substantial initial investments in land improvements are required. Treatment as a farm corp would, under certain circumstances, allow the deduction of these expenditures. 61 refs., 3 tabs.

Hoover, W.L.

1984-10-01

87

Primary energy inputs to plantation forestry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of 5.4 GJ/(ha year) required to establish, manage and harvest a first rotation radiata pine plantation in the Tumut sub-district of New South Wales, 13.1% of the energy (0.7 GJ) was supplied by coal, 86.3% (4.6 GJ) by oil, and less than 1% from other primary sources (hydroelectricity, wood and bagasse and natural gas). Energy was traced back to primary sources with the help of cumulative energy coefficients derived from input-output tables, for five input categories, viz. (a) fuel; (b) goods and services; (c) workshop repairs, spare parts and tyres; (d) steel and fabrication of machines; and (e) human labor; and used to determine direct plus indirect energy inputs. Of 3.9 GJ/(ha year) of oil energy used as fuel, most (3.3 GJ) was used for harvesting operations. Repairs and tyres indirectly consumed a surprising 0.5 GJ/(Ha year) of oil-supplied energy. Most coal energy was used in steel and fabrication of machines (0.3 GJ) and in repairs (0.2 GJ). Goods and services and human labor between them accounted for only about 5% of energy used. Harvesting is easily the most energy-intensive of all plantation operations (4.3 GJ/(ha year)), as this operation becomes more fully mechanized and better utilization, particularly of small-sized logs, is practiced, energy inputs per ha could double so that by 1995, when the pinus estate in Australia might be 1 million ha, 1.7 million barrels (barrel = 160 l) of crude oil might be needed annually for pinus plantation forestry unless suitable fuel substitutes are found. This is 0.6% of the country's anticipated total consumption of crude oil.

Wells, K.F.

1984-01-01

88

Comparison of soil labile organic carbon in Chinese fir plantations and natural secondary forests in north subtropical areas of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims Our objective was to assess the effects of land use type conversion on the soil liable organic carbon pool in north subtropical areas of China.Methods We used reference land unit to collect soil samples in natural secondary forests and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations and analyzed liable organic carbon in the depth of 0–60 cm.Important findings The contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC), easily-oxidized carbon (EOC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and light fraction organic matter (LFOM) in the soil of natural secondary forests were higher than those in Chinese fir plantations. The variations in amplitude for these four parameters were 19.0%–32.6%, 0.8%–30.3%, 3.8%–54.1% and 6.3%–38.6%, respectively. There were significant differences in the depth of 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm (p < 0.05) (WSOC was only significantly different in the depth of 0–10 cm). The ratios of WSOC and EOC to TOC content in Chinese fir plantations were higher than those in natural secondary forests. WSOC, EOC and LFOM were significantly related to TOC in the two forest stands, and the correlation coefficients of EOC and LFOM to TOC in natural secondary forests were higher than those in Chinese fir plantations. TOC, WSOC, EOC and LFOM were all significantly related to soil nutrients (total N, hydrolysis N and available K, Ca and Mg).

LIU Rong-Jie; WU Ya-Cong; ZHANG Ying; LI Zheng-Cai; MA Shao-Jie; WANG Bin; GERI Le-Tu

2012-01-01

89

The role of plantation sinks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper it is argued that in the long term biofuel should play a significant role in global climate policy. Recent technological developments, as well as sustainable development criteria, would favour growing biofuel in community- scale plantations in developing countries. It is also pointed out that the lead times involved in growing biofuels are so great that the inclusion of biofuel plantation sinks in the CDM for the first commitment period would be desirable. It is suggested that to meet opposition to the inclusion of plantation sinks in the first commitment period plantation, sinks should be linked to biofuels technology development and production, and a biofuels obligation for plantation sink projects in the CDM should be established. (Author)

Read, Peter

2001-07-01

90

The role of plantation sinks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper it is argued that in the long term biofuel should play a significant role in global climate policy. Recent technological developments, as well as sustainable development criteria, would favour growing biofuel in community- scale plantations in developing countries. It is also pointed out that the lead times involved in growing biofuels are so great that the inclusion of biofuel plantation sinks in the CDM for the first commitment period would be desirable. It is suggested that to meet opposition to the inclusion of plantation sinks in the first commitment period plantation, sinks should be linked to biofuels technology development and production, and a biofuels obligation for plantation sink projects in the CDM should be established. (Author)

2001-01-01

91

Wood carbonization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various wood carbonisation processes and their products and yield are described. The charcoal is processed into activated carbon, and the gas is used for drying the wood and heating the retorts. Acetic acid is obtained from the wood vinegar and the wood tar can be used as binder for the activated carbon or as impregnating material or can be processed chemically.

Brocksiepe, H.G.

1981-11-01

92

Extant forest plantations as a potential bridge between social needs and ecological management: A comparative case study analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the face of global deforestation, there is a challenge to balance the management of areas of high conservation concern and social interests. As a response to the growing human-environment interface and the use of forests for subsistence, plantations became a management tool to provide for wood harvesting during the 1970s. Some plantations were subsequently protected from harvest as conservation of all forests increased. Plantations that are now illegal to harvest can cause local animosities toward forest protection to increase and may also result in concentrated harvesting impacts on surrounding natural forests. In this article, we analyzed case studies of plantations from El Salvador and Niger. By utilizing distinctly disparate case studies, commonalities between the two can illuminate possible management lessons. In the comparison of El Salvador and Niger forest plantations we found the following commonalities: utilizing plantations for sustainable harvest has the to potential to reduce animosity between managers and stakeholders; plantations can serve as a risk-averse testing ground for novel managerial practices; and the sustainable harvest of plantations can reduce deforestation and impacts on biodiversity in natural remnant forests. We argue that extant plantations currently under illegal harvesting legislation could become the epicenters of social and ecological conservation through a management shift to sustainable harvesting. By focusing on these relics, managers could work with stakeholders to change unduly burdening restrictions and promote cooperation between conservationists and local populations.

Paulson Priebe ME; Müller JG

2013-09-01

93

Extant forest plantations as a potential bridge between social needs and ecological management: A comparative case study analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the face of global deforestation, there is a challenge to balance the management of areas of high conservation concern and social interests. As a response to the growing human-environment interface and the use of forests for subsistence, plantations became a management tool to provide for wood harvesting during the 1970s. Some plantations were subsequently protected from harvest as conservation of all forests increased. Plantations that are now illegal to harvest can cause local animosities toward forest protection to increase and may also result in concentrated harvesting impacts on surrounding natural forests. In this article, we analyzed case studies of plantations from El Salvador and Niger. By utilizing distinctly disparate case studies, commonalities between the two can illuminate possible management lessons. In the comparison of El Salvador and Niger forest plantations we found the following commonalities: utilizing plantations for sustainable harvest has the to potential to reduce animosity between managers and stakeholders; plantations can serve as a risk-averse testing ground for novel managerial practices; and the sustainable harvest of plantations can reduce deforestation and impacts on biodiversity in natural remnant forests. We argue that extant plantations currently under illegal harvesting legislation could become the epicenters of social and ecological conservation through a management shift to sustainable harvesting. By focusing on these relics, managers could work with stakeholders to change unduly burdening restrictions and promote cooperation between conservationists and local populations. PMID:24036094

Paulson Priebe, M E; Müller, J G

2013-09-11

94

Plantation programmes through people's participation: a case study from India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a framework for analysing land regeneration programmes combining financial, economic and environmental aspects as applied to a wood plantation programme undertaken by a Tree Grower's Cooperative Society (TGCS) established by the National Tree Grower's Cooperative Federation (NTGCF), Anand, India. Mallanahally TGCS, situated in the southern part of Karnataka state in India was selected and a survey was carried out. Benefit-cost ratios and internal rate of return are worked out for various situations. The paper also examines the role of cooperatives in managing plantation activities and assesses the distributional aspects of the benefits of the plantations. The survey elicited information on the villagers' perceptions regarding benefits from and barriers to implementation of plantation programmes. It is shown here that despite apparently unequal distribution of benefits, the present arrangements preserve cooperation as each of the stakeholders derive positive benefits.

Reddy, B.S.; Parikh, J.K.; Srinivasan, P.V. [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

1999-09-01

95

Hybrid poplar plantations in the Lake States - a financial analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hybrid poplar plantations in the Lake States may be a low-cost alternative to conventional sources of wood fiber for industrial users in some areas, but in most areas at this time they are high-risk, low-return investments. On the basis of our specific assumptions and 1979 prices, the return on investment of nonirrigated plantations is projected to be 8 percent. Irrigated plantations have a slightly negative rate of return. Rates differ little between short (5 to 10 years) and long (15 years) rotations. Investment performance measures are most sensitive to estimates of product sale value, yields, irrigation costs, and harvesting costs. The economic feasibility of various intensive production systems would be enhanced if irrigation costs could be reduced and if much higher prices could be obtained for wood fiber. Price increases would, however, tend to sustain the greater economic attractiveness of nonirrigated systems. The detailed sensitivity analyses carried out in the study will permit periodic reevaluation of the economic attractiveness of intensive culture systems as better information becomes available and as significant changes in prices and costs occur. (Refs. 3).

Rose, D.W.; Lothner, D.C.; Zavitkovski, J.; Ferguson, K.D.

1981-10-01

96

Importance of plantation thinnings to the industrial forester  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The southern forest products companies have planted over 14.5 billion pine trees in the South during the past 35 years, according to a recent report by the Southern Forest Institute. Using 900 trees per acre as an estimated planting rate, these trees were used to reforest approximately 6,480,000 hectares (25,000 square miles) of southern forest lands. This estimate does not include trees planted on land held by private nonindustrial landowners or by various government agencies. The most recent estimates made by the U.S. Forest Service indicate that as of 1978, 8.9 million ha were in some form of pine plantation management in the 12 southern states. The large investment required to establish the pulp and paper industry's portion of these plantations were made to insure future wood supply and to reduce the cost of delivered fiber. The plantations will provide high-volume yields of uniformly spaced, high-quality trees that should provide major savings in logging costs. The culture and improvement of these plantations through the practice of good forest silviculture is, therefore, important to the southern pulp and paper industry. Silvicultural treatments designed to improve yield and product mix are essential to achieve these goals.

Hill, H.J.

1985-08-01

97

Dry matter production by Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn plantation in Jabalpur  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present investigation was undertaken on 15 year old (1969) and 5 year old (1979) plants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn raised on the area of Regional Forest Research Centre, Jabalpur. The entire area of plantation was divided in 5 equal compartments. Five trees from each compartment were randombly selected and felled for above ground and below ground biomass studies. Growth parameters in 15 year old plantation were 2-4 times that of plants in 5 year old plantations. The root length was traced to a depth of less than 3 m in all cases. However, the lateral spread was unimaginably vast. The mean lateral spread of 20.3 m was observed in 15 year old plants and 9.01 m in 5 year old plants. The propaganda against Eucalyptus that it is responsible for drying-up of underground water reserve is thus disproved from these studies. These vast lateral root system may be responsible for the utilisation of even the slightest amount of surface moisture which may be available just below the surface in any form of precipitation. In terms of mean annual productivity it was 15.92 t/h/year in 15 year old plants and 6.03 t/h year in 5 year old plants. The maximum contribution to the total above ground biomass has been observed by stem-wood in both plantations.

1984-09-01

98

Studies on chemical constituents of the essential oil from the root of Cunninghamia lanceolata  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, root of Cunninghamia lanceolata have been determined by steam distilations, in which the essential oil amounts to 1.9%-2.3%. The essential oil with specific mass 0.858 0-0.871 0, refractive index (20deg C) 1.474 5, specific rotatory power +0.5°, also have been determined by classical ways. Chemical constituents of the essential oil from the root of Cunninghamia lanceolata analysed by the aid of GC, GC/MS/DS, IR, NMR and other methods are reported, 52 components have been identified. The principal constituents of the essential oil were cedar camphor (39.48%), alpha-pinene, limonene, p-cymene, alpha-terpineol, alpha-cedrene, alpha-acorene, beta-elemene etc. The total content of the above 52 compounds is 96.87% of the essential oil.

Sun Lingfeng; Chen Xin; Liu Xiujuan; Ye Wenfeng

2000-01-01

99

Structural and productive-developmental characteristics of white willow plantations of different density on humogley in Donji Srem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted in two plantations of white willow (Salix alba L.) in Donji Srem on the humogley soil type (hydromorphic black soil), which belongs to a narrow-leaved ash forest with remote sedge (Carici remotae - Fraxinetum angustifoliae Jov. et Tom., 1979). The plantations are located in the same depression. The SP (sample plot)-1 plantation is 21 years old with a 6×6 m planting spacing, and the SP-2 plantation is 27 years old with a 3×3m planting spacing. Elements of stem growth in the SP-1 plantation showed that with the white willow planting spacing of 6×6 m and a planned 25-year production cycle it is possible to obtain about 250 m3•ha-1 of timber volume, with an 80% net share of technical wood and a 20 % share of pulp wood. The plantation in SP-2 is at the age, which is well above the optimum age in terms of rational management, and the total volume at the age of 27 years is about 300 m3•ha-1, with a 53.7% net share of technical wood and a 46.3% share of pulpwood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: pra?enje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

Andrašev Siniša; Vu?kovi? Milivoj; Bobinac Martin; Ivaniševi? Petar; Staji? Branko

2012-01-01

100

Screening of fungi capable of degrading lignocellulose from plantation forests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an effort to prevent forest fires after the clear cutting of plantation forests, fungi capable of degrading lignocelluloses were isolated to make a fertilizer from the logging waste. Seventy five fungal species were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia in plantation forests of South and North Sumatera, Indonesia. Sixty three of the fungi were identified based on the appearance and morphological characteristics of their fruiting bodies and mycelia, as Pycnoporus sanguineus, Dacryopinax spathularia, Schizophyllum commune, Polyporus sp. and Trametes sp. Twenty fungi were categorized as white-rot fungi and 12 as brown-rot fungi. Moreover, isolates 371, 368, 265, 346, 345 and 338 were selected using indicators and tested for the ability to degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal over 1 to 4 weeks. Results showed that the 6 fungi could degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in wood meal. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of lignin and holo-cellulose. Isolate 371 was found to be best at degrading lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal.

Djarwanto; Tachibana S

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Screening of Fungi Capable of Degrading Lignocellulose from Plantation Forests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an effort to prevent forest fires after the clear cutting of plantation forests, fungi capable of degrading lignocelluloses were isolated to make a fertilizer from the logging waste. Seventy five fungal species were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia in plantation forests of South and North Sumatera, Indonesia. Sixty three of the fungi were identified based on the appearance and morphological characteristics of their fruiting bodies and mycelia, as Pycnoporus sanguineus, Dacryopinax spathularia, Schizophyllum commune, Polyporus sp. and Trametes sp. Twenty fungi were categorized as white-rot fungi and 12 as brown-rot fungi. Moreover, isolates 371, 368, 265, 346, 345 and 338 were selected using indicators and tested for the ability to degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal over 1 to 4 weeks. Results showed that the 6 fungi could degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in wood meal. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of lignin and holo-cellulose. Isolate 371 was found to be best at degrading lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal.

Djarwanto; S. Tachibana

2009-01-01

102

Screening of fungi capable of degrading lignocellulose from plantation forests.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to prevent forest fires after the clear cutting of plantation forests, fungi capable of degrading lignocelluloses were isolated to make a fertilizer from the logging waste. Seventy five fungal species were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia in plantation forests of South and North Sumatera, Indonesia. Sixty three of the fungi were identified based on the appearance and morphological characteristics of their fruiting bodies and mycelia, as Pycnoporus sanguineus, Dacryopinax spathularia, Schizophyllum commune, Polyporus sp. and Trametes sp. Twenty fungi were categorized as white-rot fungi and 12 as brown-rot fungi. Moreover, isolates 371, 368, 265, 346, 345 and 338 were selected using indicators and tested for the ability to degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal over 1 to 4 weeks. Results showed that the 6 fungi could degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in wood meal. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of lignin and holo-cellulose. Isolate 371 was found to be best at degrading lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal. PMID:19634469

Djarwanto; Tachibana, S

2009-05-01

103

Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

104

Biomass Energy for Hawaii. Volume IV. Terrestrial and Marine Plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Markets--(the energy chip market, the pulp chip market, dual market); Plantation design--(Crops, scenarios and plantation siting, start-up and establishment, plantation operation, conversion); Profitability--(plantation ownership, return on inve...

1977-01-01

105

Management of eucalypt plantations on Henderson Research Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An account is given of the practical details of managing small eucalypt plantations (mainly Eucalyptus grandis) for local use. An application of 800 kg dolomitic lime and 14 kg colemanite before planting supplies boron. The first coppicing is at 7-10 years, when diameter at ground level is about 30 cm. After one year coppice is thinned to 3 shoots per stool, and after a further 12-18 months, to 1 shoot, unless the adjacent stump has failed. It is calculated from experience that the station's annual requirement is 1.1 cubic meters of wood per person. 8 references

Evans, R.E.

1982-01-01

106

Application of a small forwarder in plantation thinning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of the Gafner Iron Mule was examined in 2 trials in Louisiana in November 1980, and 1 in South Carolina in January 1981. The forwarders were less sensitive to weather and terrain and required less access area than the current most commonly used method, the bobtail truck system. Travel speeds were influenced only by the distance travelled. Forwarding production and costs were estimated for a hypothetical loblolly pine plantation thinning to examine the effects of pile size and log length. Estimates indicated that large piles of wood were less expensive to forward than small piles, and that production rates increased and cost rates decreased when longer logs were forwarded.

Lanford, B.L.

1982-01-01

107

THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to review the current status of oil palm biomass, including the availability of this tree, in order to illustrate the potential of oil palm biomass as an alternative source for compressed wood. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of compressed wood from oil palm trunk. This paper will cover the background of compressed wood and the possibilities of producing compressed wood using oil palm trunk as a raw material.

Othman Sulaiman,; Nurjannah Salim,; Noor Afeefah Nordin,; Rokiah Hashim; , Mazlan Ibrahim,; Masatoshi Sato

2012-01-01

108

Flavored wood pellet with wood oil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to flavored wood pellets and a method of making flavored wood pellets. The wood pellets of this invention include wood particles, lubricant, and wood oil. Another aspect of the invention is a method that includes mixing wood particles with lubricant and wood oil, heating the mixture, and forming the mixture into pellets.

TRAEGER JOSEPH P; TRAEGER MARK A; TRAEGER RANDOLPH J; TRAEGER BRIAN E

109

Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The antiobesity effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL) were evaluated in a high-calorie/high-fat-diet (HFD-) induced obesity rat model and 3T3-L1 cells. The Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a normal diet (ND) or a HFD for a period of 12 weeks. The rats were subdivided into groups: ND, ND + wild Codonopsis lanceolata (wCL) (900?mg/kg/day, p.o.), ND + cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata (cCL) (900?mg/kg/day, p.o.), HFD, HFD + wCL (100, 300, or 900?mg/kg/day, p.o.), HFD + cCL (100, 300, or 900?mg/kg/day, p.o.), and HFD + sibutramine. The body weight gains of the administered HFD + CL (wCL or CCL) were lower than those of the rats fed with only the HFD group. Moreover, the weight of adipose pads and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the group administered HDL + CL were significantly lower than in the HFD group. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with wCL inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of C/EBP? and PPAR?. These results suggest that CL has a great potential as a functional food with anti-obesity effects and as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity.

Choi, Hye-Kyung; Won, Eun-Kyung; Jang, Young Pyo; Choung, Se-Young

2013-01-01

110

Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antiobesity effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL) were evaluated in a high-calorie/high-fat-diet (HFD-) induced obesity rat model and 3T3-L1 cells. The Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a normal diet (ND) or a HFD for a period of 12 weeks. The rats were subdivided into groups: ND, ND + wild Codonopsis lanceolata (wCL) (900?mg/kg/day, p.o.), ND + cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata (cCL) (900?mg/kg/day, p.o.), HFD, HFD + wCL (100, 300, or 900?mg/kg/day, p.o.), HFD + cCL (100, 300, or 900?mg/kg/day, p.o.), and HFD + sibutramine. The body weight gains of the administered HFD + CL (wCL or CCL) were lower than those of the rats fed with only the HFD group. Moreover, the weight of adipose pads and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the group administered HDL + CL were significantly lower than in the HFD group. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with wCL inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of C/EBP? and PPAR?. These results suggest that CL has a great potential as a functional food with anti-obesity effects and as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity.

Choi HK; Won EK; Jang YP; Choung SY

2013-01-01

111

Regulatory effects of Codonopsis lanceolata on macrophage-mediated immune responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Codonopsis lanceolata L. has long been used as a folk medicine in Korea, Japan and China for the treatment of lung inflammatory diseases. In this study, therefore, we aimed to demonstrate its ethnopharmacological activity by examining macrophage-function regulating effects. The total methanol extracts of fresh leaves (l-TME) or roots (r-TME) of Codonopsis lanceolata L. significantly suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide [NO] and tumor necrosis factor [TNF-alpha]) without altering mRNA levels. The expression of interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-6, however, was strongly diminished. According to the analysis of signaling enzyme activation by immunoblotting, phospho-IkappaB levels, a representative pro-inflammatory gene activation pathway, were not affected by the TMEs. By contrast, the Raf-ERK signaling pathway, which was involved in regulation of post-translational modification of pro-inflammatory gene products, was strongly blocked after 6-h of exposure. Moreover, l-TME down-regulated LPS-mediated phagocytic uptake and CD29-mediated cell-cell adhesion, while r-TME strongly up-regulated these two cellular events as well as fibronectin-cell adhesion. The surface levels of the costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) of RAW264.7 cells were also enhanced by these extracts. l-TME also diminished functional activation (assessed by NO production) and the surface level of dectin-1, but not toll-like receptor (TLR)-2. Taken together, these data suggest that Codonopsis lanceolata may have the ability to modulate macrophage-mediated immune responses, thus contributing to its anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:17418512

Lee, Yong Gyu; Kim, Joo Young; Lee, Ji Yeon; Byeon, Se Eun; Hong, Eock Kee; Lee, Jaehwi; Rhee, Man Hee; Park, Hwa Jin; Cho, Jae Youl

2007-03-06

112

Regulatory effects of Codonopsis lanceolata on macrophage-mediated immune responses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Codonopsis lanceolata L. has long been used as a folk medicine in Korea, Japan and China for the treatment of lung inflammatory diseases. In this study, therefore, we aimed to demonstrate its ethnopharmacological activity by examining macrophage-function regulating effects. The total methanol extracts of fresh leaves (l-TME) or roots (r-TME) of Codonopsis lanceolata L. significantly suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide [NO] and tumor necrosis factor [TNF-alpha]) without altering mRNA levels. The expression of interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-6, however, was strongly diminished. According to the analysis of signaling enzyme activation by immunoblotting, phospho-IkappaB levels, a representative pro-inflammatory gene activation pathway, were not affected by the TMEs. By contrast, the Raf-ERK signaling pathway, which was involved in regulation of post-translational modification of pro-inflammatory gene products, was strongly blocked after 6-h of exposure. Moreover, l-TME down-regulated LPS-mediated phagocytic uptake and CD29-mediated cell-cell adhesion, while r-TME strongly up-regulated these two cellular events as well as fibronectin-cell adhesion. The surface levels of the costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) of RAW264.7 cells were also enhanced by these extracts. l-TME also diminished functional activation (assessed by NO production) and the surface level of dectin-1, but not toll-like receptor (TLR)-2. Taken together, these data suggest that Codonopsis lanceolata may have the ability to modulate macrophage-mediated immune responses, thus contributing to its anti-inflammatory activity.

Lee YG; Kim JY; Lee JY; Byeon SE; Hong EK; Lee J; Rhee MH; Park HJ; Cho JY

2007-05-01

113

Whole tree harvesting systems for wood fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whole tree harvesting systems for wood fuel, including both integrated harvesting and whole tree comminution systems, have been investigated in a series of harvesting trials. Integrated harvesting, which is applicable to both thinning and clearfell operations, is defined as one in which an energy element is harvested in conjunction with conventional roundwood products. Whole tree comminution systems are applicable to both early thinning and to some forms of premature clearfell where the small tree size and poor form combine to render the use of conventional means of harvesting uneconomic. Both systems were investigated in a range of commercial forestry crops, with the emphasis on conifer species, in varying terrain conditions throughout the United Kingdom. The series of harvesting trials was used to establish production functions, in terms of harvesting productivity and cost for harvesting wood fuel from commercial conifer plantations. Data obtained from the results of the harvesting trials was incorporated into a computer based Harvesting Decision Support System (HDSS). Wood fuel yields, essential to estimating the potential resource and determining harvesting costs, were established as a function of individual tree stem volume and the wet weight of the wood fuel. HDSS was used to determine harvesting costs for a series of representative whole tree harvesting systems for harvesting wood fuel from commercial conifer plantations. Both integrated harvesting and whole tree comminution systems were costed for early thinning, and integrated harvesting systems for clearfell. (Author)

Mitchell, C.P.; Hudson, J.B.; Storry, P.G.S.; Brown, M.J.

1993-09-01

114

Chalcones from the flowers of Coreopsis lanceolata and their in vitro antioxidative activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three new chalcones, 3,2'-dihydroxy-4,3'-dimethoxychalcone-4'-glucoside (1), 4'-O-(2'''-O-caffeoyl)2',3',3,4-tetrahydroxychalcone (2), and 2',4',3-trihydroxy-3',4-dimethoxychalcone (3), along with five known phenolics, were isolated from Coreopsis lanceolata flowers. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including NMR and MS. The three new chalcones showed a good in vitro HepG2 cell protecting effect against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress.

Shang YF; Oidovsambuu S; Jeon JS; Nho CW; Um BH

2013-03-01

115

Does intensive culture affect the quality of slash pine wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sample was taken from four plots of an eight year old slash pine plantation, where each plot had been subject to a different management regime. The borings taken were tested for physical and mechanical properties and indicated that cultural treatments did not significantly affect wood characteristics.

Fogg, P.J.; Choong, E.T.

1980-11-01

116

Cleaning of drainage water from agricultural land using a willow plantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment using a willow plantation as a vegetation filter for cleaning of drainage water from agricultural land was established on a sandy soil in southwestern Sweden. Large amounts of nitrogen rich drainage water were collected in a pond, pumped into the willow plantation and distributed by flooding in shallow furrows. Measurements of the nitrogen content in the green willow leaves and in the percolating groundwater showed that large amounts of nitrogen supplied with the irrigation water were taken up effectively by the willow root system. The stem biomass production rates were high. The experiment showed that an irrigated willow plantation can act as a vegetation filter for cleaning of nitrogen in polluted drainage water and at the same time produce wood biomass for energy purposes. (au).

1997-01-01

117

Cleaning of drainage water from agricultural land using a willow plantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field experiment using a willow plantation as a vegetation filter for cleaning of drainage water from agricultural land was established on a sandy soil in southwestern Sweden. Large amounts of nitrogen rich drainage water were collected in a pond, pumped into the willow plantation and distributed by flooding in shallow furrows. Measurements of the nitrogen content in the green willow leaves and in the percolating groundwater showed that large amounts of nitrogen supplied with the irrigation water were taken up effectively by the willow root system. The stem biomass production rates were high. The experiment showed that an irrigated willow plantation can act as a vegetation filter for cleaning of nitrogen in polluted drainage water and at the same time produce wood biomass for energy purposes. (au)

Johansson, U. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Toennersjoeheden Experimental Forest, Simlaangsdalen (Sweden); Elowson, S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry, Uppsala (Sweden)

1997-10-01

118

Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP) were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley), but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land). [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

Ke?a Ljiljana; Ke?a Nenad

2013-01-01

119

Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel.) on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.) plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut); 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI), leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR) and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut growth and especially on radial increment, a very important matter being common walnut the target species with a very appreciated and valuable wood.

Cutini A; Giannini T

2009-01-01

120

Pluchea lanceolata attenuates cadmium chloride induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cadmium intoxication induces lipid peroxidation and causes oxidative damage to various tissues by altering antioxidant defence system enzymes. At 24 h after treatment with a single intraperitoneal dose of cadmium chloride (5 mg kg-1), Swiss albino mice showed a significant increase in the levels of malanodialdehyde and xanthine oxidase (P<0.001), and a concomitant depletion of renal glutathione, catalase (P<0.001) and other antioxidant enzymes. CdCl2 also led to a simultaneous increase in micronuclei formation (P<0.001) and chromosomal aberrations (P<0.05) in mouse bone marrow cells. Oral pre-treatment with Pluchea lanceolata extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 for 7 consecutive days before CdCl2 intoxication caused a significant reduction in malanodialdehyde formation and xanthine oxidase activity (P<0.001). A significant restoration of the activity of antioxidant defence system enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05), glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase (P<0.001) was observed. A significant dose-dependent decrease in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation was also observed (P<0.05). The results indicate that pre-treatment with P. lanceolata attenuates cadmium chloride induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity by altering antioxidant enzymes and reducing chromatid breaks and micronuclei formation.

Jahangir T; Khan TH; Prasad L; Sultana S

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Babanezhad, M. [Department of statistics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vitharana, U.W.A. [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Wuytack, T.; Potters, G. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Samson, R., E-mail: Roeland.Samson@ua.ac.b [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

2010-03-15

122

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

2010-01-01

123

THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN.) WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and colour change of the wood specimens were tested in comparison with untreated specimens. The results showed that density, swelling, and hardness decreased with increasing treatment temperature and durations while heat treatment made the colour of the wood specimens darker

O Unsal; S Korkut; C Atik

2003-01-01

124

The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture.

1991-01-01

125

Dendrothermal dream threatened in the Philippines: plantation yields and budgets are slowing progress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The components were there - educated personnel with managerial skills, large areas of underutilized land, excellent climate for tree growth, low-cost labor. The incentive was there - escalating oil prices in the 1970s. Thus, in 1979, the Philippine Dendrothermal Power Program got under way. Planners envisioned 60 to 70 wood-fired electric power plants with a total generating capacity of 200 megawatts (Denton 1983). The power plants - fueled by wood from fast-growing tree plantations-promised employment and income for tree farmers, stable electric rates for consumers, reduced oil imports, rural-to-urban migration, and additional hectares of reforested land. This paper discusses the status of the program.

