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Sample records for lanceolata plantation wood

  1. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  2. MDF/HDF Production from Plantation Wood Species

    Tibor Alpár, Tibor Fáczán, István Rácz, Gabor Kátoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the raw material base for the newly built MDF/HDF production line in Mohács, Hungary. The desired raw material for the factory is 80 % poplar and 20 % other species (conifers and broad leaved species. These raw materials should be obtained from wood plantations. Laboratory experiments were done in production of MDF and HDF boards with the following raw materials: 5 and 10 year old Pannonia poplar (Populus x euramericana Pannónia, I214 poplar (Populus x euramericana ‘I214’, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra. The selected trees were evaluated based on the following parameters: diameter, bark volume, ability for barking, ability for chipping, fiber yield, fiber quality, energy consumption of defibrating, chemical analysis of waste water after defibrating. MDF and HDF boards were made in laboratory from clear poplar species, and from a mixture of poplar and Austrian pine and poplar and black locust. In both cases of mixing, the ratio of poplar and other wood species was 80:20. Ureaformaldehyde adhesive and ammonium-sulphate hardener were used during board production. Also some paraffin was added to increase the moisture resistance. The following board characteristics were tested: bending strength, internal bond, modulus of elasticity, thickness swelling, density, moisture content, formaldehyde content. Except the values of internal bond, the results were very satisfactory, highly above the standard requirements. The reason for the low internal bond values is as follows: - in the laboratory we could not apply a proper blending of fibers and additives, - mat forming by hand. In spite of this, we are sure that an actual technological test production will give good results.

  3. Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation clearing in Canada

    Precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning offer opportunities for increasing the availability of wood fuel in Canada. In 1992, approximately 130 000 ha were treated with precommercial thinning or stand cleaning. Manual methods predominate in these silvicultural activities; however, at stand densities greater than 10 000 - 15 000 stems/ha, mechanized systems are more economical. Recovering this biomass for wood fuel would require changes to silvicultural systems and harvesting technology

  4. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AMONG WOOD PROPERTIES AND GROWTH IN WILD CHERRY PLANTATIONS

    Michela Nocetti,; Michele Brunetti,; Fulvio Ducci; Manuela Romagnoli; Philippe Rozenberg; Frédérique Santi

    2012-01-01

    Italy is one of the major users of cherry wood (Prunus avium L.), and its cultivation has been increasing since the early nineties, together with studies aimed at improving genotypes, with a selection usually based on growth, stem form, vigor, and tree adaptation. Here, the phenotypic correlations between growth rate and the physical and mechanical properties of wood are investigated in two wild cherry plantations. X-ray microdensitometry was also applied to analyze the age-age correlations o...

  5. Phenotypic correlations among wood properties and growth in wild cherry plantations

    Brunetti, Michele; Ducci, Fulvio; Romagnoli, Manuela; Rozenberg, Philippe; Santi, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    Italy is one of the major users of cherry wood (Prunus avium L.), and its cultivation has been increasing since the early nineties, together with studies aimed at improving genotypes, with a selection usually based on growth, stem form, vigor, and tree adaptation. Here, the phenotypic correlations between growth rate and the physical and mechanical properties of wood are investigated in two wild cherry plantations. X-ray microdensitometry was also applied to analyze the age-age correlations ...

  6. Review of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning in the Netherlands

    Discussions regarding the use of wood fuels for commercial energy production in the Netherlands began in the 1990's. The main reasons for using wood fuel are: the political demand for using renewable energy, the need to reduce CO2 emissions, and the lack of markets for surplus timber. Only 10 % of the area of Holland is forested. Therefore, early thinning and cleaning are important management tools for improving growth and producing better quality timber. The energy potential from early thinning and plantation cleaning could be between 400 000 and 570 000 dry tons annually. The Netherlands has not experience in harvesting energy wood. However, through the International Energy Agency/Bioenergy Agreement, knowledge gained in other countries, especially Denmark, Sweden and Finland, is being transferred to Holland. In 1996, there have been made field tests with Danish equipment. Although there are few technical barriers to wood fuel in the Netherlands, the economics of wood fuels consumption are affected by the low costs of fossil fuels and the high natural gas reserves. This is changing however, due to political concerns over the balance of greenhouse gases. In 1996, a small energy tax on fossil fuels was introduced and electricity suppliers are now selling an environmentally friendly 'green electricity'. Energy wood has a future in the Netherlands, although the total forest reserves would satisfy only a small percentage of energy requirements 5 refs

  7. Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning in Finland

    The paper deals with the biomass potential, silvicultural considerations, cost of recovery and environmental aspects in conjunction with the energy use of small trees from plantation cleanings and early thinnings in Finland. Repeated thinnings from below are an essential characteristic of the Finnish forest management system. Due to high operational costs, plantation cleanings and first commercial thinnings are currently a critical link in the management chain. These young forests possess a high potential as a source of renewable energy, 4 to 6 million m3 or 8 to 12 TWh per year. Utilization of small-tree biomass for energy is constrained by the high costs compared to peat, coal, oil or even wood chips produced from residues such as bark, sawdust or logging slash from clearcuts 3 refs

  8. Wood-polymer composites from Philippine tree plantation species by radiation polymerization I. Uptake and irradiation parameters

    Radiation catalyzed polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in various Philippine tree plantation species were investigated. Wood samples measuring 1x6cm were impregnated with monomer at reduced pressure and gamma irradiated for various doses at a dose rate of 0.53 kGy/h. The parameters used to assess the polymerization reaction were the uptake of monomer by the wood samples, monomer conversion, and polymer loading in the irradiated samples. The uptake and polymerization data indicate that coconut wood, rubber wood, bagras, and Moluccan sau could be potential raw materials for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPC). (author). 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. Summary of an international review

    This paper summaries the results of an international of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. The economic and biological benefits from early thinning have been well documented. However, removing forest biomass during early stages of stand development from sites which are low in one or more nutrients may contribute a loss of nutrients and organic matter. Depending on the pre-thinning density and the thinning intensity, the potential yield of wood fuel from early thinning may be as much as 79 dry tons per hectare. Thus, wood fuel from the thinnings could be an important source of revenue to forest owners and would contribute to domestic energy requirements. Motor-manual felling predominates in early thinning, mainly due to the lack of appropriate technology for thinning small trees. However, the productivity of motor-manual felling is greatly affected by the initial stand density and declines dramatically at densities greater than 10 000 stems per ha. Under these conditions, purpose-built wood fuel harvesters with small-tree harvesting capability offer the greatest potential for increasing felling productivity and reducing the cost of wood fuel. The cost of wood fuel from early thinnings varies widely between countries from USD 25.00 - 87.50 per dry ton depending on stand conditions, harvesting system, transport distance, domestic tax rates, and stumpage prices. At the low end of this range, wood fuel chips from early thinning are competitive with wood fuel produced from mill waste, the residues from clearfell operations, or from later thinnings

  10. Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus

    Mehari, A.

    1997-11-01

    This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

  11. Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash

    Omil, Beatriz; Merino, Agustin [Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Escuela Politecnica Superior, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo (Spain); Pineiro, Veronica [Centro de Apoyo Tecnologico (CACTUS), University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2007-08-01

    Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha{sup -} {sup 1} (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem - soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed. (author)

  12. Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash

    Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha-1 (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem-soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed

  13. Comparative study of the thermal behavior of wood and bark of young shoots obtained from an energy plantation

    Meszaros, E.; Jakab, E.; Varhegyi, G. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 17, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Szepesvary, P. [Department of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Marosvoelgyi, B. [Institute of Energetics, University of West Hungary, Sopron (Hungary)

    2004-11-01

    We have performed thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS) analysis of young wood samples from a short rotation forestry plantation to get information about their thermal behavior. Poplar (Populus x euramericana, Populus x interamericana), willow (Salix alba) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) species have been studied. The ratio of wood and bark in these young shoots is significantly different from that of an older wood. That is why great emphasis has been put on the comparative study of the decomposition characteristics of wood and bark. Considerable differences have been found in these investigations: more volatiles are produced from wood than from bark; the temperature range and the rate of decomposition also differ. The TG/MS results are interpreted in terms of the chemical composition characterized by Klason lignin and ash content. One of the main differences between the chemical composition of wood and bark is the amount of inorganic ions: the mineral matter content is significantly higher in the bark than in the wood. We have pretreated the samples with a hot water washing procedure in order to eliminate a significant part of these inorganic components and investigate their effects on the thermal decomposition of the samples. The results imply that the thermal behavior of wood and bark are still considerably different after the elimination of some of the inorganic components, however, the macromolecular components decompose at similar temperatures in wood and bark. Since we had a large number of samples and TG/MS data, we have employed a chemometric tool, principal component analysis (PCA) to help the evaluation of the results and the comparison of the samples.

  14. STUDY OF WOOD SAWDUST WITH ADDITION OF PLANTATION WASTES AS A GROWTH MEDIUM ON YIELDS AND QUALITY OF WHITE OYSTER MUSHROOM

    Imam Mudakir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the use of wood sawdust as a medium for growth and the optimum addition ratio of plantation wastes that can increase the yields and quality of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD consisting of 7 levels of treatment ratio of wood sawdust and plantation wastes. The data analysis involved one way ANOVA followed by Duncans 5%. The results showed that the wood sawdust can be used as growing medium, and the addition of plantation wastes can increase the yields and the quality of white oyster mushroom. The addition of cocoa and coffee wastes with a ratio 25% was the optimum ratio treatment which increased the number of fruiting bodies, caps diameter, production weight, Biologycal Eficiency Ratio (BER and protein, fats, carbohydrates and fiber content in white oyster mushrooms. It is recommended to be applied because both treatments would increase the yield and quality of white oyster mushroom.

  15. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette; Pedersen, Lars Bo; Skov, Simon

    2014-01-01

    wood chip ash application on soil chemistry in a 44-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation on a nutrient-poor soil in Denmark and to investigate the effect of applying different ash types and doses. Soil samples were collected and analyzed 2.5years (3 growing seasons) after ash application...... increase in Cd was found in the O-horizon, corresponding to the amount added in the ashes. Generally, no other increase in soil contents of the heavy metals was seen. Hardening of the wood ash did not decrease the chemical impact on the soil chemistry as compared to non-treated ash whereas an increase in....... This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an...

  16. Short-rotation plantations. Wood from the acre - that's the way; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Holz vom Acker - So geht's

    Setzer, Frank [Deutsche Landwirtschaftsgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Fachgebiet Forstwirtschaft und Bioenergie; Landgraf, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Poplar or willow instead of rapeseed and wheat? It is not quite obviously: There is no question that one may achieve still more profits by means of cultivation of quality wheat than the cultivation of fast growing wood. However, under certain circumstances birch trees, robinia et cetera may be a very lucrative alternative to grassland or low yield rye cultivation. Especially with currently rising timber prices. The book under consideration is a practical decision support for whom a short-rotation plantations is worthwhile as well as how to create and maintain a short-rotation plantation.

  17. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the method of pay back period

    Keča Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar plantations are a category of fixed assets in forestry, i.e. the assets with a biological character. They are related to their site, they are cultivated for a relatively long time and they have a relatively long utilization cycle, with the yield development determined by the plantation growth and age. Plantations transfer their value gradually to the obtained products during the period of their harvesting, and, by the realization of the products, the means invested in the plantation establishment are reproduced. The period of investments in poplar growing can be relatively long, and so is the period of harvesting. Therefore, it is important to determine the time of the return of the capital invested in these and similar plantations. This paper presents the analysis of commercial profitability of poplar cultivation according to the indicator for the assessment of projects in agriculture and forestry - pay back period. The application of pay back period (PBP calculation can affect greatly the reliability of predicting the degree of economic effectiveness of investments, and also the potential risks for the investor in his decisions on the investments in poplar cultivation. The analysis of poplar clone I-214 plantations was carried out in the area of Ravni Srem, under different rotations and soil types. Based on the analysis of costs and receipts in different plantation ages, and using the method of pay back period, the objective of the study was to evaluate the possible pay back period of invested capital in wood production in poplar plantations. PBP is practically unacceptable by the investor under the discount rate of 6%. The most favorable situation is in the youngest stands, using the discount rate of 2%. The situation regarding the pay back period in the over-aged stands is utterly unfavorable, so the credit cannot be repaid under any conditions. This fact supports the idea that the production cycle length should be shortened.

  18. Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevlea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm , using phenol-formaldehyde resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the parallel and perpendicular direction, according to EN standards. The OSB panels produced with four species and the mixture of these species showed average values of mechanical properties above the minimum standard established by the CSA 437/1993. The results of the physical and mechanical properties obtained indicate the feasibility of the use of wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevlea robusta, Melia azedarach and Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing.

  19. High Risk Posture on Motor-Manual Short Wood Logging System in Acacia mangium Plantation

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor-manual logging has been considered as the most dominant logging system in Java Island, Indonesia. The system-which consisted of felling, delimbing, bucking, hauling, and transporting activities- involves a combination of stress factors e.q. difficult work postures, generation of force, and lifting techniques. In the other hand, combination of the three is well associated with high risk of work-related musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs, including musculoskeletal disorders. This research aimed to assess difficult work posture on felling, delimbing, bucking, and manually short wood hauling by employing rapid entire body assessment (REBA technique and muscular pain scoring based on the worker's perceive. It was revealed that felling and manual hauling were scored 4 in the REBA action level, indicated very high MSIs risk level, and categorized as “necessary now” for an injury risk preventive action. The workers' pain scoring indicated that low back (spine in general disorders resulting in low back pain has been considered to be the one of the leading safety issues in the felling and manual hauling. Regardless to complex mechanism of how the personal risk and environmental factors associated with manual material handling injuries, job-related factors approach should be underlined in the MSIs prevention initiative in motor-manual logging. Keywords: motor-manual logging, difficult work posture, REBA, MSIs, low back pain

  20. Micropropagation of PLUCHEA LANCEOLATA (Oliver

    M. Kher Mafatlal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata is an important medicinal plant of Asteraceae family known for its anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity. A protocol was established for micropropagation of P. lanceolata using nodal explants. Nodal explants were inoculated onto Murashige and Skoog (1962 - MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, kinetin (Kin, thidiazuron (TDZ and 2iP (2-isopentenyladenine at various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mgdm-3. The highest multiplication rate was obtained for nodal explants cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 0.5 mgdm-3 thidiazuron (TDZ. In vitro raised shoots were successfully rooted on mineral salt concentration of MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg dm-3 IBA.

  1. Carbon isotope compositions (?(13) C) of leaf, wood and holocellulose differ among genotypes of poplar and between previous land uses in a short-rotation biomass plantation.

    Verlinden, M S; Fichot, R; Broeckx, L S; Vanholme, B; Boerjan, W; Ceulemans, R

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of water use to produce biomass is a key trait in designing sustainable bioenergy-devoted systems. We characterized variations in the carbon isotope composition (?(13) C) of leaves, current year wood and holocellulose (as proxies for water use efficiency, WUE) among six poplar genotypes in a short-rotation plantation. Values of ?(13) Cwood and ?(13) Cholocellulose were tightly and positively correlated, but the offset varied significantly among genotypes (0.79-1.01). Leaf phenology was strongly correlated with ?(13) C, and genotypes with a longer growing season showed a higher WUE. In contrast, traits related to growth and carbon uptake were poorly linked to ?(13) C. Trees growing on former pasture with higher N-availability displayed higher ?(13) C as compared with trees growing on former cropland. The positive relationships between ?(13) Cleaf and leaf N suggested that spatial variations in WUE over the plantation were mainly driven by an N-related effect on photosynthetic capacities. The very coherent genotype ranking obtained with ?(13) C in the different tree compartments has some practical outreach. Because WUE remains largely uncoupled from growth in poplar plantations, there is potential to identify genotypes with satisfactory growth and higher WUE. PMID:24906162

  2. Forests, woods, forest plantations

    Giannini R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In protected areas the forest ecosystem management is directed to define the best approaches with high protection levels from ecological, historical, anthropological and landscape point of view. The conservation purposes have to be taken in consideration to not disturb the natural and functional processes, and therefore any forest human activity has to be done. Through a detailed analysis of the relations among functionality, stability, productivity and genetic diversity, the statement of the reasons for application of close-to-nature silviculture is described and discussed. Some specific silvicultural systems are illustrated on the basis of very large quantity of data and information originated from researches carried out for long time. A major challenge facing modern silviculture is to reconcile the traditional objectives of timber production with the demand for multifunctional forest ecosystems which arises from the society. The preservation of the functionality is strictly related to the forest genetic pool which is the basis of biodiversity, as it represents the basis for adaptation and survival of species and individual.

  3. Propiedades fsico-mecnicas de madera de teca de plantaciones comerciales / Properties of the wood from commercial teak plantations

    Ral, Rodrguez Anda; Juan Francisco, Zamora Natera; Jos Antonio, Silva Guzmn; Eduardo, Salcedo Prez; Francisco Javier, Fuentes Talavera.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades fsico-mecnicas de la madera de Tectona grandis (teca) procedente de plantaciones comerciales del sureste mexicano fueron analizadas. Se eligieron rboles de 9 y 15 aos del estado de Campeche, 21 aos de Chiapas y 15 aos de Tabasco. Se recolectaron 10 trozas de 3 m de longitud por [...] edad y procedencia. Las propiedades fsicas y mecnicas se evaluaron conforme a las normas DIN. La densidad normal fluctu de 0.55 a 0.66 g cm-3. La contraccin mxima radial y tangencial fue 2-2.8 % y 4.3-5.1 % (baja), su anisotropa 1.8-2.2 (de buena a alta), sin diferencia estadsticamente significativa (P>0.05) por edad y procedencia. La madera de 15 aos de Tabasco fue superior en el mdulo de elasticidad a flexin (9 479 N mm-2), cizallamiento (11.3 N mm-2), dureza Brinell longitudinal (49 N mm-2) y lateral (28 N mm-2). En tanto que, la de 15 aos de Campeche present los valores ms elevados de resistencia a flexin (108 N mm-2) y compresin longitudinal (48 N mm-2). La de 21 aos de Chiapas exhibi los mejores resultados de mdulo de elasticidad a compresin longitudinal (10 920 N mm-2) y al trabajo por impacto (41 kJ m-2). La de 9 aos de Campeche fue la que tuvo los menores registros en todos los ensayos mecnicos. Abstract in english The physical-mechanical properties of Tectona grandis (teak) timber from commercial plantations of the Mexican Southeast were analyzed. 9 and 15 year old trees of the state of Campeche, 21 year old trees of Chiapas and 15 year old trees of Tabasco were selected. Ten 3 m long logs were collected by a [...] ge and origin. The physical and mechanical properties were evaluated according to the DIN norms. The normal density fluctuated between 0.55 and 0.66 g cm-3. The highest radial and tangential contraction was 2-2.8 % and 4.3-5.1 % (low); the anisotropy was 1.8-2.2 (good to high), without a statistically significant difference (P>0.05) by age or origin. The 15 year old timber of Tabasco had the highest modulus of elasticity at bending (9 479 N mm-2), shear strength (11.3 N mm-2), and longitudinal (49 N mm-2) and lateral (28 N mm-2) Brinell hardness. On the other hand, the 15 year old timber of Campeche showed higher values for resistance to bending (108 N mm-2) and longitudinal compression (48 N mm-2). 21 year old timber of Chiapas exhibited the best results in terms of modulus of elasticity at longitudinal compression (10 920 N mm-2) and resistance to impact strength (41 kJ m-2). The 9 year old wood of Campeche was the one with the lowest values in all mechanical assays.

  4. Wood

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood is a...

  5. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the cost-benefit method

    Keča Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of polar cultivation was analyzed based on one of the indicators for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects - cost-benefit (r. Poplar plantations of the clone I-214 of different rotations and on different soil types were analyzed in the area of Ravni Srem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the justification of the invested financial means in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts at different plantation ages, using the cost-benefit method. It was found that in all 13 analyzed compartments, the average cost-benefit ratio was 0.36. This means that the costs at the discount rate of 12% are about 2.8 times higher than the receipts. Accordingly, it can be asserted that it is economically unjustified to invest in the projected stands, but only in the case when the value of social capital accounts for 12%. Based on the analysis of sensitivity of the cost-benefit method, it was concluded that cost benefit ratio for p=8-12% was below 1 within the study range of costs and receipts changes, while for p=4-6% this ratio was above 1 in some cases of decrease in costs, i.e. increase in receipts. It was noted that the change in r depending on the change in costs, developed by the exponential function, and the change in r depending on the change in receipts developed by the linear function. Also, it was concluded that at the lower discount rates, the values of r moved towards 1, so for 8% r=0.71, and for 6% r=0.94. The value at the discount rate of 4% indicates that the project is cost-effective and that the invested € 1 makes € 1.22. This fact is especially important when poplar cultivation projects are ranked. For this reason, this method is used for the evaluation of social benefits, i.e. for economic analyses. It is almost never applied in the analysis of private investments.

  6. Eucalyptus energy plantations

    1982-05-01

    India has extensive plantations of eucalyptus, a fast-growing, native plant that can be used as wood, fuel, pulp, oil and honey, and erosion control. India raises eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, and E. Citriodara. The applications, environmental requirements, yields, and related species are summarized for each. 2 references. (DCK)

  7. VENEER AND PLYWOOD PRODUCTION OF GUAPURUVU WOOD (Schizolobium parayba Blake. COMING FROM A MIXED PLANTATION OF BRAZILIAN TREE SPECIES

    Geraldo Bortoletto Júnior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the guapuruvu wood(Schizolobium parayba, coming a mixed plantings of Brazilian native species, for veneer and plywoodproduction. The peeling yield was 61%, linking green veneer and peeling wood. The obtained veneers, afterclipped and dried, they were graded according to Brazilian Standards (NBR 9531/1986. Thefollowing grades o veneer were obtained: 2% of grade A, 24% of grade B, 48% of grade C and 26%of grade D. After, it was manufactured plywood of grade B/C/B, glued with urea-formaldehydeadhesive, and their properties of static bending (MOR and MOE and bonding line strength in shear test (dry and wet were appraised. Treatments (1, 2 and 3 varied according to the formulation of theglue (35, 50 and 65% of wheat flour in relation to the pure adhesive. The results indicated that theguapuruvu wood has potential for veneer and plywood production. The plywood showed significantdifference between treatments in the static bending (perpendicular MOR and shear (dry and wet. Theplywood presents possibility of interior and intermediate use for the formulations 1 and 2, and interioruse for the formulation 3. The plywood has potential for use in furniture, packing and box factory.

  8. Effects of thinning on wood production, leaf area index, transpiration and canopy interception of a plantation subject to drought.

    McJannet, D; Vertessy, R

    2001-08-01

    We conducted thinning trials in a 5-year-old Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus Labill plantation near Warrenbayne, northeastern Victoria, Australia, where soil salinization and waterlogging are common, and assessed treatment effects on tree growth, water use and survival. Half-hectare plots were thinned from the original density of 1100 stems ha(-1) to densities of 800, 600 and 400 stems ha(-1), and stem diameter increment, leaf area index, transpiration, canopy interception and depth of tree water source monitored for 21 months. Two drought periods occurred during the study, rainfall was 30% below the long-term average and there was severe mortality in all three plots. Analysis of deuterium abundance in soil and xylem water indicated that the trees accessed water only from the top meter of the soil profile. Transpiration rates were higher in the most heavily thinned plot than in the least thinned plot, which underwent a reduction in basal area during the study. The most heavily thinned plot increased in basal area by 10% during the study. Edge trees had significantly greater diameters than trees from the middle of the plots. PMID:11498347

  9. Propiedades de la madera y relacin del estado nutrimental con el crecimiento en teca / Properties of wood and the relationship between nutritional status and growth in teak plantations

    Alina Luisa, Ypushima-Pinedo; Eduardo, Salcedo Prez; Ricardo, Manrquez Gonzlez; Jos Antonio, Silva Guzmn; Juan Francisco, Zamora Ntera; Efrn, Hernndez lvarez.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available En Mxico existe cada vez mayor inters en producir madera de calidad a partir de Tectona grandis, cuyo rendimiento sea capaz de satisfacer la demanda del mercado internacional, lo que es sumamente relevante ya que la teca tiene gran valor econmico y su comercializacin puede derivar en la obtenci [...] n de importantes ganancias; sin embargo an no se cuenta con suficiente informacin para lograrlo. En el presente estudio se evaluaron los caracteres anatmicos de densidad bsica, de resistencia al ataque de hongos y de las condiciones edafoclimticas en dos plantaciones de nueve aos en los estados de Veracruz (hmedo) y Nayarit (seco). Hubo diferencias significativas segn la procedencia de la planta respecto al dimetro total de fibra y de lumen, al grosor de la pared de las fibras, al dimetro total, a la longitud de los vasos y al porcentaje de duramen; por otro lado, no existieron en cuanto a la longitud de fibras, el ancho y largo de los radios y la densidad bsica. La resistencia al efecto de los hongos por parte del duramen est en funcin del tipo de hongo y no de la plantacin de origen. El Ca y el K foliar se relacionaron con la altura y el DAP, respectivamente; as como el Ca del suelo, pH y la CIC (capacidad de intercambio catinico) con la altura. La proporcin de duramen y el DAP fueron mayores en las maderas provenientes de Veracruz. Abstract in english In Mexico there is a growing interest in producing high-quality wood from Tectona grandis with a yield that can meet the demands of the international market; this is very relevant, as teak has a high economic value, and its commercialization may bring considerable profits. However, there is still no [...] t enough information to achieve this. The present study assessed the anatomical features of basic density, resistance to attack by fungi and edaphoclimatological conditions in two nine-year-old plantations in the states of Veracruz (humid) and Nayarit (dry). There were significant differences in the total fiber and lumen diameter, fiber wall thickness, total diameter, vessel length, and heartwood percentage, according to the origin of the plant; on the other hand, there were no differences in fiber length, width and length of the radii or density. Heartwood resistance to the effect of the fungi is determined by the type of fungus, not by the origin of the plantation. Foliar Ca and K were related to height and DBH, respectively. Soil Ca, pH and CEC (cation exchange capacity) were related to height. Both the heartwood proportion and DBH were higher in timber from Veracruz.

  10. Shady Plantations

    Hastrup, Frida

    2011-01-01

    This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between ...

  11. Shady Plantations

    Hastrup, Frida

    2011-01-01

    This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between...

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Tanakia lanceolata (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Xu, Xiuwen; Cao, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Yurong

    2016-03-01

    Bitterling Tanakia lanceolata is a small sized freshwater fish species. The unique reproductive behavior makes bitterlings monophyletic. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of T. lanceolata is sequenced to be 16,607?bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, a control region and the origin of the light strand replication. The overall base composition of T. lanceolata in descending order is A 28.3%, C 28.0%, T 26.1%, and G 17.6%, with a slight A?+?T bias. The mitogenome sequence data may provide useful information to the population genetics analysis of T. lanceolata and the elucidation of evolutionary mechanisms in Cyprinidae. PMID:24865912

  13. Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, ESPECIE FORESTAL CON POTENCIAL PARA SER INTRODUCIDA EN SISTEMAS SILVOPASTORILES

    María L. Román-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de especies forestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria contribuye a reducir la presión en los bosques naturales y se pueden incorporar en áreas no arboladas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad nutritiva, germinación, desarrollo de plántula en vivero y diversidad de usos de Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. El material comestible y las semillas se colectaron en Tomatlán, Jalisco. Se realizaron análisis bromatológicos, pruebas de escarificación y evaluación de plántula en vivero sobre tres suelos con diferente pH. El experimento se analizó en un diseño completamente al azar con comparación de medias de Tukey (P ≤ 0.05. Además, se hicieron entrevistas a productores, una revisión bibliográfica y consulta de ejemplares en los herbarios para conocer los usos locales y potenciales de la especie. Los resultados indican alto contenido de materia seca (97.40 % y proteína cruda (29.05 %, mayor germinación en los tratamientos térmicos, mejor desarrollo de la plántula en el suelo ligeramente ácido (6.57 y la diversidad de usos incluye leña, forraje y madera, entre otros. Por el alto valor nutritivo y diversidad de usos en el medio rural, L. lanceolata representa una opción viable para utilizarse en sistemas silvopastoriles del trópico seco.

  14. Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil

    Lopes Eduardo da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational and production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.

  15. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products with longer life spans. PMID:24586964

  16. Crecimiento maderable y biomasa area en plantaciones jvenes de Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. Et Cham. En Zacualpan, Veracruz / Wood growth and aerial biomass in young plantations of Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. In Zacualpan, Veracruz

    Domingo, Romo Guzmn; Hermilio, Navarro Garza; Hctor Manuel, De los Santos Posadas; Oliverio, Hernndez Romero; Javier, Lpez Upton.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La superficie de bosques nativos a escala mundial disminuye en proporciones alarmantes, pues cada ao se deforestan 13 millones de ha, y para Mxico, en particular, se ha calculado una tasa de deforestacin anual de 0.25 % para bosques templados y de 0.76 % para selvas. La creciente demanda de produ [...] ctos maderables en el pas ha impulsado el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales forestales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar un sistema de crecimiento maderable, con variables dasomtricas y de edad a partir de los datos tomados en una crono-secuencia en plantaciones de Pinus patula establecidas del 2000 al 2007 en reas agropecuarias reconvertidas. Se presenta un modelo de ndice de sitio con base en una familia de curvas polimrficas generadas con el modelo de Chapman-Richards. En la condicin promedio se pueden lograr rendimientos de 15 m ha-1ao-1 durante los primeros 10 aos de crecimiento, mientras que en las mejores condiciones es factible alcanzar hasta 30 m ha-1 ao-1. La captura de carbono fue estimada en 31.3, 41.2, 51.0 y 60.2 Mg ha-1, respectivamente, para los aos 9, 11, 13 y 15. A partir de los resultados de ocho aos, y las proyecciones, se infiere que la zona tiene un alto potencial productivo tanto de madera como de captura de CO. Abstract in english The area of native forests around the world is being reduced at alarming rates, since every year 13 million ha are deforested and particularly in Mexico, an 0.25 % annual deforestation rate for temperate forests and of 0.76 % for tropical forests has been determined. The growing demand of timber pro [...] ducts in this country has encouraged the establishment of commercial forest plantations. The aim of this paper was to analyze a wood growth system with mensuration and age variables from the data taken in a chronosequence in Pinus patula plantations established from 2000 to 2007 in recovered agriculture and livestock formerly used areas. A site index model is here presented based upon a polymorphic curve family generated by the Chapman-Richards model. In the average condition can be reached 15 m3 ha-1year-1 yields during the first 10 years, while under the best conditions it is feasible to get as much as 30 m3 ha-1 year-1. Carbon sequestration was estimated as 31.3, 41.2, 51.0 and 60.2 Mg ha-1, respectively, for the 9, 11, 13 and 15 years. From the results of eight years and the projections it is inferred that the zone has a high productive potential both of wood and of carbon sequestration.

  17. Continuidade espacial para caractersticas dendromtricas (numero de fustes e volume em plantios de eucalyptus grandis Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume in eucalyptus grandis plantations

    Jos Mrcio de Mello

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do nmero de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A rea de estudo abrangeu quatro talhes, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. Os dados para a realizao do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribudas sistematicamente na rea, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha, 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possvel verificar que, tanto em nmero de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuio aproximadamente normal. Pela anlise variogrfica, foi verificado que as caractersticas nmero de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das caractersticas nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a nmero de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatstica espacial no processamento dessa varivel aumentar a preciso das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 no foi possvel detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condio, deve-se utilizar a estatstica clssica para processamento do inventrio florestal.This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and volume, the data have presented, approximately, normal distribution. Based on variogram analysis, trunk number and wood volume variables were found to be spatially structured. The exponential semi-variogram model was the best model fitted to the experimental semi-variograms of the variables in different plot shapes and sample intensities. The spatial continuity of the trunk number variable was detected at all sample intensities and plot shapes. Therefore, the use of spatial statistics to process this variable will increase the precision of the estimates. Considering the volume, at sample intensity 1:10, we could not evaluate the existence of a spatial continuity structure. Under this condition, classic statistics should be used to process the forest inventory.

  18. The F-type complete mitochondrial genome of Arconaia lanceolata.

    Wang, Guiling; Guo, Liping; Li, Jiale

    2016-01-01

    In this study, complete nucleotide sequence of the F-type mitochondrial genome of Arconaia lanceolata (Bivalvia: Unioninae), the endemic species of freshwater pearl mussel in China, was first determined. The complete mitochondrial genome of Arconaia lanceolata is 15,782 bp in size, and encodes 35 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs. Those genes are similar to most species of Unioninae in order, structure and composition. In the 13 protein-coding genes, ND2, Cytb, ND1 and ND6 are located in the light chain while the rest on the heavy chain. Also, COXI, Cytb, ND1, ND6 and ND4L with ATA as start codon, the remaining protein-coding genes initiated with the orthodox ATG as start codon. There are 28 non-coding regions in the mitochondrial genome of A. lanceolata, the largest is of 345 bp in length, located between ND5 and tRNA(Gln) gene. PMID:24660914

  19. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES

    Jing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three extractives from China-fir were obtained by a sequential extraction processes with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The components of the three extractives were analyzed: (1 The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis showed that in addition to the presence of cedrol, naphthalenes comprised a relatively large percentage of both the hexane extract (10.39% and the ethyl acetate extract (9.43%. (2 Total phenolic contents analysis showed that phenols took up 6.66 % of the ethyl acetate extract and 22.8% of the methanol extract. All extracts, even with low concentrations, presented fair antifungal activities against two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Irpex lacteus and two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Cedrol and naphthalenes were partly responsible for the bioactivities. The synergistic effect of phenols and antifungal compounds also contributed to the wood decay resistance.

  20. Equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para plantio de Ocotea porosa Estimating wood volume in plantation of Ocotea porosa

    Andreia Taborda dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Conhec

    er o volume de madeira de uma floresta é de extrema relevância. Equações de volume para espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista se restringem quase que exclusivamente a araucária. Equações de volume para imbuia Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso são inexistentes. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo desenvolver equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para árvore individual de Ocotea porosa na região de Rio Negro, PR. Foram derrubadas 12 árvores, com DAP entre 3,98 cm e 43,13 cm e altura entre 5,1 m e 20,4 m. Foi feita cubagem rigorosa de cada uma das árvores. Para desenvolvimento da equação de volume, foram testados onze modelos matemáticos. Os critérios utilizados para a seleção da melhor equação foram o coeficiente de determinação ajustado, o erro padrão da estimativa em porcentagem, o valor de F calculado e análise gráfica de resíduos. O modelo de Kopezky-Gehrart apresentou alto coeficiente de determinação ajustado (0,97, baixo erro padrão da estimativa (16,7% e alto valor de F calculado (382,6, com boa distribuição de resíduos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o modelo pode ser utilizado para quantificação de volume com casca, o que é muito importante em conjunto com outras informações, para tomada de decisão no manejo florestal.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

    To know the volume of wood from a forest is extremely important. Volume equations for species from the Araucaria Forest are restricted almost exclusively to plantations of araucaria. Equations for Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso plantations are inexistent. The present work aims to develop equation for individual tree volume and hypsometric relation from an Ocotea porosa, established in the region of Rio Negro, PR. Twelve trees were logged with DBH from 3.98 cm to 43.13 cm and height from 5.1 m to 20.4 m. All the trees were measured and cubed. Eleven mathematical models were tested for the development of the volume equation. The criteria used for selecting the best equation were the adjusted coefficient of determination, the standard error of estimative in percentage, the value of F calculated and graphical analysis of the residuals. The model-Kopezky Gehrart, presented a high coefficient of determination (0.97, low standard error of estimate (16.7% and high value of calculated F (382.6, with good distribution of residuals. The results indicate that this model can be used to quantify the volume with bark, which is very important in conjunction with other information for decision making in forest management.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

  1. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering

    Ruiyang Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, followed by rewatering under controlled environmental conditions. Based on observed morphological changes, plantlets experienced mild, moderate, or severe water stress before rehydration. Transcriptome analysis of plantlets, representing control and mild, moderate, and severe drought-stress treatments, and the rewatered plantlets, identified several thousand genes whose expression was altered in response to drought stress. Many genes whose expression was tightly coupled to the levels of drought stress were identified, suggesting involvement in Chinese fir drought adaptation responses. These genes were associated with transcription factors, signal transport, stress kinases, phytohormone signalling, and defence/stress response. The present study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource and the first dynamic transcriptome profiles of Chinese fir under drought stress. The drought-responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Chinese fir.

  2. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering.

    Hu, Ruiyang; Wu, Bo; Zheng, Huiquan; Hu, Dehuo; Wang, Xinjie; Duan, Hongjing; Sun, Yuhan; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, followed by rewatering under controlled environmental conditions. Based on observed morphological changes, plantlets experienced mild, moderate, or severe water stress before rehydration. Transcriptome analysis of plantlets, representing control and mild, moderate, and severe drought-stress treatments, and the rewatered plantlets, identified several thousand genes whose expression was altered in response to drought stress. Many genes whose expression was tightly coupled to the levels of drought stress were identified, suggesting involvement in Chinese fir drought adaptation responses. These genes were associated with transcription factors, signal transport, stress kinases, phytohormone signalling, and defence/stress response. The present study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource and the first dynamic transcriptome profiles of Chinese fir under drought stress. The drought-responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Chinese fir. PMID:26154763

  3. Observations of evapotranspiration in a break of slope plantation susceptible to periodic drought stress.

    McJannet, D. L.; Vertessy, R. A.; Clifton, C. A.

    2000-02-01

    Break of slope (BOS) plantations are advocated as a means of water table control in areas where groundwater flows through colluvial deposits overlying low permeability bedrock. It is also believed that BOS plantations can supplement their water use requirements by exploiting shallow groundwater at the breaks in topographic slope. We compared measurements of BOS plantation and pasture evapotranspiration during spring, when the weather was warm and soils moist, and late summer when drought conditions prevailed. Microlysimeters and ventilated chambers were used to determine pasture and plantation floor evaporation, and heat pulse sensors were used to determine transpiration of the plantation. In spring, pasture evapotranspiration was 65% of that of the plantation, whereas, in summer, pasture evapotranspiration was equivalent to only 35% of that of the plantation. Rainfall interception by the canopy of the plantation was twice that of the pasture, reinforcing the notion that trees can help reduce groundwater recharge and alleviate dryland salinity and waterlogging. During the summer drought period, daily plantation transpiration was only 20% of that measured during spring, suggesting that the plantation was not utilizing groundwater supplies but was instead drawing from soil water supplies. This hypothesis was supported by the comparison of relative abundances of the isotopes of water ((2)H and (18)O) in soil and wood samples. We conclude that the BOS plantation is not behaving in the manner predicted, and our findings raise doubts about the predicted advantages of establishing plantations in break of slope positions. PMID:12651469

  4. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limit...

  5. Economic Rotation of Sissoo Tree Plantations (Strip in Bangladesh

    Mohammad Yunus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborately discusses the various economic rotation methods of sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo plantations in Bangladesh. Under the present management system, mode of marketing, market mechanism and all the economic criteria for Bangladesh as a whole, the economic rotation of sissoo tree may be fixed at 8 year for fuel wood and 12 or 13 year for timber. But if the Mean Annual Increment (MAI is considered as rotation criterion, rotation age as 6 year for fuel wood and 11 to 13 year for timber may be suggested. The elimination rates varied from 10% to 72% depending on plantation year and location. It was found 10% in the area of Jessore and more than 50% in Rajshahi, Jessore and Dinajpur. For 6th year plantation the IRR was found highest (39% in Mymensingh. The 14th year plantation of Rajshahi and 13th year plantation of Jessore showed the highest NPVs, IRRs, B/C ratios, Le, EI and EAEnpv. From these, it can be inferred that the economic rotation may be fixed at 13 or 14 year for timber and 6 year for fuel wood.

  6. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Direct and Indirect Defense Metabolites of Plantago lanceolata L.

