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1

[Characteristics of soil microbial community structure in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using dilution plate, fumigation extraction, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methods, this paper studied the quantities of soil microbial populations and the characteristics of soil microbial community structure in a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation converted from an evergreen broadleaved forest. The results showed that, during the vegetation change from evergreen broadleaved forest to Chinese fir plantation, the microbial biomass carbon and the quantities of culturable bacteria and actinomyces were decreased. The total PLFAs, bacterial PLFAs, and fungi PLFAs in the woodland soil from Chinese fir plantation were decreased by 49.4%, 52.4%, 46.6%, simultaneously. And G+ and G- bacterial PLFAs in Chinese fir plantation were lower than in evergreen broadleaved forest. As compared with those in rhizosphere soil from Chinese fir plantation, the microbial biomass carbon and the quantities of culturable bacteria and actinomyces in bulk soil were decreased. The total PLFAs, bacterial PLFAs, and G+ and G- bacterial PLFAs in the rhizosphere soil were increased, while the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs was lowered. The principal component analysis of the soil microbial community structure indicated that the first principal component (PC1) and the second principal component (PC2) together accounted for 78.2% of total variation of soil microbial community structure. This study showed there were some differences in the soil microbial community structure between evergreen broadleaved forest and Chinese fir plantation. PMID:23189690

Xia, Zhi-Chao; Kong, Chui-Hua; Wang, Peng; Chen, Long-Chi; Wang, Si-Long

2012-08-01

2

[Soil microfauna diversity among Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations based on pyrosequencing].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the function of soil microfauna and its responses to environmental changes, we used metagenome analyses of the 18S rDNA gene region to identify differences in microfauna diversity and community structure among fifteen soil samples belonging to five different Cunninghamia lanceolate plantations. The plantations were located in Youxian County, Hunan Province in central China. The trees in these plantations were of different ages (3, 13, and 26 years) and belonged to different ecological successions (first, second, and third successions). The total dataset comprised 94922 high quality sequences with an average length of 436 bp. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples were Chordata, Annelida, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Rotifera and Platyhelminthes with each accounting for 60.8%, 24.0%, 7.4%, 3.6%, 1.5% and 1.2% of the sequences, respectively. There were significant differences in ACE index and Shannon index among the five plantations. The lowest diversity of soil microfauna was in the 13-year old plantation of the first ecological succession. The correlation analysis showed that both ACE and available potassium concentration were negatively correlated to the Chaol index. However, there were no significant correlations between the Shannon, Simpson indices and the physical-chemical properties of soil. Overall, the Jaccard's similarity coefficient was less than 0.4 among samples at each site, and significant differences were found among plantations. PMID:25223021

Wang, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Jun-Ang; He, Yuan-Hao; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Tan, Yi-Min; Zhou, Jie-Chen

2014-06-01

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Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m{sup 3} or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m{sup 3} or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden)

2010-09-15

4

Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. An international review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activities 1.2 (Forest management) and 1.2 (Harvesting) of Task XII/IEA Bioenergy Agreement carried out an international review of wood fuel from plantation cleaning and early thinning. The participating countries were Canada, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The individual country reviews and an international summary are presented in this paper. Each report gives country-related background information on forestry and wood utilization, energy potential from plantation cleaning and early thinning, environmental considerations from the viewpoint of wood fuel recovery, silvicultural systems and methods, cost of wood fuel, and knowledge gaps and problems

5

Some Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Juvenile Wood from Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold Plantations  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some chemical, physical and mechanical properties of juvenile wood from black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold plantations. Black pine, one of the important softwood species covers the most of the plantations in Turkey. Black pines that naturally grow in Duzce were 20-23 years old with the dimensions of 13-17 cm utilized in this study. Specimens were prepared and tested according to Turkish standards. The physical properties were measured and air and oven dry wood densities were found to be 0.464 and 0.431 g cm–3, respectively. The volume weight was 0.383 g cm–3. The radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkage values were 4.05, 6.19 and 10.24%, respectively. The radial, tangential and volumetric swelling values were also found to be 3.69, 7.79 and 11.5%, respectively. The mechanical tests resulted in that the static bending and compression strengths were 79.1 and 42.4 N mm–2, respectively. In addition juvenile wood had higher lignin and lower holocellulose content compared to the mature wood. Conclusively, the physical and mechanical properties of juvenile pine wood examined in this study were observed to be lower compared to the mature pine wood.

Cengiz Guler

2007-01-01

6

Basic physical properties of spruce wood (Picea abies Karst from plantations  

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Full Text Available The basic physical properties of spruce wood from plantations in the surroundings of Banja Luka were researched. The dependence of growth ring diameter and wood density, density, volume porosity, shrinkage, fibre saturation point and absorption of moisture were analysed on three trees average age about 16 years. The data for breast height and for all specimens from breast height to 9.3 m were statistically processed. The research and analysis of the basic physical properties of plantation-grown spruce wood shows that the effect of growth ring diameter on the density is negative and that the dependence is logarithmic, which confirms the previous results. Average value of wood density is lower than the usual value reported in references. Average value of radial shrinkage is 3.90%, and tangential 8.10%. This research confirms the linear dependence between the nominal density and volumetric shrinkage of spruce wood and that density has a negative effect on the coefficient of surface anisotropy. At breast height, average value of the coefficient of surface anisotropy is 2.16, volume porosity 72%, and fibre saturation point 32.6%. Average rate of absorption is 3.42% per day, for the first 7 days, and 0.12% per day for the last 30 days. The study results were compared to the results reported by other authors.

Šoški? Borislav

2007-01-01

7

Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the biomass potential, silvicultural considerations, cost of recovery and environmental aspects in conjunction with the energy use of small trees from plantation cleanings and early thinnings in Finland. Repeated thinnings from below are an essential characteristic of the Finnish forest management system. Due to high operational costs, plantation cleanings and first commercial thinnings are currently a critical link in the management chain. These young forests possess a high potential as a source of renewable energy, 4 to 6 million m3 or 8 to 12 TWh per year. Utilization of small-tree biomass for energy is constrained by the high costs compared to peat, coal, oil or even wood chips produced from residues such as bark, sawdust or logging slash from clearcuts 3 refs

8

Wood-polymer composites from Philippine tree plantation species by radiation polymerization I. Uptake and irradiation parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation catalyzed polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in various Philippine tree plantation species were investigated. Wood samples measuring 1x6cm were impregnated with monomer at reduced pressure and gamma irradiated for various doses at a dose rate of 0.53 kGy/h. The parameters used to assess the polymerization reaction were the uptake of monomer by the wood samples, monomer conversion, and polymer loading in the irradiated samples. The uptake and polymerization data indicate that coconut wood, rubber wood, bagras, and Moluccan sau could be potential raw materials for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPC). (author). 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

9

THE EFFECT OF INITIAL STAND DENSITY ON CLEAR WOOD YIELD IN Loblolly pine PLANTATIONS  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzed the influence of initial stand density on mean tree dbh,mean top height, mean height at the lowest branch, mean total tree volume, clear meanvolume, mean volume at 25 cm, 18 and 8 cm diameter, in loblolly pine plantations insouthern Brazil. Special attention is given to clear wood yield. The experiment wasestablished in the Jaguariaíva county, Paraná State, on the Pisa Florestal S.A. lands. Theexperiment was evaluated at several occasions since its establishment, but onlydata collectedin the last measurement (1999, at age 12 were used. The results indicated that large initalspacing determine more remarkable increase in dbh and other related variables (mean totaltree volume, mean volume at 25 cm, 18 and 8 cm diameter. No significant effect of standdensity on mean top height was noticed. It was also noticed that stand density affects knot formation; the higher the density the lower the height at the lowest branch and the lower theclear volume. It was concluded that if the key objective is wood yield for veneer (andsawnwood in some cases, it is recommendable to use larger stand spacings in combinationwith artificial prunning. When pruning is not feasible, the intermediate spacings (as 2.5 x 2.8m should be used, which may result in same clear wood yield as compared to largerspacings (as 2.5 x 3.6 m or larger.

Carlos R. Sanquetta

2003-07-01

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Assessment of cost-efficiency for wood production in poplar plantations in Ravan Srem, based on internal rate of return  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the commercial cost efficiency analysis of poplar plantations, according to project evaluation indicator in agriculture and forestry - internal rate of return (IRR. The analysis was performed for planting poplar clone I-214 in the area of Ravan Srem, planting space 6×6 m, with different rotations and on different soil types. The methodology, used in this paper refers to the implementation of the dynamic method of economic research, which explains the discount rate, according to which, the current value of cash flow will be equal to the current value of the cash outflaw. The research goal was to check the justifica­tion of funds invested in wood production in poplar plantations, based on revenues and cost analysis in different plantation ages, using the IRR. The research showed that the IRR for 12 sample plots varied in interval 4.32-6.94% with average rate of 5.63%. The internal rates are larger for plantations on good quality soil types, regarding of poplar plantation (aluvial semigleyic soil, and for shorter rotations and vice versa. The IRR values higher than 12% were not found in researched framework of cost-revenues changes rate. The sensitive analysis proved that the project is very easily affected by cost-revenues changes. .

Ke?a Ljiljana

2010-01-01

11

Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha-1 (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem-soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed

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Comparative study of the thermal behavior of wood and bark of young shoots obtained from an energy plantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have performed thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS) analysis of young wood samples from a short rotation forestry plantation to get information about their thermal behavior. Poplar (Populus x euramericana, Populus x interamericana), willow (Salix alba) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) species have been studied. The ratio of wood and bark in these young shoots is significantly different from that of an older wood. That is why great emphasis has been put on the comparative study of the decomposition characteristics of wood and bark. Considerable differences have been found in these investigations: more volatiles are produced from wood than from bark; the temperature range and the rate of decomposition also differ. The TG/MS results are interpreted in terms of the chemical composition characterized by Klason lignin and ash content. One of the main differences between the chemical composition of wood and bark is the amount of inorganic ions: the mineral matter content is significantly higher in the bark than in the wood. We have pretreated the samples with a hot water washing procedure in order to eliminate a significant part of these inorganic components and investigate their effects on the thermal decomposition of the samples. The results imply that the thermal behavior of wood and bark are still considerably different after the elimination of some of the inorganic components, however, the macromolecular components decompose at similar temperatures in wood and bark. Since we had a large number of samples and TG/MS data, we have employed a chemometric tool, principal component analysis (PCA) to help the evaluation of the results and the comparison of the samples.

Meszaros, E.; Jakab, E.; Varhegyi, G. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 17, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Szepesvary, P. [Department of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Marosvoelgyi, B. [Institute of Energetics, University of West Hungary, Sopron (Hungary)

2004-11-01

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Short-rotation plantations. Wood from the acre - that's the way; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Holz vom Acker - So geht's  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poplar or willow instead of rapeseed and wheat? It is not quite obviously: There is no question that one may achieve still more profits by means of cultivation of quality wheat than the cultivation of fast growing wood. However, under certain circumstances birch trees, robinia et cetera may be a very lucrative alternative to grassland or low yield rye cultivation. Especially with currently rising timber prices. The book under consideration is a practical decision support for whom a short-rotation plantations is worthwhile as well as how to create and maintain a short-rotation plantation.

Setzer, Frank [Deutsche Landwirtschaftsgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Fachgebiet Forstwirtschaft und Bioenergie; Landgraf, Dirk

2012-07-01

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Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the method of pay back period  

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Full Text Available Poplar plantations are a category of fixed assets in forestry, i.e. the assets with a biological character. They are related to their site, they are cultivated for a relatively long time and they have a relatively long utilization cycle, with the yield development determined by the plantation growth and age. Plantations transfer their value gradually to the obtained products during the period of their harvesting, and, by the realization of the products, the means invested in the plantation establishment are reproduced. The period of investments in poplar growing can be relatively long, and so is the period of harvesting. Therefore, it is important to determine the time of the return of the capital invested in these and similar plantations. This paper presents the analysis of commercial profitability of poplar cultivation according to the indicator for the assessment of projects in agriculture and forestry - pay back period. The application of pay back period (PBP calculation can affect greatly the reliability of predicting the degree of economic effectiveness of investments, and also the potential risks for the investor in his decisions on the investments in poplar cultivation. The analysis of poplar clone I-214 plantations was carried out in the area of Ravni Srem, under different rotations and soil types. Based on the analysis of costs and receipts in different plantation ages, and using the method of pay back period, the objective of the study was to evaluate the possible pay back period of invested capital in wood production in poplar plantations. PBP is practically unacceptable by the investor under the discount rate of 6%. The most favorable situation is in the youngest stands, using the discount rate of 2%. The situation regarding the pay back period in the over-aged stands is utterly unfavorable, so the credit cannot be repaid under any conditions. This fact supports the idea that the production cycle length should be shortened.

Ke?a Ljiljana

2011-01-01

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Relationship Between Wood Color Parameters Measured by the CIELab System and Extractive and Phenol Content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from Fast-Growth Plantations  

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Full Text Available The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b* of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

Carolina Tenorio

2012-03-01

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VARIATION IN ANISOTROPIC SHRINKAGE OF PLANTATION-GROWN PINUS RADIATA WOOD  

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Full Text Available Anisotropic shrinkage of 27-year old Pinus radiata wood was measured from green to oven-dry condition. The samples were prepared from 21 discs cut from seven trees at different stem heights of 0.1m, 5.2m and 10.3m above ground, respectively. Longitudinal shrinkage was found to vary from 0.02% to 2.34%, with peak values near the pith decreasing towards the bark. The variation was more pronounced at the 0.1m height. The longitudinal shrinkage also showed a trend of decrease with the stem height above the ground. Tangential and radial shrinkage was found to increase with growth ring number from the pith, but the variation along the stem height did not show a clear trend. The results confirmed that the pith-to-bark variation and vertical variation of the anisotropic shrinkage were significant for radiata pine. Large differences were also observed among corewood, transition wood and outerwood. Microfibril angle (MFA was believed to the main reason for these variations.

Eric Wang

2008-01-01

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VARIATION IN ANISOTROPIC SHRINKAGE OF PLANTATION-GROWN PINUS RADIATA WOOD  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Anisotropic shrinkage of 27-year old Pinus radiata wood was measured from green to oven-dry condition. The samples were prepared from 21 discs cut from seven trees at different stem heights of 0.1m, 5.2m and 10.3m above ground, respectively. Longitudinal shrinkage was found to vary from 0.02% to 2.3 [...] 4%, with peak values near the pith decreasing towards the bark. The variation was more pronounced at the 0.1m height. The longitudinal shrinkage also showed a trend of decrease with the stem height above the ground. Tangential and radial shrinkage was found to increase with growth ring number from the pith, but the variation along the stem height did not show a clear trend. The results confirmed that the pith-to-bark variation and vertical variation of the anisotropic shrinkage were significant for radiata pine. Large differences were also observed among corewood, transition wood and outerwood. Microfibril angle (MFA) was believed to the main reason for these variations.

Eric, Wang; Taian, Chen; Shusheng, Pang; Andrew, Karalus.

18

Equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para plantio de Ocotea porosa Estimating wood volume in plantation of Ocotea porosa  

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Full Text Available

Conhec

er o volume de madeira de uma floresta é de extrema relevância. Equações de volume para espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista se restringem quase que exclusivamente a araucária. Equações de volume para imbuia Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso são inexistentes. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo desenvolver equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para árvore individual de Ocotea porosa na região de Rio Negro, PR. Foram derrubadas 12 árvores, com DAP entre 3,98 cm e 43,13 cm e altura entre 5,1 m e 20,4 m. Foi feita cubagem rigorosa de cada uma das árvores. Para desenvolvimento da equação de volume, foram testados onze modelos matemáticos. Os critérios utilizados para a seleção da melhor equação foram o coeficiente de determinação ajustado, o erro padrão da estimativa em porcentagem, o valor de F calculado e análise gráfica de resíduos. O modelo de Kopezky-Gehrart apresentou alto coeficiente de determinação ajustado (0,97, baixo erro padrão da estimativa (16,7% e alto valor de F calculado (382,6, com boa distribuição de resíduos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o modelo pode ser utilizado para quantificação de volume com casca, o que é muito importante em conjunto com outras informações, para tomada de decisão no manejo florestal.

 

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

To know the volume of wood from a forest is extremely important. Volume equations for species from the Araucaria Forest are restricted almost exclusively to plantations of araucaria. Equations for Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso plantations are inexistent. The present work aims to develop equation for individual tree volume and hypsometric relation from an Ocotea porosa, established in the region of Rio Negro, PR. Twelve trees were logged with DBH from 3.98 cm to 43.13 cm and height from 5.1 m to 20.4 m. All the trees were measured and cubed. Eleven mathematical models were tested for the development of the volume equation. The criteria used for selecting the best equation were the adjusted coefficient of determination, the standard error of estimative in percentage, the value of F calculated and graphical analysis of the residuals. The model-Kopezky Gehrart, presented a high coefficient of determination (0.97, low standard error of estimate (16.7% and high value of calculated F (382.6, with good distribution of residuals. The results indicate that this model can be used to quantify the volume with bark, which is very important in conjunction with other information for decision making in forest management.

 

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

Andreia Taborda dos Santos

2012-03-01

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Juglans regia L. tree plantations for wood production in mining area of S. Barbara (AR. Evaluation of N-fixing accessory trees effect  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out in experimental plots located in the Arno valley (Cavriglia, province of Arezzo - Italy. The experimental plots, walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations both pure and mixed to accessory trees (Alnus cordata Loisel., Corylus avellana L., Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L., were established in 1986 and 1989. Data on grown and architectural characteristics were collected in different periods on trees aged 9, 13 and 16. Walnut trees grown with accessory trees showed the best performances, especially if associated with N-fixing species. These positive effects are probably due to many co-occuring favourable causes, a remarkable aspect of which is the higher availability of N. To better investigate the above effect, N concentration in the soil and in walnut leaves was measured in plantations both pure and mixed with Italian alder (Alnus cordata or black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, and N concentration values were compared with growth characteristics. The results showed that Juglans regia trees associated with Italian alder grow faster, with straighter stems and better stem shapes for qualified wood production. Even if walnut trees growing in plantations with black locust show similar N concentration values, growth performances are worse.

Tani A

2006-01-01

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Cytogenetics off interpopulation Cuphea lanceolata hybrids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cuphea lanceolata Ait. (Lythraceae) is an annual diploid (x = 6) with medium-chain fatty acid rich seed oils. Wild C. lanceolata populations are classified as C. lanceolata f. silenoides or C. lanceolata f. lanceolata on the basis of flower pigment differences. Although these taxa are taxonomically close, their interfertility has not been demonstrated. We describe meiotic phenomena underlying the sterility of hybrids between C. lanceolata f. silenoides (LNS-43) and C. lanceolata f. lanceolata (LNC-78) populations. We assayed metaphase and anaphase I microsporocytes of the parent and hybrid populations. The hybrids were female and male sterile. The mean percentage of stainable pollen was 94.9% for the parents and 1.1% for the hybrids. Chromosomes paired and disjoined normally in the parents (LNS-43 and LNC-78) and abnormally in the hybrids (LNS-43 x LNC-78 and LNC-78 x LNS-43). Univalents, unequal chromosome distributions, and laggards were observed in the hybrids. The mean number of univalents per cell was 0.00 for the parents and 5.95 for the hybrids, the mean number of bivalents per cell was 6.00 for the parents and 1.51 for the hybrids, and the mean number of chiasmata per cell was 9.19 for the parents and 4.04 for the hybrids. The most frequently observed (75%) anaphase I chromosome distribution for the hybrids was 7:5:0 (pole-pole-laggards). The genome affinities of the hybrids were half those of the parents (a mean of 0.5 for the hybrids as opposed to 1.0 for the parents). Although C. lanceolata f. silenoides and C. lanceolata f. lanceolata freely hybridize, their progeny are sterile, and the genetic diversity of LNC-78, and perhaps of C. lanceolata f. lanceolata as a whole, cannot be accessed through hybrids with C. lanceolata f. silenoides or C. viscosissima. PMID:18470238

Ali, M S; Knapp, S J

1995-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the cost-benefit method  

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Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of polar cultivation was analyzed based on one of the indicators for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects - cost-benefit (r. Poplar plantations of the clone I-214 of different rotations and on different soil types were analyzed in the area of Ravni Srem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the justification of the invested financial means in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts at different plantation ages, using the cost-benefit method. It was found that in all 13 analyzed compartments, the average cost-benefit ratio was 0.36. This means that the costs at the discount rate of 12% are about 2.8 times higher than the receipts. Accordingly, it can be asserted that it is economically unjustified to invest in the projected stands, but only in the case when the value of social capital accounts for 12%. Based on the analysis of sensitivity of the cost-benefit method, it was concluded that cost benefit ratio for p=8-12% was below 1 within the study range of costs and receipts changes, while for p=4-6% this ratio was above 1 in some cases of decrease in costs, i.e. increase in receipts. It was noted that the change in r depending on the change in costs, developed by the exponential function, and the change in r depending on the change in receipts developed by the linear function. Also, it was concluded that at the lower discount rates, the values of r moved towards 1, so for 8% r=0.71, and for 6% r=0.94. The value at the discount rate of 4% indicates that the project is cost-effective and that the invested € 1 makes € 1.22. This fact is especially important when poplar cultivation projects are ranked. For this reason, this method is used for the evaluation of social benefits, i.e. for economic analyses. It is almost never applied in the analysis of private investments.

Ke?a Ljiljana

2011-01-01

22

Diseases in poplar plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of poplar plantation is in great part in correlation with its health condition. Big areas under the trees of the same age and almost identical (sort) or identical (clones) genetical characteristics are ideal environment for occurrence and development of different diseases. They could easy reach epyphitotic intensity, in such conditions and start to endanger wood mass production and cause big financial loss. Aim of paper was to present the most important diseases worldwide, which ar...

Ke?a Nenad

2008-01-01

23

Wood plantations in virgin forest  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a pulpwood project in the Amazonas region of Brazil, 1000 square km of an eventual 16,000 squared km have been planted with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Eucalyptus deglupta. Though G. arborea reached a height of 20 metres in 7 years in the first generation and the other species showed hardly any sign of nutrient deficiency it is suggested that after the second generation (14-20 years) the soil will be completely exhausted.

Irion, G.

1981-01-01

24

Diseases in poplar plantations  

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Full Text Available Production of poplar plantation is in great part in correlation with its health condition. Big areas under the trees of the same age and almost identical (sort or identical (clones genetical characteristics are ideal environment for occurrence and development of different diseases. They could easy reach epyphitotic intensity, in such conditions and start to endanger wood mass production and cause big financial loss. Aim of paper was to present the most important diseases worldwide, which are reported on poplar species of sections: Leuce, Aigeiros and Tacamahaca. Beside the most important diseases in paper are presented fungi which were found during many years of study of natural stands and plantations of poplars in Serbia.

Ke?a Nenad

2008-01-01

25

Immunosuppressive properties of Pluchea lanceolata leaves  

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Full Text Available Objective : To investigate the immunosuppressive potential of Pluchea lanceolata 50% ethanolic extract (PL and its bioactive chloroform fraction (PLC. Materials and Methods : Preliminary screening of the Pluchea lanceolata 50% ethanolic extract (PL was carried out with basic models of immunomodulation, such as, the humoral antibody response (hemagglutination antibody titers, cell-mediated immune response (delayed-type hypersensitivity, skin allograft rejection test, in vitro (C. albicans method, and in vivo phagocytosis (carbon clearance test. The extract was then fractionated with chloroform, n-butanol, and water to receive the respective fractions by partitioning. These fractions were employed for flow cytometry to study the T-cell specific immunosuppressive potential of these fractions. Results : Oral administration of PL at doses of 50 to 800 mg/kg in mice, with sheep red blood cells (SRBC as an antigen, inhibited both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, as evidenced by the production of the circulating antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitiviy reaction results, respectively, and the immune suppression was statistically significant (P < 0.01 in Balb/C mice. PL also decreased the process of phagocytosis both in vitro (31.23% and ex vivo (32.81% and delayed the graft rejection time (30.76%. To study the T-cell-specific activities, chloroform, n-butanol, and water fractions from P. lanceolata were tested for T-cell specific immunosuppressive evaluation, wherein only the chloroform fraction (PLC showed significant (P < 0.01 suppression of CD8+ / CD4+ T-cell surface markers and intracellular Th1 (IL-2 and IFN- Y cytokines at 25 - 200 mg/kg p.o. doses. PLC, however, did not show significant suppression of the Th2 (IL-4 cytokine. Conclusion : The findings from the present investigation reveal that P. lanceolata causes immunosuppression by inhibiting Th1 cytokines.

Bhagwat D

2010-01-01

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Study on the effect of stump height and number of coppice shoots per stump on some anatomical properties of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. wood growth in Nineveh plantation  

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Fiber length, diameter, wall thickness, the ratio of fiber length to diameter, and vessel element length and diameter were recorded from wood samples collected in an irrigated stand. Stump height significantly affected all anatomical features recorded except fiber wall thickness. The number of coppice shoots had significant effects on all features except vessel diameter. Anatomical variation was greater in the radial direction than along the stem axis. The use of wood from low stumps with 4 shoots is recommended, although wood produced under all conditions studied can be useful for some products. 18 references.

Kasir, W.A.; Barno, J.S.

1985-01-01

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EVALUACIÓN DE PROCEDIMIENTOS SIMPLIFICADOS EN LA CUANTIFICACIÓN VOLUMÉTRICA DE UNA PLANTACIÓN DE PINO / Evaluation of simplified procedures for quantifying wood volume in a plantation of pine / Avaliação dos procedimentos simplificados na quantificação volumétrica de uma plantação de pino  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A quantificação do volume sólido de madeira em plantações florestais é essencial para a gestão adequada dos povoamentos florestais e sua correspondente comercialização. Os métodos de amostragem tradicionalmente usados em inventários florestais são onerosos e dispendiosos, sendo de fundamental import [...] ância a obtenção de métodos rápidos, baratos e precisos que facilitem a quantificação volumétrica adequada, especialmente em plantações de áreas relativamente pequenas. O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em comparar quatro métodos de amostragem para determinar o volume de madeira de uma plantação de Pinus. Três dos métodos foram baseados unicamente em medições do diâmetro e o quarto correspondeu ao procedimento para o dimensionamento de 553 árvores. Em oito terrenos circulares de 600 m2 cada um situados aleatoriamente. Obteve-se o volume de madeira por hectare. Observou-se que os métodos de obtenção do volume não diferiram significativamente para um erro máximo permissível de 10%, considerando o nível de significância de ? = 0.05. Os métodos permitiram a estimativa confiável do volume de madeira por unidade de área, com uma pequena vantagem do método que utilizou o diâmetro de Hohenadl. Abstract in spanish La cuantificación del volumen sólido de madera en plantaciones forestales es imprescindible para la adecuada ordenación de los rodales y su correspondiente comercialización. Los métodos de muestreo utilizados tradicionalmente en los inventarios forestales son onerosos y dispendiosos siendo de fundam [...] ental importancia la obtención de métodos rápidos, baratos y precisos que faciliten la correspondiente cuantificación volumétrica sobre todo en plantaciones de áreas relativamente pequeñas. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en comparar cuatro métodos de muestreo para determinar el volumen de madera de una plantación de Pinus. Tres de los métodos se fundamentaron exclusivamente en mediciones del diámetro y el cuarto correspondió al procedimiento de la cubicación de 553 árboles. En ocho parcelas circulares de 600 m² cada una ubicadas aleatoriamente se obtuvo el volumen de madera por hectárea. Se observó que los métodos de obtención del volumen no presentaron diferencias significativas para un error máximo admisible de 10% considerado del nivel de significancia de ? = 0.05. Los métodos permitieron la estimación confiable del volumen de madera por unidad de área, con una pequeña ventaja del método que utilizó el diámetro de Hohenadl. Abstract in english Quantification of wood volume in forests stands is necessary for forest management of plantations particularly with respect to the timber trade. Traditional sampling methods used in forest inventories are onerous and costly. Development of rapid, cheap and precise methods which facilitate the corres [...] ponding volumetric quantification are desirable. It was compared four sampling methods for determining wood volume in a Pinus plantation. Three of those methods are based exclusively on diameter measurement, whereas the fourth is based on wood volume. Eight randomly located 600 m² plots were used where each method was applied to determine the wood volume per hectare. There were no significant differences in methods for determining wood volume with a permitted maximum error of 10%, and a significance level of ? = 0.05. All methods provided reliable estimations of wood volume per unit area, although the Hohenadl diameter method performed slightly better.

Eder Miguel, Pereira; José, Imaña-Encinas; Alba, Valéria Rezende.

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EVALUACIÓN DE PROCEDIMIENTOS SIMPLIFICADOS EN LA CUANTIFICACIÓN VOLUMÉTRICA DE UNA PLANTACIÓN DE PINO / Evaluation of simplified procedures for quantifying wood volume in a plantation of pine / Avaliação dos procedimentos simplificados na quantificação volumétrica de uma plantação de pino  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A quantificação do volume sólido de madeira em plantações florestais é essencial para a gestão adequada dos povoamentos florestais e sua correspondente comercialização. Os métodos de amostragem tradicionalmente usados em inventários florestais são onerosos e dispendiosos, sendo de fundamental import [...] ância a obtenção de métodos rápidos, baratos e precisos que facilitem a quantificação volumétrica adequada, especialmente em plantações de áreas relativamente pequenas. O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em comparar quatro métodos de amostragem para determinar o volume de madeira de uma plantação de Pinus. Três dos métodos foram baseados unicamente em medições do diâmetro e o quarto correspondeu ao procedimento para o dimensionamento de 553 árvores. Em oito terrenos circulares de 600 m2 cada um situados aleatoriamente. Obteve-se o volume de madeira por hectare. Observou-se que os métodos de obtenção do volume não diferiram significativamente para um erro máximo permissível de 10%, considerando o nível de significância de ? = 0.05. Os métodos permitiram a estimativa confiável do volume de madeira por unidade de área, com uma pequena vantagem do método que utilizou o diâmetro de Hohenadl. Abstract in spanish La cuantificación del volumen sólido de madera en plantaciones forestales es imprescindible para la adecuada ordenación de los rodales y su correspondiente comercialización. Los métodos de muestreo utilizados tradicionalmente en los inventarios forestales son onerosos y dispendiosos siendo de fundam [...] ental importancia la obtención de métodos rápidos, baratos y precisos que faciliten la correspondiente cuantificación volumétrica sobre todo en plantaciones de áreas relativamente pequeñas. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en comparar cuatro métodos de muestreo para determinar el volumen de madera de una plantación de Pinus. Tres de los métodos se fundamentaron exclusivamente en mediciones del diámetro y el cuarto correspondió al procedimiento de la cubicación de 553 árboles. En ocho parcelas circulares de 600 m² cada una ubicadas aleatoriamente se obtuvo el volumen de madera por hectárea. Se observó que los métodos de obtención del volumen no presentaron diferencias significativas para un error máximo admisible de 10% considerado del nivel de significancia de ? = 0.05. Los métodos permitieron la estimación confiable del volumen de madera por unidad de área, con una pequeña ventaja del método que utilizó el diámetro de Hohenadl. Abstract in english Quantification of wood volume in forests stands is necessary for forest management of plantations particularly with respect to the timber trade. Traditional sampling methods used in forest inventories are onerous and costly. Development of rapid, cheap and precise methods which facilitate the corres [...] ponding volumetric quantification are desirable. It was compared four sampling methods for determining wood volume in a Pinus plantation. Three of those methods are based exclusively on diameter measurement, whereas the fourth is based on wood volume. Eight randomly located 600 m² plots were used where each method was applied to determine the wood volume per hectare. There were no significant differences in methods for determining wood volume with a permitted maximum error of 10%, and a significance level of ? = 0.05. All methods provided reliable estimations of wood volume per unit area, although the Hohenadl diameter method performed slightly better.

Eder Miguel, Pereira; José, Imaña-Encinas; Alba, Valéria Rezende.

2012-06-01

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Digging Up Plantation Ulster  

...MonumentsArchaeologyDigging Up Plantation UlsterDigging Deep...Up Plantation UlsterDigging Deep at Roe ValleyTreasureResearch Data...s Historic EnvironmentDigging Up Plantation UlsterLast updated: 23...

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Alterações nas características químicas da madeira com a substituição do K por Na em plantações de eucalipto / Changes in chemical properties of wood with substitution of K by Na in eucalyptus plantations  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando à substituição parcial do potássio pelo sódio na fertilização das plantações florestais, avaliou-se o efeito da ação isolada desses nutrientes nas características químicas da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram plantadas árvores no espaçamento de 2 m x 3 m e aplicados 116 kg ha-1 de [...] K e 68,5 kg ha-1 de Na. Árvores de eucalipto foram cortadas do 1º ao 4º ano após o plantio, em cada tratamento de fertilização, sendo seccionados discos de madeira em diferentes alturas do tronco e demarcados os anéis de crescimento anuais, estimados por um modelo de perfil do tronco. Amostras representativas de cada anel de crescimento, posição longitudinal e tratamento foram obtidas para determinação dos teores de lignina, holocelulose e extrativos. As árvores de eucalipto que receberam aplicação de potássio e de sódio não sofreram alterações significativas nas característias químicas, indicando que a substituição do K pelo Na na fertilização de plantações florestais de eucalipto pode ser adotada sem que as características químicas da madeira juvenil presente em árvores jovens se alterem. As avaliações anuais indicaram redução significativa dos teores médios de lignina e extrativos totais e aumento dos terores médios de holocelulose com a elevação da idade das árvores. Consistentes alterações nos teores dos componentes químicos do lenho por posição longitudinal e por anel de crescimento foram observadas. Abstract in english With the purpose of partial substitution of potassium by sodium in the forest plantations fertilization, the effect of the isolated performance of these nutrients on the chemical properties of young wood in Eucalyptus grandis trees was evaluated. Trees were planted at a 2mx3m spacing and 116 kg.ha-1 [...] of K and 68.5 kg.ha-1 of Na were applied to them. Eucalypt trees were cut down from the 1st to the 4th year after planting in each fertilization treatment, being sectioned disks of wood in different positions of the trunk and marked the annual growth rings, estimated by a stem profile model. Representative samples of each annual ring, longitudinal position and treatment were obtained for determining the lignin, holocellulose and extractives. Eucalyptus trees that received application of potassium and sodium did not change significantly in chemical properties, indicating that the substitution of K by Na in fertilization of Eucalyptus plantations can be adopted without the alteration of the chemical properties in the young wood in the young trees. Annual evaluations indicated a significant reduction in average content of lignin and total extractives and an increase in average contents of holocellulose with increasing age of the trees. Consistent changes in the levels of chemical properties of wood for the longitudinal and ring growth were observed.

Carlos Roberto, Sette Jr; Mario, Tomazello Filho; Francides Gomes da, Silva Jr; Jean Paul, Laclau.

2014-06-01

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Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha?¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr?¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products with longer life spans. PMID:24586964

Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

2014-01-01

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Trabajabilidad de la madera de Pinus oaxacana Mirov. proveniente de una plantación en el Estado de México / Workability of Pinus oaxacana Mirov. wood from a plantation in the State of Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La calidad de maquinado es diferente en cada especie, por tanto, es necesario conocer las características y propiedades que intervienen en este proceso, tales como; la estructura anatómica, contenido de humedad, densidad básica, velocidad de crecimiento, número de anillos de crecimiento por pulgada [...] y dirección del grano. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las características de los ensayos de cepillado, lijado, moldurado, torneado y barrenado en la madera de Pinus oaxacana Mirov. El material de estudio se obtuvo en la plantación localizada a un costado de la División de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Los ensayos de maquinado, la evaluación de los defectos y clasificación se realizaron según la Norma ASTM-D 1666-87, con algunas modificaciones realizadas en función de la maquinaria y contenidos de humedad. En general, la madera de P. oaxacana fue clasificada como una especie con excelente trabajabilidad, exceptuando el ensayo de moldurado en el corte preliminar que fue clasificado como bueno. Este ensayo mejoró en el segundo corte, por lo tanto, la especie puede ser utilizada en la elaboración de productos con mayor valor agregado, por ejemplo; en puertas, ventanas, marcos, piezas torneadas, molduras, lambrín o recubrimientos y muebles en general. Abstract in english Machining quality is different for each species and, as a result, it is necessary to know the characteristics and properties involved in this process, such as the anatomical structure, moisture content, specific gravity, growth rate, number of growth rings per inch, and grain direction. The aim of t [...] his study was to determine the machining properties of Pinus oaxacana Mirov. wood in planing, sanding, shaping, turning and boring tests. The test material was obtained in a plantation located on one side of the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo forestry department. Machining tests, defect evaluation and grading were performed as set out by ASTM-D 1666-87, with some modifications in terms of machinery and moisture contents. In general, P. oaxacana wood was graded as having excellent workability, except in the first shaping test cut where it was graded as good. This test result improved in the second cut. Therefore, the species can be used in the manufacture of finished products with higher value added, such as doors, windows, frames, turned parts, moldings, furring and furniture in general.

Roberto, Machuca-Velasco; Amparo, Borja-de la Rosa; Emilio, Morales-Villalba; Rogelio, Flores Velásquez.