Durst, P.B.

1986-08-01

126

Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

2010-01-01

127

Main pollinators and their foraging behaviors on a sand-fixing legume, Thermopsis lanceolata, in Mu Us Sandland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thermopsis lanceolata is sand-fixing plant that plays an important role as a spring nectar source in northeastern China; however, little is known about its reproductive characteristics. To ascertain the major pollinators of T. lanceolata, we identified foraging behaviors, pollination process, activity rhythm of floral visitors and the effect of nectar robbers on the seed setting were investigated in Mu Us Sandland, Inner Mongolia. We used photo, video and visual measurement to observe floral visitors in a 10 m × 10 m quadrat. We recorded the species, pollinating behaviors and visiting frequency of all pollinators from 06:00 hours until 19:00 hours in sunny days. Based on visitation frequencies and pollen amounts carried on the body, two bee species, Megachile japonica and Hoplitis princeps were identified as the primary pollinators of T. lanceolata., but visiting frequencies between the two species were significantly different. Daily activity of M. japonica was bimodal with diurnal foraging activities during 9:00–13:00 and 16:00–18:00 hours, whereas daily activity of H. princeps was of unimodal type from 11:30 to 16:30 hours. We also noted nectar robbing behaviors by M. japonica due to the presence of nectar acquisition holes at the base of the flower of T. lanceolata, but found that these behaviors had no effect on seed setting. Pollinator activity peaks indicate acomplementary relationship between M. japonica and H. princeps. Our observations of visiting frequencies suggest that M. japonica was a dominant pollinator for T. lanceolata.

Hongyan Hu; Huan Chen; Huanli Xu

2012-01-01

128

An intensive plantation of poplars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A french land owner and forester planted 3.6 ha of short rotation coppice on a meadow with the technical support of Cellulose Forest Association (AFOCEL). The crop of poplars can either be sold to trituration industries or used as energy source for the heating. Moreover, an intensive plantation of poplars can solve the problem of set-aside lands fixed by the PAC (European Agricultural Policy). (TEC). 2 figs.

Maussion, J. de

1993-12-31

129

Harvesting methods for energy plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief description is given of a prototype harvester, developed by the National Research Council of Canada for harvesting short-rotation energy plantations, such as 5-yr-old or less hybrid poplar. Trees of diameter 12-20 cm are felled with 2 horizontal circular saws and then bunched (up to 6 trees) by 2 accumulators fixed to the front of the machine.

Morley, P.M.

1983-01-01

130

Estonian energy forest plantations - General information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to promote research and application of fast-growing, short rotation forestry in Estonia, seven energy forest plantations were established within the frame of scientific cooperation of multiple Estonian research institutions and SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) in 1993-1995. This paper presents a general description of the Estonian energy forest plantations and a short review of the research, which is carried out on the basis of these plantations. 9 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

Koppel, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tartu (Estonia). Inst. of Zoology and Botany; Perttu, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry; Ross, J. [Tartu Observatory, Tartumaa (Estonia)

1996-12-31

131

Federal tax incentives and disincentives for the adoption of wood-fuel electric-generating technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper, we estimate the effects of current federal tax policy on the financial criteria that investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) and non-utility electricity generators (NUGs) use to evaluate wood-fuel electric-generating technologies, distinguishing between dedicated-plantation and wood-waste fuels. Accelerated tax depreciation, the 1.5 cent/kWh production tax credit for the dedicated-plantation technology, and the alternative minimum tax are the most important tax provisions. The results indicate that federal tax laws have significantly different effects on the evaluation criteria, depending on the plant's ownership (IOU vs NUG) and type of fuel (dedicated-plantation vs wood-waste). (Author)

1995-01-01

132

WOOD WELDING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in the rubbed surfaces reaching 170 ºC, and the consequent change of state of the lignin and hemicelluloses, that then melt and flow. The process results in the detachment of wood cells, and in a formation of a fibers entanglement network immersed in a matrix of molten material which then solidifies. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs obtained shows a considerable physic-chemical reorganization in the bulk of the joint. This new composition of detachment wood cells/fibers of the two surfaces, a entanglement network immersed in a matrix of molten polymericmaterial, mainly melted lignin, yields in the interface of the welding a bond of considerable strength.

Marcos Theodoro Muller; Rafael Rodolfo de Melo; Diego Martins Stangerlin

2010-01-01

133

Filamentous fungi from Plantago lanceolata L. leaves: contribution to the pattern and stability of bioactive metabolites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to test contribution of plant-associated microorganism (PAMs) to metabolite stability/instability in a medicinal plant matrix. Therefore, PAM strains were isolated and identified based on relevant DNA sequences from Plantago lanceolata leaves. Sterile water extracts of P. lanceolata were incubated with the isolated strains and antioxidants (ascorbic acid (AA), and EDTA) for 15 days, and changes in the concentrations of chief bioactive constituents (aucubin, catalpol, acteoside (=verbascoside)) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. Phenolic breakdown-products were identified by GC-MS. PAMs were identified from the genera Epicoccum, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Leptosphaerulina, Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium (pathongens, endophytes, and other species). Some fungi caused significant decomposition of the chief constituents (p<0.001). Surprisingly, some strains inhibited breakdown of acteoside (p<0.001). Meanwhile, concentration of several phenolic acids increased in fungi-infested extracts (p<0.001). Gentisic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxytyrosol were only present when the extract was infested with a PAM. The products are powerful antioxidants and chelators. Concentrations of phenolic acids influenced acteoside stability significantly (p<0.01), as shown by basic data-mining techniques. AA and EDTA also significantly inhibited acteoside breakdown in sterile model solutions (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the phenolic acid mixture (produced during the fungal proliferation) protected acteoside from breakdown, possibly via its antioxidant activity and metal complexing ability. It was shown that PAMs can increase or decrease the stability of chief metabolites in herbal matrices, and can significantly alter the chemical pattern of the plant matrix.

Gonda S; Kiss A; Emri T; Batta G; Vasas G

2013-02-01

134

Filamentous fungi from Plantago lanceolata L. leaves: contribution to the pattern and stability of bioactive metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to test contribution of plant-associated microorganism (PAMs) to metabolite stability/instability in a medicinal plant matrix. Therefore, PAM strains were isolated and identified based on relevant DNA sequences from Plantago lanceolata leaves. Sterile water extracts of P. lanceolata were incubated with the isolated strains and antioxidants (ascorbic acid (AA), and EDTA) for 15 days, and changes in the concentrations of chief bioactive constituents (aucubin, catalpol, acteoside (=verbascoside)) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. Phenolic breakdown-products were identified by GC-MS. PAMs were identified from the genera Epicoccum, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Leptosphaerulina, Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium (pathongens, endophytes, and other species). Some fungi caused significant decomposition of the chief constituents (p<0.001). Surprisingly, some strains inhibited breakdown of acteoside (p<0.001). Meanwhile, concentration of several phenolic acids increased in fungi-infested extracts (p<0.001). Gentisic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxytyrosol were only present when the extract was infested with a PAM. The products are powerful antioxidants and chelators. Concentrations of phenolic acids influenced acteoside stability significantly (p<0.01), as shown by basic data-mining techniques. AA and EDTA also significantly inhibited acteoside breakdown in sterile model solutions (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the phenolic acid mixture (produced during the fungal proliferation) protected acteoside from breakdown, possibly via its antioxidant activity and metal complexing ability. It was shown that PAMs can increase or decrease the stability of chief metabolites in herbal matrices, and can significantly alter the chemical pattern of the plant matrix. PMID:23168247

Gonda, Sándor; Kiss, Attila; Emri, Tamás; Batta, Gyula; Vasas, Gábor

2012-11-17

135

Safety evaluations of aqueous stem bark extract of Lophira lanceolata in Sprague dawley rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lophira lanceolata extract is widely used to enhance sexual performance among the male population in Sokoto state, Nigeria. The efficacy of this extract to enhance sexual behaviours in experimental animals has been reported. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety of oral administration of the plant extract in Sprague dawley rats. Various concentrations (500, 1000, 3000 and 5000mg/kg body weight of aqueous stem bark extract of Lophira lanceolata were administered orally to four groups of rats to test for acute toxicity. Also, the effects of oral administration of the extract at 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days on the body weight, some haematological and biochemical parameters of the animals were investigated. The result showed that, a single oral dose treatment with up to 5000mg/kg of the extract did not cause any dead or observable adverse effect in the rats. In the repeated dose study, the extract produced an increase in the body weight gain of the rats. The total white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were elevated. These were considered to be beneficial and indicative of safety. The plant extract at 1500 and 2000mg/kg body weight produced a slight increase in the serum transaminases enzymes. The histology of the liver and kidney were normal while the testes showed some patho-logical lesions. These results have shown that, repeated administration of appropriate dose of the extract may have some beneficial effects on the blood system but a high dose may damage the testes thereby causing infertility. Consumers should therefore be aware of these health risks and avoid over consumption of the extract.

Etuk EU; Muhammad AA

2010-01-01

136

Differential performance of a specialist and two generalist herbivores and their parasitoids on Plantago lanceolata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to cope with plant defense chemicals differs between specialist and generalist species. In this study, we examined the effects of the concentration of the two main iridoid glycosides (IGs) in Plantago lanceolata, aucubin and catalpol, on the performance of a specialist and two generalist herbivores and their respective endoparasitoids. Development of the specialist herbivore Melitaea cinxia was unaffected by the total leaf IG concentration in its host plant. By contrast, the generalist herbivores Spodoptera exigua and Chrysodeixis chalcites showed delayed larval and pupal development on plant genotypes with high leaf IG concentrations, respectively. This result is in line with the idea that specialist herbivores are better adapted to allelochemicals in host plants on which they are specialized. Melitaea cinxia experienced less post-diapause larval and pupal mortality on its local Finnish P. lanceolata than on Dutch genotypes. This could not be explained by differences in IG profiles, suggesting that M. cinxia has adapted in response to attributes of its local host plants other than to IG chemistry. Development of the specialist parasitoid Cotesia melitaearum was unaffected by IG variation in the diet of its host M. cinxia, a response that was concordant with that of its host. By contrast, the development time responses of the generalist parasitoids Hyposoter didymator and Cotesia marginiventris differed from those of their generalist hosts, S. exigua and C. chalcites. While their hosts developed slowly on high-IG genotypes, development time of H. didymator was unaffected. Cotesia marginiventris actually developed faster on hosts fed high-IG genotypes, although they then had short adult longevity. The faster development of C. marginiventris on hosts that ate high-IG genotypes is in line with the "immunocompromized host" hypothesis, emphasizing the potential negative effects of toxic allelochemicals on the host's immune response.

Reudler JH; Biere A; Harvey JA; van Nouhuys S

2011-07-01

137

Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves  

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Full Text Available El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta") ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó un potrero de igual composición botánica, pero con una baja carga parasitaria, y el grupo de terneros "Plantago" pastoreó un potrero sembrado con P. lanceolata, también con una baja carga parasitaria. Este manejo se mantuvo durante 60 días. Cada semana se pesaron todos los animales y se les tomaron muestras fecales para realizar recuento de huevos y diferenciación genérica de larvas. Cada dos semanas se estableció la carga parasitaria del pasto de los potreros utilizados. La pluviosidad se registró diariamente. La carga parasitaria del pasto del potrero contaminado fue alta durante todo el ensayo. A las tres semanas de iniciado el período de suplementación se inició en ambos grupos un aumento de los recuentos (hpg) promedio de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus que se diferenciaron significativamente (P 0,05). Se concluye que la suplementación con Plantago lanceolata redujo significativamente la oviposición de los parásitos gastrointestinales.The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Plantago lanceolata (narrow leaf plantain), as a supplemental forage, reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. The trial was conducted on a farm in the 10th Region, Chile. Two groups of 15 calves weighing 171.4 ± 19.8 kg grazed 17 hours a day on a pasture composed mainly of gramineous and with a high infestation of trichostrongylid nematode larvae. During the remaining 7 hours, the "control" group grazed in a pasture of similar botanic composition but with a low parasite burden; the "plantago" group grazed in a pasture specially sown with P. lanceolata with also a low parasite burden. This regimen was maintained for 60 days. Each week the animals were weighed and faecal samples were gathered to determine the nematode egg count (epg) and larvae generic differentiation. Grass samples were taken every two weeks from all pastures to establish their level of parasite burden. Precipitation was measured daily. The parasite burden of grass in the contaminated pasture was high during the whole period. Three weeks after the initiation of the trial, an increase in the average of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) was observed. A significant difference (P 0.05). It is concluded that the inclusion of P. lanceolata as a supplemental forage significantly reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal parasites.

G Sievers; S Nannig

2006-01-01

138

Willow wood properties, production and economy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last few years, selected and genetically improved willows have been introduced as a new crop on farmland with short-rotation coppice systems. The willow wood is used mainly as a biomass fuel. The introduction of willow plantations has been fast in a few areas in northwest Europe and there is still a lot of research and biological and technical development needed for further improvement. Since large-scale willow plantations from biomass fuel constitute a new crop and the willow species come from a very old and widespread genera, the potential for improvements is large. The water content in stems at harvest is around 50%, and may be reduced to 25-30% in non-chipped stems after drying during one summer. The calorific heat value of willow wood has been determined to be 19.7 MJ/kg. The ash and sulphur contents are low, 1.0-1.2% and 0.03%, respectively. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the wood constitute about 0.5%, 0.09% and 0.3%, respectively. Among the metals, cadmium seems to be somewhat higher in willow wood than in wood from conventional forests, namely in the range of 0.8-2.9 mg/kg as compared to < 0.15 mg/kg. In production systems of willows in short-rotation forestry, planting, harvest and handling require specifically unique techniques, which have been developed over the last few years. The economic result for the farmer of willow wood production systems is comparable to the economic results of conventional food crops. (author)

Ledin, S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences

1996-11-01

139

Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

Pandey, D.

1996-12-31

140

Wood fuels. Traebraendsler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A description of bark, wood chips, chunk, crushed wood, sawdust/shavings and other industrial wood waste used for woodfuelled power plants. The emphasis is on the size of the wood fuel units, production, origin, quality and moisture content. (CLS).

Baadsgaard-Jensen, J. (Skovteknisk Institut (DK))

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Wood density variation and tree ring distinctness in Gmelina arborea trees by x-ray densitometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to its relationship with other properties, wood density is the main wood quality parameter. Modern, accuratemethods such as X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the spatial distribution of density in wood sections and to evaluatewood quality. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of growing conditions on wood density variation andtree ring demarcation of gmelina trees from fast growing plantations in Costa Rica. The wood density was determined by X-raydensitometry method. Wood samples were cut from gmelina trees and were exposed to low X-rays. The radiographic films weredeveloped and scanned using a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the wood density was determined by CRAD and CERDsoftware. The results showed tree-ring boundaries were distinctly delimited in trees growing in site with rainfall lower than 2510 mm/year. It was demonstrated that tree age, climatic conditions and management of plantation affects wood density and its variability. Thespecific effect of variables on wood density was quantified by for multiple regression method. It was determined that tree yearexplained 25.8% of the total variation of density and 19.9% were caused by climatic condition where the tree growing. Wood densitywas less affected by the intensity of forest management with 5.9% of total variation.

Roger Moya; Mario Tomazello Filho

2009-01-01

142

Pruning in poplar plantations by mechanised devices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of factors (branch diameter, number of branches, plantation age number of prunings, working assembly of pruning devices, etc) on the duration of pruning in poplar plantations were investigated. Poplar branches were pruned by mechanized devices Stihl HT 75 and Husqvarna 250 PS. It was con...

Baji? Vojislav; Danilovi? Milorad

143

Plantation agriculture in the tropics - environmental issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plantation agriculture is more than 400 years old and contributes to the regional and national economies in many tropical countries. This paper reviews some of the main environmental issues related to plantation agriculture with perennial crops, including soil erosion, soil fertility decline, pollut...

Hartemink, A.E.

144

Radiation regime measurements within the willow plantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Use of solar radiation by a willow plantation depends on the architecture of the plants and geometrical structure of the plantation. Thus, measurements of the radiation regime are important when choosing an optimal geometrical structure of the plantation for clones with different architectonic structure of the plants. On the other hand, natural measurements of the radiation regime of a willow plantation are rather complicated because of the spatial inhomogeneity of the object. A sufficient spatial averaging is needed to get statistically reliable results. A special device for radiation measurements within the willow plantation was designed. The device enables measurements of global and phytoactive radiation fluxes and net radiation on different levels using a horizontal spatial averaging of about 5 meters. 6 refs

Sulev, M. [Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR, Tartu (Estonia). Inst. of Astrophysics and Atmospheric Physics

1994-12-31

145

Evaluación del efecto genotóxico en extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mediante 2 ensayos de genotoxicidad, segregación mitótica en Aspergillus nidulans D-30 y la inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón se procedió a evaluar la posible acción genotóxica de los extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla). En el ensayo de segregación mitótica se evaluaron los extractos fluidos de llantén menor y manzanilla con 5 y 6 concentraciones en un rango de 0,6 a 4,76 y 0,016 a 0,652 mg de sólidos totales/mL respectivamente. En el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos se probaron para el llantén menor dosis de 1,875; 3,750 y 6,000 g/kg peso corporal (pc) y en el caso de la manzanilla dosis de 1,23; 1,96 y 2,45 g/kg pc. En ninguno de los ensayos realizados se detectó la ocurrencia de efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos.Potential genotoxic action of fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. (Llantén menor), and Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomille) was assessed by 2 genotoxic trials: mitotic spreading in D-30 Aspergillus nidulans and micronuclei induction in bone marrow of the mouse. In mitotic spreading trial, fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. and Chamomille, with 5 and 6 concentrations in a range of 0,6-4,76, and 0,016-0,652 mg of total solids/mL, respectively, were assessed. In micronuclei induction trial, for Plantago lanceolata L., dose of 1875; 3,750, and 6,000 g/kg of body weight (bw), and in the case of Chamomille, dose of 1,23; 1,96, and 2,45 g/kg of bw),were tested. In none of trials performed, it was possible to detect occurrence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

Ángel Vizoso Parra; Alberto Ramos Ruiz; Aida Villaescusa González; Mercedes Décalo Michelena; José Betancourt Badell

2000-01-01

146

Evaluación del efecto genotóxico en extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Mediante 2 ensayos de genotoxicidad, segregación mitótica en Aspergillus nidulans D-30 y la inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón se procedió a evaluar la posible acción genotóxica de los extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla). En el ensayo de segregación mitótica se evaluaron los extractos fluidos de llantén menor y manzanilla con 5 y 6 concentraciones en un rango de 0,6 a 4,76 y 0,016 a (more) 0,652 mg de sólidos totales/mL respectivamente. En el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos se probaron para el llantén menor dosis de 1,875; 3,750 y 6,000 g/kg peso corporal (pc) y en el caso de la manzanilla dosis de 1,23; 1,96 y 2,45 g/kg pc. En ninguno de los ensayos realizados se detectó la ocurrencia de efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos. Abstract in english Potential genotoxic action of fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. (Llantén menor), and Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomille) was assessed by 2 genotoxic trials: mitotic spreading in D-30 Aspergillus nidulans and micronuclei induction in bone marrow of the mouse. In mitotic spreading trial, fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. and Chamomille, with 5 and 6 concentrations in a range of 0,6-4,76, and 0,016-0,652 mg of total solids/mL, respectively, were assessed. In m (more) icronuclei induction trial, for Plantago lanceolata L., dose of 1875; 3,750, and 6,000 g/kg of body weight (bw), and in the case of Chamomille, dose of 1,23; 1,96, and 2,45 g/kg of bw),were tested. In none of trials performed, it was possible to detect occurrence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

Vizoso Parra, Ángel; Ramos Ruiz, Alberto; Villaescusa González, Aida; Décalo Michelena, Mercedes; Betancourt Badell, José

2000-08-01

147

Cytochrome c allergens isolated from the pollens of the dicotyledons English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and Paterson's curse (Echium plantagineum).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two cytochrome c allergens were isolated from extracts of the pollens of the dicotyledons English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and Paterson's Curse (Echium plantagineum) by ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration and preparative isoelectric focusing. They were characterized by their absorption spectra, mol. wt, pI and amino acid composition. The cytochromes c bound specific IgE in the sera of hypersensitive patients by RAST. Preliminary evidence for allergenic cross-reactivity between them was obtained by RAST inhibition.

Matthews PA; Baldo BA; Howden ME

1988-01-01

148

Conference: 'Heating with Wood'. An alternative to fossil fuels? Status and perspectives. Documentation; Tagung: 'Heizen mit Holz'. Eine Alternative zur fossilen Energie? Stand der Technik und neue Perspektiven. Dokumentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main topics of the meeting ''Heating with wood'' were: resource assessment, economical aspects, logistics, cogeneration, district heating, plantation and harvesting of fast growing trees, new heating systems.(uke)

NONE

1999-07-01

149

Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment. PMID:23915092

Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

2013-08-05

150

Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment.

Häggman H; Raybould A; Borem A; Fox T; Handley L; Hertzberg M; Lu MZ; Macdonald P; Oguchi T; Pasquali G; Pearson L; Peter G; Quemada H; Séguin A; Tattersall K; Ulian E; Walter C; McLean M

2013-08-01

151

Functional anatomy of five endangered tropical timber wood species of the family Dipterocarpaceae  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wood anatomy of five dipterocarp species endemic to the Philippines was studied with the goal to explore functional wood traits of ecological significance. Stem wood of 6-year-old trees grown under similar environmental conditions in a plantation (Leyte, Philippines) was used. Wood densities decreased in the following order Hopea plagata > Dipterocarpus kerrii > Parashorea malaanoman > Shorea almon [almost equal to] Shorea contorta. This was mainly caused by significantly thicker fiber cell walls of H. plagata and D. kerrii than those of the other three species. Wood density was negatively correlated with the abundance of axial parenchyma cells. Predicted conductance was independent from wood density and lowest in H. plataga and highest in D. kerrii and S. contorta. These results indicate that H. plagata and D. kerrii is woods have higher constructions costs in term of carbon per unit of biomass, and that H. plagata is probably better acclimated to varying soil moisture than the other species.

Rana Rumana; Langenfeld-Heyser Rosemarie; Finkeldey Reiner; Polle Andrea

2009-06-01

152

Antiinflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Phlomis lanceolata Boiss. and Hohen. Extracts and Examination of their Components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of total extract and four fractions (ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water) from Phlomis lanceolata (Lamiaceae) in mice. The plant material was extracted with methanol. In order to estimate the polarity of the active compounds, the total extract was dissolved in water and the water soluble portion was successively partitioned between ether, ethyl acetate and n-buthanol. The total extract and four fractions were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) by use of specific reagents. Dose of 100 mg kg 1 of each extracts were used in carrageenan-induced paw edema, formalin and writhing nociception tests in mice. All compounds reduced paw edema in comparison to the control group at 1, 3, 5 and 7 h post carrageenan injection. The total, ether and aqueous extracts were similar to indomethacin while the ethyl acetate extract was weaker than indomethacin in reduction of paw edema. All extracts induced antinociception in both phases of formalin test. The total and ether extracts were as potent as indomethacin in both phases of formalin test. The ethyl acetate extract was weaker than indomethacin in the second phase of formalin-test while the n-butanol and aqueous extracts showed more antinociception than indomethacin in the second phase of formalin test. All extracts as well as indomethacin induced antinociception in writhing test in comparison to control. The total and aqueous extracts induced the same antinociception as indomethacin while ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol showed weaker antinociception than indomethacin. Positive results for iridoids and phenolic compounds were indicated by phytochemical analysis of total extract. Phenolic compounds were found in four fractions whereas only n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed positive results for iridoid glycosides. The higher antinociceptive effects of n-butanol and aqueous extracts in the inflammatory phase of formalin test among different extracts tested, might back to the presence of iridoid glycosides, phenolic glycosides or other glycosides. These data suggest that different extracts of P. lanceolata produce different antinociceptive activities that could be due to the effect of one or a combination of the bioactive components in each extract.

M. Mohajer; P. Sarkhail; N. Hajarolasvadi; M.J. Zamani; R. Khorasani; A. Shafiee; G. Amin; M. Abdollahi

2006-01-01

153

Study on Burning Heat Release Rate of Fire Retardant Wood  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By using the HRR_3 heat rate system, the heat release rate and total heat release of Cunninghmia lanceolata, Pinus massoniana and fire retardant Cunninghmia lanceolata, Pinus mssoniana are studied. The results show the fire retardant make HRR and THR of Cunninghmia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana lower. The fire retardant function is good.

Xiao Zhongping; Liu Yan; Lu Jisheng; Ma Shichun

2002-01-01

154

Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA) for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (more) (Ec0,m) in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k) using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91). The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

Gherardi Hein, Paulo Ricardo; Tarcísio Lima, José

2012-11-01

155

Wood density variation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wood density constitutes the main wood quality parameter by its relationship with anatomical, physical and chemical properties and wood utilization. The modern and accurate methods - like X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the density spatial distribution in wood sections and pith-bark direction. On the other hand, emphasis to wood utilization from fast growing plantations, like Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica, has been done. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of 2 climatic conditions of Costa Rica on radial wood density variation of gmelina trees form fast growing plantations using the X-ray densitometry method. Wood samples were cut at DBH of gmelina trees and transversal thin laths were selected at north-south direction and conditioned at 12% moisture content equilibrium and X-rayed. The radiographic films were revealed and scanned a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the intra tree-ring density were determined by CRAD and CERD software. The results demonstrated that the climatic and forest management affects the wood density variability and the distinctness of tree-ring boundaries of gmelina trees, as well as, the applicability of X-ray densitometry in wood quality analysis. (author)

2005-09-02

156

Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA) for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m) in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k) using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91). The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein; José Tarcísio Lima

2012-01-01

157

Effects of silvicultural treatments on mechanical properties of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to determine the influences of initial planting densities, thinning intensities, exposures and slope sites on physical property ?wood density? and mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity ?MOE?, bending strength, impact strength, compression strength along grain and hardness? of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Mao?ershan Forest Farm, Northeast China. Results show that the different initial planting densities ?1.5 m×1.0 m, 1.5 m×2.0 m and 1.5 m×2.5 m? had significant effects on wood density and MOE, and the highest mean wood density and indexes of mechanical properties occurred in the stand with an initial planting density of 1.5 m×1.0 m. The indexes of mechanical properties such as hardness of end, bending strength, MOE and compression strength along grain of wood increased after mild thinning, but decreased after violent thinning. The exposures ?sunny slope and shady slope? had a significant effect on MOE, and the highest mean MOE occurred on sunny slope. The slope sites ?upper site and lower site? had a significant effect on wood density and main mechanical properties, except hardness. The highest mean wood density and mechanical properties occurred at lower site.

Guo Minghui; Chen Guangsheng; Wang Jinman; Zhao Xiping

2006-01-01

158

Somatic and genetic factors in sun and shade population differentiation in Plantago lanceolata and Anthoxanthum odoratum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Differences between individuals collected from sun and shade populations could result from either somatic or genetic differences, particularly in populations of perennial plants. Our objective in this study was to separate somatic from genetic differences. We collected Anthoxanthum odoratum and Plantago lanceolata from sun and shade populations and made measurements on both vegetatively propagated clones and seed progeny from each clone. The parental populations differed in a wide range of physiological and morphological traits. However, only photosynthetic capacity was significantly different between both the original sun and shade populations and their seed progeny. In both species, plants from the sun population had higher photosynthetic capacities than those from the shade population when grown in a common environment. This demonstrates that there was genetic differentiation between the sun and shade populations. Photosynthetic capacity of parents and offspring also differed, suggesting a somatic effect. Since many of the original clones were virus-infected, but all but one of the offspring were virus-free, this might have been a result of virus infection. However, in spite of the fact that the parents and offspring clones were propagated vegetatively so that the plants were at the same developmental stage at the time of measurement, we cannot rule out the possibility that differences in age of cell lines could also have been a factor.

Sims DA; Kelley S

1998-09-01

159

Plantation design in short rotation coppice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three levels of plantation design of short rotation coppice (SRC) for energy production are considered. Firstly, its location in the overall landscape in relation to topography enclosure patterns and existing agricultural use should be considered. Secondly, the location of the SRC within the farm structure should be of concern, considering access, storage, its use as a buffer to crop in nitrate sensitive areas etc. and finally the design at the individual plantation level involving the density of planting, headlands/rides and the use of mixtures of plantations. (UK)

Dawson, W.M. [N.I.H.P.B.S., Loughgall, Co. Armagh (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31

160

CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Energy plantations in Arunachal Pradesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Firewood is the chief of source of energy in Arunachal Pradesh. The entire quantity of fuelwood is collected from the adjoining forests by the villagers as a matter of traditional right. The use of gobar gas plant is uneconomical because of the lower temperatures prevailing in major portions of the year. The anticipated requirement of fuelwood for 1990 and 2000 is of the order of 5.88 and 8.23 million m/sup 3/, respectively. Through the present fuelwood requirements have not attained critical dimensions, the hacking of forests in and around the habitations is creating serious environmental problems. Programs have been initiated for raising energy plantations in Arunachal Pradesh. An outline of the programs underway and projects proposed are presented. The main problem in implementation are inadequacy of funds. The removal of this constraint will help in solving the anticipated energy crisis in this area at the same time affording sufficient environmental protection.

Choudhury, J.M.

1981-12-01

162

DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF METHYL METHACRYLATE HARDENED HYBRID POPLAR WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the dimensional stability of fast-growing poplar clones wood after treatment by impregnation with methyl methacrylate (MMA). Six hybrid poplar clones from one plantation in Quebec were sampled. The effects of hardening with MMA on density as well as longitudinal, radial, tangential, and volumetric swelling properties (S), water uptake capacity (D), anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), and water repellent efficiency (WRE) after soaking were investigated. Hardening treatment increased the density of all poplar woods by 1.2 to 1.6 and decreased the inner water migration rate during soaking. S and D values of hardened woods were significantly lower than those of controls, depending on the clone type. ASE and WRE values suggested that incorporating MMA effectively improved the dimensional stability of poplar wood at the early soaking stage, but was less effective in the long term.