    A. Fontana; Reichelt, M.; Hempel, S.; Gershenzon, J.; Unsicker, S

    2009-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can strongly influence the metabolism of their host plant, but their effect on plant defense mechanisms has not yet been thoroughly investigated. We studied how the principal direct defenses (iridoid glycosides) and indirect defenses (volatile organic compounds) of Plantago lanceolata L. are affected by insect herbivory and mechanical wounding. Volatile compounds were collected and quantified from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal P. lanceolata plants that underwent...

  7. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  8. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran

    FATEMEH GHEIBI; MOSLEM AKBARINIA; YAHYA KOOCH

    2015-01-01

    Gheibi F, Akbarinia M, Kooch Y. 2015. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Biodiversitas 16: 10-15. Forest plantation is a common action in order to restore the degraded forests in Hyrcanian forests of Iran. This study compares the plant biodiversity in four 25-year-old stands of plantation, adjacent understory of alder (Alnus subcordata C. A. Mey.), maple (Acer insigne Boiss.), sequoia or red wood (Sequo...

  9. Cambodia Report : Feeding China's Expanding Demand for Wood Pulp : A Diagnostic Assessment of Plantation Development, Fiber Supply, and Impacts on Natural Forests in China and in the South East Asia Region

    Roda, Jean-Marc; Rathi, Santosh,

    2006-01-01

    After decades of war, Cambodia is one of the world's poorest nations, its economy and its political life are still suffering from the civil war that racked the country during the latter part of the 20th century. Rice and rubber were traditionally the principal exports of Cambodia, but exports fell sharply after the onset of the civil war, which put most of the rubber plantations out of operation. By the 1990s, however, rubber plantings had been undertaken as part of a national recovery progra...

  10. Effects of Increased UVB radiation on plant-insect interactions: Plantago lanceolata and Junonia coenia

    Seeds of P. lanceolata were collected from a local population and 4 replicates of 42 maternal families were grown for 90 days in the greenhouse with at two levels of supplemental UVB radiation (6 and 12 kJ day-1 BE300). Higher UVB radiation increased leaf hair density and decreased plant size during early growth; family identity affected these also. Leaves excised from a subset of the plants were fed to ultimate instar larvae of J. coenia and assayed for iridoids. Increased UVB radiation did not alter the iridoid content of the leaves or the growth of the larvae. In a separate experiment, P. lanceolata growing under the two levels of UVB irradiation were infested with neonate larvae and larval growth was monitored. Larval growth was not markedly altered by enhanced UVB. These findings suggest that increased UVB is unlikely to alter the suitability of P. lanceolata as a host for J. coenia

  11. Practical isolation of polygodial from Tasmannia lanceolata: a viable scaffold for synthesis.

    Just, Jeremy; Jordan, Timothy B; Paull, Brett; Bissember, Alex C; Smith, Jason A

    2015-12-14

    Polygodial, a valuable sesquiterpene dialdehyde featuring an epimerizable stereocenter was efficiently extracted and isolated in gram-scale quantities (3.3% w/w) from Tasmannia lanceolata (Tasmanian native pepper) via a recently developed rapid pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) technique that utilises an unmodified household espresso machine. This method was compared to the maceration of T. lanceolata under a range of conditions. Polygodial was used to achieve semi-syntheses of closely related sesquiterpene natural products drimendiol, (-)-drimenol, (+)-euryfuran, and some non-natural derivatives. PMID:26377594

  12. Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produo de celulose em plantaes clonais de Eucalyptus grandis

    Jos Luiz Gava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of So Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay. The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considervel efeito sobre a produo de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos fsicos e qumicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpao celulsica. Foram selecionadas cinco reas no planalto ocidental do Estado de So Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco reas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas rvores representativas das diferentes classes de dimetro altura do peito para avaliao de suas biomassas e para a anlise de extrativos e componentes da madeira. Os atributos fsicos do solo, sobretudo o teor de argila, diretamente relacionado quantidade de gua disponvel, foram os que mais afetaram a produtividade e a qualidade da madeira. A densidade bsica da madeira no se alterou nas diferentes classes de solo. O teor de lignina total diminuiu e o de holocelulose aumentou exponencialmente com o aumento do teor de argila do solo (at cerca de 350 a 400 g kg-1 de argila. O teor de extrativos da madeira no foi afetado pelos atributos do solo. O rendimento de celulose depurada relacionou-se exponencialmente com o teor de argila do solo.

  13. The push for plantations

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben; Casse, Thorkil; Nielsen, Thomas Theis

    We observe signs of social differentiation, where poor households end up serving as causal labour for the richer families on their acacia plantations. In addition, the poor can be rendered more vulnerable after becoming labourers, because they may not longer have an alternative source of income, ...

  14. Reproductive behavior of Chiroxiphia Lanceolata (Pipridae: Birds) in a forest of Tolima, Colombia Comportamiento reproductivo de Chiroxiphia lanceolata (Pipridae: aves) en un bosque intervenido del Tolima, Colombia

    Laverde Oscar; Pacheco Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The reproductive behavior of Chiroxiphia lanceolata (Pipridae) was studied in a secondary disturbed forest in the Hacienda El Paraiso (Ibague, Tolima, Colombia) at 860 m over the sea level, between march to may 2002. The areas, sequence, frequency and length
    of 5 fundamental behavioral phases were described to establish their variation during the day. The twig height and shape were the main features wed by males to select hangers. The males prefer slender, right or slightly bent, d...

  15. Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations of Central America

    Fernández-Moya J; Murillo R; Portuguez E; Fallas JL; Ríos V; Kottman F; Verjans JM; Mata R; Alvarado A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age) were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand o...

  16. Monitoring of seeds of chronically irradiated natural population of plantago Lanceolata L. Viability of seeds

    The results of the three-year study of Plantago lanceolata L., seeds growing within the thirty-kilometer zone of Chernobyl APS, in the areas differing in the radioactive contamination level, show no relationship between the variability of certain parameters indicating the quality of seeds and γ-background variations in places of growing

  17. Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates on growth and arsenic accumulation in Plantago lanceolata L

    The role of indigenous and non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata L. growing on substrate originating from mine waste rich in As was assessed in a pot experiment. P. lanceolata inoculated with AMF had higher shoot and root biomass and lower concentrations of As in roots than the non-inoculated plants. There were significant differences in As concentration and uptake between different AMF isolates. Inoculation with the indigenous isolate resulted in increased transfer of As from roots to shoots; AMF from non-polluted area apparently restricted plants from absorbing As to the tissue; and plants inoculated with an AMF isolate from Zn–Pb waste showed strong As retainment within the roots. Staining with dithizone indicated that AMF might be actively involved in As accumulation. The mycorrhizal colonization affected also the concentration of Cd and Zn in roots and Pb concentration, both in shoots and roots. - Highlights: ► The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in As uptake was studied. ► Growth of Plantago lanceolata was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. ► Arsenic concentration and uptake significantly depended on the AMF isolate. ► Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may be useful for bioremediation of As contaminated wastes. - Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata strongly depends on the origin of fungal isolates.

  18. Pasture management under hardwood plantations: legume implantation vs. mineral fertilization

    Lopez-Diaz, M.L.; Moreno, G.; Bertomeu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Europe, and particulartly Spain, have a shortage of quality wood. Indeed, there is a growing interest from many owners into these species with intensive management, which are compatible with the implantation of silvopastoral systems. The fertilization is one of the most controversial management practices that is used for reducing rotation length. The implantation of legumes, which are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, could allow reducing the economic costs of these plantations, improve the p...

  19. Tree biomass and soil carbon stocks in indigenous forests in comparison to plantations of exotic species in the Taita Hills of Kenya

    Omoro, Loice M.A.; Starr, Mike; Pellikka, Petri K. E.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon (C) densities of the tree biomass and soil (0-50 cm) in indigenous forest and plantations of eucalyptus, cypress and pine in the Taita Hills, Kenya were determined and compared. The cypress and pine plantations were about 30-years-old and eucalyptus plantations about 50-years-old. Biomass C densities were estimated from breast height diameter and wood density using allometric functions developed for tropical species and an assumed C content of 50 %. Belowground biomass C densities were...

  20. Climate change policy distortions in the wood and food market

    Ajani, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The widespread shift of Australia’s wood products industry away from native forests to an agricultural regime–wood plantations–has enhanced forestry industry competitiveness. Wood now competes against food for agricultural land, water and other resources (including government support). New plantings have increased substantially since the mid 1990s via plantation managed investment schemes (MIS), arousing protest in the traditional agricultural sector and claims of unfair government policy tre...

  1. Effect of intensive planting density on tree growth, wood density and fiber properties of maple (Acer velutinum Boiss.)

    Naji HR; Nia MF; Kiaei M; Abdul-Hamid H; Soltani M; Faghihi A

    2015-01-01

    Planting density is a major factor in determining tree growth and wood quality. Although the effect of low planting density on the variation of tree and wood characteristics has been already reported, the effect of intensive initial densities in plantations has not been fully assessed yet. In this study, the effect of intensive planting densities on tree growth, wood density and fiber cell properties was investigated in the context of the development of densely-stocked maple plantations for w...

  2. Carbon sequestration through afforestation: Role of tropical industrial plantations

    Compared to the temperate zone, carbon sequestration by trees is much faster in the tropical belt due to favorable climatic conditions. However net sequestration in tropics is much less than actual CO2 assimilation as bulk of wood produced is primarily consumed as fuel. On the other hand, the use of wood for making durable products like paper, pulp, veneer, etc. does not return the absorbed CO2 back to the atmosphere immediately. Due to abundant availability of wood as an industrial raw material in the temperate belt, wood-based manufacturing industry is largely concentrated in the temperate region, mainly western Europe, Scandinavia and North America. Despite excellent conditions for tree growth and presence of vast tracts of significantly underutilized land, Asia, Africa and Latin America are net importers of wood products. The demand for these products is projected to rise at a significantly higher rate in the immediate future and beyond, due to a variety of reasons. Industrial plantations in the tropics can not only make developing countries emerge as the new manufacturing base to meet the global demand for wood-based products, they can prove to be efficient and economically viable means to bring about a net reduction in atmospheric CO2. However, this will require a reorientation of land-use policies as well as policies governing production of wood as a raw material, in order to stimulate the required level of investment in this sector. 27 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  3. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations

    Patrcia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years. Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N; Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.

  4. Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiling to Elucidate Effectiveness of Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice

    Woon Yong Choi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata fermented by lactic acid on controlling gene expression levels related to obesity was observed in an oligonucleotide chip microarray. Among 8170 genes, 393 genes were up regulated and 760 genes were down regulated in feeding the fermented C. lanceolata (FCL. Another 374 genes were up regulated and 527 genes down regulated without feeding the sample. The genes were not affected by the FCL sample. It was interesting that among those genes, Chytochrome P450, Dmbt1, LOC76487, and thyroid hormones, etc., were mostly up or down regulated. These genes are more related to lipid synthesis. We could conclude that the FCL possibly controlled the gene expression levels related to lipid synthesis, which resulted in reducing obesity. However, more detailed protein expression experiments should be carried out.

  5. Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae)

    Timerman, David; Greene, David F.; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D.

    2014-01-01

    In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind–stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibr...

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of Total Flavone of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Zhuo Wang; Yu-Liang Wang; Lei Zhang; Xiao-Feng Zhai; Xu Zheng; Hai-Liang Xin

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of total flavone of branches and leaves of Cunninghamia lanceolata (TFC) to provide a scientific basis for its clinical use and resource development. TFC was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in mice or rats using chemical and thermal models of nociception, including acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate latency test, formalin test and carrageenan induc...

  7. Differential Performance of a Specialist and Two Generalist Herbivores and Their Parasitoids on Plantago lanceolata

    Reudler Talsma, J. H.; Biere, A.; Harvey, J.A.; van Nouhuys, S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to cope with plant defense chemicals differs between specialist and generalist species. In this study, we examined the effects of the concentration of the two main iridoid glycosides (IGs) in Plantago lanceolata, aucubin and catalpol, on the performance of a specialist and two generalist herbivores and their respective endoparasitoids. Development of the specialist herbivore Melitaea cinxia was unaffected by the total leaf IG concentration in its host plant. By contrast, the gener...

  8. The within-tree variation in wood density and shrinkage, and their relationship in Populus euramericana

    KORD, Behzad; KIALASHAKI, Ali; KORD, Behrouz

    2010-01-01

    The patterns of wood density and shrinkage in different directions in 22-year-old Populus euramericana trees from one clone were studied in an experimental plantation in Iran. Sample disks were taken from each tree to examine wood density and shrinkage variation from pith to bark at 5%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of total tree height. The results indicate that radial position and height significantly affected all wood physical properties. Within-tree wood density and shrinkage varied at each height le...

  9. THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD

    Othman Sulaiman; Nurjannah Salim,; Noor Afeefah Nordin,; Rokiah Hashim; Mazlan Ibrahim; Masatoshi Sato

    2012-01-01

    Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to revie...

  10. Soil microbial properties in Eucalyptus grandis plantations of different ages

    C.T, Cortez; L.A.P.L, Nunes; L.B, Rodrigues; N, Eisenhauer; A.S.F, Arajo.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are increasingly used in Brazil to produce wood and energy, although the long-term consequences for ecosystem processes have rarely been evaluated. We investigated the soil microbial properties (soil microbial C, N, respiration, carbon use efficiency, and microbial C-to-N rati [...] o) among Eucalyptus grandis plantations of differing ages (1 to 4 years) in Northeast Brazil. An adjacent native forest was used as a reference. In general, soil microbial properties decreased in initial years of land-use change, but recovered to conditions comparable to an adjacent native forest after four years in the rainy season, but not in the dry season. The varying effects of Eucalyptus plantations and native forests between seasons may reflect differences in soil microbial communities with different responses to environmental conditions. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring and microbial community analysis in order to adequately assess and understand the impacts of exotic forest plantations on soil microbial properties.

  11. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  12. Structural and productive-developmental characteristics of white willow plantations of different density on humogley in Donji Srem

    Andrašev Siniša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in two plantations of white willow (Salix alba L. in Donji Srem on the humogley soil type (hydromorphic black soil, which belongs to a narrow-leaved ash forest with remote sedge (Carici remotae - Fraxinetum angustifoliae Jov. et Tom., 1979. The plantations are located in the same depression. The SP (sample plot-1 plantation is 21 years old with a 6×6 m planting spacing, and the SP-2 plantation is 27 years old with a 3×3m planting spacing. Elements of stem growth in the SP-1 plantation showed that with the white willow planting spacing of 6×6 m and a planned 25-year production cycle it is possible to obtain about 250 m3•ha-1 of timber volume, with an 80% net share of technical wood and a 20 % share of pulp wood. The plantation in SP-2 is at the age, which is well above the optimum age in terms of rational management, and the total volume at the age of 27 years is about 300 m3•ha-1, with a 53.7% net share of technical wood and a 46.3% share of pulpwood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

  13. Out of the woods.

    Jacobson, J L

    1992-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity. PMID:12285836

  14. CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.)

    Hamid Reza Naji,; Mohd Hamami Sahri; Tadashi Nobuchi,; Edi Suhaimi Bakar

    2011-01-01

    Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and plantin...

  15. Intercrops under coconut plantations

    The successes of growing intercrops under coconut plantations are controlled by environmental factors which are influenced by the coconut growth and characters, interception of solar radiation, as well as the coconut space and system of planting. Assuming that soil fertility be able to be manipulated by certain treatments, then climatic factors become priority to be considered for selection of intercrops. Coconut palms grow well on areas of 500 m asl., 27-32 deg. C temperature, and 1,500-3,000 mm in annual rainfall with even distribution throughout the year. Each kind (tall, dwarf, hybrid) of coconut performs specific growth characters, mainly on its root system and canopy coverage, as well as general conditions due to its growth phase (young, productive, senile). Above such conditions greatly influence the kind of crops suitable for development under coconut trees. However space and system of coconut planting give various conditions of interception solar radiation to ground surface, which means by manipulating both space and system, environmental requirement is able to be achieved accordingly

  16. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  17. Eucalyptus plantations for electricity generation: the cost of carbon dioxide abatement in Thailand

    Wathanyu Amatayakul; Azar, C. [Chalmers University of Technology and Goteborg University, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory

    2003-07-01

    Short-rotation plantations are expected to play an important role in the transition towards renewable energy, in particular in many developing countries. At present, developing countries do not have any carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) abatement targets under the Kyoto Protocol, but CO{sub 2} mitigating projects might nevertheless he carried out through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The purpose of this paper is to analyse (i) the economics of eucalyptus production in the cast and northeast of Thailand and (ii) the cost of substituting eucalyptus wood for fossil fuels for electricity production. The productivity of eucalyptus plantations is estimated at 7-11 dry ton/hectare(ha)/year over a rotation period of 3 to 5 years. The levelized cost of eucalyptus wood delivered to the factory gate is estimated at 13-18 USD/fresh ton (1.2-1.7 USDIGJ). If eucalyptus wood is used for electricity generation, the cost of electricity generation would be 6.2 US cents/kWh, and consequently the cost of substituting a wood-fired plant for a coal-fired plant and a gas-fired plant would be 107 and 196 USD/ton-C, respectively. The extent to which eucalyptus plantations could offer economically attractive options for electricity generation and CO{sub 2} abatement depends, among other things, on the cost of reducing CO{sub 2} missions in the Annex 1 countries and CO{sub 2} mitigation options in developing countries. In addition, it depends on the economics of eucalyptus production as seen by farmers. There are also several other factors that affect an increased establishment of eucalyptus plantations in Thailand. The potential land-use change impact as well as the social and environmental impact associated with establishing mono-culture eucalyptus plantations as a CO{sub 2} abatement strategy are, however, not analysed in this paper and should he further investigated. (author)

  18. Energy budgets in slash pine (Pinus elliottii) plantations at Dehra Dun

    Kaul, O.N.; Srivastava, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Sample trees were felled in 1978 in 10-, 20- and 40-year-old plantations and dry weight determined for wood, slash and roots. Litter was collected every month for one year. Solar radiation was measured in an adjacent open area. Calculations indicated that the plantations fixed 17.5 x 10/sup 8/ Kcal/ha in 10 year, 24.9 x 10/sup 8/ in 20 year and 57.5 x 10/sup 8/ in 40 year representing 3.3, 2.3 and 2.7% of photosynthetically active radiation respectively.

  19. Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L

    Caridad Carballo Guerra

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal.This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sodium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

  20. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  1. THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN.) WOOD

    O Unsal; S Korkut; C Atik

    2003-01-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and co...

  2. Genetic Improvement of White Spruce Mechanical Wood Traits—Early Screening by Means of Acoustic Velocity

    Jean Beaulieu; John Mackay; Alexis Achim; David Auty; Patrick Lenz

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest to use acoustic sensors for selection in tree breeding to ensure high wood quality of future plantations. In this study, we assessed acoustic velocity as a selection trait for the improvement of mechanical wood properties in two 15- and 32-year-old white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench.] Voss) genetic tests. Individual heritability of acoustic velocity was moderate and of the same magnitude as heritability of wood density. Considerable genetic gain could be expected f...

  3. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata solvent extracts against Lymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech

    Wondu Dagnaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of M. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of M. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica. Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 1.06 min and death time of (65.00 2.00 min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/ mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 1.73 and (56.00 1.56 min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions: The present study revealed that M. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  4. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  5. Cleaning of drainage water from agricultural land using a willow plantation

    Johansson, U. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Toennersjoeheden Experimental Forest, Simlaangsdalen (Sweden); Elowson, S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    A field experiment using a willow plantation as a vegetation filter for cleaning of drainage water from agricultural land was established on a sandy soil in southwestern Sweden. Large amounts of nitrogen rich drainage water were collected in a pond, pumped into the willow plantation and distributed by flooding in shallow furrows. Measurements of the nitrogen content in the green willow leaves and in the percolating groundwater showed that large amounts of nitrogen supplied with the irrigation water were taken up effectively by the willow root system. The stem biomass production rates were high. The experiment showed that an irrigated willow plantation can act as a vegetation filter for cleaning of nitrogen in polluted drainage water and at the same time produce wood biomass for energy purposes. (au)

  6. Wooded areas

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009.

  7. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  8. Evaluation of Artvin-Murgul black locust plantations in terms of biomass production, carbon storage, soil quality improvement and erosion control compared to adjacent grassland areas

    Tüfekçioğlu, Aydın; Güner, Sinan; KÜÇÜK, Mehmet; Tüfekçioğlu, Mustafa; DUMAN, Ahmet; Dinç, Musa

    2012-01-01

    Black locust plantations in Artvin-Murgul (established in 1996) were investigated for the purposes of: 1) wood production, 2) above- and belowground biomass, 3) carbon storage, 4) soil quality improvement, 5) erosion control and economic value. For these purposes, soil samples were taken from black locust plantation sites and adjacent grassland (control) sites, and soil respiration, soil infiltration, surface runoff, sediment removal, water holding capacity, soil organic matter, texture, pH,...

  9. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut growth and especially on radial increment, a very important matter being common walnut the target species with a very appreciated and valuable wood.

  10. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  11. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  12. Climate benefits from alternative energy uses of biomass plantations in Uganda

    The establishment of tree plantations in rural areas in Uganda could provide renewable energy to rural communities, while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from conventional electricity sources and unsustainable forest use. The study evaluates the greenhouse gas benefits that could be produced by biomass based energy systems in Anaka, a rural settlement in the Amuru district in northern Uganda. Two alternative energy uses are explored: a) electricity production through wood gasification and b) traditional fuelwood use. It is estimated that a small-scale wood gasifier could provide electricity for basic community services by planting less than 10 ha of new short rotation coppices (SRCs). The gasification system could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by traditional diesel based electricity generators in terms of CO2-eq. (0.61–0.83 t MWh−1 or 7.1 t y−1 per hectare of SRCs). It was also estimated that traditional use of fuelwood in households is currently unsustainable, i.e. the consumption of wood is higher than the annual growth from natural wood resources in the study area. It is estimated that 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could render the current consumption of wood sustainable. In this way, the CO2 emissions produced through unsustainable extraction of wood could be avoided (2.0–7.3 t per capita per year or 50–130 t y−1 per hectare of SRCs). -- Highlights: ► We assessed the GHG benefits of short rotation coppices for bioenergy in Uganda. ► The GHG benefits of two energy uses are explored: gasification and fuelwood use. ► The gasifier could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by diesel generators. ► 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could avoid unsustainable fuelwood use. ► Fuelwood production is more efficient in terms of GHG savings per hectare

  13. The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations

    In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

  14. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  15. Rapid quantification of 14 saponins of Maesa lanceolata by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Foubert, K; Cuyckens, F; Vleeschouwer, K; Theunis, M; Vlietinck, A; Pieters, L; Apers, S

    2010-06-15

    Saponins are high molecular weight glycosides which are known for their broad range of biological activities. In case of Maesa lanceolata, a tree growing in African countries, the maesasaponins showed virucidal, haemolytic, molluscicidal and anti-angiogenic activity. Since the different activities are dependent on the structure of the saponins, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of the individual saponins in this plant. Since the saponins were only present in small amounts, it was necessary to develop a very sensitive analytical method. For the fast and sensitive analysis of the extracted and purified plant samples ultra-performance liquid chromatography was coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for MS/MS detection. A method in positive ESI mode, using sodium acetate in the mobile phase, was developed. The sodium adduct ion was selected as the precursor ion since it provided better sensitivity and a better, more stable fragmentation compared to the deprotonated and protonated ions. The intensity of the signal obtained by fragmentation of the sodium adducts of the saponins, was optimized by the addition of different concentrations of sodium acetate to the mobile phase. Reference standards were not available for all 14 saponins. Therefore, a relative MS/UV response was calculated allowing the estimation of the saponins in real samples. alpha-Hederin was used as external standard. The method was linear over the investigated concentration range with a good correlation coefficient (>0.99). The intra- and inter-day precisions were below 15% for most maesasaponins with the exception of maesasaponin II, which showed a precision within 20%. The recoveries of the spiked pure compounds maesasaponin IV.1 and VII.1 were 96.6% and 85.5%, respectively. The validated method can be applied in the investigation of the content of 14 saponins in transgenic and non-transgenic plant material of M. lanceolata. PMID:20441893

  16. Differential performance of a specialist and two generalist herbivores and their parasitoids on Plantago lanceolata.

    Reudler, Joanneke H; Biere, Arjen; Harvey, Jeff A; van Nouhuys, Saskya

    2011-07-01

    The ability to cope with plant defense chemicals differs between specialist and generalist species. In this study, we examined the effects of the concentration of the two main iridoid glycosides (IGs) in Plantago lanceolata, aucubin and catalpol, on the performance of a specialist and two generalist herbivores and their respective endoparasitoids. Development of the specialist herbivore Melitaea cinxia was unaffected by the total leaf IG concentration in its host plant. By contrast, the generalist herbivores Spodoptera exigua and Chrysodeixis chalcites showed delayed larval and pupal development on plant genotypes with high leaf IG concentrations, respectively. This result is in line with the idea that specialist herbivores are better adapted to allelochemicals in host plants on which they are specialized. Melitaea cinxia experienced less post-diapause larval and pupal mortality on its local Finnish P. lanceolata than on Dutch genotypes. This could not be explained by differences in IG profiles, suggesting that M. cinxia has adapted in response to attributes of its local host plants other than to IG chemistry. Development of the specialist parasitoid Cotesia melitaearum was unaffected by IG variation in the diet of its host M. cinxia, a response that was concordant with that of its host. By contrast, the development time responses of the generalist parasitoids Hyposoter didymator and Cotesia marginiventris differed from those of their generalist hosts, S. exigua and C. chalcites. While their hosts developed slowly on high-IG genotypes, development time of H. didymator was unaffected. Cotesia marginiventris actually developed faster on hosts fed high-IG genotypes, although they then had short adult longevity. The faster development of C. marginiventris on hosts that ate high-IG genotypes is in line with the "immunocompromized host" hypothesis, emphasizing the potential negative effects of toxic allelochemicals on the host's immune response. PMID:21691810

  17. An intensive plantation of poplars

    Maussion, J. de

    1993-12-31

    A french land owner and forester planted 3.6 ha of short rotation coppice on a meadow with the technical support of Cellulose Forest Association (AFOCEL). The crop of poplars can either be sold to trituration industries or used as energy source for the heating. Moreover, an intensive plantation of poplars can solve the problem of set-aside lands fixed by the PAC (European Agricultural Policy). (TEC). 2 figs.

  18. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese dos frutos e sementes de Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae = Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruits and seeds of Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae

    Juliana Marzinek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clusia lanceolata Cambess é espécie arbustiva da Mata Atlântica. Caracteriza-se por ser dioica, com flores estaminadas e pistiladas grandes, vistosas, de coloração rosa, apresentando a parte interna vinácea. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie, visando classificar corretamente o seu tipo de fruto e, também, confirmar a origem do apêndice carnoso que envolve as sementes. O material botânico utilizado constou de flores em antese e frutos, em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento, coletados de dois espécimes. Os estudos morfológicos e anatômicos foram realizados segundo técnicas usuais. O fruto é cápsula septífraga, esférica, de coloração verde-avermelhado. O exocarpo é unisseriado; o mesocarpo parenquimático contém numerosos ductos secretores e feixes vasculares, de disposição principalmente longitudinal. O endocarpo é derivado da epiderme interna do ovário e de três a quatro camadas subepidérmicas, cujas células alongam-se tangencialmente e a parede que delimita o lóculo sofre lignificação. A abertura se faz pela sutura carpelar, por meio de uma faixa de células parenquimáticas de tamanho reduzido, que se bifurca em direção aos lóculos no meio dos septos. Os óvulos anátropos bitegumentados, com endotélio e hipóstase, originam sementes também anátropas, exotégmicas e envolvidas por arilo de origem funicular e exostomal. O embrião é hipocotilar.Clusia lanceolata Cambess. is a shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. The plant is dioecious, with large, showy, pink staminate and pistillate flowers that are wine-colored internally. The morphological and structural aspects of the fruits and seeds of this species are described here in order to correctly classify the fruit type and to determine the origin of the fleshy appendage that surrounds the seeds. The botanical material utilized here contained flowers in anthesis and fruits in four stages of development, and were collected from two different plants. The morphological and anatomical studies were performed according to traditional techniques. The fruit is a septifrage, spherical capsule with a reddish-green coloration. The exocarp is uniseriate; the parenchymatous mesocarp contains numerous secretory ducts and vascular bundles arranged in predominantly longitudinal positions. The endocarp is derived from the internal epidermis of the ovary and has from three to four subepidermal layers whose component cells are tangentially elongated, and the cell walls lining the locule become lignified. The fruits open by means of the carpelar suture, along a stand of small parenchymous cells that bifurcate in the direction of the locules, in the midst of the septum. The anatropous bitegumentedovules, with an endothelium and hypostase, give rise to seeds that are likewise anatropous, exotegmic, and wrapped in an aril that has a funicular and exostomal origin. The embryo is hypocotylar.

  19. THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD

    Othman Sulaiman,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to review the current status of oil palm biomass, including the availability of this tree, in order to illustrate the potential of oil palm biomass as an alternative source for compressed wood. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of compressed wood from oil palm trunk. This paper will cover the background of compressed wood and the possibilities of producing compressed wood using oil palm trunk as a raw material.

  20. Decomposition dynamic of fine roots in a mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Tsoongiodendron odorum in mid-subtropics

    Yang, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Guang-Shui; Guo, Jian-Fen; Lin, Peng

    2004-01-01

    Dynamique de la décomposition des radicelles dans une forêt mélangée de Cunninghamia lanceolata et Tsoongiodendron odorum en zone subtropicale. On a étudié la décomposition de radicelles de diamètre inférieur à 2 mm (< 0,5 mm; 0,5 à 1,0 mm; 1,0 à 2,0 mm) en utilisant des sacs enterrés dans la litière, dans une forêt mélangée de sapin de Chine (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) et d'arbres de Tsoong (Tsoongiodendron odorum Chun) située à Sanming, Fujian, Chine. Au cours des 540 jours d'obs...

  1. Distribution of metabolites in galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata and its antioxidant activity

    Rafaela O., Ferreira; Almir R. de, Carvalho Junior; Telma M.G. da, Silva; Rosane N., Castro; Tania M.S. da, Silva; Mrio G. de, Carvalho.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata Cambess., Clusiaceae, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The chemical composition of both oils was similar, with a predominance of sesquiterpene caryophyllenes. The extracts from the leaves were evaluat [...] ed regarding total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. Galled leaves showed higher levels of phenolics and proanthocyanidins, since the content of flavonoids was higher in non-galled leaves. The chromatographic profiles of extracts were obtained by using HPLC/DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Electrospray ionisation (ESI) in positive and negative ion mode was used to identify four flavones C-glycosides in both extracts. The study constitutes a first report on the chemical research of C. lanceolata. The extract from galled leaves had a higher antioxidant activity.

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks

    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2 and 4 h (T4, were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7% and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4% were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata.

  3. Distribution of metabolites in galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata and its antioxidant activity

    Rafaela O. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata Cambess., Clusiaceae, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The chemical composition of both oils was similar, with a predominance of sesquiterpene caryophyllenes. The extracts from the leaves were evaluated regarding total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. Galled leaves showed higher levels of phenolics and proanthocyanidins, since the content of flavonoids was higher in non-galled leaves. The chromatographic profiles of extracts were obtained by using HPLC/DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Electrospray ionisation (ESI in positive and negative ion mode was used to identify four flavones C-glycosides in both extracts. The study constitutes a first report on the chemical research of C. lanceolata. The extract from galled leaves had a higher antioxidant activity.

  4. Effects of extreme weather events and legume presence on mycorrhization of Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus in the field.

    Walter, J; Kreyling, J; Singh, B K; Jentsch, A

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about direct and indirect effects of extreme weather events on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under field conditions. In a field experiment, we investigated the response of mycorrhization to drought and heavy rain in grassland communities. We quantified AMF biomass in soil, mycorrhization of roots of the grass Holcus lanatus and the forb Plantago lanceolata, as well as plant performance. Plants were grown in four-species communities with or without a legume. We hypothesised that drought increases and heavy rain decreases mycorrhization, and that higher mycorrhization will be linked to improved stress resistance and higher biomass production. Soil AMF biomass increased under both weather extremes. Heavy rain generally benefitted plants and increased arbuscules in P. lanceolata. Drought neither reduced plant performance nor root mycorrhization. Arbuscules increased in H. lanatus several weeks after drought, and in P. lanceolata several weeks after heavy rain spells. These long-lasting effects of weather events on mycorrhization highlight the indirect influence of climate on AMF via their host plant. Legume presence increased plant community biomass, but had only minor effects on mycorrhization. Arbuscule colonisation was negatively correlated with senescence during the dry summer. Mycorrhization and biomass production in P. lanceolata were positively related. However, increased mycorrhization was related to less biomass in the grass. AMF mycelium in soil might generally increase under extreme events, root colonisation, however, is host species specific. This might amplify community shifts in grassland under climate change by further increasing stress resistance of species that already benefit from changed precipitation. PMID:26284575

  5. Cytochrome c allergens isolated from the pollens of the dicotyledons English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and Paterson's curse (Echium plantagineum).

    Matthews, P A; Baldo, B A; Howden, M E

    1988-01-01

    Two cytochrome c allergens were isolated from extracts of the pollens of the dicotyledons English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and Paterson's Curse (Echium plantagineum) by ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration and preparative isoelectric focusing. They were characterized by their absorption spectra, mol. wt, pI and amino acid composition. The cytochromes c bound specific IgE in the sera of hypersensitive patients by RAST. Preliminary evidence for allergenic cross-reactivity between them was obtained by RAST inhibition. PMID:2830502

  6. Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors

    Pandey, D.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  7. Clusiamyia nitida gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi) associada com Clusia lanceolata Camb. (Clusiaceae) no Brasil Clusiamyia nítida gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi) associated with Clusia lanceolata Camb. (Clusiaceae) in Brazil

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidi (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described and illustrated (exuvia, male, female and gall). The species was found in association with Clusia lanceolata (Clusiaceae).

  8. Clusiamyia nitida gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associada com Clusia lanceolata Camb. (Clusiaceae no Brasil Clusiamyia nítida gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Clusia lanceolata Camb. (Clusiaceae in Brazil

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidi (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described and illustrated (exuvia, male, female and gall. The species was found in association with Clusia lanceolata (Clusiaceae.

  9. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  10. Phytochemicals and Antioxidative Properties of Borneo Indigenous Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa Fruits

    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two underutilized indigenous fruits of Borneo, Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa were investigated for their total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC, anthocyanin (TAC and carotenoid (TCC contents as well as antioxidant properties in vitro. The fruits were separated into three different parts (i.e., pericarp, flesh and seed and extracted using 80% methanol. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, ABTS decolorization and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The results showed that B. macrocarpa pericarp contained the highest amount of total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and total carotenoid with the values of 60.04 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g, 44.68 ± 0.67 mg CE/g, 1.23 ± 0.20 mg c-3-gE/100 g and 0.81 ± 0.14 mg BCE/g. Results from DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays also showed that the pericarp of B. macrocarpa displayed the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity of the extract was significantly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with the carotenoid contents. In conclusion, B. macrocarpa displayed high potential as natural source of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of Total Flavone of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Zhuo Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of total flavone of branches and leaves of Cunninghamia lanceolata (TFC to provide a scientific basis for its clinical use and resource development. TFC was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in mice or rats using chemical and thermal models of nociception, including acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate latency test, formalin test and carrageenan induced paw oedema test. Results showed that TFC given orally can significantly attenuate acetic acid-induced writhing in mice in a dose-dependent manner. In the hot plate latency test, TFC showed common activity in prolonging duration time only at the highest dose (400 mg/kg. Each dose of TFC could not significantly inhibit the first phase but was active in the later phase of formalin-induced pain, whereas morphine showed notable activity in the two phases. In the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model, TFC could significantly and dose-dependently reduce the carrageenan-induced paw edema at the third and fifth hour, and decrease the content of PEG2 in paw edema tissue and that of COX-2 in blood serum. It may be concluded that TFC showed both anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, showing that it can be of importance in drug development, especially in the field of pain and inflammation.

  12. Codonopsis lanceolata Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice

    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice.

  13. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  14. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels. PMID:26685670

  15. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  16. Conference: 'Heating with Wood'. An alternative to fossil fuels? Status and perspectives. Documentation; Tagung: 'Heizen mit Holz'. Eine Alternative zur fossilen Energie? Stand der Technik und neue Perspektiven. Dokumentation

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Main topics of the meeting ''Heating with wood'' were: resource assessment, economical aspects, logistics, cogeneration, district heating, plantation and harvesting of fast growing trees, new heating systems.(uke)

  17. Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood

    Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91. The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

  18. The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development

    Ivetić Vladan; Vilotić Dragica

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted) forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass), additio...

  19. Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f. plantations of Central America

    Fernández-Moya J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand of 150 teak trees ha-1 at age 19 would accumulate (kg ha-1 405 N, 661 Ca, 182 K, 111 Mg, 33 P, 53 S, 9 Fe, 0.47 Mn, 0.22 Cu, 0.92 Zn, 1 B; whereas the expected nutrient export by timber harvest (bole and bark is (kg ha-1 220 N, 281 Ca, 88 K, 63 Mg, 23 P, 39 S, 6 Fe, 0.13 Mn, 0.10 Cu, 0.21 Zn, 0.40 B. Hence, teak nutrition should pay special attention to N and K, together with Ca the nutrients most accumulated by teak. In addition, P and B could also be limiting planted teak forest productivity due to their general soil deficiencies. Proposed models estimate the amount of nutrients removed from the site during timber harvests, information that can be used by plantation managers to avoid soil nutrient depletion, approaching sustainability in forest plantation management.

  20. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration of carbon. The same is likely to be true for managed forests in other temperate regions. If wood from additional felling is used, it would be most effective to use it in products that stay in circulation for a long time, only to be used for energy at the end of its service life. An increase in wood demand may lead to an intensification of forest management, which may temporarily increase carbon sequestration rates and biomass yields. This would eventually reduce the payback times. However, it must be noted that it would still take a substantial amount of time for the intensification of forest management to become effective, especially when it includes drastic measures, such as converting natural forests into plantations. Short rotation plantations with fast growing trees on agricultural land may be another option, but in these cases there are similarities with the direct and indirect land-use change effects related to energy crops. Further analysis is required to enable a clear judgment on the impact of these options. Products are not the only place of storing carbon with a beneficial effect on climate change. The combination of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) on large industrial sites where biomass is converted into energy carriers, such as transport fuel and electricity, is projected to be beneficial, as well. Even landfill sites may serve as storage of carbon in wood waste, as pieces of wood hardly degrade.

  1. Learning in dedicated wood production systems: Past trends, future outlook and implications for bioenergy

    de Wit, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310873754; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Faaij, A. P C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the learning potential of dedicated wood production systems to boost yields and reduce production costs. In particular, the paper analyses past trends and provides a future outlook of developments in dedicated wood production for three cases: eucalyptus production in Brazil, poplar production in Italy and willow production in Sweden. A main objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which experience curves can be devised for conventional woody plantation systems,...

  2. Activated carbons from Uruguayan eucalyptus wood

    Tancredi, N.; Cordero, T.; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.; Rodriguez, J.J. [Universidad de Malaga, Malaga (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-12-01

    Most of the new wood plantations in Uruguay consist of eucalyptus, and the development of alternative uses is seen as important. Activated carbons were prepared from eucalyptus wood chars and the results of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} and steam activation were compared. The carbonization step gave rise to a narrow micropore structure and a highly developed microporosity which increased slightly upon CO{sub 2} activation and significantly upon steam activation. This last process led also to a widening of micropore size distribution and developed the mesoporosity more than CO{sub 2} activation did. The presence of O{sub 2} accompanying CO{sub 2} in the activating gas increased the micro- and microporosity of the carbons. No net destruction of microporosity was observed even at high burnoff levels and with as much as 5 vol.%O{sub 2} in the activating gas. 16 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  4. Importance of crown architecture for leaf area index of different Populus genotypes in a high-density plantation.