2012-08-01

33

Trabajabilidad de la madera de Pinus oaxacana Mirov. proveniente de una plantación en el Estado de México / Workability of Pinus oaxacana Mirov. wood from a plantation in the State of Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La calidad de maquinado es diferente en cada especie, por tanto, es necesario conocer las características y propiedades que intervienen en este proceso, tales como; la estructura anatómica, contenido de humedad, densidad básica, velocidad de crecimiento, número de anillos de crecimiento por pulgada [...] y dirección del grano. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las características de los ensayos de cepillado, lijado, moldurado, torneado y barrenado en la madera de Pinus oaxacana Mirov. El material de estudio se obtuvo en la plantación localizada a un costado de la División de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Los ensayos de maquinado, la evaluación de los defectos y clasificación se realizaron según la Norma ASTM-D 1666-87, con algunas modificaciones realizadas en función de la maquinaria y contenidos de humedad. En general, la madera de P. oaxacana fue clasificada como una especie con excelente trabajabilidad, exceptuando el ensayo de moldurado en el corte preliminar que fue clasificado como bueno. Este ensayo mejoró en el segundo corte, por lo tanto, la especie puede ser utilizada en la elaboración de productos con mayor valor agregado, por ejemplo; en puertas, ventanas, marcos, piezas torneadas, molduras, lambrín o recubrimientos y muebles en general. Abstract in english Machining quality is different for each species and, as a result, it is necessary to know the characteristics and properties involved in this process, such as the anatomical structure, moisture content, specific gravity, growth rate, number of growth rings per inch, and grain direction. The aim of t [...] his study was to determine the machining properties of Pinus oaxacana Mirov. wood in planing, sanding, shaping, turning and boring tests. The test material was obtained in a plantation located on one side of the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo forestry department. Machining tests, defect evaluation and grading were performed as set out by ASTM-D 1666-87, with some modifications in terms of machinery and moisture contents. In general, P. oaxacana wood was graded as having excellent workability, except in the first shaping test cut where it was graded as good. This test result improved in the second cut. Therefore, the species can be used in the manufacture of finished products with higher value added, such as doors, windows, frames, turned parts, moldings, furring and furniture in general.

Roberto, Machuca-Velasco; Amparo, Borja-de la Rosa; Emilio, Morales-Villalba; Rogelio, Flores Velásquez.

34

Monitoring of seeds of chronically irradiated plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of provocative ?-irradiation was used to study the radiosensitivity of seeds of three first post-accident reproductions of Plantago lanceolata L. within the thirty kilometer zone of Chernobyl. The radiation injury was severer among seeds taken in 1987-1988 from the areas with a higher level of radioactive contamination

35

Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, especie forestal con potencial para ser introducida en sistemas silvopastoriles / Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, forest species with potential to be submitted in sylvopastoral systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La utilización de especies forestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria contribuye a reducir la presión en los bosques naturales y se pueden incorporar en áreas no arboladas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad nutritiva, germinación, desarrollo de plántula en vivero y divers [...] idad de usos de Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. El material comestible y las semillas se colectaron en Tomatlán, Jalisco. Se realizaron análisis bromatológicos, pruebas de escarificación y evaluación de plántula en vivero sobre tres suelos con diferente pH. El experimento se analizó en un diseño completamente al azar con comparación de medias de Tukey (P ? 0.05). Además, se hicieron entrevistas a productores, una revisión bibliográfica y consulta de ejemplares en los herbarios para conocer los usos locales y potenciales de la especie. Los resultados indican alto contenido de materia seca (97.40 %) y proteína cruda (29.05 %), mayor germinación en los tratamientos térmicos, mejor desarrollo de la plántula en el suelo ligeramente ácido (6.57) y la diversidad de usos incluye leña, forraje y madera, entre otros. Por el alto valor nutritivo y diversidad de usos en el medio rural, L. lanceolata representa una opción viable para utilizarse en sistemas silvopastoriles del trópico seco. Abstract in english The usefulness of forest species in agricultural production systems is an option that helps to reduce the pressure in natural forests; they can also be used in treeless areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, germination, development of seedlings grown in nursery and va [...] riety of uses of Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. Edible material and seeds were collected in Tomatlán, Jalisco. Bromatologic analyses, scarification tests and the evaluation of seedlings grown in nursery using three soils with different pH values were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized, with Tukey (P?0.05) test for media comparison. A survey study, bibliographical revision and review of specimens in the herbariums were used to know the local and potential diversity of uses of this specie. Results show high content of dry matter (97.40 %) and crude protein (29.05 %), greater germination using heat treatments, better seedling development in slightly acid soil (6.57) and the diversity of uses including firewood, forage and timber among others. L. lanceolata represents a viable option to be used in dry tropical silvopastoral systems due to the high nutritional value and the diversity of uses in rural areas.

María L., Román-Miranda; Luis A., Martínez-Rosas; Antonio, Mora-Santacruz; Pablo, Torres-Morán; Agustín, Gallegos-Rodríguez; Adriana, Avendaño-López.

2013-04-01

36

Development of phytophotodermatitis in two cases related to Plantago lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plantago lanceolata, also known as snake's tongue, is a perennial herbaceous plant from the family Plantaginaceae. It is a species widely distributed both in Turkey and all over the world. Today, its fresh leaves are still used to soothe and suppress cough, externally for wound healing and draining abscesses. Phytophotodermatitis (PPD) is a dermal photosensitive reaction induced by the contact to or oral intake of a plant and subsequent exposure to sunlight. Its acute course is called phototoxic. In this paper, two cases developed phototoxic reaction with the consumption of Plantago lanceolata and subsequent exposure to the sunlight. These cases were presented since such effect of the plant has not been known previously and there is no resembling case in the literature. PMID:22309280

Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Ozkol, Halil; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Calka, Omer

2012-03-01

37

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three extractives from China-fir were obtained by a sequential extraction processes with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The components of the three extractives were analyzed: (1 The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis showed that in addition to the presence of cedrol, naphthalenes comprised a relatively large percentage of both the hexane extract (10.39% and the ethyl acetate extract (9.43%. (2 Total phenolic contents analysis showed that phenols took up 6.66 % of the ethyl acetate extract and 22.8% of the methanol extract. All extracts, even with low concentrations, presented fair antifungal activities against two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Irpex lacteus and two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Cedrol and naphthalenes were partly responsible for the bioactivities. The synergistic effect of phenols and antifungal compounds also contributed to the wood decay resistance.

Jing Wang

2011-02-01

38

Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos ...

Caridad Carballo Guerra; Teresita Alfaro López; Zoe Palazón López; Raúl Ramos Gálves; Rodri?guez Ferrada, Carlos A.; Cristina Cabezas Landrian; Lérida Acosta de la Luz; Miralys Reyes Arias

2002-01-01

39

Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in th...

Gostin, Irina Neta

2009-01-01

40

Radikalfangere og antioksidanter i smalkjempe (Plantago lanceolata L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Smalkjempe, Plantaginis lanceolatae herba, ble ekstrahert med 80 % etanol. Råekstraktet i vann ble fraksjonert (LLE) med en serie løsemidler (eter, etylacetat og n-butanol). Dette ga 4 råfraksjoner (E, A, B og V), hvorav to (A og B) viste klart størst radikalscavengeraktivitet, og disse to (samt enkelte underfraksjoner) ble separert videre med kolonne-kromatografi. Alle fraksjonene ble testet for scavengeraktivitet overfor DPPH-radikalet, og noen for 15-LO-hemming og eventuelt for antioks...

Sola?s, Marit

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Nematicidal activities of acetylene compounds from Coreopsis lanceolata L.  

Science.gov (United States)

1-Phenylhepta-1,3,5-triyne (1), 5-phenyl-2-(1'-propynyl)-thiophene (2), and 2-(3'-acetoxy-1'-propynyl)-5-phenylthiophene (3) were isolated from Coreopsis lanceolata L., and their structures identified by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 showed effective nematicidal activities against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans, but had hardly any effect against Pratylenchus penetrans. Compound 3 did not show any effective nematicidal activity. PMID:19227832

Kimura, Yasuo; Hiraoka, Kensuke; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Fujioka, Shozo; Shimada, Atsumi

2008-01-01

42

In vitro activities of Maesa lanceolata extracts against fungal plant pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro tests were carried out using extracts of Maesa lanceolata var. goulungensis weir against a broad range of fungal plant pathogens such as Phytophthora cryptogea, Trichoderma virens, Aspergillus niger, Phoma sp., Fusarium oxysporium, Pythium ultimum, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Pyrenophora teres. M. lanceolata extracts were very active against all the pathogens tested except P. ultimum and R. solani. PMID:12727503

Okemo, Paul O; Bais, Harsh Pal; Vivanco, Jorge M

2003-04-01

43

Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in the assimilatory cells, especially from palisade parenchyma. The necrotic areas shows hypertrophied assimilatory cells with thick walls and tannin deposits. Solid deposits are present on both on upper and lower epidermis.

Irina Neta GOSTIN

2009-05-01

44

Farm-based versus industrial eucalyptus plantations for electricity generation in Nicaragua  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Nicaragua, two sugar mills are going to generate electricity from eucalyptus outside the sugarcane season. The eucalyptus comes from the sugar mills' already existing industrial energy plantations. In this study, we look at the possibility of an alternative wood supply from small scale farm-based plantations to one of these sugar mills. With farm-based plantations 77% of the value added which is generated eventually benefits low income groups, while with the industrial plantations this is between 17 and 47%. Employment creation doubles when the wood is produced by farmers instead of the sugar mill. If the wood is sold as standing stock, the farmers would need at least a price of 6.7 dollars/m{sup 3} in order to obtain the minimum wage of 2.2 dollars/day invested in the plantation. The avoided costs for the sugar mill are almost 11 dollars/m{sup 3}. With the already existing sale of wood to the urban market, the farmers can obtain a net income of 4.9 dollars/day. If they would sell their wood to the sugar mill and if the sugar mill is willing to pay the avoided costs, this will become 5.5 dollars/day. Overall, from a financial point of view, there seems to be a good opportunity for Nicaraguan farmers to produce wood for electricity generation in sugar mills. (author)

Broek, R. van den; Turkenburg, W. [Utrecht University (Netherlands). Dept. of Science, Technology and Society; Wijk, A. van [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2000-07-01

45

Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata with Steamed and Fermented Process on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) traditionally have been used as a tonic and to treat patients with lung abscesses. Recently, it was proposed that the extract and some compounds isolated from C. lanceolata reversed scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of cognitive enhancing effect of C. lanceolata by steam and fermentation process in scopolamine-induced memory impairment mice models by passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. The extract of C. lanceolata or the extract of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFCE) was orally administered to male mice at the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight. As a result, mice treated with steamed and fermented C. lanceolata extract (SFCE) (300 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) showed shorter escape latencies than those with C. lanceolata extract or the scopolamine-administered group in Morris water maze test. Also, it exerted longer step-through latency time than scopolamine treated group in passive avoidance test. Furthermore, neuroprotective effect of SFCE on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity was assessed in HT22 cells. Only SFCE-treated cells showed significant protection at 500 ?g/ml. Interestingly, steamed C. lanceolata with fermentation contained more phenolic acid including gallic acid and vanillic acid than original C. lanceolata. Collectively, these results suggest that steam and fermentation process of C. lanceolata increased cognitive enhancing activity related to the memory processes and neuroprotective effect than original C. lanceolata. PMID:24244829

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2013-01-01

46

Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal.This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sodium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

Caridad Carballo Guerra

2002-12-01

47

Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 [...] min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal. Abstract in english This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sod [...] ium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa) for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

Caridad, Carballo Guerra; Teresita, Alfaro López; Zoe, Palazón López; Raúl, Ramos Gálves; Carlos A, Rodríguez Ferrada; Cristina, Cabezas Landrian; Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Miralys, Reyes Arias.

2002-12-01

48

Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 [...] min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal. Abstract in english This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sod [...] ium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa) for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

Caridad, Carballo Guerra; Teresita, Alfaro López; Zoe, Palazón López; Raúl, Ramos Gálves; Carlos A, Rodríguez Ferrada; Cristina, Cabezas Landrian; Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Miralys, Reyes Arias.

49

Effects of considering greenhouse gas consequences on fertilizer use in loblolly pine plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fertilizer use, widely practiced in forest plantation management to stimulate tree growth, contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We explore how accounting for GHG consequences affects optimal fertilizer application rates of commercial forest plantations. A generic model that maximizes the equivalent annual net benefit of timber production and GHG balance is developed and applied to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the southern United States. We find that fertilizer use still is a viable practice for managing loblolly pine plantations in the region although fertilizer application rate should be reduced when GHG consequences are valued. A greater reduction in fertilizer application rate is recommended where wood is used for paper production because life cycle GHG emissions of paper products are much higher than those of solid wood or bioenergy products. A higher fertilizer rate should be applied when forest residues are used for the production of bioenergy that offsets GHG emissions from consuming fossil fuels. PMID:23088934

Gan, Jianbang; Smith, C T; Langeveld, J W A

2012-12-30

50

Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay. The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas árvores representativas das diferentes classes de diâmetro à altura do peito para avaliação de suas biomassas e para a análise de extrativos e componentes da madeira. Os atributos físicos do solo, sobretudo o teor de argila, diretamente relacionado à quantidade de água disponível, foram os que mais afetaram a produtividade e a qualidade da madeira. A densidade básica da madeira não se alterou nas diferentes classes de solo. O teor de lignina total diminuiu e o de holocelulose aumentou exponencialmente com o aumento do teor de argila do solo (até cerca de 350 a 400 g kg-1 de argila. O teor de extrativos da madeira não foi afetado pelos atributos do solo. O rendimento de celulose depurada relacionou-se exponencialmente com o teor de argila do solo.

José Luiz Gava

2008-01-01

51

Restriction fragment length polymorphism and allozyme linkage map of Cuphea lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cuphea lanceolata Ait. has had a significant role in the domestication of Cuphea and is a useful experimental organism for investigating how medium-chain lipids are synthesized in developing seeds. To expand the genetics of this species, a linkage map of the C. lanceolata genome was constructed using five allozyme and 32 restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) marker loci. These loci were assigned to six linkage groups that correspond to the six chromosomes of this species. Map length is 288 cM. Levels of polymorphism were estimated for three inbred lines of C. lanceolata and an inbred line of C. viscosissima using 84 random genomic clones and two restriction enzymes, EcoRI and HindIII. Of the probes 29% detected RFLPs between C. lanceolata and C. viscosissima lines. Crosses between these species can be exploited to expand the map. PMID:24202601

Webb, D M; Knapp, S J; Tagliani, L A

1992-02-01

52

The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Carbon (C) conservation and sequestration in many developing countries needs to be accompanied by socio-economic improvements. Tree crop plantations can be a potential path for coupling climate change mitigation and economic development by providing C sequestration and supplying wood and non-wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 tC/ha) and orange (76 tC/ha) plantations have a much lower C content, and oil palm (45 tC/ha) has the lowest C potential, assuming that the yield is not used as biofuel. There is considerable C sequestration potential in plantations if they are established on land with modest C content such as degraded forest or agricultural land, and not on land with oldgrowth forest. We also show that simple C assessment methods can give reliable results, which makes it easier for developing countries to partake in REDD+ or other payment schemes.

Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas

2013-01-01

53

The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Direct and Indirect Defense Metabolites of Plantago lanceolata L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can strongly influence the metabolism of their host plant, but their effect on plant defense mechanisms has not yet been thoroughly investigated. We studied how the principal direct defenses (iridoid glycosides) and indirect defenses (volatile organic compounds) of Plantago lanceolata L. are affected by insect herbivory and mechanical wounding. Volatile compounds were collected and quantified from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal P. lanceolata plants that underwent...

Fontana, Anna; Reichelt, Michael; Hempel, Stefan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B.

2009-01-01

54

Sistema de policultivos en plantas medicinales: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata y Plantago major System of polycultures in medicinal plants: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fundamentos: existe una tendencia creciente por los agricultores a desarrollar las producciones agrícolas mediante sistemas de policultivos. Objetivos: demostrar las ventajas del sistema de policultivo sobre el monocultivo basados en el incremento del rendimiento de masa vegetal de las especies que lo integran. Métodos: en la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se investigó sobre suelo ferralítico rojo hidratado (ferralsols, en una plantación establecida de Aloe vera (L. N. L. Burm. cultivo perenne y principal, el intercalamiento de varias especies: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L.; cultivos de períodos vegetativos cortos para aprovechar el espacio entre surcos que requiere esta planta; se determinó el rendimiento de masa vegetal fresca en cada una de las especies de esta compleja asociación y se compararon con los de sus respectivos cultivos únicos o monocultivos. Los valores obtenidos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza, además se calculó el incremento productivo a partir del cual se determinó el uso equivalente de la tierra. Resultados: de forma general, se encontró en todas las especies componentes del policultivo (cultivo permanente y plantas intercaladas ventajas sobre el monocultivo en cuanto a sus rendimientos, sin afectación de los principios activos, así como el aumento de la eficiencia productiva de los suelos. Conclusiones: se demostró en las especies estudiadas la superioridad que ofrece el sistema de siembra por policultivo.Foundations: there is an increasing trend on the part of the agriculturists to develop productions by polyculture systems. Objectives: to show the advantages of the polyculture system over the monoculture based on the increase of the yield of plant mass of the species included. Methods: in an established plantation of Aloe vera (L. N. L. Burm., perennial and main culture, with hydrated red ferriferous soil (ferralsols, at "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants, it was investigated the intercropping of various species: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.; cultures of short vegetative periods used to avail the space between furrows required by this plant. The yielding of fresh plant mass was also determined in each of the species of this complex association and they were compared with those of their respective unique cultures or monocultures. The values obtained were analyzed by variance analysis. The productive growth from which the equivalent use of the soil was determined was calculated, too. Results: generally, in all the species composing the polyculture (permanent culture and intercropped plants there were advantages over the monoculture as regards their yieldings without affecting the active principles. An increase of the productive efficiency of the soils was also observed. Conclusions: the superiority of the polyculture system was proved in the studied species.

Lérida Acosta de la Luz

2008-06-01

55

Canadian wood energy trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada is considered a leader in the development of wood energy. Significant new opportunities exist to expand both pellet, heat and power production based on rising energy prices and demand for renewable fuels. Canadian wood energy opportunities were considered in this presentation. The presentation discussed mill residues. Mill residues were noted as being the cheapest source of fibre for energy purposes and that the only significant source of surplus was western Canada. British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan mill residues were also discussed. Several photographs were illustrated, including a typical bee-hive incinerator and a wood residue stockpile in Saskatchewan. Opportunities in Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces were also presented. A chart demonstrating a summary of Canadian mill residue estimates in 2004 was also presented. Other topics that were presented included harvesting residues; the mountain pine beetle power opportunities; standing timber as an energy source; and wood energy plantations. It was concluded that production of wood pellets and bio-oil for export were a growing opportunity but these industries were primarily focused on whitewood and not bark. 1 tab.

McCloy, B. [BW McCloy and Associates, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2007-07-01

56

Contracciones y propiedades físicas de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas de plantación en Costa Rica / Skrinkages and physical properties of Acacia mangium Willd, Tectona grandis L. f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, plantation wood from Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish De acuerdo con las normas ASTM D 2395-02 y D 143-94, se determinó la contracción total y normal en dirección radial (CR), tangencial (CT) y volumétrica (CV) y el coeficiente CT/ CR total y normal de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas provenientes de p [...] lantación. También se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas como peso específico básico (PEB), PE12% y PEanhidro, densidad verde (DV) y normal (DN), punto de saturación de la fibra (PSF) y contenido de humedad (CH). Algunos criterios de clasificación, propuestos por otros investigadores, se aplicaron para categorizar la estabilidad dimensional y propiedades físicas de estas especies. Se encontró que la CR, CT, CV totales y CTtotal/CRtotal tienen diferencias significativas entre especies, al igual que las propiedades físicas PEB y PSF. El índice CTtotal/CRtotal indicó que T. grandis tiene mejor estabilidad dimensional. La relación lineal (R²= 0.7769) indicó que el PSF es un buen indicador de la magnitud de la CVtotal. Las especies de plantación de este estudio comparadas con las del bosque natural tienen estabilidad dimensional similar pero menor PEB. Abstract in english Based on ASTM standards D 2395-02 and D 143-94, total and normal shrinkage in radial (RS), tangential (TS) and volumetric (VS) directions and the total and normal TS/RS ratio were determined in the plantation woods Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L.f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev. Also, ph [...] ysical properties such as basic specific gravity (BSG), SG12% and SGovendry, green density (GD) and normal density (ND), fiber saturation point (FSP) and moisture content (MC) were determined. Some classification criteria, proposed by other researchers, were used to categorize the dimensional stability and physical properties of these species. Significant differences were found among the species for total RS, TS, VS and TStotal/RStotal, as well as for the physical properties BSG and FSP. The TStotal/RStotal ratio indicated that T. grandis has better dimensional stability. The linear regression (R²= 0.7769) indicated that FSP is a good indicator of VStotal magnitude. The plantation species of this study compared with those of the natural forest have similar dimensional stability but lower BSG.

Freddy, Muñoz-Acosta; Pablo A., Moreno-Perez.

57

Contracciones y propiedades físicas de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas de plantación en Costa Rica / Skrinkages and physical properties of Acacia mangium Willd, Tectona grandis L. f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, plantation wood from Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish De acuerdo con las normas ASTM D 2395-02 y D 143-94, se determinó la contracción total y normal en dirección radial (CR), tangencial (CT) y volumétrica (CV) y el coeficiente CT/ CR total y normal de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas provenientes de p [...] lantación. También se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas como peso específico básico (PEB), PE12% y PEanhidro, densidad verde (DV) y normal (DN), punto de saturación de la fibra (PSF) y contenido de humedad (CH). Algunos criterios de clasificación, propuestos por otros investigadores, se aplicaron para categorizar la estabilidad dimensional y propiedades físicas de estas especies. Se encontró que la CR, CT, CV totales y CTtotal/CRtotal tienen diferencias significativas entre especies, al igual que las propiedades físicas PEB y PSF. El índice CTtotal/CRtotal indicó que T. grandis tiene mejor estabilidad dimensional. La relación lineal (R²= 0.7769) indicó que el PSF es un buen indicador de la magnitud de la CVtotal. Las especies de plantación de este estudio comparadas con las del bosque natural tienen estabilidad dimensional similar pero menor PEB. Abstract in english Based on ASTM standards D 2395-02 and D 143-94, total and normal shrinkage in radial (RS), tangential (TS) and volumetric (VS) directions and the total and normal TS/RS ratio were determined in the plantation woods Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L.f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev. Also, ph [...] ysical properties such as basic specific gravity (BSG), SG12% and SGovendry, green density (GD) and normal density (ND), fiber saturation point (FSP) and moisture content (MC) were determined. Some classification criteria, proposed by other researchers, were used to categorize the dimensional stability and physical properties of these species. Significant differences were found among the species for total RS, TS, VS and TStotal/RStotal, as well as for the physical properties BSG and FSP. The TStotal/RStotal ratio indicated that T. grandis has better dimensional stability. The linear regression (R²= 0.7769) indicated that FSP is a good indicator of VStotal magnitude. The plantation species of this study compared with those of the natural forest have similar dimensional stability but lower BSG.

Freddy, Muñoz-Acosta; Pablo A., Moreno-Perez.

2013-08-01

58

Avaliação do potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata para produção de painéis OSB / Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Os painéis foram produzidos em laboratório com densidade nominal de 0,75 g/cm³, utilizando r [...] esina fenol-formaldeído em quantidade de 6% de sólido resinoso e 1% de emulsão de parafina. Foram avaliadas as propriedades de absorção de água e inchamento em espessura 2 e 24 horas, tração perpendicular, módulo de elasticidade e de ruptura paralelo e perpendicular, de acordo com as normas EN 317, 318 e 310/2003, respectivamente. Os painéis OSB produzidos com as 4 espécies e mistura destas, apresentaram valores médios de propriedades físicas e mecânicas acima do requisito mínimo estabelecido pela norma CSA 437/1993. Os resultados das propriedades físicas e mecânicas obtidas indicam a viabilidade de uso das madeiras de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde [...] resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the parallel and perpendicular direction, according to EN standards. The OSB panels produced with four species and the mixture of these species showed average values of mechanical properties above the minimum standard established by the CSA 437/1993. The results of the physical and mechanical properties obtained indicate the feasibility of the use of wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach and Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing.

Setsuo, Iwakiri; Daniele Cristina, Potulski; Felipe Gustavo, Sanches; Janice Bernardo da, Silva; Rosilani, Trianoski; Williams Carlos, Pretko.

59

Avaliação do potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata para produção de painéis OSB / Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Os painéis foram produzidos em laboratório com densidade nominal de 0,75 g/cm³, utilizando r [...] esina fenol-formaldeído em quantidade de 6% de sólido resinoso e 1% de emulsão de parafina. Foram avaliadas as propriedades de absorção de água e inchamento em espessura 2 e 24 horas, tração perpendicular, módulo de elasticidade e de ruptura paralelo e perpendicular, de acordo com as normas EN 317, 318 e 310/2003, respectivamente. Os painéis OSB produzidos com as 4 espécies e mistura destas, apresentaram valores médios de propriedades físicas e mecânicas acima do requisito mínimo estabelecido pela norma CSA 437/1993. Os resultados das propriedades físicas e mecânicas obtidas indicam a viabilidade de uso das madeiras de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde [...] resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the parallel and perpendicular direction, according to EN standards. The OSB panels produced with four species and the mixture of these species showed average values of mechanical properties above the minimum standard established by the CSA 437/1993. The results of the physical and mechanical properties obtained indicate the feasibility of the use of wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach and Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing.

Setsuo, Iwakiri; Daniele Cristina, Potulski; Felipe Gustavo, Sanches; Janice Bernardo da, Silva; Rosilani, Trianoski; Williams Carlos, Pretko.

2014-06-01

60

Effects of Increased UVB radiation on plant-insect interactions: Plantago lanceolata and Junonia coenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of P. lanceolata were collected from a local population and 4 replicates of 42 maternal families were grown for 90 days in the greenhouse with at two levels of supplemental UVB radiation (6 and 12 kJ day-1 BE300). Higher UVB radiation increased leaf hair density and decreased plant size during early growth; family identity affected these also. Leaves excised from a subset of the plants were fed to ultimate instar larvae of J. coenia and assayed for iridoids. Increased UVB radiation did not alter the iridoid content of the leaves or the growth of the larvae. In a separate experiment, P. lanceolata growing under the two levels of UVB irradiation were infested with neonate larvae and larval growth was monitored. Larval growth was not markedly altered by enhanced UVB. These findings suggest that increased UVB is unlikely to alter the suitability of P. lanceolata as a host for J. coenia

 
 
 
 
61

The potential effects of climate change on the distribution and productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate changes may have immediate implications for forest productivity and may produce dramatic shifts in tree species distributions in the future. Quantifying these implications is significant for both scientists and managers. Cunninghamia lanceolata is an important coniferous timber species due to its fast growth and wide distribution in China. This paper proposes a methodology aiming at enhancing the distribution and productivity of C. lanceolata against a background of climate change. First, we simulated the potential distributions and establishment probabilities of C. lanceolata based on a species distribution model. Second, a process-based model, the PnET-II model, was calibrated and its parameterization of water balance improved. Finally, the improved PnET-II model was used to simulate the net primary productivity (NPP) of C. lanceolata. The simulated NPP and potential distribution were combined to produce an integrated indicator, the estimated total NPP, which serves to comprehensively characterize the productivity of the forest under climate change. The results of the analysis showed that (1) the distribution of C. lanceolata will increase in central China, but the mean probability of establishment will decrease in the 2050s; (2) the PnET-II model was improved, calibrated, and successfully validated for the simulation of the NPP of C. lanceolata in China; and (3) all scenarios predicted a reduction in total NPP in the 2050s, with a markedly lower reduction under the a2 scenario than under the b2 scenario. The changes in NPP suggested that forest productivity will show a large decrease in southern China and a mild increase in central China. All of these findings could improve our understanding of the impact of climate change on forest ecosystem structure and function and could provide a basis for policy-makers to apply adaptive measures and overcome the unfavorable influences of climate change. PMID:23925864

Liu, Yupeng; Yu, Deyong; Xun, Bin; Sun, Yun; Hao, Ruifang

2014-01-01

62

Soil erosion: perennial crop plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plantation agriculture is an important form of land-use in the tropics. Large areas of natural and regenerated forest have been cleared for growing oil palm, rubber, cocoa, coffee, and other perennial tree crops. These crops grown both on large scale plantations and by smallholders are important source of income for many farmers in tropical regions. It is generally assumed that a perennial tree cover protects the soil better against erosion than do annual crops. But tree crops may require se...

Hartemink, A. E.

2006-01-01

63

Structural and productive-developmental characteristics of white willow plantations of different density on humogley in Donji Srem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted in two plantations of white willow (Salix alba L. in Donji Srem on the humogley soil type (hydromorphic black soil, which belongs to a narrow-leaved ash forest with remote sedge (Carici remotae - Fraxinetum angustifoliae Jov. et Tom., 1979. The plantations are located in the same depression. The SP (sample plot-1 plantation is 21 years old with a 6×6 m planting spacing, and the SP-2 plantation is 27 years old with a 3×3m planting spacing. Elements of stem growth in the SP-1 plantation showed that with the white willow planting spacing of 6×6 m and a planned 25-year production cycle it is possible to obtain about 250 m3•ha-1 of timber volume, with an 80% net share of technical wood and a 20 % share of pulp wood. The plantation in SP-2 is at the age, which is well above the optimum age in terms of rational management, and the total volume at the age of 27 years is about 300 m3•ha-1, with a 53.7% net share of technical wood and a 46.3% share of pulpwood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: pra?enje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

Andrašev Siniša

2012-01-01

64

Screening of Fungi Capable of Degrading Lignocellulose from Plantation Forests  

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Full Text Available In an effort to prevent forest fires after the clear cutting of plantation forests, fungi capable of degrading lignocelluloses were isolated to make a fertilizer from the logging waste. Seventy five fungal species were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia in plantation forests of South and North Sumatera, Indonesia. Sixty three of the fungi were identified based on the appearance and morphological characteristics of their fruiting bodies and mycelia, as Pycnoporus sanguineus, Dacryopinax spathularia, Schizophyllum commune, Polyporus sp. and Trametes sp. Twenty fungi were categorized as white-rot fungi and 12 as brown-rot fungi. Moreover, isolates 371, 368, 265, 346, 345 and 338 were selected using indicators and tested for the ability to degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal over 1 to 4 weeks. Results showed that the 6 fungi could degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in wood meal. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of lignin and holo-cellulose. Isolate 371 was found to be best at degrading lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal.

Djarwanto

2009-01-01

65

Screening of fungi capable of degrading lignocellulose from plantation forests.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to prevent forest fires after the clear cutting of plantation forests, fungi capable of degrading lignocelluloses were isolated to make a fertilizer from the logging waste. Seventy five fungal species were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia in plantation forests of South and North Sumatera, Indonesia. Sixty three of the fungi were identified based on the appearance and morphological characteristics of their fruiting bodies and mycelia, as Pycnoporus sanguineus, Dacryopinax spathularia, Schizophyllum commune, Polyporus sp. and Trametes sp. Twenty fungi were categorized as white-rot fungi and 12 as brown-rot fungi. Moreover, isolates 371, 368, 265, 346, 345 and 338 were selected using indicators and tested for the ability to degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal over 1 to 4 weeks. Results showed that the 6 fungi could degrade lignin and holo-cellulose in wood meal. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of lignin and holo-cellulose. Isolate 371 was found to be best at degrading lignin and holo-cellulose in mangium wood meal. PMID:19634469

Djarwanto; Tachibana, S

2009-05-01

66

Monitoring of seeds of chronically irradiated natural populations of plantago lanceolata L. variability in posterity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the morphometric study of Plantago lanceolata L. grown, in nursery, from seeds of the first and second post-accident reproductions within the thirty-kilometer Zone around the crippled Chernobyl reactor show no relationship between the alterations in some quantitative indices and the variability of ?-radiation background in places where maternal plants grow

67

Monitoring of seeds of chronically irradiated natural population of plantago Lanceolata L. Viability of seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the three-year study of Plantago lanceolata L., seeds growing within the thirty-kilometer zone of Chernobyl APS, in the areas differing in the radioactive contamination level, show no relationship between the variability of certain parameters indicating the quality of seeds and ?-background variations in places of growing

68

Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report  

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Full Text Available Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

C. Masvingwe

2012-07-01

69

Allelopathic potential of well water fromPluchea lanceolata-infested cultivated fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pluchea lanceolata, an allelopathic perennial weed, has an extensive deep root and rhizome system. The objective of the present study was to determine the allelopathic potential of well water collected from weed-infested cultivated fields. Results indicate that well water recovered fromP. lanceolata-infested cultivated fields inhibited the shoot growth of pea, chick pea, mustard, and wheat under greenhouse conditions. Two phenolic compounds, phenol and phloroglucinol, were isolated and identified from collected well water using UV spectroscopy. The allelopathic potential of the aqueous extract of the two compounds was determined by growth experiments with 10(4) M solutions of the compounds. As a consequence of repeated irrigation with well water fromP. lanceolata-infested fields, higher levels of phenolics can accumulate in the soil, which may contribue to increased interference to crop plants. The present study is of significance since it cautions on the use of well water for irrigating cultivated fields infested with the perennial allelopathic weed (P. lanceolata) with dense subterranean systems and emphasizes the importance of controlling such weeds in cultivated fields. PMID:24225932

Inderjit; Dakshini, K M

1996-06-01

70

Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates on growth and arsenic accumulation in Plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of indigenous and non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata L. growing on substrate originating from mine waste rich in As was assessed in a pot experiment. P. lanceolata inoculated with AMF had higher shoot and root biomass and lower concentrations of As in roots than the non-inoculated plants. There were significant differences in As concentration and uptake between different AMF isolates. Inoculation with the indigenous isolate resulted in increased transfer of As from roots to shoots; AMF from non-polluted area apparently restricted plants from absorbing As to the tissue; and plants inoculated with an AMF isolate from Zn–Pb waste showed strong As retainment within the roots. Staining with dithizone indicated that AMF might be actively involved in As accumulation. The mycorrhizal colonization affected also the concentration of Cd and Zn in roots and Pb concentration, both in shoots and roots. - Highlights: ? The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in As uptake was studied. ? Growth of Plantago lanceolata was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. ? Arsenic concentration and uptake significantly depended on the AMF isolate. ? Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may be useful for bioremediation of As contaminated wastes. - Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata strongly depends on the origin of fungal isolates.

71

Physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactures with tropical plantation species for structural use  

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Full Text Available Concrete, steel and plastics are the materials used for construction in Costa Rica. Meanwhile, wood from plantation are being introduced in the market. The present study aims to characterize and measured some physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactured with veneers of Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Acacia mangium coming from forest plantations for structural use. It was produced three plywood boards of each species and general characterization of them was done, and physical and mechanical properties were determined. The results shown that panels manufactured with T. grandis wood presented physical and mechanical properties higher than G. arborea and A. mangium. In accordance with standards of Voluntary Products Standart PS 1-95 and PS 1-09 of the United States, structural plywood of G. arborea can be grouped in grade 3, and plywood manufactured with T. grandis and A. mangium wood in grade 2. All species can be used in the manufacture of structural elements.

Diego Camacho

2012-06-01

72

Effect of Cultivation Methods on Wood Static Bending Properties in Alnus Glutinosa  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine radial variation of wood density, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR and stress at elastic limit in plantation and natural alder (Alnus glutinosa forests in north of Iran. Testing samples were taken at breast height of the stem and at three radial positions (10, 50 and 90 % of radius for both cultivation methods (natural and plantation forests to determine wood mechanical strength properties according to the ASTM standard. Analysis of variance indicated that cultivation methods (natural and plantation forest, radial position and interaction between planting position and radial direction had no significant effects on the modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR and stress at elastic limit in alder wood. Only the radial position had a significant effect on the wood density. Wood density was increased along radial direction from the pith to the periphery for both planting conditions. Overall, the mechanical strength properties in plantation forest were slightly higher than in natural forest. The relationship between wood density and mechanical properties were analyzed by linear regression. A positive relationship was found between wood density and mechanical properties for both planting conditions. These relationships were stronger in plantation forest than in natural forest.

Majid Kiaei

2014-04-01

73

Sistema de policultivos en plantas medicinales: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata y Plantago major / System of polycultures in medicinal plants: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamentos: existe una tendencia creciente por los agricultores a desarrollar las producciones agrícolas mediante sistemas de policultivos. Objetivos: demostrar las ventajas del sistema de policultivo sobre el monocultivo basados en el incremento del rendimiento de masa vegetal de las especies que [...] lo integran. Métodos: en la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se investigó sobre suelo ferralítico rojo hidratado (ferralsols), en una plantación establecida de Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm. cultivo perenne y principal, el intercalamiento de varias especies: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L.; cultivos de períodos vegetativos cortos para aprovechar el espacio entre surcos que requiere esta planta; se determinó el rendimiento de masa vegetal fresca en cada una de las especies de esta compleja asociación y se compararon con los de sus respectivos cultivos únicos o monocultivos. Los valores obtenidos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza, además se calculó el incremento productivo a partir del cual se determinó el uso equivalente de la tierra. Resultados: de forma general, se encontró en todas las especies componentes del policultivo (cultivo permanente y plantas intercaladas) ventajas sobre el monocultivo en cuanto a sus rendimientos, sin afectación de los principios activos, así como el aumento de la eficiencia productiva de los suelos. Conclusiones: se demostró en las especies estudiadas la superioridad que ofrece el sistema de siembra por policultivo. Abstract in english Foundations: there is an increasing trend on the part of the agriculturists to develop productions by polyculture systems. Objectives: to show the advantages of the polyculture system over the monoculture based on the increase of the yield of plant mass of the species included. Methods: in an establ [...] ished plantation of Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm., perennial and main culture, with hydrated red ferriferous soil (ferralsols), at "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants, it was investigated the intercropping of various species: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.; cultures of short vegetative periods used to avail the space between furrows required by this plant. The yielding of fresh plant mass was also determined in each of the species of this complex association and they were compared with those of their respective unique cultures or monocultures. The values obtained were analyzed by variance analysis. The productive growth from which the equivalent use of the soil was determined was calculated, too. Results: generally, in all the species composing the polyculture (permanent culture and intercropped plants) there were advantages over the monoculture as regards their yieldings without affecting the active principles. An increase of the productive efficiency of the soils was also observed. Conclusions: the superiority of the polyculture system was proved in the studied species.

Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Horacio, Rodríguez González; Isabel, Hechevarría Sosa; Masgloiris, Milanés Figueredo; Carlos, Rodríguez Ferradá.

2008-06-01

74

Sistema de policultivos en plantas medicinales: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata y Plantago major / System of polycultures in medicinal plants: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamentos: existe una tendencia creciente por los agricultores a desarrollar las producciones agrícolas mediante sistemas de policultivos. Objetivos: demostrar las ventajas del sistema de policultivo sobre el monocultivo basados en el incremento del rendimiento de masa vegetal de las especies que [...] lo integran. Métodos: en la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se investigó sobre suelo ferralítico rojo hidratado (ferralsols), en una plantación establecida de Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm. cultivo perenne y principal, el intercalamiento de varias especies: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L.; cultivos de períodos vegetativos cortos para aprovechar el espacio entre surcos que requiere esta planta; se determinó el rendimiento de masa vegetal fresca en cada una de las especies de esta compleja asociación y se compararon con los de sus respectivos cultivos únicos o monocultivos. Los valores obtenidos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza, además se calculó el incremento productivo a partir del cual se determinó el uso equivalente de la tierra. Resultados: de forma general, se encontró en todas las especies componentes del policultivo (cultivo permanente y plantas intercaladas) ventajas sobre el monocultivo en cuanto a sus rendimientos, sin afectación de los principios activos, así como el aumento de la eficiencia productiva de los suelos. Conclusiones: se demostró en las especies estudiadas la superioridad que ofrece el sistema de siembra por policultivo. Abstract in english Foundations: there is an increasing trend on the part of the agriculturists to develop productions by polyculture systems. Objectives: to show the advantages of the polyculture system over the monoculture based on the increase of the yield of plant mass of the species included. Methods: in an establ [...] ished plantation of Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm., perennial and main culture, with hydrated red ferriferous soil (ferralsols), at "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants, it was investigated the intercropping of various species: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.; cultures of short vegetative periods used to avail the space between furrows required by this plant. The yielding of fresh plant mass was also determined in each of the species of this complex association and they were compared with those of their respective unique cultures or monocultures. The values obtained were analyzed by variance analysis. The productive growth from which the equivalent use of the soil was determined was calculated, too. Results: generally, in all the species composing the polyculture (permanent culture and intercropped plants) there were advantages over the monoculture as regards their yieldings without affecting the active principles. An increase of the productive efficiency of the soils was also observed. Conclusions: the superiority of the polyculture system was proved in the studied species.

Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Horacio, Rodríguez González; Isabel, Hechevarría Sosa; Masgloiris, Milanés Figueredo; Carlos, Rodríguez Ferradá.

75

Occurrence of Platypus mutatus Chapuis (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) in a brazilwood experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hardwood of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood, Pernambuco, ibirapitanga) is currently the most profitable material used for violin bow due to the unique vibrational properties and dimensional stability. Although this species is resistant to the wood decay caused by termites and rot fungi, an experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil has been attacked by the ambrosia beetle Platypus mutatus Chapuis (= Megaplatypus mutatus and P. sulcatus). This species invaded ca. 3% of the individuals, mainly in the central part of the plantation. Infestation by larvae and adults was higher during the dry season (winter) when compared to the rainy period (spring and summer). PMID:17273722

Girardi, Graziele S; Giménez, Rosana A; Braga, Márcia R

2006-01-01

76

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01

77

The Dynamics of Gynodioecy in Plantago Lanceolata L. II. Mode of Action and Frequencies of Restorer Alleles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Male fertility in Plantago lanceolata is controlled by the interaction of cytoplasmic and nuclear genes. Different cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) types can be either male sterile or hermaphrodite, depending on the presence of nuclear restorer alleles. In three CMS types of P. lanceolata (CMSI, CMSIIa, and CMSIIb) the number of loci involved in male fertility restoration was determined. In each CMS type, male fertility was restored by multiple genes with either dominant or recessive action a...

De-haan, A. A.; Koelewijn, H. P.; Hundscheid, Mpj; Van-damme, Jmm

1997-01-01

78

Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates on growth and arsenic accumulation in Plantago lanceolata L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of indigenous and non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata L. growing on substrate originating from mine waste rich in As was assessed in a pot experiment. P. lanceolata inoculated with AMF had higher shoot and root biomass and lower concentrations of As in roots than the non-inoculated plants. There were significant differences in As concentration and uptake between different AMF isolates. Inoculation with the indigenous isolate resulted in increased transfer of As from roots to shoots; AMF from non-polluted area apparently restricted plants from absorbing As to the tissue; and plants inoculated with an AMF isolate from Zn-Pb waste showed strong As retainment within the roots. Staining with dithizone indicated that AMF might be actively involved in As accumulation. The mycorrhizal colonization affected also the concentration of Cd and Zn in roots and Pb concentration, both in shoots and roots. PMID:22609863

Or?owska, El?bieta; Godzik, Barbara; Turnau, Katarzyna

2012-09-01

79

Chemical defense, mycorrhizal colonization and growth responses in Plantago lanceolata L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Allelochemicals defend plants against herbivore and pathogen attack aboveground and belowground. Whether such plant defenses incur ecological costs by reducing benefits from plant mutualistic symbionts is largely unknown. We explored a potential trade-off between inherent plant chemical defense and belowground mutualism with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Plantago lanceolata L., using plant genotypes from lines selected for low and high constitutive levels of the iridoid glycosides (IG...

Deyn, G. B.; Biere, A.; Putten, W. H.; Wagenaar, R.; Klironomos, J. N.

2009-01-01

80

Early Root Herbivory Impairs Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization and Shifts Defence Allocation in Establishing Plantago lanceolata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research into plant-mediated indirect interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and insect herbivores has focussed on those between plant shoots and above-ground herbivores, despite the fact that only below-ground herbivores share the same part of the host plant as AM fungi. Using Plantago lanceolata L., we aimed to characterise how early root herbivory by the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) affected subsequent colonization by AM fungi (Glomus spp.) and determine how the t...

Bennett, Alison E.; Macrae, Anna M.; Moore, Ben D.; Caul, Sandra; Johnson, Scott N.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes  

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Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (...

Meyer, Susan L. F.; Zasada, Inga A.; Roberts, Daniel P.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Lakshman, Dilip K.; Lee, Jae-kook; Chitwood, David J.; Carta, Lynn K.

2006-01-01

82

Differential performance of a specialist and two generalist herbivores and their parasitoids on Plantago lanceolata  

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The ability to cope with plant defense chemicals differs between specialist and generalist species. In this study, we examined the effects of the concentration of the two main iridoid glycosides (IGs) in Plantago lanceolata, aucubin and catalpol, on the performance of a specialist and two generalist herbivores and their respective endoparasitoids. Development of the specialist herbivore Melitaea cinxia was unaffected by the total leaf IG concentration in its host plant...

Reudler Talsma, J. H.; Biere, A.; Harvey, J. A.; Nouhuys, S.

2011-01-01

83

Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

Ke?a Ljiljana

2013-01-01

84

Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut growth and especially on radial increment, a very important matter being common walnut the target species with a very appreciated and valuable wood.

Giannini T

2009-01-01

85

The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

86

THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN. WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn., which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and colour change of the wood specimens were tested in comparison with untreated specimens. The results showed that density, swelling, and hardness decreased with increasing treatment temperature and durations while heat treatment made the colour of the wood specimens darker

O Unsal

2003-01-01

87

Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

88

Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

2010-12-15

89

A report on the quality control parameters of aerial parts of Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae / Relatório sobre os parâmetros de controle de qualidade das partes aéreas de Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae, é uma planta que tem sido usada como medicinal na Índia como um antipirético, analgésico anti-reumático e calmante. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estabelecer os padrões morfológicos e anatômicos e caracterizar o extrato(s) de P. lanceolata pela t [...] riagem fitoquímica preliminar como parâmetro de controle de qualidade para a matéria-prima. Abstract in english Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae, is a weed that has been used as an indigenous medicine in India as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic and nervine tonic. This paper aims at setting the morphological and anatomical standards and to characterize the extract(s) of P. lanceolat [...] a by preliminary phytochemical screening as quality control parameter for the raw material.

Saleemulla, Khan; Ruchi, Rawat; AKS, Rawat; Annie, Shirwaiker.

90

A report on the quality control parameters of aerial parts of Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae / Relatório sobre os parâmetros de controle de qualidade das partes aéreas de Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae, é uma planta que tem sido usada como medicinal na Índia como um antipirético, analgésico anti-reumático e calmante. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estabelecer os padrões morfológicos e anatômicos e caracterizar o extrato(s) de P. lanceolata pela t [...] riagem fitoquímica preliminar como parâmetro de controle de qualidade para a matéria-prima. Abstract in english Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae, is a weed that has been used as an indigenous medicine in India as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic and nervine tonic. This paper aims at setting the morphological and anatomical standards and to characterize the extract(s) of P. lanceolat [...] a by preliminary phytochemical screening as quality control parameter for the raw material.

Saleemulla, Khan; Ruchi, Rawat; AKS, Rawat; Annie, Shirwaiker.

2010-09-01

91

WOOD WELDING  

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Full Text Available The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in the rubbed surfaces reaching 170 ºC, and the consequent change of state of the lignin and hemicelluloses, that then melt and flow. The process results in the detachment of wood cells, and in a formation of a fibers entanglement network immersed in a matrix of molten material which then solidifies. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs obtained shows a considerable physic-chemical reorganization in the bulk of the joint. This new composition of detachment wood cells/fibers of the two surfaces, a entanglement network immersed in a matrix of molten polymericmaterial, mainly melted lignin, yields in the interface of the welding a bond of considerable strength.

Marcos Theodoro Muller

2010-05-01

92

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine sh...

Sousa, Orlando V.; Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira; Alves, Maria S.; Arau?jo, Ai?lson A. L.; Pinto, Mi?riam A. O.; Amaral, Maria P. H.; Rodarte, Mi?rian P.; Kaplan, Maria A. C.

2012-01-01

93

Pluchea lanceolata (Rasana): Chemical and biological potential of Rasayana herb used in traditional system of medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, (Family: Asteraceae) is a rapidly spreading perennial herb, considered valuable for the management of anti-inflammatory disease. Scientific reports dealing with phytochemical and pharmacological research and its traditional have been reviewed. Reports have also suggested that its prominent constituents viz. triterpenoids, sterols, flavonoids and lactones originate from this plant arbitrate their effects by modulating several therapeutic targets.Out of about 80 species of Pluchea, some of them are on extinct and only 16 have traditional uses in several countries of Asian, Middle East and North American region. The present review covers the period 1935-2011. PMID:22877846

Srivastava, Pooja; Shanker, Karuna

2012-12-01

94

Federal tax incentives and disincentives for the adoption of wood-fuel electric-generating technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we estimate the effects of current federal tax policy on the financial criteria that investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) and non-utility electricity generators (NUGs) use to evaluate wood-fuel electric-generating technologies, distinguishing between dedicated-plantation and wood-waste fuels. Accelerated tax depreciation, the 1.5 cent/kWh production tax credit for the dedicated-plantation technology, and the alternative minimum tax are the most important tax provisions. The results indicate that federal tax laws have significantly different effects on the evaluation criteria, depending on the plant's ownership (IOU vs NUG) and type of fuel (dedicated-plantation vs wood-waste). (Author)

95

Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

Pandey, D.

1996-12-31

96

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Babanezhad, M. [Department of statistics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vitharana, U.W.A. [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Wuytack, T.; Potters, G. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Samson, R., E-mail: Roeland.Samson@ua.ac.b [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

2010-03-15

97

Elevated ozone affects the genetic composition of Plantago lanceolata L. populations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The genetic composition and diversity of Plantago lanceolata L. populations were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to test for differences in an old semi-natural grassland after five years of treatment with ambient or elevated ozone (O{sub 3}) using a free-air fumigation system. Genetic diversity in populations exposed to elevated O{sub 3} was slightly higher than in populations sampled from control plots. This effect was significant for AFLP-based measures of diversity and for SSR markers based on observed heterozygosity. Also, a small but significant difference in genetic composition between O{sub 3} treatments was detected by analysis of molecular variance and redundancy analysis. The results show that micro-evolutionary processes could take place in response to long-term elevated O{sub 3} exposure in highly diverse populations of outbreeding plant species. - Five years of exposure indicated a small but significant influence of elevated O{sub 3} on genetic composition and diversity of Plantago lanceolata L. populations.

Koelliker, Roland [Molecular Ecology and Air Pollution/Climate Groups, Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: roland.koelliker@art.admin.ch; Bassin, Seraina; Schneider, David; Widmer, Franco; Fuhrer, Juerg [Molecular Ecology and Air Pollution/Climate Groups, Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

2008-03-15

98

Elevated ozone affects the genetic composition of Plantago lanceolata L. populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The genetic composition and diversity of Plantago lanceolata L. populations were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to test for differences in an old semi-natural grassland after five years of treatment with ambient or elevated ozone (O3) using a free-air fumigation system. Genetic diversity in populations exposed to elevated O3 was slightly higher than in populations sampled from control plots. This effect was significant for AFLP-based measures of diversity and for SSR markers based on observed heterozygosity. Also, a small but significant difference in genetic composition between O3 treatments was detected by analysis of molecular variance and redundancy analysis. The results show that micro-evolutionary processes could take place in response to long-term elevated O3 exposure in highly diverse populations of outbreeding plant species. - Five years of exposure indicated a small but significant influence of elevated O3 on genetic composition and diversity of Plantago lanceolata L. populations

99

Effect of Pluchea lanceolata bioactives in LPS-induced neuroinflammation in C6 rat glial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroinflammation plays a significant role in various chronic and acute pathological conditions of the central nervous system. In the Indian system of medicine, Pluchea lanceolata is used to treat the neurological disorders. We investigated the effect of major pentacyclic triterpene and its naturally occurring acetate derivative isolated from P. lanceolata on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neuroinflammatory condition associated to inflammatory cytokine production in rat astrocytoma cell line (C6). The log concentration dependence of Pluchea bioactive taraxasterol (Tx) significantly (p??0.05). Surflex-Dock molecular modeling study was performed to simulate the binding capacity of compounds into the active site of the TNF-? (2AZ5), tumor protein P53 (2VUK), and NF-kappa-B (1RAM). The differential inhibition of cytokines by Tx and TxAc was further confirmed by high docking scores showing the high affinity to target proteins. Findings of the study demonstrated the comparatively greater role of Pluchea triterpene than its in situ produced acetate derivate in neuroinflammation-associated disorders. PMID:24101125

Srivastava, Pooja; Mohanti, Shilpa; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao; Khan, Feroz; Shanker, Karuna

2014-02-01

100

Pluchea lanceolata attenuates cadmium chloride induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium intoxication induces lipid peroxidation and causes oxidative damage to various tissues by altering antioxidant defence system enzymes. At 24 h after treatment with a single intraperitoneal dose of cadmium chloride (5 mg kg-1), Swiss albino mice showed a significant increase in the levels of malanodialdehyde and xanthine oxidase (PPluchea lanceolata extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 for 7 consecutive days before CdCl2 intoxication caused a significant reduction in malanodialdehyde formation and xanthine oxidase activity (P<0.001). A significant restoration of the activity of antioxidant defence system enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05), glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase (P<0.001) was observed. A significant dose-dependent decrease in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation was also observed (P<0.05). The results indicate that pre-treatment with P. lanceolata attenuates cadmium chloride induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity by altering antioxidant enzymes and reducing chromatid breaks and micronuclei formation. PMID:16105241

Jahangir, Tamanna; Khan, Tajdar Husain; Prasad, Lakshmi; Sultana, Sarwat

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of cultivation on allelopathic interference success of the weed,Pluchea lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pluchea lanceolata, a perennial noxious weed, is rapidly spreading into cultivated fields in semiarid regions of India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cultivation on the interference success ofPluchea lanceolata by comparing chemical characteristics of the weed and its associated topsoil and subsoil in cultivated and uncultivated habitats. Weed plants from both cultivated and uncultivated habitats were analyzed for four biotic characteristics. Leaves were analyzed for nine chemical characteristics. Soils (topsoil and subsoil) were analyzed for 13 chemical characteristics. Nutrient concentrations of the weed and its associated soils, both in cultivated and uncultivated habitats, showed that plant response with reference to nutrient uptake was inversely related to that of soils. Thus, the weed does not create nutrient stress. With cultivation, leaf area and Cu and Na contents increased, while leaf ash, leaf weight, and Mg and Ca decreased. In the topsoil and subsoil, however, concentrations of total carbonates, total phenolics, and Ca increased with cultivation, while organic carbon, phosphate, and K decreased. High phenolic content of the cultivated fields could be explained due to leaching of water-soluble compounds from the plant parts either through natural leaching or through various agricultural practices such as ploughing and irrigation. We concluded that water-soluble phenolics, leached from the weed into the soil, increased with cultivation. PMID:24242313

Inderjit; Dakshini, K M

1994-05-01

102

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

103

Wood marks  

Science.gov (United States)

There are several insects that can cause damage to trees and wooden structures. Carpenter ants have attacked this truss by chewing small holes in it. Termites also chew holes in wood and will commonly infest houses. They weaken the structure of the house by chewing the wooden beams.

Bjørn Fritsche (None;)

2005-08-23

104

Wood density variation and tree ring distinctness in Gmelina arborea trees by x-ray densitometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to its relationship with other properties, wood density is the main wood quality parameter. Modern, accuratemethods such as X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the spatial distribution of density in wood sections and to evaluatewood quality. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of growing conditions on wood density variation andtree ring demarcation of gmelina trees from fast growing plantations in Costa Rica. The wood density was determined by X-raydensitometry method. Wood samples were cut from gmelina trees and were exposed to low X-rays. The radiographic films weredeveloped and scanned using a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the wood density was determined by CRAD and CERDsoftware. The results showed tree-ring boundaries were distinctly delimited in trees growing in site with rainfall lower than 2510 mm/year. It was demonstrated that tree age, climatic conditions and management of plantation affects wood density and its variability. Thespecific effect of variables on wood density was quantified by for multiple regression method. It was determined that tree yearexplained 25.8% of the total variation of density and 19.9% were caused by climatic condition where the tree growing. Wood densitywas less affected by the intensity of forest management with 5.9% of total variation.

Roger Moya

2009-03-01

105

Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment. PMID:23915092

Haggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Seguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugenio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

2013-01-01

106

Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f. plantations of Central America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand of 150 teak trees ha-1 at age 19 would accumulate (kg ha-1 405 N, 661 Ca, 182 K, 111 Mg, 33 P, 53 S, 9 Fe, 0.47 Mn, 0.22 Cu, 0.92 Zn, 1 B; whereas the expected nutrient export by timber harvest (bole and bark is (kg ha-1 220 N, 281 Ca, 88 K, 63 Mg, 23 P, 39 S, 6 Fe, 0.13 Mn, 0.10 Cu, 0.21 Zn, 0.40 B. Hence, teak nutrition should pay special attention to N and K, together with Ca the nutrients most accumulated by teak. In addition, P and B could also be limiting planted teak forest productivity due to their general soil deficiencies. Proposed models estimate the amount of nutrients removed from the site during timber harvests, information that can be used by plantation managers to avoid soil nutrient depletion, approaching sustainability in forest plantation management.

Fernández-Moya J

2014-06-01

107

Conference: 'Heating with Wood'. An alternative to fossil fuels? Status and perspectives. Documentation; Tagung: 'Heizen mit Holz'. Eine Alternative zur fossilen Energie? Stand der Technik und neue Perspektiven. Dokumentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main topics of the meeting ''Heating with wood'' were: resource assessment, economical aspects, logistics, cogeneration, district heating, plantation and harvesting of fast growing trees, new heating systems.(uke)

NONE

1999-07-01

108

Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta" ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó un potrero de igual composición botánica, pero con una baja carga parasitaria, y el grupo de terneros "Plantago" pastoreó un potrero sembrado con P. lanceolata, también con una baja carga parasitaria. Este manejo se mantuvo durante 60 días. Cada semana se pesaron todos los animales y se les tomaron muestras fecales para realizar recuento de huevos y diferenciación genérica de larvas. Cada dos semanas se estableció la carga parasitaria del pasto de los potreros utilizados. La pluviosidad se registró diariamente. La carga parasitaria del pasto del potrero contaminado fue alta durante todo el ensayo. A las tres semanas de iniciado el período de suplementación se inició en ambos grupos un aumento de los recuentos (hpg promedio de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus que se diferenciaron significativamente (P 0,05. Se concluye que la suplementación con Plantago lanceolata redujo significativamente la oviposición de los parásitos gastrointestinales.The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Plantago lanceolata (narrow leaf plantain, as a supplemental forage, reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. The trial was conducted on a farm in the 10th Region, Chile. Two groups of 15 calves weighing 171.4 ± 19.8 kg grazed 17 hours a day on a pasture composed mainly of gramineous and with a high infestation of trichostrongylid nematode larvae. During the remaining 7 hours, the "control" group grazed in a pasture of similar botanic composition but with a low parasite burden; the "plantago" group grazed in a pasture specially sown with P. lanceolata with also a low parasite burden. This regimen was maintained for 60 days. Each week the animals were weighed and faecal samples were gathered to determine the nematode egg count (epg and larvae generic differentiation. Grass samples were taken every two weeks from all pastures to establish their level of parasite burden. Precipitation was measured daily. The parasite burden of grass in the contaminated pasture was high during the whole period. Three weeks after the initiation of the trial, an increase in the average of eggs per gram of faeces (epg was observed. A significant difference (P 0.05. It is concluded that the inclusion of P. lanceolata as a supplemental forage significantly reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal parasites.

G Sievers

2006-01-01

109

Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. PMID:19896758

Kardel, F; Wuyts, K; Babanezhad, M; Vitharana, U W A; Wuytack, T; Potters, G; Samson, R

2010-03-01

110

Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91. The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein

2012-11-01

111

Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA) for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA wit [...] h wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m) in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k) using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91). The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

Paulo Ricardo, Gherardi Hein; José, Tarcísio Lima.

2012-11-01

112

Wood density variation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wood density constitutes the main wood quality parameter by its relationship with anatomical, physical and chemical properties and wood utilization. The modern and accurate methods - like X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the density spatial distribution in wood sections and pith-bark direction. On the other hand, emphasis to wood utilization from fast growing plantations, like Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica, has been done. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of 2 climatic conditions of Costa Rica on radial wood density variation of gmelina trees form fast growing plantations using the X-ray densitometry method. Wood samples were cut at DBH of gmelina trees and transversal thin laths were selected at north-south direction and conditioned at 12% moisture content equilibrium and X-rayed. The radiographic films were revealed and scanned a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the intra tree-ring density were determined by CRAD and CERD software. The results demonstrated that the climatic and forest management affects the wood density variability and the distinctness of tree-ring boundaries of gmelina trees, as well as, the applicability of X-ray densitometry in wood quality analysis. (author)

113

Survey of weevil damage in white pine plantations in Nova Scotia. Forest research report No. 53  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

White pine weevils (Pissodes strobi Peck) feed on and breed in the phloem of conifers, particularly white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Infestations of these weevils can result in deformed trees, reduced usable volume, and lower wood quality. The consistent demand for quality white pine sawlogs prompted a review to determine the extent of the weevil problem in Nova Scotia white pine plantations. This report reviews the life cycle of the white pine weevil and describes a survey conducted in 1991 and 1992 on 25 Nova Scotia plantations. The survey examined the extent of white pine weevil infestations, the influence of tree spacing on weevil damage, and the height at which pine is susceptible to weevil attack. The report presents results of the survey and highlights the major results for pines over 5.8 meters in height.

NONE

1995-11-01

114

Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD7, 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha-1, respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

115

[The influence of oil heat treatment on wood decay resistance by Fourier infrared spectrum analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood preservative treatment can improve defects of plantation wood such as easy to corrupt and moth eaten. Among them heat-treatment is not only environmental and no pollution, also can improve the corrosion resistance and dimension stability of wood. In this test Poplar and Mongolian Seoteh Pine was treated by soybean oil as heat-conducting medium, and the heat treatment wood was studied for indoor decay resistance; wood chemical components before and after treatment, the effect of heat treatment on wood decay resistance performance and main mechanism of action were analysed by Fourier infrared spectrometric. Results showed that the mass loss rate of poplar fell from 19.37% to 5% and Mongolian Seoteh Pine's fell from 8.23% to 3.15%, so oil heat treatment can effectively improve the decay resistance. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that the heat treatment made wood's hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl groups in largely reduced, absorbing capacity decreased and the moisture of wood rotting fungi necessary was reduced; during the heat treatment wood chemical components such as cellulose, hemicellu lose were degraded, and the nutrient source of wood rotting fungi growth necessary was reduced. Wood decay fungi can grow in the wood to discredit wood is because of that wood can provide better living conditions for wood decay fungi, such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and so on. The cellulose and hemicellulose in wood is the main nutrition source of wood decay fungi. So the oil heat-treatment can reduce the cellulose, hemicellulose nutrition source of wood decay fungi so as to improve the decay resistance of wood. PMID:25208386

Wang, Ya-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ling; Feng, Li-Qun

2014-03-01

116

Filamentous fungi from Plantago lanceolata L. leaves: contribution to the pattern and stability of bioactive metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to test contribution of plant-associated microorganism (PAMs) to metabolite stability/instability in a medicinal plant matrix. Therefore, PAM strains were isolated and identified based on relevant DNA sequences from Plantago lanceolata leaves. Sterile water extracts of P. lanceolata were incubated with the isolated strains and antioxidants (ascorbic acid (AA), and EDTA) for 15 days, and changes in the concentrations of chief bioactive constituents (aucubin, catalpol, acteoside (=verbascoside)) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. Phenolic breakdown-products were identified by GC-MS. PAMs were identified from the genera Epicoccum, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Leptosphaerulina, Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium (pathongens, endophytes, and other species). Some fungi caused significant decomposition of the chief constituents (p<0.001). Surprisingly, some strains inhibited breakdown of acteoside (p<0.001). Meanwhile, concentration of several phenolic acids increased in fungi-infested extracts (p<0.001). Gentisic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxytyrosol were only present when the extract was infested with a PAM. The products are powerful antioxidants and chelators. Concentrations of phenolic acids influenced acteoside stability significantly (p<0.01), as shown by basic data-mining techniques. AA and EDTA also significantly inhibited acteoside breakdown in sterile model solutions (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the phenolic acid mixture (produced during the fungal proliferation) protected acteoside from breakdown, possibly via its antioxidant activity and metal complexing ability. It was shown that PAMs can increase or decrease the stability of chief metabolites in herbal matrices, and can significantly alter the chemical pattern of the plant matrix. PMID:23168247

Gonda, Sándor; Kiss, Attila; Emri, Tamás; Batta, Gyula; Vasas, Gábor

2013-02-01

117

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (10% w/v) was prepared in water and another in methanol. Treatments included extract concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, and water controls. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was recorded after 7-day exposure to the treatments, and second-stage juvenile (J2) activity after 48 hours. All extracts were toxic to eggs and J2, with P. lanceolata shoot extract tending to have the most activity against M. incognita. Numbers of active J2 remained the same or decreased in a 24-hour water rinse following the 48-hour extract treatment, indicating that the extracts were lethal. When data from water- and methanol-extracted roots and shoots of both plant species were combined for analysis, J2 tended to be more sensitive than eggs to the toxic compounds at lower concentrations, while the higher concentrations (75% and 100%) were equally toxic to both life stages. The effective concentrations causing 50% reduction (EC(50)) in egg hatch and in J2 viability were 44.4% and 43.7%, respectively. No extract was toxic to any of the bacteria or fungi in our assays. PMID:19259537

Meyer, Susan L F; Zasada, Inga A; Roberts, Daniel P; Vinyard, Bryan T; Lakshman, Dilip K; Lee, Jae-Kook; Chitwood, David J; Carta, Lynn K

2006-09-01

118

Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration of carbon. The same is likely to be true for managed forests in other temperate regions. If wood from additional felling is used, it would be most effective to use it in products that stay in circulation for a long time, only to be used for energy at the end of its service life. An increase in wood demand may lead to an intensification of forest management, which may temporarily increase carbon sequestration rates and biomass yields. This would eventually reduce the payback times. However, it must be noted that it would still take a substantial amount of time for the intensification of forest management to become effective, especially when it includes drastic measures, such as converting natural forests into plantations. Short rotation plantations with fast growing trees on agricultural land may be another option, but in these cases there are similarities with the direct and indirect land-use change effects related to energy crops. Further analysis is required to enable a clear judgment on the impact of these options. Products are not the only place of storing carbon with a beneficial effect on climate change. The combination of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) on large industrial sites where biomass is converted into energy carriers, such as transport fuel and electricity, is projected to be beneficial, as well. Even landfill sites may serve as storage of carbon in wood waste, as pieces of wood hardly degrade.

Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

2013-08-15

119

DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF METHYL METHACRYLATE HARDENED HYBRID POPLAR WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the dimensional stability of fast-growing poplar clones wood after treatment by impregnation with methyl methacrylate (MMA. Six hybrid poplar clones from one plantation in Quebec were sampled. The effects of hardening with MMA on density as well as longitudinal, radial, tangential, and volumetric swelling properties (S, water uptake capacity (D, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE, and water repellent efficiency (WRE after soaking were investigated. Hardening treatment increased the density of all poplar woods by 1.2 to 1.6 and decreased the inner water migration rate during soaking. S and D values of hardened woods were significantly lower than those of controls, depending on the clone type. ASE and WRE values suggested that incorporating MMA effectively improved the dimensional stability of poplar wood at the early soaking stage, but was less effective in the long term.

Wei-Dan Ding,

2011-11-01

120

ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ? 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ? 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

Adriano Wagner Ballarin

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Control con medios naturales de los principales insectos y hongos que afectan a Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L. Control with natural means of the main insects and fungi affecting Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJETIVOS: controlar con productos naturales, de origen vegetal y biológico, las principales plagas y enfermedades que afectan a las especies medicinales Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Plantago major L. (llantén). MÉTODOS: para el control de las plagas y enfermedades se evaluó el efecto de 3 plaguicidas de origen botánico: Tabaquina®, subproducto de Nicotiana tabacum L. (tabaco); semillas secas maceradas de Melia azederach L. (paraíso) y follaje seco macerado de Lantana cama...

María Magdalena Rivera Amita; Masgloiris Milanés Figueredo; Silvino Raúl Ramos Gálvez

2008-01-01

122

Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta") ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó un potrero de igual co...

Sievers, G.; Nannig, S.

2006-01-01

123

IMPORTANCE OF THE FORESTS PLANTATIONS OF Eucalyptus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

SUMMARYThe worldwide consumption of wood is distributed between the energy necessities, firewood and charcoal (more than 50 %), the sawmill wood, posts, dismount and construction (20 %) and the dedicated to the industry of the cellulose and the paper (27 %). The world previsions for the wood consumption in the year 2000 surpasses the 4000 m3 millions, what supposes a shortage of 1000 millions. There is a shortage in the world of wood as of energy, what converts to the forest production in pri...

Gutie?rrez Espinoza, Rosa Marti?nez Ruiz Hilda S. Azpi?roz Rivero Jose? Lui?s Rodri?guez La O. Vi?ctor M. Cetinaalcala? Y. M. A.

2006-01-01

124

Experimental ecological genetics in Plantago. II. Lead tolerance in Plantago lanceolata and Cynodon dactylon from a roadside  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A population of Plantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain) from a roadside was found to have higher Pb tolerance than populations away from the roadside; this reflected the sharp differences in Pb content of the soil and the plants at these sites. Tolerance tests on seedlings showed that the Pb tolerance was transmitted to seed progeny. Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) showed generally a higher Pb tolerance than P. lanceolata, but there was no evidence of a greater Pb tolerance of the roadside population when compared with populations from control sites. These results suggest that the Pb level found at the roadside was sufficiently high to impose selection pressure for the evolution of tolerance in a sensitive species, but no overt effect was seen in a species with a greater inherent tolerance. This provides another example of rapid and highly localized evolutionary change in plants.

Wu, L.; Antonovics, J.

125

Antimony accumulation in Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris growing in an old Sb-mining area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary data of a biogeochemical survey concerning antimony transfer from soil to plants in an abandoned Sb-mining area are presented. Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris can strongly accumulate antimony when its extractable fraction in the soil is high (139-793 mg/kg). A. ageratum accumulates in basal leaves (1367 mg/kg) and inflorescences (1105 mg/kg), P. lanceolata in roots (1150 mg/kg) and S. vulgaris in shoots (1164 mg/kg). In these plant species, the efficiency of antimony accumulation decreases when the antimony availability in the soil is high. In A. ageratum and S. vulgaris, the death of the epigeal target part at the end of the growing season contributes to a reduction of the antimony load in the plant. A study to test the use of these species as bioindicators of antimony availability in soil is suggested by our results. PMID:15092905

Baroni, F; Boscagli, A; Protano, G; Riccobono, F

2000-08-01

126

Fuel plantation research. Progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research in chemical induction of lightwood is summarized. Four large-scale proof of concept studies have been installed that test five paraquat treatments on a total of 71,228 trees. This wood will be used in actual pulp mill and extraction plant runs to determine oleoresin recovery and possible processing problems. Nearly 3,000 wood samples have been collected to ascertain duration of treatment effects. Results of complementary studies are also reported; most of these are concerned with optimization of paraquat application techniques and the effect of species differences on these methods. A large study was installed to field screen selected insecticides for insect pest control in lightwood operations, and interim results are presented. Dowco 214 (Reldon) proved to be an adequate substitute for BHC and 0.5% concentrations were as effective as 1%. Ten northern and seven western conifer species were tested for their reaction to paraquat treatment. All members of genus Pinus showed appreciable resin soaking but other coniferous genera did not. Feasibility of oleoresin substitution for petrochemicals was investigated.

Stubbs, J.

1977-08-01

127

Biomass production in energy plantation of Prosopis juliflora  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies on time trends of biomass production by means of age series in energy plantations (spacing 1.3 x 1.3 m) of Prosopis juliflora is presented. The component biomass production at the age of 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 months was determined. The results show considerable variation among the population of trees. However, distinct linear relationship between girth at breast height (GBH) and total height was discernible. The total biomass produced at 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 months of age was 19.69, 41.39, 69.11, 114.62 and 148.63 dry tonnes per hectare, respectively. The corresponding figures for utilizable biomass (wood, bark and branch) were 14.63, 32.17, 50.59, 88.87 and 113.25 dry tonnes per hectare. At all the periods of study, branch component formed the major portion of total biomass being around 50 to 55%. Utilizable biomass was three-fourths of total biomass at all ages. The solar energy conversion efficiency ranged from 0.59% at 18 months to 1.68% at 48 months of age, the peak value being 1.87% at the age of 36 months. It is shown that the variables diameter and height can be used to reliably predict the biomass production in Prosopis juliflora with the help of the regression equations developed in the present study. It is concluded that Prosopis juliflora is an ideal candidate for energy plantations in semi arid and marginal lands, not only to meet the fuelwood demands but also to improve the soil fertility, for, this plant is a fast growing and nitrogen fixing leguminous tree.

Gurumurti, K.

1984-09-01

128

Evaluación del efecto genotóxico en extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Mediante 2 ensayos de genotoxicidad, segregación mitótica en Aspergillus nidulans D-30 y la inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón se procedió a evaluar la posible acción genotóxica de los extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla). E [...] n el ensayo de segregación mitótica se evaluaron los extractos fluidos de llantén menor y manzanilla con 5 y 6 concentraciones en un rango de 0,6 a 4,76 y 0,016 a 0,652 mg de sólidos totales/mL respectivamente. En el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos se probaron para el llantén menor dosis de 1,875; 3,750 y 6,000 g/kg peso corporal (pc) y en el caso de la manzanilla dosis de 1,23; 1,96 y 2,45 g/kg pc. En ninguno de los ensayos realizados se detectó la ocurrencia de efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos. Abstract in english Potential genotoxic action of fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. (Llantén menor), and Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomille) was assessed by 2 genotoxic trials: mitotic spreading in D-30 Aspergillus nidulans and micronuclei induction in bone marrow of the mouse. In mitotic spreading trial, fluid [...] extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. and Chamomille, with 5 and 6 concentrations in a range of 0,6-4,76, and 0,016-0,652 mg of total solids/mL, respectively, were assessed. In micronuclei induction trial, for Plantago lanceolata L., dose of 1875; 3,750, and 6,000 g/kg of body weight (bw), and in the case of Chamomille, dose of 1,23; 1,96, and 2,45 g/kg of bw),were tested. In none of trials performed, it was possible to detect occurrence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

Ángel, Vizoso Parra; Alberto, Ramos Ruiz; Aida, Villaescusa González; Mercedes, Décalo Michelena; José, Betancourt Badell.

2000-08-01

129

High elevation Plantago lanceolata plants are less resistant to herbivory than their low elevation conspecifics: is it just temperature?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traits that mediate species interactions are evolutionarily shaped by biotic and abiotic drivers, yet we know relatively little about the relative importance of these factors. Herbivore pressure, along with resource availability and ‘third-party’ mutualists, are hypothesized to play a major role in the evolution of plant defence traits. Here, we used the model system Plantago lanceolata, which grows along steep elevation gradients in the Swiss Alps, to investigate the effect of elevation,...