Wei-Dan Ding,; Ahmed Koubaa,; Abdelkader Chaala

2011-01-01

163

Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD7, 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha-1, respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs.

1996-01-01

164

Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD{sub 7}, 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha{sup -1}, respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

Kuusemets, V.; Mauring, T. [Centre for Ecological Engineering, Tartu (Estonia)

1996-12-31

165

Does tree biotechnology have a role to play in high-energy plantations?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The applicability of biotechnology to biomass plantations was examined. The unprecedented progress in agriculture brought about by such techniques as cell cultures, microspore cultures, somatic hybridization, protein engineering and allied technologies, were reviewed, highlighting specific examples relating to trees. Among the examples cited were genetic mapping for tree species such as poplar and loblolly pine, protein engineering in poplars to improve resistance to insect pests, to manipulate wood quality and to induce flower sterility. The overall conclusion was that for high energy plantations of poplar and aspen, biotechnology can play a significant role in providing new clones with improved characteristics, such as pest resistance and herbicide resistance, and by providing markers for conventional tree improvement programs. 33 refs.

Charest, P. J.; Seguin, A. [Canadian Forestry Service, Chalk River, ON (Canada). Petawawa National Forestry Inst.

1996-09-01

166

ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ? 10) and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity) was20 (EL/GLR ? 20). These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

Adriano Wagner Ballarin; Marcelo Nogueira

2003-01-01

167

Activated carbons from Uruguayan eucalyptus wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the new wood plantations in Uruguay consist of eucalyptus, and the development of alternative uses is seen as important. Activated carbons were prepared from eucalyptus wood chars and the results of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} and steam activation were compared. The carbonization step gave rise to a narrow micropore structure and a highly developed microporosity which increased slightly upon CO{sub 2} activation and significantly upon steam activation. This last process led also to a widening of micropore size distribution and developed the mesoporosity more than CO{sub 2} activation did. The presence of O{sub 2} accompanying CO{sub 2} in the activating gas increased the micro- and microporosity of the carbons. No net destruction of microporosity was observed even at high burnoff levels and with as much as 5 vol.%O{sub 2} in the activating gas. 16 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Tancredi, N.; Cordero, T.; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.; Rodriguez, J.J. [Universidad de Malaga, Malaga (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1996-12-01

168

Pruning in poplar plantations by mechanised devices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of factors (branch diameter, number of branches, plantation age number of prunings, working assembly of pruning devices, etc) on the duration of pruning in poplar plantations were investigated. Poplar branches were pruned by mechanized devices Stihl HT 75 and Husqvarna 250 PS. It was concluded that pruning time increases significantly with the number of removed branches in all plantations disregarding the plantation age and spacing. This correlation is represented by a degree function. Also, pruning time increases with the size of average branch diameter removed from the tree. The intervals of five branches can be taken as the working norms because within these intervals there are no statistically significant differences of pruning time.

Baji? Vojislav; Danilovi? Milorad

2003-01-01

169

Goedsling av salixodlingar. (Fertilizing of Salix plantations).  

Science.gov (United States)

This report gives a synthesis of present knowledge concerning fertilization of Salix plantations. The synthesis should comprise the basis for guidance, and is primarily aimed att Salix advisers and Salix growers, who will wish a thorough knowledge in the ...

S. Ledin B. Alriksson H. Rosenqvist H. Johansson

1994-01-01

170

Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros/ Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta") ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó u (more) n potrero de igual composición botánica, pero con una baja carga parasitaria, y el grupo de terneros "Plantago" pastoreó un potrero sembrado con P. lanceolata, también con una baja carga parasitaria. Este manejo se mantuvo durante 60 días. Cada semana se pesaron todos los animales y se les tomaron muestras fecales para realizar recuento de huevos y diferenciación genérica de larvas. Cada dos semanas se estableció la carga parasitaria del pasto de los potreros utilizados. La pluviosidad se registró diariamente. La carga parasitaria del pasto del potrero contaminado fue alta durante todo el ensayo. A las tres semanas de iniciado el período de suplementación se inició en ambos grupos un aumento de los recuentos (hpg) promedio de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus que se diferenciaron significativamente (P 0,05). Se concluye que la suplementación con Plantago lanceolata redujo significativamente la oviposición de los parásitos gastrointestinales. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Plantago lanceolata (narrow leaf plantain), as a supplemental forage, reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. The trial was conducted on a farm in the 10th Region, Chile. Two groups of 15 calves weighing 171.4 ± 19.8 kg grazed 17 hours a day on a pasture composed mainly of gramineous and with a high infestation of trichostrongylid nematode larvae. During the remaining 7 hours, the "control" group g (more) razed in a pasture of similar botanic composition but with a low parasite burden; the "plantago" group grazed in a pasture specially sown with P. lanceolata with also a low parasite burden. This regimen was maintained for 60 days. Each week the animals were weighed and faecal samples were gathered to determine the nematode egg count (epg) and larvae generic differentiation. Grass samples were taken every two weeks from all pastures to establish their level of parasite burden. Precipitation was measured daily. The parasite burden of grass in the contaminated pasture was high during the whole period. Three weeks after the initiation of the trial, an increase in the average of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) was observed. A significant difference (P 0.05). It is concluded that the inclusion of P. lanceolata as a supplemental forage significantly reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal parasites.

Sievers, G; Nannig, S

2006-01-01

171

Dendrothermal plantations in the Philippines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dendrothermal power plant (using Leucaena leucocephala fuel wood) can generate electricity at rates competitive with oil-fired plants. Construction of dendrothermal plants - in addition to supplying electricity from local sources - would generate local employment and contribute to reforestation of denuded land. A programme is outlined for construction and for planting on part of the available land. The extent of such planting would be limited by rural demand for electricity, which is likely to remain modest for some time.

Denton, F.H.

1981-01-01

172

Malaria-associated rubber plantations in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rubber forestry is intentionally used as a land management strategy. The propagation of rubber plantations in tropic and subtropic regions appears to influence the economical, sociological and ecological aspects of sustainable development as well as human well-being and health. Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries are the world's largest producers of natural rubber products; interestingly, agricultural workers on rubber plantations are at risk for malaria and other vector-borne diseases. The idea of malaria-associated rubber plantations (MRPs) encompasses the complex epidemiological settings that result from interactions among human movements and activities, land cover/land use changes, agri-environmental and climatic conditions and vector population dynamics. This paper discusses apparent issues pertaining to the connections between rubber plantations and the populations at high risk for malaria. The following questions are addressed: (i) What are the current and future consequences of rubber plantations in Thailand and Southeast Asia relative to malaria epidemics or outbreaks of other vector-borne diseases? (ii) To what extent is malaria transmission in Thailand related to the forest versus rubber plantations? and (iii) What are the vulnerabilities of rubber agricultural workers to malaria, and how contagious is malaria in these areas?

Bhumiratana A; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp P; Kaewwaen W; Maneekan P; Pimnon S

2013-01-01

173

Regulation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in embryos and microsomal preparations from the developing seeds of Cuphea lanceolata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Embryos of Cuphea lanceolata have more than 80 mol% of decanoic acid ('capric acid') in their triacylglycerols, while this fatty acid is virtually absent in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Seed development was complete 25-27 days after pollination, with rapid triacylglycerol deposition occurring between 9 and 24 days. PtdCho amounts increased until day 15 after pollination. Analysis of embryo lipids showed that the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool consisted of mainly long-chain molecular species, with a very small amount of mixed medium-chain/long-chain glycerols. Almost 100% of the fatty acid at position sn-2 in triacylglycerols (TAG) was decanoic acid. When equimolar mixtures of [14C]decanoic and [14C]oleic acid were fed to whole detached embryos, over half of the radioactivity in the DAG resided in [14C]oleate, whereas [14C]decanoic acid accounted for 93% of the label in the TAG. Microsomal preparations from developing embryos at the mid-stage of TAG accumulation catalysed the acylation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate with either decanoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA, resulting in the formation of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), DAG and TAG. Very little [14C]glycerol entered PtdCho. In combined incubations, with an equimolar supply of [14C]oleoyl-CoA and [14C]decanoyl-CoA in the presence of glycerol 3-phosphate, the synthesized PtdCho species consisted to 95% of didecanoic and dioleic species. The didecanoyl-glycerols were very selectively utilized over the dioleoylglycerols in the production of TAG. Substantial amounts of [14C]oleate, but not [14C]decanoate, entered PtdCho. The microsomal preparations of developing embryos were used to assess the acyl specificities of the acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 2.3.1.15) and the acyl-CoA:sn-1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (LPAAT, EC 2.3.1.51) in Cuphea lanceolata embryos. The efficiency of acyl-CoA utilization by the GPAT was in the order decanoyl = dodecanoyl greater than linoleoyl greater than myristoyl = oleoyl greater than palmitoyl. Decanoyl-CoA was the only acyl donor to be utilized to any extent by the LPAAT when sn-decanoylglycerol 3-phosphate was the acyl acceptor. sn-1-Acylglycerol 3-phosphates with acyl groups shorter than 16 carbon atoms did not serve as acyl acceptors for long-chain (greater than or equal to 16 carbon atoms) acyl-CoA species. On the basis of the results obtained, we propose a schematic model for triacylglycerol assembly and PtdCho synthesis in a tissue specialized in the synthesis of high amounts of medium-chain fatty acids.

Bafor M; Jonsson L; Stobart AK; Stymne S

1990-11-01

174

Regulation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in embryos and microsomal preparations from the developing seeds of Cuphea lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryos of Cuphea lanceolata have more than 80 mol% of decanoic acid ('capric acid') in their triacylglycerols, while this fatty acid is virtually absent in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Seed development was complete 25-27 days after pollination, with rapid triacylglycerol deposition occurring between 9 and 24 days. PtdCho amounts increased until day 15 after pollination. Analysis of embryo lipids showed that the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool consisted of mainly long-chain molecular species, with a very small amount of mixed medium-chain/long-chain glycerols. Almost 100% of the fatty acid at position sn-2 in triacylglycerols (TAG) was decanoic acid. When equimolar mixtures of [14C]decanoic and [14C]oleic acid were fed to whole detached embryos, over half of the radioactivity in the DAG resided in [14C]oleate, whereas [14C]decanoic acid accounted for 93% of the label in the TAG. Microsomal preparations from developing embryos at the mid-stage of TAG accumulation catalysed the acylation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate with either decanoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA, resulting in the formation of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), DAG and TAG. Very little [14C]glycerol entered PtdCho. In combined incubations, with an equimolar supply of [14C]oleoyl-CoA and [14C]decanoyl-CoA in the presence of glycerol 3-phosphate, the synthesized PtdCho species consisted to 95% of didecanoic and dioleic species. The didecanoyl-glycerols were very selectively utilized over the dioleoylglycerols in the production of TAG. Substantial amounts of [14C]oleate, but not [14C]decanoate, entered PtdCho. The microsomal preparations of developing embryos were used to assess the acyl specificities of the acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 2.3.1.15) and the acyl-CoA:sn-1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (LPAAT, EC 2.3.1.51) in Cuphea lanceolata embryos. The efficiency of acyl-CoA utilization by the GPAT was in the order decanoyl = dodecanoyl greater than linoleoyl greater than myristoyl = oleoyl greater than palmitoyl. Decanoyl-CoA was the only acyl donor to be utilized to any extent by the LPAAT when sn-decanoylglycerol 3-phosphate was the acyl acceptor. sn-1-Acylglycerol 3-phosphates with acyl groups shorter than 16 carbon atoms did not serve as acyl acceptors for long-chain (greater than or equal to 16 carbon atoms) acyl-CoA species. On the basis of the results obtained, we propose a schematic model for triacylglycerol assembly and PtdCho synthesis in a tissue specialized in the synthesis of high amounts of medium-chain fatty acids. PMID:2264835

Bafor, M; Jonsson, L; Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

1990-11-15

175

Phenylethanoid glucosides from in vitro propagated plants and callus cultures of Plantago lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The well-known medicinal plant Plantago lanceolata L. (ribwort plantain) was effectively propagated by direct organogenesis from segments of leaves and roots using MS medium supplemented with IAA (11.42 microM), kinetin (9.29 microM) for multiplication and IAA (5.71 microM) for rooting. The plantlets were successfully hardened (80 %) and transferred to field cultivation (100 %). Two lines of callus tissue, derived from leaves and roots, were obtained on MS medium without NH (4)NO (3) and supplemented with 2,4-D (4.52 microM) and kinetin ( 0.46 microM). From plant materials--leaf rosettes from in vitro, leaves from plants in field cultivation obtained by micropropagation, root-derived callus and leaf-derived callus--sixteen phenylethanoid glucosides representing nine different structures were isolated and identified by spectral methods (1D and 2D NMR) as known for the species: lavandulifolioside ( 1), plantamajoside ( 2,) acteoside ( 3); new for the species: leucosceptoside A ( 4), martynoside ( 5), desrhamnosylisoacteoside ( 6), plantainoside D ( 7), desrhamnosylacteoside ( 8) and - 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta- D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-4- O- trans- and cis- p-coumaroyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 9)--the latter also being found for the first time in nature and named lancetoside. Only plantamajoside ( 2) and acteoside ( 3) were common to all plant materials, the former was the main constituent of calli (1.19 - 2.84 % of dry weight), while the latter was the main constituent of the leaves (1.78 - 10.43 % of dry weight). Flavonoids were present only in plants of field cultivation. PMID:15386192

Budzianowska, Anna; Skrzypczak, Lutos?awa; Budzianowski, Jaromir

2004-09-01

176

Phenylethanoid glucosides from in vitro propagated plants and callus cultures of Plantago lanceolata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The well-known medicinal plant Plantago lanceolata L. (ribwort plantain) was effectively propagated by direct organogenesis from segments of leaves and roots using MS medium supplemented with IAA (11.42 microM), kinetin (9.29 microM) for multiplication and IAA (5.71 microM) for rooting. The plantlets were successfully hardened (80 %) and transferred to field cultivation (100 %). Two lines of callus tissue, derived from leaves and roots, were obtained on MS medium without NH (4)NO (3) and supplemented with 2,4-D (4.52 microM) and kinetin ( 0.46 microM). From plant materials--leaf rosettes from in vitro, leaves from plants in field cultivation obtained by micropropagation, root-derived callus and leaf-derived callus--sixteen phenylethanoid glucosides representing nine different structures were isolated and identified by spectral methods (1D and 2D NMR) as known for the species: lavandulifolioside ( 1), plantamajoside ( 2,) acteoside ( 3); new for the species: leucosceptoside A ( 4), martynoside ( 5), desrhamnosylisoacteoside ( 6), plantainoside D ( 7), desrhamnosylacteoside ( 8) and - 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta- D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-4- O- trans- and cis- p-coumaroyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 9)--the latter also being found for the first time in nature and named lancetoside. Only plantamajoside ( 2) and acteoside ( 3) were common to all plant materials, the former was the main constituent of calli (1.19 - 2.84 % of dry weight), while the latter was the main constituent of the leaves (1.78 - 10.43 % of dry weight). Flavonoids were present only in plants of field cultivation.

Budzianowska A; Skrzypczak L; Budzianowski J

2004-09-01

177

The research of some physical properties of wood Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortuneii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The density, shrinkage and swelling of Paulownia elongata and P. fortuneii wood were researched. The study material was provided by Boda Vukovojac, B. Sc., who established the Paulownia plantation and sample plots on the territory of the Municipality Bela Crkva. The study results show the differences between the analyzed properties of these two species. The study results were also compared with the results of the similar species of wood. The data shows that the study wood can be used in wood products that are not subject to great loads during exploitation. Further study should investigate the liability of these wood species to form tension wood and deformations in the conditions of variable hygroscopic moisture.

Šoški? Borislav; Lovri? Aleksandar; Vukovojac Boda

2003-01-01

178

Species trials for biomass plantations in Hawaii: a first appraisal. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fast-growing trees producing high-density wood are required to justify from an exonomic standpoint short rotation biomass plantations. Nine species trials were established on five sub-tropical sites on the island of Hawaii. Survival and growth of 27 introduced species and the native Acacia koa were appraised at one or more locations, for periods from 24 to 60 months. Performance varied greatly, within, and between all species tested. Eucalyptus saligna and E. grandis usually proved to be the species best adapted to well drained sites. Most failures a-d unsatisfactory performances related to harsh site conditions, such as low soil fertility, droughts, and high winds.

Schubert, T.H.; Whitesell, C.D.

1985-08-01

179

Forest plantations in the Midsouth, USA. Forest Service research paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plantation forestry is one means of controlling the temporal and spatial aspects of stand regeneration after harvest. Intensive plantation forestry can ultimately reduce harvesting pressure and disturbance on natural stands and and stands intended to be set aside for esthetics, recreation, or watershed protection. Reported here is the status of forest plantations in the Midsouth States. It is important to know if plantations are meeting their fullest potential and what shortcomings, if any, need to be addressed. Information gathered includes plantation area, forest type, ownership, volume, site class, and stockings. Additionally, comparisons were made to see if there was a difference between plantation and natural-stand volumes.

Rosson, J.F.

1995-09-01

180

Recycling of wood ash to forests in North Wales, UK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biomass energy industry is very much in it's infancy in the UK. Other European member states have made considerable progress with the deployment of biomass energy operations in recent years. The UK is now looking to increase the amount of energy it generates from biomass. An increased proportion of plantation forests are reaching harvestable size, and increased intensity of forest harvesting operations, offers a significant biomass resource which is currently not fully exploited. Greater intensity of harvesting also leads to increased removal of nutrients, which could reduce the growth of future crops, and also lead to acidification. Combustion of wood fuel leaves a residue of wood ash - typically 1% of the fuel input. Greater use of residues, including bark, twigs, branches and leaves creates a greater amount of wood ash per unit of energy generated. Thus, if the UK is successful in increasing the deployment of woodfuel biomass systems, it will have to address the issue of wood ash disposal. Recycling of wood ash to forests has been proposed as a means of replacing nutrients removed during intensive harvesting, and as a means of combating acidification. The recycling of wood ash to forests has been explored in detail in Sweden, Finland, Austria and the United States, as well as other countries. To date, there has been only very limited research into the recycling of wood ash to forests in the UK. This paper will present results from initial experiments investigating effects on forest soil chemistry and nutrient cycling following the application of loose wood ash, wood ash co-composted with green waste, wood ash mixed with green waste compost, and hardened wood ash, on two forest sites in North Wales, UK.

Walmsley, James Daniel; Healey, John Robert; Jones, David Leonard [Univ. of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Agriculture and Forest Sciences

2006-07-15

 
 
 
 
181

Wood - fuel for thought  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sixteen papers were presented at the conference which covered a range of issues including: wood in the UK fuel strategy; fuel wood production; environmental issues of wood; wood fuel and its effect on global warming; the Swedish experience; thermochemical biomass conversion technologies; installing wood combustion plant; interaction between the forestry industry and the emerging wood fuel industry; the size and location of the resource; alternative farm land use and diversification; production of wood fuel crops from energy forestry and supply strategies. Currently, wood is not a significant part of the UK energy balance.

1991-01-01

182

Dense poplar plantations as the raw material for the production of energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The higher heating value of wood and bark was determined for several poplar (Populus spp) clones. The study included the juvenile one year old plants of the following clones: P.×euramericana cl. ostia, P. nigra cl.53/86, P. deltoides cl. PE 19/66, P.×euramericana cl. I-214, P. deltoides cl. S6-7 and P.×euramericana cv. robusta. By using FVI which takes into account ash content, wood bulk density, and moisture content, it was determined that poplar wood can be a significant energy raw material, primarily thanks to its short rotation cycle and a very high wood volume increment. Significant differences were determined in the values of wood basic density which affect the higher heating value of the study poplar clones, and consequently the yield (weight) of biomass produced per unit area of dense plantations. This is reflected also on the estimated amount of energy that can be produced by the combustion of biomass of the whole one year old plants.

Klašnja Bojana; Orlovi? Saša; Gali? Zoran; Pap Predrag; Katani? Marina

2006-01-01

183

Evaluation of Mycosphaerella impact on eucalypts plantations in Portugal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD) is one of the most important diseases of eucalypts plantations worldwide. However, only recently it has become relevant in Portugal. Caused by a complex of Mycosphaerella species, this disease reduces the photosynthetic area and can cause tree defoliation. In extreme cases it causes reduction in the volume of wood produced. In order to relate the observed symptoms of MLD with the presence of the pathogen and at the same time obtaining an evaluation of eucalypt clones and family susceptibility, two experimental plantations were established in places where the disease has been detected. Data on the percentage of affected crown (necrosis or defoliation) were collected and some of the Mycosphaerella species present were identified (M. africana, M. communis, M. grandis, M. lateralis, M. marksii, M. nubilosa, M. parva, M. vespa and M. walkeri).A doença das manchas das folhas do eucalipto é uma das mais importantes nas plantações de eucalipto, tendo-se só recentemente tornado relevante em Portugal. Esta doença, causada por um complexo de espécies de Mycosphaerella, reduz a área fotossintética da árvore, podendo causar desfolha, com consequente redução da taxa de crescimento e do volume de madeira produzido. Com o objectivo de relacionar os sintomas observados com a presença do agente patogénico e avaliar a susceptibilidade de clones e famílias de eucalipto, foram estabelecidas duas plantações experimentais em locais onde foi detectada a doença. Foram recolhidos dados relativos à percentagem de área da copa afectada (por necroses ou desfolha) e identificadas as espécies de Mycosphaerella associadas (M. africana, M. communis, M. grandis, M. lateralis, M. marksii, M. nubilosa, M. parva, M. vespa e M. walkeri).

Márcia Silva; Carlos Valente; Lucinda Neves; Helena Machado

2008-01-01

184

Biomass production in energy plantation of Prosopis juliflora  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies on time trends of biomass production by means of age series in energy plantations (spacing 1.3 x 1.3 m) of Prosopis juliflora is presented. The component biomass production at the age of 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 months was determined. The results show considerable variation among the population of trees. However, distinct linear relationship between girth at breast height (GBH) and total height was discernible. The total biomass produced at 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 months of age was 19.69, 41.39, 69.11, 114.62 and 148.63 dry tonnes per hectare, respectively. The corresponding figures for utilizable biomass (wood, bark and branch) were 14.63, 32.17, 50.59, 88.87 and 113.25 dry tonnes per hectare. At all the periods of study, branch component formed the major portion of total biomass being around 50 to 55%. Utilizable biomass was three-fourths of total biomass at all ages. The solar energy conversion efficiency ranged from 0.59% at 18 months to 1.68% at 48 months of age, the peak value being 1.87% at the age of 36 months. It is shown that the variables diameter and height can be used to reliably predict the biomass production in Prosopis juliflora with the help of the regression equations developed in the present study. It is concluded that Prosopis juliflora is an ideal candidate for energy plantations in semi arid and marginal lands, not only to meet the fuelwood demands but also to improve the soil fertility, for, this plant is a fast growing and nitrogen fixing leguminous tree.

Gurumurti, K.

1984-09-01

185

The Effects of Thinning Density on Structural Wood Quality of Lalix olgensis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Systematic determination and statistical analysis of Lalix olgensis plantation under different thinning density show that thinning density has great effect on structural wood quality. Significant differences exist in late wood rate, growth-ring density, bending strength, compressive strength along grain, bending elastic modulus and impact toughness. The difference of growth-ring width is not significant. By comprehensive coordinate, the structural wood quality at different planting density were evaluated. The preferential order are 2.0 m×2.0 m, 2.5 m×2.5 m, 3.0 m×3.0 m, 1.5 m×2.0 m.

Guo Minghui; Chen Guangsheng; Wang Jinman

2003-01-01

186

Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There exists a significant potential for utilising perennial energy plantations in protecting and restoring polluted water and land resources in Sweden. By optimising the design, location and management, several additional environmental services could be obtained which will increase the value of the energy plantations, thereby improving future market conditions for biomass. Multi-functional energy plantations (mainly Salix but also energy grass) can be divided into two categories, those designed for dedicated environmental services (e.g. vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and shelter belts against soil erosion), and those generating more general benefits (e.g. soil carbon accumulation, increased soil fertility, cadmium removal and increased hunting potential). The practical potential of those two categories is estimated to be equivalent to up to 3% and more than 20% of the total Swedish arable land, respectively. The regional conditions of utilising multi-functional plantations vary, however, with the best possibilities in densely populated areas dominated by farmland. The economic value of multi-functional plantations is normally highest for those designed for dedicated environmental services. Purification of wastewater has the highest value, which could exceed the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, followed by treatment of polluted drainage water in vegetation filters and buffer zones (equivalent to more than half of the production cost), recirculation of sewage sludge (around half of the production cost), erosion control (around one fourth) and increased hunting potential (up to 15% of the production cost). The value of increased hunting potential varies due to nearness to larger cities and in which part of Sweden the plantation is located. The economic value of cadmium removal and increased soil fertility is equivalent to a few percent of the production cost, but the value of cadmium removal might increase in the future if this problem will be valued differently. The value of increased carbon accumulation in mineral soils and reduced carbon dioxide emissions from organic soils is estimated to be equivalent to a few percent and half the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, respectively. These values may also change in the future if carbon sinks in agriculture will be included as an approved mitigation option within the Kyoto agreement. Based on an analysis of possible combinations of environmental services achieved in specific plantations, it is estimated that biomass can be produced to an negative cost in around 100,000 hectares of multi-functional energy plantations, when the value of the environmental services is included. The production cost in another 250,000 hectares of plantations is estimated to be halved. This is equivalent to around 6 and 11 TWh biomass per year, respectively. Economic incentives also exist for municipal wastewater plants for utilising vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. Cadmium removal and increased soil fertility will give a minor increase in the income for the farmer. However, cadmium removal will result in increased costs later in the Salix fuel chain, due to increased costs of flue gas cleaning during combustion. Thus, to overcome this economic barrier, subsidies will probably be needed to heating plants utilising cadmium-contaminated biomass. The possibilities of achieving an income from increased soil carbon accumulation will depend on if this option will be an approved mechanism. Today, the Swedish greenhouse gas mitigation policy does not include this option. Some of the potential multi-functional energy plantations (e.g. buffer strips for reducing nutrient leaching and vegetation filters for treatment of polluted drainage water) results in increased cultivation costs for the farmer, thus increased economic barriers. Examples of measures to overcome such barriers are dedicated subsidies for multi-functional plantations established at specific locations, or on a certain type of soil. The concept of mu

Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

2002-02-01

187

Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Cuphea lanceolata encoding a beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cDNA encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), an integral part of the fatty acid synthase type II, was cloned from Cuphea lanceolata. This cDNA of 1276 bp codes for a polypeptide of 320 amino acids with 63 N-terminal residues presumably representing a transit peptide and 257 residues corresponding to the mature protein of 27 kDa. The encoded protein shows strong homology with the amino-terminal sequence and two tryptic peptides from avocado mesocarp beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, and its total amino acid composition is highly similar to those of the beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductases of avocado and spinach. Amino acid sequence homologies to polyketide synthase, beta-ketoreductases and short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases are discussed. An engineered fusion protein lacking most of the transit peptide, which was produced in Escherichia coli, was isolated and proved to possess beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase activity. Hybridization studies revealed that in C. lanceolata beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase is encoded by a small family of at least two genes and that members of this family are expressed in roots, leaves, flowers and seeds.

Klein B; Pawlowski K; Höricke-Grandpierre C; Schell J; Töpfer R

1992-05-01

188

Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Cuphea lanceolata encoding a beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), an integral part of the fatty acid synthase type II, was cloned from Cuphea lanceolata. This cDNA of 1276 bp codes for a polypeptide of 320 amino acids with 63 N-terminal residues presumably representing a transit peptide and 257 residues corresponding to the mature protein of 27 kDa. The encoded protein shows strong homology with the amino-terminal sequence and two tryptic peptides from avocado mesocarp beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, and its total amino acid composition is highly similar to those of the beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductases of avocado and spinach. Amino acid sequence homologies to polyketide synthase, beta-ketoreductases and short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases are discussed. An engineered fusion protein lacking most of the transit peptide, which was produced in Escherichia coli, was isolated and proved to possess beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase activity. Hybridization studies revealed that in C. lanceolata beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase is encoded by a small family of at least two genes and that members of this family are expressed in roots, leaves, flowers and seeds. PMID:1376402

Klein, B; Pawlowski, K; Höricke-Grandpierre, C; Schell, J; Töpfer, R

1992-05-01

189

THE VIBRATIONAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR WOOD DURING MOISTURE SORPTION PROCESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The vibrational properties of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood were investigated in this study as a function of changes in moisture content (MC) and grain direction. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE) and logarithmic decrement (?) were examined using a cantilever beam vibration testing apparatus. It was observed that DMOE and ? of wood varied widely during moisture adsorption and desorption. The DMOE of wood conditioned by the adsorption process showed significant increases during the later stages of conditioning when the MC scarcely changed. However, with the desorption process, the DMOE did not increase as much during the later stages of conditioning, though they increased during the early stages of conditioning when the MC greatly decreased. These results suggest that wood in an unstable state, caused via the existing state of moisture, shows different vibrational behaviors. Furthermore, the parallel to grain direction showed much higher DMOE and lower ? when compared to the perpendicular to grain direction. The variation of vibrational properties between parallel and perpendicular to grain direction under constant MC and during moisture adsorption process could be attributed due to the microscopic, macroscopic molecular, as well as chemical constituents of wood.

Jiali Jiang,; Jianxiong Lu,; Zhiyong Cai

2012-01-01

190

Proceedings of the Canadian energy plantation workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first Canadian Energy Plantation Workshop was organized by the Canadian Forest Service to improve the level of interaction and cross-fertilization among the different groups, agencies and individuals involved in energy plantation research and development. The three objectives of the Workshop were: (1) to create a formal mechanism for information exchange, (2) to provide a formal and informal mechanism for sharing, networking and collaboration among the various players in the field, and (3) to give strategic direction to future Canadian activities in energy plantation research, particularly in the context of the federally-funded ENFOR program. There were a total of 40 participants, presenting 18 papers dealing with the production, and economics of poplar and willow, the fertilization and growth of poplar and willow, and alternative technologies in short-rotation forestry. refs., tabs., figs.