    Broeckx, L S; Verlinden, M S; Vangronsveld, J; Ceulemans, R

    2012-10-01

    Crown architecture is an important determinant of biomass production and yield of any bio-energy plantation since it determines leaf area display and hence light interception. Four Populus genotypes-of different species and hybrids and with contrasting productivity and leaf area-were examined in terms of their branch characteristics in relation to crown architecture during the first and second growing seasons after plantation establishment. The trees were planted at high density (8000 ha(-1)) on two different former land use types, cropland and pasture. We documented significant differences in branch architecture among the genotypes and for the first year among the former land use types. Land use effects only affected factors not related to canopy closure and wood production, and decreased after the first growing season. This suggested that both former land use types were equally suited for the establishment success of a poplar bio-energy plantation. Tree height and branch dimensions-branch diameter and branch length-were the most important determinants of wood production and maximum leaf area index. Despite the secondary importance of the number of sylleptic branches, these branches contributed significantly to the total leaf area in three out of the four studied genotypes. This indicated that enhanced syllepsis accelerates leaf area development and hence carbon assimilation, especially in the early stages of a high-density plantation with poplar. PMID:23022688

  5. Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike

    In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD7, 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha-1, respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

  6. ADVANCES IN THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF Cuphea aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata : EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    B.A. Cardenas-Sandoval; A.R. López-Laredo; B.P. MartÍnez-Bonfil; K. Bermúdez-Torres; G. Trejo-Tapia

    2012-01-01

    Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea lanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina tradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h), el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de variosórganos de C. aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata . Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH + y ABTS + ) y el de poder reductor del ...

  7. Programming plantation lines on driverless tractors

    Fabris, Antonio Elias; Nascimento, Marcelo Zanchetta do; Batista, Valrio Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in Agricultural Engineering include image processing, robotics and geographic information systems (GIS). Some tasks are still accomplished manually, like drawing plantation lines that optimize productivity. Herewith we present an algorithm to find the optimal plantation lines in linear time. The algorithm is based upon classical results of Geometry which enabled a source code with only 573 lines. We have implemented it in Matlab for sugar cane, and it can be easily adapted to ...

  8. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to water, moisture, temperature and fire, and maybe last but not least the recyclability due to the mixture of different materials like foams, plastics etc.

  9. THE VIBRATIONAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR WOOD DURING MOISTURE SORPTION PROCESS

    Jiali Jiang,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational properties of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata wood were investigated in this study as a function of changes in moisture content (MC and grain direction. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE and logarithmic decrement (δ were examined using a cantilever beam vibration testing apparatus. It was observed that DMOE and δ of wood varied widely during moisture adsorption and desorption. The DMOE of wood conditioned by the adsorption process showed significant increases during the later stages of conditioning when the MC scarcely changed. However, with the desorption process, the DMOE did not increase as much during the later stages of conditioning, though they increased during the early stages of conditioning when the MC greatly decreased. These results suggest that wood in an unstable state, caused via the existing state of moisture, shows different vibrational behaviors. Furthermore, the parallel to grain direction showed much higher DMOE and lower δ when compared to the perpendicular to grain direction. The variation of vibrational properties between parallel and perpendicular to grain direction under constant MC and during moisture adsorption process could be attributed due to the microscopic, macroscopic molecular, as well as chemical constituents of wood.

  10. Energy partitioning and surface resistance of a poplar plantation in northern China

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; Chen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been, on the one hand, broadly used in northern China for urban greening, combating desertification, as well as for paper and wood production. On the other hand, such plantations have been questioned occasionally for their possible negative impacts on water availability due to the higher water-use nature of poplar trees compared with other tree species in water-limited dryland regions. To further understand the acclimation of poplar species to semiarid environments and to evaluate the potential impacts of these plantations on the broader context of the region's water supply, we examine the variability of bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning in a poplar (Populus euramericana cv. "74/76") plantation located in northern China over a 4-year period, encompassing both dry and wet conditions. The partitioning of available energy to latent heat flux (LE) decreased from 0.62 to 0.53 under mediated meteorological drought by irrigation applications. A concomitant increase in sensible heat flux (H) resulted in the increase of a Bowen ratio from 0.83 to 1.57. Partial correlation analysis indicated that surface resistance (Rs) normalized by leaf area index (LAI; Rs:LAI) increased by 50 % under drought conditions and was the dominant factor controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the main factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (? = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively). Rs was also a major regulator of the LE / LEeq ratio, which decreased from 0.81 in wet years to 0.68 in dry years. All physiological and bioclimatological metrics indicated that the water demands of the poplar plantation were greater than the amount available through precipitation, highlighting the poor match of a water-intensive species like poplar for this water-limited region.

  11. Oil palm plantations fail to support mammal diversity.

    Yue, Sam; Brodie, Jedediah F; Zipkin, Elise F; Bernard, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural expansion is the largest threat to global biodiversity. In particular, the rapid spread of tree plantations is a primary driver of deforestation in hyperdiverse tropical regions. Plantations tend to support considerably lower biodiversity than native forest, but it remains unclear whether plantation traits affect their ability to sustain native wildlife populations, particularly for threatened taxa. If animal diversity varies across plantations with different characteristics, these traits could be manipulated to make plantations more "wildlife friendly." The degree to which plantations create edge effects that degrade habitat quality in adjacent forest also remains unclear, limiting our ability to predict wildlife persistence in mixed-use landscapes. We used systematic camera trapping to investigate mammal occurrence and diversity in oil palm plantations and adjacent forest in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Mammals within plantations were largely constrained to locations near native forest; the occurrence of most species and overall species richness declined abruptly with decreasing forest proximity from an estimated 14 species at the forest ecotone to -1 species 2 km into the plantation. Neither tree height nor canopy cover within plantations strongly affected mammal diversity or occurrence, suggesting that manipulating tree spacing or planting cycles might not make plantations more wildlife friendly. Plantations did not appear to generate strong edge effects; mammal richness within forest remained high and consistent up to the plantation ecotone. Our results suggest that land-sparing strategies, as opposed to efforts to make plantations more wildlife-friendly, are required for regional wildlife conservation in biodiverse tropical ecosystems. PMID:26910955

  12. Acute and subchronic (28 days) oral toxicity studies of Codonopsis lanceolata extract in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young-Hyun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Lee, Jin-Ha; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata is a perennial plant that has been used as a food and in traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, and inflammation in East Asia including Korea, Japan, and China. However, information regarding its toxicity is limited. Therefore, we performed a safety evaluation of aqueous C. lanceolata root extract (CLE) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Assessment of acute toxicity revealed that CLE did not influence mortality, clinical appearance, body weight gain, or necropsy findings at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. In the subchronic oral toxicity, data revealed that several significant alteration in food consumption, water consumption, protein excretion, WBCs levels, TGs, BUN levels, and the absolute and relative weights in the liver, spleen and lungs. However, these changes were transient and were not considered treatment related because they showed no apparent dose dependent. These results suggest that CLE (1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg body weight/day) administered orally does not cause acute or subchronic toxicity to male or female rats. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of CLE was determined to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. PMID:25724632

  13. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Cuphea lanceolata encoding a beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.

    Klein, B; Pawlowski, K; Höricke-Grandpierre, C; Schell, J; Töpfer, R

    1992-05-01

    A cDNA encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), an integral part of the fatty acid synthase type II, was cloned from Cuphea lanceolata. This cDNA of 1276 bp codes for a polypeptide of 320 amino acids with 63 N-terminal residues presumably representing a transit peptide and 257 residues corresponding to the mature protein of 27 kDa. The encoded protein shows strong homology with the amino-terminal sequence and two tryptic peptides from avocado mesocarp beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, and its total amino acid composition is highly similar to those of the beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductases of avocado and spinach. Amino acid sequence homologies to polyketide synthase, beta-ketoreductases and short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases are discussed. An engineered fusion protein lacking most of the transit peptide, which was produced in Escherichia coli, was isolated and proved to possess beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase activity. Hybridization studies revealed that in C. lanceolata beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase is encoded by a small family of at least two genes and that members of this family are expressed in roots, leaves, flowers and seeds. PMID:1376402

  14. Wood's Lamp Examination

    newsletter | contact Share | Wood's Lamp Examination A A A The Woods lamp examination is simply ultraviolet light used to show fluorescence, as in ... presence of bacteria causing erythrasma. Procedure Overview A Wood's lamp is a device that emits ultraviolet (UV) ...

  15. Comparison of Different Wood Species as Raw Materials for Bioenergy

    Bojana Klašnja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Most projections of the global energy use predict that biomass will be an important component of primary energy sources in the coming decades. Short rotation plantations have the potential to become an important source of renewable energy in Europe because of the high biomass yields, a good combustion quality as solid fuel, ecological advantages and comparatively low biomass production costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the wood of black locust Robinia pseudoacacia, white willow Salix alba L., poplars Populus deltoides and Populus x euramericana cl.I-214, aged eight years were examined. Immediately after the felling, sample discs were taken to assess moisture content, ash content, the width of growth rings, wood densities and calorific values, according to the standard methodology. Results:The mean values of willow, poplar and black locust wood density were 341 kg/m3, 336 kg/m3 and 602 kg/m3,respectively. The average heating values of willow poplar and black locust wood were 18.599 MJ/kg, 18.564 MJ/kg and 21.196 MJ/kg, respectively. The FVI index (average values was higher for black locust (17.186 than for poplar and willow clones, which were similar: 11.312 and 11.422 respectively. Conclusions: Black locust wood with a higher density, calorific value and ash content compared to poplar and willow wood proved to be a more suitable raw material as RES. However, it is very important, from the aspect of the application of wood of these tree species as RES, to also consider the influence of the biomass yield per unit area of the plantations established as “energy plantations”.

  16. Fuel plantation research. Progress report

    Stubbs, J.

    1977-08-01

    Research in chemical induction of lightwood is summarized. Four large-scale proof of concept studies have been installed that test five paraquat treatments on a total of 71,228 trees. This wood will be used in actual pulp mill and extraction plant runs to determine oleoresin recovery and possible processing problems. Nearly 3,000 wood samples have been collected to ascertain duration of treatment effects. Results of complementary studies are also reported; most of these are concerned with optimization of paraquat application techniques and the effect of species differences on these methods. A large study was installed to field screen selected insecticides for insect pest control in lightwood operations, and interim results are presented. Dowco 214 (Reldon) proved to be an adequate substitute for BHC and 0.5% concentrations were as effective as 1%. Ten northern and seven western conifer species were tested for their reaction to paraquat treatment. All members of genus Pinus showed appreciable resin soaking but other coniferous genera did not. Feasibility of oleoresin substitution for petrochemicals was investigated.

  17. Evaluation of Mycosphaerella impact on eucalypts plantations in Portugal

    Márcia Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD is one of the most important diseases of eucalypts plantations worldwide. However, only recently it has become relevant in Portugal. Caused by a complex of Mycosphaerella species, this disease reduces the photosynthetic area and can cause tree defoliation. In extreme cases it causes reduction in the volume of wood produced. In order to relate the observed symptoms of MLD with the presence of the pathogen and at the same time obtaining an evaluation of eucalypt clones and family susceptibility, two experimental plantations were established in places where the disease has been detected. Data on the percentage of affected crown (necrosis or defoliation were collected and some of the Mycosphaerella species present were identified (M. africana, M. communis, M. grandis, M. lateralis, M. marksii, M. nubilosa, M. parva, M. vespa and M. walkeri.A doença das manchas das folhas do eucalipto é uma das mais importantes nas plantações de eucalipto, tendo-se só recentemente tornado relevante em Portugal. Esta doença, causada por um complexo de espécies de Mycosphaerella, reduz a área fotossintética da árvore, podendo causar desfolha, com consequente redução da taxa de crescimento e do volume de madeira produzido. Com o objectivo de relacionar os sintomas observados com a presença do agente patogénico e avaliar a susceptibilidade de clones e famílias de eucalipto, foram estabelecidas duas plantações experimentais em locais onde foi detectada a doença. Foram recolhidos dados relativos à percentagem de área da copa afectada (por necroses ou desfolha e identificadas as espécies de Mycosphaerella associadas (M. africana, M. communis, M. grandis, M. lateralis, M. marksii, M. nubilosa, M. parva, M. vespa e M. walkeri.

  18. Private valuation of carbon sequestration in forest plantations

    Guitart, A. Bussoni [Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica. Avda. E. Garzon, 780, CP 12.900, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, L.C. Estraviz [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' , Universidad de Sao, Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Approval of the Clean Development Mechanism, provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, enables countries with afforested land to trade in carbon emissions reduction certificates related to carbon dioxide equivalent quantities (CO{sub 2-e}) stored within a certain forest area. Potential CO{sub 2-e} above base line sequestration was determined for two forest sites on commercial eucalyptus plantations in northern Brazil (Bahia). Compensation values for silvicultural regimes involving rotation lengths greater than economically optimal were computed using the Faustmann formula. Mean values obtained were US$8.16 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} and US$7.19 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} for average and high site indexes, respectively. Results show that carbon supply is more cost-efficient in highly productive sites. Annuities of US$18.8 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and US$35.1 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and yearly payments of US$4.4 m{sup -} {sup 3} and US$8.2 m{sup -} {sup 3} due for each marginal cubic meter produced were computed for high and average sites, respectively. The estimated value of the tonne of carbon defines minimum values to be paid to forest owners, in order to induce a change in silvicultural management regimes. A reduction of carbon supply could be expected as a result of an increase in wood prices, although it would not respond in a regular manner. For both sites, price elasticity of supply was found to be inelastic and increased as rotation length moved further away from economically optimal: 0.24 and 0.27 for age 11 years in average- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This would be due to biomass production potential as a limiting factor; beyond a certain threshold value, an increase in price does not sustain a proportional change in carbon storage supply. The environmental service valuation model proposed might be adequate for assessing potential supply in plantation forestry, from a private landowner perspective, with an economic opportunity cost. The model is not applicable to low commercial value forest plantations. (author)

  19. [Causal factors of decline disease in exotic pine (Pinus taeda and P. elliottii) plantations].

    Shu, Q; Yang, G; Zou, Y; Tang, J; Huang, C

    2001-06-01

    Investigation on the cause of the decline of exotic pine plantations in Anhui Province was carried out from 1995 to 2000. The results showed that the cause might develop from the interaction of three or more sets of factors. The first group of factors called as predisposing factors were high and low temperature and rainfall, poor soil fertility, and excessive soil bulk density, soil moisture, and of stand density; the second group of factors called as inciting factors were insect defoliators, damaging diseases of needles, late spring frost, severe drought, and excessive resin-tapping, and the third group of factors called as contributing factors were several biotic agents such as shoot blight infected by Sphaeropsis sapinea, decay wood and root rot by fungi, and bark beetles and wood borers. PMID:11758405

  20. Hemipteran diversity in Endau-Rompin plantation

    Bakri, Asraf; Rahim, Faszly

    2015-09-01

    Study on hemipteran at Endau Rompin Plantation (LER), Pahang was conducted at oil palm plantation planted at different type of soils. The aim of the study was to determine hemipteran diversity in oil palm ecosystem. Sampling was done from April 2012 to September 2012 by using Malaise and impact traps. Cicadellidae was the most abundance and dominance family with 105 individuals and 6 species (=morphospecies) recorded. The rarefaction curve becomes flatter to the right indicating a reasonable number of individual samples have been taken. Peat area show high Shannon index and Margalef index values compared to clay area.There were significant differences in hemipteran community between three type of soils (χ2=98.751,df=58,poil palm plantation is affected by the type of soil.

  1. Optimization of Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Juliza Hidayati; Sukardi Sukardi; Ani Suryani; Anas Miftah Fauzi; Sugiharto Sugiharto

    2015-01-01

    The idea of making North Sumatera  as a barometer of national oil palm industry require efforts commodities and agro-industry development of oil palm. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financed plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement ob...

  2. Labour issues in Indonesian plantations, from indenture to enterpreneurship

    BARRAL, Stphanie

    2014-01-01

    This article documents the labor issues in Indonesian plantations focusing on how changes in agrarian capitalism and state regulation have affected plantation workers. Plantation-based capitalism in Indonesia dates back to the 1860s, when European and American companies opened up the province of North Sumatra, mainly in order to produce tobacco, rubber and palm oil. This system continued long into the post-colonial period, alongside an expansion of the plantation system elsewhere from the 196...

  3. Applications in wood plastics

    Today the radiation production of wood plastic composites or wood acrylic composites is a very viable and commercial industry. The goal of this paper is to briefly review the current status of wood acrylics in the United States. The first step will be a description of wood acrylics. That is, what are the physical and chemical properties of wood acrylics that make them of interest to the scientist and even more important, to the consumer. Next, highlights of the production process will be described, followed by a discussion of current wood acrylic applications and the basis for these applications. Finally, potential areas for future expansion will be summarized. (author)

  4. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations

    Patrcia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto; Antonio Carlos da Gama-Rodrigues; Emanuela Forestieri da Gama-Rodrigues; Nairam Flix de Barros

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N) pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years). Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: M...

  5. Assessment of the effect of quality factors on the assortment structure in poplar plantations

    Danilovi? Milorad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality factors affecting the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations were researched on nine temporary sample plots in the period 1997-2004, from the aspect of the implementation of roundwood standards. Sample plots were selected depending on the factors, the effect of which was studied. The following factors were researched: clonal species, planting pattern, flood risk, pruning of branches, plantation position and age. The study was performed by the original methodology. Based on the study results, it is concluded that knots have the highest effect on the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations, regardless of the site and stand conditions. Their effect rises significantly with the increase of tree diameter. Also, the analyses show that the number of large and rotten knots on the tree trunk increases considerably with the older age. In the flooded area, the sweep of the lower part of the stem is more intensive and multiple curvatures are frequent on the trees growing immediately along the river, whereas curvature decreases with the distance from the river bank. Based on the study results, it is concluded that the percentage of best quality assortments is considerably reduced by the above wood defects.

  6. Nutritional, carbon and energy evaluation of Eucalyptus nitens short rotation bioenergy plantations in northwestern Spain

    González-García M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study provides essential information related to the nutrient and carbon levels and the energy potential of Eucalytpus nitens (Deane & Maiden Maiden bionenergy plantations located in northwestern Spain. Nutritional analysis showed that leaves and bark had the highest concentrations of N, P, K and Mg. Carbon concentration was constant for all above-ground tree components. Nutrients and carbon were analyzed at stand level according to plantation productivity. Stemwood, the main tree component at the end of the rotation, had the highest nutrient content, except for N and Ca, which were highest in leaves and bark respectively. Based on this study, the nutrient content per ha of above-ground biomass was 243-706 kg N, 44-122 kg P, 131-375 kg K, 121-329 kg Ca and 25-67 kg Mg at the end of the bioenergy rotation (6-12 years, depending on site quality and 19-56 Mg C ha-1. Energy analysis showed a fairly constant Net Calorific Value for wood, 18.32 ± 0.19 MJ kg-1. The results obtained are valuable for selecting the most appropriate forest management system in these bioenergy plantations, and thereby promote the sustainable use of woody crops.

  7. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

    In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha-'1) and 86 % higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  8. Water use, water limitation, and water use efficiency in a Eucalyptus plantation Utilización del agua, limitación hídrica y eficiencia del uso del agua en una plantación de Eucalyptus

    JOSE LUIZ STAPE; DAN BINKLEY; Ryan, Michael G.; ANTONIO DO NASCIMENTO GOMES

    2004-01-01

    Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production worldwide, but the ecophysiology of resource limitation on growth remains poorly quantified. We investigated the production ecology of a 3.4- to 5.4- year-old plantation of clonal Eucalypus grandis x urophylla in northeastern Brazil on a sandy Oxisol during two years (one wet, and one with normal rainfall). We measured wood production and estimated water use (transpired water) in control and irrigated treatments. W...

  9. Physiological and morphological variation in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in two populations of Plantago lanceolata

    Klus, D.J.; Kalisz, S.; Tonsor, S.J. (Michigan State Univ., Hickory Corners (United States))

    1993-06-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Duke University Phytotron to determine the nature and extent of genetic variation in response to elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide in 44 families from two populations of Plantago lanceolata. 10 seedlings from each maternal family were divided equally between ambient and elevated greenhouses and were grown for 60 days. At the end of that period measurements of assimilation and transpiration were made, the plants were harvested and seven morphological traits were measured. Analysis of the data reveals that genetic variation in response to elevated carbon dioxide exists at the family level for assimilation, and at the population level for three of the morphological traits: number of vegetative shoots per plant, diameter of the vegetative shoots, and number of leaves per shoot. Thus, the potential for elevated carbon dioxide to act as an agent of natural selection exists within this plant species.

  10. Genetic Differentiation and Phenotypic Plasticity I. Responses in Three Plantago lanceolata L. Populations upon Changes in Mineral Supply

    Ibtisam Hammad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three populations of Plantago lanceolata L. were analyzed for genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity. Eight randomly taken samples of each population were grown at two nutrient levels and subjected to alterations in mineral supply. Growth and root respiration was followed during the experiment. With respect to all measured characteristic genetic differentiation on population level was demonstrated. Overall phenotypic plasticity of the measured characteristics and differences in estimated genetic variation were present. High relative growth rate was correlated with high root respiration. High relative growth rate was correlated with high root respiration and high Ca2+ - Mg2+ - stimulated ATPase activity in roots. Ecological significance of the results and correlation with habitat properties are discussed.

  11. Rapid discrimination of cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata in different ages by FT-IR and 2DCOS-IR

    Zhu, Yun; Xu, Chang-hua; Huang, Jian; Li, Guo-yu; Liu, Xin-Hu; Sun, Su-qin; Wang, Jin-hui

    2014-07-01

    Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata) root, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to treat lung ailments, rheumatism, menstrual disturbance and bruises with a long history in China and some other Asian countries. In this study, four types of Deodeok with different growth years were discriminated and identified by a Tri-step infrared spectroscopy method (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (conventional FT-IR) coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2DCOS-IR) under thermal perturbation. Although only small differences were found in the FT-IR spectra of the samples, the positions and intensities of peaks around 1736, 1634, 1246, 1055, 1033, 818, 779 cm-1 could be considered as the key factors for discriminating them. The differences among them were amplified by their SD-IR spectra. The 2DCOS-IR spectra provided obvious dynamic chemical structure information of Deodeok samples, which present different particular auto peak clusters in the range of 875-1130 cm-1 and 1170-1630 cm-1, respectively. It was demonstrated that the content of triterpene were decreasing when C. lanceolata were growing older, but the relative content of saccharides initially increased and decreased significantly afterwards. It indicated a general trend that the content of polysaccharides accumulated with increasing years. Specifically, the content of polysaccharides accumulated in the root of 2-year-old plant was the lowest, 4-years-old was the highest, and then the content decreased gradually. Furthermore, according to the differences of locations and intensities of auto-peaks in 2D-IR spectra, the integral changes of components were revealed. This study offers a promising method inherent with cost-effective and time-saving to characterize and discriminate the complicated system like Deodeok.

  12. Potential greenhouse gas benefits of transatlantic wood pellet trade

    Power utility companies in the United Kingdom are using imported wood pellets from the southern region of the United States for electricity generation to meet the legally binding mandate of sourcing 15% of the nation’s total energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. This study ascertains relative savings in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a unit of electricity generated using imported wood pellet in the United Kingdom under 930 different scenarios: three woody feedstocks (logging residues, pulpwood, and logging residues and pulpwood combined), two forest management choices (intensive and non-intensive), 31 plantation rotation ages (year 10 to year 40 in steps of 1 year), and five power plant capacities (20–100 MW in steps of 20 MW). Relative savings in GHG emissions with respect to a unit of electricity derived from fossil fuels in the United Kingdom range between 50% and 68% depending upon the capacity of power plant and rotation age. Relative savings in GHG emissions increase with higher power plant capacity. GHG emissions related to wood pellet production and transatlantic shipment of wood pellets typically contribute about 48% and 31% of total GHG emissions, respectively. Overall, use of imported wood pellets for electricity generation could help in reducing the United Kingdom’s GHG emissions. We suggest that future research be directed to evaluation of the impacts of additional forest management practices, changing climate, and soil carbon on the overall savings in GHG emissions related to transatlantic wood pellet trade. (paper)

  13. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  14. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal or bacterial ... an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally the ...

  15. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Topics About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Areas of ... and apply For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation supports research and programs throughout the ...

  16. Wood-plastic combination

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  17. Ritual Kinship in a Dominican Republic Plantation.

    Alum, Rolando A., II

    This paper presents an anthropological description of "compadrazgo" (cogodparenthood) as a sociocultural institution in a state owned sugar cane plantation in the southeastern part of the Dominican Republic. The enthnohistory of the compadrazgo cultural complex is outlined and the institution's roots in ancient Europe before its establishment in

  18. What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?; FINAL

    In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that although stand density may have a significant impact on boundary layer conductance in young stands, it does not account for the ''density effect''. Our tests of the light quality hypothesis were slowed due to poor plantation establishment in the early phase of this study. In a variable density experiment we detected significant changes in R:FR related to density. Also in that study we measured a significant enhancement of tree height at high density. However, after three years of growth, the study trees did not show significant differences in stem diameter related to density. Experimenters at Weyerhaeuser therefore decided not to harvest the trees at the end of the 3rd growth year, as originally planned. In a 1-year study of seedlings planted in raised beds subjected to different light quality treatments using transparent plastic film, we found that tree height but not diameter increased in response to decreased R:FR. At this point, we conclude that R:FR remains a viable hypothesis for the ''density effect'', but evidence is not conclusive. We expect that continued measurements in the variable density test plot at Weyerhaeuser will add more evidence in the future

  19. What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?

    Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie

    2002-07-21

    In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that although stand density may have a significant impact on boundary layer conductance in young stands, it does not account for the ''density effect''. Our tests of the light quality hypothesis were slowed due to poor plantation establishment in the early phase of this study. In a variable density experiment we detected significant changes in R:FR related to density. Also in that study we measured a significant enhancement of tree height at high density. However, after three years of growth, the study trees did not show significant differences in stem diameter related to density. Experimenters at Weyerhaeuser therefore decided not to harvest the trees at the end of the 3rd growth year, as originally planned. In a 1-year study of seedlings planted in raised beds subjected to different light quality treatments using transparent plastic film, we found that tree height but not diameter increased in response to decreased R:FR. At this point, we conclude that R:FR remains a viable hypothesis for the ''density effect'', but evidence is not conclusive. We expect that continued measurements in the variable density test plot at Weyerhaeuser will add more evidence in the future.

  20. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran

    FATEMEH GHEIBI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gheibi F, Akbarinia M, Kooch Y. 2015. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Biodiversitas 16: 10-15. Forest plantation is a common action in order to restore the degraded forests in Hyrcanian forests of Iran. This study compares the plant biodiversity in four 25-year-old stands of plantation, adjacent understory of alder (Alnus subcordata C. A. Mey., maple (Acer insigne Boiss., sequoia or red wood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don Endl. and mixed stand (maple and sequoia, located in Salmanshahr of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Research carried out in, 10 sample plots with 20m × 20m area which taken by systematic-random in each plantation. All understory species were identified, recorded and then the biodiversity indices (diversity, richness and evenness were calculated. Our findings show that the planted species had significant effects on understory diversity. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest and lowest diversity (Simpson and Shanon-Winer and richness (Margalef and Menhinic indices occurred in sequoia and alder stands, respectively. The evenness indices (Camargo and Smith-Wilson were significantly greater in maple, sequoia and mixed stands compared with the alder type. As a conclusion, floristic change trends were different according to the planted tree species. A good understanding of the complexity of vegetation processes requires long-term monitoring of vegetation change.

  1. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  2. Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil / Planejamento de colheita e transporte de madeira usando o programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) em uma plantao de pinus no sudeste do Brasil

    Eduardo da Silva, Lopes; Carlos Cardoso, Machado; Amaury Paulo de, Souza; Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares, Ribeiro.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a aplicabilidade do programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte florestal em condies brasileiras. Os aspectos avaliados foram a definio dos subsistemas de colheita e a det [...] erminao de uma rota compatvel de transporte de madeira. Inicialmente, determinou-se o custo operacional e de produo das mquinas em sete subsistemas de colheita tecnicamente viveis para a regio de estudo, como tambm os ndices de qualidade e de custos de construo e manuteno de estradas, os quais foram utilizados como dados de entrada no SNAP III. Posteriormente, verificou-se, atravs de um estudo de caso, a aplicabilidade do programa como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. De acordo com os resultados, constatou-se que h trs categorias de estradas de ocorrncia na rea de estudo: principal, secundria e terciria, as quais, com base no ndice de qualidade encontrado, permitiram uma velocidade mdia do veculo de transporte de 41,0 30,3 e 24,3 km/hora e um custo de construo de US$ 5.084,30, US$ 2.275,28 e US$ 1.650,00/km, respectivamente. Quanto ao uso do SNAP III como ferramenta de apoio ao planejamento, o sistema mostrou-se com elevado potencial, podendo auxiliar no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. O programa foi capaz de definir com eficincia os subsistemas de colheita tcnica e economicamente vivel, a rota tima de transporte e as estradas em uso em cada perodo do horizonte de planejamento. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational a [...] nd production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.

  3. Effects of fertilization and competition on plant biomass allocation and internal resources: Does Plantago lanceolata follow the rules of economic theory?

    Janeček, Štěpán; Patáčová, E.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 49-64. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR GA526/07/0808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : allocation * Plantago lanceolata * plasticity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  4. Study with an isotopic method using tritiated water of hydric exchanges in Plantago maritima L. var Graminaea and Plantago lanceolata L.: effect of an antitranspirant

    The study with an isotopic method using tritiated water of total hydric exchanges in an halophyte (Plantago maritima) and a glycophyte (Plantago lanceolata) grown in the presence or not of NaCl and treated or not by an antitranspirant, point out two facts: the specific origin for the plant salinity resistances and the stomatal nature which characterizes the modality for the efficience of antitranspirant tested

  5. Transcriptome Characteristics and Six Alternative Expressed Genes Positively Correlated with the Phase Transition of Annual Cambial Activities in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    Wang, Zhanjun; Chen, Jinhui; Liu, Weidong; Luo, Zhanshou; Wang, Pengkai; Zhang, Yanjuan; Zheng, Renhua; Shi, Jisen

    2013-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanisms that govern cambial activity in angiosperms are well established, but little is known about these molecular mechanisms in gymnosperms. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook), a diploid (2n  = 2x  = 22) gymnosperm, is one of the most important industrial and commercial timber species in China. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in cambium tissue of Chinese fir. Methodology/Principal Findings ...

  6. Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 can colonize and improve P uptake of Plantago lanceolata after exposure to ionizing gamma radiation in root organ culture.

    Kothamasi, David; Wannijn, Jean; van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; van Gompel, Axel; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2016-04-01

    Long-lived radionuclides such as (90)Sr and (137)Cs can be naturally or accidentally deposited in the upper soil layers where they emit β/γ radiation. Previous studies have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can accumulate and transfer radionuclides from soil to plant, but there have been no studies on the direct impact of ionizing radiation on AMF. In this study, root organ cultures of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 were exposed to 15.37, 30.35, and 113.03 Gy gamma radiation from a (137)Cs source. Exposed spores were subsequently inoculated to Plantago lanceolata seedlings in pots, and root colonization and P uptake evaluated. P. lanceolata seedlings inoculated with non-irradiated AMF spores or with spores irradiated with up to 30.35 Gy gamma radiation had similar levels of root colonization. Spores irradiated with 113.03 Gy gamma radiation failed to colonize P. lanceolata roots. P content of plants inoculated with non-irradiated spores or of plants inoculated with spores irradiated with up to 30.35 Gy gamma radiation was higher than in non-mycorrhizal plants or plants inoculated with spores irradiated with 113.03 Gy gamma radiation. These results demonstrate that spores of R. irregularis MUCL 41833 are tolerant to chronic ionizing radiation at high doses. PMID:26467250

  7. [Aboveground biomass of three conifers in Qianyanzhou plantation].

    Li, Xuanran; Liu, Qijing; Chen, Yongrui; Hu, Lile; Yang, Fengting

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the regressive models of the aboveground biomass of Pinus elliottii, P. massoniana and Cunninghamia lanceolata in Qianyanzhou of subtropical China were established, and the regression analysis on the dry weight of leaf biomass and total biomass against branch diameter (d), branch length (L), d3 and d2L was conducted with linear, power and exponent functions. Power equation with single parameter (d) was proved to be better than the rests for P. massoniana and C. lanceolata, and linear equation with parameter (d3) was better for P. elliottii. The canopy biomass was derived by the regression equations for all branches. These equations were also used to fit the relationships of total tree biomass, branch biomass and foliage biomass with tree diameter at breast height (D), tree height (H), D3 and D2H, respectively. D2H was found to be the best parameter for estimating total biomass. For foliage-and branch biomass, both parameters and equation forms showed some differences among species. Correlations were highly significant (P elliottii, and C. lanceolata forests being 83.6, 72. 1 and 59 t x hm(-2), respectively, and more stem biomass than foliage-and branch biomass. According to the previous studies, the underground biomass of these three forests was estimated to be 10.44, 9.42 and 11.48 t x hm(-2), and the amount of fixed carbon was 47.94, 45.14 and 37.52 t x hm(-2), respectively. PMID:17066688

  8. Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

  9. Factors contributing direct investments in forest plantations

    Korhonen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    Direct investments are considered the main source of economic growth and are desirable for countries. Factors driving the geographical distribution of direct investments are unknown. Many forest investments are directed to plantations, which have expanded rapidly during the past two decades. The global forestry scheme is changing; until 1990, developed countries accounted for almost all investments. Since then, developing countries have started to employ them at an accelerating rate. The majo...

  10. Innovating tree plantation design: spiralographing agroforestry

    Palma, J. H. N.; Crous-Duran, J.; Merouani, H.; Paulo, J.A.; Tom, M.

    2014-01-01

    Most of forestry or agroforestry artificial plantations either have an orthogonal design, or curvilinear under contour lines to prevent soil erosion. These designs are known to maximize machinery workflow or erosion control respectively. As in many occasions in land use management, what optimizes machinery operation is not what optimizes prevention of soil loss and vice versa. An alternative and intermediate design system such as an Archimedes spiral could offer in one han...

  11. Rubber plantations act as water pumps in tropical China

    Tan, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Song, Qing-Hai; Liu, Wen-Jie; Deng, Xiao-Bao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Deng, Yun; Zhou, Wen-Jun; Yang, Lian-Yan; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sun, Xiao-Min; Liang, Nai-Shen

    2011-12-01

    Whether rubber plantations have the role of water pumps in tropical Southeast Asia is under active debate. Fifteen years (1994-2008) of paired catchments water observation data and one year paired eddy covariance water flux data in primary tropical rain forest and tropical rubber plantation was used to clarify how rubber plantation affects local water resources of Xishuangbanna, China. Both catchment water observations and direct eddy covariance estimates indicates that more water was evapotranspired from rubber plantation (1137 mm based on catchment water balance, 1125 mm based on eddy covariance) than from the rain forest (969 mm based on catchment water balance, 927 mm based on eddy covariance). Soil water storage during the rainy season is not sufficient to maintain such high evapotranspiration rates, resulting in zero flow and water shortages during the dry season in the rubber plantation. Therefore, this study supports the idea that rubber plantations act as water pumps as suggested by local inhabitants.

  12. Control con medios naturales de los principales insectos y hongos que afectan a Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L. Control with natural means of the main insects and fungi affecting Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.

    Mara Magdalena Rivera Amita

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: controlar con productos naturales, de origen vegetal y biolgico, las principales plagas y enfermedades que afectan a las especies medicinales Plantago lanceolata L. (llantn menor y Plantago major L. (llantn. MTODOS: para el control de las plagas y enfermedades se evalu el efecto de 3 plaguicidas de origen botnico: Tabaquina, subproducto de Nicotiana tabacum L. (tabaco; semillas secas maceradas de Melia azederach L. (paraso y follaje seco macerado de Lantana camara L. variedad camara (lantana, extrados por repercolacin con etanol 70 %. Como medio biolgico para el control de estos insectos y hongos se evalu el efecto de 2 hongos mezclados Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; cada tratamiento se replic 3 veces adems de la parcela donde no se aplicaron productos. RESULTADOS: en el caso de Systena basalis resultaron ser efectivos el extracto de Melia azederach y la mezcla de Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; mientras que para el hongo Sclerotium rolfsii, aunque con los productos probados no hubo un control total, se apreci una disminucin notable en el grado de incidencia, por lo que deben utilizarse para su eliminacin tcnicas agrcolas adecuadas. Respecto a Diabrotica balteata y Cercospora plantagenis su presencia no constituy plaga y s se observ control con cualquiera de los tratamientos evaluados. CONCLUSIONES: se logr un control adecuado de las plagas con los tratamientos probados.

  13. Densification of wood:

    Kutnar, Andreja; Šernek, Milan

    2007-01-01

    The paper treats the processes involved in wood densification and provides a summary of the state-of-the-art, as presented in the literature, with regard to densification as achieved by compression, accompanied by some form of hydrothermal treatment. The viscoelastic nature of wood is discussed, togetherwith its thermal softening and typical stress-strain relationships. The properties of densified wood products depend, apart from processing parameters, on various anatomical features such as d...

  14. Material model for wood

    Sandhaas, C.; Kuilen, J. W. G.

    2013-01-01

    Wood is highly anisotropic and shows ductile behaviour in compression and brittle behaviour in tension and shear where both failure modes can occur simultaneously. A 3D material model for wood based on the concepts of continuum damage mechanics was developed. A material subroutine containing the developed model was implemented into a standard FE framework. Eight stress-based failure criteria were derived in order to formulate piecewise defined failure surfaces. The damage development of wood ...

  15. Material model for wood

    Sandhaas, C.; Kuilen, J. W. G.

    2014-01-01

    Wood is highly anisotropic and shows ductile behaviour in compression and brittle behaviour in tension and shear where both failure modes can occur simultaneously. A 3D material model for wood based on the concepts of continuum damage mechanics was developed. A material subroutine containing the developed model was implemented into a standard FE framework. Eight stress-based failure criteria were derived in order to formulate piecewise defined failure surfaces. The damage development of wood ...

  16. Moisture Transport in Wood

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.; Damkilde, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  17. Wood pellet seminar

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  18. Wood versus gas

    Wood has always been used as a source of heat. Mainly people in villages used to buy a truckload of cordwood, cut it and then use it for heating. Compared to gas heating, this heating method is rather inconvenient. Consequently, after gas was introduced to most of the country, wood was used less and less. But after the liberalization of gas prices in 2000, when the prices went up substantially, the popularity of wood started growing. But Slovakia is not merely cutting cordwood. Around 18 months ago, Statne lesy (state forest) started production of wood chips from residual forest biomass. This material is even suitable for bigger heating plants supplying heat to towns and in comparison to standard wood fuel, the handling is much simpler. Last year, foresters delivered to five Slovak heating plants 42,000 tons of wood chips. And their plans are even bigger. The head of state forests in Levice, Jan Farkas, recalls the last commercial presentation. Around 200 people from heating plants, municipalities and plants attended and were interested in wood chips. 'There is a great interest in wood chips. The growing gas price has created a great opportunity for wood,' said J. Farkas. Currently, state foresters are negotiating chip deliveries to around 20 heating plants and companies. They plan to deliver over 100-thousand tons of this material to the Slovak market. If the potential of Slovak forests is fully used, around 2 million tons of this material could be produced a year. (author)

  19. WOOD MODIFICATION: AN UPDATE

    Callum A. S. Hill

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood modification is a generic term describing the application of chemical, physical, or biological methods to alter the properties of the material. The aim is to get better performance from the wood, resulting in improvements in dimensional stability, decay resistance, weathering resistance, etc. It is essential that the modified wood is non-toxic in service and that disposal at the end of life does not result in the generation of any toxic residues. Over the past five years there have been significant developments in wood modification technologies, especially in the commercial sector. This technology is here to stay.