Pellissier, Loi?c; Roger, Aure?lien; Bilat, Julia; Rasmann, Sergio

2014-01-01

130

Qualitative analysis of Plantago Lanceolata L seeds in chromically irradiated phytocenosis of the 30 km ChNPP area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation monitoring of Plantago Lanceolata L seeds growing in differently contaminated parts of the 30 km ChNPP area was performed in 3 years after the accident. By the end of the third year inhomogeneity of native populations had been displayed in more vivid vulnerability of seeds from mostly contaminated locations during intense gamma-radiation of seeds with high dose rates. refs. 5; figs. 2; tabs. 2

131

Genetic Differentiation and Phenotypic Plasticity I. Responses in Three Plantago lanceolata L. Populations upon Changes in Mineral Supply  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three populations of Plantago lanceolata L. were analyzed for genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity. Eight randomly taken samples of each population were grown at two nutrient levels and subjected to alterations in mineral supply. Growth and root respiration was followed during the experiment. With respect to all measured characteristic genetic differentiation on population level was demonstrated. Overall phenotypic plasticity of the measured characteristics and differences in est...

Ibtisam Hammad

2002-01-01

132

Effects of competition on root-shoot allocation in Plantago lanceolata L.: adaptive plasticity or ontogenetic drift?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated how shoot and root allocation in plants responds to increasing levels of competitive stress at different levels of soil fertility. In addition, we analyzed whether different responses were due to adaptive plasticity or should be attributed to ontogenetic drift. Plantago lanceolata plants were grown during 18 weeks at five plant densities and four nutrient supply levels in pots in the greenhouse. Thereafter root and shoot biomass was measured. There were clear negative effects ...

Berendse, F.; Mo?ller, F.

2009-01-01

133

Investigaciones agrícolas en especies de uso frecuente en la medicina tradicional: IV. Llantén menor. Plantago lanceolata L  

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Plantago lanceolata (Llantén menor), es una especie apreciada popularmente como medicinal. En la actualidad se encuentra entre las plantas que se ha aprobado su empleo como droga seca y extracto fluido por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba para su incorporación al Sistema Nacional de Salud, por lo que se requieren grandes cantidades de material vegetal obtenidos a través de su cultivo. En la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se realizaron una serie ...

Lérida Acosta de la Luz; Víctor Fuentes Fiallo; Carlos Rodríguez Ferradá

2000-01-01

134

Evaluación del efecto genotóxico en extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Mediante 2 ensayos de genotoxicidad, segregación mitótica en Aspergillus nidulans D-30 y la inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón se procedió a evaluar la posible acción genotóxica de los extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla). E [...] n el ensayo de segregación mitótica se evaluaron los extractos fluidos de llantén menor y manzanilla con 5 y 6 concentraciones en un rango de 0,6 a 4,76 y 0,016 a 0,652 mg de sólidos totales/mL respectivamente. En el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos se probaron para el llantén menor dosis de 1,875; 3,750 y 6,000 g/kg peso corporal (pc) y en el caso de la manzanilla dosis de 1,23; 1,96 y 2,45 g/kg pc. En ninguno de los ensayos realizados se detectó la ocurrencia de efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos. Abstract in english Potential genotoxic action of fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. (Llantén menor), and Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomille) was assessed by 2 genotoxic trials: mitotic spreading in D-30 Aspergillus nidulans and micronuclei induction in bone marrow of the mouse. In mitotic spreading trial, fluid [...] extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. and Chamomille, with 5 and 6 concentrations in a range of 0,6-4,76, and 0,016-0,652 mg of total solids/mL, respectively, were assessed. In micronuclei induction trial, for Plantago lanceolata L., dose of 1875; 3,750, and 6,000 g/kg of body weight (bw), and in the case of Chamomille, dose of 1,23; 1,96, and 2,45 g/kg of bw),were tested. In none of trials performed, it was possible to detect occurrence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

Ángel, Vizoso Parra; Alberto, Ramos Ruiz; Aida, Villaescusa González; Mercedes, Décalo Michelena; José, Betancourt Badell.

135

Evaluación del efecto genotóxico en extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor y matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla  

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Full Text Available Mediante 2 ensayos de genotoxicidad, segregación mitótica en Aspergillus nidulans D-30 y la inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón se procedió a evaluar la posible acción genotóxica de los extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor y Matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla. En el ensayo de segregación mitótica se evaluaron los extractos fluidos de llantén menor y manzanilla con 5 y 6 concentraciones en un rango de 0,6 a 4,76 y 0,016 a 0,652 mg de sólidos totales/mL respectivamente. En el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos se probaron para el llantén menor dosis de 1,875; 3,750 y 6,000 g/kg peso corporal (pc y en el caso de la manzanilla dosis de 1,23; 1,96 y 2,45 g/kg pc. En ninguno de los ensayos realizados se detectó la ocurrencia de efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos.Potential genotoxic action of fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. (Llantén menor, and Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomille was assessed by 2 genotoxic trials: mitotic spreading in D-30 Aspergillus nidulans and micronuclei induction in bone marrow of the mouse. In mitotic spreading trial, fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. and Chamomille, with 5 and 6 concentrations in a range of 0,6-4,76, and 0,016-0,652 mg of total solids/mL, respectively, were assessed. In micronuclei induction trial, for Plantago lanceolata L., dose of 1875; 3,750, and 6,000 g/kg of body weight (bw, and in the case of Chamomille, dose of 1,23; 1,96, and 2,45 g/kg of bw,were tested. In none of trials performed, it was possible to detect occurrence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

Ángel Vizoso Parra

2000-08-01

136

Private valuation of carbon sequestration in forest plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approval of the Clean Development Mechanism, provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, enables countries with afforested land to trade in carbon emissions reduction certificates related to carbon dioxide equivalent quantities (CO{sub 2-e}) stored within a certain forest area. Potential CO{sub 2-e} above base line sequestration was determined for two forest sites on commercial eucalyptus plantations in northern Brazil (Bahia). Compensation values for silvicultural regimes involving rotation lengths greater than economically optimal were computed using the Faustmann formula. Mean values obtained were US$8.16 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} and US$7.19 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} for average and high site indexes, respectively. Results show that carbon supply is more cost-efficient in highly productive sites. Annuities of US$18.8 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and US$35.1 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and yearly payments of US$4.4 m{sup -} {sup 3} and US$8.2 m{sup -} {sup 3} due for each marginal cubic meter produced were computed for high and average sites, respectively. The estimated value of the tonne of carbon defines minimum values to be paid to forest owners, in order to induce a change in silvicultural management regimes. A reduction of carbon supply could be expected as a result of an increase in wood prices, although it would not respond in a regular manner. For both sites, price elasticity of supply was found to be inelastic and increased as rotation length moved further away from economically optimal: 0.24 and 0.27 for age 11 years in average- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This would be due to biomass production potential as a limiting factor; beyond a certain threshold value, an increase in price does not sustain a proportional change in carbon storage supply. The environmental service valuation model proposed might be adequate for assessing potential supply in plantation forestry, from a private landowner perspective, with an economic opportunity cost. The model is not applicable to low commercial value forest plantations. (author)

Guitart, A. Bussoni [Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica. Avda. E. Garzon, 780, CP 12.900, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, L.C. Estraviz [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' , Universidad de Sao, Paulo (Brazil)

2010-01-15

137

The research of some physical properties of wood Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortuneii  

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Full Text Available The density, shrinkage and swelling of Paulownia elongata and P. fortuneii wood were researched. The study material was provided by Boda Vukovojac, B. Sc., who established the Paulownia plantation and sample plots on the territory of the Municipality Bela Crkva. The study results show the differences between the analyzed properties of these two species. The study results were also compared with the results of the similar species of wood. The data shows that the study wood can be used in wood products that are not subject to great loads during exploitation. Further study should investigate the liability of these wood species to form tension wood and deformations in the conditions of variable hygroscopic moisture.

Šoški? Borislav

2003-01-01

138

Characterization of copper-resistant rhizosphere bacteria from Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata for copper bioreduction and biosorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper is a toxic heavy metal widely used to microbial control especially in agriculture. Consequently, high concentrations of copper residues remain in soils selecting copper-resistant organisms. In vineyards, copper is routinely used for fungi control. This work was undertaken to study copper resistance by rhizosphere microorganisms from two plants (Avena sativa L. and Plantago lanceolata L.) common in vineyard soils. Eleven rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated, and four displayed high resistance to copper. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Pseudomonas putida (A1), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (A2) and Acinetobacter sp. (A6), isolated from Avena sativa rhizosphere, and Acinetobacter sp. (T5), isolated from Plantago lanceolata rhizosphere. The isolates displayed high copper resistance in the temperature range from 25°C to 35°C and pH in the range from 5.0 to 9.0. Pseudomonas putida A1 resisted as much as 1,000 mg L(-1) of copper. The isolates showed similar behavior on copper removal from liquid medium, with a bioremoval rate of 30% at 500 mg L(-1) after 24 h of growth. Speciation of copper revealed high copper biotransformation, reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), capacity. Results indicate that our isolates are potential agents for copper bioremoval and bacterial stimulation of copper biosorption by Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata. PMID:22002857

Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Camargo, Flávio A O

2012-04-01

139

Antiinflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Phlomis lanceolata Boiss. and Hohen. Extracts and Examination of their Components  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of total extract and four fractions (ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water from Phlomis lanceolata (Lamiaceae in mice. The plant material was extracted with methanol. In order to estimate the polarity of the active compounds, the total extract was dissolved in water and the water soluble portion was successively partitioned between ether, ethyl acetate and n-buthanol. The total extract and four fractions were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC by use of specific reagents. Dose of 100 mg kg 1 of each extracts were used in carrageenan-induced paw edema, formalin and writhing nociception tests in mice. All compounds reduced paw edema in comparison to the control group at 1, 3, 5 and 7 h post carrageenan injection. The total, ether and aqueous extracts were similar to indomethacin while the ethyl acetate extract was weaker than indomethacin in reduction of paw edema. All extracts induced antinociception in both phases of formalin test. The total and ether extracts were as potent as indomethacin in both phases of formalin test. The ethyl acetate extract was weaker than indomethacin in the second phase of formalin-test while the n-butanol and aqueous extracts showed more antinociception than indomethacin in the second phase of formalin test. All extracts as well as indomethacin induced antinociception in writhing test in comparison to control. The total and aqueous extracts induced the same antinociception as indomethacin while ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol showed weaker antinociception than indomethacin. Positive results for iridoids and phenolic compounds were indicated by phytochemical analysis of total extract. Phenolic compounds were found in four fractions whereas only n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed positive results for iridoid glycosides. The higher antinociceptive effects of n-butanol and aqueous extracts in the inflammatory phase of formalin test among different extracts tested, might back to the presence of iridoid glycosides, phenolic glycosides or other glycosides. These data suggest that different extracts of P. lanceolata produce different antinociceptive activities that could be due to the effect of one or a combination of the bioactive components in each extract.

M. Mohajer

2006-01-01

140

Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha-'1) and 86 % higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

 
 
 
 
141

Assortment structure in poplar plantation Populus x euramerjcana I-214 based on European standard  

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Full Text Available Assortment structure in poplar plantation Populus x euramericana I-214 was obtained by European standard for round wood. Based on the data of theoretical cutting, the correlation between total volume of assortments and tree diameter at breast height was established. Model of the function representing the relation between total volume of assortments of superior quality and tree diameter is reciprocal. The relation between total volumes of normal-quality assortments can be represented by a logarithm model of the function, and the relation between total volume of assortments which cannot be classified into any quality class and tree diameter is best represented by a degree model. Knots up to the height of 6 m had a significant effect on the percentage of classes of superior quality. If the lower branches were pruned from standing trees up to the height of 6 m, the percentage of this class would increase averagely by 22.07%. This shows that pruning of lower branches is a very significant plantation tending measure and that it should be performed in time. Sweep also caused the decrease of percentage of superior assortments, but not to the expected degree, because the plantation is situated along the river Sava.

Danilovi? Milorad

2005-01-01

142

Assessment of the effect of quality factors on the assortment structure in poplar plantations  

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Full Text Available Quality factors affecting the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations were researched on nine temporary sample plots in the period 1997-2004, from the aspect of the implementation of roundwood standards. Sample plots were selected depending on the factors, the effect of which was studied. The following factors were researched: clonal species, planting pattern, flood risk, pruning of branches, plantation position and age. The study was performed by the original methodology. Based on the study results, it is concluded that knots have the highest effect on the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations, regardless of the site and stand conditions. Their effect rises significantly with the increase of tree diameter. Also, the analyses show that the number of large and rotten knots on the tree trunk increases considerably with the older age. In the flooded area, the sweep of the lower part of the stem is more intensive and multiple curvatures are frequent on the trees growing immediately along the river, whereas curvature decreases with the distance from the river bank. Based on the study results, it is concluded that the percentage of best quality assortments is considerably reduced by the above wood defects.

Danilovi? Milorad

2008-01-01

143

Evaluation of the antipeptic ulcer activity of the leaf extract of Plantago lanceolata L. in rodents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the leaf extract of Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae) on gastric secretion and cytoprotection was evaluated using different models of gastroduodenal ulcer, including acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer, indomethacin induced gastric ulcer, cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer. The aqueous extract was administered at 200?mg/kg and 400?mg/kg and 140?mg/kg and 280?mg/kg for mice and rats, respectively, and compared with vehicle or the standard, ranitidine (50 or 70?mg/kg) or misopristol (280??g/kg). In addition, activity of the mucilage (172?mg/kg) was also evaluated in acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer. Administration was done orally except in pylorus ligation, where the intraduodenal route was used. In all cases, higher doses of the extract provided better protection than lower doses and the mucilage, hinting at a dose-dependent effect. Whilst higher doses of the extract showed a better healing of the ulcer as well as protection in indomethacin and pylorus ligation models, activities of lesser magnitude than ranitidine were noted in the cysteamine model. Together these findings indicate that higher doses used in the present study provided an overall better protection against gastroduodenal ulcers than the standard drugs employed through antisecretory and cytoprotective mechanisms. PMID:21298726

Melese, Endale; Asres, Kaleab; Asad, Mohammed; Engidawork, Ephrem

2011-08-01

144

The triple helix of Plantago lanceolata: genetics and the environment interact to determine population dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The theory of evolution via natural selection predicts that the genetic composition of wild populations changes over time in response to the environment. Different genotypes should exhibit different demographic patterns, but genetic variation in demography is often impossible to separate from environmental variation. Here, we asked if genetic variation is important in determining demographic patterns. We answer this question using a long-term field experiment combined with general linear modeling of deterministic population growth rates (lambda), deterministic life table response experiment (LTRE) analysis, and stochastic simulation of demography by paternal lineage in a short-lived perennial plant, Plantago lanceolata, in which we replicated genotypes across four cohorts using a standard breeding design. General linear modeling showed that growth rate varied significantly with year, spatial block, and sire. In LTRE analysis of all cohorts, the strongest influences on growth rate were from year x spatial block, and cohort x year x spatial block interactions. In analysis of genetics vs. temporal environmental variation, the strongest impacts on growth rate were from year and year x sire. Finally, stochastic simulation suggested different genetic composition among cohorts after 100 years, and different population growth rates when genetic differences were accounted for than when they were not. We argue that genetic variation, genotype x environment interactions, natural selection, and cohort effects should be better integrated into population ecological studies, as these processes should result in deviations from projected deterministic and stochastic population parameters. PMID:22690630

Shefferson, Richard P; Roach, Deborah A

2012-04-01

145

Codonopsis lanceolata Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE) has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:25353662

Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Young-Hyun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

2014-01-01

146

Codonopsis lanceolata Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice  

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Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice.

Jong Seok Lee

2014-10-01

147

Pluchea lanceolata protects against Benzo(a) pyrene induced renal toxicity and loss of DNA integrity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence from epidemiological, experimental and clinical trial data indicates that a plant based diet can reduce the risk of chronic diseases and reduces toxic effects. In the present study, we report the antioxidant and anticlastogenic activity of Pluchea lanceolata (PL), an important medicinal plant, in both in vitro and in vivo model. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) administration leads to depletion of renal glutathione and its metabolizing enzymes. Pretreatment with PL (100 and 200 mg /kg b.wt) restored renal glutathione content and its dependent enzymes significantly (p<0.001) with simultaneous increase in catalase(CAT), quinone reductase(QR) in mouse kidney. Prophylactic administration of PL prior to B (a) P administration significantly decreased the malondialdehyde(MDA), H2O2 and xanthineoxidase (XO) levels at a significance of p<0.001, at both the doses. PL extract pretreated groups showed marked inhibition in B(a)P induced micronuclei formation in mouse bone marrow cells with simultaneous restoration of DNA integrity, viz. alkaline unwinding assay and DNA damage shown by gel-electrophoresis. HPTLC confirms the presence of quercetin in plant extract which could be responsible for PL protecting efficacy. In conclusion, the present findings strongly support the antioxidant efficacy of PL, possibly by modulation of antioxidant armory. PMID:24170979

Jahangir, Tamanna; Safhi, Mohammed M; Sultana, Sarwat; Ahmad, Sayeed

2013-03-01

148

Phytochemicals and Antioxidative Properties of Borneo Indigenous Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa Fruits  

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Full Text Available Two underutilized indigenous fruits of Borneo, Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa were investigated for their total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC, anthocyanin (TAC and carotenoid (TCC contents as well as antioxidant properties in vitro. The fruits were separated into three different parts (i.e., pericarp, flesh and seed and extracted using 80% methanol. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, ABTS decolorization and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The results showed that B. macrocarpa pericarp contained the highest amount of total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and total carotenoid with the values of 60.04 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g, 44.68 ± 0.67 mg CE/g, 1.23 ± 0.20 mg c-3-gE/100 g and 0.81 ± 0.14 mg BCE/g. Results from DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays also showed that the pericarp of B. macrocarpa displayed the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity of the extract was significantly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with the carotenoid contents. In conclusion, B. macrocarpa displayed high potential as natural source of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties.

Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

2014-07-01

149

Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind-stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems. PMID:25297315

Timerman, David; Greene, David F; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D

2014-12-01

150

Comparison of Juglans regia L. bare-root nursery stocks for plantations: morphological characterization  

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Full Text Available Good results in plantations are strictly related to the fitness of the nursery stock. Plant fitness, or quality, depends on inherent genetic characters and on physiological and physical (dimensional, morphological and nutritional characteristics. In arboriculture for wood production the role of stock quality is essential for a prompt expression of plant growth potential. So the necessity to define stock quality standards is widely recognized, though is still discussed how to assess stock cultural value by characteristics easy to measure. First step in such activities is to individuate in the above-ground part of the plantlets some traits related to the root system development. The study was carried out in two public forest nurseries (property of Regione Piemonte on 163 Juglans regia seedlings and transplants produced for wood plantations. In order to evaluate Walnut nursery stock production, different kinds of bare-root seedlings and transplants have been compared. For each kind, shoot and root system dimensional and morphological traits have been investigated after assignment of plants in 3 dimensional (height categories. Relations between shoots and roots traits have been studied to allow a visual evaluation of nursery plants based on data easy to collect. This study is to be considered a preliminary survey in the evaluation of stock quality based on field performance.

Tani A

2007-01-01

151

What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO(sub 2) and H(sub accompanied by higher CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that although stand density may have a significant impact on boundary layer conductance in young stands, it does not account for the ''density effect''. Our tests of the light quality hypothesis were slowed due to poor plantation establishment in the early phase of this study. In a variable density experiment we detected significant changes in R:FR related to density. Also in that study we measured a significant enhancement of tree height at high density. However, after three years of growth, the study trees did not show significant differences in stem diameter related to density. Experimenters at Weyerhaeuser therefore decided not to harvest the trees at the end of the 3rd growth year, as originally planned. In a 1-year study of seedlings planted in raised beds subjected to different light quality treatments using transparent plastic film, we found that tree height but not diameter increased in response to decreased R:FR. At this point, we conclude that R:FR remains a viable hypothesis for the ''density effect'', but evidence is not conclusive. We expect that continued measurements in the variable density test plot at Weyerhaeuser will add more evidence in the future

152

Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros / Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta") ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon [...] 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó un potrero de igual composición botánica, pero con una baja carga parasitaria, y el grupo de terneros "Plantago" pastoreó un potrero sembrado con P. lanceolata, también con una baja carga parasitaria. Este manejo se mantuvo durante 60 días. Cada semana se pesaron todos los animales y se les tomaron muestras fecales para realizar recuento de huevos y diferenciación genérica de larvas. Cada dos semanas se estableció la carga parasitaria del pasto de los potreros utilizados. La pluviosidad se registró diariamente. La carga parasitaria del pasto del potrero contaminado fue alta durante todo el ensayo. A las tres semanas de iniciado el período de suplementación se inició en ambos grupos un aumento de los recuentos (hpg) promedio de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus que se diferenciaron significativamente (P 0,05). Se concluye que la suplementación con Plantago lanceolata redujo significativamente la oviposición de los parásitos gastrointestinales. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Plantago lanceolata (narrow leaf plantain), as a supplemental forage, reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. The trial was conducted on a farm in the 10th Region, Chile. Two groups of 15 calves weighing 171.4 ± 19.8 kg grazed [...] 17 hours a day on a pasture composed mainly of gramineous and with a high infestation of trichostrongylid nematode larvae. During the remaining 7 hours, the "control" group grazed in a pasture of similar botanic composition but with a low parasite burden; the "plantago" group grazed in a pasture specially sown with P. lanceolata with also a low parasite burden. This regimen was maintained for 60 days. Each week the animals were weighed and faecal samples were gathered to determine the nematode egg count (epg) and larvae generic differentiation. Grass samples were taken every two weeks from all pastures to establish their level of parasite burden. Precipitation was measured daily. The parasite burden of grass in the contaminated pasture was high during the whole period. Three weeks after the initiation of the trial, an increase in the average of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) was observed. A significant difference (P 0.05). It is concluded that the inclusion of P. lanceolata as a supplemental forage significantly reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal parasites.

G, Sievers; S, Nannig.

153

Using modified foragers to harvest short-rotation poplar plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Italy, short rotation coppice (SRC) has become very popular in recent years, with over 4000 ha already planted - almost exclusively with clonal poplar. Commercial harvesting operations are dominated by modified foragers, equipped with dedicated SRC headers. At present, contractors use two main header types: German Claas HS-2 and Italian GBE. The former fits smaller foragers with a power below 300 kW, the latter is used on larger harvest units. This study models the performance of modified foragers on a range of short-rotation poplar plantations. Data were collected from 45 operations, covering a total of 118 ha and producing over 4400 green tonnes of wood chips. The average yield of the fields harvested during the trials was about 23 gt ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} (at a moisture content of 59%), and machine productivity ranged from 9 to 70 green tonnes per scheduled machine hour (gt SMH{sup -1}), with an average value of 35 gt SMH{sup -1}. A model was developed to predict harvesting performance and cost, showing that harvesting cost can be maintained below the 15 EUR gt{sup -1} (2 EUR GJ{sup -1}) level, if field stocking exceeds 40 gt ha{sup -1}. (author)

Spinelli, Raffaele; Nati, Carla; Magagnotti, Natascia [CNR - Ivalsa, via Madonna del Piano Pal. F, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

2009-05-15

154

Harvesting Short-Rotation Poplar Plantations for Biomass Production  

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Full Text Available In Italy, short rotation forest has become very popular in recent years, with over 4,000 hectares already planted – almost exclusively with clone poplar. The study models the performance of modified forage harvesters on a range of short-rotation poplar plantations, identifies technical obstacles to the deployment of these machines and suggests solutions that may expand the capability of modified forage harvesters when treating short-rotation poplar. Data were collected from 16 operations, covering a total of 50 hectares and producing over 1000 green tonnes of wood chips. The average yield of the fields harvested during the trials was about 20 green tonnes/ha year, equivalent to 8 oven-dry tonnes/ha for a 60% average moisture content, measured in the laboratory. Gross machine productivity ranged from 9 to 44 green tonnes/scheduled machine hour (gt/SMH, with an average value of 25 gt/SMH.Of course, this result is affected by other factors than just forager performance, which is potentially much higher. A model was developed to predict harvesting performance and cost, showing that harvesting cost can be maintained below the 15 Euro/green tonne (2 Euro/GJ ceiling only if field stocking exceeds 40 or 50 gt/ha when rows are long 300 and 100 m, respectively. The study also shows the need to optimize operations. Over a quarter of the total worksite time is occupied by unproductive delays, which may be reduced with improved planning and maintenance.

Raffaele Spinelli

2008-12-01

155

Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran  

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Full Text Available Gheibi F, Akbarinia M, Kooch Y. 2015. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Biodiversitas 16: 10-15. Forest plantation is a common action in order to restore the degraded forests in Hyrcanian forests of Iran. This study compares the plant biodiversity in four 25-year-old stands of plantation, adjacent understory of alder (Alnus subcordata C. A. Mey., maple (Acer insigne Boiss., sequoia or red wood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don Endl. and mixed stand (maple and sequoia, located in Salmanshahr of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Research carried out in, 10 sample plots with 20m × 20m area which taken by systematic-random in each plantation. All understory species were identified, recorded and then the biodiversity indices (diversity, richness and evenness were calculated. Our findings show that the planted species had significant effects on understory diversity. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest and lowest diversity (Simpson and Shanon-Winer and richness (Margalef and Menhinic indices occurred in sequoia and alder stands, respectively. The evenness indices (Camargo and Smith-Wilson were significantly greater in maple, sequoia and mixed stands compared with the alder type. As a conclusion, floristic change trends were different according to the planted tree species. A good understanding of the complexity of vegetation processes requires long-term monitoring of vegetation change.

FATEMEH GHEIBI

2015-04-01

156

Energy Characteristics of Wood-Chips Produced from Salix Viminalis - Clone ULV  

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Full Text Available This article explores the energy characteristics of wood-chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV, which was cultivated in an energy plantation. The higher heating value of wood and bark of Salix viminalis was assessed through an experimental measurement in a special calorimeter for solid fuels, model IKA C 200. The lower heating value of wood and bark was calculated from the higher heating value Qs, taking into account hydrogen Hdaf and water contentWr in fuel samples that were assessed in a laboratory. The higher heating value and lower heating value of a dry Salix viminalis wood (QSW = 19 520 kJ/kg and QnW =18 044 kJ/kg were assessed by these analyses. The higher heating value and lower heating value of a dry Salix viminalis bark were also assessed (QSB = 19 389 kJ/kg, and QnB = 17 997 kJ/kg. The share of bark of 19.35%was assessed in wood-chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV, in accordance with the Slovak Technical Norm STN 48 0058 for wood assortments, wood chips containing leaves, and sawdust. The lower heating value of wood chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV in dry state was calculated, based on the lower heating value of salix wood, the lower heating value of salix bark, and the share of bark in wood chips as a weighted average Qn CH = 18 035 kJ/kg.

Ladislav Dzurenda

2010-03-01

157

Regulation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in embryos and microsomal preparations from the developing seeds of Cuphea lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryos of Cuphea lanceolata have more than 80 mol% of decanoic acid ('capric acid') in their triacylglycerols, while this fatty acid is virtually absent in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Seed development was complete 25-27 days after pollination, with rapid triacylglycerol deposition occurring between 9 and 24 days. PtdCho amounts increased until day 15 after pollination. Analysis of embryo lipids showed that the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool consisted of mainly long-chain molecular species, with a very small amount of mixed medium-chain/long-chain glycerols. Almost 100% of the fatty acid at position sn-2 in triacylglycerols (TAG) was decanoic acid. When equimolar mixtures of [14C]decanoic and [14C]oleic acid were fed to whole detached embryos, over half of the radioactivity in the DAG resided in [14C]oleate, whereas [14C]decanoic acid accounted for 93% of the label in the TAG. Microsomal preparations from developing embryos at the mid-stage of TAG accumulation catalysed the acylation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate with either decanoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA, resulting in the formation of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), DAG and TAG. Very little [14C]glycerol entered PtdCho. In combined incubations, with an equimolar supply of [14C]oleoyl-CoA and [14C]decanoyl-CoA in the presence of glycerol 3-phosphate, the synthesized PtdCho species consisted to 95% of didecanoic and dioleic species. The didecanoyl-glycerols were very selectively utilized over the dioleoylglycerols in the production of TAG. Substantial amounts of [14C]oleate, but not [14C]decanoate, entered PtdCho. The microsomal preparations of developing embryos were used to assess the acyl specificities of the acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 2.3.1.15) and the acyl-CoA:sn-1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (LPAAT, EC 2.3.1.51) in Cuphea lanceolata embryos. The efficiency of acyl-CoA utilization by the GPAT was in the order decanoyl = dodecanoyl greater than linoleoyl greater than myristoyl = oleoyl greater than palmitoyl. Decanoyl-CoA was the only acyl donor to be utilized to any extent by the LPAAT when sn-decanoylglycerol 3-phosphate was the acyl acceptor. sn-1-Acylglycerol 3-phosphates with acyl groups shorter than 16 carbon atoms did not serve as acyl acceptors for long-chain (greater than or equal to 16 carbon atoms) acyl-CoA species. On the basis of the results obtained, we propose a schematic model for triacylglycerol assembly and PtdCho synthesis in a tissue specialized in the synthesis of high amounts of medium-chain fatty acids. PMID:2264835

Bafor, M; Jonsson, L; Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

1990-11-15

158

Impact of defoliation on the regrowth capacity and the shoot metabolite profile of Plantago lanceolata L.  

Science.gov (United States)

After defoliation challenges, plants should invest their resources in a way that maximizes their fitness, which may lead to trade-offs in investment in physiological versus chemical traits. Thereby, the regrowth capacity of plants may highly depend on the type and the severity of defoliation. In the present study, we investigated the phenotypic plasticity of Plantago lanceolata L. in response to different defoliation events in a comprehensive way, measuring various traits. This herbaceous species grows on ruderal sites and typically suffers from repeated substantial losses of shoot biomass due to mowing and/or herbivory during the growing season. To study treatment-specific effects of defoliation on resource allocation and induction of defence responses, plants were exposed either to (repeated) mechanical clipping or to herbivory by the generalist Grammia incorrupta (Lepidoptera). Next to regrowth and physiological leaf traits such as the water content, the specific leaf area and C/N ratios of these plants, primary and secondary metabolites in leaves were analyzed with a metabolite profiling approach using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The different defoliation treatments strongly affected the regrowth capacity of clipped and herbivore-treated plants, leading to additive changes in physiological leaf traits. As a response to the defoliation treatments, clipped and herbivore-treated plants reduced mainly carbon-based primary metabolites such as sorbitol, and glucose, suggesting that the different defoliation challenges similarly limited the ability of carbon fixation. Yet, only in response to herbivory but not to clipping, plants induced defence compounds, which indicates the importance of treatment-specific responses despite severe resource limitations. Overall, the different responses to defoliation by clipping and herbivory may reflect allocation constraints and/or adaptive plasticity. PMID:24036062

Pankoke, Helga; Müller, Caroline

2013-10-01

159

Evaluación del efecto genotóxico en extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mediante 2 ensayos de genotoxicidad, segregación mitótica en Aspergillus nidulans D-30 y la inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón se procedió a evaluar la posible acción genotóxica de los extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla). En el ensayo de segregación mitótica se evaluaron los extractos fluidos de llantén menor y manzanilla con 5 y 6 concentraciones en un rango de 0,6 a 4,76 y 0,016 a 0,652 mg de sólidos...

Ángel Vizoso Parra; Alberto Ramos Ruiz,; Aida Villaescusa González; Mercedes Décalo Michelena; José Betancourt Badell

2000-01-01

160

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli...

Kaplan, Maria A. C.; Rodarte, Mi?rian P.; Amaral, Maria P. H.; Arau?jo, Ai?lson A. L.; Pinto, Mi?riam A. O.; Alves, Maria S.; Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira; Sousa, Orlando V.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Wood-plastic combination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

162

Wood's lamp illumination (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

163

Mechanics of Wood Machining  

CERN Document Server

Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

Csanády, Etele

2013-01-01

164

Fire retardants for wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

Vlatka Jirouš-Rajkovi?

2009-06-01

165

Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae) / Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, [...] polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689. Abstract in english Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are ki [...] dney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

Débora Aparecida Verde de, Andrade; Flavia Aparecida, Ortolani; José Roberto, Moro; Fabíola Vitti, Moro.

166

Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01

167

Can we predict carbon stocks in tropical ecosystems from tree diversity? Comparing species and functional diversity in a plantation and a natural forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

• Linking tree diversity to carbon storage can provide further motivation to conserve tropical forests and to design carbon-enriched plantations. Here, we examine the role of tree diversity and functional traits in determining carbon storage in a mixed-species plantation and in a natural tropical forest in Panama. • We used species richness, functional trait diversity, species dominance and functional trait dominance to predict tree carbon storage across these two forests. Then we compared the species ranking based on wood density, maximum diameter, maximum height, and leaf mass per area (LMA) between sites to reveal how these values changed between different forests. • Increased species richness, a higher proportion of nitrogen fixers and species with low LMA increased carbon storage in the mixed-species plantation, while a higher proportion of large trees and species with high LMA increased tree carbon storage in the natural forest. Furthermore, we found that tree species varied greatly in their absolute and relative values between study sites. • Different results in different forests mean that we cannot easily predict carbon storage capacity in natural forests using data from experimental plantations. Managers should be cautious when applying functional traits measured in natural populations in the design of carbon-enriched plantations. PMID:20958305

Ruiz-Jaen, Maria C; Potvin, Catherine

2011-03-01

168

Plantago lanceolata L. leaves prevent obesity in C57BL/6?J mice fed a high-fat diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

The highly abundant and widely dispersed plant Plantago lanceolata L. (narrow leaf or English plantain) has been used for culinary and medicinal purposes since ancient times. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of P. lanceolata leaf powder (shortly PL) when fed to male C57BL/6?J mice. Addition of PL to a high-fat diet did not affect food intake but significantly reduced food efficiency, suppressed body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, and reduced serum free-fatty acid and glucose levels. PL-fed mice exhibited marked increases in HSL, Adrd3 and Cpt2 mRNA levels, and significant decreases in Fas transcripts in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT). These findings suggest that dietary PL exerts anti-obesity effects by stimulating metabolism throughout visceral fat tissue by activating lipolysis, accelerating fatty acid ?-oxidation and suppressing fatty acid synthase in WAT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of anti-obesity substances derived from a Plantago species. PMID:22812622

Yoshida, Taiji; Rikimaru, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Miho; Nishibe, Sansei; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Tamura, Yoshifumi

2013-01-01

169

Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Cuphea lanceolata encoding a beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), an integral part of the fatty acid synthase type II, was cloned from Cuphea lanceolata. This cDNA of 1276 bp codes for a polypeptide of 320 amino acids with 63 N-terminal residues presumably representing a transit peptide and 257 residues corresponding to the mature protein of 27 kDa. The encoded protein shows strong homology with the amino-terminal sequence and two tryptic peptides from avocado mesocarp beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, and its total amino acid composition is highly similar to those of the beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductases of avocado and spinach. Amino acid sequence homologies to polyketide synthase, beta-ketoreductases and short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases are discussed. An engineered fusion protein lacking most of the transit peptide, which was produced in Escherichia coli, was isolated and proved to possess beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase activity. Hybridization studies revealed that in C. lanceolata beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase is encoded by a small family of at least two genes and that members of this family are expressed in roots, leaves, flowers and seeds. PMID:1376402

Klein, B; Pawlowski, K; Höricke-Grandpierre, C; Schell, J; Töpfer, R

1992-05-01

170

The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass, additional products in the form of non-timber forest products and additional services in the form of shelterbelts and phytoremediation.

Iveti? Vladan

2014-01-01

171

Ectomycorrhizal status of a mature productive black truffle plantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The truffle-plantation «Los Quejigares» was planted in 1971 by AROTZ-CATESA company. It is a 600 ha plot of Quercus ilexmycorrhizated with Tuber melanosporum at 1,250 m a.s.l. on calcareous soil. This plantation is the largest of the world and one of the eldest truffle-plantations of Spain and it is in full production. Knowledge of the mycorrhizal status of a mature black truffle plantation is significant for the improvement of truffle cultivation. Ectomycorrhizae were studied for ...

Agueda, B.; Fernandez-toiran, L. M.; Miguel, A. M.; Martinez-pen?a, F.

2010-01-01

172

High incidence of teratologic changes in Plantago Lanceolata L. seedlings of the fifth post-disaster reproduction within the thirty kilometer zone of Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was for the first time that of the fifth year of monitoring of Plantago Lanceolata L., reproduced within the thirty kilometer zone of Chernobyl NPP disaster, the authors discovered incidence of seedlings with various morphological abnormalities. It is suggested that the damages observed are related to the cumulative effect of radiation

173

Efecto del raleo en el crecimiento y algunas propiedades de la madera de Eucalyptus nitens en una plantación de 15 años / Effect of thinning on growth and some properties of wood of Eucalyptus nitens in a plantation of 15 years old  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El raleo tiene implicancias económicas y técnicas tanto para producción forestal como para la actividad industrial. En el presente estudio se realizó la evaluación de un ensayo de intensidad de raleo en E. nitens, de 15 años de edad, intervenido a los 7 y 9 años, con densidades residuales de 300, 40 [...] 0, 500, 700 y un tratamiento testigo con 1070 arb ha-1. El objetivo es conocer el efecto del raleo en el diámetro y altura de los árboles, coeficiente de esbeltez, en los índices de competencia área potencialmente aprovechable (APA), área de proyección de copas (APC) y en las propiedades de la madera, densidad básica, módulo de elasticidad dinámico (MOEd) y las tensiones de crecimiento evaluadas con la deformación residual longitudinal de la fibra (DRL). Los resultados mostraron que el raleo afectó el diámetro, coeficiente de esbeltez, APA y APC, no así la altura. El raleo tampoco tuvo efecto en la densidad básica de la madera y en el DRL. Por otra parte el MOEd fue afectado por el raleo, pero sin mostrar claras tendencias respecto de su intensidad. El efecto de la orientación del fuste en el MOEd y el DRL, mostró valores significativamente mayores en la orientación Sur. Abstract in english Thinning has significant technical and economic implications for both forest managers and industrial end users. In the present study a 15 year old Eucalyptus nitens thinning experiment was evaluated. Thinnings operations were carried out at 7 and 9 years, with final stockings of 300, 400, 500, 700 a [...] nd a control treatment of 1070 trees ha-1. The aim was to determine the effect of thinning on (i) stem diameter and tree height, stem slenderness ratio, (ii) competition indices: potentially usefull area (PUA), crown projection area (CPA) and (iii) wood properties: basic density, dynamic modulus of elasticity (Moed) and growth stresses evaluated using the residual deformation of the fiber length (DRL). The results showed that thinning affected tree diameter, slenderness index, PUA and CPA, but not total height. Thinning had no effect on basic density and DRL. On the other hand Moed was affected by thinning, but did not show a clear trend with thinning intensity. The effect of the stem orientation on DRL and Moed showed significantly higher values on the South side.