Karau, J [Forestry Canada, Hull, PQ (Canada)

1996-09-01

191

Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha-'1) and 86 % higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

2011-01-01

192

DETERMINING THE TRANSITION AGE FROM JUVENILE TO MATURE WOOD IN Pinus patula SCHL. et CHAM.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to compare several criteria to estimate the transition age from juvenile to mature wood formation in a 16-year-old Pinus patula plantation, radial trends of latewood proportion, wood density and tracheid length were identified in a sample of 100 trees. A wood sample from each tree was taken with an increment borer at 50 cm stem height. Latewood proportion increased gradually from pith to bark, but after 14 years old showed a higher rate of increase; wood density decreased initially and then increased gradually, slowing down after 12-14 years old. Tracheid length showed a steady radial trend, increasing gradually from the pith and stabilizing after 8-10 years old. A piecewise regression analysis, using mean annual values for tracheid length and wood density showed that age of transition from juvenile to mature wood occurred at age 10 in this plantation. The criterion based on tracheid length was more useful than that based on wood density, since its slope change was more evident. Using this criterion, a broad variation in transition age (from 6 to 16 years) was found among trees, which might be related to genetic effects; however, a larger sample size is required to estimate genetic variation in this trait.

David Josué Meza Juárez; J. Jesús Vargas Hernández; Javier López Upton; Humberto Vaquera Huerta; Amparo Borja de la Rosa

2005-01-01

193

Miscanthus plantation technics. Pflanzentechnik fuer Miscanthus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Where renewable energy sources for industrial-scale use are produced, whether as a fuel or a vegetable feedstock, cultivation needs to be extensive. This, then, requires efficient working methods. In the case of Miscanthus, this applies, first of all, to plantation, which needs to be flowless and has to be carried through within a limited time span. As the cost of young plants is high and a succession of harvests is required, it is important that a maximum proportion of plants should take root. Other requirements are careful working, automation, and proper logistics. The paper deals with investigations and experiences regarding plantation of Miscanthus. (orig.)

Isensee, E. (Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Landwirtschaftliche Verfahrenstechnik); Ohls, J. (Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Landwirtschaftliche Verfahrenstechnik); Quest, D. (Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Landwirtschaftliche Verfahrenstechnik)

1992-01-01

194

Energy saving by proper tree plantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model is presented to predict the effect of trees as passive cooling options on buildings. A computer program is written to calculate hourly cooling load requirements by the numerical solution of the energy balance equation for the building. This simulation is validated by comparison with field data taken from an actual house in Shiraz, Iran. A guideline is presented for optimum tree plantation concerning energy saving. Results indicate that for the house under study (of popular size in Shiraz) cooling loads may be reduced by 10-40% by appropriate tree plantation. (author)

Raeissi, S.; Taheri, M. [Shiraz University (Iran). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1999-07-01

195

Comparison of Juglans regia L. bare-root nursery stocks for plantations: morphological characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Good results in plantations are strictly related to the fitness of the nursery stock. Plant fitness, or quality, depends on inherent genetic characters and on physiological and physical (dimensional, morphological and nutritional) characteristics. In arboriculture for wood production the role of stock quality is essential for a prompt expression of plant growth potential. So the necessity to define stock quality standards is widely recognized, though is still discussed how to assess stock cultural value by characteristics easy to measure. First step in such activities is to individuate in the above-ground part of the plantlets some traits related to the root system development. The study was carried out in two public forest nurseries (property of Regione Piemonte) on 163 Juglans regia seedlings and transplants produced for wood plantations. In order to evaluate Walnut nursery stock production, different kinds of bare-root seedlings and transplants have been compared. For each kind, shoot and root system dimensional and morphological traits have been investigated after assignment of plants in 3 dimensional (height) categories. Relations between shoots and roots traits have been studied to allow a visual evaluation of nursery plants based on data easy to collect. This study is to be considered a preliminary survey in the evaluation of stock quality based on field performance.

Tani A; Adduci MG; Barbarotti S; Maltoni A; Mariotti B

2007-01-01

196

Effects of irrigation on water use and water use efficiency in two fast growing Eucalyptus plantations  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eucalyptus plantations occupy almost 20 million ha worldwide and exceed 3.7 million ha in Brazil alone. Improved genetics and silviculture have led to as much as a three-fold increase in productivity in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil and the large land area occupied by these highly productive ecosystems raises concern over their effect on local water supplies. As part of the Brazil Potential Productivity Project, we measured water use of Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla clones in rainfed and irrigated stands in two plantations differing in productivity. The Aracruz (lower productivity) site is located in the state of Espirito Santo and the Veracel (higher productivity) site in Bahia state. At each plantation, we measured stand water use using homemade sap flow sensors and a calibration curve using the clones and probes we utilized in the study. We also quantified changes in growth, leaf area and water use efficiency (the amount of wood produced per unit of water transpired). Measurements were conducted for 1 year during 2005 at Aracruz and from August through December 2005 at Veracel. Transpiration at both sites was high compared to other studies but annual estimates at Aracruz for the rainfed treatment compared well with a process model calibrated for the Aracruz site (within 10%). Annual water use at Aracruz was 1394mm in rainfed treatments versus 1779mm in irrigated treatments and accounted for approximately 67% and 58% of annual precipitation and irrigation inputs respectively. Increased water use in the irrigated stands at Aracruz was associated with higher sapwood area, leaf area index and transpiration per unit leaf area but there was no difference in the response of canopy conductance with air saturation deficit between treatments. Water use efficiency at the Aracruz site was also not influenced by irrigation and was similar to the rainfed treatment. During the period of overlapping measurements, the response to irrigation treatments at the more productive Veracel site was similar to Aracruz. Stand water use at the Veracel site totaled 975mm and 1102mm in rainfed and irrigated treatments during the 5-month measurement period respectively. Irrigated stands at Veracel also had higher leaf area with no difference in the response of canopy conductance with air saturation deficit between treatments. Water use efficiency was also unaffected by irrigation at Veracel. Results from this and other studies suggest that improved resource availability does not negatively impact water use efficiency but increased productivity of these plantations is associated with higher water use and should be given consideration during plantation management decision making processes aimed at increasing productivity.

Hubbard RobertM; Stape Jose; Ryan MichaelG; Almeida AuroC; Rojas Juan

2010-04-01

197

The role of acyl carrier protein isoforms from Cuphea lanceolata seeds in the de-novo biosynthesis of medium-chain fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the role of acyl carrier protein (ACP) in determining the fate of the acyl moieties linked to it in the course of de-novo fatty acid biosynthesis in higher plants, we carried out in vitro experiments to reconstitute the fatty acid synthase (FAS) reaction in extracts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves, rape (Brassica napus L.) seeds and Cuphea lanceolata Ait. seeds. The action of two major C. lanceolata ACP isoforms (ACP 1 and ACP 2) compared to ACP from Escherichia coli was monitored by saponification of the corresponding FAS products with subsequent analysis of the liberated fatty acids by high-performance liquid chromatography. In a second approach the preference of the medium-chain acyl-ACP-specific thioesterase (EC 3.1.2.14) of C. lanceolata seeds for the hydrolysis of acyl-ACPs prepared from the three ACP types was investigated. Both ACP isoforms from C. lanceolata seeds supported the synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in a reconstituted FAS reaction of spinach leaf extracts. Compared to the isoform ACP 1, ACP 2 was more effective in supporting the synthesis of such fatty acids in the FAS reaction of rape seed extracts and caused a higher accumulation of FAS products in all experiments. No preference of the medium-chain thioesterase for one specific ACP isoform was observed. The results indicate that the presence of ACP 2 is essential for the synthesis of decanoic acid in C. lanceolata seeds, and its expression in the phase of accumulation of high levels of this fatty acid provides an additional and highly efficient cofactor for stimulating the FAS reaction. PMID:9637071

Schütt, B S; Brummel, M; Schuch, R; Spener, F

1998-06-01

198

The role of acyl carrier protein isoforms from Cuphea lanceolata seeds in the de-novo biosynthesis of medium-chain fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the role of acyl carrier protein (ACP) in determining the fate of the acyl moieties linked to it in the course of de-novo fatty acid biosynthesis in higher plants, we carried out in vitro experiments to reconstitute the fatty acid synthase (FAS) reaction in extracts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves, rape (Brassica napus L.) seeds and Cuphea lanceolata Ait. seeds. The action of two major C. lanceolata ACP isoforms (ACP 1 and ACP 2) compared to ACP from Escherichia coli was monitored by saponification of the corresponding FAS products with subsequent analysis of the liberated fatty acids by high-performance liquid chromatography. In a second approach the preference of the medium-chain acyl-ACP-specific thioesterase (EC 3.1.2.14) of C. lanceolata seeds for the hydrolysis of acyl-ACPs prepared from the three ACP types was investigated. Both ACP isoforms from C. lanceolata seeds supported the synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in a reconstituted FAS reaction of spinach leaf extracts. Compared to the isoform ACP 1, ACP 2 was more effective in supporting the synthesis of such fatty acids in the FAS reaction of rape seed extracts and caused a higher accumulation of FAS products in all experiments. No preference of the medium-chain thioesterase for one specific ACP isoform was observed. The results indicate that the presence of ACP 2 is essential for the synthesis of decanoic acid in C. lanceolata seeds, and its expression in the phase of accumulation of high levels of this fatty acid provides an additional and highly efficient cofactor for stimulating the FAS reaction.

Schütt BS; Brummel M; Schuch R; Spener F

1998-06-01

199

Energy Characteristics of Wood-Chips Produced from Salix Viminalis - Clone ULV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores the energy characteristics of wood-chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV, which was cultivated in an energy plantation. The higher heating value of wood and bark of Salix viminalis was assessed through an experimental measurement in a special calorimeter for solid fuels, model IKA C 200. The lower heating value of wood and bark was calculated from the higher heating value Qs, taking into account hydrogen Hdaf and water contentWr in fuel samples that were assessed in a laboratory. The higher heating value and lower heating value of a dry Salix viminalis wood (QSW = 19 520 kJ/kg and QnW =18 044 kJ/kg) were assessed by these analyses. The higher heating value and lower heating value of a dry Salix viminalis bark were also assessed (QSB = 19 389 kJ/kg, and QnB = 17 997 kJ/kg). The share of bark of 19.35%was assessed in wood-chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV, in accordance with the Slovak Technical Norm STN 48 0058 for wood assortments, wood chips containing leaves, and sawdust. The lower heating value of wood chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV in dry state was calculated, based on the lower heating value of salix wood, the lower heating value of salix bark, and the share of bark in wood chips as a weighted average Qn CH = 18 035 kJ/kg.

Ladislav Dzurenda; Jarmila Geffertova; Vladimir Hecl

2010-01-01

200

CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

Hamid Reza Naji,; Mohd. Hamami Sahri,; Tadashi Nobuchi,; Edi Suhaimi Bakar

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Harvesting Short-Rotation Poplar Plantations for Biomass Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Italy, short rotation forest has become very popular in recent years, with over 4,000 hectares already planted – almost exclusively with clone poplar. The study models the performance of modified forage harvesters on a range of short-rotation poplar plantations, identifies technical obstacles to the deployment of these machines and suggests solutions that may expand the capability of modified forage harvesters when treating short-rotation poplar. Data were collected from 16 operations, covering a total of 50 hectares and producing over 1000 green tonnes of wood chips. The average yield of the fields harvested during the trials was about 20 green tonnes/ha year, equivalent to 8 oven-dry tonnes/ha for a 60% average moisture content, measured in the laboratory. Gross machine productivity ranged from 9 to 44 green tonnes/scheduled machine hour (gt/SMH), with an average value of 25 gt/SMH.Of course, this result is affected by other factors than just forager performance, which is potentially much higher. A model was developed to predict harvesting performance and cost, showing that harvesting cost can be maintained below the 15 Euro/green tonne (2 Euro/GJ) ceiling only if field stocking exceeds 40 or 50 gt/ha when rows are long 300 and 100 m, respectively. The study also shows the need to optimize operations. Over a quarter of the total worksite time is occupied by unproductive delays, which may be reduced with improved planning and maintenance.

Raffaele Spinelli; Carla Nati; Natascia Magagnotti

2008-01-01

202

Biomass from short rotation plantation of willow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper the author has presented the activity of the Koszalin University of Technology and experience on it's willow's plantation. Creating the net of power stations and heating should cause not only the influence on the climate and safety of electricity and heating but first of all it'll cause the development of the rural areas - sustainable entrepreneurial development. Koszalin University of Technology manage experiments and implement new technologies on the own 92,0 ha plantation of the willow. During last two years there has been research project realized, among others: Utilizing of the sewage residues and communal organic refuse as manure on the plantation Selection of the plants of the most efficient growth and energy results, taking into account technical, environmental, economical aspects. Next year it'll be start of co - combustion in local communal heating plant into heating energy and in five years it'll be cogeneration solutions - power station and heating system, based an the biomass energy gasification. Scientific innovation and relevance: Possibility of the utilization fallow soils for willow plants. Research of the selection various clones of the willow - the best increase of biomass. Utilization of the sewage residues and communal organic refuse as manure, in the plantation. Cooperation with Heating Comp. And Communal Comp. - to create the market of the biomass. (orig.)

Jasiulewicz, M. (Koszalin University of Technology (Poland))

2007-07-01

203

The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program started in 1970 as an alternative to poverty for sugar cane workers in Louisiana. The document discusses the various aspects of the poverty conditions that exist in the area, such as: housing, diet, health, education, and lack of consumer information, and how these existing conditions are to be changed…

Southern Mutual Help Association, Abbeville, LA.

204

Fertilizing of Salix plantations; Goedsling av salixodlingar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report gives a synthesis of present knowledge concerning fertilization of Salix plantations. The synthesis should comprise the basis for guidance, and is primarily aimed att Salix advisers and Salix growers, who will wish a thorough knowledge in the nutrient needs of Salix and of how to fertilize. 10 refs, 7 figs, 23 tabs

Ledin, S.; Alriksson, B.; Rosenqvist, H.; Johansson, Haakan

1994-05-01

205

Applications in wood plastics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today the radiation production of wood plastic composites or wood acrylic composites is a very viable and commercial industry. The goal of this paper is to briefly review the current status of wood acrylics in the United States. The first step will be a description of wood acrylics. That is, what are the physical and chemical properties of wood acrylics that make them of interest to the scientist and even more important, to the consumer. Next, highlights of the production process will be described, followed by a discussion of current wood acrylic applications and the basis for these applications. Finally, potential areas for future expansion will be summarized. (author)

1976-05-13

206

Antiviral, haemolytic and molluscicidal activities of triterpenoid saponins from Maesa lanceolata: establishment of structure-activity relationships.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ten saponins isolated from the leaves of Maesa lanceolata were tested for their antiviral, haemolytic and molluscicidal activities. The influence of the substitution pattern of these acylated triterpenoid saponins on their biological activities was investigated and structure-activity relationships were established. Maesasaponin VI(2) (3 beta-O-[[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranuronyl]-21 beta,22 alpha-diangeloyloxy-13 beta,28-epoxyolean-16 alpha,28 alpha-diol), the most potent molluscicidal compound (LC(50) 0.5 ppm), also showed virucidal and haemolytic activity. In general, 21,22-diacylation appeared to be associated with a virucidal (reduction factor of the viral titer > or = 10(3) at 50 microg/ml) and haemolytic activity (HC(50) < or = 1 microg/ml).

Apers S; Baronikova S; Sindambiwe JB; Witvrouw M; De Clercq E; Vanden Berghe D; Van Marck E; Vlietinck A; Pieters L

2001-08-01

207

Antiviral, haemolytic and molluscicidal activities of triterpenoid saponins from Maesa lanceolata: establishment of structure-activity relationships.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten saponins isolated from the leaves of Maesa lanceolata were tested for their antiviral, haemolytic and molluscicidal activities. The influence of the substitution pattern of these acylated triterpenoid saponins on their biological activities was investigated and structure-activity relationships were established. Maesasaponin VI(2) (3 beta-O-[[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranuronyl]-21 beta,22 alpha-diangeloyloxy-13 beta,28-epoxyolean-16 alpha,28 alpha-diol), the most potent molluscicidal compound (LC(50) 0.5 ppm), also showed virucidal and haemolytic activity. In general, 21,22-diacylation appeared to be associated with a virucidal (reduction factor of the viral titer > or = 10(3) at 50 microg/ml) and haemolytic activity (HC(50) < or = 1 microg/ml). PMID:11509973

Apers, S; Baronikova, S; Sindambiwe, J B; Witvrouw, M; De Clercq, E; Vanden Berghe, D; Van Marck, E; Vlietinck, A; Pieters, L

2001-08-01

208

Genetic Differentiation and Phenotypic Plasticity I. Responses in Three Plantago lanceolata L. Populations upon Changes in Mineral Supply  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three populations of Plantago lanceolata L. were analyzed for genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity. Eight randomly taken samples of each population were grown at two nutrient levels and subjected to alterations in mineral supply. Growth and root respiration was followed during the experiment. With respect to all measured characteristic genetic differentiation on population level was demonstrated. Overall phenotypic plasticity of the measured characteristics and differences in estimated genetic variation were present. High relative growth rate was correlated with high root respiration. High relative growth rate was correlated with high root respiration and high Ca2+ - Mg2+ - stimulated ATPase activity in roots. Ecological significance of the results and correlation with habitat properties are discussed.

Ibtisam Hammad

2002-01-01

209

Thermoplasticization of wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of converting wood into thermoplastic materials was undertaken to develop a new technique in the utilization of wood wastes. Thermoplasticization of wood was based on chemical modification of wood-polymeric components. The introduction of chemicals into the inherent structure of wood-cell walls resulted in meltable wood. In this investigation, thermoplasticization of wood was carried out by means of benzylation, hydroxypropylation, and hydroxybutylation. Various reaction parameters, such as alkalinity of reaction media, reaction temperature and time, and usage of chemicals were considered to produce thermoplasticized wood with different weight gain. The chemical structure of the thermoplasticized woods was analyzed by using FTIR, DSC, TGA and x-ray crystallography. The dynamic mechanical properties were studied by using DMTA. The morphology of the melted wood was examined by means of SEM. Mechanical and physical properties of the products were also evaluated. Experimental data showed that preswelling and reaction temperature had critical effects on all three etherification reactions. The thermoplasticized woods exhibited good melting properties and were readily molded or extruded into block or film materials. A wide range of glass transition temperatures from 66 to 280{degree}C for the thermoplasticized woods essentially depended upon the weight gain. The molded products exhibited acceptable mechanical strength for structural engineering applications. The relations of properties and structure for the thermoplasticized woods were discussed.

Ou, N.

1988-01-01

210

Investigaciones agrícolas en especies de uso frecuente en la medicina tradicional: IV. Llantén menor. Plantago lanceolata L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plantago lanceolata (Llantén menor), es una especie apreciada popularmente como medicinal. En la actualidad se encuentra entre las plantas que se ha aprobado su empleo como droga seca y extracto fluido por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba para su incorporación al Sistema Nacional de Salud, por lo que se requieren grandes cantidades de material vegetal obtenidos a través de su cultivo. En la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se realizaron una serie de investigaciones que permitieron aconsejar efectuar los semilleros entre mediados de octubre e inicios de noviembre, su plantación a distancia de 45 x 20 cm y la realización de 3 recolecciones del material vegetal; la primera alrededor de los 45 d después del trasplante, las restantes con frecuencia de 30 d, lográndose un rendimiento total fresco de más de 20 toneladas por hectárea.Plantago lanceolata (Plantago minor) is popularly considered as a medicinal species. At present, it is among the plants whose use as a dry drug and as a fluid extract in the National Health System has been approved by the Ministry of Public Health. That´s why, it is necessary to obtain large quantities of vegetable material through its growth. A series of investigations made at "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay" Experimental Station allowed to recommend the preparation of seed plots between mid-October and the beginning of November, to plant the seed at a distance of 45 x 20 cm and to harvest the vegetable material 3 times; the first at about 45 days after transplantation and the rest at intervals of 30 days, achieving a total fresh yield of 20 tons by hectare.

Lérida Acosta de la Luz; Víctor Fuentes Fiallo; Carlos Rodríguez Ferradá

2000-01-01

211

Deforestation, soil degradation, and wood energy in developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two separate studies address the major issues of deforestation in developing countries, namely, Does deforestation seriously impair the soil-plant system. and How can a steady supply of wood fuels be guaranteed with diminishing natural forest. In Chapter 1, twenty-six cross-sectional and time series studies of soil properties in the US and ten countries between the tropics were examined to determine the changes associated with deforestation in soil organic C, total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K, cation exchange capacity, available P, bulk density, and pH. Deforestation was associated with significant changes in these soil properties. Only bulk density and avaiable P showed any tendency to return to pre-clearing levels. Differences in soil response to deforestation according to climate and age of parent material were related to temperature, rainfall, vegetation, soil acidity, and organic matter production and decomposition on each site. In Chapter 2, a multiobjective linear program (MOP) decides where plantations should be located, what the harvest rotation should be, what mix of fuelwood and charcoal should be produced, and which villages should be supplied by each plantation given a known future pattern of demand. In the MOP the costs of labor expended in plantations are balanced against the unpriced labor expended by villagers to collect fuelwood. The results indicate that transition from natural forests to plantations would be very expensive in terms of labor and land required. The greater the value imputed to labor spent transporting fuel, the higher the total costs of the policy, but the distribution of wood resources between urban and rural areas is more equitable.

Allen, J.C.

1983-01-01

212

Wood-plastic combination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

1978-01-01

213

Ectomycorrhizal colonization and diversity in relation to tree biomass and nutrition in a plantation of transgenic poplars with modified lignin biosynthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wood from biomass plantations with fast growing tree species such as poplars can be used as an alternative feedstock for production of biofuels. To facilitate utilization of lignocellulose for saccharification, transgenic poplars with modified or reduced lignin contents may be useful. However, the potential impact of poplars modified in the lignification pathway on ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, which play important roles for plant nutrition, is not known. The goal of this study was to investigate EM colonization and community composition in relation to biomass and nutrient status in wildtype (WT, Populus tremula × Populus alba) and transgenic poplar lines with suppressed activities of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase, and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase in a biomass plantation. In different one-year-old poplar lines EM colonization varied from 58% to 86%, but the EM community composition of WT and transgenic poplars were indistinguishable. After two years, the colonization rate of all lines was increased to about 100%, but separation of EM communities between distinct transgenic poplar genotypes was observed. The differentiation of the EM assemblages was similar to that found between different genotypes of commercial clones of Populus × euramericana. The transgenic poplars exhibited significant growth and nutrient element differences in wood, with generally higher nutrient accumulation in stems of genotypes with lower than in those with higher biomass. A general linear mixed model simulated biomass of one-year-old poplar stems with high accuracy (adjusted R(2)?=?97%) by two factors: EM colonization and inverse wood N concentration. These results imply a link between N allocation and EM colonization, which may be crucial for wood production in the establishment phase of poplar biomass plantations. Our data further support that multiple poplar genotypes regardless whether generated by transgenic approaches or conventional breeding increase the variation in EM community composition in biomass plantations.

Danielsen L; Lohaus G; Sirrenberg A; Karlovsky P; Bastien C; Pilate G; Polle A

2013-01-01

214

Ectomycorrhizal Colonization and Diversity in Relation to Tree Biomass and Nutrition in a Plantation of Transgenic Poplars with Modified Lignin Biosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood from biomass plantations with fast growing tree species such as poplars can be used as an alternative feedstock for production of biofuels. To facilitate utilization of lignocellulose for saccharification, transgenic poplars with modified or reduced lignin contents may be useful. However, the potential impact of poplars modified in the lignification pathway on ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, which play important roles for plant nutrition, is not known. The goal of this study was to investigate EM colonization and community composition in relation to biomass and nutrient status in wildtype (WT, Populus tremula × Populus alba) and transgenic poplar lines with suppressed activities of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase, and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase in a biomass plantation. In different one-year-old poplar lines EM colonization varied from 58% to 86%, but the EM community composition of WT and transgenic poplars were indistinguishable. After two years, the colonization rate of all lines was increased to about 100%, but separation of EM communities between distinct transgenic poplar genotypes was observed. The differentiation of the EM assemblages was similar to that found between different genotypes of commercial clones of Populus × euramericana. The transgenic poplars exhibited significant growth and nutrient element differences in wood, with generally higher nutrient accumulation in stems of genotypes with lower than in those with higher biomass. A general linear mixed model simulated biomass of one-year-old poplar stems with high accuracy (adjusted R2?=?97%) by two factors: EM colonization and inverse wood N concentration. These results imply a link between N allocation and EM colonization, which may be crucial for wood production in the establishment phase of poplar biomass plantations. Our data further support that multiple poplar genotypes regardless whether generated by transgenic approaches or conventional breeding increase the variation in EM community composition in biomass plantations.

Danielsen, Lara; Lohaus, Gertrud; Sirrenberg, Anke; Karlovsky, Petr; Bastien, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Polle, Andrea

2013-01-01

215

Fire retardants for wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

Vlatka Jirouš-Rajkovi?; Josip Mikle?i?

2009-01-01

216

Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil Planejamento de colheita e transporte de madeira usando o programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) em uma plantação de pinus no sudeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational and production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a aplicabilidade do programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte florestal em condições brasileiras. Os aspectos avaliados foram a definição dos subsistemas de colheita e a determinação de uma rota compatível de transporte de madeira. Inicialmente, determinou-se o custo operacional e de produção das máquinas em sete subsistemas de colheita tecnicamente viáveis para a região de estudo, como também os índices de qualidade e de custos de construção e manutenção de estradas, os quais foram utilizados como dados de entrada no SNAP III. Posteriormente, verificou-se, através de um estudo de caso, a aplicabilidade do programa como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. De acordo com os resultados, constatou-se que há três categorias de estradas de ocorrência na área de estudo: principal, secundária e terciária, as quais, com base no índice de qualidade encontrado, permitiram uma velocidade média do veículo de transporte de 41,0 30,3 e 24,3 km/hora e um custo de construção de US$ 5.084,30, US$ 2.275,28 e US$ 1.650,00/km, respectivamente. Quanto ao uso do SNAP III como ferramenta de apoio ao planejamento, o sistema mostrou-se com elevado potencial, podendo auxiliar no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. O programa foi capaz de definir com eficiência os subsistemas de colheita técnica e economicamente viável, a rota ótima de transporte e as estradas em uso em cada período do horizonte de planejamento.

Eduardo da Silva Lopes; Carlos Cardoso Machado; Amaury Paulo de Souza; Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro

2003-01-01

217

The geographical distribution of plantation forests and land resources potentially available for pine plantations in the U.S. South  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we provide an assessment of plantation forests and private land resources potentially available for pine plantation development in 11 southern states of the United States. After a sustained growth for 50 years, plantation forests (softwood and hardwood on both private and public lands) amounted to 18 million ha or 24 percent of all timberlands in these states in 2007. The vast majority of the plantation forests were established on private lands with fast-growing loblolly pines and slash pines. While purposeful hardwood plantations were rare, there were hardwood stands growing on failed pine plantation sites. Using a two-stage Markov land use transition model, we forecast that private forest land in these states will decline about 7 percent or from 66 million ha in 1997 to 61 million ha in 2027, primarily due to urbanization, and that private pine plantations will rise nearly 40 percent from 11 million ha to 16 million ha. Further, growth in pine plantations will decline in coming decades, and states with low population and population growth have the greatest increase in plantations. These plantations, along with other woody biomass, are expected to play an important role in the emerging bio-energy sector. (author)

Zhang, Daowei [Forest Economics and Policy, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5418 (United States); Polyakov, Maksym [Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy, University of Western Australia, M089, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia)

2010-12-15

218

IMPORTANCE OF THE FORESTS PLANTATIONS OF Eucalyptus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SUMMARYThe worldwide consumption of wood is distributed between the energy necessities, firewood and charcoal (more than 50 %), the sawmill wood, posts, dismount and construction (20 %) and the dedicated to the industry of the cellulose and the paper (27 %). The world previsions for the wood consumption in the year 2000 surpasses the 4000 m3 millions, what supposes a shortage of 1000 millions. There is a shortage in the world of wood as of energy, what converts to the forest production in priority objective. The Eucalyptus has been and is one of the forests resources industrially more used in the entire world. Originated from Australia, it presents an enormous diversity, with more than 600 different species. Its wood is suitable for many uses: domestic consumption, firewood of high calorific power, charcoal production, building structures, posts for communications, parquet ground, cellulose pulp, mine wood, bank subjection, or for fiber board manufacture. From its cellulose multiple products of daily use can be made for example: health paper swaddling clothes and hygienic, derived products as the cellophane or the wrapping paper, formic and other sheets, special papers, filters, electronic papers; as well as manufacture of textile fabrics as “rayon”. The request of derivation products of the eucalyptus wood is still very high world wide, the one that shows a sustained growth.

Rosa Martínez Ruiz; Hilda S. Azpíroz Rivero; José Luís Rodríguez De la O.; Víctor M. CetinaAlcalá y M. A. Gutiérrez Espinoza

2006-01-01

219

Economics of wood dust  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reviews the economic effects of wood dust. The most important use of wood today is a fuel, and wood chips and shavings are sources of feedstock for boilers. Other uses include wood chips in the manufacture of particleboard, wood dust as bedding in riding stables and race tracks, as mulch for florists, and as an absorbent in the meat packing industry. The installation of dust collection systems is strongly urged as the consequences of inadequate collection include rapid machine wear, poor environmental conditions for workers, general interference with work, and its combustibility makes it a constant fire hazard.

Kaiser, J.A.