  20. Coating Acetylated Wood

    Roger Rowell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood exposed to the outdoor environment is susceptible to weathering due to a series of chemical, biological and physical processes. Acetylation of wood is known to reduce cell wall moisture content, improve dimensional stability and durability against fungal decay. As a result of these improvements, less stress is created between the coating and the wood surface improving the performance of the coating and increasing its useful lifetime. This paper is a review of research done on the chemistry of the acetylation process, the coating performance of acetylated wood and concentrates on the factors influencing coating performance.

  1. Regional Mapping of Plantation Extent Using Multisensor Imagery

    Nathan Torbick; Lindsay Ledoux; William Salas; Meng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Industrial forest plantations are expanding rapidly across Monsoon Asia and monitoring extent is critical for understanding environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In this study, new, multisensor imagery were evaluated and integrated to extract the strengths of each sensor for mapping plantation extent at regional scales. Two distinctly different landscapes with multiple plantation types were chosen to consider scalability and transferability. These were Tanintharyi, Myanmar and West Kaliman...

  2. Optimization of Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Juliza Hidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera  as a barometer of national oil palm industry require efforts commodities and agro-industry development of oil palm. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financed plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder plantation productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing oil palm plantations which are to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims to identify potential criteria in influencing plantation productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. 

  3. The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development

    Ivetić Vladan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass, additional products in the form of non-timber forest products and additional services in the form of shelterbelts and phytoremediation.

  4. Contribution to the Assessment of Green Biomass of Atriplex halimus Plantation in Arid Western Algeria (Region of Naama)

    BOUZID, Aman; Kheloufi, Benabdeli

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the assessment of green biomass of Atriplex halimus plantation in arid western Algeria (region of Naama). - Since more than thirty years the genus Atriplex is widely used in the development of low-potential land in the southern part of Algeria in order to meet the unique needs of livestock feed. The production of planting Atriplex (production of palatable biomass and wood for heating and cooking) was evaluated over a period of three years and has enabled us to assess the impac...

  5. Economic Analysis of a Pine Plantation Receiving Repeated Applications of Biosolids

    Wang, Hailong; Kimberley, Mark O.; Wilks, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Treated biosolids have been applied to 750-ha of a Pinus radiata forest plantation on Rabbit Island near Nelson City in New Zealand since 1996. A long-term research trial was established in 1997 to investigate the effects of the biosolids applications on the receiving environment and tree growth. An analysis of the likely economic impact of biosolids application shows that biosolids application has been beneficial. Stem volume of the high treatment (biosolids applied at 600 kg N ha-1 every three years) was 36% greater than the control treatment (no biosolids applied), and stem volume of the standard treatment (300 kg N ha-1) was 27% greater than the control treatment at age 18 years of age. Biosolids treatments have effectively transformed a low productivity forest site to a medium productivity site. Although this increased productivity has been accompanied by some negative influences on wood quality attributes with reduced wood stiffness, wood density, and larger branches, an economic analysis shows that the increased stem volume and greater average log diameter in the biosolids treatments outweighs these negative effects. The high and standard biosolids treatments are predicted to increase the net stumpage value of logs by 24% and 14% respectively at harvesting, providing a large positive impact on the forest owners economic return. PMID:23451262

  6. FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS

    Adrian Pirraglia,; Ronalds Gonzales,; Daniel Saloni,; Jeff Wright; Joseph Denig

    2011-01-01

    Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental compositi...

  7. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

    2010-07-01

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  8. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  9. Composition, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities in vitro of the heartwood essential oil of Cunninghamia lanceolata var. konishii from Taiwan.

    Su, Yu-Chang; Hsu, Kuan-Ping; Wang, Eugene I-Chen; Ho, Chen-Lung

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities in vitro of the essential oil isolated from the heartwood of Cunninghamia lanceolata var. konishii from Taiwan. The essential oil was isolated using hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-seven compounds were identified, representing 100% of the oil. The main components identified were cedrol (58.3%), alpha-cedrene (11.8%), alpha-terpineol (4.2%) and beta-cedrene (3.5%). The oil exhibited cytotoxic activity against human lung, liver and oral cancer cells. The active source compound was cedrol. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested by the disc diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods against ten microbial species. The oil exhibited strong growth suppression against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast with inhibition zones of 42-50 mm to MIC values of 31.25-62.5 microg/mL, respectively. For the antimicrobial activities of the oil, the active compound was determined to be cedrol. PMID:23074921

  10. Competition between metal tolerant and normal plant populations on normal soil. [Agrostis tenuis; anthoxanthum odoratum; Plantago lanceolata

    Cook, S.C.A.; Lefebvre, C.; McNeilly, T.

    1972-09-01

    The competitive interactions of Agrostis tenuis, Anthoxanthum odoratum and Plantago lanceolata were investigated by examining competition between non tolerant and zinc/lead tolerant material, and by examining competition of each type of material with perennial rye grass. All three species were found as components of the restricted flora of zinc/lead mines of Wales, and also of the acid grasslands adjacent to these mines, together with other herbs and grasses including perennial rye grass. The data obtained show the same trends throughout - the tolerant ecotype in each of the species tested had a lower dry weight and fewer leaves than the non tolerant ecotype. The important point for all three species is that the differences occurring between the yields of the pure stands of tolerant and non tolerant material are enhanced so that the relative fitness of the tolerant material is reduced from 0.75 to 0.57 when the two are grown together in a 50:50 mixture. There is, therefore, a drastic selection acting through competition against tolerant individuals on normal soil.

  11. The wood, renewable energy

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  12. Method of stabilizing wood

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  13. How James Wood Works

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the

  14. Complex geometries in wood

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...

  15. Forests and wood consumption on the carbon balance. Carbon emission reduction by use of wood products

    Until now studies on the greenhouse effect paid much attention to carbon fixation by forests, while the entire CO2 cycle of forests and forest products remained underexposed. Utilization of wood products instead of energy-intensive materials (plastics/steel) and fossil fuels (coal) proves to play an important role as well. The effect of utilization is even greater than that of fixation. In all, additional forests together with the multiple use of trees can contribute substantially to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The contribution can run from 5.3 ton CO2/ha/yr for a mixed forest of oak/beech to 18.9 ton CO2/ha/yr for energy plantations (poplar). 2 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Isolation and characterization of mold fungi and insects infecting sawmill wood, and their inhibition by gamma radiation

    Kalawate, Aparna; Mehetre, Sayaji

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the isolation, identification, and characterization of wood-rotting fungi and insects, and their inhibition was studied using gamma radiation. Products manufactured from plantation timber species are deteriorated by wood-rotting fungi such as Hypocrea lixii, Fusarium proliferatum, and Aspergillus flavus, and insects such as powderpost beetles. Proper preservation methods are necessary for ensuring a long service life of wood products. In this study, wood samples were treated with 2.5% copper ethanolamine boron (CEB) (10% w/v) and subsequently irradiated with gamma rays (10 kGy). It was observed that CEB-treated and gamma-irradiated samples controlled fungi and powderpost beetles significantly. As wood is a dead organic material, penetration of chemicals into it is very difficult. Gamma rays easily pass through wooden objects with hidden eggs and dormant spores of insects and fungi, respectively. Gamma irradiation was proved very effective in reducing damage caused by both fungi and insects.

  17. Impacts of fertilization on water quality of a drained pine plantation: a worst case scenario.

    Beltran, Bray J; Amatya, Devendra M; Youssef, Mohamed; Jones, Martin; Callahan, Timothy J; Skaggs, R Wayne; Nettles, Jami E

    2010-01-01

    Intensive plantation forestry will be increasingly important in the next 50 yr to meet the high demand for domestic wood in the United States. However, forest management practices can substantially influence downstream water quality and ecology. This study analyses, the effect of fertilization on effluent water quality of a low gradient drained coastal pine plantation in Carteret County, North Carolina using a paired watershed approach. The plantation consists of three watersheds, two mature (31-yr) and one young (8-yr) (age at treatment). One of the mature watersheds was commercially thinned in 2002. The mature unthinned watershed was designated as the control. The young and mature-thinned watersheds were fertilized at different rates with Arborite (Encee Chemical Sales, Inc., Bridgeton, NC), and boron. The outflow rates and nutrient concentrations in water drained from each of the watersheds were measured. Nutrient concentrations and loadings were analyzed using general linear models (GLM). Three large storm events occurred within 47 d of fertilization, which provided a worst case scenario for nutrient export from these watersheds to the receiving surface waters. Results showed that average nutrient concentrations soon after fertilization were significantly (alpha = 0.05) higher on both treatment watersheds than during any other period during the study. This increase in nutrient export was short lived and nutrient concentrations and loadings were back to prefertilization levels as soon as 3 mo after fertilization. Additionally, the mature-thinned watershed presented higher average nutrient concentrations and loadings when compared to the young watershed, which received a reduced fertilizer rate than the mature-thinned watershed. PMID:20048317

  18. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with MultilureRM Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton only 2 tephritids were captured: 1 A. striata and 1 A. obliqua. These results show the great diversity of tephritids in the fruit orchards studied. Most of these tephritid pests are poliphagous and able to use the same hosts. (author)

  19. Experiences with willow as a wood biomass species

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L.

    1988-05-01

    Wood-grass forestry offers several advantages as compared to short rotation intensive culture plantations or conventional long rotation forestry. Coppicing eliminates replanting for several cutting cycles, genetic integrity is maintained, cutting cycles are short, and production is high because of clone spacing, hybrid vigor and coppice growth. The genetic improvement of willows for energy plantations only started in the late 1970s with initiation of research and development programs. Today willow breeding is intensive in Finland, Sweden and Canada. The Canadian program began with the identification and collection of the important North American willow species: eight were identified as promising for biomass production. A hybridization program was started in 1983. The trials established in 1984 were harvested after 2 full growing seasons to determine the oven-dry biomass production of the seedlings. The most promising selections are being further propagated for trials with hundred-tree clonal plots. This article also discusses possible technologies for the conversion of wood to a variety of liquid fuels; included are anaerobic digestion, fermentation, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction. Yields of up to 20 odt/ha/y have been reported for many experimental willow plantations using available clones and with the use of genetically-improved stock in coppice systems, yields of 40 odt/ha/y and more are predicted. Private and public sectors in Canada and the United States have identified a range of costs, silvicultural prescriptions, productivity rates, and other concerns that define the progress still needed in the concept of short rotation intensive culture. 1 tab.

  20. Mechanical performance of wood plastic composites containing decayed wood

    Ayrılmış, Nadir; Kaymakcı, Alperen; Güleç, Türker

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential use of the decayed wood in the manufacture of wood plastic composite (WPC) panel. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sound wood and decayed wood (brown-rot fungi) were used as wood material. Three levels of 30%, 40%, and 50% of sound wood and decayed wood, based on the composition by weight, were mixed with the polypropylene with 3% (based on weight) maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) as a coupling agent. The compound pellets were prepared from twin screw co-r...

  1. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Nusirat Aderinsola SADIKU

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricksAbstract: This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB) from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3  were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Vel...

  2. Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun

    Makombu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

  3. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  4. ADVANCES IN THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF Cuphea aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata : EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    B.A. Cardenas-Sandoval

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea lanceolata son especies nativas de Mxico utilizadas en medicina tradicional. Se estandariz el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determin, en extractos metanlicos (obtenidos en agitacin por 24 h, el contenido de compuestos fenlicos y flavonoides totales de variosrganos de C. aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata . Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando mtodos in vitro (DPPH + y ABTS + y el de poder reductor del fosfomolibdeno. La concentracin ms alta de compuestos fenlicos se present en las flores de C. lanceolata (62.79 0.06 mg equivalentes decido glico (EAG / g peso seco (PS; mientras que la de flavonoides en las hojas de C. aequipetala (196.83 2.9 mg equivalentes de quercetina (EQ / g PS. Las hojas de C. aequipetala var. hispida presentaron la actividad de captura de radicales libres DPPH (173.33 2.12 mol trolox / g PS, las flores de C. aequipetala la de captura de radicales libres ABTS (541.10 2.32 mol trolox / g PS mientras que el poder reductor ms alto se observ en las hojas de C. aequipetala (1186.25 3.17 mol trolox / g PS. Se encontr una correlacin positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y la concentracin de compuestos antioxidantes. El anlisis qumico cualitativo mediante TLC indic la prescencia del flavonoide quercetina 3- - D -glucsido en todas las especies de Cuphea y de otros flavonoides menos polares en C. aequipetala var. hispida . Cuphea spp. es una fuente natural de compuestos fenlicos.

  5. Hunger for wood

    Dany, Christian

    2011-07-01

    The EU climate protection targets imply that Europe will need more mood. The preferred options for increasing wood supply require innovations in shredding technology in order to broaden the raw material base. (orig.)

  6. Changes in the Chemical Composition and Decay Resistance of Thermally-Modified Hevea brasiliensis Wood.

    Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Calonego, Fred Willians; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; Bond, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the equilibrium moisture content, chemical composition and biological resistance to decay fungi of juvenile and mature Hevea brasiliensis wood (rubber wood) was evaluated. Samples were taken from a 53-year-old rubber wood plantation located in Tabapuã, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were thermally-modified at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C. Results indicate that the thermal modification caused: (1) a significant increase in the extractive content and proportional increase in the lignin content at 220°C; (2) a significant decrease in the equilibrium moisture content, holocelluloses, arabinose, galactose and xylose content, but no change in glucose content; and (3) a significant increase in wood decay resistance against both Pycnoporus sanguineus (L.) Murrill and Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers.) Murrill decay fungi. The greatest decay resistance was achieved from treatment at 220°C which resulted in a change in wood decay resistance class from moderately resistant to resistant. Finally, this study also demonstrated that the influence of thermal treatment in mature wood was lower than in juvenile wood. PMID:26986200

  7. Wood pellet research program

    Wood pellets are composed of waste wood materials such as sawmill residue, municipal landfill waste and grain crops. Due to the high temperature combustion used to form the waste materials into the pellet, no additives or glues are necessary to bind them. The pellets are typically used for home heating; heat and power production; poultry bedding; and in biorefineries. This presentation provided an outline of the University of British Columbia wood pellet research and development program. Research at the university is being conducted to develop new types of pellets. Researchers at the program also analyze the physical and chemical properties of pellets in order to optimize pellet density and heating values. Wood pellet modelling and simulation studies are carried out, and various training and education programs are also offered. Research is currently being conducted to develop a reactor for off-gassing experiments. This presentation also provided details of a study investigating the economics of wood pellet production and transport. Pellet production costs and feedstock costs were compared. A summary of the costs and energy inputs of pellet production included details of product storage; transportation and transfer; handling; and transportation to energy plants. It was concluded that more than 35 per cent of the energy content of biomass is used up in the processing and transport of Canadian wood pellets to Europe. refs., tabs., figs

  8. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Sudarmalik Sudarmalik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.Keywords: industrial plantation forest, property right, principal agent, the state position, authority

  9. Ecosystem functions of oil palm plantations - a review

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C.; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M.; Corre, Marife D.; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in the last decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. Howev-er, research on the impacts of oil palm agriculture is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview ex-ists. Here, we address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosys-tem functions in oil palm plantations. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those ...

  10. Review of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning in Sweden

    Cleaning is carried out in order to influence the competitive situation of controlling the distribution of volume growth and the quality of timber. today, cleaning is conducted on about 200 000 ha per year in Sweden, most if which is cleaned motor-manually. The degree of mechanization is less than 1 % of. The biomass content of a cleaned stand is generally low, ranging from 1 to 2 tons dry matter per ha, but in some stands it can amount to over 20 tons per ha. The main motivation for removing biomass from a cleaned stand is the possibility of reducing overall cleaning costs. Few studies have been made on the environmental effects of the biomass removal in connection with cleaning. Studies made in connection with thinning, primarily conifers, indicate that the negative effects, such as increased soil acidification, reduced pools of base cations and nitrogen losses, can occur. It should be possible to compensate these undesirable effects through measures such as fertilization or ash recycling. Estimates of impacts on the flora and fauna suggests that effects are small and reversible. However, certain biotopes require special attention. Cost and performance studies indicate that it can be profitable for individual landowners to remove biofuel from very tall, dense stands, whereas better technology is required for more commercial operations. The development of such techniques is under way today. For large-scale removal of biofuel in connection with cleaning, simple forecasting tools will have to be developed that can help in determining when and where biomass should be removed. The decision should be based on economic, ecological and technical considerations. Furthermore, thorough analyses of the effects on the nutrient balance need to be made, and any reductions in the quality and growth of timber need to be quantified 21 refs

  11. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in todays agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a safety net to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to offer viable and attractive economic perspectives to farmers and other land managers besides of the potential ecological benefits of SRCs. For this reason, an integrated tool for scenario analysis was developed within the BEST project (BEAST Bio-Energy Allocation and Scenario Tool). It combines ecological assessments with calculations of economic revenue as a basis for a participative regional dialog on sustainable land use and climate protection goals. Results show a substantial capacity for providing renewable energy from economically competitive arable SRC sites while generating ecological synergies. PMID:26106595

  12. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment...

  13. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production - Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives.

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a "safety net" to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to offer viable and attractive economic perspectives to farmers and other land managers besides of the potential ecological benefits of SRCs. For this reason, an integrated tool for scenario analysis was developed within the BEST project ("BEAST - Bio-Energy Allocation and Scenario Tool"). It combines ecological assessments with calculations of economic revenue as a basis for a participative regional dialog on sustainable land use and climate protection goals. Results show a substantial capacity for providing renewable energy from economically competitive arable SRC sites while generating ecological synergies. PMID:26106595

  14. Wood plastic combination

    The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

  15. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP(TM))is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTPTM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTPTM. The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  16. Importance of residual trees to birds in regenerating pine plantations

    Jones JC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pine plantation establishment methods can alter vegetation composition and structure, thus affecting habitat important characteristics for declining early successional bird species. We evaluated eight vegetation characteristics, which varied due to a range of pine plantation establishment methods, to identify vegetation most closely associated with spring bird abundance in the Lower Coastal Plain of southern Mississippi, USA. Presence of residual trees and snags was positively related to relative abundance of 10 of 14 common species present in regenerating stands. Cover of woody vegetation was positively related to relative abundance of 4 species and negatively related to relative abundance of 2 species. For 5 species, increasing pine tree cover had a negative relationship with relative abundance. Residual trees and snags contributed to avian abundance and richness in regenerating pine plantations. Integration of habitat elements, such as residual trees that influence abundance of birds and other wildlife, with intensive pine plantation establishment can aid managers to attain wildlife conservation in intensively managed stands.

  17. Wood and bark of some poplar and willow clones as fuelwood

    Klasnja, B.; Kopitovic, S.; Orlovic, S. [Poplar Research Inst., Novi Sad (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Agriculture

    2002-12-01

    Poplars and willows are widely used to produce biomass for energy. Calorific values of wood and bark, as well as for whole tree of Populus x euramericana (cl. I-214), Populus deltoides (cl.PE 19/66) and white willow Salix alba (cl.378) of different ages were determined, one- and 2-year-old rooted cuttings were grown in plantations with high planting density, in order to produce a high biomass yield per hectare. Mature trees in both species (poplar and willow) originated from the corresponding plantations; willow 14-year old, and poplar 12 years (cl.I-214) and 8 years (cl.PE 19/66). As the share of bark depends on the age of wood, calorific values were determined separately for bark and for wood. The share of bark (proportion of total weight) in 1- and 2-year-old rooted cuttings ranged between 18% and 27%, and in older trees it was from 10% to 15%. The higher heating values of oven dry poplar wood (calculated for the whole tree, based on the proportion of bark) were from 15,787 (cl. I-214 1-year old) to 24,275 kJ/kg (cl.I-214 2-year old). The average calorific values of willow wood (whole tree with bark) were from 16,169 (14-year old) to 22,572 kJ/kg (2-year old). It should be pointed out that the calorific value of wood is more favorable than that of bark, and the highest calorific values refer to 2-year-old trees.(author)

  18. Pengaruh modal kerja terhadap profitabilitas PT.Goodyear Sumatra Plantations

    Fatma Fauriya Sari

    2008-01-01

    Fatma Fauriya Sari (2006). Pengaruh Modal Kerja Terhadap Profitabilitas PT Goodyear Sumatra Plantations Dolok Merangir. Ketua Departemen Manajemen, Prof. Dr. Ritha F. Dalimunthe, SE, M.Si. Dosen Pembimbing, Drs. Syahyunan, M.Si. Dosen Penguji, Dra. Husnani Sudardjat dan Dra. Lisa Marlina, M.Si. Berdasarkan laporan keuangan PT Goodyear Sumatra Plantations Dolok Merangir tahun 2001-2004, perputaran modal kerja bersih perusahaan mengalami penurunan yang signifikan sementara Return on Investment ...

  19. The Expansion of Industrial Tree Plantations and Dispossession in Brazil

    Kröger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The recent expansion of tree plantations is the most important agrarian change in many parts of Brazil. This article uses the results of extensive field research to analyse the different ways paper and pulp companies assure their land base for eucalyptus plantations. The mechanisms of land access have changed little over the decades, amounting to a process of primitive accumulation which seems to be controlled by the ways the pulp industry influences land markets and prices, the strength of a...

  20. The Sustainability Status of Partnership of Palm Oil Plantations

    Wilson Daud; Sri Panuntun

    2015-01-01

    One of existence determining factor of PBS palm oil is a harmonious relation with communities surroundings, thus the partnership between the palm oil plantation with the farmers surroundings is one of effort which has created the harmonization in palm oil plantation. The objective of the article is to express the sustainability of each pattern of palm oil PBS partnership, and this partnership form gives the sustainability advantages for the farmer and palm oil PBS in Central Kalimantan. The a...

  1. Green Gold. On variations of truth in plantation forestry

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined by the world's largest environmental organization WWF and an insurance and banking company called OHRA in 1993. Thousands of people invested, many millions of Guilders were transferred and about a...

  2. Depauperate Avifauna in Plantations Compared to Forests and Exurban Areas

    Haskell, David G.; Evans, Jonathan P; Pelkey, Neil W.

    2006-01-01

    Native forests are shrinking worldwide, causing a loss of biological diversity. Our ability to prioritize forest conservation actions is hampered by a lack of information about the relative impacts of different types of forest loss on biodiversity. In particular, we lack rigorous comparisons of the effects of clearing forests for tree plantations and for human settlements, two leading causes of deforestation worldwide. We compared avian diversity in forests, plantations and exurban areas on t...

  3. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  4. Methane from wood

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  5. Methane from wood

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  6. Productivity and carbon allocation in pure and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil

    Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Epron, D.; Le Maire, G.; Gonalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer inputs are required in fast growing eucalypt plantations to meet tree requirements, and to compensate for the large nitrogen outputs associated with wood exportation at the end of the short rotations. Due to the economic and potential environmental cost of fertilizers, mixed-species plantations (MSP) with N-fixing species (NFS) such as Acacia sp. might be an attractive option to improve the long-term soil N (and possibly soil carbon) status. In such MSP, increases in N availability may influence the productivity and C partitioning of the non-N fixing species. To investigate the effects of NFS on nutrient cycling, wood production, C sequestration, and soil fertility, a randomized block design including monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (100%E) and Acacia mangium (100%A), and mixtures of these species (50%E:50%A) was set up in southern Brazil. Our specific goals in the present study were to compare the production and C allocation patterns of these plantations, during the two last years of the 6-yr rotation. We hypothesized that 1) a large part of the differences in wood production between monospecific stands would be explained by differences in C allocation; and 2) the C allocation patterns of each species would be strongly modified in mixed- species plantations compared to mono-specific plantations due to inter-specific interactions and shifts in soil N status. Biomass increase (growth, G) in the different plant compartments was assessed by means of inventories and allometric relationships. Total aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and the productivity of each aboveground plant compartment were estimated from measurements of G and litterfall (L) (ANPP=G+L). Total belowground C allocations (TBCA) were estimated using a mass-balance approach as soil CO2 efflux C minus the C input from aboveground litter plus changes in the C stored in roots, in the forest floor litter layer, and in soil. Over this first rotation, mixing NFS with eucalypt did not increase wood production: at the end of the 6 yr-old rotation, total aboveground biomass was the highest in the 100%E stands (68.2 tC/ha), lowest in the MSP 50%E:50%A (62.0 tC/ha), and intermediary in the 100%A (66.0 tC/ha). Although 100%E stands had a stronger growth than 100%A during the first 4 yrs of the rotation, the reverse was observed at the end of the rotation: during the two last yrs, total growth was 15.9 tC/ha/yr for 100%A, and 12.7 and 10.4 tC/ha/yr for 100%E and 50%E50%A, respectively. These differences in growth were explained by differences in ANPP (19.2, 17.8 and 15.2 tC/ha/yr, for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%E50%A, respectively), and differences in the ratio litter production/ANPP (0.17, 0.29, and 0.31 for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%A50%E, respectively). Furthermore, the ratio TBCA/ANPP was the lowest in 100%A, and the highest in the MSPs (0.44, 0.62, and 0.78, for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%A50%E, respectively). These results suggest that inter-specific interactions have a strong effect on the C allocation pattern observed at the stand level in MSPs.

  7. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Alexander, Bruce; Oliveria, Emerson Barbosa de; Haigh, Emily; Almeida, Lourenço Leal de

    2002-07-01

    Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested), aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926), Lu. migonei (França 1920), Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959) and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes Coutinho 1939) were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz Neiva 1912), was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations. PMID:12219123

  8. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Bruce Alexander

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  9. Avalanches in Wood Compression

    Mäkinen, T.; Miksic, A.; Ovaska, M.; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-07-01

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  10. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  11. Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves

    G Sievers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta" ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó un potrero de igual composición botánica, pero con una baja carga parasitaria, y el grupo de terneros "Plantago" pastoreó un potrero sembrado con P. lanceolata, también con una baja carga parasitaria. Este manejo se mantuvo durante 60 días. Cada semana se pesaron todos los animales y se les tomaron muestras fecales para realizar recuento de huevos y diferenciación genérica de larvas. Cada dos semanas se estableció la carga parasitaria del pasto de los potreros utilizados. La pluviosidad se registró diariamente. La carga parasitaria del pasto del potrero contaminado fue alta durante todo el ensayo. A las tres semanas de iniciado el período de suplementación se inició en ambos grupos un aumento de los recuentos (hpg promedio de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus que se diferenciaron significativamente (P 0,05. Se concluye que la suplementación con Plantago lanceolata redujo significativamente la oviposición de los parásitos gastrointestinales.The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Plantago lanceolata (narrow leaf plantain, as a supplemental forage, reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. The trial was conducted on a farm in the 10th Region, Chile. Two groups of 15 calves weighing 171.4 ± 19.8 kg grazed 17 hours a day on a pasture composed mainly of gramineous and with a high infestation of trichostrongylid nematode larvae. During the remaining 7 hours, the "control" group grazed in a pasture of similar botanic composition but with a low parasite burden; the "plantago" group grazed in a pasture specially sown with P. lanceolata with also a low parasite burden. This regimen was maintained for 60 days. Each week the animals were weighed and faecal samples were gathered to determine the nematode egg count (epg and larvae generic differentiation. Grass samples were taken every two weeks from all pastures to establish their level of parasite burden. Precipitation was measured daily. The parasite burden of grass in the contaminated pasture was high during the whole period. Three weeks after the initiation of the trial, an increase in the average of eggs per gram of faeces (epg was observed. A significant difference (P 0.05. It is concluded that the inclusion of P. lanceolata as a supplemental forage significantly reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal parasites.

  12. Status of wood energy applications

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  13. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

  14. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

    Fernandez, M. E.; Gyenge, J. E.; Urquiza, M. M.; Varela, S.

    2012-11-01

    More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to understand how management practices can help to increase their adaptability to climate change. Growth magnitude and period, specific hydraulic conductivity, and anatomical traits (early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter, cell-wall thickness, tracheid length and bordered pit dimensions) were measured in the ring 2008-2009, which was formed during drought conditions. This drought event decreased annual stem growth by 30-38% and 58-65% respect to previous mean growth, in open vs. closed stand trees, respectively, indicating a higher sensitivity of the latter, which is opposite to reports from the same species growing in managed native forests in USA. Some wood anatomical variables did differ in more water stressed trees (lower cell wall thickness of early wood cells and higher proportion of small-lumen cells in late wood), which in turn did not affect wood function (hydraulic conductivity and resistance to implosion). Other anatomical variables (tracheid length, pit dimensions, early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter of early wood cells) did not differ between tree sizes and plantation density. The results suggest that severe drought affects differentially the amount but not the function and quality of formed wood in ponderosa pine growing at different competition levels. (Author) 41 refs.

  15. Wood residues in Alberta

    The forest products industry is the third largest economic sector in Alberta, producing pulp and paper, dimensional lumber, paneling, and value added products, providing some 40,000 jobs . 'Value added' is a key component of expanding economic activity within the forest products sector. Wood residues can play a key role in obtaining more value from forest resources by providing new products, serving as feedstock to energy and chemical production, and playing a role in agriculture and land reclamation. One of the principal roles of the Forest Products Development Branch of the Alberta Economics Department is to encourage the development of the industry by creating new uses for these materials and developing awareness of the scope of the resource. Distances to markets, economic competition from conventional energy sources and coordination of research efforts are substantial barriers to further development that the Forest Products Development Branch has to face daily. Some notable successes in recent years are described. These include the Wood Residue Inventory and the Wood Residue Database that provide data on availability and principal location of wood residues, also a listing of contacts at the mills who produce the materials

  16. Wood waste in Europe

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today's percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December's 1997 'Climate Change Summit' in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab

  17. Tannins in tropical woods

    Doat, J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  18. Wood waste in Europe

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...

  20. Plasma treatment of wood

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Sinitsyn, V. A.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuz'min, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma technology was developed to create protective-decorative coatings on the wood surfaces. Experimental investigation on applying the protective coating using the low-temperature plasma energy as well as studies of the distribution of temperature fields over the section of the treated workpiece have been carried out, and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data.

  1. Welding of solid wood

    Ivica Župčić

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the up-to-date knowledge and results of the application of wood welding techniques at the Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb. Wood welding technologies have been developed as a new way of bonding timber by using high temperature generatedby friction and pressure. Timber is assembled without any adhesives. During the process the surface layer of timber (lignin, which is in direct contact with its counterpart, melts due to high pressure and temperature, which is usually generated by mechanical friction of the elements being connected. The cell structure in the interface area of timber is completely destroyed, while in the welding area the density is increased due to the destruction of wood cells. The cell walls are broken, as a result of exposure to high temperatures, mechanical pressure and chemical process, which occur during the cooling stage.Only natural materials are used in wood welding, which makes these products eco-friendly. In case of recycling, welded products may be disposed of just as natural timber, without the release of toxic substances.

  2. Water erosion risk prediction in eucalyptus plantations

    Mayesse Aparecida da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are normally found in vulnerable ecosystems such as steep slope, soil with low natural fertility and lands that were degraded by agriculture. The objective of this study was to obtain Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE factors and use them to estimate water erosion risk in regions with eucalyptus planted. The USLE factors were obtained in field plots under natural rainfall in the Rio Doce Basin, MG, Brazil, and the model applied to assess erosion risk using USLE in a Geographic Information System. The study area showed rainfall-runoff erosivity values from 10,721 to 10,642 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Some soils (Latosols had very low erodibility values (2.0 x 10-4 and 1.0 x 10-4t h MJ-1 mm-1, the topographic factor ranged from 0.03 to 10.57 and crop and management factor values obtained for native forest, eucalyptus and planted pasture were 0.09, 0.12 and 0.22, respectively. Water erosion risk estimates for current land use indicated that the areas where should receive more attention were mainly areas with greater topographic factors and those with Cambisols. Planning of forestry activities in this region should consider implementation of other conservation practices beyond those already used, reducing areas with a greater risk of soil erosion and increasing areas with very low risk.

  3. Of peasants, plantations, and immigrant proletarians

    Samuel Martí­nez

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Dominican Sugar Plantations: Production and Foreign Labor Integration. MARTIN F. MURPHY. New York: Praeger, 1991. xii + 186 pp. (Cloth US$49.95 Peasants in Distress: Poverty and Unemployment in the Dominican Republic. ROSEMARY VARGAS-LUNDIUS. Boulder CO: Westview 1991. xxi + 387 pp. (Paper US$ 32.95 Few other places in the Caribbean region have as great a potential for international conflict as the island of Hispaniola. The historical antagonism between Haiti and the Dominican Republic is no doubt known to readers of this journal, as is the recent upsurge in tension between the two countries, which culminated in the expulsion of tens of thousands of Haitian immigrants from the Dominican Republic, from June to September 1991. The quickening pace of events, added to the worsening spiral of economic hardship gripping both nations, threaten to render obsolete even the most recent analyses of relations between the two countries. Even so, against the background of an increasingly acrimonious debate between the Dominican government and international human rights organizations accusing it of enslaving Haitian immigrants in the cane flelds, the appearance of two works by long-time students of the migration of Haitians as cane workers to the Dominican Republic is particularly timely.

  4. Study of wood polymer combinations from woods of Kashmir

    This report describes the studies conducted to upgrade inferior woods of Kashmir by the application of radiation polymerization process. The process has brought about improvements in the physical and mechanical properties of wood. Wood polymer composite samples have been studied for their use in flooring, wall panelling, roofing shingles, wood carving and in other decorative items. It has been shown that 10% ethyl silicate, when present along with methyl methacrylate or styrene, considerably improves the impact strength and such wood polymer composite samples do not crack even on nailing. Wood polymer composites have been tested for carving and it has been shown that with 50% polymer content, carving quality is preserved. It has also been shown that surface coated wood is more advantageous for use in roofing shingles. (author)

  5. Evaluacin financiera de plantaciones forestales de caoba en Quintana Roo / Financial assessment of mahogany forest plantations in Quintana Roo state

    Xavier, Garca Cuevas; Bartolo, Rodrguez Santiago; Juan, Islas Gutirrez.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones forestales en Mxico no han tenido resultados de acuerdo al esfuerzo y recursos invertidos en ellas. El problema fundamental es que no se les ha dado el seguimiento requerido, en virtud de que el xito de los programas actuales debe medirse por el porcentaje de supervivencia en el c [...] ampo, as como por el crecimiento y rendimiento de madera y no por el nmero de plantas que se producen en los viveros. Adems, para hacer de las plantaciones forestales una actividad econmica rentable, es necesario proporcionar apoyos a los productores, a travs del Gobierno Federal y la banca nacional. Bajo este contexto, el presente trabajo se realiz con datos obtenidos en el centro y sur de Quintana Roo, en los municipios de Jos Mara Morelos, Felipe Carrillo Puerto y Otn Pompeyo Blanco. La informacin recopilada es de tipo financiero (costos y beneficios ha-1) e indicadores financieros para plantaciones forestales comerciales, entre los que destacan: VPN = 162,344.2, TIR = 13.37 y B/C = 4.10, que les servirn a los productores y financiadores en el proceso de toma de decisiones. Finalmente, se analizan y discuten los indicadores financieros y el anlisis de sensibilidad sobre su rentabilidad. Los resultados indican que las plantaciones pueden ser un buen negocio en Quintana Roo. Abstract in english Forest plantations operations in Mexico have not produced results according to the efforts and resources invested in them. The main problem is that they have not received the necessary follow-up as the success of the existing programs should be measured by the per cent of survival in the field, as w [...] ell as its growth and wood yield and not by the number of plants produced in the nursery. In addition, to make a profitable business out of forest plantations support must be provided to producers, in which the Federal Government and the national banks should be involved. In this context, this work was carried out with information from the Centre and South of Quintana Roo State, in the municipalities of Jos Mara Morelos, Felipe Carrillo Puerto and Othon Pompeyo Blanco. Financial information is presented (benefits, cost /ha-1) and financial indicators obtained for commercial forest plantations), being among the most important: VPN = 162,344.2, TIR = 13.37 and B/C = 4.10, which will be used to support producers and funders to make decisions. Finally, the financial indicators and the sensitivity on the profitability of forest plantations are analyzed and discussed. These results indicate that plantations can be an attractive business in Quintana Roo, Mxico.

  6. Plantation forestry in Brazil: the potential impacts of climatic change

    Most climatic changes predicted to occur in Brazil would replace yields of silvicultural plantations, mainly through increased frequency and severity of droughts brought on by global warming and by reduction of water vapor sources in Amazonia caused by deforestation. Some additional negative effects could result from changes in temperature, and positive effects could result from CO2 enrichment. The net effects would be negative, forcing the country to expand plantations onto less-productive land, requiring increased plantation area (and consequent economic losses) out of proportion to the climatic change itself. These impacts would affect carbon sequestration and storage consequences of any plans for subsidizing silviculture as a global warming mitigation option. Climate change can be expected to increase the area of plantations needed to supply projected internal demand for and exports of end products from Brazil. June-July-August (dry season) precipitation reductions indicated by simulations reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) correspond to rainfall declines in this critical season of approximately 34% in Amazonia, 39% in Southern Brazil and 61% in the Northeast. As an example, if rainfall in Brazilian plantation areas (most of which are now in Southern Brazil) were to decline by 50%, the area needed in 2050 would expand by an estimated 38% over the constant climate case, bringing the total area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. These large areas of additional plantations imply substantial social and environmental impacts. Further addition of plantation area as a global warming response option would augment these impacts, indicating the need for caution in evaluating carbon sequestration proposals. (author)

  7. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under 4 climate change scenarios

    The future stem wood production and net ecosystem production of Pinus radiata plantations in southwestern Australia were estimated in this modelling study, which was conducted in order to determine the potential effects of anticipated severe rainfall reductions in the region. Four climate change and emission scenarios were considered as well as simulations of the present climate. Results of the study showed that stem wood production and NEP were not significantly influenced by moderate changes in temperature. However, stem wood production and NEP decreased significantly under the most pessimistic climate change scenarios. Results of the study suggested that a trade-off between the positive effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on plant and water use efficiency and the negative impacts of decreased rainfall and increased temperatures. Changes in heterotrophic respiration lagged behind changes in plant growth. It was concluded that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential will require modelling tools capable of characterizing interactions between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, as well as the potential range of climate change scenarios. 53 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  8. The methanol extract of Euonymus laxiflorus, Rubia lanceolata and Gardenia jasminoides inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduce serum uric acid level in rats.

    Liu, Li-Min; Cheng, Shu-Fen; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Lee, Jang-Chang; Chen, Jih-Jung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Way, Tzong-Der

    2014-08-01

    Chinese herbal medicinal plants, Euonymus laxiflorus (EL), Rubia lanceolata (RL) and Gardenia jasminoides (GJ), have been used wildly to treat arthritis and gout in Taiwan for decades. To understand the beneficial effects of these three plants, their xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity in vitro and hypouricaemic activity in vivo were investigated. Our results suggested that methanol extracts were better than water extracts for inhibition of XO activity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, except the water extract of GJ, which exhibited the strongest radical scavenging effect. In animal study, the serum urate level was significantly decreased after oral administration of higher dose (0.39g/kg) methanol extract of the mixture of three plants (ERG). In addition, methanol extract of ERG reduced the pain reaction time in the second phase of formalin induced pain. The results provide useful information on the pharmacological activities of these plants for the potential in treating hyperuricemia. PMID:24845958

  9. Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere of the major land use types of the tropical rain forest margin area in South East Asia and quantification of the impact that land use change from undisturbed primary rain forest to pasture has on these interactions is task of subprogramme B1 within the DFG-funded project STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins). In order to fulfill the projects tasks the different major land use types have to be investigated and each ecosystem characterized one by one and compared to a reference site in an undisturbed primary rain forest, to see the changes in the atmosphere-biospheric interactions, i. e. in water and carbon household, with land use change and thus the impact on regional climate. One of the major land use types in the valleys around the Lore Lindu National Park on Sulawesi are Cacao plantations, Theobroma cacao. A site in the Palolo valley near the village Nopu was chosen as research site since the area there is covered with small Cacao fields which form to one big area of Cacao and matches the requirements of the applied research approach. Since Cacao trees need to be shaded especially when younger, shadow trees had been planted and trees of the former forest had been left standing to serve as wind breaks and sun shades. The plantations in Nopu, Palolo valley, consist not only of fields of cultivated Cacao, but also serve as environment and home to the farmers and their families. The whole area of Cacao plantation is interspersed with wooden farm houses, which are also sources of carbon dioxide due to cooking or small power plants etc. and thus have to be taken into account when looking at the carbon household of this specific ecosystem. An estimation of the components of the carbon and water household and the contribution of the humans living within this environment to the carbon household of Cacao plantations of this ecosystem is subject of this presentation. From December 2001 until April 2002 and June 2002 until now eddy-covariance measurements have been performed above a Cacao plantation in Nopu measuring time series of water vapour, CO2, air temperature, three-dimensional wind vector, photosyntetic active radiation and the surface temperature of the Cacao canopy at 10 Hz. Additionally, net radiation balance and soil heat fluxes have been measured. In order to assess the carbon input caused by the humans living in the ecosystem, a mapping of the site area has been carried out, including investigations of consumption of fire wood and use of machines, like generators for example. In order to obtain the energy balance equation of the canopy surface, also the radiation balance and the heat flux into the canopy have to be evaluated.