Sandro, Díaz Bravo; Miguel, Espinosa; Luis, Valenzuela; Jorge, Cancino; Jean P, Lasserre.

2012-11-01

174

Economic analysis of a pine plantation receiving repeated applications of biosolids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treated biosolids have been applied to 750-ha of a Pinus radiata forest plantation on Rabbit Island near Nelson City in New Zealand since 1996. A long-term research trial was established in 1997 to investigate the effects of the biosolids applications on the receiving environment and tree growth. An analysis of the likely economic impact of biosolids application shows that biosolids application has been beneficial. Stem volume of the high treatment (biosolids applied at 600 kg N ha(-1) every three years) was 36% greater than the control treatment (no biosolids applied), and stem volume of the standard treatment (300 kg N ha(-1)) was 27% greater than the control treatment at age 18 years of age. Biosolids treatments have effectively transformed a low productivity forest site to a medium productivity site. Although this increased productivity has been accompanied by some negative influences on wood quality attributes with reduced wood stiffness, wood density, and larger branches, an economic analysis shows that the increased stem volume and greater average log diameter in the biosolids treatments outweighs these negative effects. The high and standard biosolids treatments are predicted to increase the net stumpage value of logs by 24% and 14% respectively at harvesting, providing a large positive impact on the forest owner's economic return. PMID:23451262

Wang, Hailong; Kimberley, Mark O; Wilks, Peter J

2013-01-01

175

The role of acyl carrier protein isoforms from Cuphea lanceolata seeds in the de-novo biosynthesis of medium-chain fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the role of acyl carrier protein (ACP) in determining the fate of the acyl moieties linked to it in the course of de-novo fatty acid biosynthesis in higher plants, we carried out in vitro experiments to reconstitute the fatty acid synthase (FAS) reaction in extracts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves, rape (Brassica napus L.) seeds and Cuphea lanceolata Ait. seeds. The action of two major C. lanceolata ACP isoforms (ACP 1 and ACP 2) compared to ACP from Escherichia coli was monitored by saponification of the corresponding FAS products with subsequent analysis of the liberated fatty acids by high-performance liquid chromatography. In a second approach the preference of the medium-chain acyl-ACP-specific thioesterase (EC 3.1.2.14) of C. lanceolata seeds for the hydrolysis of acyl-ACPs prepared from the three ACP types was investigated. Both ACP isoforms from C. lanceolata seeds supported the synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in a reconstituted FAS reaction of spinach leaf extracts. Compared to the isoform ACP 1, ACP 2 was more effective in supporting the synthesis of such fatty acids in the FAS reaction of rape seed extracts and caused a higher accumulation of FAS products in all experiments. No preference of the medium-chain thioesterase for one specific ACP isoform was observed. The results indicate that the presence of ACP 2 is essential for the synthesis of decanoic acid in C. lanceolata seeds, and its expression in the phase of accumulation of high levels of this fatty acid provides an additional and highly efficient cofactor for stimulating the FAS reaction. PMID:9637071

Schütt, B S; Brummel, M; Schuch, R; Spener, F

1998-06-01

176

Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies  

Science.gov (United States)

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information, thus helping to understand the dynamics of the rubber tree resource. The decrease in the area of rubber plantations and the increase in the area of mixed crops from 1989--1993 in south of KL were partly attributed to the adoption of a crop diversification policy which was driven by relatively poor natural rubber prices during that time. The decrease in the areas of rubber plantations from 1993--1999 in this area was primarily due to rapid urbanization and infrastructure development driven by demographic expansion in the area south of KL. This thesis makes a practical contribution to the development of methods for inventory of forest plantations by linking ground information with model projections based on satellite data. Additionally, the thesis demonstrates the development of monitoring tools to assess resource availability and variability over time, and establish its linkages to policies. The inventory information, models, and monitoring protocols are needed for effective resource management planning aimed at maximizing the potential benefits of rubber tree crops for wood and natural rubber supply in Malaysia.

Suratman, Mohd Nazip

2003-06-01

177

Wood density variation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry; Avaliacao da densidade da madeira de Gmelina arborea pela aplicacao da densitometria de raios-X  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wood density constitutes the main wood quality parameter by its relationship with anatomical, physical and chemical properties and wood utilization. The modern and accurate methods - like X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the density spatial distribution in wood sections and pith-bark direction. On the other hand, emphasis to wood utilization from fast growing plantations, like Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica, has been done. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of 2 climatic conditions of Costa Rica on radial wood density variation of gmelina trees form fast growing plantations using the X-ray densitometry method. Wood samples were cut at DBH of gmelina trees and transversal thin laths were selected at north-south direction and conditioned at 12% moisture content equilibrium and X-rayed. The radiographic films were revealed and scanned a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the intra tree-ring density were determined by CRAD and CERD software. The results demonstrated that the climatic and forest management affects the wood density variability and the distinctness of tree-ring boundaries of gmelina trees, as well as, the applicability of X-ray densitometry in wood quality analysis. (author)

Roque, Roger Moya [Instituto Tecnologico da Costa Rica, Cartago (Costa Rica). Centro de Investigacao em Integracao Bosque-Industria. Dept. de Engenharia Florestal]. E-mail: rmoya@itcr.ac.cr; Tomazello, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Florestais]. E-mail: mtomazel@esalq.usp.br

2005-07-01

178

Controversy. The wood war  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

179

FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental compositi...

Adrian Pirraglia,; Ronalds Gonzales,; Daniel Saloni; Jeff Wright; Joseph Denig

2011-01-01

180

Wood pellet seminar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

 
 
 
 
181

Genetic Improvement of White Spruce Mechanical Wood Traits—Early Screening by Means of Acoustic Velocity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing interest to use acoustic sensors for selection in tree breeding to ensure high wood quality of future plantations. In this study, we assessed acoustic velocity as a selection trait for the improvement of mechanical wood properties in two 15- and 32-year-old white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench.] Voss genetic tests. Individual heritability of acoustic velocity was moderate and of the same magnitude as heritability of wood density. Considerable genetic gain could be expected for acoustic velocity and a measure combining velocity and wood density. The relationship between acoustic velocity and cellulose microfibril angle (MFA was strong on the genetic level and selection based on velocity could effectively improve MFA, which is one of the most important determinants of wood mechanical properties. Although low, the positive relationship between acoustic velocity and tree height presents an interesting opportunity for the improvement of both tree growth and wood quality. On the phenotypic level, MFA was more strongly correlated to acoustic velocity in mature trees than in young trees. The addition of easily obtainable traits such as diameter at breast height (DBH, height-to-diameter ratio as well as wood density to velocity determinations could improve models of MFA at the young and the mature age. We conclude that juvenile acoustic velocity is an appropriate trait to select for wood quality in a tree breeding context.

Jean Beaulieu

2013-07-01

182

Forests and wood consumption on the carbon balance. Carbon emission reduction by use of wood products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until now studies on the greenhouse effect paid much attention to carbon fixation by forests, while the entire CO2 cycle of forests and forest products remained underexposed. Utilization of wood products instead of energy-intensive materials (plastics/steel) and fossil fuels (coal) proves to play an important role as well. The effect of utilization is even greater than that of fixation. In all, additional forests together with the multiple use of trees can contribute substantially to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The contribution can run from 5.3 ton CO2/ha/yr for a mixed forest of oak/beech to 18.9 ton CO2/ha/yr for energy plantations (poplar). 2 figs., 3 tabs

183

Genetic Differentiation and Phenotypic Plasticity I. Responses in Three Plantago lanceolata L. Populations upon Changes in Mineral Supply  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three populations of Plantago lanceolata L. were analyzed for genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity. Eight randomly taken samples of each population were grown at two nutrient levels and subjected to alterations in mineral supply. Growth and root respiration was followed during the experiment. With respect to all measured characteristic genetic differentiation on population level was demonstrated. Overall phenotypic plasticity of the measured characteristics and differences in estimated genetic variation were present. High relative growth rate was correlated with high root respiration. High relative growth rate was correlated with high root respiration and high Ca2+ - Mg2+ - stimulated ATPase activity in roots. Ecological significance of the results and correlation with habitat properties are discussed.

Ibtisam Hammad

2002-01-01

184

Investigaciones agrícolas en especies de uso frecuente en la medicina tradicional: IV. Llantén menor. Plantago lanceolata L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plantago lanceolata (Llantén menor, es una especie apreciada popularmente como medicinal. En la actualidad se encuentra entre las plantas que se ha aprobado su empleo como droga seca y extracto fluido por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba para su incorporación al Sistema Nacional de Salud, por lo que se requieren grandes cantidades de material vegetal obtenidos a través de su cultivo. En la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se realizaron una serie de investigaciones que permitieron aconsejar efectuar los semilleros entre mediados de octubre e inicios de noviembre, su plantación a distancia de 45 x 20 cm y la realización de 3 recolecciones del material vegetal; la primera alrededor de los 45 d después del trasplante, las restantes con frecuencia de 30 d, lográndose un rendimiento total fresco de más de 20 toneladas por hectárea.Plantago lanceolata (Plantago minor is popularly considered as a medicinal species. At present, it is among the plants whose use as a dry drug and as a fluid extract in the National Health System has been approved by the Ministry of Public Health. That´s why, it is necessary to obtain large quantities of vegetable material through its growth. A series of investigations made at "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay" Experimental Station allowed to recommend the preparation of seed plots between mid-October and the beginning of November, to plant the seed at a distance of 45 x 20 cm and to harvest the vegetable material 3 times; the first at about 45 days after transplantation and the rest at intervals of 30 days, achieving a total fresh yield of 20 tons by hectare.

Lérida Acosta de la Luz

2000-12-01

185

Investigaciones agrícolas en especies de uso frecuente en la medicina tradicional: IV. Llantén menor. Plantago lanceolata L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Plantago lanceolata (Llantén menor), es una especie apreciada popularmente como medicinal. En la actualidad se encuentra entre las plantas que se ha aprobado su empleo como droga seca y extracto fluido por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba para su incorporación al Sistema Nacional de Salud, por [...] lo que se requieren grandes cantidades de material vegetal obtenidos a través de su cultivo. En la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se realizaron una serie de investigaciones que permitieron aconsejar efectuar los semilleros entre mediados de octubre e inicios de noviembre, su plantación a distancia de 45 x 20 cm y la realización de 3 recolecciones del material vegetal; la primera alrededor de los 45 d después del trasplante, las restantes con frecuencia de 30 d, lográndose un rendimiento total fresco de más de 20 toneladas por hectárea. Abstract in english Plantago lanceolata (Plantago minor) is popularly considered as a medicinal species. At present, it is among the plants whose use as a dry drug and as a fluid extract in the National Health System has been approved by the Ministry of Public Health. That´s why, it is necessary to obtain large quantit [...] ies of vegetable material through its growth. A series of investigations made at "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay" Experimental Station allowed to recommend the preparation of seed plots between mid-October and the beginning of November, to plant the seed at a distance of 45 x 20 cm and to harvest the vegetable material 3 times; the first at about 45 days after transplantation and the rest at intervals of 30 days, achieving a total fresh yield of 20 tons by hectare.

Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Víctor, Fuentes Fiallo; Carlos, Rodríguez Ferradá.

2000-12-01

186

Investigaciones agrícolas en especies de uso frecuente en la medicina tradicional: IV. Llantén menor. Plantago lanceolata L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Plantago lanceolata (Llantén menor), es una especie apreciada popularmente como medicinal. En la actualidad se encuentra entre las plantas que se ha aprobado su empleo como droga seca y extracto fluido por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba para su incorporación al Sistema Nacional de Salud, por [...] lo que se requieren grandes cantidades de material vegetal obtenidos a través de su cultivo. En la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se realizaron una serie de investigaciones que permitieron aconsejar efectuar los semilleros entre mediados de octubre e inicios de noviembre, su plantación a distancia de 45 x 20 cm y la realización de 3 recolecciones del material vegetal; la primera alrededor de los 45 d después del trasplante, las restantes con frecuencia de 30 d, lográndose un rendimiento total fresco de más de 20 toneladas por hectárea. Abstract in english Plantago lanceolata (Plantago minor) is popularly considered as a medicinal species. At present, it is among the plants whose use as a dry drug and as a fluid extract in the National Health System has been approved by the Ministry of Public Health. That´s why, it is necessary to obtain large quantit [...] ies of vegetable material through its growth. A series of investigations made at "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay" Experimental Station allowed to recommend the preparation of seed plots between mid-October and the beginning of November, to plant the seed at a distance of 45 x 20 cm and to harvest the vegetable material 3 times; the first at about 45 days after transplantation and the rest at intervals of 30 days, achieving a total fresh yield of 20 tons by hectare.

Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Víctor, Fuentes Fiallo; Carlos, Rodríguez Ferradá.

187

Tracking deforestation, tree plantation expansion, and forest regrowth in a Costa Rican biological corridor using a Landsat time series  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood demand and voluntary carbon markets have driven a rapid global expansion in tropical tree plantations. To effectively monitor this expansion, new remote sensing-based methods are needed that can overcome difficulties in distinguishing between tree plantations, mature forests, and forest regrowth using low-cost moderate-resolution (10-100 m) satellite sensors. The objective of this study was to accurately map changes in the area of these three forest types in northern Costa Rica using Landsat imagery spanning a 25 year period (1986-2011). We mapped forest and tree plantation cover in a fragmented tropical landscape spanning approximately 2500 km2: the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC). In 1996, the Costa Rican government banned deforestation country-wide and concentrated payments for environmental services (PES) within Biological Corridors to promote native tree plantations and protect forests on private land. To evaluate this program's long-term success, we first tracked forest cover change over time and then distinguished between spectrally-similar forest types. We classified five dates (1986, 1996, 2001, 2005, and 2011) of multispectral Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (30 m resolution). Using Random Forests, we classified each single-date Landsat image first to forest/nonforest and then to thirteen land cover classes (Figures 1-3). To improve mapping of reforestation, final land cover classification was constrained by forest masks integrated over the time series. Training and validation data (1932 polygons covering 2185 ha) were collected using field data and aerial photography; final accuracy analysis was conducted by withholding twenty bootstrapped samples of the training data. Overall mean change-detection accuracy for the forest mask time series was 95.1% (Kappa= 0.93) and the overall land cover accuracy for all maps was greater than 80%. For tree plantations, the inclusion of multitemporal data improved classification accuracy over single-date imagery alone; in the 2011 classification, the user's accuracy for native tree plantations increased from 56% to 77%. Results indicate that, over the last 15 years, the deforestation ban and PES payments have been effective in protecting mature forests, especially within the Corridor. The area of regrowth forest declined however, indicating that agricultural pressures on easily-clearable land are increasing. Tree plantations expanded rapidly over the time period analyzed, although the largest increases occurred in exotic tree plantations outside the corridor. We found that it is possible to accurately distinguish tropical tree plantations, secondary forest, and mature forest using moderate-resolution optical sensors like Landsat, but extensive training data and multitemporal imagery was necessary to accurately map tree plantations in this area. Despite the effectiveness of the deforestation ban, it did not prevent an expansion of intensive agriculture and the long-term clearing of forest regrowth.

Fagan, M. E.; Sesnie, S.; Arroyo, J.; Walker, W. S.; Soto, C.; Chazdon, R. L.; Sanchun, A.; DeFries, R. S.

2012-12-01

188

How James Wood Works  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

189

Method of stabilizing wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

190

Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton only 2 tephritids were captured: 1 A. striata and 1 A. obliqua. These results show the great diversity of tephritids in the fruit orchards studied. Most of these tephritid pests are poliphagous and able to use the same hosts. (author)

191

Wood wastes: Uses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

192

Study with an isotopic method using tritiated water of hydric exchanges in Plantago maritima L. var Graminaea and Plantago lanceolata L.: effect of an antitranspirant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study with an isotopic method using tritiated water of total hydric exchanges in an halophyte (Plantago maritima) and a glycophyte (Plantago lanceolata) grown in the presence or not of NaCl and treated or not by an antitranspirant, point out two facts: the specific origin for the plant salinity resistances and the stomatal nature which characterizes the modality for the efficience of antitranspirant tested

193

Possibility of tree selection and breeding for genetic improvement of wood properties of Gmelina arborea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood samples of Gmelina arborea were collected from Nigerian plantations. The wood density was measured with an X-ray densitometer. Fiber length was measured with a modified map measurer. Fiber proportion was determined with a modification of Ladell's (1959) randomized dot technique. Considerable between-tree differences were observed in wood density, fiber length, fiber proportion, and sizes of trees of the same age, planted at the same spacing within the same environment. The magnitude of within-tree variations in these wood properties was different in trees within the same plot. Some individual trees combined comparatively high density, fiber length, and fiber proportion with fast growth rate and uniform wood. There was sufficient phenotypic variation to encourage genetic improvement of the wood properties and growth rate by selecting and breeding trees with higher values of these traits. Tree selection should be based on a preliminary screening for tree form and volume growth followed by a second selection for the desired wood properties.

Akachuku, A.E.

1984-06-01

194

Beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase IV: a key enzyme for regulation of medium-chain fatty acid synthesis in Cuphea lanceolata seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of elucidating the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in Cuphea lanceolata Ait., a crop accumulating up to 90% decanoic acid in seed triacylglycerols, cDNA clones of a beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase IV (clKAS IV, EC 2.3.1.41) were isolated from C. lanceolata seed embryos. The amino acid sequence deduced from clKAS IV cDNA showed 80% identity to other plant KAS II-type enzymes, 55% identity towards plant KAS I and over 90% towards other Cuphea KAS IV-type sequences. Recombinant clKAS IV was functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and substrate specificity of purified enzyme showed strong preference for elongation of short-chain and medium-chain acyl-ACPs (C4- to C10-ACP) with nearly equal activity. Further elongation steps were catalysed with distinctly less activity. Moreover, short- and medium-chain acyl-ACPs exerted a chain-length-specific and concentration-dependent substrate inhibition of clKAS IV. Based on these findings a regulatory mechanism for medium-chain fatty acid synthesis in C. lanceolata is presented. PMID:12244451

Schütt, Burkhardt Siegfried; Abbadi, Amine; Loddenkötter, Brigitte; Brummel, Monika; Spener, Friedrich

2002-09-01

195

Storage Problems of Poplar Chips from Short Rotation Plantations with Special Emphasis on Fungal Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are several problems in storing wood chips freshly harvested from short rotation plantations, which result in quality losses as well as in dry matter and energy losses. The factors influencing the degradation of raw material are examined in this paper with special focus on fungal development. An excessive growth of fungi is connected to dry matter losses and also to an increased health risk during raw material handling.The following factors were measured during 6 months storage of poplar wood chips depending on particle size: box temperature, moisture content, pH-value, appearance of fungi in the storage and the concentration of fungal particles in the air. The results show a close connection between particle size, temperature and attack of fungi. During the storage mesophilic and termophilic species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor and Penicillium appeared. The concentration of fungal particles is the highest for fine chips and decreases in bigger particles. There was a special focus on the investigation of the properties of coarse chips (G 50, which represent a good compromise between handling, storage losses and health risk due to fungal development.

HORVÁTH, Zsuzsanna

2012-01-01

196

Wood Impregnation with Polyethyleneglycol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of the use of polyethyleneglycol as an exchange agent to replace water in the cell walls of wood and thus improve its dimensional stability. The use of other chemicals to enhance this effect is discussed. (author)

197

Screening of Fungi Capable of Degrading Lignocellulose from Plantation Forests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an effort to prevent forest fires after the clear cutting of plantation forests, fungi capable of degrading lignocelluloses were isolated to make a fertilizer from the logging waste. Seventy five fungal species were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia in plantation forests of South and North Sumatera, Indonesia. Sixty three of the fungi were identified based on the appearance and morphological characteristics of their fruiting bodies and mycelia, as Pycnoporus sanguineus, D...

Djarwanto; Tachibana, S.

2009-01-01

198

The Expansion of Farm-Based Plantation Forestry in Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers’ tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people’s livelihood strategies, socio-economic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cas...

Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R. Kajsa; Sy Viet, Le

2010-01-01

199

Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

Alexander Bruce

2002-01-01

200

Control con medios naturales de los principales insectos y hongos que afectan a Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L. / Control with natural means of the main insects and fungi affecting Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: controlar con productos naturales, de origen vegetal y biológico, las principales plagas y enfermedades que afectan a las especies medicinales Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Plantago major L. (llantén). MÉTODOS: para el control de las plagas y enfermedades se evaluó el efecto de [...] 3 plaguicidas de origen botánico: Tabaquina®, subproducto de Nicotiana tabacum L. (tabaco); semillas secas maceradas de Melia azederach L. (paraíso) y follaje seco macerado de Lantana camara L. variedad camara (lantana), extraídos por repercolación con etanol 70 %. Como medio biológico para el control de estos insectos y hongos se evaluó el efecto de 2 hongos mezclados Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; cada tratamiento se replicó 3 veces además de la parcela donde no se aplicaron productos. RESULTADOS: en el caso de Systena basalis resultaron ser efectivos el extracto de Melia azederach y la mezcla de Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; mientras que para el hongo Sclerotium rolfsii, aunque con los productos probados no hubo un control total, se apreció una disminución notable en el grado de incidencia, por lo que deben utilizarse para su eliminación técnicas agrícolas adecuadas. Respecto a Diabrotica balteata y Cercospora plantagenis su presencia no constituyó plaga y sí se observó control con cualquiera de los tratamientos evaluados. CONCLUSIONES: se logró un control adecuado de las plagas con los tratamientos probados.

María Magdalena, Rivera Amita; Masgloiris, Milanés Figueredo; Silvino Raúl, Ramos Gálvez.

2008-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Control con medios naturales de los principales insectos y hongos que afectan a Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L. Control with natural means of the main insects and fungi affecting Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: controlar con productos naturales, de origen vegetal y biológico, las principales plagas y enfermedades que afectan a las especies medicinales Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor y Plantago major L. (llantén. MÉTODOS: para el control de las plagas y enfermedades se evaluó el efecto de 3 plaguicidas de origen botánico: Tabaquina®, subproducto de Nicotiana tabacum L. (tabaco; semillas secas maceradas de Melia azederach L. (paraíso y follaje seco macerado de Lantana camara L. variedad camara (lantana, extraídos por repercolación con etanol 70 %. Como medio biológico para el control de estos insectos y hongos se evaluó el efecto de 2 hongos mezclados Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; cada tratamiento se replicó 3 veces además de la parcela donde no se aplicaron productos. RESULTADOS: en el caso de Systena basalis resultaron ser efectivos el extracto de Melia azederach y la mezcla de Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; mientras que para el hongo Sclerotium rolfsii, aunque con los productos probados no hubo un control total, se apreció una disminución notable en el grado de incidencia, por lo que deben utilizarse para su eliminación técnicas agrícolas adecuadas. Respecto a Diabrotica balteata y Cercospora plantagenis su presencia no constituyó plaga y sí se observó control con cualquiera de los tratamientos evaluados. CONCLUSIONES: se logró un control adecuado de las plagas con los tratamientos probados.

María Magdalena Rivera Amita

2008-03-01

202

Control con medios naturales de los principales insectos y hongos que afectan a Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L. / Control with natural means of the main insects and fungi affecting Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: controlar con productos naturales, de origen vegetal y biológico, las principales plagas y enfermedades que afectan a las especies medicinales Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Plantago major L. (llantén). MÉTODOS: para el control de las plagas y enfermedades se evaluó el efecto de [...] 3 plaguicidas de origen botánico: Tabaquina®, subproducto de Nicotiana tabacum L. (tabaco); semillas secas maceradas de Melia azederach L. (paraíso) y follaje seco macerado de Lantana camara L. variedad camara (lantana), extraídos por repercolación con etanol 70 %. Como medio biológico para el control de estos insectos y hongos se evaluó el efecto de 2 hongos mezclados Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; cada tratamiento se replicó 3 veces además de la parcela donde no se aplicaron productos. RESULTADOS: en el caso de Systena basalis resultaron ser efectivos el extracto de Melia azederach y la mezcla de Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; mientras que para el hongo Sclerotium rolfsii, aunque con los productos probados no hubo un control total, se apreció una disminución notable en el grado de incidencia, por lo que deben utilizarse para su eliminación técnicas agrícolas adecuadas. Respecto a Diabrotica balteata y Cercospora plantagenis su presencia no constituyó plaga y sí se observó control con cualquiera de los tratamientos evaluados. CONCLUSIONES: se logró un control adecuado de las plagas con los tratamientos probados.

María Magdalena, Rivera Amita; Masgloiris, Milanés Figueredo; Silvino Raúl, Ramos Gálvez.

203

Productivity and carbon allocation in pure and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen fertilizer inputs are required in fast growing eucalypt plantations to meet tree requirements, and to compensate for the large nitrogen outputs associated with wood exportation at the end of the short rotations. Due to the economic and potential environmental cost of fertilizers, mixed-species plantations (MSP) with N-fixing species (NFS) such as Acacia sp. might be an attractive option to improve the long-term soil N (and possibly soil carbon) status. In such MSP, increases in N availability may influence the productivity and C partitioning of the non-N fixing species. To investigate the effects of NFS on nutrient cycling, wood production, C sequestration, and soil fertility, a randomized block design including monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (100%E) and Acacia mangium (100%A), and mixtures of these species (50%E:50%A) was set up in southern Brazil. Our specific goals in the present study were to compare the production and C allocation patterns of these plantations, during the two last years of the 6-yr rotation. We hypothesized that 1) a large part of the differences in wood production between monospecific stands would be explained by differences in C allocation; and 2) the C allocation patterns of each species would be strongly modified in mixed- species plantations compared to mono-specific plantations due to inter-specific interactions and shifts in soil N status. Biomass increase (growth, G) in the different plant compartments was assessed by means of inventories and allometric relationships. Total aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and the productivity of each aboveground plant compartment were estimated from measurements of G and litterfall (L) (ANPP=G+L). Total belowground C allocations (TBCA) were estimated using a mass-balance approach as soil CO2 efflux C minus the C input from aboveground litter plus changes in the C stored in roots, in the forest floor litter layer, and in soil. Over this first rotation, mixing NFS with eucalypt did not increase wood production: at the end of the 6 yr-old rotation, total aboveground biomass was the highest in the 100%E stands (68.2 tC/ha), lowest in the MSP 50%E:50%A (62.0 tC/ha), and intermediary in the 100%A (66.0 tC/ha). Although 100%E stands had a stronger growth than 100%A during the first 4 yrs of the rotation, the reverse was observed at the end of the rotation: during the two last yrs, total growth was 15.9 tC/ha/yr for 100%A, and 12.7 and 10.4 tC/ha/yr for 100%E and 50%E50%A, respectively. These differences in growth were explained by differences in ANPP (19.2, 17.8 and 15.2 tC/ha/yr, for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%E50%A, respectively), and differences in the ratio litter production/ANPP (0.17, 0.29, and 0.31 for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%A50%E, respectively). Furthermore, the ratio TBCA/ANPP was the lowest in 100%A, and the highest in the MSPs (0.44, 0.62, and 0.78, for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%A50%E, respectively). These results suggest that inter-specific interactions have a strong effect on the C allocation pattern observed at the stand level in MSPs.

Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Epron, D.; Le Maire, G.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

2010-12-01

204

More wood of better quality: intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Eucalyptus spp. for pulpwood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, there was an inability of the species to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that new silvicultural techniques should be developed and also new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce a better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated mainly because of the new technique of rooting cuttings developed by Aracruz, which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantations. The first results have already enabled good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content and resistance to disease.

Campinhos, E. Jr.

1980-01-01

205

PARTICIPATORY DIAGNOSIS OF USE, SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WOOD IN A ZOQUE COMMUNITY FROM THE CENTER OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was performed in Ocuilapa de Juárez, under the initiative of a group of communal Zoque owners, which are members of the Sociedad Cooperativa de Transporte Ejidal Benito Juárez. The group focused on the wood production, that will allow to cover the local and external demand of this. To this end, the group agreed to establish dendroenergetic forest plantations under a management plan that allows its use in a short term. The project was designed in three stages: Stage I (diagnosis), ...

María Consuelo Escobar Ocampo; José Ángel Niños Cruz; Neptalí Ramírez Marcial; Cristina Yépez Pacheco

2009-01-01

206

Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

2010-07-01

207

Modulatory effects of Pluchea lanceolata against chemically induced oxidative damage, hyperproliferation and two-stage renal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a well-established renal carcinogen. Here, we have shown that Pluchea lanceolata (PL) belonging to the family Asteraceae. PL attenuates Fe-NTA induced renal oxidative stress, hyperproliferative response and renal carcinogenesis in rats. It promoted DEN (N-diethyl nitrosamine) initiated renal carcinogenesis by increasing the percentage incidence of tumors and induces early tumor markers viz. ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and renal DNA synthesis. Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) also enhances renal lipid peroxidation (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation with reduction in renal glutathione content (GSH), antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phase-II metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase (QR). It also enhances blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Oral treatment of rats with PL extract (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO), H(2)O(2) generation, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, renal ODC activity, DNA synthesis (p < 0.001) and incidence of tumors. Renal glutathione content (p < 0.01), its metabolizing enzymes (p < 0.001) and antioxidant enzymes were also recovered to significant level (p < 0.001). Thus, present study supports PL as a potent chemopreventive agent and suppresses Fe-NTA-induced renal carcinogenesis and oxidative damage response in Wistar rat. PMID:16767495

Jahangir, Tamanna; Sultana, Sarwat

2006-10-01

208

Competition between metal tolerant and normal plant populations on normal soil. [Agrostis tenuis; anthoxanthum odoratum; Plantago lanceolata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The competitive interactions of Agrostis tenuis, Anthoxanthum odoratum and Plantago lanceolata were investigated by examining competition between non tolerant and zinc/lead tolerant material, and by examining competition of each type of material with perennial rye grass. All three species were found as components of the restricted flora of zinc/lead mines of Wales, and also of the acid grasslands adjacent to these mines, together with other herbs and grasses including perennial rye grass. The data obtained show the same trends throughout - the tolerant ecotype in each of the species tested had a lower dry weight and fewer leaves than the non tolerant ecotype. The important point for all three species is that the differences occurring between the yields of the pure stands of tolerant and non tolerant material are enhanced so that the relative fitness of the tolerant material is reduced from 0.75 to 0.57 when the two are grown together in a 50:50 mixture. There is, therefore, a drastic selection acting through competition against tolerant individuals on normal soil.

Cook, S.C.A.; Lefebvre, C.; McNeilly, T.

1972-09-01

209

Wood and bark of some poplar and willow clones as fuelwood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poplars and willows are widely used to produce biomass for energy. Calorific values of wood and bark, as well as for whole tree of Populus x euramericana (cl. I-214), Populus deltoides (cl.PE 19/66) and white willow Salix alba (cl.378) of different ages were determined, one- and 2-year-old rooted cuttings were grown in plantations with high planting density, in order to produce a high biomass yield per hectare. Mature trees in both species (poplar and willow) originated from the corresponding plantations; willow 14-year old, and poplar 12 years (cl.I-214) and 8 years (cl.PE 19/66). As the share of bark depends on the age of wood, calorific values were determined separately for bark and for wood. The share of bark (proportion of total weight) in 1- and 2-year-old rooted cuttings ranged between 18% and 27%, and in older trees it was from 10% to 15%. The higher heating values of oven dry poplar wood (calculated for the whole tree, based on the proportion of bark) were from 15,787 (cl. I-214 1-year old) to 24,275 kJ/kg (cl.I-214 2-year old). The average calorific values of willow wood (whole tree with bark) were from 16,169 (14-year old) to 22,572 kJ/kg (2-year old). It should be pointed out that the calorific value of wood is more favorable than that of bark, and the highest calorific values refer to 2-year-old trees.(author)

Klasnja, B.; Kopitovic, S.; Orlovic, S. [Poplar Research Inst., Novi Sad (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Agriculture

2002-12-01

210

Wood plastic combination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

211

Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

2006-05-04

212

Plantation forestry in Brazil: the potential impacts of climatic change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most climatic changes predicted to occur in Brazil would replace yields of silvicultural plantations, mainly through increased frequency and severity of droughts brought on by global warming and by reduction of water vapor sources in Amazonia caused by deforestation. Some additional negative effects could result from changes in temperature, and positive effects could result from CO2 enrichment. The net effects would be negative, forcing the country to expand plantations onto less-productive land, requiring increased plantation area (and consequent economic losses) out of proportion to the climatic change itself. These impacts would affect carbon sequestration and storage consequences of any plans for subsidizing silviculture as a global warming mitigation option. Climate change can be expected to increase the area of plantations needed to supply projected internal demand for and exports of end products from Brazil. June-July-August (dry season) precipitation reductions indicated by simulations reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) correspond to rainfall declines in this critical season of approximately 34% in Amazonia, 39% in Southern Brazil and 61% in the Northeast. As an example, if rainfall in Brazilian plantation areas (most of which are now in Southern Brazil) were to decline by 50%, the area needed in 2050 would expand by an estimated 38% over the constant climate case, bringing the total area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. Thetotal area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. These large areas of additional plantations imply substantial social and environmental impacts. Further addition of plantation area as a global warming response option would augment these impacts, indicating the need for caution in evaluating carbon sequestration proposals. (author)

213

Turning wood residues into wood revenues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP(TM))is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTPTM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTPTM. The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial bankions (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

214

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30

215

Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (?E(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. PMID:23123593

Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

2012-12-01

216

Energy from wood - an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

217

Methane from wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

2005-07-15

218

Wood Waste Staging Pile-McMurdo  

Science.gov (United States)

... Wood waste from station activities consists mainly of broken crates and pallets. The existing wood ... the wood breaks up as it is pushed by bulldozers, would be picked up and placed with wood waste at ...

219

Impacts of extreme precipitation on tree plantation carbon cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

Extreme precipitation events are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude in future due to global warming, but relevant impacts on tree plantation ecosystem carbon cycle are unknown. In this study, we use an atmosphere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2) to estimate the likely impacts of extreme precipitation events on carbon fluxes and carbon stocks of a tree plantation in south China. Our results indicate that shifting from moderate precipitation events to extreme precipitation events whilst keeping monthly precipitation unchanged could decrease the tree plantation carbon accumulation. Tree plantation net primary productivity, net ecosystem productivity, soil carbon stock and vegetation carbon stock could decrease by 4.2, 28, 4.3 and 1.4 % during the studying period of 1962-2004, respectively. Though reductions in net primary productivity and net ecosystem productivity are relatively smaller than their annual variations, our sensitivity test shows that the tree plantation carbon stock could decrease by 3.3 % if the assumed extreme precipitation regime lasts for 500 years. Observed and simulated gross primary productivity, ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem productivity have significant positive correlation with soil water content (SWC), especially the deep SWC. The mechanism for the extreme precipitation effect is that the increase in extreme precipitation events will cause SWC to decrease, consequently, reducing carbon fluxes and stocks.

Huang, Mei; Ji, Jinjun; Deng, Feng; Yang, Fengting

2014-02-01

220

Glenarm Woods ASSI Part 2  

...as Purple Moor-grass, Crested Dog’s-tail, Sharp-flowered Rush...typical species such as Common Dog-violet, Wood Anemone, Bluebell, Primrose...black and orange cranefly, which breeds in decaying wood and the...

 
 
 
 
221

Health Effects of Wood Smoke  

Science.gov (United States)

... smell good, but it's not good for you. Wood smoke can affect everyone, but children, teenagers, older ... complex mixture of gases and particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. A major health ...

222

Understanding interception losses under sugarcane plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being planted around 20 million hectares in over 70 countries. The Brazil is a leader in terms of area harvested and production with 9.5 million hectares and 715 million tons in 2011, respectively. Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop which is planted and after the first harvesting, the re-growth is harvested several times (five to eight times) until replanting is needed mainly due to yield decline. The rainfall interception loss is an important process in the hydrological cycle which has a key role on climate change. Details on sugarcane canopy interception are still not well understood in particular within the tropics. In this study, rainfall interception was measured during the complete ratoon crop cycle of the sixth re-growth, observing their growth stage. Five through (each with an area of 2000 cm2) were installed randomly on the plantation. The gross rainfall for the study period of one year was 1413 mm, while the throughfall was 972 mm (69%). Thus, annual rainfall interception loss was 441 mm (31%). The interception losses started to occur in the third stage of plant development (between 110 and 240 days after the onset of re-growth period). During the formation of the stems, the interception was 25.5%. Furthermore, at stage when the plant reached maturity (240 to 385 days), interception loss was increased to 57.5%. Our results indicate that interception losses are an important component of water use in sugarcane crops and the annual values of interception losses from sugarcane may be similar to some results found in tropical and temperate forests.

Costa Silva, R. W.; Salemi, L.; Andrade, T. M.; Fernandes, R. P.; de Moraes, J. M.; Camargo, P. B.; Martinelli, L.