1980-11-01

220

The potential of grey alder plantation forestry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey concerning the potential use of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) in short rotation forestry is performed. The most important characters in this context are discussed. It is concluded that grey alder is an interesting contributor in plantation forestry, because it has a high woody biomass production, is more or less self-supporting with nitrogen, and is well adapted to the conditions in Fennoscandia and Balticum. 36 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

Rytter, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
221

Wood frame systems for wood homes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

Julio Cesar Molina; Carlito Calil Junior

2010-01-01

222

United States wood biomass for energy and chemicals: possible changes in supply, end uses, and environmental impacts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As U.S. population and energy consumption increase, accompanied by growing concerns about global change and atmospheric pollution, there may be an opportunity for wood biomass to play a greater role in energy production if fossil fuel prices increase as projected by the U.S. Department of Energy. Forest biomass inventory is substantial in the United States and significant amounts of wood residue are generated from processing, construction, demolition, and municipal solid waste. Prospects for expanding the use of wood biomass for producing electrical power or ethanol will be enhanced by environmental needs and improvements in technology. Environmental needs include 1) reducing carbon emissions from fossil fuels and sequestering carbon; 2) removing wood from forests to improve forest health; 3) diverting urban waste streams from landfills; and 4) generating oxygenates, possibly from ethanol, for gasoline. Technology needs include improvement of short-rotation intensive culture techniques for plantations and improvement of electrical power and ethanol production processes. These efforts can help improve the comparative advantage of wood biomass feedstocks relative to fossil fuel feedstocks. Key environmental concerns will constrain the supply of wood biomass from forests and plantations; particularly concern for the effects of management for wood fuel on the diversity of plants and animals and on the depletion of soil and water resources.

Skog KE; Rosen HN

1997-02-01

223

Short rotation forestry for energy: single stem plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One possible type of forest energy plantation is that using single-stemmed trees as opposed to coppice. This type of plantation is suitable for upland and less fertile areas of lowland Britain. They would not compete with coppice energy plantations but rather would complement them. Rotation length will vary according to species, site and energy market. The final dimensions of the required tree will determine the rotation adopted. Rotations of between 10 and 20 years should cover most eventualities. The logistics and costs of establishing single stem forest energy plantations are examined. (author).

Mitchell, C.P.

1989-01-01

224

Beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase IV: a key enzyme for regulation of medium-chain fatty acid synthesis in Cuphea lanceolata seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the aim of elucidating the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in Cuphea lanceolata Ait., a crop accumulating up to 90% decanoic acid in seed triacylglycerols, cDNA clones of a beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase IV (clKAS IV, EC 2.3.1.41) were isolated from C. lanceolata seed embryos. The amino acid sequence deduced from clKAS IV cDNA showed 80% identity to other plant KAS II-type enzymes, 55% identity towards plant KAS I and over 90% towards other Cuphea KAS IV-type sequences. Recombinant clKAS IV was functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and substrate specificity of purified enzyme showed strong preference for elongation of short-chain and medium-chain acyl-ACPs (C4- to C10-ACP) with nearly equal activity. Further elongation steps were catalysed with distinctly less activity. Moreover, short- and medium-chain acyl-ACPs exerted a chain-length-specific and concentration-dependent substrate inhibition of clKAS IV. Based on these findings a regulatory mechanism for medium-chain fatty acid synthesis in C. lanceolata is presented.

Schütt BS; Abbadi A; Loddenkötter B; Brummel M; Spener F

2002-09-01

225

Beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase IV: a key enzyme for regulation of medium-chain fatty acid synthesis in Cuphea lanceolata seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of elucidating the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in Cuphea lanceolata Ait., a crop accumulating up to 90% decanoic acid in seed triacylglycerols, cDNA clones of a beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase IV (clKAS IV, EC 2.3.1.41) were isolated from C. lanceolata seed embryos. The amino acid sequence deduced from clKAS IV cDNA showed 80% identity to other plant KAS II-type enzymes, 55% identity towards plant KAS I and over 90% towards other Cuphea KAS IV-type sequences. Recombinant clKAS IV was functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and substrate specificity of purified enzyme showed strong preference for elongation of short-chain and medium-chain acyl-ACPs (C4- to C10-ACP) with nearly equal activity. Further elongation steps were catalysed with distinctly less activity. Moreover, short- and medium-chain acyl-ACPs exerted a chain-length-specific and concentration-dependent substrate inhibition of clKAS IV. Based on these findings a regulatory mechanism for medium-chain fatty acid synthesis in C. lanceolata is presented. PMID:12244451

Schütt, Burkhardt Siegfried; Abbadi, Amine; Loddenkötter, Brigitte; Brummel, Monika; Spener, Friedrich

2002-06-20

226

Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies  

Science.gov (United States)

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information, thus helping to understand the dynamics of the rubber tree resource. The decrease in the area of rubber plantations and the increase in the area of mixed crops from 1989--1993 in south of KL were partly attributed to the adoption of a crop diversification policy which was driven by relatively poor natural rubber prices during that time. The decrease in the areas of rubber plantations from 1993--1999 in this area was primarily due to rapid urbanization and infrastructure development driven by demographic expansion in the area south of KL. This thesis makes a practical contribution to the development of methods for inventory of forest plantations by linking ground information with model projections based on satellite data. Additionally, the thesis demonstrates the development of monitoring tools to assess resource availability and variability over time, and establish its linkages to policies. The inventory information, models, and monitoring protocols are needed for effective resource management planning aimed at maximizing the potential benefits of rubber tree crops for wood and natural rubber supply in Malaysia.

Suratman, Mohd Nazip

2003-06-01

227

Energy wood harvesting technology: a review of the state of the art. [Glossary included  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes information obtained from the literature to provide a review of recent developments and evolving concepts in the technology of harvesting wood for use as an energy feedstock. Discussion centers on a variety of innovative prototype machines designed to recover or harvest above ground tree biomass from existing forests, as well as short-rotation intensively cultured plantations. Conventional forest harvesting equipment is addressed in a generic sense, and some broad economic considerations of energy wood harvesting and utilization are examined. 49 references, 26 figures, 7 tables.

McKenna, R.

1984-05-01

228

Efecto del raleo en el crecimiento y algunas propiedades de la madera de Eucalyptus nitens en una plantación de 15 años/ Effect of thinning on growth and some properties of wood of Eucalyptus nitens in a plantation of 15 years old  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El raleo tiene implicancias económicas y técnicas tanto para producción forestal como para la actividad industrial. En el presente estudio se realizó la evaluación de un ensayo de intensidad de raleo en E. nitens, de 15 años de edad, intervenido a los 7 y 9 años, con densidades residuales de 300, 400, 500, 700 y un tratamiento testigo con 1070 arb ha-1. El objetivo es conocer el efecto del raleo en el diámetro y altura de los árboles, coeficiente de esbeltez, en (more) los índices de competencia área potencialmente aprovechable (APA), área de proyección de copas (APC) y en las propiedades de la madera, densidad básica, módulo de elasticidad dinámico (MOEd) y las tensiones de crecimiento evaluadas con la deformación residual longitudinal de la fibra (DRL). Los resultados mostraron que el raleo afectó el diámetro, coeficiente de esbeltez, APA y APC, no así la altura. El raleo tampoco tuvo efecto en la densidad básica de la madera y en el DRL. Por otra parte el MOEd fue afectado por el raleo, pero sin mostrar claras tendencias respecto de su intensidad. El efecto de la orientación del fuste en el MOEd y el DRL, mostró valores significativamente mayores en la orientación Sur. Abstract in english Thinning has significant technical and economic implications for both forest managers and industrial end users. In the present study a 15 year old Eucalyptus nitens thinning experiment was evaluated. Thinnings operations were carried out at 7 and 9 years, with final stockings of 300, 400, 500, 700 and a control treatment of 1070 trees ha-1. The aim was to determine the effect of thinning on (i) stem diameter and tree height, stem slenderness ratio, (ii) competition indice (more) s: potentially usefull area (PUA), crown projection area (CPA) and (iii) wood properties: basic density, dynamic modulus of elasticity (Moed) and growth stresses evaluated using the residual deformation of the fiber length (DRL). The results showed that thinning affected tree diameter, slenderness index, PUA and CPA, but not total height. Thinning had no effect on basic density and DRL. On the other hand Moed was affected by thinning, but did not show a clear trend with thinning intensity. The effect of the stem orientation on DRL and Moed showed significantly higher values on the South side.

Díaz Bravo, Sandro; Espinosa, Miguel; Valenzuela, Luis; Cancino, Jorge; Lasserre, Jean P

2012-11-01

229

Control con medios naturales de los principales insectos y hongos que afectan a Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L. Control with natural means of the main insects and fungi affecting Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: controlar con productos naturales, de origen vegetal y biológico, las principales plagas y enfermedades que afectan a las especies medicinales Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Plantago major L. (llantén). MÉTODOS: para el control de las plagas y enfermedades se evaluó el efecto de 3 plaguicidas de origen botánico: Tabaquina®, subproducto de Nicotiana tabacum L. (tabaco); semillas secas maceradas de Melia azederach L. (paraíso) y follaje seco macerado de Lantana camara L. variedad camara (lantana), extraídos por repercolación con etanol 70 %. Como medio biológico para el control de estos insectos y hongos se evaluó el efecto de 2 hongos mezclados Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; cada tratamiento se replicó 3 veces además de la parcela donde no se aplicaron productos. RESULTADOS: en el caso de Systena basalis resultaron ser efectivos el extracto de Melia azederach y la mezcla de Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; mientras que para el hongo Sclerotium rolfsii, aunque con los productos probados no hubo un control total, se apreció una disminución notable en el grado de incidencia, por lo que deben utilizarse para su eliminación técnicas agrícolas adecuadas. Respecto a Diabrotica balteata y Cercospora plantagenis su presencia no constituyó plaga y sí se observó control con cualquiera de los tratamientos evaluados. CONCLUSIONES: se logró un control adecuado de las plagas con los tratamientos probados.

María Magdalena Rivera Amita; Masgloiris Milanés Figueredo; Silvino Raúl Ramos Gálvez

2008-01-01

230

Control con medios naturales de los principales insectos y hongos que afectan a Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L./ Control with natural means of the main insects and fungi affecting Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: controlar con productos naturales, de origen vegetal y biológico, las principales plagas y enfermedades que afectan a las especies medicinales Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Plantago major L. (llantén). MÉTODOS: para el control de las plagas y enfermedades se evaluó el efecto de 3 plaguicidas de origen botánico: Tabaquina®, subproducto de Nicotiana tabacum L. (tabaco); semillas secas maceradas de Melia azederach L. (paraíso) y follaje seco mac (more) erado de Lantana camara L. variedad camara (lantana), extraídos por repercolación con etanol 70 %. Como medio biológico para el control de estos insectos y hongos se evaluó el efecto de 2 hongos mezclados Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; cada tratamiento se replicó 3 veces además de la parcela donde no se aplicaron productos. RESULTADOS: en el caso de Systena basalis resultaron ser efectivos el extracto de Melia azederach y la mezcla de Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; mientras que para el hongo Sclerotium rolfsii, aunque con los productos probados no hubo un control total, se apreció una disminución notable en el grado de incidencia, por lo que deben utilizarse para su eliminación técnicas agrícolas adecuadas. Respecto a Diabrotica balteata y Cercospora plantagenis su presencia no constituyó plaga y sí se observó control con cualquiera de los tratamientos evaluados. CONCLUSIONES: se logró un control adecuado de las plagas con los tratamientos probados.

Rivera Amita, María Magdalena; Milanés Figueredo, Masgloiris; Ramos Gálvez, Silvino Raúl

2008-03-01

231

Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories (wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

G. Wiltsee.

1999-01-21

232

Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

Wiltsee, G.

1998-11-20

233

Wood-plastic composites  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is an improved wood-plastic composite (WPC) produced from a mixture comprising, wood particles, plastic, and optionally additives. The WPC of the invention further comprises an active ingredient that acts as a biocide. The active ingredient comprises TBBA or a homologue or derivative thereof and is added to the mixture together with the wood particles during and/or before production of the WPC. A method of producing the improved WPC of the invention is described.

GOHARY YOSSEF; STOLLAR HAIM; LEVINGER MICHAL; DVORA DIKLA

234

Yukon energy resources: Wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The extent of Yukon`s wood fuel resource and the factors affecting its development were presented. Wood is an important source of commercial and residential heating fuel that also has potential as feedstock to producing electricity. It was estimated that the wastes from 70,000 cubic metres of saw logs could produce 2 MW of electricity, or 16.8 GWh per year. Fuel-wood supplies about 25 per cent of the space heating requirements of Yukon`s residential sector. Its use represents about four to five million dollars annually in direct employment and import substitution. The popularity of wood burning during the 1980s resulted in an increase in local wood smoke pollution. To counter this, a program was established to teach residents how to burn wood with a minimum of smoke. A bylaw was also passed to prohibit the burning of wood when pollution levels were higher than acceptable. Wood chip fired boilers have been installed to heat larger buildings and groups of buildings. The units operate with few problems but they have yet to deliver on expected savings because of a lack of efficiency in fuel harvesting and fuel handling. Yukon sources of wood fuel include forest fires, scrap lumber, timber harvesting, sawmill wastes, and land clearing. The advantages of heating with cord wood compared to wood pellets, furnace oil, propane or electricity were described. Among the disadvantages the environmental impacts of harvesting fuelwood include visual impacts, soil erosion, changes to water retention, loss of habitat, changes to soil fertility, changes to climate, and occasionally local wood smoke pollution. 2 tabs., 12 figs.

NONE

1997-09-01

235

FRAGRANT WOOD BRIQUETTES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The submitted invention deals with fragrant wood briquettes, which are used for preparing food on a charcoal grill or in a baker's oven, whilst constantly humidifying food and providing it with a specific taste. The fragrant wood briquettes in the sense of the invention are made from a combination of different types of woods and fragrant parts of one or more types of fragrant plants and include 5 - 30 % of humidity.

SIMIC ZORAN

236

Wood Chip- and Wood-Fired Central Heating Installations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from small wood fired central heating plants is presented in order to evaluate wood and wood chip as biomass fuel. Woodfired installations seem to have their greatest potential where there is access to cheap material. Plant operation and maintenance ...

K. O. Furuseth E. Nilssen O. Gislerud

1981-01-01

237

Tropical reptiles in pine forests: Assemblage responses to plantations and plantation management by burning  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Worldwide, the land area devoted to timber plantations is expanding rapidly, especially in the tropics, where reptile diversity is high. The impacts of plantation forestry and its management on native species are poorly known, but are important, because plantation management goals often include protecting biodiversity. We examined the impact of pine (Pinus caribaea) plantations, and their management by fire, on the abundance and richness of reptiles, a significant proportion of the native biodiversity in tropical northern Australia, by (i) comparing abundance and diversity of reptiles among pine plantations (on land cleared specifically for plantation establishment), and two adjacent native forest types, eucalypt and Melaleuca woodlands, and (ii) comparing reptile abundance and richness in pine forest burnt one year prior to the study to remove understorey vegetation with pine forest burnt two years prior to the study. We also examined the influence of fire on reptile assemblages in native vegetation, by comparing eucalypt woodland burnt two years prior to the study and unburnt for eight years. To quantify mechanisms driving differences in reptile richness and abundance among forest types and management regimes, we measured forest structure, the temperatures used by reptiles (operative temperature) and solar radiation, at replicate sites in all forest types and management regimes. Compared to native forests, pine forests had taller trees, lower shrub cover in the understorey, more and deeper exotic litter (other than pine), and were cooler and shadier. Reptile assemblages in pine forests were as rich as those in native forests, but pine assemblages were composed mainly of species that typically use closed-canopy rainforest and prefer cooler, shadier habitats. Burning did not appear to influence the assemblage structure of reptiles in native forest, but burning under pine was associated with increased skink abundance and species richness. Burned pine was not warmer or sunnier than unburned pine, a common driver of reptile abundance, so the shift in lizard use after burning may have been driven by structural differences in understorey vegetation, especially amounts of non-native litter, which were reduced by burning. Thus, burning for management under pine increased the abundance and richness of lizard assemblages using pine. Pine plantations do not support the snake diversity common to sclerophyllous native forests, but pine may have the potential to complement rainforest lizard diversity if appropriately managed.

Mott Beth; Alford RossA; Schwarzkopf Lin

2010-02-01

238

MOBILE WOOD CHIPPER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mobile wood chipper a vehicle having a longitudinal axis and ground engaging wheels. A rotary bearing is supported by the vehicle and a wood chipper mounted to the rotary bearing for rotation about a substantially vertical axis between an axially oriented travel position and an off-axis operative position. A grapple arm is supported by the vehicle, the grapple arm being capable of feeding logs into the wood chipper when the wood chipper is positioned in the off-axis operative position.

ZELLER LES

239

Wood pellet seminar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants.

2001-01-01

240

Wood versus gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Wood has always been used as a source of heat. Mainly people in villages used to buy a truckload of cordwood, cut it and then use it for heating. Compared to gas heating, this heating method is rather inconvenient. Consequently, after gas was introduced to most of the country, wood was used less and less. But after the liberalization of gas prices in 2000, when the prices went up substantially, the popularity of wood started growing. But Slovakia is not merely cutting cordwood. Around 18 months ago, Statne lesy (state forest) started production of wood chips from residual forest biomass. This material is even suitable for bigger heating plants supplying heat to towns and in comparison to standard wood fuel, the handling is much simpler. Last year, foresters delivered to five Slovak heating plants 42,000 tons of wood chips. And their plans are even bigger. The head of state forests in Levice, Jan Farkas, recalls the last commercial presentation. Around 200 people from heating plants, municipalities and plants attended and were interested in wood chips. 'There is a great interest in wood chips. The growing gas price has created a great opportunity for wood,' said J. Farkas. Currently, state foresters are negotiating chip deliveries to around 20 heating plants and companies. They plan to deliver over 100-thousand tons of this material to the Slovak market. If the potential of Slovak forests is fully used, around 2 million tons of this material could be produced a year. (author)

2006-05-18

 
 
 
 
241

WOOD MODIFICATION: AN UPDATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wood modification is a generic term describing the application of chemical, physical, or biological methods to alter the properties of the material. The aim is to get better performance from the wood, resulting in improvements in dimensional stability, decay resistance, weathering resistance, etc. It is essential that the modified wood is non-toxic in service and that disposal at the end of life does not result in the generation of any toxic residues. Over the past five years there have been significant developments in wood modification technologies, especially in the commercial sector. This technology is here to stay.

Callum A. S. Hill

2011-01-01

242

Forests and wood consumption on the carbon balance. Carbon emission reduction by use of wood products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until now studies on the greenhouse effect paid much attention to carbon fixation by forests, while the entire CO2 cycle of forests and forest products remained underexposed. Utilization of wood products instead of energy-intensive materials (plastics/steel) and fossil fuels (coal) proves to play an important role as well. The effect of utilization is even greater than that of fixation. In all, additional forests together with the multiple use of trees can contribute substantially to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The contribution can run from 5.3 ton CO2/ha/yr for a mixed forest of oak/beech to 18.9 ton CO2/ha/yr for energy plantations (poplar). 2 figs., 3 tabs.

1995-01-01

243

Green Gold. On variations of truth in plantation forestry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined...

Romeijn, P.

244

Screening of Fungi Capable of Degrading Lignocellulose from Plantation Forests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an effort to prevent forest fires after the clear cutting of plantation forests, fungi capable of degrading lignocelluloses were isolated to make a fertilizer from the logging waste. Seventy five fungal species were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia in plantation forests of South and Nort...

Djarwanto; S. Tachibana

245

Plantation Agriculture and the Urbanization of the South  

Science.gov (United States)

|Testing hypotheses in which the level of urbanization of countries and economic subregions of the South were related to their plantation and/or their political economic character, it was found that neither the political economic nor the plantation theory offered a sound explanation of the rurality of the South. (Author/JC)|

Groth, Philip

1977-01-01

246

Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvi...

Ke?a Ljiljana; Ke?a Nenad

247

Plantation forestry diseases in Zambia : contributing factors and management options  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plantation forestry in Zambia is based mainly on non-native Eucalyptus and Pinus species and constitutes an important component of the country's economy. The productivity of these plantations is, however, threatened by several factors, including fungal pathogens that reduce timber quality and cause ...

Chungu, Donald; Muimba-Kankolongo, Ambayeba; Wingfield, Michael J.; Roux, Jolanda

248

Plantations of fast-growing trees; Wo die Turbobaeume spriessen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fast-growing trees as energy crops in plantations are to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Investors are now looking for land to use for plantations and for fast-growing tree species. Germany might be leading in plant breeding, but much time has been lost already. (orig.)

Heup, Juergen

2010-04-15

249

Effects of NH4+ and NO3? on litter and soil organic carbon decomposition in a Chinese fir plantation forest in South China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and nutrient availability determine the soil quality and fertility in a Chinese fir plantation forest in subtropical China. Uniformly 13C-labeled Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and alder (Alnus cremastogyne) leaf litter with or without 100mg NH4+ or NO3? were added to the soil. The purpose was to investigate the influence of N availability on the decomposition of the litter and native SOC. The production of CO2, the natural abundance of 13C–CO2, and the inorganic N dynamics were monitored. The results showed that Chinese fir (with a high C:N ratio) and alder (with a low C:N ratio) leaf litter caused significant positive priming effects (PEs) of 24% and 42%, respectively, at the end of the experiment (235d). The PE dynamics showed that positive PE can last for at least 87d. However, the possible occurrence of a significant negative PE with a sufficient incubation period is difficult to confirm. The application of both NH4+ and NO3? was found to have a stimulating effect on the decomposition of Chinese fir and alder leaf litter in the early stage (0–15d) of incubation, but an adverse effect in the late stage. Compared with NO3?, NH4+ caused a greater decrease in the PE induced by both Chinese fir and alder leaf litter. The effects of NH4+ and NO3? on the PE dynamics had different patterns for different incubation stages. This result may indicate that the stability or recalcitrance of SOC, especially in such plantation forest soils, strongly depends on available leaf litter and application of N to the soil.

Zhang W; Wang S

2012-04-01

250

Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

2010-07-01

251

Fuelwood plantations to alleviate energy crisis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The establishment of plantations on farm lands, barren and waste lands and degraded forest areas is discussed as a feasible means of augmenting the production of fuelwood. Estimates are given of the areas of such land available and of possible yields. Selection of species is discussed from the aspects of yield and quality of fuelwood, other uses, coppicing ability and suitability for marginal and degraded land; a list of 34 suitable species is given. Silvicultural practices and management are discussed in general. 6 references.

Deol, G.S.

1983-01-01

252

PARTICIPATORY DIAGNOSIS OF USE, SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WOOD IN A ZOQUE COMMUNITY FROM THE CENTER OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was performed in Ocuilapa de Juárez, under the initiative of a group of communal Zoque owners, which are members of the Sociedad Cooperativa de Transporte Ejidal Benito Juárez. The group focused on the wood production, that will allow to cover the local and external demand of this. To this end, the group agreed to establish dendroenergetic forest plantations under a management plan that allows its use in a short term. The project was designed in three stages: Stage I (diagnosis), II (implementation) and III (evaluation). The results that appear here constitute only the first stage. Data collection for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of the production processes, demand and supply of wood at local level was carried out using a variety of conventional participatory tools. The systems that contribute most frequently to collect wood were coffee (76%), the “acahual” and primary forest (55%) and pasture (40%). There were a total of 101 species used locally as wood, classified in 80 genera and 38 botanical families; of these, 95 species were prioritized based on criteria of wood quality, and 54 were referred into the surveys, resulting in the frequencies of preferred use. All households polled use wood (100%) and only 37% of them use gas. The domestic consumption of wood was 23.85 Kg•day-1•family-1 in dry weight, which is quite high compared to the average of the state. In 96% of the studied cases using the traditional open fire which has an efficiency of between 5 and 17%, making it necessary to adopt more efficient technologies for use as wood saving stoves. It is necessary to legalize the sale of wood for the purpose of managing for forest harvesting and marketing of this resource. Facing the current deficit in the local and regional demand for wood we are expected that the establishment of forest plantations can help meet the shortfall.

María Consuelo Escobar Ocampo; José Ángel Niños Cruz; Neptalí Ramírez Marcial; Cristina Yépez Pacheco

2009-01-01

253

The wood, renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

254

Economy of wood supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation.

255

How James Wood Works  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

256

Wood chip conservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the Canada-Newfoundland conservation and renewable energy demonstration project, a wood chip supply and heating demonstration programme for residential and small commercial buildings is to be set up across Newfoundland. An earlier programme on Prince Edward Island showed wood chips from forestry wastes to have encouraging possibilities as a domestic and commercial heating fuel.

1982-02-01

257

Method of stabilizing wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

1973-01-01

258

[Economic damage level for leaf-cutting ants in function of the productivity index of eucalyptus plantations in an Atlantic Forest region].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The production and quality of eucalyptus plantations have been studied in areas with different densities of ant nests, being important to estimate losses caused by leaf-cutting ants. The effects of leaf-cutting ant on wood production in differents productivity sites were studied in eucalyptus plantations in the region of Atlantic Forest, Minas Gerais State, Brazil from 2003 to 2006. Data of plots of the continuous forest inventory and data of leaf-cutting ant monitoring in eucalyptus plantations were obtained. Each unitary increment in the area of Atta spp. nests per hectare reduced the wood production of the eucalyptus forest between 0.04 and 0.13 m³.ha(-1), resulting in a level of economic damage for leaf-cutting ants between 13.4 and 39.2 m².ha(-1), in this region. Moreover, this study innovated when using indices of forest productivity (site index) that promote better adjustment of the models and produce estimate more accurate of the level of economic damage for leaf-cutting ants in cultivated forests, allowing to conclude that the increase of the total area of ant nests reduces the wooden volume of eucalyptus, proportionally to the productive potential of the forest.

Souza A; Zanetti R; Calegario N

2011-07-01

259

Soil water depletion and replenishment during first- and early second-rotation Eucalyptus globulus plantations with deep soil profiles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eucalyptus globulus plantations are thought to use stored soil water when planted on ex-agricultural sites, and we hypothesized that this is likely to affect productivity of 2nd and later rotation plantations because the next rotations have access to less stored soil water. We used a combination of experiments and modeling to understand the impact of E. globulus plantations on soil water stores over the first rotation and early second rotation. The experiments were conducted at 3 contrasting sites in south-western Australia, and modeling was used to extrapolate the results to other climatic zones. Soil water dynamics were assessed to 8m depth under a range of management options, including spacing and nitrogen addition in the first rotation, and coppice or seedling re-establishment in the 2nd rotation. We found that soil water stores declined over the course of the first rotation at all sites, with some (incomplete) annual replenishment evident at the higher rainfall sites, but less replenishment at depth, especially in the lower rainfall sites. Only the wettest of the 3 sites fully replenished with soil water after harvest of the 1st rotation. Plots with higher stocking rates had higher soil water depletion early in the rotation, although by the end of the first rotation, most treatments had similar soil water deficits of around 800mm at all of the sites. Of the sites that were responsive to N fertilizer, there was a strong differential in the degree of soil water deficit between N treatments, with N fertilized trees using more of the soil water store each year, but also producing more wood. A process-based plantation growth model, CABALA, was found to be adequate for predicting soil water dynamics under the range of management options that we explored, and we applied it to understanding the potential replenishment of soil under 2nd rotation plantations in a range of climatic zones within the E. globulus estate in south-western Australia. This modeling showed that most sites with soil depths of more than 4m (i.e., most of the estate) are unlikely to be fully replenished in the 2nd rotation, and that this is likely to have a significant impact on the capacity of sites to achieve similar productivity levels in the second rotation as the first unless the sites are given an opportunity for soil water replenishment between rotations. The results from this study suggest that plantation managers will need to understand soil water dynamics at any given site to be able to predict productivity in 2nd and later rotations, and may need to explore novel management options like fallowing between rotations to allow for soil water replenishment.

Mendham DS; White DA; Battaglia M; McGrath JF; Short TM; Ogden GN; Kinal J

2011-12-01

260

Burning of wood and wood wastes in industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In comparison to other fuels, wood and wood waste have a high moisture content and a low thermal content per volume unit. Grate firing and indirect pulverised firing are compared and rotary dryers discussed. Combustion tests prove that the fluid bed technique is well suited to burning wood and wood waste.

Jahkola, A.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives. PMID:17011772

Mazela, Bart?omiej

2006-10-02

262

Effect of high relative humidity on dried Plantago lanceolata L. leaves during long-term storage: effects on chemical composition, colour and microbiological quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Modern phytotherapy and quality assurance requires stability data on bioactive metabolites to identify and minimise decomposing factors during processing and storage. A compound's stability in a complex matrix can be different from the stability of the purified compound. OBJECTIVE: To test the stability of iridoids and acteoside and quantify changes in colour and microbiological quality in a common herbal tea, dried P. lanceolata leaves during exposure to high-humidity air. To test the contribution of fungi to metabolite decomposition. METHODOLOGY: Dried P. lanceolata leaves were exposed to atmospheres of different relative humidity (75, 45 and 0%) for 24?weeks. Changes in aucubin and catalpol concentration were determined by CE-MEKC, and those in acteoside on TLC. Colour and chlorophyll-like pigments were measured by different spectrophotometric methods. The number of fungi was monitored; 10 strains were isolated from the plant drug, and their ability to decompose the analytes of interest was tested. RESULTS: During incubation at 75% relative humidity (RH), aucubin, catalpol and acteoside concentrations decreased by 95.7, 97.0 and 70.5%, respectively. Strong shifts were detected in CIELAB parameters a* and b* (browning) as a result of conversion of chlorophyll to pheophytin. Intensive microbial proliferation was also observed. Changes at 45 or 0% RH were typically insignificant. Seven of the 10 isolated fungal strains could decompose both iridoids, and five could decompose acteoside in vitro. CONCLUSION: It was shown that exposure to water results in loss of bioactive molecules of P. lanceolata dried leaves, and that colonising fungi are the key contributors to this loss.

Gonda S; Tóth L; Gyémánt G; Braun M; Emri T; Vasas G

2012-01-01

263

Storage Problems of Poplar Chips from Short Rotation Plantations with Special Emphasis on Fungal Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are several problems in storing wood chips freshly harvested from short rotation plantations, which result in quality losses as well as in dry matter and energy losses. The factors influencing the degradation of raw material are examined in this paper with special focus on fungal development. An excessive growth of fungi is connected to dry matter losses and also to an increased health risk during raw material handling.The following factors were measured during 6 months storage of poplar wood chips depending on particle size: box temperature, moisture content, pH-value, appearance of fungi in the storage and the concentration of fungal particles in the air. The results show a close connection between particle size, temperature and attack of fungi. During the storage mesophilic and termophilic species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor and Penicillium appeared. The concentration of fungal particles is the highest for fine chips and decreases in bigger particles. There was a special focus on the investigation of the properties of coarse chips (G 50), which represent a good compromise between handling, storage losses and health risk due to fungal development.