  10. Potentials of Liquefied CCB Treated Waste Wood for Wood Preservation

    Miha Humar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recovered wood is frequently contaminated with biocides and therefore its use is limited. Even more, wood, impregnated with classical chromated copper arsenate (CCA preservatives is classified as a hazardous waste, therefore solutions for reuse or recovery of this material are sought. One of the options, discussed in this paper is liquefaction and further applications of liquefied wood containing biocide remainings. In order to elucidate this possibilty, spruce and beech wood was impregnated with liquefi ed CCB treated and untreaded spruce wood of various concentrations and exposed to wood decay fungi according to the EN 113 procedure. In paralel, the leaching experiments (ENV 1250-2 were performed as well. The results do not clearly show that liquefied wood is bio-inactive. In most cases the mass loss by fungal attack is decreased compared to the untreated controls. On the other hand, copper leaching from spruce wood, impregnated with the liquefi ed CCB treated wood was significantly reduced. Thus, there are indications that the liquefied wood could be utilized as a binding agent for inorganic biocides.

  11. Carbon storage in eucalyptus and pine plantations in South Africa

    Christie, S.I. [Division of Forest Science and Technology, CSIR, Nelspruit (South Africa); Scholes, R.J. [Division of Forest Science and Technology, CSIR, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Carbon (C) is stored by plantation forests either when ecosystems with a low C density (such as tropical grasslands) are afforested or when timber is converted to semipermanent products. If the afforestation rate is relatively constant and the plantations are not harvested immediately upon reaching maturity, the amount of C stored in trees as a result of afforestation can be calculated by a simple `static` approximation. Rotation forestry requires a mean C storage method that averages C density over the rotation. Plantation forestry as practiced in South Africa requires a more detailed dynamic approach that accounts for time-varying rates of afforestation and the age-dependence of C accumulation rates in plantations. To determine C storage in products, the output of long-lived plantation products and their C content, once all processing losses are accounted for, must be known. The South African case study shows that new afforestation stored approximately 2.54 Tg C in 1990, and storage in forest products accounted for an additional 1.15 Tg C. Together, these two activities offset approximately 3.8% of the carbon dioxide emissions from South Africa. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 21 refs.

  12. Development of oak plantations established for wildlife

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive areas that are currently in agricultural production within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley are being restored to bottomland hardwood forests. Oaks (Quercus sp.), sown as seeds (acorns) or planted as seedlings, are the predominant trees established on most afforested sites. To compare stand development and natural invasion on sites afforested by planting seedlings or by sowing acorns, we sampled woody vegetation on ten 14- to 18-year-old oak plantations established to provide wildlife habitat. Stem densities of about 900 oaks/ha were comparable between stands established by sowing 4000 acorns/ha and stands established by planting 900 seedlings/ha. Densities of oaks in stands established from seedlings increased 38% from densities detected when these stands were 4- to 8-year-old. Densities of oaks established from field-sown acorns increased >100% during this same 10-year span. Oaks that were planted as seedlings were larger than those established from acorns, but trees resulting from either afforestation method were larger than trees naturally colonizing these sites. Natural invasion of woody species varied greatly among afforested sites, but was greater and more diverse on sites sown with acorns. Afforested stands were dominated by planted species, whereas naturally invading species were rare among dominant canopy trees. When afforestation objectives are primarily to provide wildlife habitat, we recommend, sowing acorns rather than planting seedlings. Additionally, planting fewer seeds or seedlings, diversifying the species planted, and leaving non-planted gaps will increase diversity of woody species and promote a more complex forest structure that enhances the suitability of afforested sites for wildlife.

  13. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND INTRA-RING WOOD DENSITY PROFILES IN Gmelina arborea APPLYING X-RAY DENSITOMETRY

    Mario Tomazelo-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Four annual tree-rings (2 of juvenile wood and 2 of mature wood were sampled from fast-growth plantations ofGmelina arborea in two climatic conditions (dry and wet tropical in Costa Rica. Each annual tree-ring was divided in equal parts ina radial direction. For each part, X-ray density as well as vessel percentage, length and width fiber, cell wall thickness and lumendiameter were measured. Wood density and profile patterns of cell dimension demonstrated inconsistency between juvenile andmature wood and climatic conditions. The Pearson correlation matrix showed that intra-ring wood density was positively correlatedwith the cell wall thickness and negatively correlated with vessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width. The forwardstepwise regressions determined that: (i intra-ring wood density variation could be predicted from 76 to 96% for anatomicalvariation; (ii cell wall thickness was the most important anatomical feature to produce intra-ring wood density variation and (iii thevessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width were the second most statically significant characteristics to intra-ring wooddensity, however, with low participation of the determination coefficient of stepwise regressions.

  15. RETENTION AND PENETRATION OF CCA IN WOOD OF FIRST AND SECOND ROTATION OF Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake

    Mara Lúcia Agostini Valle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989292This study aimed to evaluate the retention and penetration of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C as well as some wood properties of two rotations of two natural hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, aiming their use as treated wood. The study was conducted with material from commercial plantations, with 63 months of age. For the wood characterization, the relationship sapwood-heartwood, the basic density and the size of fibers and vessels were evaluated. For the evaluation of treated wood, the penetration and retention of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C were determined. Four trees per rotation and genetic material were used, which subsequently were split into three logs, in a total of 12 logs for each treatment. The preservative treatment was performed using the full cell process in autoclave using CCA solution with 2% concentration of active ingredients. The treatment process used was effective under the conditions required by the NBR 9480, with retention values ​​higher than the minimum required by the standard, which is 6.5 kg/m3 of CCA per treated wood, and in addition, provided deep penetration and regular condom in sapwood of all timber treated. There are no restrictions on the use of wood from the first and second rotation for preservative treatment, based on the properties evaluated. There was no correlation between the type C CCA retention and wood properties evaluated.

  16. Brush-eating device promises reforestation, wood energy aid

    Blackman, T.

    1981-01-01

    An invention which began as a low-ground-pressure skidder developed into a machine which clears brush, thins plantations, and can harvest wood for energy. First came the notion of an extra-low-ground-pressure log skidder. A swinging chopper was added to the front to clear the skid roads. Working in manzanita brush 10 to 12 foot tall, and with stems up to 18 inches in diameter, the Shar 20 can clear one to two and a half acres an hour. The 30 will be able to clear two to five acres an hour. The big machine will have two chopper heads rotating in opposite directions to force the chopped wood into a chipper built into the machine. Chips will be blown to a van following the harvester so they can be used for hog fuel or as feedstock for methanol production. The head spins at a relatively slow 450 rpm - a safety factor. Surrounding brush catches most of the cut material, but an occasional chunk of wood does fly several yards. Companies are paying more attention to reforestation. Clearing the land will leave a mulch-like debris on the ground. This offers some shade and helps retain soil moisture. Even when brush is harvested for energy, about 10% of the material is left on the ground. California's Department of Forestry wants to start a five-year clearing cycle for the chaparral stands, ''mowing'' a million acres a year and returning every fifth year to reclear the brush. California alone has 27 million acres of brushland not suitable for timber. A brushy acre averages from 30 to 200 tons of wood at 10% moisture content. The machines are designed to run at up to 12 mph when moving.

  17. Radioactivity of wood ash

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg-1, in decreasing order: 137Cs, 40K, 90Sr, 210Pb,226Ra, 232Th, 134Cs, 235U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210Pb was hardly detectable. The NH4Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  18. Rheological Model for Wood

    Hassani, Mohammad Masoud; Wittel, Falk K.; Hering, Stefan; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2014-01-01

    Wood as the most important natural and renewable building material plays an important role in the construction sector. Nevertheless, its hygroscopic character basically affects all related mechanical properties leading to degradation of material stiffness and strength over the service life. Accordingly, to attain reliable design of the timber structures, the influence of moisture evolution and the role of time- and moisture-dependent behaviors have to be taken into account. For this purpose, ...

  19. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  20. Advances in the phytochemistry of Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata: Extraction and quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity / Avances en la fitoqumica de Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata: Extraccin y cuantificacin de los compuestos fenlicos y actividad antioxidante

    B.A., Cardenas-Sandoval; A.R., Lpez-Laredo; B.P., Martnez-Bonfil; K., Bermdez-Torres; G., Trejo-Tapia.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea tanceolata son especies nativas de Mxico utilizadas en medicina iradicional. Se estandariz el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determin, en extractos metanlicos (obtenidos en agitacin por 24 h), el contenido de compuestos fenlicos y flavonoides totales de v [...] arios rganos de C. aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata. Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando mtodos in vitro (DPPH+ y ABTS+) y el de poder reductor del fosfomolibdeno. La concentracin mas alta de compuestos fenlicos se present en las flores de C. lanceolata (62.790.06 mg equivalentes de cido glico (EAG)/g pesos seco (PS); mientras que la de flavonoides en las hojas de C. aequipetala (196.832.9 mg equivalentes de quercetina (EQ)/g PS). Las hojas de C. aequipetala var. hispida presentaron la actividad de captura de radicales libres DPPH (173.332.12 ?mol trolox/g PS), las flores de C. aequipetala la de captura de radicales libres ABTS (541.102.32 ?mol trolox/g PS) mientras que el poder reductor ms alto se observ en las hojas de C. aequipetala (1186.253.17 ?mol trolox/g PS). Se encontr una correlacin positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y la concentracin de compuestos antioxidantes. El anlisis qumico cualitativo mediante TLC indic la prescencia del flavonoide quercetina 3-3-D-glucosido en todas las especies de Cuphea y de otros flavonoides menos polares en C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. es una fuente natural de compuestos fenlicos. Abstract in english Cuphea aequipetala and Cuphea lanceolata native to Mexico are used in folk medicine. Extraction procedure standardization was performed and the amount of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids was determined in methanol extracts (obtained by stirring for 24 h) from various organs of C. aequipetala, [...] C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata. The antioxidant properties of extracts were compared using in vitro free radical-scavenging assays (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH+) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+)) and the reducing power of phosphomolybdenum (PPM). A significant correlation was found between antioxidant activity and the amount of antioxidant components. Flowers of C. lanceolata showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (62.790.05 mg gallic acid equivalfnts (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) and the highest content of flavonoids was found in leaves of C. aequipetala (196.832.9 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g DW). The highest free radical-scavenging fctivity against DPPH+ was found in -eaves of C. aeqrnpetala var. hispida (173.332.12 ?mol trolox/g DW), for ABTS- in flowers ol C. aequipetala (541.102.32 ?mol trolox/g DW) and for 5PM in leaves oS C. aequipetala (1186.253.17 ?mol trolox/g DW). Qualitative analysis indicated the presence of the flavonoid quercetin 3-?-D-glucoside in all the species of Cuphea amongst other less polar flavonoids in C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. are prospective sources of phenolic compounds.

  1. The influence of mature oak stands and spruce plantations on soil-dwelling click beetles in lowland plantation forests

    Loskotov, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Most European forests have been converted into forest plantations that are managed for timber production. The main goal of this paper was to determine the difference between mature native sessile oak (Quercus petraea) stands and non-indigenous Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations, with respect to communities of Athous click beetles in approximately 6,500 ha of lowland plantation forest area in the Czech Republic. Athous subfuscus was the most abundant and widespread species, followed by A. zebei and A. haemorrhoidalis, while A. vittatus was considered rare. Spatial analysis of environmental variables inside studied patches showed that the species composition of Athous beetles best responded to a 20 m radius surrounding traps. The species responses to the environment showed that A. vittatus and A. haemorrhoidalis preferred oak stands, while A. zebei and A. subfuscus were associated with spruce plantations. In addition, oak stands showed higher diversity of beetle communities. The studied species are important for their ecosystem services (e.g. predation on pests or bioturbation) and seem to tolerate certain degrees of human disturbances, which is especially beneficial for forest plantations managed for timber production. PMID:26793425

  2. Towards standardised crown condition assessment in poplar plantations

    Martín-García, Jorge; Diez, Julio Javier; Jactel, Herve

    2009-01-01

    • Une étude a été réalisée pour développer des méthodes rapides et standardisées de suivi de l'état sanitaire des houppiers en plantation de peuplier. • La transparence et la décoloration des houppiers ont été estimées visuellement sur tous les arbres de quatre placettes d'un rayon fixe de 15 m, dans 32 plantations monoclonales de peuplier choisies selon un plan factoriel complet croisant trois facteurs : l'âge des plantations, la fertilité du site et la gestion du sous-bois. La moyenne des n...

  3. Antioxidant properties of wood extracts and colour stability of woods

    Diouf, Papaniokhor; Merlin, Andr; Perrin, DOMINIQUE

    2006-01-01

    Industrial wood extracts were selected and other extracts were prepared in the laboratory from some chosen wood species. Antioxidant capacities of extracts were measured by three methods: the oxygen uptake method, the kinetic DPPH method, and the equilibrium DPPH method. There is a fair correlation between the three methods. Total phenol contents of the extracts and colour stability of woods were measured. For the same phenol content, extracts containing condensed tannins are more antioxidant...

  4. Effectiveness of selected preservatives in protecting Ugandan grown Eucalyptus grandis wood against termite attack

    I. E, Ssemaganda; P, Mugabi; S. B, Tumwebaze.

    Full Text Available Termites are one of the major wood destroying agents in the tropics and with the increasing rate of deforestation, there is a need to protect wood from biodegradation in order to extend its service life. In this study the incidence and severity of termite attack on Eucalyptus grandis sapwood treated [...] with CCA, used engine oil and neem extract were investigated. Sixty samples (20 20 300mm) were prepared from the sapwood at mid-height of the tree of E. grandis and air seasoned for two weeks then treated with the preservatives. An area of 20m by 20m in a pine plantation and 15 plots of 1m by 1m were selected at random. Four samples, one from each treatment, were placed at the corners of the selected plots. Inspection and evaluation of stakes was made by visual assessments after every 30 days for any sign of termite attack for a period of 8 months. The specimens were removed from the ground, damage assessed and returned to the ground. After 4 weeks all the untreated wood samples had been attacked, neem extract treated wood samples were attacked after 17 weeks and used engine oil treated samples after 30 weeks. None of the CCA treated wood samples were attacked by the end of study period. Chi square analysis showed a high association between treatment and incidence as well as between treatment and severity. It was recommended that further research be carried out on neem extract using different concentrations.

  5. Effectiveness of selected preservatives in protecting Ugandan grown Eucalyptus grandis wood against termite attack

    I. E Ssemaganda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Termites are one of the major wood destroying agents in the tropics and with the increasing rate of deforestation, there is a need to protect wood from biodegradation in order to extend its service life. In this study the incidence and severity of termite attack on Eucalyptus grandis sapwood treated with CCA, used engine oil and neem extract were investigated. Sixty samples (20 × 20 × 300mm were prepared from the sapwood at mid-height of the tree of E. grandis and air seasoned for two weeks then treated with the preservatives. An area of 20m by 20m in a pine plantation and 15 plots of 1m by 1m were selected at random. Four samples, one from each treatment, were placed at the corners of the selected plots. Inspection and evaluation of stakes was made by visual assessments after every 30 days for any sign of termite attack for a period of 8 months. The specimens were removed from the ground, damage assessed and returned to the ground. After 4 weeks all the untreated wood samples had been attacked, neem extract treated wood samples were attacked after 17 weeks and used engine oil treated samples after 30 weeks. None of the CCA treated wood samples were attacked by the end of study period. Chi square analysis showed a high association between treatment and incidence as well as between treatment and severity. It was recommended that further research be carried out on neem extract using different concentrations.

  6. Predicting basal area growth in thinned slash pine plantations

    Pienaar, L.V.; Shiver, B.D.; Grider, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Long-term remeasurement data were used to evaluate different approaches to predicting basal area growth in thinned slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) plantation plots at four locations in South Africa. These data clearly indicated that a single projection model for both unthinned and thinned plantation plots, based on basal area and age at the start of the projection period, was inappropriate. Precision of the basal area projections were improved significantly when a measure of the thinning intensity was included in this model. Even better projections of basal area growth in thinned plots were obtained with an approach that utilized an index of suppression to modify the expected growth in comparable unthinned stands.

  7. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  8. Analysis of commercial cost-effectiveness of poplar plantations

    Keča Ljiljana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial cost-effectiveness of poplar cultivation and commercial cost-effectiveness of long-rotation (42-year poplar plantation were analyzed. The aim of the research is, based on analysis of expenses and receipts during the period of 42 years and by applying the method of analysis of the project commercial cost-effectiveness, to show the justification of long rotations in poplar plantations. Modern methods of investment valuation were applied and consequently their practical application in forestry was confirmed.

  9. Surveying black pine plantations in the province of Rieti (Italy

    Piermaria Corona

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last century large afforestation programs were carried out in the Apennines to recover degraded lands, mainly by Pinus nigra plantations. Currently, many Authors have proposed management guidelines to foster the naturalization of such woodlands. However, such an option requires the availability of detailed surveys. The aim of this note is to propose a survey protocol for qualifying the landscape pattern of pine reafforestations and for mapping their growing stock on the basis of the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN techniques. A case study application by Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery is here reported concerning the Pinus nigra plantations in the province of Rieti (Central Italy.

  10. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  11. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  12. Socio-economic implications of structural changes in plantations in Asian countries.

    Sircar KN; Navamukundan, A; Sajhau JP; Sukarja R

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on the economic implications and social implications of restructuring in plantations in India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka - covers agricultural production, employment, working conditions of plantation workers, wages, management, and public ownership or private ownership of tea, coffee, rubber, etc. Plantations; comments on labour legislation. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  13. Observations of evapotranspiration in a break of slope plantation susceptible to periodic drought stress

    Break of slope (BOS) plantations are advocated as a means of water table control in areas where groundwater flows through colluvial deposits overlying low permeability bedrock. It is also believed that BOS plantations can supplement their water use requirements by exploiting shallow groundwater at the breaks in topographic slope. Although BOS plantations are attracting much interest from landholders, relevant research on their hydrologic function is limited. We compared measurements of BOS plantation and pasture evapotranspiration during spring, when the weather was warm and soils moist, and late summer when drought conditions prevailed In spring we found that pasture evapotranspiration was 65% of that of the plantation, whereas in summer, pasture evapotranspiration was equivalent to only 35% of plantation evapotranspiration. Rainfall interception by the canopy of the plantation was found to be twice that of the pasture. The greater evapotranspiration of the plantation reinforces the notion that trees can help to reduce groundwater recharge and alleviate dryland salinity and water logging. During the summer drought period, daily plantation transpiration was only 20% of that measured during spring. This suggested that the plantation was not utilising groundwater supplies but was instead 'mining' soil moisture supplies. Isotopic analysis of soil and tree water supported this hypothesis. The BOS plantation we studied is not behaving in the manner expected, and our findings raise some doubt as to mooted advantages of establishing plantations in 'break of slope' positions

  14. Wood construction under cold climate

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Wan, Hui; Niemz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins was...... sensitive to temperature change. MUF, PRF and PVAc resins demonstrated different characters with Norway spruce and Scot pine. At room temperature, all types of adhesive showed relative stability, in terms of shear strength variation. While at low temperature, the shear strength varied considerably. More...

  15. European wood-fuel trade

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Management and Products, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  16. European wood-fuel trade

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  17. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  18. [Tropical woods and contact eczema].

    Ngangu, Z; Foussereau, J

    1982-01-01

    An enquiry was carried out in Zaire among workers handling different woods. The aim of the investigation was to establish which woods provoke undesirable reactions of the skin and mucous membranes. Besides the well known toxic woods, 6 types of wood were identified, which had not been known to be cause of these reactions: --Autranella congolensis (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations); --Drypetes gossweileri (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations); --Ceiba pentandra (essentially pruriginous manifestations); --Diba di Nzambi (common name) and Ficus capensis (bullous dermatitis); --Combretodendron macrocarpum (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations). PMID:6218978

  19. Wood pole overhead lines

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  20. Wood-Based Bioenergy

    Hoel, Michael; Sletten, Thea Marcelia

    2014-01-01

    During recent years increased attention has been given to second-generation wood-based bioenergy. The carbon stored in the forest is highest when there is little or no harvest from the forest. Increasing the harvest from a forest, in order to produce more bioenergy, may thus conflict with the direct benefit of the forest as a carbon sink. We analyze this conflict using a simple model where bioenergy and fossil energy are perfect substitutes. Our analysis shows how the social optimum will depe...

  1. Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations

    First a map of grass contamination (of May 1986) in Styria, Austria and the sites of plantation of medical herbs are given. Then tables of radioactivity of several dried herbs and of infusions, tinctures and essential oils are presented. There is no danger to the users of drugs. 2 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (qui)

  2. Short Communication. Restoring monoculture plantation using stand spatial structure analysis

    G. Gao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. To improve the quality of monoculture plantations in China.Area of study. structure-based forest management was conducted in Rocky Mountain Area of Northern China.Material and Methods. Stand spatial structure indicators of mingling degree, uniform angle index, neighborhood comparison and opening degree were comparably investigated to understand the changes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantations.Main results. The results indicated that structure-based forest management accounted for 0.403 and 0.448 of the significant variations in mingling degree and opening degree increments, and had no essential changes in uniform angle index and neighborhood comparison. Structure-based forest management is greatly beneficial to plantation quality, and it can be a source of improvement on stand structure.Research highlights. This improved information is essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on how best to restore degraded forests in China as well as the rest of the world.Key words: monoculture plantation; structure-based forest management; stand spatial structure; forest restoration

  3. Soil physical properties influence "black truffle" fructification in plantations.

    Alonso Ponce, Rafael; greda, Teresa; gueda, Beatriz; Aldea, Jorge; Martnez-Pea, Fernando; Modrego, Mara Pilar

    2014-04-01

    Although the important effects of pH and carbonate content of soils on "black truffle" (Tuber melanosporum) production are well known, we poorly understand the influence of soil physical properties. This study focuses on physical soil characteristics that drive successful production of black truffles in plantations. Seventy-eight Quercus ilex ssp. ballota plantations older than 10years were studied in the province of Teruel (eastern Spain). Soil samples were analyzed for various edaphic characteristics and to locate T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizae. The influence of cultivation practices, climatic features, and soil properties on sporocarp production was assessed using multivariate analyses. Low contents of fine earth and silt and high levels of bulk density, clay content, and water-holding capacity appear to promote fructification. Watering is also highly positive for truffle fructification. We develop and discuss a logistic model to predict the probability of truffle fructification in field sites under consideration for truffle plantation establishment. The balance between water availability and aeration plays a crucial role in achieving success in black truffle plantations. PMID:24487451

  4. La diffrenciation spatiale de lconomie de plantation

    ric MOLLARD

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Le chorme de la zone dattraction, mis en oeuvre trois reprises, propose une modlisation de lusage du sol en conomie de plantation. Son application successive donne naissance des interactions qui expliquent certains dsquilibres gographiques dans la rgion proche dAbidjan.

  5. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas; Mertz, Ole

    2013-01-01

    been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao...

  6. Nutrition and growth in newly established plantations of Eucalyptus globulus in northwestern Spain

    Merino, Agustín; López, Ángel, L.; Brañas, Jesús; Rodríguez-Soalleiro, Roque

    2003-01-01

    Nutrition et croissance dans les nouvelles plantations d'Eucalyptus globulus du nord ouest de l'Espagne. La croissance et l'état nutritionnel des plantations d'Eucalyptus globulus du nord-ouest de l'Espagne ont été étudiés en fonction des caractéristiques édaphiques et des techniques de préparation du site. La plupart des plantations sont installées sur des sols pauvres de profondeur moyenne. Bien que fertilisées à la plantation, la plupart des plantations révèlent des concentrations foliaire...

  7. MARKET VALUE OF TEAK PLANTATIONS (Tectona grandis Linn. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CORDOBA

    Cesar A. Vergara Crdoba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L. has great stability in changing environments and is resistant to degradation by biotic and abiotic agents. For these reasons, its wood is considered one of the most valuable in the world. The objective of this study was to estimate the value of teak timber in Cordoba, Colombia. Permanent circular plots were used. The commercial value of the potential timber production in each plot were estimated based on the age, quality and size of logs, volume (by diameter class, potential use and transport. The results showed that trees at the field El Limon (San Antero. with the highest volume of timber production, had the lowest commercial value (67.5%. The highest commercial value was found in Guazimal (Canalete, with a decrease in the real value of 56.7%. The diameter of the trees was the most important factor on the commercial value of the trees, this suggest that it is very important to improve the selection of the planting material and the management of the crop. This paper shows the current value of teak plantations in the department of Crdoba and it will be as a reference point for future research in this area.

  8. Leaf size serves as a proxy for xylem vulnerability to cavitation in plantation trees.

    Schreiber, Stefan G; Hacke, Uwe G; Chamberland, Sabrina; Lowe, Christopher W; Kamelchuk, David; Brutigam, Katharina; Campbell, Malcolm M; Thomas, Barb R

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid poplars are an important renewable forest resource known for their high productivity. At the same time, they are highly vulnerable to water stress. Identifying traits that can serve as indicators for growth performance remains an important task, particularly under field conditions. Understanding which trait combinations translate to improved productivity is key in order to satisfy the demand for poplar wood in an uncertain future climate. In this study, we compared hydraulic and leaf traits among five hybrid poplar clones at 10 plantations in central Alberta. We also assessed the variation of these traits between 2- to 3-year-old branches from the lower to mid-crown and current-year long shoots from the mid to upper crown. Our results showed that (1) hybrid poplars differed in key hydraulic parameters between branch type, (2) variation of hydraulic traits among clones was relatively large for some clones and less for others, and (3) strong relationships between measured hydraulic traits, such as vessel diameter, cavitation resistance, xylem-specific and leaf-specific conductivity and leaf area, were observed. Our results suggest that leaf size could serve as an additional screening tool when selecting for drought-tolerant genotypes in forest management and tree improvement programmes. PMID:26177991

  9. Breeding Strategy of Acacia Hybrid (Acacia mangium A. auriculiformis to Increase Forest Plantation Productivity in Indonesia

    Sri Sunarti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium A.auriculiformis shows better growth and wood properties, and tolerance to pest and disease. Currently, acacia hybrid breeding strategy was developed through naturally hybrid selected from trees grown in plantation. However, mass propagation of acacia hybrid using such kind of strategy was not satisfied due to ageing effect. This study was aimed to develop a new acacia hybrid breeding strategy using controlled pollination hybridization technique. The strategy was developed through a series of research: flowering, crossing, hybrid identification, clone multiplication, and clonal test. The results of study showed that the series of research for developing acacia hybrid breeding strategy was achieved. Flowering time synchronization provided a high probability for the success of controlled pollination hybridization. Leaves taxonomy at seedling stage revealed to be an efective way to identify acacia hybrid with acuracy of 92.2%. The acacia hybrid was succesfully propagated using shoot cutting at rate of 78.1%. The best selected clones of acacia hybrid outperformed in height growth at rates of 17.28% over to superior pure parents, which is equivalent to the estimated stand productivity at around 48 m3 ha-1 y-1. The series of research provided a new effective and efficient breeding strategy for acacia hybrid.Keywords: Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium, acacia hybrid, controlled pollination, breeding strategyDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.128

  10. The response of macroinvertebrates to artificially enhanced detritus levels in plantation streams

    Pretty, J. L.; Dobson, M.

    The leaves and wood from vegetation surrounding headwater streams constitute a major food source for aquatic invertebrates, providing they are retained upon the streambed and not transported downstream. This study investigated the response of aquatic invertebrates to artificially increased detritus retention, in an effort to reproduce the naturally occurring build up of dead organic matter associated with streams in old-growth forest. The background detrital standing stock in streams in Kielder Forest (Northumberland, UK) was low, approximately 32 gm-2. Two streams flowing through dense conifer plantation and one in open broadleaved woodland were manipulated by the addition of logs over a 10 m stream reach. After several months, log addition significantly enhanced detrital standing stocks in both conifer and broadleaved streams. Total invertebrate abundance, taxon richness and the numbers of certain numerically dominant families were significantly higher in experimental than reference reaches in both conifer and broadleaved streams. This response was most marked for detritivores, whilst non-detritivore groups often showed no response to the manipulation. Whilst in the short term the responses to enhanced retention may reflect a redistribution of the local fauna, it is argued that over a longer time-scale, a genuine increase in invertebrate density and diversity could occur. Allowing old-growth forest to develop in planted valley bottoms may be a viable management option for conservation. If established alongside streams, it would ensure continuous input of woody material and the fauna may benefit from the resulting increase in detritus retention.

  11. Wood-plastic composites using woods native to Iran

    Radiation induced polymerization of methylmethacrylate and copolymerization of styrene-acrylonitrile mixture in mamrase Carpinus betulus was carried out by means of γ-ray, under different moisture levels and additives. Under all conditions the degree of polymerization was as high as 60%. No pronounced differences were observed in the kinetics of the polymerization of MMA either with moisture content of wood nor with kind and amount of additives. At high moisture (80% RH) content the dimensional stability of wood-PMMA was increased four fold as compared with untreated wood. The hardness increased about 100% for a weight conversion of monomer of about 30 to 40%. Hardness of this wood-polymer composite is comparable to that of the best noble woods in the world. (author)

  12. Improvment of wood-residues conversion technology

    Posharnikov, Feliks; Bazarskaya, Nina; Bulanov, Aleksandr

    2011-01-01

    The problem of wood residues conversion is considered. The sizes-based types of wood residues and results of wood residues conversion are presented. Sawdust-based-cement a new original product is offered

  13. Below-ground biomass production and allometric relationships of eucalyptus coppice plantation in the central highlands of Madagascar

    Short rotations of Eucalyptus plantations under coppice regime are extensively managed for wood production in Madagascar. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass production and partitioning and their potential in terms of carbon sequestration. If above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on established allometric relations, below-ground (BGB) estimates are much less common. The aim of this work was to develop allometric equations to estimate biomass of these plantations, mainly for the root components. Data from 9 Eucalyptus robusta stands (47–87 years of plantation age, 3–5 years of coppice-shoot age) were collected and analyzed. Biomass of 3 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weight of AGB components (leaves, branches and stems) were estimated as a function of basal area of all shoots per stump and dry weight for BGB components (mainly stump, coarse root (CR) and medium root (MR)) were estimated as a function of stump circumference. Biomass was then computed using allometric equations from stand inventory data. Stand biomass ranged from 102 to 130 Mg ha−1 with more than 77% contained in the BGB components. The highest dry weight was allocated in the stump and in the CR (51% and 42% respectively) for BGB parts and in the stem (69%) for AGB part. Allometric relationships developed herein could be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations which present similar stand density and growing conditions; anyhow, more is needed to be investigated in understanding biomass production and partitioning over time for this kind of forest ecosystem. -- Highlights: ► We studied the potential of old eucalyptus coppices in Madagascar to mitigate global warming. ► Biomass measurement, mainly for below-ground BGB (stump, coarse-medium-and fine roots) was provided. ► BGB allometry relationships for short rotation forestry under coppice were established. ► BGB were found to be important with their 102-130MgC ha-1 (<77% of the C in the studied ecosystem). ► Importance of the study in a country like Madagascar for developing CDM and REDD activities.

  14. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less stemwood since half of the canopy (Acacias) are dominated, and the other half does not benefit much in terms of tree growth compared to absorbed light. The eventual benefit of the nitrogen-fixing species is not visible in the mixture with 50% of each species. More attention has to be paid to introducing acacias in an additive series with the same density of eucalyptus trees as in the monospecific stands.

  15. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

  16. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (Wc; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (Wa) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha-1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha-1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

  17. Wood Resources of Thailand

    According to 'The Book of Siamese Plant Names' issued by the Royal Forest Department in 1948, exactly one thousand species of trees in Thailand had been identified before that date. Many more species, including such remarkable ones as Prunus .javanica (T & B) Mig. and Betula anoides Ham., which are typical of the temperate zone, were later added to the list. Of the total number mentioned, 280 species have been registered under the Thai Forest Act as reserved species which cannot be cut without permission from the authority. Timbers of real commercial value, however, are comparatively few in number and those with high production figures for the fiscal year 1966 are listed in Table I where the wood density of each species is also given. Only twenty years ago, very few species superior in natural durability, strength, dimensional stability and working quality were offered in local timber markets, including Bangkok. Recently, as the demand for timbers increased enormously and with the development of wood-consuming industry, nearly all tree species have become valuable. Some soft species, such as Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl., which were previously considered to be unusable, have also become important raw materials for pulp and paper, plywood and particle-board manufacturing. Trees of smaller size are also continuously needed for the fabrication of construction materials

  18. Cofiring of wood cocombustion

    Orjala, M.; Ingalsuo, R.; Patrikainen, T.; Maekipaeae, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine safe combustion conditions in circulating and bubbling fluidised-bed boilers for wood chips produced by different forest harvesting chains. The optimal mixing ratios for typical and commonly used forest chip qualities, as well as for mixtures of chips and other fuels, under steam temperatures typical of circulating and bubbling fluidised-bed boilers are also determined. Emissions are also reviewed. The combustion and co-firing properties of fuels produced by different forest chains, and their suitability were studied first in VTT's test facilities and later in industrial-scale power plant boilers. The formation of alkaline and chlorine compounds and their effect on boiler fouling were studied by deposit probes in the test facilities. Deposits and phase changes in their compounds and corrosion risks are analysed by SEM-EDX. Utilisation of logging residue chips can cause deposition on heat exchanger surfaces and corrosion due to chlorine of wood ash. The harmful formation of alkaline and chlorine compounds on boiler surfaces could be prevented by co-firing sulphur-containing fuel. (orig.)

  19. De novo characterization of the Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata transcriptome and analysis of candidate genes involved in cellulose and lignin biosynthesis

    Huang Hua-Hong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata is an important timber species that accounts for 20–30% of the total commercial timber production in China. However, the available genomic information of Chinese fir is limited, and this severely encumbers functional genomic analysis and molecular breeding in Chinese fir. Recently, major advances in transcriptome sequencing have provided fast and cost-effective approaches to generate large expression datasets that have proven to be powerful tools to profile the transcriptomes of non-model organisms with undetermined genomes. Results In this study, the transcriptomes of nine tissues from Chinese fir were analyzed using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. Approximately 40 million paired-end reads were obtained, generating 3.62 gigabase pairs of sequencing data. These reads were assembled into 83,248 unique sequences (i.e. Unigenes with an average length of 449 bp, amounting to 37.40 Mb. A total of 73,779 Unigenes were supported by more than 5 reads, 42,663 (57.83% had homologs in the NCBI non-redundant and Swiss-Prot protein databases, corresponding to 27,224 unique protein entries. Of these Unigenes, 16,750 were assigned to Gene Ontology classes, and 14,877 were clustered into orthologous groups. A total of 21,689 (29.40% were mapped to 119 pathways by BLAST comparison against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database. The majority of the genes encoding the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathways of cellulose and lignin were identified in the Unigene dataset by targeted searches of their annotations. And a number of candidate Chinese fir genes in the two metabolic pathways were discovered firstly. Eighteen genes related to cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were cloned for experimental validating of transcriptome data. Overall 49 Unigenes, covering different regions of these selected genes, were found by alignment. Their expression patterns in different tissues were analyzed by qRT-PCR to explore their putative functions. Conclusions A substantial fraction of transcript sequences was obtained from the deep sequencing of Chinese fir. The assembled Unigene dataset was used to discover candidate genes of cellulose and lignin biosynthesis. This transcriptome dataset will provide a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetics research of C. lanceolata.

  20. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WOOD TRANSPORTATION

    Sokolov A. P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an example of usage of the tool for round-wood transport planning from the Decision Support System “Forest Logistic Toolset” for com-pare of two approaches to the organization of international wood transportation

  2. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  3. Wood bending using microwave heating

    This article presents a new technique of wood bending where microwave irradiation is used to heat and soften wet wood specimens. Compared to the traditional steaming procedure, this procedure offers many advantages : (i) as the heating occurs inside the specimen, complete softening is obtained very quickly; (ii) temperature can be easily controlled in order to obtain the best processing conditions; (iii) the benefit will be especially big in the case of large specimens whose pretreatment may take hours with steaming; (iv) in general, the applicability of wood bending is enlarged, i.e. new wood species and specimens with lower quality can endure larger deformations with a reduced loss. In the case where drastic strain levels are required, the forming and setting operations should be done inside the microwave oven, in order to take advantage of the additional ''mechano-sorptive'' flexibility appearing when wood dries under load

  4. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  5. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 ?m, and 7.1 ?m, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

  6. Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae

    Débora Aparecida Verde de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689.Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are kidney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

  7. Oil palm dreams and disillusions : smallhoders' plantations in a context of low inputs farming systems in Indonesia

    Moulin, Margot; Feintrenie, Laurène; Bessou, Cécile; Wohlfahrt, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In Sumatra Island, in Indonesia, rubber plantations are a long tradition of familiy farming. The successes of oil palm smallholders involved in partnerships with companies ('plasma smallholders') worked as an incentive for the develoment of independent smallholders' plantations, most often replacing smallholders' old rubber agroforests and plantations. In Feintrenie et al. (2010) oil palm independent smallholders' plantations are expected to produce higher return to labour than rubber plantat...

  8. Acoustical classification of woods for string instruments.

    Yoshikawa, Shigeru

    2007-07-01

    Two basic types of wood are used to make stringed musical instruments: woods for soundboards (top plates) and those for frame boards (back and side plates). A new way to classify the acoustical properties of woods and clearly separate these two groups is proposed in this paper. The transmission parameter (product of propagation speed and Q value of the longitudinal wave along the wood grain) and the antivibration parameter (wood density divided by the propagation speed along the wood grain) are introduced in the proposed classification scheme. Two regression lines, drawn for traditional woods, show the distinctly different functions required by soundboards and frame boards. These regression lines can serve as a reference to select the best substitute woods when traditional woods are not available. Moreover, some peculiarities of Japanese string instruments, which are made clear by comparing woods used for them with woods used for Western and Chinese instruments, are briefly discussed. PMID:17614512

  9. National wood in dealings

    In this article, the authors analyze the management of state enterprise Forests of the Slovak Republic. The firm manages long-term loss. Economic losses are caused mainly because the company is controlled by government political parties. There has also been found that the in the branch plant in Liptovsky Hradok foresters are missing twenty thousand cubic meters of timber worth in excess of one million Euros. Only in this race bad debts amounted to four million Euros. In 2007 timber production reached more than 3.9 million m3. Plant is already preparing a recovery plan. It has increased the production of wood chips. The company produces just over one hundred thousand tons annually chips yet. In the future it wants to produce five hundred thousand.

  10. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  11. Enzymatic activities and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in a soil root zone under heavy metal stress.