2012-12-01

223

Enzymic hydrolysis of wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vast, annually renewed, cellulosic raw material is a potential substrate for single-cell protein, sugars, and other chemicals. Wood samples of Pinus pinaster (gymnosperm) and Eucalyptus globulus (angiosperm) were pretreated with NaOH and saccharified with concentrated cellulases from the Myco 9414 mutant of Trichoderma reesei. The resulting syrup from E. Globulus has concentration of 26% sugar (glucose + cellobiose + xylose).

Beja da Costa, M.

1980-01-01

224

Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted a new resource on birds. This resource describes the habitat requirements of the Wood Duck, and is designed to assist in the development of a "comprehensive management plan." The resource is accompanied by figures and may be browsed online or downloaded as a zip file.

225

Wood residues in Alberta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The forest products industry is the third largest economic sector in Alberta, producing pulp and paper, dimensional lumber, paneling, and value added products, providing some 40,000 jobs . 'Value added' is a key component of expanding economic activity within the forest products sector. Wood residues can play a key role in obtaining more value from forest resources by providing new products, serving as feedstock to energy and chemical production, and playing a role in agriculture and land reclamation. One of the principal roles of the Forest Products Development Branch of the Alberta Economics Department is to encourage the development of the industry by creating new uses for these materials and developing awareness of the scope of the resource. Distances to markets, economic competition from conventional energy sources and coordination of research efforts are substantial barriers to further development that the Forest Products Development Branch has to face daily. Some notable successes in recent years are described. These include the Wood Residue Inventory and the Wood Residue Database that provide data on availability and principal location of wood residues, also a listing of contacts at the mills who produce the materials

226

Wood waste in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

1997-12-31

227

Wood waste in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today's percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December's 1997 'Climate Change Summit' in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab

228

The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market. PMID:21141776

Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

2010-12-01

229

Shady Plantations : Theorizing Coastal Shelter in Tamil Nadu  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between these, as they are realized in social encounters. This calls for a view of theory and analysis as generative of objects in the world, rather than applied to them from some fictitious elsewhere or posterity. Exploring the plantation and the shelter it offers as an intertwinement and simultaneity of practice and analysis, data and theory, I discuss anthropological knowledge-making as a truly lateral endeavour that engages in describing and cultivating a shared capacity for world-making, the challenge then being to find the right story of sameness and difference, without ascribing fixity and inevitability to our objects of knowledge.

Hastrup, Frida

2011-01-01

230

A NOVEL ACYLATED FLAVONOIDIC GLYCOSIDE FROM THE WOOD OF CULTIVATED ACACIA NILOTICA (L. WILLD. EX. DELILE.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acacia is a fast-growing plant that has high potential in commercial plantations in tropical areas. It is already being grown as a plantation crop for building and industrial raw materials, as well as for reforestation of difficult sites. Extensive cultivation of this promising tree would enrich the natural resources besides being useful for industrial raw material, waste land management, and afforestation. In addition, Acacia exhibits extensive medicinal values. In view of the medicinal importance of Acacia nilotica and the therapeutic utility of flavonoids, an attempt has been made to isolate novel flavonoids from the wood of cultivated A. nilotica. The extraction of crude ethanol extract from the A. nilotica wood was followed by fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol in increasing order of polarity of the solvent. The mixed ethyl acetate and methanol extract afforded three pure compounds through column chromtomatography and fractional crystallization. Among the isolated phenolic compounds, a new acylated flavonoidic glycoside, tricin-4?-O-?-(6??-hydroxycinnamic-glucoside (1 was isolated from the wood of A. nilotica together with two known compounds, gallic acid and apigenin. Their structures were established by chemical evidence, spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and ESI-MS, and by comparison with already existing spectroscopic data. The yield of novel tricin glucoside showed that it make up to 0.0786% of mixed ethyl acetate and acetone extract.

Zakia Khanam

2011-07-01

231

ADVANCES IN THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF Cuphea aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata : EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea lanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina tradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h, el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de variosórganos de C. aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata . Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH + y ABTS + y el de poder reductor del fosfomolibdeno. La concentración más alta de compuestos fenólicos se presentó en las flores de C. lanceolata (62.79 0.06 mg equivalentes deácido gálico (EAG / g peso seco (PS; mientras que la de flavonoides en las hojas de C. aequipetala (196.83 2.9 mg equivalentes de quercetina (EQ / g PS. Las hojas de C. aequipetala var. hispida presentaron la actividad de captura de radicales libres DPPH (173.33 2.12 mol trolox / g PS, las flores de C. aequipetala la de captura de radicales libres ABTS (541.10 2.32 mol trolox / g PS mientras que el poder reductor más alto se observó en las hojas de C. aequipetala (1186.25 3.17 mol trolox / g PS. Se encontró una correlación positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes. El análisis químico cualitativo mediante TLC indicó la prescencia del flavonoide quercetina 3- - D -glucósido en todas las especies de Cuphea y de otros flavonoides menos polares en C. aequipetala var. hispida . Cuphea spp. es una fuente natural de compuestos fenólicos.

B.A. Cardenas-Sandoval

2012-01-01

232

Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

233

Changes in plant chemical defenses and nutritional quality as a function of ontogeny in Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous empirical studies have examined ontogenetic trajectories in plant defenses but only a few have explored the potential mechanisms underlying those patterns. Furthermore, most documented ontogenetic trajectories in plant defenses have generally concentrated on aboveground tissues; thus, our knowledge regarding whole plant trends in plant defenses throughout development or potential allocation constraints between growth and defenses is limited. Here, we document changes in plant biomass, nutritional quality and chemical defenses for below- and aboveground tissues across seven age classes of Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) to evaluate: (1) partial and whole plant ontogenetic trajectories in constitutive chemical defenses and nutritional quality, and (2) the role of resource allocation constraints, namely root:shoot (R:S) ratios, in explaining whole plant investment in chemical defenses over time. Overall investment in iridoid glycosides (IGs) significantly increased, while water and nitrogen concentrations in shoot tissues decreased with plant age. Significant variation in IG content between shoot and root tissues across development was observed: allocation of IGs into root tissues linearly increased from younger to older plants, while non-linear shifts in allocation of IGs during ontogeny were observed for shoot tissues. Finally, R:S ratios only weakly explained overall allocation of resources into defenses, with young stages showing a positive relationship, while older stages showed a negative relationship between R:S ratios and IG concentrations. Ontogenetic trajectories in plant quality and defenses within and among plant tissues can strongly influence insect herbivores' performance and/or predation risk; thus, they are likely to play a significant role in mediating species interactions. PMID:21913028

Quintero, Carolina; Bowers, M Deane

2012-02-01

234

Ecological and genetic experience of Plantago Lanceolata L. seed generation of from the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current work sums up ecological-geographical testing within the northern nursery (Syktyvkar) that was carried out with poster of some postaccidental reproductions of Plantago lanceolata L. It experienced radioactive load of uncommon intensity in different accidental points of the zone (from 0.08 up to 800 mr/hour). Morphological variability analysis proved the absence of visible changes in genetic structure of plantain aborigenic population during the research period (1986-1991). Although by (1990-1991) there was a tendency for survival increase of plantain posterity within nursery conditions from the most contaminated sites of matarnate plant growth

235

Ecological-geographic testing of Plantago Lanceolata L. seed generation of from the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current work sums up ecological-geographical testing within the northern nursery (Syktyvkar) that was carried out with poster of some postaccidental reproductions of Plantago lanceolata L. It experienced radioactive load of uncommon intensity in different accidental points of the zone (from 0.08 up to 800 mr/hour). Morphological variability analysis proved the absence of visible changes in genetic structure of plantain aborigenic population during the research period (1986-1991). Although by (1990-1991) there was a tendency for survival increase of plantain posterity within nursery conditions from the most contaminated sites of matarnate plant growth

236

Hesperetin 7-rutinoside (hesperidin) and taxifolin 3-arabinoside as germination and growth inhibitors in soils associated with the weed,Pluchea lanceolata (DC) C.B. Clarke (Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Hesperetin 7-rutinoside (Hesperidin) and taxifolin 3-arabinoside were detected in the soils associated with the rapidly spreading perennial weed,Pluchea lanceolata. In the present investigations, inhibitory potential of the aqueous extracts of the two compounds was established and confirmed through growth experiments pertaining to seed germination and seedling growth of radish, mustard, and tomato, with 10(-4) M solutions of the authentic samples. The significance of the water-soluble compounds present in the rhizosphere zones of the weed and its interference potential is commented upon. PMID:24257882

Inderjit; Dakshini, K M

1991-08-01

237

Formononetin 7-O-glucoside (ononin), an additional growth inhibitor in soils associated with the weed,Pluchea lanceolata (DC) C.B. Clarke (Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Formononetin 7-O-glucoside (ononin), an isoflavonoid, was isolated from the soils of cultivated areas associated with the perennial weed,Pluchea lanceolata. Aqueous solutions of this compound inhibited significantly root and shoot growth of mustard at 1×10(-4) M, 5×10(-4) M, and 1×10(-3)M. The level of inhibition was similar to that of hesperidin and taxifolin 3-arabinoside, as reported earlier. The potential allelopathic effect of this compound under field conditions is discussed. PMID:24253965

Inderjit; Dakshini, K M

1992-05-01

238

Surveying black pine plantations in the province of Rieti (Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last century large afforestation programs were carried out in the Apennines to recover degraded lands, mainly by Pinus nigra plantations. Currently, many Authors have proposed management guidelines to foster the naturalization of such woodlands. However, such an option requires the availability of detailed surveys. The aim of this note is to propose a survey protocol for qualifying the landscape pattern of pine reafforestations and for mapping their growing stock on the basis of the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN techniques. A case study application by Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery is here reported concerning the Pinus nigra plantations in the province of Rieti (Central Italy.

Piermaria Corona

2008-01-01

239

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

240

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

Semere, T.; Slater, F.

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Analysis of commercial cost-effectiveness of poplar plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The commercial cost-effectiveness of poplar cultivation and commercial cost-effectiveness of long-rotation (42-year poplar plantation were analyzed. The aim of the research is, based on analysis of expenses and receipts during the period of 42 years and by applying the method of analysis of the project commercial cost-effectiveness, to show the justification of long rotations in poplar plantations. Modern methods of investment valuation were applied and consequently their practical application in forestry was confirmed.

Ke?a Ljiljana

2005-01-01

242

Net carbon storage in a poplar plantation (POPFACE) after three years of free-air CO2 enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-density plantation of three genotypes of Populus was exposed to an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]; 550 micromol mol(-1)) from planting through canopy closure using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) technique. The FACE treatment stimulated gross primary productivity by 22 and 11% in the second and third years, respectively. Partitioning of extra carbon (C) among C pools of different turnover rates is of critical interest; thus, we calculated net ecosystem productivity (NEP) to determine whether elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] will enhance net plantation C storage capacity. Free-air CO(2) enrichment increased net primary productivity (NPP) of all genotypes by 21% in the second year and by 26% in the third year, mainly because of an increase in the size of C pools with relatively slow turnover rates (i.e., wood). In all genotypes in the FACE treatment, more new soil C was added to the total soil C pool compared with the control treatment. However, more old soil C loss was observed in the FACE treatment compared with the control treatment, possibly due to a priming effect from newly incorporated root litter. FACE did not significantly increase NEP, probably as a result of this priming effect. PMID:16105807

Gielen, B; Calfapietra, C; Lukac, M; Wittig, V E; De Angelis, P; Janssens, I A; Moscatelli, M C; Grego, S; Cotrufo, M F; Godbold, D L; Hoosbeek, M R; Long, S P; Miglietta, F; Polle, A; Bernacchi, C J; Davey, P A; Ceulemans, R; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G E

2005-11-01

243

[Phase-directional management of protective plantations. I. Fundamentals].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to ensure the higher effectiveness, more stability and sustainability of Protective plantations, the definition of phase-directional management (PDM) of protective plantations was brought forward on the basis of management researches and practices for protective plantations. The basics of PDM is protective maturity, which is defined as the time when the protective plantations attain to the state that the protective plantations can provide effective and complete protection to the objects needed to be protected. Protective maturity has two points, initial protective maturity age (IPMA), the age of protective maturity started, and terminal protective maturity age (TPMA), the age of protective maturity ended. Three management phases of protective plantation, i.e., prematurity phase, the period from sapling or establishment to initial protective maturity, protective maturity phase, the period of protective maturity lasting, and regeneration phase, the period during regeneration and before the establishment, are divided based on the fundamental of protective maturity. Directional management of protective plantation means that all of the management techniques in each phase are directed at the aim of protective maturity, i.e., protective maturity is the direction of management of protective forests, and protective maturity is the final objective for the management of protective forests. In order to sustain the protective maturity state, corresponding measures should be conducted in each phase, according to the classification of protective plantations. In pre-maturity phase, the purpose of managing is to accelerate the protective maturity, therefore, the measures such as weed clearing, soil cultivation, irrigation, fertilization, intercropping and branch cutting etc. should be conducted in protective plantations. In maturity phase, the aim of managing is to sustain the protective maturity, i.e., the techniques (tending and thinning) of controlling the structure of protective plantations should be paid emphases. In the period of regeneration, the objective of managing is to recover the protective maturity, accordingly, the regeneration patterns and ways should be determined reasonably. Additionally, the methods of determining protective maturity, i.e., the core of the phase-directional management, are also given corresponding to farmland shelterbelt, sand-fixation forest and water and soil conservation forest. For farmland shelterbelt, IPMA can be determined according to the growth pattern of tree height under the suitable structure (porosity). For sand-fixation forest, it can be determined by the cover degree of the forest, i.e., the age when cover degree gets to pi/4 can be considered as IPMA. In the case of water and soil conservation forest, IPMA is determined by the canopy closure at the height of 1m above forest ground, which can be obtained from the hemispherical silhouettes in vertical direction. As for the TPMA, it can be described by the natural age of trees for all of above-mentioned three kinds of protective plantations, but the concrete methods for estimating the natural age of trees in each kind of forests are different. PMID:12557690

Jiang, Fengqi; Zhu, Jiaojun

2002-10-01

244

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND INTRA-RING WOOD DENSITY PROFILES IN Gmelina arborea APPLYING X-RAY DENSITOMETRY  

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Full Text Available Four annual tree-rings (2 of juvenile wood and 2 of mature wood were sampled from fast-growth plantations ofGmelina arborea in two climatic conditions (dry and wet tropical in Costa Rica. Each annual tree-ring was divided in equal parts ina radial direction. For each part, X-ray density as well as vessel percentage, length and width fiber, cell wall thickness and lumendiameter were measured. Wood density and profile patterns of cell dimension demonstrated inconsistency between juvenile andmature wood and climatic conditions. The Pearson correlation matrix showed that intra-ring wood density was positively correlatedwith the cell wall thickness and negatively correlated with vessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width. The forwardstepwise regressions determined that: (i intra-ring wood density variation could be predicted from 76 to 96% for anatomicalvariation; (ii cell wall thickness was the most important anatomical feature to produce intra-ring wood density variation and (iii thevessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width were the second most statically significant characteristics to intra-ring wooddensity, however, with low participation of the determination coefficient of stepwise regressions.

Mario Tomazelo-Filho

2007-12-01

245

Potentials of Liquefied CCB Treated Waste Wood for Wood Preservation  

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Full Text Available Recovered wood is frequently contaminated with biocides and therefore its use is limited. Even more, wood, impregnated with classical chromated copper arsenate (CCA preservatives is classified as a hazardous waste, therefore solutions for reuse or recovery of this material are sought. One of the options, discussed in this paper is liquefaction and further applications of liquefied wood containing biocide remainings. In order to elucidate this possibilty, spruce and beech wood was impregnated with liquefi ed CCB treated and untreaded spruce wood of various concentrations and exposed to wood decay fungi according to the EN 113 procedure. In paralel, the leaching experiments (ENV 1250-2 were performed as well. The results do not clearly show that liquefied wood is bio-inactive. In most cases the mass loss by fungal attack is decreased compared to the untreated controls. On the other hand, copper leaching from spruce wood, impregnated with the liquefi ed CCB treated wood was significantly reduced. Thus, there are indications that the liquefied wood could be utilized as a binding agent for inorganic biocides.

Miha Humar

2011-09-01

246

Radioactivity of wood ash  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg-1, in decreasing order: 137Cs, 40K, 90Sr, 210Pb,226Ra, 232Th, 134Cs, 235U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210Pb was hardly detectable. The NH4Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

247

Wood furniture finishing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter will focus on pollution prevention opportunities and options associated with the manual air-spray finishing of wood furniture with conventional, organic solvent-based lacquers. This finishing systems represents a level of ``no control`` with regard to air emissions, other than particulates. All other coating systems can be viewed as improvements over this ``no control`` system. In short, new levels or norms of control have been the result of innovative manufacturing, made possible by coatings research and improved application technology.

Heltzer, J.M. [Virginia Dept. of Environmental Quality, Richmond, VA (United States). Office of Pollution Prevention

1995-09-01

248

Socio-environmental Implications of the Establishment of Roadside Plantation at Jhang Road, Faisalabad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study on the extent of establishment of roadside plantation was carried out at Jhang Road Faisalabad during 2000. The study was aimed at finding out possible solutions to degraded conditions of Jhang Roadside plantation, through field survey (site survey and social survey (evaluation of public perception. It was also intended to be helpful in future planning involving plantation in the cities in particular along roads. It was concluded that for sustainable roadside plantation, future planning should be carried out, taking into account, public perception and local conditions. At the same time management of the plantation should be improved by the employment of professionals as well.

Aamir Nawaz

2004-01-01

249

Soil physical properties influence "black truffle" fructification in plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the important effects of pH and carbonate content of soils on "black truffle" (Tuber melanosporum) production are well known, we poorly understand the influence of soil physical properties. This study focuses on physical soil characteristics that drive successful production of black truffles in plantations. Seventy-eight Quercus ilex ssp. ballota plantations older than 10 years were studied in the province of Teruel (eastern Spain). Soil samples were analyzed for various edaphic characteristics and to locate T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizae. The influence of cultivation practices, climatic features, and soil properties on sporocarp production was assessed using multivariate analyses. Low contents of fine earth and silt and high levels of bulk density, clay content, and water-holding capacity appear to promote fructification. Watering is also highly positive for truffle fructification. We develop and discuss a logistic model to predict the probability of truffle fructification in field sites under consideration for truffle plantation establishment. The balance between water availability and aeration plays a crucial role in achieving success in black truffle plantations. PMID:24487451

Alonso Ponce, Rafael; Ágreda, Teresa; Águeda, Beatriz; Aldea, Jorge; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Modrego, María Pilar

2014-04-01

250

Carbon balance of ethanol from wood : the effect of feedstock source in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transportation sector contributes more than 25 per cent to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. Improving the quality of road vehicle fuels would be a possible way to reduce Canada's GHG emissions. Blending gasoline with ethanol produced from wood and other types of lignocellulosic feedstock can help in reducing GHG emissions from motor vehicles. In this study, the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production and combustion of wood-derived ethanol was calculated using Delucchi's full fuel cycle GHG model. The following 3 land scenarios were considered: (1) short rotation forestry on land previously covered by pasture, agricultural fields and forest, (2) short rotation forestry on previously forested land, and (3) using sawmill wood residues with no energy-dedicated wood plantation. It was shown that compared to pure gasoline, the use of a gasoline blend containing 10 per cent wood-derived ethanol for 3 scenarios could reduce GHG emissions by 7.9, 1.0 and 6.3 per cent respectively. The changes in the quantity of above-ground biomass and soil organic carbon in each scenario accounts for the difference in the level of emission reduction. The lower emissions from ethanol-blended fuels are due primarily to the net sequestration of carbon dioxide during the growth of feedstocks, and the high oxygen content of ethanol with a greater combustion efficiency. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

O' Connor, D.V. [S and T2 Consultants Inc., Delta, BC (Canada); Esteghlalian, A.R. [Diversa Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Gregg, D.J.; Saddler, J.N. [British Columbia Univ., Forest Sciences Centre, Forest Products Biotechnology, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2002-10-01

251

Wood Composite Adhesives  

Science.gov (United States)

The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

252

Heavy metal bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses in Cardaminopsis arenosa and Plantago lanceolata leaves from metalliferous and non-metalliferous sites: a field study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, iron and manganese) in soil, their bioavailability and bioaccumulation in plants leaves. This study also examined their influences on the antioxidant response of the plants Cardaminopsis arenosa and Plantago lanceolata grown in metal-contaminated and non-contaminated soils. The activities of guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the levels of antioxidants such as glutathione, proline and non-protein thiols were measured. Concentrations of the examined metals were several to thousands of times lower in the potentially bioavailable fraction than in the acid-extracted fraction of the soil. Similar mode of antioxidant responses in plant leaves of metalliferous populations indicates the tolerance of plants towards heavy metals. However POD and GSHt had a particularly strong role in defense reactions, as their increase was the most common reaction to heavy metal contamination.The levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in the leaves of C. arenosa better reflected metal concentrations in the metalliferous and non-metalliferous soil than the determined metal concentrations in P. lanceolata. Bioaccumulated Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations were above or in the ranges mentioned as toxic for plant tissues and therefore the studied plants have potential for use in phytostabilization. PMID:24085602

Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Ptasi?ski, Bart?omiej; Kita, Andrzej

2013-11-01

253

Growth, respiration and nutrient acquisition by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and its host plant Plantago lanceolata in cooled soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although plant phosphate uptake is reduced by low soil temperature, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are responsible for P uptake in many plants. We investigated growth and carbon allocation of the AM fungus Glomus mosseae and a host plant (Plantago lanceolata) under reduced soil temperature. Plants were grown in compartmented microcosm units to determine the impact on both fungus and roots of a constant 2.7 °C reduction in soil temperature for 16 d. C allocation was measured using two (13)CO(2) pulse labels. Although root growth was reduced by cooling, AM colonization, growth and respiration of the extraradical mycelium (ERM) and allocation of assimilated (13)C to the ERM were all unaffected; the frequency of arbuscules increased. In contrast, root respiration and (13)C content and plant P and Zn content were all reduced by cooling. Cooling had less effect on N and K, and none on Ca and Mg content. The AM fungus G. mosseae was more able to sustain activity in cooled soil than were the roots of P. lanceolata, and so enhanced plant P content under a realistic degree of soil cooling that reduced plant growth. AM fungi may therefore be an effective means to promote plant nutrition under low soil temperatures. PMID:22070553

Karasawa, T; Hodge, A; Fitter, A H

2012-04-01

254

Economics of short-rotation woody crops plantation at Amana, Iowa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on a 21 ha energy plantation of silver maple (Acer saccharinum) established on an old-field bottomland site near Amana, IA. The project started in 1988 and sponsored by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, (US Dept. of Energy), is a 6 year cooperative effort of the Amana Society, Department of Forestry, ISU, and the Iowa Dept. of Natural Resources. The objective is to accurately estimate biomass yields and costs of growing wood for energy in a short-rotation, close spacing system under operational conditions. Research is being conducted on spacing rotation, fertilization, groundwater quality, and improved seedlings. A detailed cost accounting system was established to accurately record time and cost data by activity. Establishment costs (rent, site preparation, tree planting) and initial (2 year) cultural management costs (herbicide and mowing) total $1,304/ha. Cost proportions for rent, site preparation, and planting are 11%, 18.2%, and 59.4%, respectively. Cultural management costs incurred through 1990 total $148/ha

255

Optimized wood manufacturing with main focus on wood drying  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Optimization is performed on two applications from woodmanufacturing, with the main focus on wood drying. As anintroductory study of optimization, the design of a modernracing ski is investigated. The skating ski, which is partlybuilt up by wood, is optimized against maximum stiffness withthe restriction of a limited upper weight. Wood drying is treated as an optimization problem. The totaldrying time is minimized, at the same time as restrictions onmoisture content, stresses and deformations...

Carlsson, Peter

2000-01-01

256

Below-ground biomass production and allometric relationships of eucalyptus coppice plantation in the central highlands of Madagascar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Short rotations of Eucalyptus plantations under coppice regime are extensively managed for wood production in Madagascar. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass production and partitioning and their potential in terms of carbon sequestration. If above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on established allometric relations, below-ground (BGB) estimates are much less common. The aim of this work was to develop allometric equations to estimate biomass of these plantations, mainly for the root components. Data from 9 Eucalyptus robusta stands (47–87 years of plantation age, 3–5 years of coppice-shoot age) were collected and analyzed. Biomass of 3 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weight of AGB components (leaves, branches and stems) were estimated as a function of basal area of all shoots per stump and dry weight for BGB components (mainly stump, coarse root (CR) and medium root (MR)) were estimated as a function of stump circumference. Biomass was then computed using allometric equations from stand inventory data. Stand biomass ranged from 102 to 130 Mg ha?1 with more than 77% contained in the BGB components. The highest dry weight was allocated in the stump and in the CR (51% and 42% respectively) for BGB parts and in the stem (69%) for AGB part. Allometric relationships developed herein could be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations which present similar stand density and growing conditions; anyhow, more is needed to be investigated in understanding biomass production and partitioning over time for this kind of forest ecosystem. -- Highlights: ? We studied the potential of old eucalyptus coppices in Madagascar to mitigate global warming. ? Biomass measurement, mainly for below-ground BGB (stump, coarse-medium-and fine roots) was provided. ? BGB allometry relationships for short rotation forestry under coppice were established. ? BGB were found to be important with their 102-130MgC ha-1 (<77% of the C in the studied ecosystem). ? Importance of the study in a country like Madagascar for developing CDM and REDD activities.

257

L’Habitation Beauséjour : une plantation martiniquaise remarquable et pérenne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aux Antilles françaises les anciennes propriétés de colons ne se nomment pas plantations mais « habitations », espace et mode de vie étant différents de ceux d’Amérique Latine, du Sud des Etats-Unis, ou des Grandes Antilles. L’Habitation Beauséjour, située sur des terres propices aux cultures d’exportation, dans le nord de la Martinique, est un exemple remarquable de domaine colonial qui a conservé une structure traditionnelle avec plantations, bâtiments principaux d’habitation, bâtiments de production, aménagement hydraulique, logements pour le personnel. Au cœur des rapports d’exploitation qu’engendrent les sociétés de type colonial, nous nous trouvons à Beauséjour devant une demeure créole dont la structure n’a pas varié de façon fondamentale au cours de son histoire.In French West-Indies, the old colonial estates are not called plantations, but “habitations”, because the geographic space as well as the way of life differed here from the vast plantations of Latin America, Southern United States and Greater Antilles. The « Habitation Beauséjour » situated on land that is good for growing export crops, in northern Martinique, is an instructive exemple of colonial estate preserving a traditional structure with plantations, main buildings, production buildings, hydraulic land-scaping, and buildings for housing and use of employees. The « Habitation Beauséjour » is more than many others a Creole estate with a persistent structure that has remained unchanged over its history and through the change due to the end of the exploitive relations generated by colonial societies.

Laurent-Christian Ursulet

2012-04-01

258

Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (Wc; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (Wa) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha-1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha-1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

259

Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

260

European wood-fuel trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
261

MECHANICALLY-INDUCED WOOD WELDING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanically-induced vibration welding of flat wood surfaces and rotation welding of wood dowels, without any adhesives, gave strength values comparable to those obtained with adhesive bonded joints. The joints obtained have strength up to structural level but can only be used for interior joinery and furniture. The reasons of the welding effect are presented and explained both at the wood anatomical and molecular level

Antonio Pizzi

2003-01-01

262

Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

263

The wood energy in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The program law fixing the energy policy (POPE Law of the 13 july 2005) fixes an objective of 50% of growth for the renewable heat. As this renewable heat is today generated by the biomass, it seems necessary to adjust all the efforts on this sector. This document proposes to takes stock on the wood energy in France. It presents the wood fuels, an evaluation of the Wood-Energy Plan decided by the ADEME in 2000, the wood heat networks, and some example of installations. (A.L.B.)

264

Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possible contribution of short rotation cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations was investigated using the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) technique. Three poplar species were grown in an SRC plantation for three growing seasons. Above-ground and below-ground biomass increased by 15 to 27 per cent and by 22 to 38 per cent, respectively; light-efficiency also increased as a result. Depletion of inorganic nitrogen from the soil increased after three growing seasons at elevated carbon dioxide levels, but carbon dioxide showed no effect on stem wood density. Stem wood density also differed significantly from species to species. These results confirmed inter-specific differences in biomass production in poplar, and demonstrated that elevated carbon dioxide enhanced biomass productivity and light-use efficiency of a poplar short rotation cultivation ecosystem without changing biomass allocation. The reduction in soil nitrogen raises the possibility of reduced long-term biomass productivity. 60 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

265

Rural Fuel-wood and Poles Research Project in Malawi: a general account  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rural Fuel-wood and Poles Research Project was initiated to provide information about afforestation in the dry silvicultural zones. Plantation forestry in Malawi has concentrated on production of timber, poles, and pulpwood. It is estimated that 90% of Malawi's population of 5.5 million live in rural communities, and that the purely domestic wood requirement is 4.05 cubic m per family (of five) annually. In addition, wood is required for agricultural purposes such as tobacco curing. The remaining indigenous forest cannot meet the demand. There is an urgent need for plantations. Rather than simply planting trees, the aim is to make local communities self-sufficient in forest products. In view of the shortage of land, great emphasis is placed on trying species which have many end-uses-- e.g., poles, fuel-wood, mulch, fodder, and shade--and those which can be grown together with farm crops, a concept known as ''agroforestry.'' Over 20 ha of trials were established at locations in the three regions of the country. Acacia albida allows maize and other farm crops to grow under it, provides good shade and fodder, and--as legume--enriches the soil with nitrogen. Eucalypts were included because most produce straight poles for construction, are drought-hardy, and are rated higher than Gmelina arborea in calorific value, durability, and strength. Another tree favored for its multiple uses is Leucaena leucocephala (Hawaiian giant), but it appears that there is considerable mixture of varieties in the seeds. With the exception of one trial at Bwanje, trials have not included farm crops, but the agroforestry element will be a very important consideration in future trials.

Nkaonja, R.S.W.

1981-01-01

266

Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

2012-11-01

267

Wood Resources of Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to 'The Book of Siamese Plant Names' issued by the Royal Forest Department in 1948, exactly one thousand species of trees in Thailand had been identified before that date. Many more species, including such remarkable ones as Prunus .javanica (T & B) Mig. and Betula anoides Ham., which are typical of the temperate zone, were later added to the list. Of the total number mentioned, 280 species have been registered under the Thai Forest Act as reserved species which cannot be cut without permission from the authority. Timbers of real commercial value, however, are comparatively few in number and those with high production figures for the fiscal year 1966 are listed in Table I where the wood density of each species is also given. Only twenty years ago, very few species superior in natural durability, strength, dimensional stability and working quality were offered in local timber markets, including Bangkok. Recently, as the demand for timbers increased enormously and with the development of wood-consuming industry, nearly all tree species have become valuable. Some soft species, such as Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl., which were previously considered to be unusable, have also become important raw materials for pulp and paper, plywood and particle-board manufacturing. Trees of smaller size are also continuously needed for the fabrication of construction materials

268

Tree culture for a valuable wood production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First, the idea of large spaces, or low density of plantation, is defined from the density of the final stand (80 and 250 stems per ha for broadleaves and conifers) and from the minimal standard densities of plantation given by the French Forest Fund. Largely spaced plantations cannot be imagined without a real tree culture which means a particular attention to establishment and weed competition conditions and the artificial bole formation by prunings. The article analyzes the technical, ecological and socio-economical advantages and constraints of this silviculture: it is necessary to create a homogeneous stand to ensure its future value. Prunings are too very constraining and compulsory with broadleaves as with conifers. The total cost of these plantations analyzed with some standards is nearly the same as in classical plantations, except when protection against deer is necessary. The gain at plantation is lost by overcosts for cleanings and prunings. However, a lot of work can be made by the owner, which decreases the cost. This is the main advantage as well as the conception of a new silviculture close to arboriculture where one takes care of all the trees rather than selecting and suppressing the worst ones. At last these plantations allow intercropping cultures and plantations. 6 refs, 2 tabs

Guitton, J.L.; Ginisty, C. [Centre National du Machinisme Agricole, du Genie Rural, des Eaux et des Forets (CEMAGREF), 63 -Riom (France). Forest Engineering and Management Team

1996-12-31

269

Wireless Group Control System Applied in Plantation Irrigation System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper have a study of the wireless group control system applied in plantation irrigation system. China is a fresh water resources scarce country, agricultural irrigation occupies a large part of the water resources. Because long-term use of traditional farming patterns, low utilization rate of irrigation water, irrigation water wasted is a very serious problem. In order to improve the irrigation efficiency and spare the water resource, based on an example of a large plantation in Shandong Province, this study designs a wireless group control system according to the specific situation of the irrigation wells dispersed. It realizes the communication between the main control room and 13 dispersed wells through wireless network. In the distributed sub-stations, we use the Frequency Converter to drive the lift pump to achieve the precise allocation of irrigation water, the saving effect is significant. Besides, the paper especially introduces the software realization of the wireless communication.

Dong Jie

2013-11-01

270

Preservation of forest wood chips  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

1999-01-01

271

Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Over the last decades, dramatic changes in agricultural practices have led to important modifications of land-use, as well as landscape structure, and to a general biodiversity loss in agro-ecosystems. During 2008 we investigated the small mammal communities of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF stands in Northern Italy. We live-trapped small mammals, during summer and autumn, in different types of SRF stands and surrounding habitats and compared capture rates. We evaluated the influence on small mammals abundance of the distance between the stands and other habitats offering woody or bushy cover. Our results showed that SRF plantations are widely exploited by small mammals, especially in autumn and that capture rate is the highest in “double-row” stands. The distance from woods or other arboriculture stands was negatively correlated to small mammals abundance. We conclude that SRF plantations can be considered a suitable habitat for small mammals and may work as a “corridor habitat” between fragmented patches of suitable habitats.
Riassunto Uso degli impianti a turno breve da parte dei micrommamiferi, in relazione alla loro struttura e isolamento Negli ultimi decenni profondi cambiamenti nelle pratiche agricole hanno causato modifiche nella tipologia di uso dei terreni, così come nella struttura del paesaggio, che hanno portato a una generale perdita di biodiversità negli agroecosistemi. Nel corso del 2008 abbiamo studiato le comunità di micromammiferi nelle piantagioni di pioppo per la produzione di biomassa (SRF nel Nord Italia. Con l’uso di live-traps abbiamo effettuato due sessioni di cattura, una estiva e una autunnale, nei diversi tipi di impianto delle SRF e negli ambienti circostanti, per comparare le frequenze di cattura. Abbiamo quindi analizzato l’influenza che la distanza tra i diversi ambienti con copertura arborea ha sull’abbondanza dei micromammiferi. Dal nostro studio è emerso che le SRF sono largamente sfruttate dai micromammiferi, soprattutto in autunno e che il successo di cattura è massimo negli impianti a file binate. L’abbondanza dei micromammiferi è risultata inversamente correlata alla distanza dagli ambienti che offrono copertura, come boschi o altri impianti di arboricoltura. I risultati hanno mostrato che le SRF possono considerarsi un ambiente idoneo per i micromammiferi, ed esse potrebbero funzionare da habitat di collegamento tra i frammenti di altri habitat utilizzati dai micromammiferi.

doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4443

Marta Giordano

2010-06-01

272

Nitrogen deposition enhances carbon sequestration by plantations in northern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen (N) deposition and its ecological effects on forest ecosystems have received global attention. Plantations play an important role in mitigating climate change through assimilating atmospheric CO2. However, the mechanisms by which increasing N additions affect net ecosystem production (NEP) of plantations remain poorly understood. A field experiment was initialized in May 2009, which incorporated additions of four rates of N (control (no N addition), low-N (5 g N m?² yr?¹), medium-N (10 g N m?² yr?¹), and high-N (15 g N m?² yr?¹) at the Saihanba Forestry Center, Hebei Province, northern China, a locality that contains the largest area of plantations in China. Net primary production (NPP), soil respiration, and its autotrophic and heterotrophic components were measured. Plant tissue carbon (C) and N concentrations (including foliage, litter, and fine roots), microbial biomass, microbial community composition, extracellular enzyme activities, and soil pH were also measured. N addition significantly increased NPP, which was associated with increased litter N concentrations. Autotrophic respiration (AR) increased but heterotrophic respiration (HR) decreased in the high N compared with the medium N plots, although the HR in high and medium N plots did not significantly differ from that in the control. The increased AR may derive from mycorrhizal respiration and rhizospheric microbial respiration, not live root respiration, because fine root biomass and N concentrations showed no significant differences. Although the HR was significantly suppressed in the high-N plots, soil microbial biomass, composition, or activity of extracellular enzymes were not significantly changed. Reduced pH with fertilization also could not explain the pattern of HR. The reduction of HR may be related to altered microbial C use efficiency. NEP was significantly enhanced by N addition, from 149 to 426.6 g C m?² yr?¹. Short-term N addition may significantly enhance the role of plantations as an important C sink. PMID:24498416

Du, Zhihong; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Wenjing; Zeng, Hui

2014-01-01

273

A recalcitrant plantation colony : Dominica, 1880-1946  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study of the class and gender dialectics in Dominica during one of its boom-bust cycles of plantation economy. This cycle encompassed the state sponsorship and rise and decline of the lime industry and planter class; the subsequent coming into prominence on the peasantry in Dominica's political economy and in Colonial Office policy; the masculinist recoding of peasant proprietorship and production forms; and shifting roles and agency of women.

Cecilia Green

1999-07-01

274

Net Primary Production of Chinese Arborvitae Plantations under Different Densities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, we measure the distribution of carbon pools and component fluxes of Net Primary Production (NPP) in an Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) plantation in Beijing from 2009 to 2010. At 22 years old, the plots were reduced from 5900 to 4100 and 3000 trees/ha in three replicates. Results shown that aboveground biomass was highest in the N4100 treatment plots, lowest in the N3000 treatment and intermediate in the unthinned control plots. Annual net biomass increm...