HORVÁTH, Zsuzsanna; MAROSVÖLGYI, Béla; IDLER, Christine; PECENKA, Ralf; LENZ, Hannes

2012-01-01

264

Salix plantation. Salixodling; Maskiner, arbetsmetoder och ekonomi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intensive culture forestry is described in an international perspective. Comprehensive and careful preparations before planting Salix are necessary if the plantation is to be successful. In choosing land, mineral soils should be given priority as they offer several different advantages over humus soils. Careful control of perennial weeds is one of the most important measures and should be started during the year before planting. Weed control after planting is one of the most important measures ensuring success of the establishment of a Salix plantation. When planting on mineral soils, use of soil-applied herbicides is mainly recommended, but in the case of humus soils mechanical weed control is preferable. JTI has studied four different principles of supplying plant nutrients, namely application from the air, application with a tractor-mounted distributor shuttle fertilising and manual application. In addition, a machine for high-level spreading and a method for shuttle fertilising with liquid nutrients are also described. The harvesting of Salix is both laborious and expensive. Further technical developments are required as well as new knowledge among farmers with regard to the entire handling of the harvest. The material is harvested either whole for storage on the field or chipped for direct transportation to a combustion plant. Harvest and the handling of the harvested material make up considerable parts of the production costs. Successful tests with combustion of chipped Salix have been made in different types and sizes of furnaces. Studies show that both operational reliability and thermal economy have been improved during recent years. Short rotation forestry is characterized by a large establishment cost and moderate management costs. The grower can choose to make a cost price calculation or a variable costing calculation. The calculations are described in the report.

Danfors, B. (Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (SE))

1992-01-01

265

Effects of the lateral growth rate on wood quality parameters of Eucalyptus grandis from different latitudes in Brazil and Argentina  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Climate change resulting from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO?) and shortages of fossil fuels such as petroleum are major problems worldwide. Under these conditions, demand for woody biomass resources is increasing. We investigated the feasibility of using fast-growing Eucalyptus grandis for material production. Samples of E. grandis were collected from four plantations in different latitude divisions, including tropical and subtropical Brazil and subtropical Argentina. Various xylem qualities were measured and related to the lateral growth rate. Lateral growth rate did not significantly affect the longitudinal released strain of the surface growth stresses or the xylem density at any of the sampling sites. Higher lateral growth rate, higher values of xylem density, and lower absolute values of the released strain were observed in plantations closer to the equator. Higher growth rates in tropical climate promote longer fiber length. In subtropical plantations, smaller diameter trees will produce tension wood with smaller microfibril angles. Planting E. grandis closer to the equator thus produces higher quality wood than in plantations at lower latitudes.

Kojima Miho; Yamaji FabioMinoru; Yamamoto Hiroyuki; Yoshida Masato; Nakai Takahisa

2009-04-01

266

Importance of residual trees to birds in regenerating pine plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pine plantation establishment methods can alter vegetation composition and structure, thus affecting habitat important characteristics for declining early successional bird species. We evaluated eight vegetation characteristics, which varied due to a range of pine plantation establishment methods, to identify vegetation most closely associated with spring bird abundance in the Lower Coastal Plain of southern Mississippi, USA. Presence of residual trees and snags was positively related to relative abundance of 10 of 14 common species present in regenerating stands. Cover of woody vegetation was positively related to relative abundance of 4 species and negatively related to relative abundance of 2 species. For 5 species, increasing pine tree cover had a negative relationship with relative abundance. Residual trees and snags contributed to avian abundance and richness in regenerating pine plantations. Integration of habitat elements, such as residual trees that influence abundance of birds and other wildlife, with intensive pine plantation establishment can aid managers to attain wildlife conservation in intensively managed stands.

Hanberry BB; Hanberry P; Demarais S; Jones JC

2012-01-01

267

Application of 125I seed permanent plantation in osseous metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To evaluate the value of 125I permanent plantation in treating osseous metastases. Methods: Twenty-two patients with osseous metastases were accepted radioactive seeds 125I permanent plantation. The curative effect was appraised according to the degree of ostalgia relieving and the changing of the radiology imaging in patients. Results: Accepted radioactive seeds 125I permanent plantation, relief of pain was obtained and the effective rate is 91% (20/22). However none of the patients showed severe side-effect. Among 32 lesions in 22 cases followed-up by CT in 2 months, 4 obtained CR, 18 obtained PR, 10 NC and 0 PD. The responsive rate was 68.7%. Conclusion: 125I permanent plantation procedure can be a safe and effective method in treating osseous metastases and obtaining good clinical effects with minimal damage and few complications. (authors)

2007-01-01

268

United Plantations certified despite gross violations of RSPO Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This investigation reveals that deforestation, deep peat conversion, land disputes and illegal practices continue to occur in the plantation estates owned by a company that is RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certified for parts of its operations.

NONE

2008-11-15

269

A Yield Prediction Model for Crimean Pine Plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crimean pine is one of the most important plantation and natural species in Turkey. In spite of this importance, information on the growth and yield of this species is lacking. For this reason, a model for growth and yield in crimean pine plantations is described, in which stand development is derived from relation to age and site index. Data were collected from 115 temporary sample plots from plantations ranging in age from 3 to 50 years. Site index curves and empirical yield tables were developed and presented. Site index curves were used to classify plantations into site classes of I, II and III, in order of decreasing productivity. Yield functions indicate that crimean pine can be grown on biologically optimum rotations of 35, 36 and 37 years on site classes I, II and III, respectively. The models can be calibrated on permanent field plot data and tested against independent long term growth and yield records.

Mehmet Misir; Nuray Misir

2007-01-01

270

Productivity and carbon allocation in pure and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen fertilizer inputs are required in fast growing eucalypt plantations to meet tree requirements, and to compensate for the large nitrogen outputs associated with wood exportation at the end of the short rotations. Due to the economic and potential environmental cost of fertilizers, mixed-species plantations (MSP) with N-fixing species (NFS) such as Acacia sp. might be an attractive option to improve the long-term soil N (and possibly soil carbon) status. In such MSP, increases in N availability may influence the productivity and C partitioning of the non-N fixing species. To investigate the effects of NFS on nutrient cycling, wood production, C sequestration, and soil fertility, a randomized block design including monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (100%E) and Acacia mangium (100%A), and mixtures of these species (50%E:50%A) was set up in southern Brazil. Our specific goals in the present study were to compare the production and C allocation patterns of these plantations, during the two last years of the 6-yr rotation. We hypothesized that 1) a large part of the differences in wood production between monospecific stands would be explained by differences in C allocation; and 2) the C allocation patterns of each species would be strongly modified in mixed- species plantations compared to mono-specific plantations due to inter-specific interactions and shifts in soil N status. Biomass increase (growth, G) in the different plant compartments was assessed by means of inventories and allometric relationships. Total aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and the productivity of each aboveground plant compartment were estimated from measurements of G and litterfall (L) (ANPP=G+L). Total belowground C allocations (TBCA) were estimated using a mass-balance approach as soil CO2 efflux C minus the C input from aboveground litter plus changes in the C stored in roots, in the forest floor litter layer, and in soil. Over this first rotation, mixing NFS with eucalypt did not increase wood production: at the end of the 6 yr-old rotation, total aboveground biomass was the highest in the 100%E stands (68.2 tC/ha), lowest in the MSP 50%E:50%A (62.0 tC/ha), and intermediary in the 100%A (66.0 tC/ha). Although 100%E stands had a stronger growth than 100%A during the first 4 yrs of the rotation, the reverse was observed at the end of the rotation: during the two last yrs, total growth was 15.9 tC/ha/yr for 100%A, and 12.7 and 10.4 tC/ha/yr for 100%E and 50%E50%A, respectively. These differences in growth were explained by differences in ANPP (19.2, 17.8 and 15.2 tC/ha/yr, for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%E50%A, respectively), and differences in the ratio litter production/ANPP (0.17, 0.29, and 0.31 for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%A50%E, respectively). Furthermore, the ratio TBCA/ANPP was the lowest in 100%A, and the highest in the MSPs (0.44, 0.62, and 0.78, for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%A50%E, respectively). These results suggest that inter-specific interactions have a strong effect on the C allocation pattern observed at the stand level in MSPs.

Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Epron, D.; Le Maire, G.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

2010-12-01

271

Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible.

Fledderman, P.D.

2000-10-30

272

Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible

2000-01-01

273

Analysis of commercial profitability of poplar plantations aged 24 years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analysed in an artificial poplar plantation, rotation 25 years. The aim of the study was to check the justification of the invested financial means in artificial poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts in the period of 25 years, by using the method of analysis of commercial profitability. The evaluation of investments was performed by modern methods which, in this way, found their practical implementation in forestry.

Ke?a Ljiljana; Rankovi? Nenad; Paji? Sanja

2008-01-01

274

Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested), aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five speci (more) es of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926), Lu. migonei (França 1920), Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959) and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939) were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912), was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

Alexander, Bruce; Oliveria, Emerson Barbosa de; Haigh, Emily; Almeida, Lourenço Leal de

2002-07-01

275

Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

2006-05-04

276

Heavy metal bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses in Cardaminopsis arenosa and Plantago lanceolata leaves from metalliferous and non-metalliferous sites: a field study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, iron and manganese) in soil, their bioavailability and bioaccumulation in plants leaves. This study also examined their influences on the antioxidant response of the plants Cardaminopsis arenosa and Plantago lanceolata grown in metal-contaminated and non-contaminated soils. The activities of guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the levels of antioxidants such as glutathione, proline and non-protein thiols were measured. Concentrations of the examined metals were several to thousands of times lower in the potentially bioavailable fraction than in the acid-extracted fraction of the soil. Similar mode of antioxidant responses in plant leaves of metalliferous populations indicates the tolerance of plants towards heavy metals. However POD and GSHt had a particularly strong role in defense reactions, as their increase was the most common reaction to heavy metal contamination.The levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in the leaves of C. arenosa better reflected metal concentrations in the metalliferous and non-metalliferous soil than the determined metal concentrations in P. lanceolata. Bioaccumulated Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations were above or in the ranges mentioned as toxic for plant tissues and therefore the studied plants have potential for use in phytostabilization.

Nadgórska-Socha A; Ptasi?ski B; Kita A

2013-11-01

277

Heavy metal bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses in Cardaminopsis arenosa and Plantago lanceolata leaves from metalliferous and non-metalliferous sites: a field study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, iron and manganese) in soil, their bioavailability and bioaccumulation in plants leaves. This study also examined their influences on the antioxidant response of the plants Cardaminopsis arenosa and Plantago lanceolata grown in metal-contaminated and non-contaminated soils. The activities of guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the levels of antioxidants such as glutathione, proline and non-protein thiols were measured. Concentrations of the examined metals were several to thousands of times lower in the potentially bioavailable fraction than in the acid-extracted fraction of the soil. Similar mode of antioxidant responses in plant leaves of metalliferous populations indicates the tolerance of plants towards heavy metals. However POD and GSHt had a particularly strong role in defense reactions, as their increase was the most common reaction to heavy metal contamination.The levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in the leaves of C. arenosa better reflected metal concentrations in the metalliferous and non-metalliferous soil than the determined metal concentrations in P. lanceolata. Bioaccumulated Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations were above or in the ranges mentioned as toxic for plant tissues and therefore the studied plants have potential for use in phytostabilization. PMID:24085602

Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Ptasi?ski, Bart?omiej; Kita, Andrzej

2013-10-02

278

Review of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cleaning is carried out in order to influence the competitive situation of controlling the distribution of volume growth and the quality of timber. today, cleaning is conducted on about 200 000 ha per year in Sweden, most if which is cleaned motor-manually. The degree of mechanization is less than 1 % of. The biomass content of a cleaned stand is generally low, ranging from 1 to 2 tons dry matter per ha, but in some stands it can amount to over 20 tons per ha. The main motivation for removing biomass from a cleaned stand is the possibility of reducing overall cleaning costs. Few studies have been made on the environmental effects of the biomass removal in connection with cleaning. Studies made in connection with thinning, primarily conifers, indicate that the negative effects, such as increased soil acidification, reduced pools of base cations and nitrogen losses, can occur. It should be possible to compensate these undesirable effects through measures such as fertilization or ash recycling. Estimates of impacts on the flora and fauna suggests that effects are small and reversible. However, certain biotopes require special attention. Cost and performance studies indicate that it can be profitable for individual landowners to remove biofuel from very tall, dense stands, whereas better technology is required for more commercial operations. The development of such techniques is under way today. For large-scale removal of biofuel in connection with cleaning, simple forecasting tools will have to be developed that can help in determining when and where biomass should be removed. The decision should be based on economic, ecological and technical considerations. Furthermore, thorough analyses of the effects on the nutrient balance need to be made, and any reductions in the quality and growth of timber need to be quantified 21 refs

1998-01-01

279

Non-destructive determination of wood-constituents by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The feasibility of using FT-Raman spectroscopy for rapid determination of various wood constituents non-destructively was examined using five Eucalyptus species, including samples of various ages and colors of samples, which are of importance as a plantation source. Wood constituents which relate to pulp properties (holocellulose, alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives, alkali-extractives, total-extractives, and extractives-free (EF) wood constituents for holocellulose, alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) were measured. The application of 2nd derivatives transformation of Raman spectroscopic data revealed highly significant correlations between wet chemical and Raman predicted values for all traits except EF-hemicellulose, with standard error of prediction (SEP) < 0.8 points in the calibration (for known samples) and SEP < 3.4 points in the prediction (for unknown samples), respectively. Consequently, this non-destructive method has proved its validity for analyzing various Eucalyptus native wood meal samples, regardless of their age and color, to determine wood constituents and EF-wood constituents except hemicellulose. Use of this method will reduce the costs of tree improvement programs and the minimal sample size needed will allow trees to be non-destructively sampled.

Ona T; Sonoda T; Ita K; Shibata M; Kato T; Ootake Y

1997-01-01

280

[Preparation and properties of wood/modified UF prepolymer composite materials].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present research, the urea-formaldehyde prepolymer and multilayer hot-press drying were used to modify poplar plantation. The prepolymer was impregnated into cell lumen space by pulse-dipping machine. Then the timbers were compressed and dried by the multilayer hot-press drying kiln. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of poplar were changed in this investigation. The basic density of modified wood increased 1.06 times compared with the natural wood, and the bending strength increased 33% for modified wood, compressive strength parallel to grain increased 74%, the water absorption decreased to 97% from 104%. The crystallinity decreased slightly from 39.65 to 36.89 because of the modifier impregnated. TGA analysis showed that the heat resistance of modified wood increased, the three exothermic peaks in DTA curve of modified wood were 280, 360 and 485 degrees C which were higher than natural wood in the corresponding position FTIR analysis showed that the hydroxyl modified material has a good association phenomenon, and carbonyl content decreased. The SEM spectrum showed the distribution of the prepolymer in the modified timber.

Wu GF; Jiang YF; Song SP; Qu P; Yao S; Pu JW

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Wood fuel and pulp wood production at terminals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The so called whole-tree method has during recent years replaced the conventional assortment method for thinning younger stands at several locations in Sweden. Unlimbed logs are processed at wood terminals into pulp wood and wood fuel. Today the pulp industry is consuming the wood fuel itself, but when the whole-tree method is more widely introduced, a large amount of wood fuel will be available for other consumers, especially the town-heating companies. The aim of this study has been to investigate: Consumers quality demand on the wood fuel. The necessary treatment of the wood fuel at the terminal to fulfil the demand of the consumers. Payable price for wood fuel. Rate of return for wood fuel and pulp wood production at separate terminals and at terminals located at pulp mills. One of the conclusions of this study is that production of wood fuel and pulp wood at the debarking station at the pulp mill is more economical than production at separate terminals. Wood fuel is however inhomogeneous fuel, moisture content 35-60 percent, ash content 2.5-4.5 percent. Therefore wood fuel calls for more rigid fuel handling equipment than fuel chips. Combustion furnaces and firing grates designed for fuel chips have turned out not to be quite suitable for wood fuel. Another conclusion from the study is that if fuel oil firing is the alternative, if wood fuel can be purchased at 450 SEK/ton DS. Coal and peat as alternatives brings the payable price on wood fuel down to 330 SEK/ton DS.

Segerud, K.

1983-12-01

282

Status of older white pine plantations in northwestern Ontario. Technical report No. 95  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication is a catalogue of 221 white pine plantations established in north-western Ontario prior to 1974. A total of 108 of these plantations was ground truthed in 1993. Findings from both office file searches and subsequent field surveys evaluating the plantations are presented by district. Each plantation is placed into one of four success classes (successful, somewhat successful, near failure, failure). Information provided for each plantation includes township, project number and location within township, number of white pine planted, and comments on plantation condition.

Bryson, T.; Bowling, C.L.; Storie, R.

1996-12-01

283

Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to understand how management practices can help to increase their adaptability to climate change. Growth magnitude and period, specific hydraulic conductivity, and anatomical traits (early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter, cell-wall thickness, tracheid length and bordered pit dimensions) were measured in the ring 2008-2009, which was formed during drought conditions. This drought event decreased annual stem growth by 30-38% and 58-65% respect to previous mean growth, in open vs. closed stand trees, respectively, indicating a higher sensitivity of the latter, which is opposite to reports from the same species growing in managed native forests in USA. Some wood anatomical variables did differ in more water stressed trees (lower cell wall thickness of early wood cells and higher proportion of small-lumen cells in late wood), which in turn did not affect wood function (hydraulic conductivity and resistance to implosion). Other anatomical variables (tracheid length, pit dimensions, early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter of early wood cells) did not differ between tree sizes and plantation density. The results suggest that severe drought affects differentially the amount but not the function and quality of formed wood in ponderosa pine growing at different competition levels. (Author) 41 refs.

Fernandez, M. E.; Gyenge, J. E.; Urquiza, M. M.; Varela, S.

2012-11-01

284

Potential effects of forest decline on wood supply, wood-working industry, and wood quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses the significance of wood as a raw and working material for the world per capita supply of fuel wood and industrial wood and demonstrates which mechanisms influence wood consumption. The extent to which tropical and subtropical forests and those from temperate northern climates contribute towards global wood production is shown. A description is given of the fatal effects which the decline of forests in northern temperate zones may have on the industrial wood supply and on the wood-working industry all over the world. To guard against an extreme increase in forest damage, various methods for the long-term storage of felled timber and lumber are taken into consideration. Recent investigations have proved that the quality of wood from declining trees is unimpaired. The chemical, anatomical, and physical properties of wood from different species and storage their characteristics are equivalent to those in sound trees, as long as their harvesting is carried out before their actual death.

Schulz, H.

1985-09-01

285

Wood plastic combination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

1976-01-01

286

Survey of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in a managed silvicultural plantation in Portugal, using a line-intersection method (LIS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Subterranean termites (Reticulitermes grassei) were surveyed over successive seasons in a managed eucalyptus plantation in southeastern Portugal for 26 months. Termite activity in seven diameter categories of lying dead wood was investigated by a modified line intersection method (LIS). Each item sampled was inspected and assessed for termite attack and for general (i.e. fungal) decay status using standard protocols. Line intersection is quantitative to the extent that it can link foraging and decay parameters to woody biovolume. It was found that termites selected items with larger diameter, the observed trend showing an exponential character with greater termite attack as diameter increased. Attack by termites was positively associated with prior decay by fungi. A clear positive relationship was shown between rainfall and total woody biovolume containing live termites, underlining the importance of moisture for termite activity. Subterranean termites appeared to be important wood decomposers in the woodland studied, with an average of 30% of lying dead wood branches showing signs of termite attack. PMID:18662431

Nobre, T; Nunes, L; Bignell, D E

2008-07-29

287

Survey of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in a managed silvicultural plantation in Portugal, using a line-intersection method (LIS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subterranean termites (Reticulitermes grassei) were surveyed over successive seasons in a managed eucalyptus plantation in southeastern Portugal for 26 months. Termite activity in seven diameter categories of lying dead wood was investigated by a modified line intersection method (LIS). Each item sampled was inspected and assessed for termite attack and for general (i.e. fungal) decay status using standard protocols. Line intersection is quantitative to the extent that it can link foraging and decay parameters to woody biovolume. It was found that termites selected items with larger diameter, the observed trend showing an exponential character with greater termite attack as diameter increased. Attack by termites was positively associated with prior decay by fungi. A clear positive relationship was shown between rainfall and total woody biovolume containing live termites, underlining the importance of moisture for termite activity. Subterranean termites appeared to be important wood decomposers in the woodland studied, with an average of 30% of lying dead wood branches showing signs of termite attack.

Nobre T; Nunes L; Bignell DE

2009-02-01

288

Of peasants, plantations, and immigrant proletarians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] Dominican Sugar Plantations: Production and Foreign Labor Integration. MARTIN F. MURPHY. New York: Praeger, 1991. xii + 186 pp. (Cloth US$49.95) Peasants in Distress: Poverty and Unemployment in the Dominican Republic. ROSEMARY VARGAS-LUNDIUS. Boulder CO: Westview 1991. xxi + 387 pp. (Paper US$ 32.95) Few other places in the Caribbean region have as great a potential for international conflict as the island of Hispaniola. The historical antagonism between Haiti and the Dominican Republic is no doubt known to readers of this journal, as is the recent upsurge in tension between the two countries, which culminated in the expulsion of tens of thousands of Haitian immigrants from the Dominican Republic, from June to September 1991. The quickening pace of events, added to the worsening spiral of economic hardship gripping both nations, threaten to render obsolete even the most recent analyses of relations between the two countries. Even so, against the background of an increasingly acrimonious debate between the Dominican government and international human rights organizations accusing it of enslaving Haitian immigrants in the cane flelds, the appearance of two works by long-time students of the migration of Haitians as cane workers to the Dominican Republic is particularly timely.

Samuel Martí­nez

1993-01-01

289

Plantation forestry in Brazil: the potential impacts of climatic change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most climatic changes predicted to occur in Brazil would replace yields of silvicultural plantations, mainly through increased frequency and severity of droughts brought on by global warming and by reduction of water vapor sources in Amazonia caused by deforestation. Some additional negative effects could result from changes in temperature, and positive effects could result from CO2 enrichment. The net effects would be negative, forcing the country to expand plantations onto less-productive land, requiring increased plantation area (and consequent economic losses) out of proportion to the climatic change itself. These impacts would affect carbon sequestration and storage consequences of any plans for subsidizing silviculture as a global warming mitigation option. Climate change can be expected to increase the area of plantations needed to supply projected internal demand for and exports of end products from Brazil. June-July-August (dry season) precipitation reductions indicated by simulations reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) correspond to rainfall declines in this critical season of approximately 34% in Amazonia, 39% in Southern Brazil and 61% in the Northeast. As an example, if rainfall in Brazilian plantation areas (most of which are now in Southern Brazil) were to decline by 50%, the area needed in 2050 would expand by an estimated 38% over the constant climate case, bringing the total area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. These large areas of additional plantations imply substantial social and environmental impacts. Further addition of plantation area as a global warming response option would augment these impacts, indicating the need for caution in evaluating carbon sequestration proposals. (author)

290

Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester. 8 figs.

Eggen, D.L.

1988-11-15

291

Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester.

EGGEN DAVID L

292

Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester.

Eggen, David L. (Rte. 1, Box 257, Moose Lake, MN 55767)

1988-11-15

293

Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (?E(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. PMID:23123593

Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

2012-10-13

294

Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (?E(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers.

Srinivas K; Pandey KK

2012-12-01

295

Turning wood residues into wood revenues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP(TM))is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTPTM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTPTM. The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

1996-01-01

296

WOOD PARTICLE MIXTURE FOR A WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITE MATERIAL AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING THE WOOD PARTICLE MIXTURE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A wood particle mixture is described especially made from raw wood for an extruded or injection-molded wood-plastic composite material, especially manufactured from wood-plastic compound, which significantly improve the strength properties in a wood plastic composite material. Each wood particle has certain dimensions and certain shaping.

BRANDENBURG KAY

297

Harvesting wood for energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this paper is to present pertinent cost and productivity data for several wood harvesting operations. These operations were not all conducted to provide wood fuel, but the information is still of value to those considering the harvest of wood for energy. The case studies are based on the following harvesting operations: Two mechanized thinning operations in pole-sized hardwoods. One hardwood land-clearing operation (for agricultural land). One hardwood land-clearing operation (for site conversion). One relogging operation of hardwood tops and limbs resulting from a saw log harvest. All of the studies were conducted between 1974 and 1978. Information on the costs and productivity of commercial logging equipment is included.

Arola, R.A.; Miyata, E.S.

1981-01-01

298

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30

299

Saccharification of wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood is crushed into fine particles of less than 50 mu and hydrolyzed by cellulase of Trichoderma viride and(or) Asperigullus niger. Thus, 5 g powdered wood of 80 to 100 mesh was crushed by a ball mill into fine particles of 20 to 50 mu m, mixed with 100 mL acetate buffer (pH 4.0) and 0.25 g each of Cellulosin AC (A. niger) and Cellulase onozuka R 10 (T. viride). The mixture was reacted at 45/sup 0/ for 15 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered to yield a solution containing 3.2 g reducing sugars. By comparison, only 0.7 g of the wood powder of 80 to 100 mesh was hydrolyzed.

Tanaka, R.; Yaku, T.; Muraki, E.; Koshyima, T.; Yoshikawa, M.

1980-01-23

300

Methane from wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

2005-07-15

 
 
 
 
301

A NOVEL ACYLATED FLAVONOIDIC GLYCOSIDE FROM THE WOOD OF CULTIVATED ACACIA NILOTICA (L.) WILLD. EX. DELILE.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acacia is a fast-growing plant that has high potential in commercial plantations in tropical areas. It is already being grown as a plantation crop for building and industrial raw materials, as well as for reforestation of difficult sites. Extensive cultivation of this promising tree would enrich the natural resources besides being useful for industrial raw material, waste land management, and afforestation. In addition, Acacia exhibits extensive medicinal values. In view of the medicinal importance of Acacia nilotica and the therapeutic utility of flavonoids, an attempt has been made to isolate novel flavonoids from the wood of cultivated A. nilotica. The extraction of crude ethanol extract from the A. nilotica wood was followed by fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol in increasing order of polarity of the solvent. The mixed ethyl acetate and methanol extract afforded three pure compounds through column chromtomatography and fractional crystallization. Among the isolated phenolic compounds, a new acylated flavonoidic glycoside, tricin-4?-O-?-(6??-hydroxycinnamic)-glucoside (1) was isolated from the wood of A. nilotica together with two known compounds, gallic acid and apigenin. Their structures were established by chemical evidence, spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and ESI-MS), and by comparison with already existing spectroscopic data. The yield of novel tricin glucoside showed that it make up to 0.0786% of mixed ethyl acetate and acetone extract.

Zakia Khanam; Farook Adam; Ompal Singh; Jamal Ahmad

2011-01-01

302

SOME ASPECTS RELATED WITH THE QUALITY OF THE SAWED WOOD OF Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper is studied the influence of the initial spacing in plantations of Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea in it´s quality and industrial yield, with the objective of favoring the decisions referred to the best spacing in the establishment of plantations of this species. The research includes studies referred to determine the influence of the spacing in the volumetric yield in the industry and in the quality of the sawed wood. There are considered in the study 5 initial spacings: 1X3, 1.5X3, 2X3, 2.5X3 and 3X3 m. For taking of field information and its analysis are used methods stablished in cubing of rounded and sawed wood, the current wooden classifier used in the country and automated systems for the realization of the regression analyses, with the objective of modelling the relationships between diameter in rabiza with variables as number and diameter of the knots, appearance of each type of quality, among others. The obtained results define that to smaller spacing, the best quality in sawed wood and the yield of the logs in the sawmill is bigger than for the superior spacings. The previous results should be coordinated with the obtained ones in the research in forest management, which indicate what treatments they are the best in wooden volumes taken place by hectares.

Juan Manuel García Delgado; Omar Izquierdo Chala; Pedro P. Henry Torriente; Abelardo Domínguez Goizueta

2009-01-01

303

Drying coarse wood particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optimum conditions for drying wood pieces, approximately 7-10 cm in length and width from m.c. of 100% to m.c. of 20%, in a rotary kiln dryer were: exit temperature 215 degrees C, average temperature between entry and exit 334 degrees C; holding time 10 min. Tests were also carried out in a thermostatically controlled oven dryer, and it was shown that there was an exponential relationship between moisture evaporation and the specific surface area of the wood particles. 1 reference.

Toda, H.; Sato, M.; Shirakawa, S.

1983-01-01

304

Mechanism of wood combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mechanism of open system combustion of dry wood, a solid carbonaceous fuel of a high volatile matter content, was studied through a quantitative monitoring of the stack flue gas. Combustion is in three stages. The first stage is an accelerated burning, during which the chemical composition of the burned fractions is virtually constant, approximates that of the initial dry wood and its independent of air flow rate. The second stage involves a rapid change in chemical composition of burned fractions. In the third stage the chemical composition of the burned fractions is again virtually constant and independent of air flow. 17 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

Oren, M.J.; Karunakaran, K.P.; Pegg, M.J.; MacKay, G.D.M.

1987-01-01

305

World tropical wood trade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tropical wood is attracting global attention in the light of dwindling sources of industrial raw material supplies, increasing concern for conservation and growing requirements for huge investments. This study examines the changing character of the world hardwood trade, and the factors that will affect future supply, demand and price. It also considers the likely implications of recent large-scale attempts to grow tropical species for pulp, developmentss in microtechnology and biotechnology on wood, and the proposed international commodity agreement for tropical timber. The study emphasizes the need for huge investments on a global scale in afforestation and research to fully realize the potential of the tropical biomass.

Kumar, R.