    Gucwa-Przepióra, Ewa; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Fojcik, Barbara; Chmura, Damian

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the present field study were to examine the soil enzyme activities in the soil root zones of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in different heavy metal contaminated stands. Moreover, the investigations concerned the intensity of root endophytic colonization and metal bioaccumulation in roots and shoots. The investigated Plantago species exhibited an excluder strategy, accumulating higher metal content in the roots than in the shoots. The heavy metal accumulation levels found in the two plantain species in this study were comparable to other plants suggested as phytostabilizers; therefore, the selected Plantago species may be applied in the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated areas. The lower level of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) as well as the higher bioavailability of metals in the root zone soil of the two plantain species were found in an area affected by smelting activity, where organic matter content in the soil was also the smallest. Mycorrhizal colonization on both species in the contaminated area was similar to colonization in non-contaminated stands. However, the lowest arbuscule occurrence and an absence of dark septate endophytes were found in the area affected by the smelting activity. It corresponded with the lowest plant cover observed in this stand. The assessment of enzyme activity, mycorrhizal colonization, and the chemical and physical properties of soils proved to be sensitive to differences between sites and between Plantago species. PMID:26531716

  12. Wood would burn

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 oC and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by increasing the combustion pressure to above 80 bar, resulting in the recovered latent heat being available at more than 200 oC. It can then be used to increase the cycle efficiency by about 15% by pre-heating the boiler water and/or combustion air etc. A further advantage is that the high pressure of the combustion gases also reduces the superheater tube stress since it can balance the steam pressure. The key advantage of this high pressure flue gas is that it is above the pressure at which carbon dioxide 'condenses' to a liquid or supercritical gas at atmospheric temperature. Thus when used with oxy-fuel combustion, the carbon dioxide flue gas from which the moisture has been condensed can be cooled to atmospheric temperature and the supercritical CO2 can be fed directly into the pipes leading to the sequestration site. An important consideration of these strategies is to ensure that non-condensable gases in the exhaust, including oxygen and nitrogen, do not adversely affect the 'condensation' processes. When oxy-fuel combustion is used, the flame temperature must be moderated by a cool diluent. Recycled carbon dioxide is often proposed for this duty. However, since the latent heat is recovered, the moisture or even additional water can fulfil this role. This latter option may be advantageous since it is more efficient to pump wood chip fuel in water into the high pressure zone rather than feed solid wood particles. Surplus water can be simply drained and the wet wood chips are a good fuel when the latent heat of the moisture in the fuel gases is recovered into the power cycle. Bearing in mind that it is much more efficient to pump a liquid to high pressure than to compress the same material as a gas, indicates that cryogenic oxygen is a suitable material to use for an efficient power station that generates energy from biomass (or other fuels such as coal etc). Finally, combustion of the hydrogen from the water-gas reaction with oxygen allows the steam temperature in the turbine to be increased to the 'gas-turbine engine' range of 1000-1400 oC and hence the biomass and/or fossil fuel cycle efficiency can be well over 60%! -- Research highlights: → Innovative combustion system options and technical implementation for high moisture fuels. → High pressure oxy-fuel combustion system increases the cycle efficiency by 15%. → Liquid CO2 can be formed at ambient temperature and fed directly into pipes for sequestration.

  13. WOOD CHARACTERIZATION OF ADULT CLONES OF Tectona grandis GROWING IN COSTA RICA

    Natalia Arce

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tectona grandis is an important wood in the commercial market due to its excellent workability, durability and aesthetic characteristics. Therefore, it is important to improve the conditions of reproduction and development in commercial plantations using clone reproduction, in order to produce trees with better wood quality. In this study we analyzed the general properties, physical properties and color of 20 adult teak clones (fifteen-year-old from the area of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. It was found that at 15 years, the clones have a diameter which varies from 19.82 cm to 30.13 cm, the percentage of heartwood ranges from 49.76 to 60.02%, and that these values are similar to those found in the literature. In regards to the physical properties, it was found that the specific gravity ranges from 0.45 to 0.60 g.cm-3, the green moisture content varies from 70% to 110.6%. In the color properties, it was found that L* values ranged from 48 to 59, a* 7 to 9.5 and b * from 20.5 to 26.3. Likewise it was determined that the color change (?E* compared to commercial wood color, is commonly categorized as perceptible in all clones. However, three of the clones studied have a darker color and reddish wood which indicates a color more desirable to the end user.

  14. Predicting the morphological characteristics and basic density of Eucalyptus wood using the NIRS technique

    Lívia Cássia Viana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to apply the near infrared spectroscopy technique (NIRS for fast prediction of basic density and morphological characteristics of wood fibers in Eucalyptus clones. Six Eucalyptus clones aged three years were used, obtained from plantations in Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce and Santa Bárbara, in Minas Gerais state. The morphological characteristics of the fibers and basic density of the wood were determined by conventional methods and correlated with near infrared spectra using partial least square regression (PLS regression. Best calibration correlations were obtained in basic density prediction, with values 0.95 for correlation coefficient of cross validation (Rcv and 3.4 for ratio performance deviation (RPD, in clone 57. Fiber length can be predicted by models with Rcv ranging from 0.61 to 0.89 and standard error (SECV ranging from 0.037 to 0.079 mm. The prediction model for wood fiber width presented higher Rcv (0.82 and RPD (1.9 values in clone 1046. Best fits to estimate lumen diameter and fiber wall thickness were obtained with information from clone 1046. In some clones, the NIRS technique proved efficient to predict the anatomical properties and basic density of wood in Eucalyptus clones.

  15. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  16. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF WOOD AND WOOD BASED MATERIALS

    Rafael Rodolfo de Melo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The wood, as well as other construction materials, presents changes in this stiffness and strength when submitted to a long time loading. This phenomenon is important in the analyses resistance capacity of structural materials. Mechanically, the wood behaves as aviscous-elastic solid. However, over time, the structural elements submitted to permanent or cyclic loading presents some deformation, which denotes a viscous-elastic behavior. This characteristic is influenced mainly on the intensity and duration of loading. In this study a review of rheological phenomenon is presented, showing up the causes and effects for a better understanding, which is essential for the appropriate and efficient use of the wood and wood composites as structural materials.

  17. Wood fuels sources and markets

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  18. Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation

    Marta Giordano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last decades, dramatic changes in agricultural practices have led to important modifications of land-use, as well as landscape structure, and to a general biodiversity loss in agro-ecosystems. During 2008 we investigated the small mammal communities of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF stands in Northern Italy. We live-trapped small mammals, during summer and autumn, in different types of SRF stands and surrounding habitats and compared capture rates. We evaluated the influence on small mammals abundance of the distance between the stands and other habitats offering woody or bushy cover. Our results showed that SRF plantations are widely exploited by small mammals, especially in autumn and that capture rate is the highest in “double-row” stands. The distance from woods or other arboriculture stands was negatively correlated to small mammals abundance. We conclude that SRF plantations can be considered a suitable habitat for small mammals and may work as a “corridor habitat” between fragmented patches of suitable habitats.
    Riassunto Uso degli impianti a turno breve da parte dei micrommamiferi, in relazione alla loro struttura e isolamento Negli ultimi decenni profondi cambiamenti nelle pratiche agricole hanno causato modifiche nella tipologia di uso dei terreni, così come nella struttura del paesaggio, che hanno portato a una generale perdita di biodiversità negli agroecosistemi. Nel corso del 2008 abbiamo studiato le comunità di micromammiferi nelle piantagioni di pioppo per la produzione di biomassa (SRF nel Nord Italia. Con l’uso di live-traps abbiamo effettuato due sessioni di cattura, una estiva e una autunnale, nei diversi tipi di impianto delle SRF e negli ambienti circostanti, per comparare le frequenze di cattura. Abbiamo quindi analizzato l’influenza che la distanza tra i diversi ambienti con copertura arborea ha sull’abbondanza dei micromammiferi. Dal nostro studio è emerso che le SRF sono largamente sfruttate dai micromammiferi, soprattutto in autunno e che il successo di cattura è massimo negli impianti a file binate. L’abbondanza dei micromammiferi è risultata inversamente correlata alla distanza dagli ambienti che offrono copertura, come boschi o altri impianti di arboricoltura. I risultati hanno mostrato che le SRF possono considerarsi un ambiente idoneo per i micromammiferi, ed esse potrebbero funzionare da habitat di collegamento tra i frammenti di altri habitat utilizzati dai micromammiferi.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4443

  19. Wood and pulp properties of two Eucalyptus globulus wood samples

    Santos, A; Anjos, O.; Simões, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports experimental data about wood chemical composition (extractives and lignin content), fibre characteristics, kraft cooking behaviour and papermaking potential of two wood samples of Eucalyptus globulus (one industrial chip sample and another obtained from a clone tree). The samples were submitted to the kraft cooking and bleaching processes in order to evaluate its pulping potential. The experimental results showed that the clone tree requires mi...

  20. Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar

    Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

    2011-12-01

    Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P human loss by cyclones and also improve the life of local people by increasing timber resources and environmental services.

  1. Do changes in carbon allocation account for the growth response to potassium and sodium applications in tropical Eucalyptus plantations?

    Epron, Daniel; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Almeida, Julio C R; Gonalves, Jos Leonardo M; Ponton, Stephane; Sette, Carlos R; Delgado-Rojas, Juan S; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms that account for the impact of potassium (K) fertilization and its replacement by sodium (Na) on tree growth is key to improving the management of forest plantations that are expanding over weathered tropical soils with low amounts of exchangeable bases. A complete randomized block design was planted with Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) to quantify growth, carbon uptake and carbon partitioning using a carbon budget approach. A combination of approaches including the establishment of allometric relationships over the whole rotation and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall at the end of the rotation were used to estimate aboveground net production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux and gross primary production (GPP). The stable carbon isotope (?(13)C) of stem wood ?-cellulose produced every year was used as a proxy for stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Potassium fertilization increased GPP and decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground. Aboveground net production was strongly enhanced, and because leaf lifespan increased, leaf biomass was enhanced without any change in leaf production, and wood production (P(W)) was dramatically increased. Sodium application decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground in a similar way, and enhanced GPP, ANPP and P(W), but to a lesser extent compared with K fertilization. Neither K nor Na affected ?(13)C of stem wood ?-cellulose, suggesting that water-use efficiency was the same among the treatments and that the inferred increase in leaf photosynthesis was not only related to a higher stomatal conductance. We concluded that the response to K fertilization and Na addition on P(W) resulted from drastic changes in carbon allocation. PMID:22021011

  2. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and

  3. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET

  4. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  5. Carbon dioxide exchange and growth of a pine plantation

    Murphy, Jr, C E

    1981-01-01

    The exchange of materials between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem is important to an understanding of the cycling of essential elements, the deposition of mateials from the atmosphere and the entrance of pollutants into the forest ecosystems. This paper reports the results of measurements of carbon dioxide exchange in a vigorously growing pine plantation. Measurement data were incorporated into a model used to estimate annual carbon dioxide exchange and measured annual biomass accumulation in the same plantation were used to determine a carbon dioxide to biomass conversion efficiency. Carbon dioxide exchange was 10.5 metric tons per hectare and biomass accumulation was 4.5 metric tons per hectare. The conversion efficiency of cabon dioxide to biomass is about 25% less than the theoretical chemical conversion efficiency. 27 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Holly K. Ober; Lucas W. DeGroote

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantatio...

  7. The conflict over Veracel pulpwood plantations in Brazil

    Kröger, Markus; Nylund, Jan-Erik

    2011-01-01

    The large-scale pulp investment model, with its pressure on land, has created conflict and caused major disagreements and open hostility amongst the social movement and NGO networks, state actors, and the pulp and paper companies in Brazil. In this article, Ethical Analysis was applied in the assessment of the dynamics and possibilities of conflict resolution related to the expansion of pulpwood plantations in Brazil's Bahia State, particularly near Veracel Celulose. Ethical Analysis as a too...

  8. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to eval...

  9. Can Indias wasteland be used for biomass plantations?

    Ostwald, Madelene; Tiwari, Rakesh; Pettersson, Kristina; Murthy, Indu; Berndes, Gran; Ravindranath, N.H.; Karlson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    How much of Indias vast wasteland can be used for growing plants such as eucalyptus and Jatropha? As land demands have increased, the sustainable use of marginal lands has become increasingly important. In India about 47 million hectares, or 15 percent of the total geographical area, is classified as wastelands. Here we assess the climate and land quality requirements of eucalyptus, a commonly used plantation tree, and Jatropha, a much-discussed biodiesel crop. We find that roughly half of t...

  10. METHOD OF FERTILIZATION OF ENERGY WILLOW PLANTATION USING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Witold Niemiec; Feliks Stachowicz; Tomasz Trzepieciński

    2013-01-01

    Sewage sludge deriving from biofiltrationof municipal waste abound in soil processed organic substances and mineral fertilization components which may be used for fertil-ization of energy willow plantations. In the article the potential of natural utilization of sewage sludge and the patented device for injection dosage of sludge has been pre-sented. The device enables putting into soil mineral and organic fertilizers with loose consistency and their immediate covering by soil in order to red...

  11. Leaf area estimation from tree allometrics in Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    Fabião, António; J. M. C. Pereira; Tomé, Margarida; Carreiras, J.M.B.; Tomé, José; Pereira, J. S.; David, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    Data from five studies on the relationships between dendrometric measurements and leaf area of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations were pooled and analyzed to develop regression models for the estimation of leaf area of individual trees. The data, collected at two sites in west-central and southwestern Portugal, varied in age from 2 to 19 years and in plant density from 481 to 1560 trees/ha and included both first and second rotation coppice stands. A total of 29 nonlinear reg...

  12. Biomass production in an age series of Bambusa bambos plantations

    Shanmughavel, P.; Muthukumar, T. [Bharathiar Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Botany; Peddappaiah, R.S. [Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore (India)

    2001-07-01

    The biomass production in an age series of Bambusa bambos plantations was estimated, and compared with its interspecies natural stands and between genera of natural and plantation stands. There was a linear increase of the total biomass of all compartments with the age of the plantation. In the above-ground biomass, the percentage contribution of culms (81%), branches (14%) and leaves (1%) was 96%, whereas in the below-ground rhizome contribution was 4%. The total biomass ranged from 2.3 tDM ha{sup -1} (I year) to 297.9 tDM ha{sup -1} (6 year). The mean annual biomass production was 49.6 tDM ha{sup -1}, over the 6 year period. The mean periodic increment and net primary production was highest in the 5th year, during which a peak of 124.1 t DM ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in net primary production was obtained. (Author)

  13. Estimation of Carbon Stocks in Coffee Plantation in East Java

    Aris Wibawa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is closely related with the amount of carbon stored in an ecosystem. A research to determine the amount of carbon stock in the coffee farms has been conducted in Sumberbaru and Silo Sub-districts in Jember district, Kaliwining Experimental Station (ES in Jember district, Sumberasin ES in Malang district and Andungsari ES in Bondowoso district. Carbon stock was measured using the method of Rapid Carbon Stocks Assessment (RaCSA developed by ICRAF. Measurements were made on the observation plots of 200 m2, with 3 replications. Results of measurement of carbon stock on coffee plantations showed that the increased carbon stock was proportional with the age of plants. Carbon stock in coffee plantation depends on the shade tree system. In the monoculture coffee leucaena used as shade trees, the carbon stock was lower then in multistrata system (agroforestry used several kinds of shade trees. Carbon stock on coffee plant in the estate more than smallholder. The average of carbon stock on Robusta coffee at the age of 30 years amounted to 29.38 Mg ha-1, it is greater than the carbon deposit on Arabica coffee that is 22.02 Mg ha-1.Key words: Carbon stock, coffee plantation, Arabica, Robusta, smallholder, agroforestri

  14. Understory succession in post-agricultural oak plantations

    Brunet, Jörg; Valtinat, Karin; Mayr, Marian Lajos; Felton, Adam; Lindbladh, Matts; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The herbaceous understory forms the richest stratum in temperate broadleaved forests in terms of plant diversity. Understanding the process of understory succession is thus of critical importance for the development of management guidelines for biodiversity restoration in post-agricultural planta......The herbaceous understory forms the richest stratum in temperate broadleaved forests in terms of plant diversity. Understanding the process of understory succession is thus of critical importance for the development of management guidelines for biodiversity restoration in post......-agricultural plantation forests. We studied effects of stand age, forest fragmentation, and soil and canopy conditions on species richness and abundance of four species groups in the understory of post-arable oak plantations in southern Sweden: herbaceous forest specialists, habitat generalists and open land species, and...... species and of generalists remained stable, and were not affected by fragmentation. Abundance of generalists gradually decreased in non-fragmented plantations, probably due to competition from colonizing forest specialists. Soil pH in post-arable stands remained consistently higher than in continuously...

  15. Financial and energy analyses of woody biomass plantations

    This paper provides an economic analysis of a short rotation woody crop (SRWC) plantation system established the financial and energy costs of woody biomass and related net values for the total system. A production model for commercial-sized Populus plantations was developed from a series of research projects sponsored by the U.S,. Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. The design was based on hybrid poplar planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cutting ha-1. Growth was forecast at 16 Mg(OD) ha-1 yr-1 on a six-year rotation cycle. All inputs associated with plantation establishment, annual operations, and land use were identified on a financial and energy cost basis (Strauss et al. 1989). Net values for the system projected a minimum financial profit and a major net energy gain. Financial profit was limited by the high market value of energy inputs as compared to the low market value of the energy output. The net energy gain was attributed to the solar energy captured through photosynthesis. Principal input costs to the overall system, on both a financial and energy basis, were land rent and the harvesting/transportation requirements

  16. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation

  17. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  18. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  19. THE WATER USE BY FOREST PLANTATIONS – A REVIEW

    Silvana Lucia Caldato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810562This review aims to present some of the main results and infer about the current state-of-the-art of the controversy related to the water use by forest plantations. Several studies have been carried out in this area in different regions, mainly in Australia, South Africa, Europe, India and Brazil. However, according to authors, the controversy persists and it is necessary that the scientific results are understood by the community in order to avoid the predominance of myths and half-truths. In this way, the current review intends to summarize some scientific results concerning the main hydrologic aspects of the plantations (interception, transpiration and catchment water balance, the relationship between the high productivity and the water use efficiency, and the importance of the establishment of forest management plan focused on the river watershed scale, in order to contribute to hydrological sustainability.  The results coincide that the relationship between the forest plantations and the water depends on the region, species, environmental conditions  and management practices on the watershed scale.

  20. Assessment of radiation health risk in Cameron Highlands tea plantations

    Exposure to the natural radiation is quite common except that the level varies from one place to another. The level of radiation will depend on the type of rocks and soil on that particular area, where the granitic rocks tend to contribute more to the background radiation. The present study was conducted in two of the Tea Plantations in Cameron Highlands, where it has been in operation for more than 50 years. The landscape is hilly type and the workers have to pluck the tea leaves manually. Practically, there are spending long hours in the plantation area. There were thirteen locations for soil sampling and surface dose in-situ measurement. Soil samples were taken back to the UiTM laboratory in Shah Alam for further analysis. Samples were clean, dried, ground and sieve to obtain homogenous samples before analysis. Samples were packed in a plastic container around 400 g, sealed and leave it for 3 weeks to allow radionuclides to reach secular equilibrium, before counting using gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector. The spectrum was analysed using gamma vision software to calculate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K. From the radium equivalent values, one can estimate the external hazard index, the absorb dose and cumulative effective dose received by the person who spend their time in the study area. The results show the external hazard index more than one for one of the tea plantation, but the cumulative effective dose is still below the recommended level. (author)

  1. Specific Heat Capacity of Wood

    Kristijan Radmanović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Specifi c heat capacity is defi ned as the amount of heat that a kilogram of a given substance is required to absorb in order to increase its temperature by one degree. The temperature of a given substance can change either at constant pressure or at constant volume, so we differentiate between specifi c heat capacity at constant pressure (cp and specifi c heat capacity at constant volume (cv. When doing research into the heat propertiesof wood, the quantity that most frequently remains constant is pressure, thus restricting our study on specifi c heat capacity to cp. This paper provides an overview of the research that has so far been carried out into the specifi c heat capacity of wood depending on the temperature and moisture content. An analytical and graphical comparison has been performed of the results published in the Wood Industry Manual (1967 (DIP, Wood Handbook (1999 (WH and work published by Deliiski (2012 (DEL.

  2. Marketing for Wood Products Companies

    Smith, Robert L.; Hansen, Eric; Ola, David

    2009-01-01

    Explains the principles of marketing for wood products organizations and their managers, and includes a list of information resources and agencies that can assist in development of a good marketing program.

  3. Wood-pastures of Europe

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta; Beaufoy, Guy; Bergmeier, Erwin; Kirby, Keith; Montero, María Jesús; Moreno, Gerardo; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Van Uytvanck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    and conservation policies has proved to be complicated, because institutional structures are traditionally organized within mono-functional sectors. We offer suggestions as to how these shortcomings might be overcome in the Common Agricultural Policy, including Rural Development policy, and the......Wood-pastures are archetypes of High Nature Value Farmlands in Europe and hold exceptional ecological, social, and cultural values. Yet, wood-pastures have been through a sharp decline all over Europe, mainly due to processes of agricultural intensification and abandonment. Recently, wood......-pastures have found increasing attention from conservation science and policy across Europe. In this paper we (i) perform the first pan-European assessment of wood-pastures, considering individual countries and biogeographic regions, (ii) present the ecological and social-cultural values of a wide diversity of...

  4. Effects of Silviculture and Genetics on Branch/Knot Attributes of Coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir and Implications for Wood Quality—A Synthesis

    Eini C. Lowell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir is the most commercially important timber species in the US Pacific Northwest due to its ecological prevalence and its superior wood attributes, especially strength and stiffness properties that make it highly prized for structural applications. Its economic significance has led to extensive establishment and management of plantations over the last few decades. Cultural treatments and genetic improvement designed to increase production of utilizable wood volume also impact tree morphology and wood properties. Many of these impacts are mediated by crown development, particularly the amount and distribution of foliage and size and geometry of branches. Natural selection for branch architecture that optimizes reproductive fitness may not necessarily be optimal for stem volume growth rate or for wood properties controlling the quality of manufactured solid wood products. Furthermore, Douglas-fir does not self-prune within the rotation lengths currently practiced. This paper synthesizes extensive Douglas-fir research in the Pacific Northwest addressing: (1 the effects of silviculture and genetics on branch structure and associated consequences for wood quality and the product value chain; and (2 methods to measure, monitor, modify, and model branch attributes to assist managers in selecting appropriate silvicultural techniques to achieve wood quality objectives and improve the value of their Douglas-fir resource.

  5. Carbon dynamics in wood products

    Pingoud, K. [VTT Energy, P.O. Box 1606, FIN-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Peraelae, A.L. [VTT Building Technology, P.O. Box 1802, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Pussinen, A. [European Forest Institute EFI, Torikatu 34, FIN-80100 Joensuu (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    The carbon (C) reservoir of wood products in Finnish construction and civil engineering was estimated by three inventories including the years 1980, 1990 and 1995. The inventory method is mainly based on the statistics of Finnish building stock. The use of different construction materials in different parts of buildings is estimated for each building type. Information collected through building permits includes the materials of bearing frames and facades. More information about the use of wood products in construction is gathered by many enquiries. The mix of construction materials has changed during each decade. Furthermore, the timber stocks in construction not subject to permission and in civil engineering (e.g. bridges) were estimated. The C reservoir is calculated on the basis of dry matter content of wooden construction materials. The time parameters of a simple exponential decay model and a more detailed C balance model of wood products were calibrated to the inventory results using the estimated wood flows to construction as model inputs. According to the inventories the C pool in sawn wood and wood-based panels of the Finnish building stock was 8.7 Tg C in 1980, 10.7 Tg C in 1990 and 11.5 Tg C in 1995. The mean annual increases, 0.20 Tg C from 1980 to 1990 and 0.15 Tg C from 1990 to 1995, are approximately 1.3% and 0.8% of the fossil fuel C emissions in Finland during the same periods. When also taking into account construction not subject to permission and civil engineering works, the estimated C stock of wood products in Finland was 16.5 Tg C in 1995, which is about 3.3 Mg C per capita and approximately 2.4% of the C reservoir in Finnish forest biomass. The total C reservoir of wood products (excluding wood waste and paper products) coming from Finnish forests might be as much as 7% of the standing biomass if exported wood products are also included. The average lifetime of sawn wood in Finnish construction is less than 40 years. 42 refs.

  6. Organosilicon compounds as potential wood protecting agents

    De Vetter, Liesbeth

    2009-01-01

    Wood is very diverse and has specific features making it easily distinguishable from other materials. Due to its properties it can be applied both inside and outside, making it a rewarding material to work with. However, when applied outside it is liable to weathering, inducing changes to the wood, like i.e. surface discolouration, dimensional changes or even wood rot, which are not appreciated by end-users. Therefore wood constructors are looking for protection methods of wood, leading to lo...

  7. WGDB: Wood Gene Database with search interface

    Goyal, Neha; H S Ginwal

    2014-01-01

    Wood quality can be defined in terms of particular end use with the involvement of several traits. Over the last fifteen years researchers have assessed the wood quality traits in forest trees. The wood quality was categorized as: cell wall biochemical traits, fibre properties include the microfibril angle, density and stiffness in loblolly pine [1]. The user friendly and an open-access database has been developed named Wood Gene Database (WGDB) for describing the wood genes along the informa...

  8. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

    S. Mone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other insect taxa that we measured. Similarly, 25 species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae were collected using bait traps. We found a clear negative effect on the ground insect species diversity (Shannon index and evenness (Shannon evenness index in pesticide treated plantations as compared to the organic plantations. A similar negative effect was observed for butterfly diversity in plantations using pesticides. Our results corroborate the value of organic plantations in supporting higher levels of biodiversity.

  9. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations.

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; Loreau, Michel; Mereu, Simone; Messier, Christian; Muys, Bart; Nolet, Philippe; Paquette, Alain; Parker, John; Perring, Mike; Ponette, Quentin; Potvin, Catherine; Reich, Peter; Smith, Andy; Weih, Martin; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and disadvantages of mixed species plantations. The network currently consists of 18 experiments, distributed over 36 sites and five ecoregions. With plantations 1-15 years old, TreeDivNet can already provide relevant data for forest policy and management. In this paper, we highlight some early results on the carbon sequestration and pest resistance potential of more diverse plantations. Finally, suggestions are made for new, innovative experiments in understudied regions to complement the existing network. PMID:26264716

  10. Conservation Value of Forest Plantations: A Study of Four Timber Species in Sri Lanka

    Mayuri R Wijesinghe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the potential of forest plantations in Sri Lanka consisting of teak, mahoganyand two species of eucalyptus, to facilitate the conservation of biodiversity using two taxonomic groups,the plants and birds. Their diversity in plantations at a harvestable age were compared with that of anatural forest. Enumerations of plants and dbh/height measurements were conducted in quadrates, whileavifauna was recorded along transects. Results show that plantation forests supported a reasonably richcommunity of both plants and birds, including natives and endemics. A large proportion of species werecommon to both plantations and natural forests indicating that plantations hold a subset of forest species.The presence of plants of various height and girth classes together with the high diversity and evennessvalues indicate that, although timber plantations are initially established as mono-cultivations, theyfacilitate the colonization of additional species. These findings thus demonstrate that forest plantationscould make a significant contribution towards biodiversity conservation.

  11. Torrefaction of wood

    Prins, Mark J.; Ptasinski, Krzysztof J.; Janssen, Frans J.J.G. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Environmental Technology Group, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-08-15

    Torrefaction is a thermal treatment step in the relatively low temperature range of 225-300{sup o}C, which aims to produce a fuel with increased energy density by decomposing the reactive hemicellulose fraction. The weight loss kinetics for torrefaction of willow, a deciduous wood type, was studied by isothermal thermogravimetry. A two-step reaction in series model was found to give an accurate description. For the two steps, activation energies of 76.0 and 151.7kJ/mol, respectively, and pre-exponential factors of 2.48x10{sup 4} and 1.10x10{sup 10}kgkg{sup -1}s{sup -1}, respectively, were found. The first reaction step has a high solid yield (70-88wt%, decreasing with temperature), whereas less mass is conserved in the second step (41wt%). The fast initial step may be representative for hemicellulose decomposition, whereas the slower subsequent reaction represents cellulose decomposition and secondary charring of hemicellulose fragments. The kinetic model is applied to give recommendations for industrial torrefaction process conditions, notably operating temperature, residence time and particle size. (author)

  12. Reptiles in Monterey pine plantations of the Coastal Range of Central Chile

    Sandra V, Uribe; Cristin F, Estades.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Chile, most of the timber industry depends on Monterey pine (Pinus radala (D. Don.)) plantations, which now cover more than 1.5 million ha. In spite of the intensive management of these plantations, they are home to a large number of wildlife species. One of the least known groups in [...] this type of environment are reptiles. For this reason, we conducted a study on the distribution and abundance of reptiles at plantations of different ages in seven sites in the Coastal Range of Central Chile. RESULTS: From seven species that could be potentially found in the study region, a total of five species were recorded, with Liolaemus lemniscatus (Gravenhorst) being the most abundant (with up to 160 ind*ha-1). Detectability of species was similar in young and mature plantations but Liolaemus tenuis (Dumril and Bibron), the most colorful species, showed a higher detection probability than the other species. The highest abundance of reptiles was found in young plantations, and the density of L. lemniscatus and Liolaemus chiliensis (Lesson) declined significantly with plantation development. Liolaemus schroederi (Mller and Hellmich) increased significantly its numbers in 4- to 5-year-old plantations and remained with similar densities in mature plantations. L. tenuis density was low in all plantations and showed no relationship with age. The snake Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann) was recorded very few times and only in young plantations. Vegetation characteristics explained a significant proportion of the variation in the abundance of reptiles, with dense understories negatively affecting the abundance of lizards, likely by reducing the amount of heat and sunlight reaching the plantation's interior. The type of microhabitats with the highest number of lizard records was scrub and harvest debris. CONCLUSIONS: This work confirms the role of pine plantations as habitat for an important proportion of reptile species in South Central Chile and provides some relationships with management variables that can be used to enhance the contribution of these artificial forests to biodiversity conservation.

  13. Vulnerability of Plantation Carbon Stocks to Defoliation under Current and Future Climates

    Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Keryn Paul; Michael Battaglia; Jody Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Plantation species globally are susceptible to a range of defoliating pests, but pest damage is rarely considered when estimating biomass C sequestered by these forests. We examined the impacts of defoliation on Eucalyptus globulus plantation C stocks under current and future climates using Mycospharella Leaf Disease (MLD) as a case study, hypothesising that biomass C sequestered in plantations would decrease with a warming and drying climate, and that impacts of defoliation would be strongly...

  14. Do Extensive Rubber Plantation Influences Local Environment? A Case Study From Tripura, Northeast India.

    Abhik Majumder; Sadrita Datta; Bal Krishan Choudhary; Koushik Majumdar

    2014-01-01

    Tripura is the second largest Natural Rubber (NR) producing state of India. As most of the NR plantation in the state is rain dependent, it is observed that fluctuation in monsoon poses a serious threat to plantation growth of NR crops. The effect of such shift and fluctuation in climate ranges from surface and ground water level variation, air quality and soil preservation. At present no assessment is available to critically review the impact of large scale NR plantation on environment. In t...

  15. Estimation of eucalyptus forest plantations carbon sequestration potential in Uruguay with the CO2fix model

    Juntheikki, Joni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this thesis is to estimate the carbon sequestration potential in eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay. This study also aims to show how beneficial these plantations are for carbon sinks. The aim of this research is calculate total carbon balance in eucalyptus plantations and compare the results to degraded lands. This study is first-of-its-kind study in Uruguay, but not unique globally. The objective was to use a modeling approach to formulate the results. The methodology of this ...

  16. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Herv; Koricheva, Julia; Loreau, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and...

  17. Phytocoenological characteristics in poplar plantations in the protected region of the central Danube basin

    Galić Z.; Orlović S.; Vasić Verica; Galović Vladislava; Klašnja Bojana; Stojanović D.; Babić Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Following the water regulation along the Danube river, the area of natural forests decreases and the vegetation is fragmented. The goal of the study was to survey the recent phytocenological characteristics of the region of the protected floodplain outside the dam. We surveyed three site types in poplar plantations near Novi Sad. In the poplar plantations phytocoenological relevés were made. The elevation of the study plantations is between 75 and 76 m a.s.l. The most represented specie...

  18. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001–2011

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Manuel R. Guariguata.

    2015-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations’ efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001–20...

  19. Components of Soil Respiration and its Monthly Dynamics in Rubber Plantation Ecosystems

    Zhixiang Wu; Limin Guan; Bangqian Chen; Chuan Yang; Guoyu Lan; Guishui Xie; Zhaode Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Our objective was to quantify four components and study effect factors of soil respiration in rubber plantation ecosystems. Providing the basic data support for the establishment of the trade of rubber plantation ecosystem carbon source/sink. Methods: We used Li-6400 (IRGA, Li-COR) to quantitate four components of soil respiration in rubber plantation ecosystems at different ages. Soil respiration can be separated as four components: heterotrophic respiration (Rh), Respiration of roots (...

  20. Conservation Value of Forest Plantations: A Study of Four Timber Species in Sri Lanka

    Mayuri R Wijesinghe; V. R. de Silva

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential of forest plantations in Sri Lanka consisting of teak, mahoganyand two species of eucalyptus, to facilitate the conservation of biodiversity using two taxonomic groups,the plants and birds. Their diversity in plantations at a harvestable age were compared with that of anatural forest. Enumerations of plants and dbh/height measurements were conducted in quadrates, whileavifauna was recorded along transects. Results show that plantation forests supported a reas...

  1. Way to Measure the Concept Precarious Working Conditions in Oil Palm Plantations

    Dileep Kumar M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm plantations are the backbone of the Malaysian economy, since day immemorial. When you look intothe past, the workers in the oil palm plantations were dominated by Indian and Chinese communities. Later dueto the sigma associate with oil palm plantations jobs viz., dirty, dangerous and distance, the Indians and Chineseworkers moved away from the oil palm work and they were replaced by Indonesians and Philippines. Theseforeign workers whom having the legal and illegal status under enforcement in Malaysia, have been living inremotely located inhabitations engaging in ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ wise oil palm plantations. Though thelarger oil palm plantation companies ensure minimum living and working conditions for the foreign workers,vastly located small holding plantations never follow such minimum and fair working environment. Theseconditions to be correlated with the term “precarious working conditions’ in small holding oil palm plantations.Due to lack of availability of the locals to engage in oil palm work, the plantations have to depend on foreignworkers do all these ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ workers in oil palm plantations. Except a few literatureavailable from Amnesty international and local NGOs, there is less evidence to prove the existence of suchexploitative working conditions in oil palm plantations. In order to explore precarious working conditions in oilpalm plantations thus a qualitative research study is conducted in the Sabah region of the Eastern Part ofMalaysia. The study followed, triangulation method through interviews with the migrated foreign workers, (legaland illegal, focus group discussions and Delphi technique with the identification of experts in the field to arriveat the factors and categories related to the theme ‘precarious working conditions’ in oil palm plantations. Theoutcome of the study fixes the variables that need to be concentrated for a higher level research throughquantitative research.

  2. Way to Measure the Concept Precarious Working Conditions in Oil Palm Plantations

    Dileep Kumar M; Noor Azizi Ismail; Normala S Govindarajo

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm plantations are the backbone of the Malaysian economy, since day immemorial. When you look intothe past, the workers in the oil palm plantations were dominated by Indian and Chinese communities. Later dueto the sigma associate with oil palm plantations jobs viz., dirty, dangerous and distance, the Indians and Chineseworkers moved away from the oil palm work and they were replaced by Indonesians and Philippines. Theseforeign workers whom having the legal and illegal status under enfor...

  3. Are Mixed Tropical Tree Plantations More Resistant to Drought than Monocultures?

    Norbert Kunert; Alida Mercado Cárdenas

    2015-01-01

    Tropical tree plantations usually consist of a single exotic fast growing species, but recent research describes positive effects on ecosystem functions from mixed tropical tree plantations. In this review, we present the current knowledge of drought resistance of tropical mixed species plantations and summarize preliminary evidence from a tree biodiversity experiment in Panama. Converting mono-specific stands into mixed ones may improve stand stability and might reduce increasing abiotic and...

  4. Mangrove Plantation as a Tourist Attraction in San Juan Batangas, Philippines

    Sarah Jane M. Miranda; Joy O. Reyes; Anne Tan; Letlet C. Villanueva; Sarah Mae F. Zara; Amada G. Banaag; Renato Rosales

    2013-01-01

    This study about the Mangrove Plantation in San Juan, Batangas, Philippines aimed to identify the potential of mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction; to describe the status of mangroves, the programs offered by the government; to determine the level of support given by the government; to determine the benefits of the mangroves; and to propose an action plan that will develop the mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction. The study used descriptive method in order to determine the need...

  5. Soil Carbon Stocks Decrease following Conversion of Secondary Forests to Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations

    de Blcourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conve...

  6. The most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and Scots pine plantations in Serbia

    Karadžić Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Austrian pine plantations in Serbia, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Mycosphaerella pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cenangium ferruginosum, Germmeniella abietina (in the mountain regions and occasionally Armillaria spp., Lophodermium spp. (seditiosum, conigenum, pinastri and Cyclaneusma niveum. In Scots pine plantations, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Heterobasidion annosum (especially in plantations on sandy soils, Armillaria spp, Lophodermium seditiosum, L. pinastri, Cyclaneusma minus and Sphaeropsis sapinea. Damage caused by rust fungi (Coleosporium sennecionis, Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum occurs less frequently. In mountainous regions in Scots pine plantations, great damage is caused by Phacidium infestans, Lophodermella sulcigena and Gremmeniella abietina.

  7. Mapping Deciduous Rubber Plantation Areas and Stand Ages with PALSAR and Landsat Images

    Weili Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and updated finer resolution maps of rubber plantations and stand ages are needed to understand and assess the impacts of rubber plantations on regional ecosystem processes. This study presented a simple method for mapping rubber plantation areas and their stand ages by integration of PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. The L-band PALSAR 50-m mosaic images were used to map forests (including both natural forests and rubber trees and non-forests. For those PALSAR-based forest pixels, we analyzed the multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We first studied phenological signatures of deciduous rubber plantations (defoliation and foliation and natural forests through analysis of surface reflectance, Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and generated a map of rubber plantations in 2009. We then analyzed phenological signatures of rubber plantations with different stand ages and generated a map, in 2009, of rubber plantation stand ages (?5, 610, >10 years-old based on multi-temporal Landsat images. The resultant maps clearly illustrated how rubber plantations have expanded into the mountains in the study area over the years. The results in this study demonstrate the potential of integrating microwave (e.g., PALSAR and optical remote sensing in the characterization of rubber plantations and their expansion over time.

  8. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001-2011

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Guariguata, Manuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations' efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001-2011. Employing panel data regression techniques, we find that growth in plantation area is associated with higher than average rates of poverty during this period.

  9. Are pine plantations valid tools for restoring Mediterranean forests? An assessment along abiotic and biotic gradients.