Liang, F.; Jia, Z. K.; Ma, L. Y.; Duan, J.

2013-01-01

275

Vanuatu’s largest coconut plantation goes organic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vanuatu is a cluster of 83 tropical islands in the Pacific Ocean, 1800 km north east of Australia. Over 80% of the population are engaged in agriculture. In 2012, Vanuatu reported 2664 hectares of organic agriculture but this is set to double. Australia’s leading organic certifier, Biological Farmers of Australia (BFA), reports that Vanuatu’s largest coconut grove, the 1550 hectare Plantation Russet du Vanuatu is converting to organic. Also in conversion to organic is the community grower...

Paull, John

2013-01-01

276

Forest Floor Nutrient Dynamics in Chestnut Plantation Ecosystems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nutrient content and detrital biomass in the forest floor of a mature chestnut plantation at Karies (Agio Oros mountain, Athos peninsula, northern Greece was measured in autumn of the year 2010. These measurements were compared to their expected values (bibliography based values. All nutrients storage and organic matter were fairly similar, even though measurements in this study were slightly higher than expected.

Kyriaki Kitikidou

2012-02-01

277

ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD  

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Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 ?m, and 7.1 ?m, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70°C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

Ahmad Jahan Latibari,

2011-11-01

278

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

da Silva, Marliane de Cassia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2014-01-01

279

Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P cyclone damage after the Cyclone Nargis. This may reduce future human loss by cyclones and also improve the life of local people by increasing timber resources and environmental services.

Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

2011-12-01

280

Accumulation of Pb, Cd and Zn from contaminated soil to various plants and evaluation of soil remediation with indicator plant (Plantago lanceolata L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accumulation of cadmium, lead, and zinc by different major cultivated plants from soils contaminated with heavy metals, is presented. The vegetables, crops, and the indicator plant narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) were used in a field experiment including 3 areas with different levels of pollution. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were observed in edible green parts of vegetables (endive, spinach, lettuce) and roots (carrot, red beet, radish). The heavy metal content in leguminous plants (pods and seeds) was very low compared to high soil concentrations. Wheat and maize showed lower concentrations in grains and kernels than in green parts. Lime and vermiculite were used for reduction of Cd availability to plants in polluted soil. The Cd concentration decreased in the narrow leaf plantain in the presence of both lime and vermiculite in acid soil. In the higher-pH soil the Cd availability to spinach was greatly reduced in the presence of vermiculite

Zupan, M.; Lobnik, F.; Kadunc, V. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Agronomy Dept., Center for Soil and Environmental Science; Hudnik, V. [National Institute of Chemistry Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

1997-12-31

 
 
 
 
281

FORMULATION OF OIL CONTAINING PLUCHEA LANCEOLATA EXTRACT OBTAINED THROUGH DIFFERENT ORGANIC SOLVENTS AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY BY TOPICAL APPLICATION  

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Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata has been used in massage oil as well as in traditional ayurveda as a potent pain reliever. The traditional Method of obtaining oil is simply based on taking water as the medium for extraction. The water extract obtained is then boiled with oil, till the water is completely evaporated. Here, our aim is to replace water by different organic solvents and obtain oil which has much better efficacy than the traditionally extracted oil. The idea here is to obtain more efficacious oil than the marketed sample which is majorly extracted using water as solvent. Here, the different organic solvents used are methanol, ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform. The oil obtained was checked for its anti-inflammatory activity with the carrageenan induced rat paw edema. The prepared oil was compared with the marketed sample of mahanarayan oil. The ethanolic extract has showed to be having high extract yield in literature.

Killol S. Chokshi et al

2012-10-01

282

Working group on short rotation forestry: a study on the nutrient contents of young acacia plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data are reported from a 4-year-old fertilized plantation of A. dealbata in Kakegawa district, Shizuoka, from 5-year-old fertilized plantations of A. dealbata and A. mollissima in Saijo district, Ehime, and from 5-year-old fertilized and non- fertilized plantations of A. mearnsii in Minamata district, Kumamoto. Nitrogen concentrations in all leaves were greater than 2.5%, much higher than those found in Cryptomeria japonica. P and K concentrations in leaves were similar in the 2 genera but N:P and K:P ratios were higher in Acacia than in Cryptomeria. Absorption rates of nitrogen in the fertilized A. mearnsii plantation in Minamata exceeded 200% indicating increased utilization of natural nitrogen by fertilized trees. Nitrogen contents of 4-5 year old plantations were 250-660 kg/hectare, similar to those of mature Cryptomeria plantations, but P contents were less.

1979-01-01

283

Food preferences of the rubber plantation litter beetle, Luprops tristis, a nuisance pest in rubber tree plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Massive invasion of the litter dwelling beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), numbering about 0.5 to 4 million per residential building following summer showers, and their prolonged stay in a state of dormancy, make them an extreme nuisance in rubber tree plantation belts of the Western Ghats in south India. Food preference of post-dormancy adults, larvae and teneral adults stages towards tender, mature and senescent leaves were assessed in three choice and no choice leaf disc tests. All stages have strong preference towards fallen tender leaves and lowest preference towards senescent leaves indicating that leaf age is a major attribute determining food selection and food preference of L. tristis. Ready availability of the preferred, prematurely fallen, tender rubber tree leaves as a food resource is suggested as being responsible for the exceptionally high abundance of L. tristis in rubber tree plantation belts. PMID:20050783

Sabu, Thomas K; Vinod, K V

2009-01-01

284

Control of termites in tea (Camellia sinensis L(0) Kuntz) plantations of Barak Valley, Assam, (India)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Termites cause serious damage to tea plantations in Barak Valley, Assam (India) especially during the dry season (i.e. September-March). Tea plantations in the southwest facing slopes are worst affected possibly due to poor soil moisture and shade. Termites also cause considerable damage to the vegetation growing in and around tea plantations. Both chemical and phytopesticides were effective for the control of termites. Among chemical pesticides, endosulphan, chloropyriphos and phorate were e...

Dutta, B. K.; Bhattacharjee, P. C.

2005-01-01

285

Way to Measure the Concept Precarious Working Conditions in Oil Palm Plantations  

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Full Text Available Oil palm plantations are the backbone of the Malaysian economy, since day immemorial. When you look intothe past, the workers in the oil palm plantations were dominated by Indian and Chinese communities. Later dueto the sigma associate with oil palm plantations jobs viz., dirty, dangerous and distance, the Indians and Chineseworkers moved away from the oil palm work and they were replaced by Indonesians and Philippines. Theseforeign workers whom having the legal and illegal status under enforcement in Malaysia, have been living inremotely located inhabitations engaging in ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ wise oil palm plantations. Though thelarger oil palm plantation companies ensure minimum living and working conditions for the foreign workers,vastly located small holding plantations never follow such minimum and fair working environment. Theseconditions to be correlated with the term “precarious working conditions’ in small holding oil palm plantations.Due to lack of availability of the locals to engage in oil palm work, the plantations have to depend on foreignworkers do all these ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ workers in oil palm plantations. Except a few literatureavailable from Amnesty international and local NGOs, there is less evidence to prove the existence of suchexploitative working conditions in oil palm plantations. In order to explore precarious working conditions in oilpalm plantations thus a qualitative research study is conducted in the Sabah region of the Eastern Part ofMalaysia. The study followed, triangulation method through interviews with the migrated foreign workers, (legaland illegal, focus group discussions and Delphi technique with the identification of experts in the field to arriveat the factors and categories related to the theme ‘precarious working conditions’ in oil palm plantations. Theoutcome of the study fixes the variables that need to be concentrated for a higher level research throughquantitative research.

Dileep Kumar M.

2014-10-01

286

Chipper Woods Bird Observatory  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chipper Woods Bird Observatory (CWBO) is a non-profit organization committed to bringing "good science to the conservation of birds and their habitats through scientific research, scientific training and educational programs designed for all age groups." The CWBO website contains a nice variety of bird information and images for budding birders. The siteâÂÂs Bird Photos section provides good quality images and information for an extensive selection of birds including the Peregrine Falcon, Barn Swallow, Tufted Titmouse, Scarlet Tanager, and many more. Various bird-related topics -â such as migrating geese, owl pellets, West Nile Virus, and Bald Eagle Restoration -â are covered as well. The CWBO website contains checklists for Indiana birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. The site also offers a banding summary, newsletter, list of publications, and short quiz for kids. The CWBO site is available in Spanish and English.

287

Rufus Woods Photographs  

Science.gov (United States)

The photographer Rufus Woods documented the vast transformation of the area around what became the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State. This massive project was not without controversy, and many people were upset that they had to move their worldly possessions and homes for the construction of this massive dam. North central Washington was dramatically changed, and this digital collection provides some remarkable evidence of the process. Staff members at the Central Washington University Libraries completed the collection, and there are several hundred photographs in this archive. Visitors can browse through the items by date or by title, and they can also perform more detailed searches as well. Some of the highlights here include visitors parading across the top of the completed dam, power transmission towers, and some of the buildings that would later be swept under the water as the reservoir behind the dam filled up.

288

Cooling of wood briquettes  

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Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

Adži? Miroljub M.

2013-01-01

289

National wood in dealings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article, the authors analyze the management of state enterprise Forests of the Slovak Republic. The firm manages long-term loss. Economic losses are caused mainly because the company is controlled by government political parties. There has also been found that the in the branch plant in Liptovsky Hradok foresters are missing twenty thousand cubic meters of timber worth in excess of one million Euros. Only in this race bad debts amounted to four million Euros. In 2007 timber production reached more than 3.9 million m3. Plant is already preparing a recovery plan. It has increased the production of wood chips. The company produces just over one hundred thousand tons annually chips yet. In the future it wants to produce five hundred thousand.

290

Positive adjacency effects mediated by seed disperser birds in pine plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the consequences of adjacent elements for a given patch, through their effects on zoochorous dispersion by frugivorous birds. The case study consists of pine plantations (the focal patch) adjacent to other patches of native vegetation (mixed patches of native forest and shrublands), and/or pine plantations. Our hypothesis is that input of native woody species propagules generated by frugivorous birds within plantations strongly depends on the nature of the surrounding vegetation. To test this hypothesis, we studied frugivorous-bird abundance, seed dispersion, and seedling establishment in nine pine plantation plots in contact with patches of native vegetation. To quantify adjacency arrangement effects, we used the percentage of common border between a patch and each of its adjacent elements. Frugivorous bird occurrence in pine plantations is influenced by the adjacent vegetation: the greater the contact with native vegetation patches, the more abundant were the frugivorous birds within pine plantations. Furthermore, frugivorous birds introduce into plantations the seeds of a large sample of native fleshy-fruited species. The results confirm the hypothesis that zoochorous seed rain is strongly determined by the kind of vegetation surrounding a given plantation. This finding underlines the importance of the composition of the mosaic surrounding plantations and the availability of mobile link species as key landscape features conditioning passive restoration processes. PMID:20597289

Zamora, Regino; Hódar, José Antonio; Matías, Luís; Mendoza, Irene

2010-06-01

291

The most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and Scots pine plantations in Serbia  

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Full Text Available In Austrian pine plantations in Serbia, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Mycosphaerella pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cenangium ferruginosum, Germmeniella abietina (in the mountain regions and occasionally Armillaria spp., Lophodermium spp. (seditiosum, conigenum, pinastri and Cyclaneusma niveum. In Scots pine plantations, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Heterobasidion annosum (especially in plantations on sandy soils, Armillaria spp, Lophodermium seditiosum, L. pinastri, Cyclaneusma minus and Sphaeropsis sapinea. Damage caused by rust fungi (Coleosporium sennecionis, Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum occurs less frequently. In mountainous regions in Scots pine plantations, great damage is caused by Phacidium infestans, Lophodermella sulcigena and Gremmeniella abietina.

Karadži? Dragan

2008-01-01

292

Are pine plantations valid tools for restoring Mediterranean forests? An assessment along abiotic and biotic gradients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecological impacts of forest plantations are a focus of intense debate, from studies that consider plantations as "biological deserts" to studies showing positive effects on plant diversity and dynamics. This lack of consensus might be influenced by the scarcity of studies that examine how the ecological characteristics of plantations vary along abiotic and biotic gradients. Here we conducted a large-scale assessment of plant regeneration and diversity in plantations of southern Spain. Tree seedling and sapling density, plant species richness, and Shannon's (H') diversity index were analyzed in 442 pine plantation plots covering a wide gradient of climatic conditions, stand density, and distance to natural forests that act as seed sources. Pronounced variation in regeneration and diversity was found in plantation understories along the gradients explored. Low- to mid-altitude plantations showed a diverse and abundant seedling bank dominated by Quercus ilex, whereas high-altitude plantations showed a virtually monospecific seeding bank of Pinus sylvestris. Regeneration was null in plantations with stand densities exceeding 1500 pines/ha. Moderate plantation densities (500-1000 pines/ha) promoted recruitment in comparison to low or null canopy cover, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions. Quercus ilex recruitment diminished exponentially with distance to the nearest Q. ilex forest. Richness and H' index values showed a hump-shaped distribution along the altitudinal and radiation gradients and decreased monotonically along the stand density gradient. From a management perspective, different strategies will be necessary depending on where a plantation lies along the gradients explored. Active management will be required in high-density plantations with arrested succession and low diversity. Thinning could redirect plantations toward more natural densities where facilitation predominates. Passive management might be recommended for low- to moderate-density plantations with active successional dynamics (e.g., toward oak or pine-oak forests at low to mid altitudes). Enrichment planting will be required to overcome seed limitation, especially in plantations far from natural forests. We conclude that plantations should be perceived as dynamic systems where successional trajectories and diversity levels are determined by abiotic constraints, complex balances of competitive and facilitative interactions, the spatial configuration of native seed sources, and species life-history traits. PMID:20014583

Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Zavala, Miguel A; Bonet, Francisco J; Zamora, Regino

2009-12-01

293

RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF WOOD AND WOOD BASED MATERIALS  

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Full Text Available The wood, as well as other construction materials, presents changes in this stiffness and strength when submitted to a long time loading. This phenomenon is important in the analyses resistance capacity of structural materials. Mechanically, the wood behaves as aviscous-elastic solid. However, over time, the structural elements submitted to permanent or cyclic loading presents some deformation, which denotes a viscous-elastic behavior. This characteristic is influenced mainly on the intensity and duration of loading. In this study a review of rheological phenomenon is presented, showing up the causes and effects for a better understanding, which is essential for the appropriate and efficient use of the wood and wood composites as structural materials.

Rafael Rodolfo de Melo

2010-05-01

294

Transcriptional regulation in wood formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood (i.e. xylem tissue) in trees is mainly composed of two types of cells, fibres and tracheary elements. Recent molecular studies of various trees, as well as the non-tree species Arabidopsis thaliana and Zinnia elegans, have revealed coordinated gene expression during differentiation of these cells in wood and the presence of several transcription factors that might govern the complex networks of transcriptional regulation. This article reviews recent findings concerning the regulation of genes by transcription factors involved in wood formation such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF), CLASS III HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIPIII), KANADI (KAN), MYB and NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC). PMID:17224301

Demura, Taku; Fukuda, Hiroo

2007-02-01

295

Wood-pellets - Quality guaranteed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses how wood-pellets and wood-pellet-fired heating systems have, since 1998, captured an increasing portion of the Swiss heating market. In particular, Swiss standards designed to provide assured quality of the pellets are discussed that are based on Austrian standards. The particular requirements placed on the pellets with regard to their chemical composition, physical properties and their heating characteristics are listed. Market developments and the potential for this fuel are discussed. A short interview with Samuel Jenni from the Energy-Wood Centre in Diegten, Switzerland, completes the article

296

Advances in the phytochemistry of Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata: Extraction and quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity / Avances en la fitoquímica de Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata: Extracción y cuantificación de los compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea tanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina iradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h), el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de v [...] arios órganos de C. aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata. Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH•+ y ABTS•+) y el de poder reductor del fosfomolibdeno. La concentración mas alta de compuestos fenólicos se presentó en las flores de C. lanceolata (62.79±0.06 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico (EAG)/g pesos seco (PS); mientras que la de flavonoides en las hojas de C. aequipetala (196.83±2.9 mg equivalentes de quercetina (EQ)/g PS). Las hojas de C. aequipetala var. hispida presentaron la actividad de captura de radicales libres DPPH (173.33±2.12 ?mol trolox/g PS), las flores de C. aequipetala la de captura de radicales libres ABTS (541.10±2.32 ?mol trolox/g PS) mientras que el poder reductor más alto se observó en las hojas de C. aequipetala (1186.25±3.17 ?mol trolox/g PS). Se encontró una correlación positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes. El análisis químico cualitativo mediante TLC indicó la prescencia del flavonoide quercetina 3-3-D-glucosido en todas las especies de Cuphea y de otros flavonoides menos polares en C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. es una fuente natural de compuestos fenólicos. Abstract in english Cuphea aequipetala and Cuphea lanceolata native to Mexico are used in folk medicine. Extraction procedure standardization was performed and the amount of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids was determined in methanol extracts (obtained by stirring for 24 h) from various organs of C. aequipetala, [...] C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata. The antioxidant properties of extracts were compared using in vitro free radical-scavenging assays (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•+) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+)) and the reducing power of phosphomolybdenum (PPM). A significant correlation was found between antioxidant activity and the amount of antioxidant components. Flowers of C. lanceolata showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (62.79±0.05 mg gallic acid equivalfnts (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) and the highest content of flavonoids was found in leaves of C. aequipetala (196.83±2.9 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g DW). The highest free radical-scavenging fctivity against DPPH•+ was found in -eaves of C. aeqrnpetala var. hispida (173.33±2.12 ?mol trolox/g DW), for ABTS- in flowers ol C. aequipetala (541.10±2.32 ?mol trolox/g DW) and for 5PM in leaves oS C. aequipetala (1186.25±3.17 ?mol trolox/g DW). Qualitative analysis indicated the presence of the flavonoid quercetin 3-?-D-glucoside in all the species of Cuphea amongst other less polar flavonoids in C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. are prospective sources of phenolic compounds.

B.A., Cardenas-Sandoval; A.R., López-Laredo; B.P., Martínez-Bonfil; K., Bermúdez-Torres; G., Trejo-Tapia.

2012-12-01

297

Advances in the phytochemistry of Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata: Extraction and quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity / Avances en la fitoquímica de Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata: Extracción y cuantificación de los compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea tanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina iradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h), el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de v [...] arios órganos de C. aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata. Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH•+ y ABTS•+) y el de poder reductor del fosfomolibdeno. La concentración mas alta de compuestos fenólicos se presentó en las flores de C. lanceolata (62.79±0.06 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico (EAG)/g pesos seco (PS); mientras que la de flavonoides en las hojas de C. aequipetala (196.83±2.9 mg equivalentes de quercetina (EQ)/g PS). Las hojas de C. aequipetala var. hispida presentaron la actividad de captura de radicales libres DPPH (173.33±2.12 ?mol trolox/g PS), las flores de C. aequipetala la de captura de radicales libres ABTS (541.10±2.32 ?mol trolox/g PS) mientras que el poder reductor más alto se observó en las hojas de C. aequipetala (1186.25±3.17 ?mol trolox/g PS). Se encontró una correlación positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes. El análisis químico cualitativo mediante TLC indicó la prescencia del flavonoide quercetina 3-3-D-glucosido en todas las especies de Cuphea y de otros flavonoides menos polares en C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. es una fuente natural de compuestos fenólicos. Abstract in english Cuphea aequipetala and Cuphea lanceolata native to Mexico are used in folk medicine. Extraction procedure standardization was performed and the amount of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids was determined in methanol extracts (obtained by stirring for 24 h) from various organs of C. aequipetala, [...] C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata. The antioxidant properties of extracts were compared using in vitro free radical-scavenging assays (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•+) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+)) and the reducing power of phosphomolybdenum (PPM). A significant correlation was found between antioxidant activity and the amount of antioxidant components. Flowers of C. lanceolata showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (62.79±0.05 mg gallic acid equivalfnts (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) and the highest content of flavonoids was found in leaves of C. aequipetala (196.83±2.9 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g DW). The highest free radical-scavenging fctivity against DPPH•+ was found in -eaves of C. aeqrnpetala var. hispida (173.33±2.12 ?mol trolox/g DW), for ABTS- in flowers ol C. aequipetala (541.10±2.32 ?mol trolox/g DW) and for 5PM in leaves oS C. aequipetala (1186.25±3.17 ?mol trolox/g DW). Qualitative analysis indicated the presence of the flavonoid quercetin 3-?-D-glucoside in all the species of Cuphea amongst other less polar flavonoids in C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. are prospective sources of phenolic compounds.

B.A., Cardenas-Sandoval; A.R., López-Laredo; B.P., Martínez-Bonfil; K., Bermúdez-Torres; G., Trejo-Tapia.

298

FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

PURCELL, FRANK X.

299

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L., extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L., sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2 hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates para el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos.

Milena A Ferrari Mateus

2013-04-01

300

Drumlea and Mullan Woods ASSI  

...woodcock, collard dove, woodpigeon, cuckoo, meadow pipit, pied wagtail, wren, robin, fieldfare, blackbird, song thrush, mistle thrush, sedge warbler, wood warbler, chiffchaff, willow warbler, goldcrest, long-tailed tit,...

 
 
 
 
301

Specific Heat Capacity of Wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Specifi c heat capacity is defi ned as the amount of heat that a kilogram of a given substance is required to absorb in order to increase its temperature by one degree. The temperature of a given substance can change either at constant pressure or at constant volume, so we differentiate between specifi c heat capacity at constant pressure (cp and specifi c heat capacity at constant volume (cv. When doing research into the heat propertiesof wood, the quantity that most frequently remains constant is pressure, thus restricting our study on specifi c heat capacity to cp. This paper provides an overview of the research that has so far been carried out into the specifi c heat capacity of wood depending on the temperature and moisture content. An analytical and graphical comparison has been performed of the results published in the Wood Industry Manual (1967 (DIP, Wood Handbook (1999 (WH and work published by Deliiski (2012 (DEL.

Kristijan Radmanovi?

2014-06-01

302

Lowland Wood Pasture and Parkland  

...Squirrel ForumLocal Nature ReservesResearchSurveillance and MonitoringNatural Heritage...flowering herbs such as wood anemone, bluebell, primrose and ramsons (wild garlic).Places to visitSome good examples...

303

Radiation disinfestation of wood products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Infestation of wood by insects, fungi and nematodes has been, for decades, a major challenge to trade in wood products around the world. The damage that can be inflicted on plants and animals through the introduction of unwanted pests into importing regions can reach hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Now that Methyl Bromide's days appear to be numbered, alternative methods of pest eradication in wood products for export must be sought at once, so as to avoid last minute scrambling by the industry when Methyl Bromide becomes finally and irreversibly unavailable. Other existing technologies are either costly (e.g. kiln drying) or still under development (e.g. RF vacuum drying and RF steam sterilization). This paper examines a variety of risk mitigation methods and presents an outline of a radiation processing system for wood disinfestation

304

Residential wood-fired cogeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Market opportunities and technologies for wood-fired cogeneration in the order of 2kW electrical output were examined. Since some 200,000 to 400,000 dwellings using wood as the principal heating source in Canada are located in remote and off-grid areas, they constitute an obvious market for wood-fired cogeneration systems. This is assuming that affordability, efficiency and reliability could be demonstrated. Stirling or heat engines, utilizing wood-based steam generation and internal combustion engines fueled by wood gas from gasification processes, were the technologies examined. Electric generation options considered included conventional and linear induction generators, DC generators and switched reluctance technology. A steam boiler feeding a piston engine or turbine was considered to be the most promising configuration. Promising technologies for commercialization were identified and barriers to commercialization were discussed. Two scenarios, one for a typical household, and one for a more advanced sustainable household, were posited for future development, detailed design and laboratory testing of prototypes. A directory of organizations and individuals involved in small scale cogeneration and wood combustion was appended. Refs., figs.

NONE

1996-07-01

305

Assessment of radiation health risk in Cameron Highlands tea plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to the natural radiation is quite common except that the level varies from one place to another. The level of radiation will depend on the type of rocks and soil on that particular area, where the granitic rocks tend to contribute more to the background radiation. The present study was conducted in two of the Tea Plantations in Cameron Highlands, where it has been in operation for more than 50 years. The landscape is hilly type and the workers have to pluck the tea leaves manually. Practically, there are spending long hours in the plantation area. There were thirteen locations for soil sampling and surface dose in-situ measurement. Soil samples were taken back to the UiTM laboratory in Shah Alam for further analysis. Samples were clean, dried, ground and sieve to obtain homogenous samples before analysis. Samples were packed in a plastic container around 400 g, sealed and leave it for 3 weeks to allow radionuclides to reach secular equilibrium, before counting using gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector. The spectrum was analysed using gamma vision software to calculate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K. From the radium equivalent values, one can estimate the external hazard index, the absorb dose and cumulative effective dose received by the person who spend their time in the study area. The results show the external hazard index more than one for one of the tea plantation, but the cumulative effective dose tation, but the cumulative effective dose is still below the recommended level. (author)

306

Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and agroforests, streams draining oil palm show greater biological activity, as indicated by elevated pH and reduced dissolved oxygen levels. Moreover, turbidity is elevated in young oil palm plantations watersheds compared to forest, agroforest, and old oil palm land covers. We discuss the implications of these findings for communities and ecosystems.

Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

2011-12-01

307

Plantation English in America: Nonstandard Varieties and the Quest for Educational Equity  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author shares his experience growing up speaking African American Vernacular English in school and his observations about nonstandard American plantation English. The author's amateur linguistic observations about nonstandard American plantation English gave rise to immediate dialect comparisons between African American…

Baugh, John

2007-01-01

308

Short-rotation eucalypt plantations in Brazil: Social and environmental issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents an overview of the historical and current legislative, social, and environmental aspects of the establishment of large-scale eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The report consolidates the vast experience and knowledge relating to these forest plantation systems and highlights lessons learned and new trends. The overview should prove useful to those interested in comparing or beginning similar endeavors.

Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brasil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

1995-02-01

309

Mapping the expansion and distribution of willow plantations for bioenergy in Sweden: Lessons to be learned about the spread of energy crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Where and when farmers will adopt new energy crops is a key issue for the proper development of a country's energy strategy on renewables based in bioenergy. This paper analyses the spread of willow cultivation for bioenergy in Sweden, during the period 1986-2005, linked to the changes in the policies of promotion of wood-energy crops and to the local economic framework. To perform the study, a geostatistic method based on kernel analysis is applied, in order to identify the spatial grouping patterns of growers and plantations, and the areas where cultivation was successful. The analysis of the resulting figures shows that the development of an infrastructure and a market for willow chips are essential pre-conditions for the development of short rotation coppice for bioenergy. The results of this study confirm that probably the most important factor in the location of willow plantations is the existence of consumers that can guarantee a long-term demand for willow chips. The tools and methods presented, and its analysis, can provide a better understanding of the interactions between the biomass producers, the energy consumers and the different local and national actors. (author)

310

Mapping the expansion and distribution of willow plantations for bioenergy in Sweden: Lessons to be learned about the spread of energy crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Where and when farmers will adopt new energy crops is a key issue for the proper development of a country's energy strategy on renewables based in bioenergy. This paper analyses the spread of willow cultivation for bioenergy in Sweden, during the period 1986-2005, linked to the changes in the policies of promotion of wood-energy crops and to the local economic framework. To perform the study, a geostatistic method based on kernel analysis is applied, in order to identify the spatial grouping patterns of growers and plantations, and the areas where cultivation was successful. The analysis of the resulting figures shows that the development of an infrastructure and a market for willow chips are essential pre-conditions for the development of short rotation coppice for bioenergy. The results of this study confirm that probably the most important factor in the location of willow plantations is the existence of consumers that can guarantee a long-term demand for willow chips. The tools and methods presented, and its analysis, can provide a better understanding of the interactions between the biomass producers, the energy consumers and the different local and national actors. (author)

Mola-Yudego, Blas [University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, PO Box 111, FI 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Gonzalez-Olabarria, Jose Ramon [Centre Tecnologic Forestal de Catalunya, Pujada del Seminari, s/n. 25280 Solsona (Lleida) (Spain)

2010-04-15

311

STRUCTURE OF SOIL FOOD WEB IN SMALLHOLDER COCOA PLANTATION, SOUTH KONAWE DISTRICT, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An understanding of the structure of the soil food web is critical in determining the practices of soil fertility management based on the biological processes in tropical agricultural regions. The objectives of the study were to assess the variation in trophic level biomass and to analyze the dynamics of the energy channels on the increasing age of cocoa plantation. The characteristics of soil food web structure in smallholder cocoa plantation aged 4, 5, 7, 10, and 16 years were analyzed. The results showed that only biomass at the third trophic level increased with plantation age, but not for the biomass at the lower trophic levels. Biomass in all energy channels did not increased as well along with plantation age. We concluded that variation in the soil food web structure was more influenced by biotic factors of macro-arthropods group, such as facilitation, recolonization capabilities and accessibility in the soil habitat of smallholder cocoa plantation.

Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid

2014-02-01

312

Response of soil respiration and ecosystem carbon budget to vegetation removal in Eucalyptus plantations with contrasting ages  

Science.gov (United States)

Reforested plantations have substantial effects on terrestrial carbon cycling due to their large coverage area. Although understory plants are important components of reforested plantations, their effects on ecosystem carbon dynamics remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of vegetation removal/understory removal and tree girdling on soil respiration and ecosystem carbon dynamics in Eucalyptus plantations of South China with contrasting ages (2 and 24 years old). We conducted a field manipulation experiment from 2008 to 2009. Understory removal reduced soil respiration in both plantations, whereas tree girdling decreased soil respiration only in the 2-year-old plantations. The net ecosystem production was approximately three times greater in the 2-year-old plantations (13.4 t C ha-1 yr-1) than in the 24-year-old plantations (4.2 t C h-1 yr-1). The biomass increase of understory plants was 12.6 t ha-1 yr-1 in the 2-year-old plantations and 2.9 t ha-1 yr-1 in the 24-year-old plantations, accounting for 33.9% and 14.1% of the net primary production, respectively. Our findings confirm the ecological importance of understory plants in subtropical plantations based on the 2 years of data. These results also indicate that Eucalyptus plantations in China may be an important carbon sink due to the large plantation area.

Wu, Jianping; Liu, Zhanfeng; Huang, Guomin; Chen, Dima; Zhang, Weixin; Shao, Yuanhu; Wan, Songze; Fu, Shenglei

2014-09-01

313

Response of soil respiration and ecosystem carbon budget to vegetation removal in Eucalyptus plantations with contrasting ages  

Science.gov (United States)

Reforested plantations have substantial effects on terrestrial carbon cycling due to their large coverage area. Although understory plants are important components of reforested plantations, their effects on ecosystem carbon dynamics remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of vegetation removal/understory removal and tree girdling on soil respiration and ecosystem carbon dynamics in Eucalyptus plantations of South China with contrasting ages (2 and 24 years old). We conducted a field manipulation experiment from 2008 to 2009. Understory removal reduced soil respiration in both plantations, whereas tree girdling decreased soil respiration only in the 2-year-old plantations. The net ecosystem production was approximately three times greater in the 2-year-old plantations (13.4?t C ha?1 yr?1) than in the 24-year-old plantations (4.2?t C h?1 yr?1). The biomass increase of understory plants was 12.6?t ha?1 yr?1 in the 2-year-old plantations and 2.9?t ha?1 yr?1 in the 24-year-old plantations, accounting for 33.9% and 14.1% of the net primary production, respectively. Our findings confirm the ecological importance of understory plants in subtropical plantations based on the 2 years of data. These results also indicate that Eucalyptus plantations in China may be an important carbon sink due to the large plantation area. PMID:25179343

Wu, Jianping; Liu, Zhanfeng; Huang, Guomin; Chen, Dima; Zhang, Weixin; Shao, Yuanhu; Wan, Songze; Fu, Shenglei

2014-01-01

314

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the...

Ferrari Mateus, Milena A.; Duarte Rios Faria¹, Cacilda M.; Botelho, Renato V.; Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta; Martins Ferreira, Silvana G.; Zaluski, Welton L.

2013-01-01

315

wood burns down  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new Russian architects appeared. With their own aesthetics.After Pavlov had left Irkutsk, near his house appeared another one, it was not a log house, and its style was glaringly unfriendly. And soon the Fisherman's House burnt down. Not with vexation, but naturally, with smoke and fire. The author of the building next door considers the rebuilding of the lost house unpractical.

Vladimir Bukh

2004-11-01

316

Anatomical changes in Willow Wood Decayed by the brown rot fungus Coriolellus malicola (Basidiomycota) Modificaciones anatómicas en madera de sauce por acción Coriolellus malicola (Aphyllophorales) agente de pudrición castaña  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Argentina, Salix wood is employed mainly in pulp and paper industry. In this country, the brown rotter C oriolellus malicola was found in association with willow plantations. The purpose of this work was to study the anatomical changes caused by C. malicola in willow wood in order to provide information on the effects of brown rot decay in the yield and quality of pulp. Two willow clones were employed: Salix nigra 4 and Salix babylonica x Salix alba cv I 131-25 . Two exposure times were us...

Murace, Mo?nica A.; Luna, Mari?a L.; Keil, Gabriel D.; Cristo?fano, Natalia N.

2006-01-01

317

Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

Hilde, Calvin Patrick

318

Estimating effects of plantation expansion and climate variability on streamflow for catchments in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Plantation forestry is an increasingly important land use in Australia. While plantations can present significant environmental benefits such as salinity and erosion controls, their impact on streamflow needs to be recognized. This study evaluated the impacts of plantation and climate variability on streamflow from catchments in Australia. In total 15 catchments were selected based on the availability of streamflow, meteorological, and plantation information. The catchment areas range from 0.6 to 1136 km2 and represent different climatic conditions and management practices. The Mann-Kendall test was used to estimate trends in the annual streamflow, rainfall, potential evaporation, and runoff ratio. The plantation effect on streamflow was determined with the time-trend analysis method, while the effect of climate variability was calculated using the sensitivity-based approach. All the selected catchments showed reductions in annual streamflow and runoff ratio over the period of the records. The results indicate that plantation expansions accounted for 28% to 106% of the observed total streamflow reductions, while climate variability was responsible for 5% to 80% of the total streamflow reductions. It is evident that both plantation expansions and climate variability contributed to the observed streamflow reductions. In most of the catchments, the effect of plantation expansion on streamflow was more important than that of climate variability and is likely to have exacerbated the effect of climate variability on streamflow. Plantation expansions can reduce streamflow from both small and large catchments as this study demonstrated and the relative streamflow reduction can be linearly related to percentage plantation area in a catchment.

Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Fangfang; Chen, Yun; Dixon, Renee N. M.

2011-12-01

319

Nutrient cycling in a RRIM 600 clone rubber plantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Few reports have been presented on nutrient cycling in rubber tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. This experiment was carried out to evaluate: the effect of K rates on the amount of nutrients transfered to the soil in a 13-year old Hevea brasilensis RRIM 600 clone plantation, nutrient retranslocation from the leaves before falling to the soil, and nutrient loss by dry rubber export. The experiment started in 1998 and potassium was applied at the rates of 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of K2O under the crowns of 40 rubber trees of each plot. Literfall collectors, five per plot, were randomly distributed within the plots under the trees. The accumulated literfall was collected monthly during one year. The coagulated rubber latex from each plot was weighed, and samples were analyzed for nutrient content. Increasing K fertilization rates also increased the K content in leaf literfall. Calcium and N were the most recycled leaf nutrients to the soil via litterfall. Potassium, followed by P were the nutrients with the highest retranslocation rates. Potassium was the most exported nutrient by the harvested rubber, and this amount was higher than that transfered to the soil by the leaf literfall.

Murbach Marcos Roberto

2003-01-01

320

Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development, it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in term of polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province. These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.  

Afrooz Alimohamadi

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01

322

O cultivo da araucária para produção de pinhões como ferramenta para a conservação Plantation of Brazilian pine to nuts production as a conservation tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A madeira da araucária (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze teve grande importância econômica no Brasil, principalmente entre 1930 e 1970. O desmatamento ocasionou a redução drástica do tamanho populacional de araucária e atualmente ela integra a lista de espécies brasileiras ameaçadas de extinção. O objetivo dessa revisão foi apresentar o potencial de geração de renda do cultivo de araucária para produção de pinhões e a consequente conservação da espécie. Segundo o que se observou na literatura, o pinhão pode gerar mais renda que a madeira da araucária, quando são utilizadas técnicas de manejo adequadas. O cultivo da araucária com interesse econômico do pinhão é uma ferramenta eficaz para aumentar os plantios e diminuir a exploração das araucárias remanescentes. É necessário propor estratégias em parceria entre organizações de produtores e coletores, pesquisadores e órgãos governamentais brasileiros para desenvolver e aprimorar técnicas adequadas de manejo, processamento e comercialização do pinhão. The wood of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze had great economic importance in Brazil, mainly between 1930 to 1970. The deforestation caused a drastic reduction in population size of Brazilian pine and currently it integrates the list of Brazilian threatened species. The aim of thisreview was to present the potential of generating income from Brazilian pine plantation for pine nuts production and the consequent species conservation. According to the literature, pine nuts can generate more income than Brazilian pine wood, when used appropriate management techniques. The plantation with economic interest in pine nuts is an effective tool to increase planting and reduce exploitation of the Brazilian pine remaining. It is necessary to propose strategies in partnership among producer and collectors organizations, researchers and Brazilians government agencies to develop and improve management techniques, processing and marketing of the pine nuts.