1982-09-01

306

Impacts of extreme precipitation on tree plantation carbon cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

Extreme precipitation events are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude in future due to global warming, but relevant impacts on tree plantation ecosystem carbon cycle are unknown. In this study, we use an atmosphere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2) to estimate the likely impacts of extreme precipitation events on carbon fluxes and carbon stocks of a tree plantation in south China. Our results indicate that shifting from moderate precipitation events to extreme precipitation events whilst keeping monthly precipitation unchanged could decrease the tree plantation carbon accumulation. Tree plantation net primary productivity, net ecosystem productivity, soil carbon stock and vegetation carbon stock could decrease by 4.2, 28, 4.3 and 1.4 % during the studying period of 1962-2004, respectively. Though reductions in net primary productivity and net ecosystem productivity are relatively smaller than their annual variations, our sensitivity test shows that the tree plantation carbon stock could decrease by 3.3 % if the assumed extreme precipitation regime lasts for 500 years. Observed and simulated gross primary productivity, ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem productivity have significant positive correlation with soil water content (SWC), especially the deep SWC. The mechanism for the extreme precipitation effect is that the increase in extreme precipitation events will cause SWC to decrease, consequently, reducing carbon fluxes and stocks.

Huang, Mei; Ji, Jinjun; Deng, Feng; Yang, Fengting

2013-05-01

307

Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

2013-03-01

308

Status of wood energy applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described.

1991-01-01

309

Wood chips with everything; Alleskoenner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood chips can heat family homes, hotels, swimming pools, school buildings, and residential areas. They are flexible and have considerable potential as has been proved in many successful project. The contribution presents examples. It also goes into detail about general and specific aspects of wood chip a boiler fuel and contains a market survey of wood-fuel boilers. (orig.)

Hilgers, Claudia

2010-02-16

310

Use of wood logs, wood chips and pellets as fuels - state of the art and economic efficiency; Stand der Technik und Wirtschaftlichkeit bei der Verfeuerung von Scheitholz, Hackschnitzel und Pellets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood as a by-product of forestry activities, waste wood from wood processing, and wood from fast-growing tree plantations has great advantages over fossil fuels and straw-like biomass fuels, owing to its chemical composition and physical properties. Environment-friendly use of wood requires appropriate technology, expert knowledge by the plant operators, and careful handling. The cost of heat from wood depends on the fuel source and the mode of processing as well as on the type of plant and the full use of its capacity. Wood fuels can be classified as logs, chips, and pellets. Automatic fuelling will reduce the cost of labour. (orig.) [German] Holz als Beiprodukt der forstlichen Aktivitaeten oder aus der Holzbe- und -verarbeitung sowie kuenftig noch weit staerker aus Schnellwuchsplantagen hat aufgrund seiner chemischen Zusammensetzung und seiner physikalischen Eigenschaften als Brennstoffe grosse Vorteile gegenueber fossilen Energietraegern oder auch halmgutartiger Biomasse. Eine umweltfreundliche Verwertung setzt den Einsatz geeigneter Technik voraus, verlangt aber auch vom Anlagenbetreiber Sachkenntnisse und sorgfaeltige Handhabung der in grosser Vielfalt angebotenen Technik. Die Kosten der Waermegewinnung aus Holz werden sehr stark von der Art der Brennstoffquelle und der Aufbereitung, aber auch von der Anlagenart und deren Auslastung bestimmt. Die Aufbereitungsformen lassen sich in Scheitholz, Hackgut und Pellets einteilen. Die Automatisierung der Beschickung ermoeglicht die Senkung der Arbeitskosten. (orig.)

Stehler, A. [Landtechnik Weihenstephan, Freising (Germany). Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

2004-07-01

311

Study of wood polymer combinations from woods of Kashmir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report describes the studies conducted to upgrade inferior woods of Kashmir by the application of radiation polymerization process. The process has brought about improvements in the physical and mechanical properties of wood. Wood polymer composite samples have been studied for their use in flooring, wall panelling, roofing shingles, wood carving and in other decorative items. It has been shown that 10% ethyl silicate, when present along with methyl methacrylate or styrene, considerably improves the impact strength and such wood polymer composite samples do not crack even on nailing. Wood polymer composites have been tested for carving and it has been shown that with 50% polymer content, carving quality is preserved. It has also been shown that surface coated wood is more advantageous for use in roofing shingles. (author)

1983-01-01

312

Wood waste in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

1997-12-31

313

Wood pellet handbook; Traepillehaendbogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scope of the Wood Pellet Handbook is to be a key to the Danish market for fuel pellets. The handbook aims at supporting and increasing the use of wood pellets by presenting information on several aspects of the sector ranging from political framework to pellets production, quality and distribution, and small to large scale plants. The primary target group is professionals in the sector who needs an overview of up-to-date technical, economical, legal and environmental information on production and use of wood pellets. The secondary target group is present and potential consumers. The handbook gives the consumers an easy to use guide to the pellet market where questions related to service, delivery and quality requirements could be answered. This will increase the transparency of the pellet market and the competition on quality and services for the benefit of producers and consumers. The Wood Pellet Handbook is published as a loose-leaf book as well as an Internet version. Thus making it possible to update the information continuously. (ba)

Bjerg, J.; Frandsen, S.; Jensen, P.D.; Larsen, G.M.; Hansen, M.T.; Jensen, N.; Evald, A.; Werling, J.

2002-12-01

314

Welding of solid wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the up-to-date knowledge and results of the application of wood welding techniques at the Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb. Wood welding technologies have been developed as a new way of bonding timber by using high temperature generatedby friction and pressure. Timber is assembled without any adhesives. During the process the surface layer of timber (lignin), which is in direct contact with its counterpart, melts due to high pressure and temperature, which is usually generated by mechanical friction of the elements being connected. The cell structure in the interface area of timber is completely destroyed, while in the welding area the density is increased due to the destruction of wood cells. The cell walls are broken, as a result of exposure to high temperatures, mechanical pressure and chemical process, which occur during the cooling stage.Only natural materials are used in wood welding, which makes these products eco-friendly. In case of recycling, welded products may be disposed of just as natural timber, without the release of toxic substances.

Ivica Žup?i?; Goran Mihulja; Andrija Bogner; Ivica Grbac; Ivica @up~i}, Goran Mihulja, Andrija Bogner, Ivica Grbac,; Božidar Hrovat

2008-01-01

315

Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted a new resource on birds. This resource describes the habitat requirements of the Wood Duck, and is designed to assist in the development of a "comprehensive management plan." The resource is accompanied by figures and may be browsed online or downloaded as a zip file.

316

Shady Plantations : Theorizing Coastal Shelter in Tamil Nadu  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between these, as they are realized in social encounters. This calls for a view of theory and analysis as generative of objects in the world, rather than applied to them from some fictitious elsewhere or posterity. Exploring the plantation and the shelter it offers as an intertwinement and simultaneity of practice and analysis, data and theory, I discuss anthropological knowledge-making as a truly lateral endeavour that engages in describing and cultivating a shared capacity for world-making, the challenge then being to find the right story of sameness and difference, without ascribing fixity and inevitability to our objects of knowledge.

Hastrup, Frida

2011-01-01

317

The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market.

Sandewall M; Ohlsson B; Sandewall RK; Viet le S

2010-12-01

318

Observations of evapotranspiration in a break of slope plantation susceptible to periodic drought stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Break of slope (BOS) plantations are advocated as a means of water table control in areas where groundwater flows through colluvial deposits overlying low permeability bedrock. It is also believed that BOS plantations can supplement their water use requirements by exploiting shallow groundwater at the breaks in topographic slope. Although BOS plantations are attracting much interest from landholders, relevant research on their hydrologic function is limited. We compared measurements of BOS plantation and pasture evapotranspiration during spring, when the weather was warm and soils moist, and late summer when drought conditions prevailed In spring we found that pasture evapotranspiration was 65% of that of the plantation, whereas in summer, pasture evapotranspiration was equivalent to only 35% of plantation evapotranspiration. Rainfall interception by the canopy of the plantation was found to be twice that of the pasture. The greater evapotranspiration of the plantation reinforces the notion that trees can help to reduce groundwater recharge and alleviate dryland salinity and water logging. During the summer drought period, daily plantation transpiration was only 20% of that measured during spring. This suggested that the plantation was not utilising groundwater supplies but was instead 'mining' soil moisture supplies. Isotopic analysis of soil and tree water supported this hypothesis. The BOS plantation we studied is not behaving in the manner expected, and our findings raise some doubt as to mooted advantages of establishing plantations in 'break of slope' positions

1999-01-01

319

A CONTINUING REVERENCE FOR WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our ancestors knew a great deal about wood. They had to in order to do well in life. Wood has played a dominant role in human infrastructure for many generations, and for most of that time woodcraft has depended on the decentralized knowledge passed down among families and guilds. This editorial, while celebrating the knowledge, skills, and insights of the woodworkers of past generations, also calls for a renewed attention to wood’s unique character, including characteristics that today are too often classified as “defects.” We may need to take lessons from generations past to truly derive the best value from wood resources.

Martin A. Hubbe; Urs Buehlmann

2010-01-01

320

FORMULATION OF OIL CONTAINING PLUCHEA LANCEOLATA EXTRACT OBTAINED THROUGH DIFFERENT ORGANIC SOLVENTS AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY BY TOPICAL APPLICATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata has been used in massage oil as well as in traditional ayurveda as a potent pain reliever. The traditional Method of obtaining oil is simply based on taking water as the medium for extraction. The water extract obtained is then boiled with oil, till the water is completely evaporated. Here, our aim is to replace water by different organic solvents and obtain oil which has much better efficacy than the traditionally extracted oil. The idea here is to obtain more efficacious oil than the marketed sample which is majorly extracted using water as solvent. Here, the different organic solvents used are methanol, ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform. The oil obtained was checked for its anti-inflammatory activity with the carrageenan induced rat paw edema. The prepared oil was compared with the marketed sample of mahanarayan oil. The ethanolic extract has showed to be having high extract yield in literature.

Killol S. Chokshi et al

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

PRODUCTION METHOD OF FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGE, USING HERBAL MATERIAL SUCH AS GINSENG RADIX, CODONOPSIS LANCEOLATA, SAURURUS CHINENSIS BAILL., PORIA COCOS OR POLYPORUS UMBELLATUS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A method of preparing a functional beverage by immersing herbal material in a zeolite solution and extracting in water is provided. The beverage is easy to drink due to removal of characteristic flavor and taste of herbal extract. CONSTITUTION: An herbal material is immersed in a zeolite solution at 25 to 35deg.C for 1 to 8hr, dried and ground. The powder is then extracted with water at 80 to 100deg.C for 15min to 2hr. The zeolite solution is obtained by mixing 20 to 60g natural zeolite with 230 to 600meshes with 10L purified water and then agitating at 80 to 100deg.C and 100 to 500rpm for 1 to 6hr. The herbal material is selected from the group consisting of Ginseng Radix, Codonopsis lanceolata, Saururus chinensis Baill, Poria cocos and Polyporus umbellatus.

LEE KYU SEON

322

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

Semere, T.; Slater, F.

2005-07-01

323

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

2005-01-01

324

Surveying black pine plantations in the province of Rieti (Italy)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last century large afforestation programs were carried out in the Apennines to recover degraded lands, mainly by Pinus nigra plantations. Currently, many Authors have proposed management guidelines to foster the naturalization of such woodlands. However, such an option requires the availability of detailed surveys. The aim of this note is to propose a survey protocol for qualifying the landscape pattern of pine reafforestations and for mapping their growing stock on the basis of the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) techniques. A case study application by Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery is here reported concerning the Pinus nigra plantations in the province of Rieti (Central Italy).

Andrea Lamonaca; Paolo Calvani; Diego Giuliarelli; Piermaria Corona

2008-01-01

325

Analysis of commercial cost-effectiveness of poplar plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The commercial cost-effectiveness of poplar cultivation and commercial cost-effectiveness of long-rotation (42-year) poplar plantation were analyzed. The aim of the research is, based on analysis of expenses and receipts during the period of 42 years and by applying the method of analysis of the project commercial cost-effectiveness, to show the justification of long rotations in poplar plantations. Modern methods of investment valuation were applied and consequently their practical application in forestry was confirmed.

Ke?a Ljiljana

2005-01-01

326

Can native tree species plantations in Panama compete with Teak plantations? An economic estimation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Panama has the highest rate of change in the area of primary forests within Central America. However, to meet growing timber demands, it became popular over the last decades to establish plantations made up of foreign species such as Tectona grandis or Pinus spp. In the majority of the cases the species used are well known; their characteristics such as growth performance have been reviewed intensively and can be accessed in numerous publications. Characteristics of Panama's native tree species of commercial relevance such as Hieronyma alchorneoides, Swietenia macrophylla and Terminalia amazonia are largely unknown and have been investigated within the study at hand. Using valuation methods of financial mathematics, the competitive position of these three indigenous species was assessed, the results compared to those of T. grandis stands in the same area. Land costs and taxes were not considered, as they would be the same for all species. Financial estimates for indigenous species will enlarge their acceptance for use in reforestation and plantation projects. Using the NPV method and applying the standard scenario, the profitability of T. grandis is lower than that of T. amazonia and S. macrophylla and lies only slightly above the profitability calculated for H. alchorneoides. This result clearly indicates that the investigated native tree species are comparable with T. grandis regarding their economic profitability. Besides its ecological impact, growing native tree species is now also economically legitimate. By calculating land expectation values for all tree species, ideal rotation lengths could be determined. For these species, considerable flexibility exists regarding the optimal rotation length.

Griess VerenaC; Knoke Thomas

2011-01-01

327

Effectiveness of selected preservatives in protecting Ugandan grown Eucalyptus grandis wood against termite attack  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Termites are one of the major wood destroying agents in the tropics and with the increasing rate of deforestation, there is a need to protect wood from biodegradation in order to extend its service life. In this study the incidence and severity of termite attack on Eucalyptus grandis sapwood treated with CCA, used engine oil and neem extract were investigated. Sixty samples (20 × 20 × 300mm) were prepared from the sapwood at mid-height of the tree of E. grandis and air seasoned for two weeks then treated with the preservatives. An area of 20m by 20m in a pine plantation and 15 plots of 1m by 1m were selected at random. Four samples, one from each treatment, were placed at the corners of the selected plots. Inspection and evaluation of stakes was made by visual assessments after every 30 days for any sign of termite attack for a period of 8 months. The specimens were removed from the ground, damage assessed and returned to the ground. After 4 weeks all the untreated wood samples had been attacked, neem extract treated wood samples were attacked after 17 weeks and used engine oil treated samples after 30 weeks. None of the CCA treated wood samples were attacked by the end of study period. Chi square analysis showed a high association between treatment and incidence as well as between treatment and severity. It was recommended that further research be carried out on neem extract using different concentrations.

I. E Ssemaganda; P Mugabi; S. B Tumwebaze

2011-01-01

328

Potentials of Liquefied CCB Treated Waste Wood for Wood Preservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recovered wood is frequently contaminated with biocides and therefore its use is limited. Even more, wood, impregnated with classical chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservatives is classified as a hazardous waste, therefore solutions for reuse or recovery of this material are sought. One of the options, discussed in this paper is liquefaction and further applications of liquefied wood containing biocide remainings. In order to elucidate this possibilty, spruce and beech wood was impregnated with liquefi ed CCB treated and untreaded spruce wood of various concentrations and exposed to wood decay fungi according to the EN 113 procedure. In paralel, the leaching experiments (ENV 1250-2) were performed as well. The results do not clearly show that liquefied wood is bio-inactive. In most cases the mass loss by fungal attack is decreased compared to the untreated controls. On the other hand, copper leaching from spruce wood, impregnated with the liquefi ed CCB treated wood was significantly reduced. Thus, there are indications that the liquefied wood could be utilized as a binding agent for inorganic biocides.

Miha Humar; Franc Budija; David Hrastnik; Boštjan Lesar; Marko Petri?

2011-01-01

329

Socio-environmental Implications of the Establishment of Roadside Plantation at Jhang Road, Faisalabad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study on the extent of establishment of roadside plantation was carried out at Jhang Road Faisalabad during 2000. The study was aimed at finding out possible solutions to degraded conditions of Jhang Roadside plantation, through field survey (site survey) and social survey (evaluation of public perception). It was also intended to be helpful in future planning involving plantation in the cities in particular along roads. It was concluded that for sustainable roadside plantation, future planning should be carried out, taking into account, public perception and local conditions. At the same time management of the plantation should be improved by the employment of professionals as well.

Aamir Nawaz; D.M. Zahid; Muhammad Qasim; Shakeel Ahmed

2004-01-01

330

Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (Wc; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (Wa) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha-1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha-1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed.

2009-01-01

331

Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-03-15

332

Trickle irrigation of cottonwoods at the Blair Bend energy crop demonstration plantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Irrigation may significantly increase the growth and yield of Short Rotation Woody Crops (SRWC) grown for biomass fuel in the TVA region. Large losses in growth occur annually because of water stress. The extent of growth lost due to water stress is not realized because reliable data are not available to show how much more growth and wood production would have otherwise occurred. The Blair Bend energy crop demonstration plantation includes plantings of cottonwood (Populus deltoides) that were established in April 1994. A simple low-cost trickle system is installed to determine the effects of irrigation on the growth and yield of cottonwood trees for biomass. The irrigation treatment has a significant effect on both height and diameter growth. The positive effect is even more significant when considered in terms of tree biomass (volume) growth. Any enhanced biomass yields achieved by trickle irrigation must outweigh the increased production costs incurred from installing and operating the irrigation system. If a low cost system can be engineered with significant economies of scale, high yields of woody biomass may be achievable in the TVA region.

Daly, M.J. [Univ. of Tennessee Management Science Program, Knoxville, TN (United States); Joslin, D.; Wolfe, M. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (United States)

1996-12-31

333

Radioactivity of wood ash  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg-1, in decreasing order: 137Cs, 40K, 90Sr, 210Pb,226Ra, 232Th, 134Cs, 235U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210Pb was hardly detectable. The NH4Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

2000-01-01

334

War on the Home Front: Hardships on the Burroughs Plantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Booker T. Washington National Monument preserves and protects the birth site and childhood home of Booker T. Washington while interpreting his life experiences and significance in U.S. history as the most powerful African American between 1895 and 1915. The programs and activities included in this guide about the Burroughs Plantation

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

335

CANAMELAR, THE SUBCULTURE OF A RURAL SUGAR PLANTATION PROLETARIAT.  

Science.gov (United States)

|IN THIS ESSAY, A CHAPTER IN AN EXTENSIVE FIELD STUDY OF THE CULTURAL-HISTORICAL PATTERNS OF VARIOUS GROUPS IN PUERTO RICO, THE SUBCULTURE OF A SUGAR PLANTATION PROLETARIAT IS DESCRIBED. TOPICS OF DISCUSSION INCLUDE THE REGIONAL AND COMMUNITY SETTING, HISTORICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS, AND POLITICS. ALSO DESCRIBED ARE SOCIAL…

MINTZ, SIDNEY W.

336

Environmental Development cum Forest Plantation Planning and Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This textbook covers environmental conservation through forest plantation planning and management for all levels of forestry professionals and non-professionals in India and abroad. The book is divided into six parts and 29 sections in sequential order. Part I contains details on site selection, site preparations, site clearance, layout, and…

Katoch, C. D.

337

Labile carbon dynamics in a Florida Slash pine plantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper discusses simulation model of a 29-yr-old slash pine plantation extended to include a separate labile carbon pool and estimates of the growth and maintenance components of respiration of pine foliage, stems and branches, and roots. New tissue growth is examined and results of the model are given

1988-01-01

338

Eucalypts in industrial and social plantations in Karnataka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus species were introduced in Karnataka as far back as 1790. Sporadic plantings were done during the early twentieth century, but larger plantations were raised from the 1930s, mainly for firewood and charcoal production. With increasing use of hardwoods in pulp and paper manufacture, and under the impetus of the National Forest Policy, 1952, and the report of the National Commission on Agriculture (NCA), 1976, large scale cultivation of eucalypts was taken up during the 1960s and through to the 1980s. The Karnataka Forest Plantation Corporation was set up in 1971 mainly to raise pulpwood; the Mysore Paper Mills established captive plantations to provide for its expanding capacity; Harihar Polyfibres Ltd. entered through the joint sector Karnataka Pulpwoods Ltd. Eucalypts also became very popular in farm forestry, owing to attractive returns and as insurance against drought. Criticism on ecological grounds limited Forest Department plantings to the lower rainfall zones, will adverse social implications gave rise to much controversy on the use of non-cultivated revenue and forest land nearer villages for industrial plantations. The 1988 Forest Policy has recommended that industry should generate its raw material by entering into agreements with farmers, thereby leaving a question mark over the role of eucalypts in government forestry.

Kumar, P.J. [Karnataka Forest Dept., Bangalore (India)

1992-12-31

339

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2) hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates para el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2)nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos.

Milena A Ferrari Mateus; Cacilda M Duarte Rios Faria¹; Renato V Botelho; Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta; Silvana G Martins Ferreira; Welton L Zaluski

2013-01-01

340

Harvesting forestry biomass from weak wood and wood chippings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibilities for utilizing forestry biomass depend on the harvesting costs and on the tolerance of the harvesting system with its own plantation management considerations. In this project an attempt was made on the basis of three areas of emphasis (system analysis, field studies, system cost-analysis) to clarify the harvesting technological and economic problems of providing forestry biomass.

Patzak, W.; Loeffler, H.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Flavored wood pellet with grape vine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compositions for wood pellets including grape vine and methods of making wood pellet compositions including grape vine are described. The wood pellets include wood particles, grape vine particles, and a lubricant. The method includes mixing wood particles and grape vine particles with a lubricant, heating the mixture, and forming the mixture into pellets.

TRAEGER JOSEPH P; TRAEGER MARK A; TRAEGER RANDOLPH J; TRAEGER BRIAN E

342

Energy wood harvesting methods; Energiapuun korjuumenetelmaet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following topics are discussed in this newsletter: Energy wood and harvesting targets; Harvesting chains and energy wood; Integrated harvesting methods for industrial and energy wood; Separate harvesting methods for energy wood; Delivery harvesting methods for forest owners; Harvesting equipment for energy wood and harvesting technology; Felling and piling of timber; Forest haulage; Chipping; and Long-distance transportation 13 figs.

Anon.

1997-12-31

343

Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

1998-01-01

344

L’Habitation Beauséjour : une plantation martiniquaise remarquable et pérenne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aux Antilles françaises les anciennes propriétés de colons ne se nomment pas plantations mais « habitations », espace et mode de vie étant différents de ceux d’Amérique Latine, du Sud des Etats-Unis, ou des Grandes Antilles. L’Habitation Beauséjour, située sur des terres propices aux cultures d’exportation, dans le nord de la Martinique, est un exemple remarquable de domaine colonial qui a conservé une structure traditionnelle avec plantations, bâtiments principaux d’habitation, bâtiments de production, aménagement hydraulique, logements pour le personnel. Au cœur des rapports d’exploitation qu’engendrent les sociétés de type colonial, nous nous trouvons à Beauséjour devant une demeure créole dont la structure n’a pas varié de façon fondamentale au cours de son histoire.In French West-Indies, the old colonial estates are not called plantations, but “habitations”, because the geographic space as well as the way of life differed here from the vast plantations of Latin America, Southern United States and Greater Antilles. The « Habitation Beauséjour » situated on land that is good for growing export crops, in northern Martinique, is an instructive exemple of colonial estate preserving a traditional structure with plantations, main buildings, production buildings, hydraulic land-scaping, and buildings for housing and use of employees. The « Habitation Beauséjour » is more than many others a Creole estate with a persistent structure that has remained unchanged over its history and through the change due to the end of the exploitive relations generated by colonial societies.

Laurent-Christian Ursulet

2012-01-01

345

The industrial wood energy handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial wood energy systems have demonstrated prompt paybacks and operating cost decreases for the industrial and commercial sectors. But how do engineers and managers know that this technology is appropriate for their operations. And how do they install these new wood energy systems. Answers to these and other related questions are now available in this handbook to address all aspects of industrial wood energy systems. This manual describes available options, alternatives, methods of payback analysis, and procedures for determining fuel supplies. It provides coverage of the planning, technical, economic, and regulatory stages of installing and retrofitting an industrial-commercial wood energy system. This guide examines many methods of converting solid wood fuel to usable energy as heat, electricity, or steam. Everything from combustion to the actual design and performance of an operating wood energy system is covered. Fuel handling and cogeneration, as well as the specific of conducting a preliminary feasibility study, are explained.

1984-01-01

346

IMPROVED WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is an improved wood-plastic composite (WPC) produced from a mixture comprising, wood particles, plastic, and optionally additives. The WPC of the invention further comprises an active ingredient that acts as a biocide. The active ingredient comprises TBBA or a homologue or derivative thereof and is added to the mixture together with the wood particles during and/or before production of the WPC. A method of producing the improved WPC of the invention is described.

GOHARY Yossef; STOLLAR Haim; LEVINGER Michal; DVORA Dikla

347

Wood fuels in power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order for wood to be considered a feasible energy source for power generation, it must prove to be economical, meet society's pollution criteria, and provide sufficient energy to meet its regional demand applications or requirements. This paper reviews wood's availability, its potential as a fuel source, the different methods of energy conversion, and lastly, submits conclusions and recommendations concerning wood-fueled power generation. 7 refs.

Omurtag, Y.; Wetzel, L.; McEvilly, M.

1980-01-01

348

District heating using wood briquettes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new district heating plant in Drammen, Norway, uses wood briquettes as the energy source. This reduces the emission of carbon dioxide in Drammen by 16 000 tonnes per year. The briquettes are made of compressed wood from waste chips from forestry and bark and other waste from sawmills and wood processing. The plant is expected to use 10 000 tonnes of briquettes per year, which corresponds to 4 780 cubic metres of oil. Burning the briquettes produces less than one percent ash

2002-01-01

349

MECHANICALLY-INDUCED WOOD WELDING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanically-induced vibration welding of flat wood surfaces and rotation welding of wood dowels, without any adhesives, gave strength values comparable to those obtained with adhesive bonded joints. The joints obtained have strength up to structural level but can only be used for interior joinery and furniture. The reasons of the welding effect are presented and explained both at the wood anatomical and molecular level

Antonio Pizzi; Milena Properzi; Jean-Michel Leban; Michela Zanetti; Frederic Pichelin

2003-01-01

350

Rural Fuel-wood and Poles Research Project in Malawi: a general account  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rural Fuel-wood and Poles Research Project was initiated to provide information about afforestation in the dry silvicultural zones. Plantation forestry in Malawi has concentrated on production of timber, poles, and pulpwood. It is estimated that 90% of Malawi's population of 5.5 million live in rural communities, and that the purely domestic wood requirement is 4.05 cubic m per family (of five) annually. In addition, wood is required for agricultural purposes such as tobacco curing. The remaining indigenous forest cannot meet the demand. There is an urgent need for plantations. Rather than simply planting trees, the aim is to make local communities self-sufficient in forest products. In view of the shortage of land, great emphasis is placed on trying species which have many end-uses-- e.g., poles, fuel-wood, mulch, fodder, and shade--and those which can be grown together with farm crops, a concept known as ''agroforestry.'' Over 20 ha of trials were established at locations in the three regions of the country. Acacia albida allows maize and other farm crops to grow under it, provides good shade and fodder, and--as legume--enriches the soil with nitrogen. Eucalypts were included because most produce straight poles for construction, are drought-hardy, and are rated higher than Gmelina arborea in calorific value, durability, and strength. Another tree favored for its multiple uses is Leucaena leucocephala (Hawaiian giant), but it appears that there is considerable mixture of varieties in the seeds. With the exception of one trial at Bwanje, trials have not included farm crops, but the agroforestry element will be a very important consideration in future trials.

Nkaonja, R.S.W.

1981-01-01

351

[Asthma from tropical abachi wood].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a 28-year old man suffering from rhinitis and asthma which appeared 8 years after exposure to different woods, especially abachi wood. Serial PEFR monitoring at work and away from work were consistent with occupational asthma. Spirometry showed an airway obstruction, and metacholine inhalation test was positive. Skin prick-tests performed with different woods were only positive to abachi wood extract. The search for specific IgE was positive to abachi wood (4, 98 KU/l, class 3). The diagnosis of occupational asthma caused by exposure to abachi wood was established, the mechanism underlying this asthma was IgE mediated. Despite respiratory protection measures, the patient had persisting symptoms and was laid off. The German service for social cover asked for an expert evaluation: specific nasal and inhalation provocation tests performed by exposure to fine abachi wood dust were positive. This is an observation with a double significance: first, although the mechanisms underlying wood occupational asthma remain largely unknown, an IgE mechanism for abachi wood was demonstrated; second, legislation is different in France and Germany where occupational asthma will only be acknowledged if inhalation tests are positive. PMID:12486378

Pontier, J-P; Popin, E; Kopferschmitt-Kubler, M-C; Bessot, J-C; Pauli, G

2002-11-01

352

Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The possible contribution of short rotation cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations was investigated using the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) technique. Three poplar species were grown in an SRC plantation for three growing seasons. Above-ground and below-ground biomass increased by 15 to 27 per cent and by 22 to 38 per cent, respectively; light-efficiency also increased as a result. Depletion of inorganic nitrogen from the soil increased after three growing seasons at elevated carbon dioxide levels, but carbon dioxide showed no effect on stem wood density. Stem wood density also differed significantly from species to species. These results confirmed inter-specific differences in biomass production in poplar, and demonstrated that elevated carbon dioxide enhanced biomass productivity and light-use efficiency of a poplar short rotation cultivation ecosystem without changing biomass allocation. The reduction in soil nitrogen raises the possibility of reduced long-term biomass productivity. 60 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

2003-01-01

353

Free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possible contribution of short rotation cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations was investigated using the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) technique. Three poplar species were grown in an SRC plantation for three growing seasons. Above-ground and below-ground biomass increased by 15 to 27 per cent and by 22 to 38 per cent, respectively; light-efficiency also increased as a result. Depletion of inorganic nitrogen from the soil increased after three growing seasons at elevated carbon dioxide levels, but carbon dioxide showed no effect on stem wood density. Stem wood density also differed significantly from species to species. These results confirmed inter-specific differences in biomass production in poplar, and demonstrated that elevated carbon dioxide enhanced biomass productivity and light-use efficiency of a poplar short rotation cultivation ecosystem without changing biomass allocation. The reduction in soil nitrogen raises the possibility of reduced long-term biomass productivity. 60 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

Calfapietra, C.; De Angelis, P.; Scarascia-Mungozza, G. [Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Dept. of Forest Environment and Resources, Viterbo (Italy); Gielen, B.; Ceulemans, R. [Antwerp Univ., Dept. of Biology, Wilrijk (Belgium); Galema, A. N. J. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen (Netherlands); Lukac, M. [University of Wales, School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Bangor, Wales (United Kingdom); Moscatelli, M. C. [Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Dept. of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, Viterbo (Italy)

2003-08-01

354

[Soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on the field survey and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area. In the two plantations, the contents of soil macro-aggregates decreased with soil depth. In P. tabulaeformis plantation, soil macro-aggregates (>0.25 mm) occupied the majority, accounting for 71% -77% of the total; whereas in Q. variabilis plantation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of soil macro-aggregates and micro-aggregates (< or =0.25 mm), which accounted for 51% -58% and 42% -49%, respectively. Both the mean mass diameter and the geometrical mean mass diameter of the soil aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation were significantly higher than those in Q. variabilis plantation, and the fractal dimension (D) of the soil water-stable aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation was lower than that in Q. variabilis plantation, suggesting that P. tabulaeformis plantation was more favorable for the soil aggregate stability than Q. variabilis plantation. Also in the two plantations, the organic carbon content in soil water-stable aggregates decreased with soil depth. The organic carbon content in soil macro-aggregates was significantly higher in P. tabulaeformis plantation (58% -83%) than in Q. variabilis plantation (49% -66% ). It was suggested that in Beijing area, P. tabulaeformis plantation was more beneficial to the soil organic carbon protection, as compared with Q. variabilis plantation.