    Gmez-Aparicio, Lorena; Zavala, Miguel A; Bonet, Francisco J; Zamora, Regino

    2009-12-01

    The ecological impacts of forest plantations are a focus of intense debate, from studies that consider plantations as "biological deserts" to studies showing positive effects on plant diversity and dynamics. This lack of consensus might be influenced by the scarcity of studies that examine how the ecological characteristics of plantations vary along abiotic and biotic gradients. Here we conducted a large-scale assessment of plant regeneration and diversity in plantations of southern Spain. Tree seedling and sapling density, plant species richness, and Shannon's (H') diversity index were analyzed in 442 pine plantation plots covering a wide gradient of climatic conditions, stand density, and distance to natural forests that act as seed sources. Pronounced variation in regeneration and diversity was found in plantation understories along the gradients explored. Low- to mid-altitude plantations showed a diverse and abundant seedling bank dominated by Quercus ilex, whereas high-altitude plantations showed a virtually monospecific seeding bank of Pinus sylvestris. Regeneration was null in plantations with stand densities exceeding 1500 pines/ha. Moderate plantation densities (500-1000 pines/ha) promoted recruitment in comparison to low or null canopy cover, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions. Quercus ilex recruitment diminished exponentially with distance to the nearest Q. ilex forest. Richness and H' index values showed a hump-shaped distribution along the altitudinal and radiation gradients and decreased monotonically along the stand density gradient. From a management perspective, different strategies will be necessary depending on where a plantation lies along the gradients explored. Active management will be required in high-density plantations with arrested succession and low diversity. Thinning could redirect plantations toward more natural densities where facilitation predominates. Passive management might be recommended for low- to moderate-density plantations with active successional dynamics (e.g., toward oak or pine-oak forests at low to mid altitudes). Enrichment planting will be required to overcome seed limitation, especially in plantations far from natural forests. We conclude that plantations should be perceived as dynamic systems where successional trajectories and diversity levels are determined by abiotic constraints, complex balances of competitive and facilitative interactions, the spatial configuration of native seed sources, and species life-history traits. PMID:20014583

  10. Effects of Wood Species, Thickness and Cross-Section Factors on Wood Moisture Change of Some Wood Species in the Indoor Climatical Conditions

    nc, Kemal

    2000-01-01

    The effects of wood species, thickness and cross-section factors on wood moisture content under centrally heated indoor conditions in Trabzon. Factors of thickness, cross-section and wood species were found to affect daily wood moisture content variation, but these factors did not appear to affect the average monthly wood moisture content. Strong relationship were found between average monthly wood moisture and wood equilibrium moisture contents (r 2 =0.9972), and wood moisture content, t...

  11. wood burns down

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new Russian architects appeared. With their own aesthetics.After Pavlov had left Irkutsk, near his house appeared another one, it was not a log house, and its style was glaringly unfriendly. And soon the Fisherman's House burnt down. Not with vexation, but naturally, with smoke and fire. The author of the building next door considers the rebuilding of the lost house unpractical.

  12. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. PMID:26752503

  13. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids

    Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

  14. Wood energy - recommendations on production and harvesting

    Kymaelaeinen, M. [Forestry Development Centre Tapio, Helsinki (Finland)], email: matti.kymalainen@tapio.fi

    2012-11-01

    Forestry Development Centre Tapio has been publishing sustainable forestry recommendations in Finland for several years. One of these recommendations concentrates on sustainable harvesting models of wood energy as well as instructions to grow wood energy as a part of normal stem wood production cycle. In this recommendation, called 'Wood Energy - Production and harvest', one can find detailed instructions to harvest energy wood in thinning stands and in clear cutting stands. This recommendation also includes guidelines to nature treatment in wood energy harvesting stands and road-side storing. Finland used forest based energy, wood chips, in 2010 over 6 million cubic meters (over 13 TWh). Wood Energy - Production and Harvest is a brilliant summary of methods and practises used in Finland in the field of wood energy.

  15. A guide to residential wood heating

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Wood heating has a long history in Canada. Currently over three million Canadian households use wood-burning appliances for heating, or just to enjoy the ambience of a wood fire. This guide is one of a series of guides on renewable energy systems for residential use, compiled to assist Canadian householders to make informed decisions on renewable energy. This particular guide focuses on such matters as how to maintain the safety and efficiency of a wood heating system; how to purchase and store fuel wood; how to use fire management techniques for cleaner, virtually smokeless fires; and provides tips on what to ask when consulting wood-heating professionals. tabs., figs.

  16. WOOD MODIFICATION BY HEAT TREATMENT: A REVIEW

    Bruno M. Esteves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood heat treatment has increased significantly in the last few years and is still growing as an industrial process to improve some wood properties. The first studies on heat treatment investigated mainly equilibrium mois-ture, dimensional stability, durability and mechanical properties. Mass loss, wettability, wood color, and chemical transformations have been subsequently extensively studied, while recent works focus on quality control, modeling, and study the reasons for the improvements. This review explains the recent interest on the heat treatment of wood and synthesizes the major publications on this subject on wood properties, chemical changes, wood uses, and quality control.

  17. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)

  18. Wood waste production for industrial use

    Wood wastes are a product of regular selective thinning. Selective thinning is done along silvicultural lines, mostly with a view to obtaining a large proportion of high-grade wood products. In so far the widely deplored discrepancy between expenditure for forest care and profits from the sale of the accruing types of wood does not necessarily mean that wood waste production is ineconomical. In fact, wood waste production is economical as long as the cost of handling wood wastes is balanced by profits. (orig.)

  19. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  20. Disaster risk assessment at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Rudzani A. Makhado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004 and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR 2002. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, single factor was also applied. This study found that Roburnia Plantation is highly exposed to fire risks. The mean ( s.d. output from the Wisner risk equation shows that fire is the highest risk at 7.70.3, followed by harsh weather conditions at 5.60.4 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 2.30.2. Similarly, the mean ( s.d. output from the UNISDR risk equation also shows that fire is the highest risk at 2.90.2, followed by harsh weather conditions at 2.20.3 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 1.30.2. There was no significant deference in the risk analysis outputs (p = 0.13. This study also found that the number of fire incidents were low during summer, but increased during winter and spring. This variation is mainly due to a converse relationship with rainfall, because the availability of rain moistens the area as well as the fuel. When the area and fuel is moist, fire incidents are reduced, but they increase with a decrease in fuel moisture.

  1. Disaster risk assessment at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Rudzani A. Makhado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004 and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR 2002. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, single factor was also applied. This study found that Roburnia Plantation is highly exposed to fire risks. The mean (± s.d. output from the Wisner risk equation shows that fire is the highest risk at 7.7 ± 0.3, followed by harsh weather conditions at 5.6 ± 0.4 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 2.3 ± 0.2. Similarly, the mean (± s.d. output from the UNISDR risk equation also shows that fire is the highest risk at 2.9 ± 0.2, followed by harsh weather conditions at 2.2 ± 0.3 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 1.3 ± 0.2. There was no significant deference in the risk analysis outputs (p = 0.13. This study also found that the number of fire incidents were low during summer, but increased during winter and spring. This variation is mainly due to a converse relationship with rainfall, because the availability of rain moistens the area as well as the fuel. When the area and fuel is moist, fire incidents are reduced, but they increase with a decrease in fuel moisture.

  2. Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations

    Radioactivity of herbs of harvests 1986 and 1987 - both from the regions of Styria (Austria) with the most important fallout from Chernobyl - are compared. As expected, the radioactive contamination from harvest 1987 is much lower than that from 1986, restricted to Cs 134 and Cs 137 and very low absolutely. Values of soil contamination in the plantation regions are also listed. Hypotheses on the mechanism of radioactivity uptake from the contaminated soils, in particular the importance of potassium-containing fertilizers, are put forward. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (qui)

  3. Software Development Of Sugar Cane Plantation And Harvesting Management

    This software is a management system based on database-driven computer software application. It is intended to improve the quality of sugar cane through increased efficiency in managing, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, as part of a sugar factory operation. The software was developed using the Borland Delphi development platform, with database manipulation using Microsoft Access. The software is intended for Personal Computer with Windows 95 (or later) installed. The application has been tested with acceptable result and can be used in Sragi Sugar Factory's related activities; namely sugar cane plantation management, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, payment process and other related administrative processes

  4. METHOD OF FERTILIZATION OF ENERGY WILLOW PLANTATION USING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Witold Niemiec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge deriving from biofiltrationof municipal waste abound in soil processed organic substances and mineral fertilization components which may be used for fertil-ization of energy willow plantations. In the article the potential of natural utilization of sewage sludge and the patented device for injection dosage of sludge has been pre-sented. The device enables putting into soil mineral and organic fertilizers with loose consistency and their immediate covering by soil in order to reduce unpleasant smell and limit loss of volatile components of fertilizer.

  5. Carbon Storage in a Eucalyptus Plantation Chronosequence in Southern China

    Hu Du; Fuping Zeng; Wanxia Peng; Kelin Wang; Hao Zhang,; Lu Liu; Tongqing Song

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of carbon (C) allocation across different stages of stand development in Eucalyptus urophylla E. grandis plantations are not well understood. In this study, we examined biomass and mineral soil C content in five development stages (1, 2, 3, 45, and 68 years old) of a Eucalyptus stand in southern China. The tree biomass C pool increased with stand age and showed a high annual rate of accumulation. Stems accounted for the highest proportion of biomass C sequestered. The C pool in ...

  6. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and agroforests, streams draining oil palm show greater biological activity, as indicated by elevated pH and reduced dissolved oxygen levels. Moreover, turbidity is elevated in young oil palm plantations watersheds compared to forest, agroforest, and old oil palm land covers. We discuss the implications of these findings for communities and ecosystems.

  7. Wood gasification - Top or flop?

    This article asks the question if wood gasification technology is ripe for the market. This technology can be used for the generation of gas which can in turn be used for the generation of electrical power. Two basic choices that can be made concerning the use of wood energy are discussed - steam generation for steam turbines or the generation of synthetic gas for use in gas turbines, gas engines or in Stirling motors. The processes available for the gasification of wood are listed and discussed. Experience gained in this sector in Switzerland is examined, as are the high costs and difficult amortisation of the installations. The situation in Europe is also discussed. The author is of the opinion that further work should be undertaken to bring the technology to market ripeness.

  8. FLEXURAL FATIGUE OF LAMINATED WOOD

    B. A. Bondarev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Local damage accumulation in goods and construction elements ultimately leading to a failure occurs due to fluctuating load effect. Results and conclusions. The results of the analysis of the experimentally obtained analytical dependences of strength characteristics and resistance to cracks of profiled laminated wood during bending in products and designs are presented. This products and designs operate under static and cyclic loading. Stresses under which cracks form in pilot samples are established from the results, as well as maximum permissible lengths of cracks for static and cyclic load. Effect of natural and technological defects of laminated wood is taken into account. Recommendation on application of laminated wood in products and designs which experience force cyclic loading under operation are given.

  9. [Effects of stand structure regulation on soil labile organic carbon in Pinus elliottii plantation].

    Tan, Gui-Xia; Liu, Yuan-Qiu; Li, Lian-Lian; Liu, Wu; Zan, Yu-Ting; Huo, Bing-Nan; He, Mu-Jiao

    2014-05-01

    Taking 21-year-old Pinus elliottii pure plantation as the control, effects of enrichment planting with broadleaf trees (Liquidambar fornosana) after thinning the conifer trees (P. elliottii) on soil labile organic carbon of different plantations, including 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old P. elliottii and 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantations, were investigated. The results showed that the contents of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) significantly increased in the 6-year-old and 9-year-old plantations compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. Soil labile organic carbon contents in the 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantation increased significantly than those in 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old stands, and the DOC, ROC and MBC contents increased by 113.1%, 53.3% and 54.6%, respectively, compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. The results suggested that replanting with broadleaf trees are an effective measure to improve the soil ecological function in pure P. elliottii plantation. PMID:25129929

  10. Short-rotation eucalypt plantations in Brazil: Social and environmental issues

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brasil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    1995-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the historical and current legislative, social, and environmental aspects of the establishment of large-scale eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The report consolidates the vast experience and knowledge relating to these forest plantation systems and highlights lessons learned and new trends. The overview should prove useful to those interested in comparing or beginning similar endeavors.

  11. Mapping the expansion and distribution of willow plantations for bioenergy in Sweden: Lessons to be learned about the spread of energy crops

    Where and when farmers will adopt new energy crops is a key issue for the proper development of a country's energy strategy on renewables based in bioenergy. This paper analyses the spread of willow cultivation for bioenergy in Sweden, during the period 1986-2005, linked to the changes in the policies of promotion of wood-energy crops and to the local economic framework. To perform the study, a geostatistic method based on kernel analysis is applied, in order to identify the spatial grouping patterns of growers and plantations, and the areas where cultivation was successful. The analysis of the resulting figures shows that the development of an infrastructure and a market for willow chips are essential pre-conditions for the development of short rotation coppice for bioenergy. The results of this study confirm that probably the most important factor in the location of willow plantations is the existence of consumers that can guarantee a long-term demand for willow chips. The tools and methods presented, and its analysis, can provide a better understanding of the interactions between the biomass producers, the energy consumers and the different local and national actors. (author)

  12. Preparation of coloured wood plastics

    A study has been made into the possibility of using fat, as well as alcohol- and water-soluble dyes for radiation-chemical dying of polymers and plastics filled with wood. The use of fat-soluble azo and anthraquinone dyes permits obtaining intensely colored wood-plastic materials based on methyl methacrylate by way of gamma radiation with doses of up to 3 Mrad. At a dose above 5 Mrad, a marked tarnishing of the dye or a change in color and stains are observed. Dyes in styrene withstand higher radiation doses without any significant destruction

  13. Wood pellets for stoker burner

    The author of this article has had a stoker for several years. Wood chips and sod peat has been used as fuels in the stoker, either separately or mixed. Last winter there occurred problems with the sod peat due to poor quality. Wood pellets, delivered by Vapo Oy were tested in the stoker. The price of the pellets seemed to be a little high 400 FIM/500 kg large sack. If the sack is returned in good condition 50 FIM deposit will be repaid to the customer. However, Vapo Oy informed that the calorific value of wood pellets is three times higher than that of sod peat so it should not be more expensive than sod peat. When testing the wood pellets in the stoker, the silo of the stoker was filled with wood pellets. The adjustments were first left to position used for sod peat. However, after the fire had ignited well, the adjustments had to be decreased. The content of the silo was combusted totally. The combustion of the content of the 400 litter silo took 4 days and 22 hours. Respectively combustion of 400 l silo of good quality sod peat took 2 days. The water temperature with wood pellets remained at 80 deg C, while with sod peat it dropped to 70 deg C. The main disadvantage of peat with small loads is the unhomogenous composition of the peat. The results of this test showed that wood pellets will give better efficiency than peat, especially when using small burner heads. The utilization of them is easier, and the amount of ash formed in combustion is significantly smaller than with peat. Wood pellets are always homogenous and dry if you do not spoil it with unproper storage. Pellets do not require large storages, the storage volume needed being less than a half of the volume needed for sod peat. When using large sacks the amount needed can even be transported at the trunk of a passenger car. Depending on the area to be heated, a large sack is sufficient for heating for 2-3 weeks. Filling of stoker every 2-5 day is not an enormous task

  14. Wood fuelled boiler operating costs

    This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

  15. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of Productivity Improvement in the Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization of North Sumatera using Analytic Network Process

    Juliza Hidayati; Sukardi Sukardi; Ani Suryani; Sugiharto Sugiharto; Anas M. Fauzi

    2014-01-01

    The idea of making North Sumatera as a barometer of national palm oil industry requires commodity efforts and agro-industry development of palm oil. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financing plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement is ...

  17. Eco-exergy and emergy based self-organization of three forest plantations in lower subtropical China

    Hongfang Lu; Fangyan Fu; Hao Li; Campbell, Daniel E.; Hai Ren

    2015-01-01

    The bio-thermodynamic structures of a mixed native species plantation, a conifer plantation and an Acacia mangium plantation in Southern China were quantified over a period of 15 years based on eco-exergy methods. The efficiencies of structural development and maintenance were quantified through an integrated application of eco-exergy and emergy methods. The results showed that the storage of eco-exergy increased over 3 times in all three plantations, as predicted by the maximum eco-exergy pr...

  18. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, ?-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of ?-Raman and ?-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested

  19. Photodegradation of wood and depth profile analysis

    Photochemical degradation is a key process of the weathering that occurs when wood is exposed outdoors. It is also a major cause of the discoloration of wood in indoor applications. The effects of sunlight on the chemical composition of wood are superficial in nature, but estimates of the depth at which photodegradation occurs in wood vary greatly from 80 microm to as much as 2540 mic rom. Better understanding of the photodegradation of wood through depth profile analysis is desirable because it would allow the development of more effective photo-protective treatments that target the surface layers of wood most susceptible to photodegradation. This paper briefly describes fundamental aspects of photodegradation of wood and reviews progress made in the field of depth profile study on the photodegradation of wood. (author)

  20. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  1. SMALL WOODEN OBJECTS USING EUCALYPT SAWMILL WOOD WASTE

    Renato da Silva Vieira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest industries look for multiple utilizations for their timber production. In Brazil, the genus Eucalyptus has a great potential for solid wood products; however, only a small amount of Eucalyptus is used as sawn timber. About 50% of the log volume ends up as waste during mechanical processing, resulting in serious economic and environmental problems. In most cases, such residue is discarded at random or used as fuel, and in this context the sustainable management of processing industrial waste is an urgent necessity. Parallel to this, Eucalyptus has not been employed for small wooden object (SWO production. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of small wooden objects produced with Eucalyptus urophylla, E. camaldulensis, and E. grandis waste from sawmilling. Brazilian craftsmen manufactured SWOs with Eucalyptus, and these crafted objects were presented at exhibits and trade fairs for assessment. The proposed small wooden objects made with Eucalyptus residues exhibited satisfactory performance and achieved excellent acceptance by the visitors. This work gave evidence that the use of sawmill waste as raw material for small wooden object manufacture has potential to generate income for economically underprivileged communities near to a plantation.

  2. Stand-level patterns of carbon fluxes and partitioning in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation across a gradient of productivity, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Campoe, Otvio C; Stape, Jos Luiz; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Marsden, Claire; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Wood production represents a large but variable fraction of gross primary production (GPP) in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. Assessing patterns of carbon (C) partitioning (C flux as a fraction of GPP) between above- and belowground components is essential to understand mechanisms driving the C budget of these plantations. Better knowledge of fluxes and partitioning to woody and non-woody tissues in response to site characteristics and resource availability could provide opportunities to increase forest productivity. Our study aimed at investigating how C allocation varied within one apparently homogeneous 90 ha stand of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) in Southeastern Brazil. We assessed annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP: stem, leaf, and branch production) and total belowground C flux (TBCF: the sum of root production and respiration and mycorrhizal production and respiration), GPP (computed as the sum of ANPP, TBCF and estimated aboveground respiration) on 12 plots representing the gradient of productivity found within the stand. The spatial heterogeneity of topography and associated soil attributes across the stand likely explained this fertility gradient. Component fluxes of GPP and C partitioning were found to vary among plots. Stem NPP ranged from 554 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with lowest GPP to 923 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with highest GPP. Total belowground carbon flux ranged from 497 to 1235 g C m(-2) year(-1) and showed no relationship with ANPP or GPP. Carbon partitioning to stem NPP increased from 0.19 to 0.23, showing a positive trend of increase with GPP (R(2) = 0.29, P = 0.07). Variations in stem wood production across the gradient of productivity observed at our experimental site were a result of the variability in C partitioning to different forest system components. PMID:22543478

  3. Response of soil respiration and ecosystem carbon budget to vegetation removal in Eucalyptus plantations with contrasting ages

    Wu, Jianping; Liu, Zhanfeng; Huang, Guomin; Chen, Dima; Zhang, Weixin; Shao, Yuanhu; Wan, Songze; Fu, Shenglei

    2014-09-01

    Reforested plantations have substantial effects on terrestrial carbon cycling due to their large coverage area. Although understory plants are important components of reforested plantations, their effects on ecosystem carbon dynamics remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of vegetation removal/understory removal and tree girdling on soil respiration and ecosystem carbon dynamics in Eucalyptus plantations of South China with contrasting ages (2 and 24 years old). We conducted a field manipulation experiment from 2008 to 2009. Understory removal reduced soil respiration in both plantations, whereas tree girdling decreased soil respiration only in the 2-year-old plantations. The net ecosystem production was approximately three times greater in the 2-year-old plantations (13.4 t C ha-1 yr-1) than in the 24-year-old plantations (4.2 t C h-1 yr-1). The biomass increase of understory plants was 12.6 t ha-1 yr-1 in the 2-year-old plantations and 2.9 t ha-1 yr-1 in the 24-year-old plantations, accounting for 33.9% and 14.1% of the net primary production, respectively. Our findings confirm the ecological importance of understory plants in subtropical plantations based on the 2 years of data. These results also indicate that Eucalyptus plantations in China may be an important carbon sink due to the large plantation area.

  4. Eco-exergy and emergy based self-organization of three forest plantations in lower subtropical China

    The bio-thermodynamic structures of a mixed native species plantation, a conifer plantation and an Acacia mangium plantation in Southern China were quantified over a period of 15 years based on eco-exergy methods. The efficiencies of structural development and maintenance were qu...

  5. New insights into wood and cement interaction

    Govin, Alexandre; Peschard, Arnaud; Fredon, Emmanuel; Guyonnet, René

    2005-01-01

    This work deals with the influence of poplar extractives and poplar alkaline degradation products on the hydration of cement. The wood chemical composition was characterized to determine the impact of soft alkaline conditions on wood fiber. Some of the constituents were hydrolyzed and converted into carboxylic acids, which were identified and quantified. Monitoring by electrical conductivity clearly showed that wood extractives are less effective than wood alkaline degradation products in inh...

  6. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection with...... like a low level of loading, have already established nanoparticles in some areas of wood coatings. This article is a comprehensive scientific review of the published work in the use of nanofillers in wood coatings....

  7. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Gradimir Danon; Milosav Anđelić; Branko Glavonjić; Ratko Kadović; Mladen Furtula

    2010-01-01

    Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for ...

  8. Body of Wood

    Pierre Michon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Friday 16 July 1852. Sunrise. The end of the night. It rained. It isn’t raining anymore. Large slate clouds run across the sky. Flaubert hasn’t slept. He goes out into the garden at Croisset: lime trees, then poplars, then the Seine. An outbuilding on a bank beside some water. He’s finished Part One of Madame Bovary.That Sunday, he would write Louise Colet how at dawn on Friday he’d felt strong, serene, blest in sense and in purpose. The dawn wind does him good. He has a tired fat handsome face, a calm fat handsome face. He loves writing. He loves the world.“Deprived of a party, country, house, personal life, etc., he made writing his only reason to live, and it grips one’s heart how seriously he takes the written world.” These words of Pasolini’s pertain to Gombrowicz. But they might just as well be applied to Flaubert, and one’s heart would not be gripped any less, maybe more. For, if Flaubert had a personal life (as Gombrowicz did after all, but then Pasolini always goes very fast, he pretended not to have one; just as he pretended to have no house, country, freedom, mother named Caroline, orphaned niece also named Caroline, Seine at the end of the path, rolling on before his eyes, sharecroppers’ hillside groves, heaps of disciples and flatterers, well-meaning interns hard at work on his behalf in the corridors of Paris journals and salons: all things Gombrowicz truly did not have, that he, Flaubert, had. Flaubert pretended to have none of all that, that which he had, and for him this pretension became real; he patched together a mask which comprised his skin, and with which he wrote his books; skin and mask had been so well glued that when he wished to retire it, he found nothing more in his hand than an indissoluble mixture of flesh and cardboard under the thick clown moustache. Perhaps it wasn’t truly the clown that he played so much as the monk, and not just to the stands, but in his own eyes and to himself: he was not only a defrocked friar with the guys or on the street; he donned the silk babouches when he went home too. He dispossessed himself of the Seine that rolled on before his eyes; the small girl who lived on her feet, whom he puts to death in all his books, he hardly saw her; the loveliest girls of his day, the finest too for sure, who wanted him, so that he happened to come – he dispossessed himself of them, whether he came or opted to come no more, which amounted to the same thing; no apples from Norman orchards, no trees deep in the woods, no unlaced Louise Colet, no lilies, no young laughter, no Louise Colet weeping at his door, he kissed it all off, laughed over it and kissed it off, cried about it and kissed it off, he was not there. In fact he had nothing, he was deprived of everything, since it was in his head.

  9. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  10. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development, it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in term of polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province. These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.  

  11. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development,it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in termof polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province.These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.

  12. The characterization of wood and wood fibre ultrastructure using specific enzymes

    Hildén, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Wood and wood fibre ultrastructure is of key importance for the pulp and paper making industry. In this thesis there has been a focus on development of methods for studying wood degrading enzymes. The methods have been used in different ways to render new information on wood and wood fibres. Wood degrading enzymes are chosen since they are tailor made to specifically degrade certain sub-structures in the wood bio-polymer, e.g. cellulose. In the first part an a-amino group of a carbohydrate bi...

  13. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Fazia FOUCHAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  14. The wood energy; Le bois energie

    Vachey, C.

    2000-05-01

    This paper is a first approach of the wood energy. It presents the wood fuels, the automatic wood boilers for the collective buildings and the different domestic uses. An estimation of the cost and the advantages and disadvantages are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  15. WOOD COLOR CHANGES BY AMMONIA FUMING

    Josip Miklečić,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of ammonia gas on wood color changes in response to an increasing demand for dark colored wood specimens. The darker wood color in ammonia fuming is accomplished through chemical reactions between ammonia gas and wood compounds. We exposed oak, maple, spruce, and larch wood samples to ammonia gas for 16 days. During fuming, the color changes were studied using CIE L*a*b* parameters. After fuming, the changes in extractives content, tannin, and nitrogen content were analyzed. The chemical changes of wood and residues of wood extractives after fuming were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Oak wood reacted intensively with ammonia gas in a very short time, and the darkening was prominent for all the investigated wood species. It was established that tannin had no major influence on color changes of maple and larch wood in the ammonia-fuming process. The FTIR spectra of fumed wood indicated involvement of carbonyl groups, and the FTIR spectra of wood extractives indicated involvement of carbonyl, aromatic, and alcohol groups in reaction with ammonia gas.

  16. Wood energy. Significance, potentials, challenges; Holzenergie. Bedeutung, Potenziale, Herausforderungen

    Drossart, Inga; Muehlenhoff, Joerg

    2013-04-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the importance, potentials and challenges of wood energy. In particular, the following aspects are considered: (1) Importance of wood for heat supply and electricity supply; (2) Timber inventories and timber use; (3) Efficiency of wood utilization; (4) Does Germany have enough wood?; (5) Forest and wood as climate protectors; (6) Wood utilization and nature conservation.

  17. Wood and concrete polymer composites

    There are several ways to prepare and use wood and concrete polymer composites. The most important improvements in the case of concrete polymer composites are obtained for compressive and tensile strengths. The progress in this field in United States and other countries is discussed in this rview. (M.S.)

  18. Wood quality of white willow

    Andr Leclercq

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon an exhaustive work made by Sacr (1974 and a review of the literature sine 1960, the author gathered together the anatomical, physical and mechanical characteristics, the machining behaviour (industrial sawing, planing, surfacing, shaping, mortising and nailing and wood end-uses of white willow.

  19. ???Arang??? Wood (Diospyros maritime (?) sp) as Subsitution of Eboni Wood (Diospyros celebica)

    Yunianti, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Selection and use of wood for the multipurpose, requires knowledge about the basic properties. Besides these properties is important as a basis the possibility of obtaining other types, when the commercial species are difficult to obtain or too expensive continuously. This research aims to study the possibility of ???arang??? wood (Diospyros maritime (?) Sp) as a substitute of endemic wood from South Sulawesi, namely Ebony wood (Diospyros celebica). The results showed that ???arang??? wood ...

  20. Sustainability Assessment of a Self-Consumption Wood-Energy Chain on Small Scale for Heat Generation in Central Italy

    Stefano Verani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of a small-scale self-consumption wood-energy chain for heat generation in central Italy was analyzed from a technical, economic and energetic point of view. A micro-chain was developed within the CRA-ING farm at Monterotondo (Rome, Italy: The purpose of this system was to produce biomass for supplying a heating plant within the CRA-ING property as a substitute for diesel fuel. A poplar short rotation coppice, established with clones AF2, AF6 and Monviso, fed the micro-chain. The rotation was biennial. The average plantation production (Mgd.m.·ha−1·year−1 was 10.2, with a maximum of 13.53 for the twin-rows AF2 and a minimum of 8.00 for the single-row Monviso. The economic assessment was based on the Net Present Value (NPV method and the equivalent annuity cost, and found an average saving of 15.60 €·GJ−1 of heat generated by the wood chips heating system in comparison with the diesel heating system over a 10 year lifetime of the thermal power plant. The energy assessment of the poplar plantation, carried out using the Gross Energy Requirements method, reported an energy output/input ratio of 12.3. The energy output/input ratio of the whole micro-chain was 4.5.

  1. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  2. Effects of Large Scale Poplar Plantations on the Hydrology of Semiarid Areas in Inner Mongolia

    Wilske, B.; Lu, N.; Chen, S.; Liu, C.; Xu, W.; Noormets, A.; Wei, L.; Lin, G.; Miao, H.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Chen, J.; Zha, T.; Ni, J.; Sun, G.; Guo, K.; McNulty, S.; John, R.; Chen, J.

    2007-12-01

    Tree plantation is widely practiced to counteract desertification. It often involves planting forests in semiarid and arid areas, which are naturally dominated by grass- or shrub steppe. Severe land degradation has been observed in the vast grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China. Under drying climates vegetation may naturally change from grass- to open shrub land. Current programs aim at a large number of poplar plantations to compose a super-scale shelterbelt to curb soil erosion, dust storms, and further loss of vegetation cover. However, the water consumption of poplar plantations can be expected to exceed the water use of grass- or shrub steppe. Hence, large-scale poplar plantation may significantly alter the water budget in the semiarid region. We compared Eddy- Covariance-derived evapotranspiration (ET) of a young poplar plantation and an adjacent shrub land south of the Yellow River in Inner Mongolia. In addition, ET from the semiarid site was compared with ET from an older poplar plantation growing under semi-humid conditions south of Beijing. In spite of 33% lower precipitation, ET was 6% higher from the young poplar plantation (236.52 mm) than from the natural shrub land (223.02 mm) based on the five-month period May- September 2006. The difference was mainly because of higher ET from the poplar plantation during the drier periods of the growing season. Further comparison with the older plantation outlined future potential of the poplars to exceed ET of the shrub land by 100-200%. To highlight potential hydrological consequences of large scale poplar plantations, ET values were set in relation to the total size of plantations projected for the area and the stream flow of the nearby Yellow River. Additional groundwater discharge by mature poplar plantations may equal 6.5-15% of the Yellow River mean stream flow. Thus, the water expenditure of poplar plantations renders them a questionable tool in sustainable arid-land management, particularly as climate predictions suggest higher temperatures and lower water availability in Inner Mongolia in the future.

  3. 5000 sustainable workplaces - Wood energy provides work

    This article presents the results of a study made by the Swiss Wood Energy Association on the regional and national added value resulting from large wood-fired installations in Switzerland. The number of workplaces created by these installations is also noted. Wood energy is quoted as not only being a way of using forest wastes but also as being a creator of employment. Large wood-fired heating installations are commented on and efforts to promote this type of energy supply even further are discussed. The study indicates which professions benefit from the use of wood energy and quantifies the number of workplaces per megawatt of installed power that result.

  4. Similar biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in set-aside plantations and ancient old-growth broadleaved forests

    Spake, Rebecca; van der Linde, Sietse; Newton, Adrian C.; Suz, Laura M.; Bidartondo, Martin I.; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Setting aside overmature planted forests is currently seen as an option for preserving species associated with old-growth forests, such as those with dispersal limitation. Few data exist, however, on the utility of set-aside plantations for this purpose, or the value of this habitat type for biodiversity relative to old-growth semi-natural ecosystems. Here, we evaluate the contribution of forest type relative to habitat characteristics in determining species richness and composition in seven forest blocks, each containing an ancient old-growth stand (> 1000 yrs) paired with a set-aside even-aged planted stand (ca. 180 yrs). We investigated the functionally important yet relatively neglected ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), a group for which the importance of forest age has not been assessed in broadleaved forests. We found that forest type was not an important determinant of EMF species richness or composition, demonstrating that set-aside can be an effective option for conserving ancient EMF communities. Species richness of above-ground EMF fruiting bodies was principally related to the basal area of the stand (a correlate of canopy cover) and tree species diversity, whilst richness of below-ground ectomycorrhizae was driven only by tree diversity. Our results suggest that overmature planted forest stands, particularly those that are mixed-woods with high basal area, are an effective means to connect and expand ecological networks of ancient old-growth forests in historically deforested and fragmented landscapes for ectomycorrhizal fungi. PMID:26917858

  5. Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan

    Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg-1 for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries.

  6. Comparison of two harvesting systems for the production of forest biomass from the thinning of Picea abies plantations

    Spinelli, Raffaele (CNR IVALSA, Florence (Italy)); Magagnotti, Natascia (CNR IVALSA, Trento (Italy))

    2010-01-15

    This study compares two principally different harvesting systems used for the thinning of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] plantations in the Alps. The first system was whole-tree harvesting (WTH), producing only whole-tree chips for energy purposes. This system minimizes the production costs by simplifying the harvesting process. The other system was cut-to-length (CTL) mechanical harvesting with an excavator-based harvester. This system maximizes value recovery by producing both short sawlogs and quality fuel chips. Trials were conducted on two similar sites in the Dolomites, in northern Italy, and demonstrated that the CTL system resulted in slightly higher harvesting costs, and also higher revenue. The price differences between the different products determine which system offers the best economic results. If the delivered price of sawlogs does not exceed Euro 25/t, WTH and CTL harvesting offer very similar economic performances, and become profitable only if the delivered price of raw chip wood exceeds Euro 40/t. If the delivered price of sawlogs increases to Euro 50/t, the mechanized CTL system always becomes preferable, and it will turn some profits when the price of raw biomass exceeds Euro 35/t. The CTL system is less sensitive to long extraction and transport distances than the WTH system

  7. Province-scale comparison between harvest wood products reported by ISTAT and forested areas reported by INFC

    Pilli R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The future agreements on the LULUCF sector will probably implement the role of harvest wood products (HWP for climate change mitigation. As highlighted by many Authors however, for Italy to quantify the amount of HWP will impose a number of issues mainly related to the inconsistency of the data provided by the National Institute for Statistic (ISTAT. New data collected by the National Forest and Carbon Inventory (INFC will probably provide useful information. In the meantime, however, a comparison based on the forest area reported by INFC and data on HWP provided by ISTAT, both scaled at province level, could be proposed. The 2005 was assumed as reference year for both data sources. At this purpose, grouping the 103 Italian provinces in 9 groups mainly based on the 20 administrative regions, the Pearson coefficient of correlation was estimated, for each group, comparing the amount of harvest reported by ISTAT with (i the forest area, (ii the plantation area and (iii the total forest area, including both plantations and forests. Possible outliers were identified estimating the harvest rates per hectare of forest and considering the interquantile range of these values. A linear model was finally applied between the total forest area and the total amount of harvest estimated at regional level. The results highlighted a strong correlation between the amount of harvest reported by ISTAT and the forest area reported by INFC for 13 out of 21 regions. For 5 regions, including Lombardia, Piemonte, Lazio, Umbria and Marche the amount of harvest was only correlated with the area of plantations. No correlation was detected for Toscana region. Based on the harvest rate per hectare, 5 provinces out of 103 were identified as outliers. The amount of harvest reported for 3 of these provinces (Cremona, Mantova and Pavia was clearly referred to plantations. The analysis of the studentized residuals based on the application of the linear model, highlighted outliers values also for Piemonte region. As in the previous case, the amount of harvest reported for this region was probably partially referred to plantations. We could therefore speculate that for many regions data reported by national statistics as referred to the amount of harvest in forest, were statistically correlated with the forest area detected by INFC. However, for some important regions, such as Piemonte and Lombardia, they were clearly correlated with plantations.

  8. Why Simulate a Sample of Recycled Wood?

    A Bouslamti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood products follow the same cycle as other materials: manufacture, use and disposal. For certain applications, chemical additives are added to wood to increase its durability against biological and physical attack. At the end of life, waste wood is chipped or crushed before being recovered as raw material for new products or as fuel for energy. In recycled wood, there is the potential that some wood particles are contaminated by hazardous substances, such as organic or heavy metal preservatives. Therefore there is a need for a quality control method of assessing recovered wood that is on the one hand sufficiently precise and on the other not too expensive to preclude the use of recycling wood in to new products. This paper covers some preliminary research that is part of a large study that aims to develop a robust analytical method for recovered wood. However the extreme variability of recovered wood makes it difficult to develop such protocols on real recovered wood samples. Consequently, model chip piles with known contamination levels were created to simulate real world recovered wood samples.

  9. Characteristics of Wood ASH/OPC Concrete

    M. ABDULLAHI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the behaviour of wood ash / OPC concrete. Chemical analysis of wood ash, bulk density, sieve analysis and specific gravity of wood ash and aggregates, consistency, setting time and slump test of the fresh paste were conducted to determine the suitability of the materials for concrete making. Mix ratio of 1:2:4 and percentage replacement level of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 percents of cement by wood ash were used. 150mm´150mm cubes were cast, cured and crushed at 28 and 60 days to determine their compressive strength. Test result indicates that the wood ash is slightly pozzolanic, water demand increases as the ash content increases and the setting time of the paste increases as the ash content increases. Compressive strength of wood ash / OPC concrete it increases with age at curing with optimum replacement of cement by wood ash of 20%.

  10. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  11. Mangrove Plantation as a Tourist Attraction in San Juan Batangas, Philippines

    Sarah Jane M. Miranda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study about the Mangrove Plantation in San Juan, Batangas, Philippines aimed to identify the potential of mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction; to describe the status of mangroves, the programs offered by the government; to determine the level of support given by the government; to determine the benefits of the mangroves; and to propose an action plan that will develop the mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction. The study used descriptive method in order to determine the needed information regarding the current status of mangrove plantation as tourist attraction. The study concluded that the status of the mangroves in the coastal areas of San Juan, Batangas is continuously propagating and the local government does not neglect the mangrove plantations in the said community, as such, it is properly protected; the government’s level of support given to the mangrove plantation in terms of policies, management and planning and budget are highly implemented while in terms of promotion is implemented only; mangroves are beneficial to the residents of San Juan particularly in terms of environmental/ecological, economic and health, and ; proposed an action plan regarding development of Mangrove Plantation was designed by the researchers.

  12. [Comparison of soil C and N in rubber plantation and seasonal rain forest].

    Zhang, Min; Zou, Xiao-Ming

    2009-05-01

    With the rubber plantation and seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna of Southwestern China as test objectives, a comparative study was conducted on their litter input, soil total C and N contents, and seasonal changes of soil active C and N from 2006 to 2007. Comparing with seasonal rain forest, rubber plantation had lower amount of aboveground litterfall and higher amount of floor mass, reflecting the lower decomposition rate (turnover coefficient, K) of litters, and had higher C/N ratio of litters and soil, indicating that the organic matters in rubber plantation were more resistant to degradation. The surface soil total organic C, labile organic C, and microbial biomass C concentrations in rubber plantation accounted for 60%-70% of those in seasonal rain forest, and the soil NO3(-)-N concentration and pH value in rubber plantation were lower than those in seasonal rain forest, indicating that the conversion from seasonal rain forest to rubber plantation decreased the C and N inputs from aboveground litterfall and the availability of soil C and N, and caused soil acidification. Moderate land management strategies for rubber plantations were needed to prevent the degradation of soil quality and to maintain the productive sustainability. PMID:19803153

  13. ACCOUNTING PARADIGM OF LIVED EXPERIENCES IN ACTION RESEARCH: THE CASE OF MALAYSIAN PLANTATION WORKERS

    S. Susela DEVI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces action research as a possible new method to reduce the distance between idealism and accounting practice, thus contributing to the accounting literature. The source of this paper is an on-going large research project. The project has three objectives. Firstly, to provide evidence of the utilisation of accounting methods in the Malaya plantation industry from its earliest beginnings through to the introduction of accounting tools such as budgets, leading to the creation of a social and economic underclass in Malaysia. Secondly, to examine the extent to which accounting information provided in the Annual Reports of Malaysian plantation companies is used in determining the wages of plantation workers on the grounds that workers in the plantation industry have been and still are, among the most poorly paid in Malaysia, and perhaps the world. Interestingly, the wages of plantation workers are determined through a negotiation process between the National Union of Plantation Workers and the Malaysian Agricultural Producers Association. This paper draws from this research project and explicates the utilisation of the Action Research methodology in reporting the “lived experiences” of those affected by Management Accounting budgets and demonstrating how the parties to wage negotiation, the employers, union and employees, can better derive value from accounting information provided within the annual reports of Malaysian plantation companies.