Moeses Andrigo Danner

2012-12-01

323

Uniformização da cor da madeira jovem de teca pela termorretificação / Color uniformization of the young teak wood by heat treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a uniformidade da cor da madeira de teca (peças contendo cerne e alburno) após a aplicação de tratamentos termorretificadores. A madeira utilizada foi oriunda de árvores jovens (12 anos) provenientes de plantios de diferentes espaçamentos. Amostras de madeira com [...] 150 x 75 x 20 mm foram termorretificadas a 180 e 200 ºC, durante 2h30. As análises colorimétricas foram realizadas com o auxílio de um espectrofotômetro no espaço CIE-L*a*b*. Os tratamentos termorretificadores proporcionaram maior uniformidade às peças de madeira de teca, sendo o tratamento a 200 ºC o mais efetivo, o que demonstra o potencial da termorretificação para a obtenção de produtos de madeira de maior valor agregado. A cor da madeira termorretificada a 180 ºC apresentou maior uniformidade no espaçamento menos adensado, entretanto ele não apresentou efeito na uniformidade da cor da madeira termorretificada a 200 ºC. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the uniformity of the color of the teak wood (pieces containing heartwood and sapwood) after application of heat treatments. The wood was originated from young trees (12 years old) from plantations of different spacings. Wood samples of 150 x 75 x 20 mm were [...] heat treated at 180 and 200 ºC during 2:30 hours. Color analysis were performed by using a spectrophotometer in the CIE-L*a*b* space. Heat treatments provided greater uniformity to the teak wood pieces and the treatment at 200 ºC was the most effective, which demonstrates the potential of heat treatment to obtain wood products of higher added value. The color of the wood heat-treated at 180 ºC had higher uniformity in the least dense spacing; however, it had no effect on color uniformity of the wood heat-treated at 200 ºC.

Juliana de Oliveira, Lopes; Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia; Alexandre Miguel do, Nascimento; João Vicente de Figueiredo, Latorraca.

324

Uniformização da cor da madeira jovem de teca pela termorretificação / Color uniformization of the young teak wood by heat treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a uniformidade da cor da madeira de teca (peças contendo cerne e alburno) após a aplicação de tratamentos termorretificadores. A madeira utilizada foi oriunda de árvores jovens (12 anos) provenientes de plantios de diferentes espaçamentos. Amostras de madeira com [...] 150 x 75 x 20 mm foram termorretificadas a 180 e 200 ºC, durante 2h30. As análises colorimétricas foram realizadas com o auxílio de um espectrofotômetro no espaço CIE-L*a*b*. Os tratamentos termorretificadores proporcionaram maior uniformidade às peças de madeira de teca, sendo o tratamento a 200 ºC o mais efetivo, o que demonstra o potencial da termorretificação para a obtenção de produtos de madeira de maior valor agregado. A cor da madeira termorretificada a 180 ºC apresentou maior uniformidade no espaçamento menos adensado, entretanto ele não apresentou efeito na uniformidade da cor da madeira termorretificada a 200 ºC. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the uniformity of the color of the teak wood (pieces containing heartwood and sapwood) after application of heat treatments. The wood was originated from young trees (12 years old) from plantations of different spacings. Wood samples of 150 x 75 x 20 mm were [...] heat treated at 180 and 200 ºC during 2:30 hours. Color analysis were performed by using a spectrophotometer in the CIE-L*a*b* space. Heat treatments provided greater uniformity to the teak wood pieces and the treatment at 200 ºC was the most effective, which demonstrates the potential of heat treatment to obtain wood products of higher added value. The color of the wood heat-treated at 180 ºC had higher uniformity in the least dense spacing; however, it had no effect on color uniformity of the wood heat-treated at 200 ºC.

Juliana de Oliveira, Lopes; Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia; Alexandre Miguel do, Nascimento; João Vicente de Figueiredo, Latorraca.

2014-06-01

325

WOOD MODIFICATION BY HEAT TREATMENT: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wood heat treatment has increased significantly in the last few years and is still growing as an industrial process to improve some wood properties. The first studies on heat treatment investigated mainly equilibrium mois-ture, dimensional stability, durability and mechanical properties. Mass loss, wettability, wood color, and chemical transformations have been subsequently extensively studied, while recent works focus on quality control, modeling, and study the reasons for the improvements. This review explains the recent interest on the heat treatment of wood and synthesizes the major publications on this subject on wood properties, chemical changes, wood uses, and quality control.

Bruno M. Esteves

2009-02-01

326

Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)

327

Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood  

Science.gov (United States)

A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure.

Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; ?epi?, Mojca

2013-03-01

328

Wood gasification - Top or flop?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article asks the question if wood gasification technology is ripe for the market. This technology can be used for the generation of gas which can in turn be used for the generation of electrical power. Two basic choices that can be made concerning the use of wood energy are discussed - steam generation for steam turbines or the generation of synthetic gas for use in gas turbines, gas engines or in Stirling motors. The processes available for the gasification of wood are listed and discussed. Experience gained in this sector in Switzerland is examined, as are the high costs and difficult amortisation of the installations. The situation in Europe is also discussed. The author is of the opinion that further work should be undertaken to bring the technology to market ripeness.

329

SMALL WOODEN OBJECTS USING EUCALYPT SAWMILL WOOD WASTE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forest industries look for multiple utilizations for their timber production. In Brazil, the genus Eucalyptus has a great potential for solid wood products; however, only a small amount of Eucalyptus is used as sawn timber. About 50% of the log volume ends up as waste during mechanical processing, resulting in serious economic and environmental problems. In most cases, such residue is discarded at random or used as fuel, and in this context the sustainable management of processing industrial waste is an urgent necessity. Parallel to this, Eucalyptus has not been employed for small wooden object (SWO production. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of small wooden objects produced with Eucalyptus urophylla, E. camaldulensis, and E. grandis waste from sawmilling. Brazilian craftsmen manufactured SWOs with Eucalyptus, and these crafted objects were presented at exhibits and trade fairs for assessment. The proposed small wooden objects made with Eucalyptus residues exhibited satisfactory performance and achieved excellent acceptance by the visitors. This work gave evidence that the use of sawmill waste as raw material for small wooden object manufacture has potential to generate income for economically underprivileged communities near to a plantation.

Renato da Silva Vieira

2010-05-01

330

Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

2001-07-01

331

Wood fuelled boiler operating costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

332

Wood pellets for stoker burner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author of this article has had a stoker for several years. Wood chips and sod peat has been used as fuels in the stoker, either separately or mixed. Last winter there occurred problems with the sod peat due to poor quality. Wood pellets, delivered by Vapo Oy were tested in the stoker. The price of the pellets seemed to be a little high 400 FIM/500 kg large sack. If the sack is returned in good condition 50 FIM deposit will be repaid to the customer. However, Vapo Oy informed that the calorific value of wood pellets is three times higher than that of sod peat so it should not be more expensive than sod peat. When testing the wood pellets in the stoker, the silo of the stoker was filled with wood pellets. The adjustments were first left to position used for sod peat. However, after the fire had ignited well, the adjustments had to be decreased. The content of the silo was combusted totally. The combustion of the content of the 400 litter silo took 4 days and 22 hours. Respectively combustion of 400 l silo of good quality sod peat took 2 days. The water temperature with wood pellets remained at 80 deg C, while with sod peat it dropped to 70 deg C. The main disadvantage of peat with small loads is the unhomogenous composition of the peat. The results of this test showed that wood pellets will give better efficiency than peat, especially when using small burner heads. The utilization of them is easier, and the amount of ash formed in combustion is significantly smaller than with peat. Wood pellets are always homogenous and dry if you do not spoil it with unproper storage. Pellets do not require large storages, the storage volume needed being less than a half of the volume needed for sod peat. When using large sacks the amount needed can even be transported at the trunk of a passenger car. Depending on the area to be heated, a large sack is sufficient for heating for 2-3 weeks. Filling of stoker every 2-5 day is not an enormous task

333

[Carbon storage and its allocation in mixed alder-cypress plantations at different age stages].  

Science.gov (United States)

The 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-year-old mixed alder (Alnus cremastogyne)-cypress (Cupressus funebris) plantations and the 30-year-old pure cypress plantation succeeded from mixed alder-cypress plantation in the hilly area of central Sichuan Basin were chosen as test objects to study the dynamic changes and allocation patterns of their carbon storage. The results showed that the vegetation carbon storage in mixed alder-cypress plantations increased continually from the age stage of 10- to 30-year, and reached 52.40 t x hm(-2) at the age stage of 30-year. The vegetation carbon storage of arbor layer at each age stage was more than 85.59% of the total, and the soil carbon storage within 0-40 cm layer increased significantly (P 0.05). The carbon storage of the mixed alder-cypress plantations increased significantly from the age stage of 10- to 15-year, with the maximum (118.13 t x hm(-2)) at the age stage of 15-year, but declined from the age stage of 15- to 25-year while increased slightly from the age stage of 25- to 30-year. The proportion of vegetation carbon storage increased continually from the age stage of 10- to 30-year, whereas that of soil carbon storage was in adverse. Comparing with other types of plantations in China, mixed alder-cypress plantation had a lower storage of carbon. PMID:18839897

Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Guo

2008-07-01

334

Characteristics of Soil Fauna Communities and Habitat in Small-Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The composition of soil fauna community have played an important role in regulating decomposition and nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystems (include cocoa plantation. Changes in food availability and conditions in the soil habitat can affect the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. This study aimed: (i to analyze the pattern of changes in soil fauna community composition and characteristic of soil habitat based on the increasing age of cocoa plantation, and (ii to identify taxa of soil fauna and factors of soil habitat which differentiate among the cocoa plantations. Sampling of soil, roots and soil fauna was conducted from cocoa plantation aged of 4, 5, 7, 10, and 16 years. Difference in composition of the soil fauna community between ages of the cocoa plantation was significant. Profile of soil habitats was differ significantly between the cocoa plantations, except 5 and 7 years aged. A group of soil fauna had relatively limited in its movement, and sensitively to changes in temperature, soil acidity, and the availability of food and nitrogen were taxa differentiating between soil fauna communities. Soil physic-chemical conditions that affected metabolic activity, movement, and the availability of food for soil fauna were a distinguishing factors of the characteristics of the soil habitat between different ages of smallholder cocoa plantations.

Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid

2013-05-01

335

Mangrove Plantation as a Tourist Attraction in San Juan Batangas, Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study about the Mangrove Plantation in San Juan, Batangas, Philippines aimed to identify the potential of mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction; to describe the status of mangroves, the programs offered by the government; to determine the level of support given by the government; to determine the benefits of the mangroves; and to propose an action plan that will develop the mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction. The study used descriptive method in order to determine the needed information regarding the current status of mangrove plantation as tourist attraction. The study concluded that the status of the mangroves in the coastal areas of San Juan, Batangas is continuously propagating and the local government does not neglect the mangrove plantations in the said community, as such, it is properly protected; the government’s level of support given to the mangrove plantation in terms of policies, management and planning and budget are highly implemented while in terms of promotion is implemented only; mangroves are beneficial to the residents of San Juan particularly in terms of environmental/ecological, economic and health, and ; proposed an action plan regarding development of Mangrove Plantation was designed by the researchers.

Sarah Jane M. Miranda

2013-08-01

336

Movement of genotypes of Ceratocystis fimbriata within and among Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceratocystis wilt on eucalyptus, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, was first recognized in 1997 in the state of Bahia, Brazil, but is now known in five other states and in four other countries. C. fimbriata is a native, soilborne pathogen in some parts of Brazil but we hypothesized that genotypes of the pathogen have been moved among plantations in rooted cuttings collected from diseased trees and within plantations on cutting tools. We used six microsatellite markers to identify 78 genotypes of C. fimbriata among 177 isolates from individual trees in 20 eucalyptus plantations. The highest gene and genotypic diversity values were found in plantations on formerly wild Cerrado forest in Minas Gerais, suggesting that the fungus was in the soil prior to planting eucalyptus. In contrast, one or only a few genotypes were found in plantations on previous pastureland (with no woody hosts) in Bahia and São Paulo, and most of these genotypes were found in a Bahian nursery or in one of two Bahian plantations that were sources for rooted cuttings. Sources of cuttings tended to be dominated by one or a few genotypes that may have been spread within the plantation on cutting tools. PMID:21486144

Ferreira, Maria A; Harrington, Thomas C; Alfenas, Acelino C; Mizubuti, Eduardo S G

2011-08-01

337

Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg-1 for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries.

338

Growth response of conifers in Adirondack plantations to changing environment: Model approaches based on stem-analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on model approaches, three conifer species, red pine, Norway spruce and Scots pine grown in plantations at Pack Demonstration Forest, in the southeastern Adirondack mountains of New York, were chosen to study growth response to different environmental changes, including silvicultural treatments and changes in climate and chemical environment. Detailed stem analysis data provided a basis for constructing tree growth models. These models were organized into three groups: morphological, dynamic and predictive. The morphological model was designed to evaluate relationship between tree attributes and interactive influences of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the annual increments. Three types of morphological patterns have been characterized: space-time patterns of whole-stem rings, intrinsic wood deposition pattern along the tree-stem, and bolewood allocation ratio patterns along the tree-stem. The dynamic model reflects the growth process as a system which responds to extrinsic signal inputs, including fertilization pulses, spacing effects and climatic disturbance, as well as intrinsic feedback. Growth signals indicative of climatic effects were used to construct growth-climate models using both multivariate analysis and Kalman filter methods. The predictive model utilized GCMs and growth-climate relationships to forecast tree growth responses in relation to future scenarios of CO[sub 2]-induced climate change. Prediction results indicate that different conifer species have individualistic growth response to future climatic change and suggest possible changes in future growth and distribution of naturally occurring conifers in this region.

Pan, Y.

1993-01-01

339

Mining for treatment-specific and general changes in target compounds and metabolic fingerprints in response to herbivory and phytohormones in Plantago lanceolata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Induction studies focusing on target metabolites may not reveal metabolic changes occurring in plants after various challenges. By contrast, metabolic fingerprinting can be a powerful tool to find patterns that are either treatment-specific or general and was therefore used to depict plant responses after various challenges. Plants of Plantago lanceolata were challenged by mechanical damage, specialist herbivores (aphids or sawfly larvae), generalist herbivores (Lepidopteran caterpillars) or phytohormones (jasmonic or salicylic acid). After 3 d of treatment, local and systemic leaves were analyzed for characteristic target metabolites (iridoid glucosides and verbascoside) by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and for metabolic fingerprints by liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Whereas only marginal changes in target metabolite concentrations were found, metabolic fingerprints were substantially affected especially by generalist and phytohormone treatments. By contrast, mechanical damage and specialist herbivory caused fewer changes. Responses to generalists partly overlapped with the changes caused by jasmonic acid, but many additional peaks were up-regulated. Furthermore, many peaks were co-induced by jasmonic and salicylic acid. The surprisingly high co-induction of peaks by both phytohormones suggests that the signaling pathways regulate a set of common targets. Furthermore, only metabolic fingerprinting could reveal that herbivores induce additional species-specific pathways beyond these phytohormone responses. PMID:21592133

Sutter, Rabea; Müller, Caroline

2011-09-01

340

Optimizing the extraction yield of polyprenols from needles of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook using response surface methodology and its antioxidative activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An improved optimization method was used, combining a single-factor experiment and Response Surface Methodology to optimize the medium for the extraction yield of polyprenols from the needles of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was used with extraction temperatures, extraction times, and liquid-solid ratio as independent variables to understand and optimize the extraction yield of polyprenols. A mathematical model with a high coefficient of determination was obtained and could be employed to optimize polyprenols extraction. From the optimized values of extraction temperature 71.4 ?, extraction time 5.96 h, and liquid-solid ratio 9.3:1, the extraction yield of polyprenols was 1.22 ± 0.04% (N = 3, which agreed closely with the predicted value (1.27%. Besides, polyprenols were demonstrated to have a strong antioxidative ability in vitro. Scavenging percentages of superoxide radical and DPPH by polyprenols were up to 75.6% and 56.9%, respectively.

Ping Jiang

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

2005-04-28

342

The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

Tiemann, Harry D

1919-01-01

343

The environmental assessment of the wood combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the authors analysed the emissions from residential boilers burning wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. Three boilers, selected with respect to age, design, connection to heat storage tank, and type of biofuel, were included in the study. The emissions captured comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAC) and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). We have used the Life Cycle Inventory method in order to identify the main stressors generated by the wood combustion stage. In this purpose, we have analysed one type of old boiler, one type of modern boiler and a multi-fuel boiler, which can burn wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. In this article, we selected only the wood combustion stage because it is the most important according to the emissions produced. (authors)

344

Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations. PMID:24156089

Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

2013-01-01

345

Energy dynamics and bioenergy production of Populus deltoides G-3 Marsh plantation in eastern India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy content of stems, branches, roots and litter was determined using an oxygen bomb calorimeter, and these data were used to estimate energy storage, net energy fixation and energy transfer within poplar (Populus deltoides G-3 Marsh) plantations of two ages at the Research Farm of Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar, India. Energy fixation, storage and energy released and exit from the 7-year-old plantation were 1.69, 2.11 and 1.53 times that of the 5-year-old plantation. The net energy fixation was 243.08 GJ ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} in 5-year-old and 410.57 GJ ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} in 7-year-old plantation. The energy conservation efficiency in the 7-year-old plantation was higher (1.51%) than that of the 5-year-old plantation (0.89%). The 5-year-old plantation showed lower energy accumulation ratio (2.02) resulting from less energy accumulation in components of poplar tree and greater annual turnover in terms of litter fall. The energy stored in the above-ground tree components from 2131.87 ha (5-year old) and 1002.88 ha (7-year old) or in the above-ground net annual production from 3924.15 ha (5-year old) and 2386.37 ha (7-year old) of poplar plantations is sufficient to operate a 5 MW generating station for 1 year. Above-ground biomass and net production from 1 ha of 5-year-old and 7-year-old poplar plantations is sufficient to meet the energy need of an average household in eastern India for 8.5 and 18.0 years and 4.6 and 7.6 years, respectively. (author)

Das, D.K. [Department of Forestry, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa 848 125 Samastipur, Bihar (India); Chaturvedi, O.P. [National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi 284 003, UP (India)

2009-01-15

346

Woody species diversity influences productivity and soil nutrient availability in tropical plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the relationship between plant diversity and ecological function (production and nutrient cycling) in tropical tree plantations. Old plantations (65-72 years) of four different species, namely Araucaria cunninghamii, Agathis robusta, Toona ciliata and Flindersia brayleyana, as well as natural secondary forest were examined at Wongabel State Forest, in the wet tropics region of Queensland, Australia. Two young plantations (23 years) of Araucaria cunninghamii and Pinus caribaea were also examined. The close proximity of the older plantations and natural forests meant they had similar edaphic and climatic conditions. All plantations had been established as monocultures, but had been colonised by a range of native woody plants from the nearby rainforest. The extent to which this had occurred varied with the identity of the plantation species (from 2 to 17 species in 0.1 ha blocks). In many cases these additional species had grown up and joined the forest canopy. This study is one of the few to find a negative relationship between overstorey plant diversity and productivity. The conversion of natural forest with highly productive, low-diversity gymnosperm-dominated plantations (young and old Araucaria cunninghamii and Pinus caribaea) was found to be associated with lower soil nutrient availability (approximately five times less phosphorus and 2.5 times less nitrogen) and lower soil pH (mean=6.28) compared to the other, less productive plantations. The dominant effects of two species, Araucaria cunninghamii and Hodgkinsonia frutescens, indicate that ecosystem functions such as production and nutrient availability are not determined solely by the number of species, but are more likely to be determined by the characteristics of the species present. This suggests that monoculture plantations can be used to successfully restore some functions (e.g. nutrient cycling and production), but that the level to which such functions can be restored will depend upon the species chosen and site conditions. PMID:17899202

Firn, Jennifer; Erskine, Peter D; Lamb, David

2007-12-01

347

Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High fossil fuel prices and ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have increased demand for renewable energy and are changing wood fuel market structures. Wood fuels are to a rapidly growing degree used in industrial proportions and traded in commercial markets. Wood fuels are seen as a key component to achieve policy goals related to climate change, especially in the EU. In the six papers that form the basis for this thesis, prices of wood fuels in Northern Europe are analyzed by mea...

Olsson, Olle

2012-01-01

348

PLUM PLANTATION VALUE BASED ON REAL OPTION CONTRIBUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is aimed to stress the modern methods of project value analysis based on valuation of opportunities emerged during the project’s life. Traditional appraisal methodology can hardly incorporate option value and quantify management flexibility. Therefore, traditional investment appraisal should be completed with option value evaluation (Real Option. The appliance of option quantification is showed on a model of plum and plum brandy production as an extension activity. Results of traditional NPV analysis for 1 ha of plum production imply to be unacceptable. On the other hand, economic analysis of extended plum brandy production indicates high profitability. It implies that plum plantation has an option calculated using Black-Scholes and Binomial model. Plum production strategic NPV that includes option value is in this case 2 950.54 EUR indicating acceptability of investment.

Lari Hadelan

2009-06-01

349

Wind and wind forces in a plantation spruce forest  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations have been made of the tubulent structure within and above a dense (LAI=10.2) plantation spruce forest along with measurements of the movement of individual trees. The mean statistics of the turbulence and the turbulence spectra are compared with observations in other crops and complementary wind-tunnel studies using 1?75 scale plastic trees. The measurements show that momentum transport and the subsequent motion of the trees is dominated by intermittent sweep/ejection events associated with ‘honami’ waves moving across the forest. The trees themselves act as forced damped harmonic oscillators and appear to short circuit the normal turbulent energy dissipation process by efficiently absorbing energy at their resonant frequencies. It is argued that understanding the nature and formation of ‘honami’ waves over forests and crops is a crucial problem in agricultural and forest meteorology because of their important role both in turbulent transport and in causing wind damage.

Gardiner, B. A.

1994-01-01

350

Proposal of a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations, to identify areas where eucalyptus planting could be developed, and to determine suitability of such areas. The study area was the County of Vassouras, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, considering physical data, environmental legislation, urban areas, and the municipal land use plan. The areas for permanent preservation, as well as the conservation units and areas for industrial expansion, as defined in the county land use plan, plus areas nearby the city were considered restricted for the planting of eucalyptus trees. Vassouras is 552 km² large. Approximately 144 km² are suitable eucalyptus planting, of which 97% are now used for pastures. Approximately 50% of the area suitable for eucalyptus is of average suitability, whereas the class of highest suitability occupies about 30%. The less suitable areas correspond to 20% of the remaining 144 km2.

Leonardo Duarte Batista da Silva

2012-06-01

351

Net Primary Production of Chinese Arborvitae Plantations under Different Densities  

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Full Text Available In this study, we measure the distribution of carbon pools and component fluxes of Net Primary Production (NPP in an Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco plantation in Beijing from 2009 to 2010. At 22 years old, the plots were reduced from 5900 to 4100 and 3000 trees/ha in three replicates. Results shown that aboveground biomass was highest in the N4100 treatment plots, lowest in the N3000 treatment and intermediate in the unthinned control plots. Annual net biomass increment followed the same pattern across treatments. NPP measures suggested that the control forests and forests from the N4100 treatment have functioned as carbon sinks (4.06 and 4.59 t C/ha/year, respectively, while forests from N3000 treatment appeared to be also a carbon sink (2.95 t C/ha/year.

F. Liang

2013-02-01

352

Nutrient losses in forest plantations in Sabah, Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic nutrients are lost from terrestrial ecosystems through the harvesting of plant products, leaching, soil erosion and volatilization of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. In this study, carried out in a tropical rain forest ecosystem in Sabah, Malaysia, losses of inorganic nutrients through log removal and runoff/leaching to stream water were compared in clear-fellings, harvested and prepared for planting in two different ways: (i) tractor logging/burning; (ii) and manual logging/no burning. The major findings of the study were that nutrient losses in stream water were reduced by 50% and growth of the planted forest was twice as fast on the catchment where soil disturbance was minimized and burning not used. Weeds were more abundant after burning, and the extra weeding needed increased costs for plantation establishment. Ways of decreasing the loss of inorganic nutrients when clear-felling tropical rain forests are discussed. 32 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

353

Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E). The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane...

Dzaba, D.; Nganga, D.; Moundzeo, L.; Pandzou, J.

2011-01-01

354

Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations Balanço de N em solos sob plantações de eucalipto  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years. Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N; Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.O entendimento da participação de reservas orgânicas de N no suprimento de plantações de eucalipto é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que maximizem a eficiência no uso de N por essa cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de reservas orgânicas de N em diferentes compartimentos no sistema solo-planta e a contribuição desses compartimentos no suprimento de N em plantações de eucalipto em diferentes idades de cultivo (1, 3, 5 e 13 anos. Para estimar a contribuição das reservas orgânicas, foram empregados três modelos: o modelo I considerou os estoques do N contido na serapilheira e na biomassa microbiana do solo e o N disponível no solo (N mineral; o modelo II considerou os estoques de N no solo, o N potencialmente mineralizável e a exportação de N na colheita da madeira; e o modelo III (balanço de N foi definido pela diferença entre o estoque inicial de N no solo (0-10 cm e a exportação de N, somada a uma aplicação de fertilizante nitrogenado. O modelo I mostrou que as reservas de N poderiam suprir de 27 a 70 % da demanda de N pelo eucalipto entre as idades. O modelo II mostrou que o estoque de N no solo pode ser suficiente para quatro a cinco rotações de cinco anos. Pelo balanço de N, o estoque de N seria suficiente para suprir a demanda desse nutriente pelo eucalipto por mais de 15 rotações de cinco anos. As reservas orgânicas contribuem para o fornecimento de N em diferentes magnitudes e, em conjunto, são suficientes para atender à demanda de N pelo eucalipto por várias rotações de cultivo.

Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto

2012-08-01

355

Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations / Balanço de N em solos sob plantações de eucalipto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O entendimento da participação de reservas orgânicas de N no suprimento de plantações de eucalipto é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que maximizem a eficiência no uso de N por essa cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de reservas orgânicas de N em diferente [...] s compartimentos no sistema solo-planta e a contribuição desses compartimentos no suprimento de N em plantações de eucalipto em diferentes idades de cultivo (1, 3, 5 e 13 anos). Para estimar a contribuição das reservas orgânicas, foram empregados três modelos: o modelo I considerou os estoques do N contido na serapilheira e na biomassa microbiana do solo e o N disponível no solo (N mineral); o modelo II considerou os estoques de N no solo, o N potencialmente mineralizável e a exportação de N na colheita da madeira; e o modelo III (balanço de N) foi definido pela diferença entre o estoque inicial de N no solo (0-10 cm) e a exportação de N, somada a uma aplicação de fertilizante nitrogenado. O modelo I mostrou que as reservas de N poderiam suprir de 27 a 70 % da demanda de N pelo eucalipto entre as idades. O modelo II mostrou que o estoque de N no solo pode ser suficiente para quatro a cinco rotações de cinco anos. Pelo balanço de N, o estoque de N seria suficiente para suprir a demanda desse nutriente pelo eucalipto por mais de 15 rotações de cinco anos. As reservas orgânicas contribuem para o fornecimento de N em diferentes magnitudes e, em conjunto, são suficientes para atender à demanda de N pelo eucalipto por várias rotações de cultivo. Abstract in english An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N) pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the so [...] il-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years). Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N); Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance) was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm) and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.

Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt, Barreto; Antonio Carlos da, Gama-Rodrigues; Emanuela Forestieri da, Gama-Rodrigues; Nairam Félix de, Barros.

356

The characterization of wood and wood fibre ultrastructure using specific enzymes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wood and wood fibre ultrastructure is of key importance for the pulp and paper making industry. In this thesis there has been a focus on development of methods for studying wood degrading enzymes. The methods have been used in different ways to render new information on wood and wood fibres. Wood degrading enzymes are chosen since they are tailor made to specifically degrade certain sub-structures in the wood bio-polymer, e.g. cellulose. In the first part an a-amino group of a carbohydrate bi...

Hilde?n, Lars

2004-01-01

357

Province-scale comparison between harvest wood products reported by ISTAT and forested areas reported by INFC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The future agreements on the LULUCF sector will probably implement the role of harvest wood products (HWP for climate change mitigation. As highlighted by many Authors however, for Italy to quantify the amount of HWP will impose a number of issues mainly related to the inconsistency of the data provided by the National Institute for Statistic (ISTAT. New data collected by the National Forest and Carbon Inventory (INFC will probably provide useful information. In the meantime, however, a comparison based on the forest area reported by INFC and data on HWP provided by ISTAT, both scaled at province level, could be proposed. The 2005 was assumed as reference year for both data sources. At this purpose, grouping the 103 Italian provinces in 9 groups mainly based on the 20 administrative regions, the Pearson coefficient of correlation was estimated, for each group, comparing the amount of harvest reported by ISTAT with (i the forest area, (ii the plantation area and (iii the total forest area, including both plantations and forests. Possible outliers were identified estimating the harvest rates per hectare of forest and considering the interquantile range of these values. A linear model was finally applied between the total forest area and the total amount of harvest estimated at regional level. The results highlighted a strong correlation between the amount of harvest reported by ISTAT and the forest area reported by INFC for 13 out of 21 regions. For 5 regions, including Lombardia, Piemonte, Lazio, Umbria and Marche the amount of harvest was only correlated with the area of plantations. No correlation was detected for Toscana region. Based on the harvest rate per hectare, 5 provinces out of 103 were identified as outliers. The amount of harvest reported for 3 of these provinces (Cremona, Mantova and Pavia was clearly referred to plantations. The analysis of the studentized residuals based on the application of the linear model, highlighted outliers values also for Piemonte region. As in the previous case, the amount of harvest reported for this region was probably partially referred to plantations. We could therefore speculate that for many regions data reported by national statistics as referred to the amount of harvest in forest, were statistically correlated with the forest area detected by INFC. However, for some important regions, such as Piemonte and Lombardia, they were clearly correlated with plantations.

Pilli R

2011-07-01

358

Quantitative Generalizations for Catchment Sediment Yield Following Plantation Logging  

Science.gov (United States)

While there is a reasonably clear qualitative understanding of the impact of forest plantations on sediment yield, there is a lack of quantitative generalizations. Such generalizations would be helpful for estimating the impacts of proposed forestry operations and would aid the spread of knowledge amongst both relevant professionals and new students. This study therefore analyzed data from the literature to determine the extent to which quantitative statements can be established. The research was restricted to the impact of plantation logging on catchment sediment yield as a function of ground disturbance in the years immediately following logging, in temperate countries, and does not consider landslides consequent upon tree root decay. Twelve paired catchment studies incorporating pre- and post-logging measurements of sediment yield were identified, resulting in forty-three test catchments (including 14 control catchments). Analysis yielded the following principal conclusions: 1) Logging generally provokes maximum annual sediment yields of less than a few hundred t km-2 yr-1; best management practice can reduce this below 100 t km-2 yr-1. 2) At both the annual and event scales, the sediment yield excess of a logged catchment over a control catchment is within one order of magnitude, except with severe ground disturbance. 3) There is no apparent relationship between sediment yield impact and the proportion of catchment logged. The effect depends on which part of the catchment is altered and on its connectivity to the stream network. 4) The majority of catchments delivered their maximum sediment yield in the first two years after logging. The logging impacts were classified in terms of the absolute values of specific sediment yield, the values relative to those in the control catchments for the same period and the values relative both to the control catchment and the pre-logging period. Most studies have been for small catchments (requires further research.

Bathurst, James; Iroume, Andres

2014-05-01

359

Native tree species regulate nitrous oxide fluxes in tropical plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary and managed plantation forests comprise a rapidly increasing portion of the humid tropical forest biome, a region that, in turn, is a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere. Previous work has demonstrated reduced N2O emissions in regenerating secondary stands compared to mature forests, yet the importance of species composition in regulating N2O production in young forests remains unclear. We measured N2O fluxes beneath four native tree species planted in replicated, 21-yr-old monodominant stands in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica in comparison with nearby mature forest and abandoned pasture sites at two time points (wetter and drier seasons). We found that species differed eight-fold in their production of N2O, with slower growing, late-successional species (including one legume) promoting high N2O fluxes similar to mature forest, and faster growing, early successional species maintaining low N2O fluxes similar to abandoned pasture. Across all species, N2O flux was positively correlated with soil nitrate concentration in the wetter season and with soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) in the drier season. However, the strongest predictor of N2O fluxes was fine-root growth rate, which was negatively correlated with N2O emissions at both time points. We suggest that tree-specific variation in growth habits creates differences in both N demand and soil water conditions that may exert significant control on N2O fluxes from tropical forests. With the advent of REDD+ and related strategies for fostering climate mitigation via tropical forest regrowth and plantations, we note that species-specific traits as they relate to N2O fluxes may be an important consideration in estimating overall climate benefits. PMID:24988773

Weintraub, Samantha R; Russell, Ann E; Townsend, Alan R

2014-06-01

360

WOOD COLOR CHANGES BY AMMONIA FUMING  

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Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of ammonia gas on wood color changes in response to an increasing demand for dark colored wood specimens. The darker wood color in ammonia fuming is accomplished through chemical reactions between ammonia gas and wood compounds. We exposed oak, maple, spruce, and larch wood samples to ammonia gas for 16 days. During fuming, the color changes were studied using CIE L*a*b* parameters. After fuming, the changes in extractives content, tannin, and nitrogen content were analyzed. The chemical changes of wood and residues of wood extractives after fuming were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Oak wood reacted intensively with ammonia gas in a very short time, and the darkening was prominent for all the investigated wood species. It was established that tannin had no major influence on color changes of maple and larch wood in the ammonia-fuming process. The FTIR spectra of fumed wood indicated involvement of carbonyl groups, and the FTIR spectra of wood extractives indicated involvement of carbonyl, aromatic, and alcohol groups in reaction with ammonia gas.

Josip Mikle?i?,

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education…

Mative, John M.

2005-01-01

362

Wood quality of white willow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based upon an exhaustive work made by Sacré (1974 and a review of the literature sine 1960, the author gathered together the anatomical, physical and mechanical characteristics, the machining behaviour (industrial sawing, planing, surfacing, shaping, mortising and nailing and wood end-uses of white willow.

André Leclercq

1997-01-01

363

Wood and concrete polymer composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several ways to prepare and use wood and concrete polymer composites. The most important improvements in the case of concrete polymer composites are obtained for compressive and tensile strengths. The progress in this field in United States and other countries is discussed in this rview. (M.S.)

364

Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (?B(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ?B(w)/ANPP and ?B(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ?B(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by a 15% lower GPP and by a 15% lower fraction of GPP allocated to wood growth, thus partially supporting our second hypothesis: mixing the two species led to shifts in C allocations from above- to belowground, and from growth to litter production, for both species. PMID:22588515

Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

2012-06-01

365

Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment rate fully comparable to a tertiary effluent quality with regard to biodegradable organic material and eutrophying nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Introductory analyses of the costs of a wastewater irrigated willow plantation for bio-fuel production indicate that the benefits of the wastewater treatment per se appear to be greater than the benefits from the increased production of wood chips. The risks of contamination via faecal micro-organisms of animals and humans seem possible to reduce or eliminate if proper precautions are taken. The awareness of the hygienic aspects is among the most important issues to deal with concerning the public acceptance. The gathered opinion from the members of the multidisciplinary project team is that the concept of recycling wastewater or fractions of wastewater within willow plantations for combined energy production and wastewater treatment would be worth developing on a wider scale. Experiences from a few full-scale facilities in Sweden are well in accordance with the findings outlined here. The fact that wastewater could be treated at reasonable costs might encourage the municipal sector as well as the energy and agricultural industry in Europe to further expand the concept with increased willow plantation areas as a consequence. This would increase the opportunities for an over all better environment for generations to come.

Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

2003-01-01

366

Guide on wood chips heating; Hakelaemmitysopas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The guide discusses the effects of utilisation of wood chips on regional economy and employment, the effects of harvesting of energy wood on forest economy and environment, as well as the production of wood chips from different forestry targets. The importance of the profitability of the total production chain is highlighted, because it is the only precondition for the significant increase in utilisation of wood energy. Combustion of wood chips is discussed as a total process, including the storage of the chips, feed of the chips into a boiler, the combustion phenomenon, with all the controls needed, and deashing. The fire safety issues are also discussed.

Puhakka, A. [North Carelia Polytechnic, Joensuu (Finland); Alakangas, E. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Alanen, V.-M. [Forestry Center of Pirkanmaa, Tampere (Finland); Airaksinen, L.; Siponen, T. [Forestry Center of Northern Savo, Kuopio (Finland); Kainulainen, S. [Northern Carelia Polytechnic, Joensuu (Finland)

2001-07-01

367

Health risks of residential wood heat  

Science.gov (United States)

The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of magnitude more hazardous than generation of an equivalent amount of electric energy at a coal-fired power plant. Proper care in installation and operation of wood stoves, as well as technological innovations that control wood-stove emissions, can greatly reduce the health and safety hazards of residential heating with wood.

Travis, Curtis C.; Etnier, Elizabeth L.; Meyer, H. Robert

1985-05-01

368

The formation of wood and its control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood continues to increase in importance as a sustainable source of energy and shelter. Wood formation is a dynamic process derived from plant secondary (radial) growth. Several experimental systems have been employed to study wood formation and its regulation. The use of genetic manipulation approaches and genome-wide analyses in model plants have significantly advanced our understanding of wood formation. In this review, we provide an update of our knowledge of the genetic and hormonal regulation of wood formation based on research in different plants systems, as well as considering the subject from an evo-devo perspective. PMID:24507495

Zhang, Jing; Nieminen, Kaisa; Serra, Juan Antonio Alonso; Helariutta, Ykä

2014-02-01

369

The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

Jody R. Stallings

1990-01-01

370

sofsog: a suite of programs to avoid inbreeding in plantation designs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cost-effective ways of controlling inbreeding in conservation or productive plantations imply the allocation of individuals reducing the possibility of close relatives' mating and, consequently, limiting