Liu Y; Zha TG; Wang YK; Wang GM

2013-03-01

355

Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

2012-11-01

356

Wood-plastic composites using woods native to Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation induced polymerization of methylmethacrylate and copolymerization of styrene-acrylonitrile mixture in mamrase Carpinus betulus was carried out by means of ?-ray, under different moisture levels and additives. Under all conditions the degree of polymerization was as high as 60%. No pronounced differences were observed in the kinetics of the polymerization of MMA either with moisture content of wood nor with kind and amount of additives. At high moisture (80% RH) content the dimensional stability of wood-PMMA was increased four fold as compared with untreated wood. The hardness increased about 100% for a weight conversion of monomer of about 30 to 40%. Hardness of this wood-polymer composite is comparable to that of the best noble woods in the world. (author)

1978-10-26

357

Differences in leaf-litter invertebrate assemblages between radiata pine plantations and neighbouring native eucalypt woodland  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the structure, composition and environmental correlates of leaf-litter invertebrate assemblages in Pinus radiata plantations and in neighbouring native eucalypt woodland in the Jenolan Caves Karst Conservation Reserve, south-east Australia. Invertebrate assemblages of plantations were compared with remnant eucalypt woodland located well away from the influence of plantations to determine the direct effects of plantations as a result of habitat-replacement with a non-native plantation species. We also included in our comparisons edge habitat of eucalypt woodland located immediately adjacent to plantations. This unique edge habitat is exposed to the intrusion of large volumes of pine leaf-litter from plantations, which has the potential to affect indirectly invertebrate assemblages of surrounding woodland. We found that species richness of invertebrates was significantly lower in pine plantations compared with remnant eucalypt woodland. There was a complete absence of species from 12 invertebrate orders that were found in surrounding eucalypt woodland. A rich and abundant native plant understorey that provides increased habitat heterogeneity is the most likely explanation for the richer invertebrate assemblage found in remnant eucalypt woodland. The total abundance of all invertebrate taxa in pine plantations in winter was significantly higher than in remnant eucalypt woodland, pine-litter edges and pine-free edges. Plantations were characterized by particularly high abundances of species in two orders, Acari and Collembola. High abundances of acarine and collembolan species in plantations were associated with a decompositional environment represented by comparatively higher moisture contents and higher C : N ratios of both leaf-litter and soil, higher soil conductivity and lower soil pH. We suggest that implementation of The Plantation Biodiversity Benefits Score will be a fruitful way forward to assess the environmental benefits that can be gained from pine plantations in this region of south-eastern Australia.

ROBSON TESSAC; BAKER ANDREWC; MURRAY BRADR

2009-06-01

358

Invasion of Conifer Plantations by Radioactively Labelled Hylobius Abietis L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hylobius abietis L. weevils, radioactively labelled by dipping into solutions containing 46Sc, were released around two model areas representing recently cleared cutting areas freshly planted with Norway spruce. Half of the weevils released around one model area were also labelled with different colour marks. The invasion, of both the natural llylobius population and the released labelled weevils, was studied by making repeated inspections of attractant pine billets evenly distributed over the experimental areas. At certain intervals the spruce plants on the areas were inspected for feeding marks to evaluate the progress of the attack. The greatest number of labelled weevils, amounting to 13% of those released, was found in one experimental area one day after release. In this area, successively diminishing numbers of weevils found at the billets (both labelled weevils and natural population) and an increasing degree of feeding on the plants indicated that the weevils did not leave the plantation but changed their behaviour. The weevils often dug into the soil, which was proved by measurements of ground radioactivity at billets and stumps. In the other area, which had richer vegetation, only small changes in numbers occurred. In all inspections, most of the labelled weevils were found near the border of the experimental area, but the percentage of weevils in the middle of the area increased slowly. One day after release the greatest distance a radioactively-plus-colour-labelled beetle had moved into the area was 34 m, while the average distance was only 4.15 m. There were no significant differences in the speed of invasion from different directions into the plantation. From the results and observations it can be concluded that most or all released weevils invaded the plantations by crawling, and not by flying. The natural populations invaded one experimental area slowly from the borders, and the other area faster and more evenly distributed. Accordingly, the distribution of damage, by feeding was uneven in one area and comparatively even in the other. One practical consequence of this study is the recommendation that plant protection measures be concentrated on the borders of conifer plantations. Even plants in the central area of plantations should be protected. Concentrations of weevil-attracting materials, such as attractant insecticide traps, should be avoided in the centres of plantations. (author)

1968-01-01

359

Status and perspectives of the wood energy crisis in the Sahel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past 15 years, finding fuelwood has become a physical and economic burden to Sahelians inhabiting both rural areas and urban centers. This has led to a poor man's energy crisis, the scope of which is reviewed. Increasing demands on fuelwood have had negative socioeconomic effects. Noncommercial substitutes of fuelwood, though widely used, are not keeping up with demands. Commercial energy sources are not affordable due to their high cost. Overall, it is concluded that the substitute for wood is wood. So far, fuelwood plantation projects in the Sahel have suffered from a noticeable lack of economic and financial analysis. Popular investment decision criteria in forestry management are presented and evaluated. Given a eucalyptus growth function, current market prices, production costs, and interest rates, a model was developed to solve for the optimal rotation age. The results showed that fuelwood plantations could be financially feasible. Site quality and interest rates are important in determining the size of the optimum criterion as evidenced by the sensitivity analysis performed.

Aw, O.

1986-01-01

360

Life History, Aggregation and Dormancy of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, from the Rubber Plantations of Moist South Western Ghats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Life history, aggregation and dormancy of rubber plantation litter beetle Luprops tristis Fabricius, (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) is described from rubber plantation belts in the western slopes of Western Ghats from the south Indian state of Kerala. The life cycle lasted 12 months, including the 5 la...

Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K.V.; Jobi, M.C.

 
 
 
 
361

ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 ?m, and 7.1 ?m, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70°C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5%) of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5%) of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

Ahmad Jahan Latibari,; K. Pourali,; A. Fakhrian Roghani

2011-01-01

362

Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Over the last decades, dramatic changes in agricultural practices have led to important modifications of land-use, as well as landscape structure, and to a general biodiversity loss in agro-ecosystems. During 2008 we investigated the small mammal communities of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) stands in Northern Italy. We live-trapped small mammals, during summer and autumn, in different types of SRF stands and surrounding habitats and compared capture rates. We evaluated the influence on small mammals abundance of the distance between the stands and other habitats offering woody or bushy cover. Our results showed that SRF plantations are widely exploited by small mammals, especially in autumn and that capture rate is the highest in “double-row” stands. The distance from woods or other arboriculture stands was negatively correlated to small mammals abundance. We conclude that SRF plantations can be considered a suitable habitat for small mammals and may work as a “corridor habitat” between fragmented patches of suitable habitats. Riassunto Uso degli impianti a turno breve da parte dei micrommamiferi, in relazione alla loro struttura e isolamento Negli ultimi decenni profondi cambiamenti nelle pratiche agricole hanno causato modifiche nella tipologia di uso dei terreni, così come nella struttura del paesaggio, che hanno portato a una generale perdita di biodiversità negli agroecosistemi. Nel corso del 2008 abbiamo studiato le comunità di micromammiferi nelle piantagioni di pioppo per la produzione di biomassa (SRF) nel Nord Italia. Con l’uso di live-traps abbiamo effettuato due sessioni di cattura, una estiva e una autunnale, nei diversi tipi di impianto delle SRF e negli ambienti circostanti, per comparare le frequenze di cattura. Abbiamo quindi analizzato l’influenza che la distanza tra i diversi ambienti con copertura arborea ha sull’abbondanza dei micromammiferi. Dal nostro studio è emerso che le SRF sono largamente sfruttate dai micromammiferi, soprattutto in autunno e che il successo di cattura è massimo negli impianti a file binate. L’abbondanza dei micromammiferi è risultata inversamente correlata alla distanza dagli ambienti che offrono copertura, come boschi o altri impianti di arboricoltura. I risultati hanno mostrato che le SRF possono considerarsi un ambiente idoneo per i micromammiferi, ed esse potrebbero funzionare da habitat di collegamento tra i frammenti di altri habitat utilizzati dai micromammiferi. doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4443

Marta Giordano; Alberto Meriggi

2010-01-01

363

Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P Cyclone Nargis. This may reduce future human loss by cyclones and also improve the life of local people by increasing timber resources and environmental services.

Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

2011-12-01

364

Do changes in carbon allocation account for the growth response to potassium and sodium applications in tropical Eucalyptus plantations?  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the underlying mechanisms that account for the impact of potassium (K) fertilization and its replacement by sodium (Na) on tree growth is key to improving the management of forest plantations that are expanding over weathered tropical soils with low amounts of exchangeable bases. A complete randomized block design was planted with Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) to quantify growth, carbon uptake and carbon partitioning using a carbon budget approach. A combination of approaches including the establishment of allometric relationships over the whole rotation and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall at the end of the rotation were used to estimate aboveground net production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux and gross primary production (GPP). The stable carbon isotope (?(13)C) of stem wood ?-cellulose produced every year was used as a proxy for stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Potassium fertilization increased GPP and decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground. Aboveground net production was strongly enhanced, and because leaf lifespan increased, leaf biomass was enhanced without any change in leaf production, and wood production (P(W)) was dramatically increased. Sodium application decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground in a similar way, and enhanced GPP, ANPP and P(W), but to a lesser extent compared with K fertilization. Neither K nor Na affected ?(13)C of stem wood ?-cellulose, suggesting that water-use efficiency was the same among the treatments and that the inferred increase in leaf photosynthesis was not only related to a higher stomatal conductance. We concluded that the response to K fertilization and Na addition on P(W) resulted from drastic changes in carbon allocation. PMID:22021011

Epron, Daniel; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Almeida, Julio C R; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Ponton, Stephane; Sette, Carlos R; Delgado-Rojas, Juan S; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Nouvellon, Yann

2011-10-20

365

Do changes in carbon allocation account for the growth response to potassium and sodium applications in tropical Eucalyptus plantations?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the underlying mechanisms that account for the impact of potassium (K) fertilization and its replacement by sodium (Na) on tree growth is key to improving the management of forest plantations that are expanding over weathered tropical soils with low amounts of exchangeable bases. A complete randomized block design was planted with Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) to quantify growth, carbon uptake and carbon partitioning using a carbon budget approach. A combination of approaches including the establishment of allometric relationships over the whole rotation and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall at the end of the rotation were used to estimate aboveground net production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux and gross primary production (GPP). The stable carbon isotope (?(13)C) of stem wood ?-cellulose produced every year was used as a proxy for stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Potassium fertilization increased GPP and decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground. Aboveground net production was strongly enhanced, and because leaf lifespan increased, leaf biomass was enhanced without any change in leaf production, and wood production (P(W)) was dramatically increased. Sodium application decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground in a similar way, and enhanced GPP, ANPP and P(W), but to a lesser extent compared with K fertilization. Neither K nor Na affected ?(13)C of stem wood ?-cellulose, suggesting that water-use efficiency was the same among the treatments and that the inferred increase in leaf photosynthesis was not only related to a higher stomatal conductance. We concluded that the response to K fertilization and Na addition on P(W) resulted from drastic changes in carbon allocation.

Epron D; Laclau JP; Almeida JC; Gonçalves JL; Ponton S; Sette CR Jr; Delgado-Rojas JS; Bouillet JP; Nouvellon Y

2012-06-01

366

Carbon dioxide exchange and growth of a pine plantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exchange of materials between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem is important to an understanding of the cycling of essential elements, the deposition of mateials from the atmosphere and the entrance of pollutants into the forest ecosystems. This paper reports the results of measurements of carbon dioxide exchange in a vigorously growing pine plantation. Measurement data were incorporated into a model used to estimate annual carbon dioxide exchange and measured annual biomass accumulation in the same plantation were used to determine a carbon dioxide to biomass conversion efficiency. Carbon dioxide exchange was 10.5 metric tons per hectare and biomass accumulation was 4.5 metric tons per hectare. The conversion efficiency of cabon dioxide to biomass is about 25% less than the theoretical chemical conversion efficiency. 27 refs., 8 figs.

Murphy, Jr, C E

1981-01-01

367

[Carbon sequestration of young Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in Loess Plateau].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to understand the carbon sequestration of ecological forests in Loess Plateau, a comparative study was made on the organic carbon density (OCD) of soil, litter, and plant organs in an 8-year-old Robinia pseudoacacia plantation and nearby barren land. Comparing with the barren land, the young R. pseudoacacia plantation had a decrease (0.26 kg x m(-2)) of soil OCD, but the OCD in its litter, root system, and aboveground organs increased by 121.1%, 202.0%, and 656. 7%, respectively, with a total carbon sequestration increased by 3.3% annually, which illustrated that R. pseudoacacia afforestation on Loess Plateau had an obvious positive effect on carbon sequestration.

Zhang JQ; Su YQ; Kang YX; Xu XM; Qin Y

2009-12-01

368

[Carbon sequestration of young Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in Loess Plateau].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the carbon sequestration of ecological forests in Loess Plateau, a comparative study was made on the organic carbon density (OCD) of soil, litter, and plant organs in an 8-year-old Robinia pseudoacacia plantation and nearby barren land. Comparing with the barren land, the young R. pseudoacacia plantation had a decrease (0.26 kg x m(-2)) of soil OCD, but the OCD in its litter, root system, and aboveground organs increased by 121.1%, 202.0%, and 656. 7%, respectively, with a total carbon sequestration increased by 3.3% annually, which illustrated that R. pseudoacacia afforestation on Loess Plateau had an obvious positive effect on carbon sequestration. PMID:20353056

Zhang, Jing-qun; Su, Yin-quan; Kang, Yong-xiang; Xu, Xi-ming; Qin, Yue

2009-12-01

369

Land Conversion and Agrofuel Plantations in Mindanao: Promises and Uncertainties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Philippines enacted the Biofuels Act of 2006 (RA 9367). Signed into law in January 2007, it aims for the phasing out of harmful gasoline additives and/or oxygenates, and the mandatory use of biofuels with one percent biodiesel blend and five percent bioethanol blend for all diesel and gasoline fuels, respectively. This policy has led to frenzied development of biofuel plantations, particularly sugarcane, cassava, and sweet sorghum for bioethanol production, and coconut, oil palm, and jatropha for production of biodiesel. Mindanao has been identified as a major contributor in fulfilling the Philippine government’s biofuel targets. The island’s vast agricultural lands are thus giving way to monocrop oil plantations.

Alternate Forum for Research in Mindanao (AFRIM)

2011-01-01

370

Plantations of Scots pine in the Maritime province. [USSR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Details are given of the performance of Scots pine in a plantation in the Upper Ussuri region of the Soviet Far East (149 days/yr with air temperature over 10 degrees C, frost-free period 148 days, annual precipitation 645 mm). The soil was a shallow light clay, brown with slight podzolization and gleying, previously used for agriculture. The plantation had been established in spring 1955, using 5-yr nursery seedlings and with a spacing of 0.5X2 m (10 000 plants/ha). Data are given on growth up to 1977. Site class is equivalent to site class I in European Russia. Scots pine is considered to be a promising species for planting in the Soviet Far East. (Refs. 5).

Pulinets, M.P.

1981-01-01

371

A recalcitrant plantation colony : Dominica, 1880-1946  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study of the class and gender dialectics in Dominica during one of its boom-bust cycles of plantation economy. This cycle encompassed the state sponsorship and rise and decline of the lime industry and planter class; the subsequent coming into prominence on the peasantry in Dominica's political economy and in Colonial Office policy; the masculinist recoding of peasant proprietorship and production forms; and shifting roles and agency of women.

Cecilia Green

1999-01-01

372

Stand establishment of fast growing species for energy plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reviews the characteristics of energy plantations and the technologies suitable for land clearing, soil preparation and planting. Wherever possible, emphasis is placed on the least expensive, biological solutions including natural decomposition and use of agricultural crops in land clearing and weed control. Stand establishment technologies available for intensive cultures were reviewed and presented in flowcharts thus facilitating a quick evaluation, decision and choice of an appropriate method or equipment suitable for specific conditions.

Papadopol, C.S. (Ontario Tree Improvement and Forest Biomass Institute Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Maple); Silverside, C.R. (National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Forestry Service Ottawa); Nilsson, P.O.; Zsuffa, L. (eds.)

1983-01-01

373

Caring for ice-damaged woodlots and plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information regarding what to do with ice-damaged woodlots or plantations was presented. The ice storm of January 1998 caused widespread damage to trees. These notes provide information on how to save damaged trees and to encourage sprouting. Tips on pruning, repairing torn bark, wound dressings, and tree care are provided. The need for professional advice and help was emphasized in all cases where safety might be a legitimate concern. tabs., figs.

NONE

1998-12-31

374

Forest Floor Nutrient Dynamics in Chestnut Plantation Ecosystems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nutrient content and detrital biomass in the forest floor of a mature chestnut plantation at Karies (Agio Oros mountain, Athos peninsula, northern Greece) was measured in autumn of the year 2010. These measurements were compared to their expected values (bibliography based values). All nutrients storage and organic matter were fairly similar, even though measurements in this study were slightly higher than expected.

Kyriaki Kitikidou; Athanasios G. Papaioannou

2012-01-01

375

Conservation Value of Forest Plantations: A Study of Four Timber Species in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper assesses the potential of forest plantations in Sri Lanka consisting of teak, mahoganyand two species of eucalyptus, to facilitate the conservation of biodiversity using two taxonomic groups,the plants and birds. Their diversity in plantations at a harvestable age were compared with that of anatural forest. Enumerations of plants and dbh/height measurements were conducted in quadrates, whileavifauna was recorded along transects. Results show that plantation forests supported a reasonably richcommunity of both plants and birds, including natives and endemics. A large proportion of species werecommon to both plantations and natural forests indicating that plantations hold a subset of forest species.The presence of plants of various height and girth classes together with the high diversity and evennessvalues indicate that, although timber plantations are initially established as mono-cultivations, theyfacilitate the colonization of additional species. These findings thus demonstrate that forest plantationscould make a significant contribution towards biodiversity conservation.

Mayuri R Wijesinghe; V. R. de Silva

2012-01-01

376

Ergonomics Observation: Harvesting Tasks at Oil Palm Plantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives: Production agriculture is commonly associated with high prevalence of ergonomic injuries, particularly during intensive manual labor and during harvesting. This paper intends to briefly describe an overview of oil palm plantation management highlighting the ergonomics problem each of the breakdown task analysis. Methods: Although cross-sectional field visits were conducted in the current study, insight into past and present occupational safety and health concerns particularly regarding the ergonomics of oil palm plantations was further exploited. Besides discussion, video recordings were extensively used for ergonomics analysis. Results: The unique commodity of oil palm plantations presents significantly different ergonomics risk factors for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) cutters during different stages of harvesting. Although the ergonomics risk factors remain the same for FFB collectors, the intensity of manual lifting increases significantly with the age of the oil palm trees-weight of FFB. Conclusion: There is urgent need to establish surveillance in order to determine the current prevalence of ergonomic injuries. Thereafter, ergonomics interventions that are holistic and comprehensive should be conducted and evaluated for their efficacy using approaches that are integrated, participatory and cost-effective.

Ng YG; Shamsul Bahri MT; Irwan Syah MY; Mori I; Hashim Z

2013-07-01

377

Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation.

1993-01-01

378

Individual Tree Simulation and Stand Visualization of Pinus Tabulaeformis Plantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forest visualization is a scientific, technical and efficient assistant tool for forest resources data management, forest management plan assesses and designs. Expending little time and investment but providing huge amount of benefits, forest visualization tools play a more increasingly important role in modern forest management, especially in China that has the largest plantation in the world. In this present paper, we reported a successful application of forest visualization of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr plantation using the outstanding stand visualization tool, Landscape Management System-Stand Visualization System (LMS-SVS) in Mulan-Weichang Forestry Administration of Hebei province, China. In addition, the outcomes of stand visual simulation were also analyzed and discussed. The study indicates that the LMS-SVS can provide direct, three-dimensional and elegant plan, profile and perspective views, and extensive statistical charts of the experimental P. tabulaeformis Carr plantation. In the fictitious forest environment, using freely individual tree marking, the LMS-SVS can design or modify the forest management plans, and simulates the whole forest management process for certain goals. As a conclusion, the LMS-SVS is an ideal tool for visual forest management and has broad prospects for a modern forestry in China.

Guanglei Gao; Guodong Ding; Yintong Zang; Wenjun Liang; , Lina Ren

2011-01-01

379

Pruning in poplar plantations by mechanized device Stihl HT-75  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of branch pruning device Stihl HT-75 were researched on sample plots in FA Kupinovo and FA Klenak, in poplar plantations of Populus×euramericana 'I-214', Populus×euramericana 'M1' and Populus deltoides of different planting spaces and different ages. The analysed factors were: pruning method, site conditions, number of pruned branches, pruning height, branch diameter, etc. Time measurement was performed by the flow method, and the required number of measurements was calculated by variation statistics. The results of the analysis of variance show the statistical significance of the differences between pruning times of different clone species, different planting spaces and different plantation ages. The results of the analysis of variance and statistical tests show that there are no statistically significant differences between the average time of poplar pruning in plantations of the same age and different planting spaces. The correlation of branch pruning time and the number of pruned branches is represented by the power function model, which according to the results of the regression analyses, is the best representation of the nature of this dependence. Exponential function represents the correlation of the average diameter of pruned branches and the time of pruning. Also, there is a correlation of the average diameter of pruned branches and fuel consumption. Pruning time of poplar trees increases with the increase of the average diameter of pruned branches.

Danilovi? Milorad; ?or?evi? Zoran

2009-01-01

380

DRIS analysis identifies a common potassium imbalance in sweetgum plantations.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) analysis was applied to fast-growing sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeast United States as a tool for nutrient diagnosis and fertilizer recommendations. First, standard foliar nutrient ratios for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were established using high-yield stands from a region wide sweetgum fertilization study. DRIS indices were then calculated for the low-yield stands in the same study and stands from four other studies to evaluate foliar nutritional characteristics. Low-yield stands showed strong negative K imbalance, indicating insufficient K, but also showed strong positive Mg imbalance. Potassium imbalance was also observed in the other four data sets tested. DRIS analysis successfully identified the tendency for K insufficiency to increase from early to late in the growing season, probably due to K foliar leaching and low soil K supply. While insufficient N was common in all the stands tested, the DRIS analysis failed to identify any P imbalance. We recommend that K be applied in N:K ratios less than one to correct K imbalance problems in the studied sweetgum plantations. Supra-optimal Ca and Mg levels are expected to decline once insufficient N and K are corrected. DRIS analysis provides the means for diagnosing nutrient imbalance and a potential basis for prescribing corrective amendments in sweetgum plantations.

Coleman, M., D.; Chang, S., X.; Robison, D.J.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Financial and energy analyses of woody biomass plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an economic analysis of a short rotation woody crop (SRWC) plantation system established the financial and energy costs of woody biomass and related net values for the total system. A production model for commercial-sized Populus plantations was developed from a series of research projects sponsored by the U.S,. Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. The design was based on hybrid poplar planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cutting ha-1. Growth was forecast at 16 Mg(OD) ha-1 yr-1 on a six-year rotation cycle. All inputs associated with plantation establishment, annual operations, and land use were identified on a financial and energy cost basis (Strauss et al. 1989). Net values for the system projected a minimum financial profit and a major net energy gain. Financial profit was limited by the high market value of energy inputs as compared to the low market value of the energy output. The net energy gain was attributed to the solar energy captured through photosynthesis. Principal input costs to the overall system, on both a financial and energy basis, were land rent and the harvesting/transportation requirements.

1991-01-01

382

Mining for treatment-specific and general changes in target compounds and metabolic fingerprints in response to herbivory and phytohormones in Plantago lanceolata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Induction studies focusing on target metabolites may not reveal metabolic changes occurring in plants after various challenges. By contrast, metabolic fingerprinting can be a powerful tool to find patterns that are either treatment-specific or general and was therefore used to depict plant responses after various challenges. Plants of Plantago lanceolata were challenged by mechanical damage, specialist herbivores (aphids or sawfly larvae), generalist herbivores (Lepidopteran caterpillars) or phytohormones (jasmonic or salicylic acid). After 3 d of treatment, local and systemic leaves were analyzed for characteristic target metabolites (iridoid glucosides and verbascoside) by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and for metabolic fingerprints by liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Whereas only marginal changes in target metabolite concentrations were found, metabolic fingerprints were substantially affected especially by generalist and phytohormone treatments. By contrast, mechanical damage and specialist herbivory caused fewer changes. Responses to generalists partly overlapped with the changes caused by jasmonic acid, but many additional peaks were up-regulated. Furthermore, many peaks were co-induced by jasmonic and salicylic acid. The surprisingly high co-induction of peaks by both phytohormones suggests that the signaling pathways regulate a set of common targets. Furthermore, only metabolic fingerprinting could reveal that herbivores induce additional species-specific pathways beyond these phytohormone responses.

Sutter R; Müller C

2011-09-01

383

Mining for treatment-specific and general changes in target compounds and metabolic fingerprints in response to herbivory and phytohormones in Plantago lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Induction studies focusing on target metabolites may not reveal metabolic changes occurring in plants after various challenges. By contrast, metabolic fingerprinting can be a powerful tool to find patterns that are either treatment-specific or general and was therefore used to depict plant responses after various challenges. Plants of Plantago lanceolata were challenged by mechanical damage, specialist herbivores (aphids or sawfly larvae), generalist herbivores (Lepidopteran caterpillars) or phytohormones (jasmonic or salicylic acid). After 3 d of treatment, local and systemic leaves were analyzed for characteristic target metabolites (iridoid glucosides and verbascoside) by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and for metabolic fingerprints by liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Whereas only marginal changes in target metabolite concentrations were found, metabolic fingerprints were substantially affected especially by generalist and phytohormone treatments. By contrast, mechanical damage and specialist herbivory caused fewer changes. Responses to generalists partly overlapped with the changes caused by jasmonic acid, but many additional peaks were up-regulated. Furthermore, many peaks were co-induced by jasmonic and salicylic acid. The surprisingly high co-induction of peaks by both phytohormones suggests that the signaling pathways regulate a set of common targets. Furthermore, only metabolic fingerprinting could reveal that herbivores induce additional species-specific pathways beyond these phytohormone responses. PMID:21592133

Sutter, Rabea; Müller, Caroline

2011-05-19

384

Expression of a conifer COBRA-like gene ClCOBL1 from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) alters the leaf architecture in tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cell wall plays crucial roles in establishing the morphology of the plant cell, defence response to biotic and abiotic stresses, and mechanical properties of organs. The COBRA gene encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that possesses the ability to modulate cellulose deposition and orient cell expansion in plant cell. We reported here the functional characterization of ClCOBL1, a conifer COBRA-like gene from the differentiating xylem of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook). ClCOBL1 belonged to a woody plant-specific clade of the COBRA protein family with several conserved motifs. Expression pattern demonstrated that ClCOBL1 was constitutively expressed but with high level in cambium region. ClCOBL1 protein was mainly located in the cell wall and plasma membrane. Overexpression of ClCOBL1 in tobacco plants yielded altered leaf adaxial-abaxial patterning and short, swollen corolla tubes. The changed leaf architecture in the ClCOBL1 overexpressors was associated with the differential expression of leaf adaxial-abaxial identity genes. Our results indicated that ClCOBL1 was involved in the determination of leaf dorsoventrality and anisotropic expansion possibly by affecting the expression of adaxial and abaxial identity genes. PMID:23851362

Gao, Yan; Bian, Liming; Shi, Jisen; Xu, Jin; Xi, Mengli; Wang, Guifeng

2013-06-27

385

Expression of a conifer COBRA-like gene ClCOBL1 from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) alters the leaf architecture in tobacco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cell wall plays crucial roles in establishing the morphology of the plant cell, defence response to biotic and abiotic stresses, and mechanical properties of organs. The COBRA gene encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that possesses the ability to modulate cellulose deposition and orient cell expansion in plant cell. We reported here the functional characterization of ClCOBL1, a conifer COBRA-like gene from the differentiating xylem of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook). ClCOBL1 belonged to a woody plant-specific clade of the COBRA protein family with several conserved motifs. Expression pattern demonstrated that ClCOBL1 was constitutively expressed but with high level in cambium region. ClCOBL1 protein was mainly located in the cell wall and plasma membrane. Overexpression of ClCOBL1 in tobacco plants yielded altered leaf adaxial-abaxial patterning and short, swollen corolla tubes. The changed leaf architecture in the ClCOBL1 overexpressors was associated with the differential expression of leaf adaxial-abaxial identity genes. Our results indicated that ClCOBL1 was involved in the determination of leaf dorsoventrality and anisotropic expansion possibly by affecting the expression of adaxial and abaxial identity genes.