  14. Community perceptions towards the establishment of an urban forest plantation: a case of Dzivaresekwa, Zimbabwe

    A. Mureva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of urban forest communities not only depend on the government and nongovernmental organizations, but also strongly rely on local community stewardship. A study was carried out to assess community perceptions on the establishment of an urban forest plantation among urban residents in Dzivaresekwa, an urban area in Harare. Randomized systematic sampling was used to select 150 households and one resident per household was interviewed using a pretested questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The objectives of the study were to determine how age and gender and employment status variables, were related to the urban residents’ perceptions towards establishment of a forest plantation in an urban area. Most females (58.3% viewed the plantation as a threat while most men (51.7% viewed the plantation as a recreational area. The highest proportion (61.9% of the middle age group (21-40 years perceived the plantation as a source of employment. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.040 between gender and the general perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. However, there was no statistically significant relationship (p = 0.203 between age groups and the perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. It is concluded that the community had diverse perceptions on urban community forestry.

  15. An interdisciplinary framework to evaluate bioshield plantations: Insights from peninsular India

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico; Shanker, Kartik

    2015-02-01

    Bioshields or coastal vegetation structures are currently amongst the most important coastal habitat modification activities in south-east Asia, particularly after the December 2004 tsunami. Coastal plantations have been promoted at a large scale as protection against severe natural disasters despite considerable debate over their efficacy as protection measures. In this paper, we provide an interdisciplinary framework for evaluating and monitoring coastal plantations. We then use this framework in a case study in peninsular India. We conducted a socio-ecological questionnaire-based survey on government and non-government organizations directly involved in coastal plantation efforts in three 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami affected states in mainland India. We found that though coastal protection was stated to be the primary cause, socio-economic factors like providing rural employment were strong drivers of plantation activities. Local communities were engaged primarily as daily wage labour for plantation rather than in the planning or monitoring phases. Application of ecological criteria has been undermined during the establishment and maintenance of plantations and there was a general lack of awareness about conservation laws relating to coastal forests. While ample flow of international aid has fuelled the plantation of exotics in the study area particularly after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, the long term ecological consequences need further evaluation and rigorous monitoring in the future.

  16. Predicting effects of plantation expansion on streamflow regime for catchments in Australia

    L. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plantations on mean annual streamflow is well understood and, there are robust methods available for assessing the impact. Plantations also affect streamflow regime, leading to reductions in low flow and increased number of zero-flow days. Understanding changes in streamflow regime following plantation expansion is important for developing water resources and environmental flow strategy. This study evaluated the impacts of plantations on streamflow regime from 15 catchments in Australia. The selected catchments range in size from 0.6 to 1136 km2 and represent different climatic conditions and management practices. The catchments have at least 20 yr and in most cases 35 yr of continuous daily streamflow data and well documented plantation records. Catchments with perennial streamflow in the pre-treatment periods showed relatively uniform reductions in most flows after plantation expansions, whereas catchments with ephemeral streamflow showed more dramatic reductions in low flows, leading to an increased number of zero-flow days. The Forest Cover Flow Change (FCFC model was tested using the data from the selected catchments and comparison of predicted and observed flow duration curves showed that 14 of the 15 catchments have coefficients of efficiency greater than 0.8. The results indicate that the model is capable of predicting plantation impacts on streamflow regime.

  17. Thermal Conductivity Coefficients of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the thermal conductivity coefficient of wooden material is needed in many fields of application. It this study, the thermal conductivity coefficients of the woods of cedrus (cedrus libani a.Richard), fir (Abies cornmulleriana Mattf.), Populus nigra (Populus tremula L.), and beech (Fagus orientalis lipsky), the wooden materials most widely used in our country in furniture, decoration and construction have been determined in 12% moisture and saturated conditions for the differ...

  18. The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

  19. Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.

    Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations. PMID:24156089

  20. Vehicular emission and contamination od roadside plantation in Lahore city

    Contamination of roadside plantation is an indicator of air quality in the area. Concentration of Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Cr, Co, Pb, Cd, and Zn were investigated vis- vis concentration of these trace elements in the ambient aerosols. The results indicate the typical relationship between Pb being emitted by automobiles, the traffic density and plant uptake. Maximum lead of 200 mg/g has been observed in leave samples collected at the roadside plants whereas little of Pb and Cd have been seen away from the roads. Cd has shown very little correlation with vehicular emission, rather, it is related to industrial processes. The sites showing considerable high concentration of Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr both in aerosol and leaves are old campus, Railway station and Shahra-e-Quaid-e-Azam. The study demonstrates that plant uptake could be used as an indicator of atmospheric pollution caused by vehicular traffic and industrial activities in urban areas. (author)

  1. Proposal of a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations

    Leonardo Duarte Batista da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations, to identify areas where eucalyptus planting could be developed, and to determine suitability of such areas. The study area was the County of Vassouras, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, considering physical data, environmental legislation, urban areas, and the municipal land use plan. The areas for permanent preservation, as well as the conservation units and areas for industrial expansion, as defined in the county land use plan, plus areas nearby the city were considered restricted for the planting of eucalyptus trees. Vassouras is 552 km² large. Approximately 144 km² are suitable eucalyptus planting, of which 97% are now used for pastures. Approximately 50% of the area suitable for eucalyptus is of average suitability, whereas the class of highest suitability occupies about 30%. The less suitable areas correspond to 20% of the remaining 144 km2.

  2. Nutrient losses in forest plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    Inorganic nutrients are lost from terrestrial ecosystems through the harvesting of plant products, leaching, soil erosion and volatilization of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. In this study, carried out in a tropical rain forest ecosystem in Sabah, Malaysia, losses of inorganic nutrients through log removal and runoff/leaching to stream water were compared in clear-fellings, harvested and prepared for planting in two different ways: (i) tractor logging/burning; (ii) and manual logging/no burning. The major findings of the study were that nutrient losses in stream water were reduced by 50% and growth of the planted forest was twice as fast on the catchment where soil disturbance was minimized and burning not used. Weeds were more abundant after burning, and the extra weeding needed increased costs for plantation establishment. Ways of decreasing the loss of inorganic nutrients when clear-felling tropical rain forests are discussed. 32 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.; Nanos, G.D.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Gemtos, T.A.; Paraskevopoulos, A.; Galanis, M.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...... trees in total. Weed control was practiced during the previous 3 years using post emergence herbicides under no-tillage over about 2/3 of the field, and over the remaining 1/3 by mechanical weeding using a rotary cultivator. For yield mapping, olives were collected manually using rods to shake the tree...... shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m...

  4. Net Primary Production of Chinese Arborvitae Plantations under Different Densities

    F. Liang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we measure the distribution of carbon pools and component fluxes of Net Primary Production (NPP in an Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco plantation in Beijing from 2009 to 2010. At 22 years old, the plots were reduced from 5900 to 4100 and 3000 trees/ha in three replicates. Results shown that aboveground biomass was highest in the N4100 treatment plots, lowest in the N3000 treatment and intermediate in the unthinned control plots. Annual net biomass increment followed the same pattern across treatments. NPP measures suggested that the control forests and forests from the N4100 treatment have functioned as carbon sinks (4.06 and 4.59 t C/ha/year, respectively, while forests from N3000 treatment appeared to be also a carbon sink (2.95 t C/ha/year.

  5. LABOURERS FORCE UPON CHILD AND ADOLESCENCE: TEA PLANTATION IN ASSAM

    Putul Borah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the causes and condition of child and adolescence labour of tea garden in Dibrugarh district of Assam. The paper also highlights some case studies of the child and adolescence labourers and look at how they are forced to work in tea garden of Assam. This study analyses about their workload, exploitation, types of work, parent roles, the owner of tea garden role and profits from these categories of labour, etc. in tea estate. The study also discusses the sociological impact from the child labour in the tea garden labour communities and the broader society of Assam. This paper is based on secondary and primary data collected from the field survey of a particular tea plantation.

  6. PLUM PLANTATION VALUE BASED ON REAL OPTION CONTRIBUTION

    Lari Hadelan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to stress the modern methods of project value analysis based on valuation of opportunities emerged during the project’s life. Traditional appraisal methodology can hardly incorporate option value and quantify management flexibility. Therefore, traditional investment appraisal should be completed with option value evaluation (Real Option. The appliance of option quantification is showed on a model of plum and plum brandy production as an extension activity. Results of traditional NPV analysis for 1 ha of plum production imply to be unacceptable. On the other hand, economic analysis of extended plum brandy production indicates high profitability. It implies that plum plantation has an option calculated using Black-Scholes and Binomial model. Plum production strategic NPV that includes option value is in this case 2 950.54 EUR indicating acceptability of investment.

  7. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese dos frutos e sementes de Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.3567 Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruits and seeds of Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.3567

    Juliana Marzinek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Clusia lanceolata Cambess é espécie arbustiva da Mata Atlântica. Caracteriza-se por ser dioica, com flores estaminadas e pistiladas grandes, vistosas, de coloração rosa, apresentando a parte interna vinácea. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie, visando classificar corretamente o seu tipo de fruto e, também, confirmar a origem do apêndice carnoso que envolve as sementes. O material botânico utilizado constou de flores em antese e frutos, em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento, coletados de dois espécimes. Os estudos morfológicos e anatômicos foram realizados segundo técnicas usuais. O fruto é cápsula septífraga, esférica, de coloração verde-avermelhado. O exocarpo é unisseriado; o mesocarpo parenquimático contém numerosos ductos secretores e feixes vasculares, de disposição principalmente longitudinal. O endocarpo é derivado da epiderme interna do ovário e de três a quatro camadas subepidérmicas, cujas células alongam-se tangencialmente e a parede que delimita o lóculo sofre lignificação. A abertura se faz pela sutura carpelar, por meio de uma faixa de células parenquimáticas de tamanho reduzido, que se bifurca em direção aos lóculos no meio dos septos. Os óvulos anátropos bitegumentados, com endotélio e hipóstase, originam sementes também anátropas, exotégmicas e envolvidas por arilo de origem funicular e exostomal. O embrião é hipocotilar.Clusia lanceolata Cambess. is a shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. The plant is dioecious, with large, showy, pink staminate and pistillate flowers that are wine-colored internally. The morphological and structural aspects of the fruits and seeds of this species are described here in order to correctly classify the fruit type and to determine the origin of the fleshy appendage that surrounds the seeds. The botanical material utilized here contained flowers in anthesis and fruits in four stages of development, and were collected from two different plants. The morphological and anatomical studies were performed according to traditional techniques. The fruit is a septifrage, spherical capsule with a reddish-green coloration. The exocarp is uniseriate; the parenchymatous mesocarp contains numerous secretory ducts and vascular bundles arranged in predominantly longitudinal positions. The endocarp is derived from the internal epidermis of the ovary and has from three to four subepidermal layers whose component cells are tangentially elongated, and the cell walls lining the locule become lignified. The fruits open by means of the carpelar suture, along a stand of small parenchymous cells that bifurcate in the direction of the locules, in the midst of the septum. The anatropous bi-tegumented ovules, with an endothelium and hypostase, give rise to seeds that are likewise anatropous, exotegmic, and wrapped in an aril that has a funicular and exostomal origin. The embryo is hypocotylar.

  8. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality.

  9. Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo

    D. Dzaba; D. Nganga; L. Moundzeo; J. Pandzou

    2011-01-01

    This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E). The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane pla...

  10. Quantitative Generalizations for Catchment Sediment Yield Following Plantation Logging

    Bathurst, James; Iroume, Andres

    2014-05-01

    While there is a reasonably clear qualitative understanding of the impact of forest plantations on sediment yield, there is a lack of quantitative generalizations. Such generalizations would be helpful for estimating the impacts of proposed forestry operations and would aid the spread of knowledge amongst both relevant professionals and new students. This study therefore analyzed data from the literature to determine the extent to which quantitative statements can be established. The research was restricted to the impact of plantation logging on catchment sediment yield as a function of ground disturbance in the years immediately following logging, in temperate countries, and does not consider landslides consequent upon tree root decay. Twelve paired catchment studies incorporating pre- and post-logging measurements of sediment yield were identified, resulting in forty-three test catchments (including 14 control catchments). Analysis yielded the following principal conclusions: 1) Logging generally provokes maximum annual sediment yields of less than a few hundred t km-2 yr-1; best management practice can reduce this below 100 t km-2 yr-1. 2) At both the annual and event scales, the sediment yield excess of a logged catchment over a control catchment is within one order of magnitude, except with severe ground disturbance. 3) There is no apparent relationship between sediment yield impact and the proportion of catchment logged. The effect depends on which part of the catchment is altered and on its connectivity to the stream network. 4) The majority of catchments delivered their maximum sediment yield in the first two years after logging. The logging impacts were classified in terms of the absolute values of specific sediment yield, the values relative to those in the control catchments for the same period and the values relative both to the control catchment and the pre-logging period. Most studies have been for small catchments (impact at large catchment scales and in tropical regions requires further research.

  11. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus

    Ognouabi Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs. In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13 had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%. The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR, a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits.

  12. Serpula lacrymans, Wood and Buildings.

    Watkinson, S C; Eastwood, D C

    2012-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the causative agent of dry rot timber decay in buildings, is a Basidiomycete fungus in the Boletales clade. It owes its destructiveness to a uniquely well-developed capacity to colonize by rapid mycelial spread from sites of initial spore infection, coupled with aggressive degradation of wood cellulose. Genomic methods have recently elucidated the evolution and enzymic repertoire of the fungus, suggesting that it has a distinctive mode of brown rot wood decay. Using novel methods to image nutrient translocation, its mycelium has been modeled as a highly responsive resource-supply network. Dry rot is preventable by keeping timber dry. However, in established outbreaks, further mycelial spread can be arrested by inhibitors of translocation. PMID:22305095

  13. Study of radiation destructed wood

    Potential mutagenous properties of pine, aspen, birch, and peat samples gamma-irradiated up to doses of 0.75, 1.00 and 2.70 MGy, respectively, are studied. It has been shown that spontaneous background of Salmonella typhimurium bacterium mutation for the TA98 line is from 20 to 25, and for the TA100 line - from 65 to 85 colonies, complying with the standards, so the tested samples do not exhibit mutagenous properties. The results of benzopirene determination in the samples of irradiated and non-irradiated plant raw material has been generalized. The data obtained show that this cancerogen content of gamma- and accelerated-electron-irradiated pine and aspen wood and of gamma-irradiated birch wood and peat do not fall outside the limits of its consentration in plant products

  14. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonalves, Jos Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (?B(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ?B(w)/ANPP and ?B(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ?B(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by a 15% lower GPP and by a 15% lower fraction of GPP allocated to wood growth, thus partially supporting our second hypothesis: mixing the two species led to shifts in C allocations from above- to belowground, and from growth to litter production, for both species. PMID:22588515

  15. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O., Jr.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  16. Palm Kernel based Wood Adhesive

    L.M. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake is a by-product of palm kernel oil industry. The production of palm kernel cake is more than 5000 million tons annually in the past few years. This quantity is expected to rise further in the future due to production of bio-diesel. Currently palm kernel cake is used for animal feed supplement such as cattle and goat. Due to indigestible compounds in palm kernel cake, it is less suitable for animals such as poultry, fish and swine. However palm kernel cake contains about 20% protein, with this protein composition palm kernel cake can be used as ingredient of protein based resin. Unlike soya bean which contain higher protein composition and can be used directly as ingredient of protein based resin, palm kernel cake require protein enhancement before it can be used for this purposes. In this study, wood adhesive was produced using palm kernel cake with protein content enhancement as a base ingredient. Soya protein extract was selected as a protein enhancement of palm kernel cake. Here the enhanced protein content palm kernel cake was reacted with polyetheleneimine and maleic anhydride at alkali environment. The experimental study was conducted at various compositions and various strength of alkali. The wood adhesive produced was tested on type II plywood. Japanese Agriculture Standard of strength and durability test was employed for the characterization of the adhesive produced. Results show that, palm kernel cake can be used as ingredient of protein based wood adhesive. In certain condition the mixture of palm kernel and soya protein show that the wood adhesive produced better strength and reliability compared to unmixed soya protein extract.

  17. Advantages of the use of energy wood

    According to the Regional Forestry Associations it would be possible to develop the harvesting of energy wood by increasing the use of it. The study was made at the areas of 34 regional forestry associations as an inquiry to the executive managers, as well as the persons responsible for timber trade, harvesting or regional affairs. The inquiries studied the use of energy wood and the user of them at the areas of the associations, as well as the amounts of harvesting and the realization of it. Only a third of the associations have large energy wood consuming plants (using more than 500 m3 energy wood per year). The closest large energy wood consuming plant was in the average 31 km from the office of the association. The average energy wood use of the plant was 20 000 m3/a, the variation being 700 - 200 000 m3/a. The energy wood purchase range of the plants varied from few kilometers to hundred kilometers, the average being 47 km. Most of the energy wood was harvested from forest regeneration areas. Some of the energy wood is also harvested from young forest maintenance and thinning areas. The estimated harvesting of energy wood in 1999 was 6300 m3. A part of the energy wood is used for heating the farms and other small real estates, and a part is used for heating larger buildings like schools, hospitals, factories. The fees to the associations for purchase of energy wood varied significantly. The range was 2.00 - 11.00 FIM/m3. One association charged 300 FIM/parcel, and in one association the price depend on the amount of wood acquired from the lot, the unit price being 0.5 FIM/m3. It appeared that the associations estimated the use of energy wood to increase. The level in 1999 was 6300 m3 and it is estimated to increase to 14 300 m3 in 2005. The associations estimated that the levels can only be achieved if the stumpage price of energy wood may not be 0.0 FIM. Even a marginal price would lead to an increased harvesting of energy wood. The associations estimated that the reasonable price of energy wood of the regeneration fellings to be 1-10 FIM/m3, and that of the first thinning, stem and rotten wood 5-50 FIM/m3

  18. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  19. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment rate fully comparable to a tertiary effluent quality with regard to biodegradable organic material and eutrophying nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Introductory analyses of the costs of a wastewater irrigated willow plantation for bio-fuel production indicate that the benefits of the wastewater treatment per se appear to be greater than the benefits from the increased production of wood chips. The risks of contamination via faecal micro-organisms of animals and humans seem possible to reduce or eliminate if proper precautions are taken. The awareness of the hygienic aspects is among the most important issues to deal with concerning the public acceptance. The gathered opinion from the members of the multidisciplinary project team is that the concept of recycling wastewater or fractions of wastewater within willow plantations for combined energy production and wastewater treatment would be worth developing on a wider scale. Experiences from a few full-scale facilities in Sweden are well in accordance with the findings outlined here. The fact that wastewater could be treated at reasonable costs might encourage the municipal sector as well as the energy and agricultural industry in Europe to further expand the concept with increased willow plantation areas as a consequence. This would increase the opportunities for an over all better environment for generations to come.

  20. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  1. Investigation of diverse leaf-wood and coniferous wood regardin their usability for the production of wood-plastic-combinations

    By impregnation with an acrylic monomer mixture and by polymerization with gamma radiation wood-plastic combinations with high dimensional stability have been made from 34 wood species. Data for monomer uptake, density, hardness, impact bending, swelling by volume and weight, and weatherability are presented. Furthermore the attempt of an aesthetic evaluation of the wood-plastic combinations has been made. The optical impression has been compared with the technological behaviour. As a result several wood species turned out to be especially suitable for the production of wood-plastic combinations of high quality. These woods are ramin, lime, abachi, walnut, bubinga, niangon and mutenye, with some restrictions also spruce, okoume, corola pine and dibetou. (author)

  2. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  3. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008. The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in eastern Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology 132, 306-314. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approach. Catena 85, 231-236. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F., Bodi, M.B. 2009. Effects of ants on water and soil losses from organically-managed citrus orchards in eastern Spain. Biologia 64, 527-531. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009b. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34, 1822-1830. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 117-123. 10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A.,Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., Caravaca. F. 2010. Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research 109, 110-115. 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005. García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28, 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a Spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) in Northern Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development 24, 188-204. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1121 Wu J., Li Q., Yan L. 1997. Effect of intercropping on soil erosion in young citrus plantation - a simulation study. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 8, 143-146. Wu, D.-M., Yu, Y.-C., Xia, L.-Z., Yin, S.-X., Yang, L.-Z. 2011. Soil fertility indices of citrus orchard land along topographic gradients in the three gorges area of China. Pedosphere 21, 782-792. Xu, Q. X., Wang, T. W., Cai, C. F., Li, Z. X., Shi, Z. H. 2012a. Effects of soil conservation on soil properties of citrus orchards in the Three-Gorges Area, China. Land Degradation & Development, 23(1), 34-42. Xu, Q., Wang, T., Li, Z., Cai, C., Shi, Z., Jiang, C. 2010. Effect of soil conservation measurements on runoff, erosion and plant production: A case study on steeplands from the Three Gorges Area, China. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 8, 980-984. Xu, Q.X., Wang, T.W., Cai, C.F., Li, Z.X., Shi, Z.H. 2012b. Effects of soil conservation on soil properties of citrus orchards in the Three-Gorges Area, China. Land Degradation and Development 23, 34-42. Zhao, G., Mu, X., Wen, Z., Wang, F., Gao, P. 2013. Soil erosion, conservation, and eco-environment changes in the Loess Plateau of China. Land Degradation & Development, 24, 499- 510. DOI 10.1002/ldr.2246SP

  4. Risk and Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Southeast Asian Rubber Plantations.

    Tangena, Julie-Anne A; Thammavong, Phoutmany; Wilson, Anne L; Brey, Paul T; Lindsay, Steve W

    2016-05-01

    Unprecedented economic growth in Southeast Asia (SEA) has encouraged the expansion of rubber plantations. This land-use transformation is changing the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. Mature plantations provide ideal habitats for the mosquito vectors of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya. Migrant workers may introduce pathogens into plantation areas, most worryingly artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. The close proximity of rubber plantations to natural forest also increases the threat from zoonoses, where new vector-borne pathogens spill over from wild animals into humans. There is therefore an urgent need to scale up vector control and access to health care for rubber workers. This requires an intersectoral approach with strong collaboration between the health sector, rubber industry, and local communities. PMID:26907494

  5. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Andrašev Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  6. A note on 18th- and 19th-century plantation inventories from Martinique

    Myriam Cottias

    1990-01-01

    Exploration of Martiniquan slave inventories in the 18th and 19th centuries. The author shows that each plantation had its own mode of classifying slaves: by age, by age and sex, by family groups or following some other order.

  7. The Darjeeling Distinction: Labor and Justice on Fair-Trade Tea Plantations in India

    Julia Poerting

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed: The Darjeeling Distinction: Labor and Justice on Fair-Trade Tea Plantations in India. By Sarah Besky. Berkeley, CA: University of California press, 2014. xxxi + 233 pp. US$ 29.95. ISBN 978-0-520-27739-7.

  8. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series : Amphibian communities in three different coffee plantation regimes in the Western Ghats, India

    S. Rathod

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the highly populated and diverse tropics, conservation in relatively pristine habitats is important but clearly inadequate for sustaining the earth biological diversity. Agro-forestry systems such as shade-coffee plantations that incorporate arboreal vegetation are known to be more resilient for biodiversity conservation than other more drastic land transformations. We evaluated amphibian richness and diversity in 15 coffee plantations from three different regimes; organic coffee plantations, NPK coffee plantations and pesticide use coffee plantations in Kodagu District, Western Ghats, India. We treated five sacred groves as control region (CR and sampled them using a combination of standardized visual and acoustic transect sampling. The sacred groves that were characterized by natural vegetation showed the highest richness and abundance of amphibians among the four regimes. In organic coffee plantations, overall abundance and richness of amphibians was significantly higher compared to NPK coffee plantations. On the other hand, amphibian richness and diversity in pesticide use coffee plantations were significantly lower compared to all other regimes. The results of the study clearly indicated that, the difference in habitat variables in coffee plantations and use of different treatments for pest control had a significant effect on the species richness and abundance of amphibians. This study highlights the great potential of sacred groves and organic coffee plantations as complementary habitat for the conservation of amphibians.

  9. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by δ(13) C.

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ(13) C values with depth. PMID:25707391

  10. Cold-atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour for improved wood plastics composites

    Lekobou, William; Pedrow, Patrick; Englund, Karl; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2009-10-01

    Plastic composites have become a large class of construction material for exterior applications. One of the main disadvantages of wood plastic composites resides in the weak adhesion between the polar and hydrophilic surface of wood and the non-polar and hydrophobic polyolefin matrix, hindering the dispersion of the flour in the polymer matrix. To improve interfacial compatibility wood flour can be pretreated with environmentally friendly methods such as cold-atmospheric pressure plasma. The objective of this work is therefore to evaluate the potential of plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour to improve the compatibility with polyolefins. This presentation will describe the reactor design used to modify wood flour using acetylene plasma polymerization. The optimum conditions for plasma polymerization on wood particles will also be presented. Finally preliminary results on the wood flour surface properties and use in wood plastic composites will be discussed.

  11. Woody species recruitment under monospecific plantations of pioneer trees - facilitation or inhibition?

    Trindade DFV; Coelho GC

    2012-01-01

    The successional model of forest restoration is based on the facilitation process, in which the establishment of pioneer tree species favors the late successional tree species. We tested the hypothesis of facilitation through a case study, comparing tree species diversity in the understory of two Neotropical native tree species plantations, Trema micrantha (L.) Blüme (Cannabaceae) and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae). Results obtained under the plantations were compared with an adjacent ...

  12. Quantifying the biodiversity value of tropical primary, secondary, and plantation forests

    Barlow, J.; Gardner, T.A.; Araujo, I. S.; Ávila-Pires, T. C.; Bonaldo, A. B.; Costa, J. E.; Esposito, M. C.; L.V. FERREIRA; Hawes, J; Hernandez, M. I. M.; Hoogmoed, M.S.; Leite, R. N.; Lo-Man-Hung, N. F.; Malcolm, J. R.; Martins, M B

    2007-01-01

    Biodiversity loss from deforestation may be partly offset by the expansion of secondary forests and plantation forestry in the tropics. However, our current knowledge of the value of these habitats for biodiversity conservation is limited to very few taxa, and many studies are severely confounded by methodological shortcomings. We examined the conservation value of tropical primary, secondary, and plantation forests for 15 taxonomic groups using a robust and replicated sample design that mini...

  13. Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) Plantations Provide Additional Habitats for Vascular Plant Species in Agricultural Mosaic Landscapes

    BAUM, Sarah; Bolte, Andreas; Weih, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Increasing loss of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes is often debated in the bioenergy context, especially with respect to non-traditional crops that can be grown for energy production in the future. As promising renewable energy source and additional landscape element, the potential role of short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations to biodiversity is of great interest. We studied plant species richness in eight landscapes (225 km2) containing willow and poplar SRC plantations (1,600 m2)...

  14. Redistribution of the solar radiation and the rain inside of coffee plantations (Arabic Coffea L.)

    The following review presents a series of studies on microclimates of non-shaded and shaded conditions of coffee plantations (Coffea arabica L.) in Colombia. Likewise, The redistribution of solar radiation and the temperature, as well as the energy balance, of the coffee plant and the crop are described. The results on the components of water balance and transport of nutrients within the coffee plantations are reported

  15. Estimation and economic evaluation of aboveground carbon storage of Tectona grandis plantations in Western Panama

    Derwisch, Sebastian; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Olschewski, Roland; Hölscher, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Tropical tree plantations may play an important role in mitigating CO2 emissions through their potential to capture and sequester carbon from the atmosphere. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as well as voluntary initiatives provide economic incentives for afforestation and reforestation efforts through the generation and sale of carbon credits. The objectives of our study were to measure the carbon (C) storage potential of 1, 2 and 10-years old Tectona grandis plantations in the provinc...

  16. Harvest of Short-Rotation Woody Crops in Plantations with a Biobaler

    Philippe Savoie; Pierre-Luc Hébert; François-Simon Robert; Derek Sidders

    2013-01-01

    The biobaler is an alternative to the modified self-propelled forage harvester to cut and collect short rotation woody crops (SRWC). It is less capital intensive and more versatile, being able to harvest woody crops on plantations, on abandoned farmland, on brush land or within forest understory. The biobaler was evaluated specifically on five different plantations over 19 experimental units (546 bales harvested with an average mass of 427 kg and 49% moisture content). Average bale density w...

  17. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    M. CALLISTO; F. A. R. Barbosa; Moreno, P.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

  18. Carbon Storage and Allocation Pattern in Plant Biomass among Different Forest Plantation Stands in Guangdong, China

    Yuanqi Chen; Zhanfeng Liu; Xingquan Rao; Xiaoling Wang; Chenfei Liang; Yongbiao Lin; Lixia Zhou; Xi-an Cai; Shenglei Fu

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand how carbon storage and allocation patterns vary among plantation types, we estimated carbon allocation between above- and below-ground compartments in four subtropical plantations and a naturally recovered shrubland (as a control). Results indicated that the carbon storage and allocation pattern varied greatly among forest types and was highly dependent on specific traits of trees and understory vegetation. The fast-growing species, such as Eucalyptus urophylla, accumul...

  19. Leaf-cutting ant attack in initial pine plantations and growth of defoliated plants

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele; Wilson Reis Filho; Edilson Batista Oliveira; Edson Tadeu Iede; Nádia Caldato; Priscila Strapasson

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the natural attack by Acromyrmex crassispinus in initial Pinus taeda plantations without control measures against ants, as well as the effect of defoliation in seedlings of P. taeda. Evaluations of the attack of leaf-cutting ants on P. taeda plantations were done monthly in the first six months, then 9 and 12 months after planting. The percentages of plants that were naturally attacked by ants were registered. The effect of defoliation was evaluated ...

  20. Technical and Economical Evaluations of Maritime Pine Plantations in Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    TUNTANER, Korhan; Da?demir, ?smet; Ertekin, Murat; ZEL, Halil Bar??

    2012-01-01

    AbstractIn this study, technical and economical evaluations of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations, established at Bart?n-Karaaydere between the years of 1979 and 1984, were made. 60 sample plots were allocated by representing the establishment techniques of mechanization and labour. The data were collected from the plots concerning growth, yield and economics, in the year of 2003. Reasonable growth rates were obtained in maritime pine plantations, in spite of the negative ...

  1. Exploration of Optimal Agricultural Practices and Seedling Types for Establishing Poplar Plantations

    Henrik Bhlenius; Rolf vergaard

    2015-01-01

    Controlling competing vegetation during early growth is one of the most important practices for the successful establishment of poplar plantations. Today, most poplar plantations in temperate regions are established on abandoned marginal agricultural land where competing vegetation is usually present during the first years after planting. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine how the growth of two kinds of poplar planting materials, un-rooted cuttings and bare-rooted seedlings was ...

  2. Farmers' perspectives about agroforests conversion to plantations in Sumatra. Lessons learnt from Bungo district (Jambi, Indonesia)

    Therville, C.; Feintrenie, L.; Levang, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Located on the fringe of the last tropical rainforests of Sumatra, rubber agroforests are known to conserve the main ecological functions of the primary forest, including a large part of its biodiversity. Nowadays these smallholder plantations are under threat. The regular rise of natural rubber and crude palm oil prices has been a major incentive for farmers to convert their agroforests into clonal rubber and oil-palm plantations. However, some areas seem to resist conversion. A multidiscipl...

  3. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

    Mone, S; K.M. Kusha; D. Jathanna; Ali, M.; Goel, A.

    2014-01-01

    We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other...

  4. Soil carbon stocks decrease following conversion of secondary forests to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.

    de Blcourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.44.7 (SE) Mg C ha(-1) in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.32.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha(-1) to an increase of 8 Mg C ha(-1). In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes. PMID:23894456

  5. Do the rubber plantations in tropical China act as large carbon sinks?

    Song Q-H; Tan Z-H; Zhang Y-P; Sha L-Q; Deng X-B; Deng Y.; Zhou W-J; Zhao J-F; Zhao J-B; Zhang X; Zhao W; Yu G-R; Sun X-M; Liang N-S

    2014-01-01

    The regrowth of tropical secondary forests and plantations can not offset the carbon release caused by tropical deforestation, consequently determining net carbon losses on tropical lands. However, large uncertainties remain in relation to this assumption. Here, we used a biometric method to estimate the net dry matter production and net ecosystem production in a rubber forest, the most widespread plantation type in tropical Southeast Asia. According to biometric estimates made during the stu...

  6. Hybrid wood/steel elements under fire

    Barbosa, L.F.M.; Almeida, P.M.L.; Fonseca, E.M.M.; Barreira, Luísa; Coelho, Diana C.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a computational model for the fire resistance of wood/steel hybrid elements. Different design solutions will be presented. The most important factors for fire safety in hybrid elements are the thermal effects degradation and the charring depth formation in wood materials, and also the heat conduction extremely well in steel material. Unprotected steel elements under fire condition may suffer serious damage. The use of hybrid wood/steel elements c...

  7. Anisotropy of wood in the microwave region

    Wood is transparent for microwaves and due to its anisotropic structure has anisotropic dielectric properties. A laboratory experiment that allows for the qualitative demonstration and quantitative measurements of linear dichroism and birefringence in the microwave region is presented. As the proposed experiments are based on the anisotropy (of wood), which is evident from the observable anisotropic structure of wood, they may serve as a demonstration for explaining the anisotropic properties in crystals in the optical region.

  8. Entrained flow gasification of torrefied wood residues

    Weiland, Fredrik; Nordwaeger, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar; Wiinikka, Henrik; Nordin, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In this work, four different fuels were gasified in a pressurized entrained flow pilot plant gasifier at approximately 270 kW(th). The different fuels were; two torrefied wood residues, one raw wood residue and one torrefied stem wood. The system pressure and oxygen equivalence ratio (lambda) were held constant for all four gasification experiments. It was found that the torrefaction pretreatment significantly reduced the milling energy consumption for fuel size reduction, which in turn contr...

  9. Degradation of lime wood painting supports

    Cristina Maria Popescu; Yusaku Sakata; Mihaela Carmen Popescu; Akioshi Osaka; Cornelia Vasile1

    2005-01-01

    Degradation of wood, being a natural process, leads to destruction of wooden objects of historic and cultural value, resulting in loss of cultural heritage. Wood can survive centuries or even thousands of years, if kept in an environment, which limits microbial activity. In an unfavourable environment physical, chemical and morphological modifications of wood also take place as a result of biodegradation. It is important to know the type of degradation and how the processes influence material...

  10. Identification of beetles attacking wood during storage

    Taskirawati, Ira; Arif, Astuti; Patimah

    2011-01-01

    several timber trading businesses located in Bantaeng, South Sulawesi. The attacked beetle species were identified according to their morphology and the condition of attacked woods including form, frass, tunnels and bored holes. Results showed that there were 12 families of beetles attacking different wood species at the research sites. Among them, eight families were identified as wood destroying beetles. They were Lyctidae attacking Vatica spp, Paraserianthes falcataria, Anis...

  11. Morphology of wood species affecting wood-thermoplastic interaction: microstructure and mechanical adhesion

    William Gacitua; Michael Wolcott

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the research presented here is to relate anatomical features of wood species that affect the interactions between polymeric phases and performance of wood plastic composites (WPC). These interactions are related to the probable interlocking volume and surface area for stress transfer in a WPC. Composites were produced from different wood species and analyzed using SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Results showed that wood species with high interfacial areas may increas...

  12. Evaluation of wood basic density as an indirect measurement of the volume of wood raw material

    Moura, S.; Abella, D.; Anjos, O.

    2007-01-01

    The manufacturing process of wood agglomerate integrates distinct unit that transforms wood raw material into wood agglomerate. The yield of wood agglomerate produced is influenced by the density and the quality of the initial raw material. This work has compared two distinct methodologies aimed at defining the yield of the process through an indirect measurement at the precursor material. Samples (logs of differentiated sizes) were collected immediately at the industry entrance and severa...

  13. Influence of the moisture content on the shear strength of welded wood-to-wood connections

    Stamm, Bernhard; WEINAND, Yves; Hahn, Benjamin; Rossmair, Georg Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    Friction welding of wood is an innovative process, able to join pieces of wood without additional adhesives. Because of its hygroscopic properties, the wood matrix absorbs humidity at the surface from the surrounding atmosphere. Its moisture content is strongly dependent on ambient conditions and seasonal changes. Former research showed that after samples passed a certain moisture content threshold, the creation of welded wood-towood connections becomes difficult and shear strength is signifi...

  14. Malaria in tree crop plantations in south-eastern and western provinces of Thailand.

    Singhasivanon, P; Thimasarn, K; Yimsamran, S; Linthicum, K; Nualchawee, K; Dawreang, D; Kongrod, S; Premmanisakul, N; Maneeboonyang, W; Salazar, N

    1999-09-01

    During the past three decades almost half of the existing natural tropical forests in Thailand were destroyed and replaced by cash crops, rubber, coffee, fruit orchards (durian, rambutan, mangosteen) and other commercial plantations. In order to determine the proportion of malaria cases contracted from such commercial plantations, an epidemiological study was conducted between June 1996 to May 1997 in two districts, one in Pong Nam Ron, located in a south-eastern province near the Cambodian border and another in Sai Yok, in a western province along the Myanmar border. Data were collected by passive case detection from patients attending the existing malaria clinics and active case detection by monthly malariometric survey in selected villages. All malaria cases were thoroughly investigated and classified according to exposure to different ecotypes prior to onset of malaria symptoms in the preceding two weeks. Malaria cases acquired from commercial plantations accounted for 35.2% and 11.2% in Pong Nam Ron and in Sai Yok districts respectively. In such plantations, most of the malaria cases were contracted from fruit orchards and to a lesser extent from rubber and teak plantations. From this study it is evident that commercial plantations provide a significant site of malaria transmission in addition to the forest and foothills areas in Southeast Asia where efficient vectors such as An. dirus and An. minimus are prevalent and have adapted to such changed ecosystems. PMID:10774642

  15. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  16. Radiation-induced chemical modification of wood

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations, describing the effect of ionizing radiation on wood and its main components and methods for production of wood-plastic composites by means of radiation-induced chemical modification are generalized. Domestic and foreign experience in their production is systematized; physico-mechanical characteristics of new material, simulation and calculation of irradiating devices, as well as calculation and experimental study of γ-radiation attenuation both by wood material and by wood of different species are given. Gamma sources (60Co isotope, a hot loop of a nuclear reactor) as well as electron accelerators are considered as ionizing radiation sources

  17. Characteristics of Wood ASH/OPC Concrete

    m Abdullahi

    2006-01-01

    The study presents the behaviour of wood ash / OPC concrete. Chemical analysis of wood ash, bulk density, sieve analysis and specific gravity of wood ash and aggregates, consistency, setting time and slump test of the fresh paste were conducted to determine the suitability of the materials for concrete making. Mix ratio of 1:2:4 and percentage replacement level of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 percents of cement by wood ash were used. 150mm´150mm cubes were cast, cured and crushed at 28 and 60 days to...

  18. Wood-energy in Europe: resources, technologies

    A voluntaristic policy for the development of wood fuel would contribute to save energy and to protect the environment. Different strategies of development exist at the European scale as demonstrated by a recent report ordered by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME). This paper gives a synthesis of this report. It deals successively with: the European wood resources (the northern and continental forests, the mountain and bocage regions, the Mediterranean forests); the 3 main resources: forest exploitation, wood transformation, recycling of waste wood; the different economical status of wood resources; the place of wood-fuel in the economy: estimation, complementarity of industrial and energy uses; technological files and perspectives of development: collection, transport, conditioning, fuel production and supply, technologies of energy production from wood (domestic heating, collective heating, cogeneration and mixed wood-coal combustion); future markets; strategy of development: forestry and agriculture, management, producers, environmental aspects, afforestation of abandoned lands, employment...; policies of European, national and regional authorities: political and financial help, regulations and standardizations, financial helps and fiscal policy, inter-region cooperation and R and D, advice and communication; contribution of wood-fuel to the energy supply of Europe. (J.S.)

  19. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Druette, L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T. [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  20. European wood-pastures in transition

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... European Wood-Pastures in Transition examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of...