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Sample records for lanceolata plantation wood

  1. Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. An international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities 1.2 (Forest management) and 1.2 (Harvesting) of Task XII/IEA Bioenergy Agreement carried out an international review of wood fuel from plantation cleaning and early thinning. The participating countries were Canada, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The individual country reviews and an international summary are presented in this paper. Each report gives country-related background information on forestry and wood utilization, energy potential from plantation cleaning and early thinning, environmental considerations from the viewpoint of wood fuel recovery, silvicultural systems and methods, cost of wood fuel, and knowledge gaps and problems

  2. MDF/HDF Production from Plantation Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Alpár, Tibor Fáczán, István Rácz, Gabor Kátoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the raw material base for the newly built MDF/HDF production line in Mohács, Hungary. The desired raw material for the factory is 80 % poplar and 20 % other species (conifers and broad leaved species. These raw materials should be obtained from wood plantations. Laboratory experiments were done in production of MDF and HDF boards with the following raw materials: 5 and 10 year old Pannonia poplar (Populus x euramericana Pannónia, I214 poplar (Populus x euramericana ‘I214’, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra. The selected trees were evaluated based on the following parameters: diameter, bark volume, ability for barking, ability for chipping, fiber yield, fiber quality, energy consumption of defibrating, chemical analysis of waste water after defibrating. MDF and HDF boards were made in laboratory from clear poplar species, and from a mixture of poplar and Austrian pine and poplar and black locust. In both cases of mixing, the ratio of poplar and other wood species was 80:20. Ureaformaldehyde adhesive and ammonium-sulphate hardener were used during board production. Also some paraffin was added to increase the moisture resistance. The following board characteristics were tested: bending strength, internal bond, modulus of elasticity, thickness swelling, density, moisture content, formaldehyde content. Except the values of internal bond, the results were very satisfactory, highly above the standard requirements. The reason for the low internal bond values is as follows: - in the laboratory we could not apply a proper blending of fibers and additives, - mat forming by hand. In spite of this, we are sure that an actual technological test production will give good results.

  3. The role of wood ant Formica polyctena in the cycling of phosphorus in spruce plantations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Kal?ík, Ji?í

    Utsjoki : Kevo Subarctic Research Station, 2004. s. 1-2. [Workshop on the Role of Red Wood Ants in Carbon and Nutrient Dynamics of Forest Ecosystem. 10.09.2004-11.09.2004, Utsjoki] Keywords : wood ants * cycling of phosphorus * spruce plantations Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation clearing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning offer opportunities for increasing the availability of wood fuel in Canada. In 1992, approximately 130 000 ha were treated with precommercial thinning or stand cleaning. Manual methods predominate in these silvicultural activities; however, at stand densities greater than 10 000 - 15 000 stems/ha, mechanized systems are more economical. Recovering this biomass for wood fuel would require changes to silvicultural systems and harvesting technology

  5. Review of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussions regarding the use of wood fuels for commercial energy production in the Netherlands began in the 1990's. The main reasons for using wood fuel are: the political demand for using renewable energy, the need to reduce CO2 emissions, and the lack of markets for surplus timber. Only 10 % of the area of Holland is forested. Therefore, early thinning and cleaning are important management tools for improving growth and producing better quality timber. The energy potential from early thinning and plantation cleaning could be between 400 000 and 570 000 dry tons annually. The Netherlands has not experience in harvesting energy wood. However, through the International Energy Agency/Bioenergy Agreement, knowledge gained in other countries, especially Denmark, Sweden and Finland, is being transferred to Holland. In 1996, there have been made field tests with Danish equipment. Although there are few technical barriers to wood fuel in the Netherlands, the economics of wood fuels consumption are affected by the low costs of fossil fuels and the high natural gas reserves. This is changing however, due to political concerns over the balance of greenhouse gases. In 1996, a small energy tax on fossil fuels was introduced and electricity suppliers are now selling an environmentally friendly 'green electricity'. Energy wood has a future in the Netherlands, although the total forest reserves would satisfy only a small percentage of energy requirements 5 refs

  6. Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the biomass potential, silvicultural considerations, cost of recovery and environmental aspects in conjunction with the energy use of small trees from plantation cleanings and early thinnings in Finland. Repeated thinnings from below are an essential characteristic of the Finnish forest management system. Due to high operational costs, plantation cleanings and first commercial thinnings are currently a critical link in the management chain. These young forests possess a high potential as a source of renewable energy, 4 to 6 million m3 or 8 to 12 TWh per year. Utilization of small-tree biomass for energy is constrained by the high costs compared to peat, coal, oil or even wood chips produced from residues such as bark, sawdust or logging slash from clearcuts 3 refs

  7. Wood-polymer composites from Philippine tree plantation species by radiation polymerization I. Uptake and irradiation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation catalyzed polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in various Philippine tree plantation species were investigated. Wood samples measuring 1x6cm were impregnated with monomer at reduced pressure and gamma irradiated for various doses at a dose rate of 0.53 kGy/h. The parameters used to assess the polymerization reaction were the uptake of monomer by the wood samples, monomer conversion, and polymer loading in the irradiated samples. The uptake and polymerization data indicate that coconut wood, rubber wood, bagras, and Moluccan sau could be potential raw materials for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPC). (author). 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. Summary of an international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summaries the results of an international of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. The economic and biological benefits from early thinning have been well documented. However, removing forest biomass during early stages of stand development from sites which are low in one or more nutrients may contribute a loss of nutrients and organic matter. Depending on the pre-thinning density and the thinning intensity, the potential yield of wood fuel from early thinning may be as much as 79 dry tons per hectare. Thus, wood fuel from the thinnings could be an important source of revenue to forest owners and would contribute to domestic energy requirements. Motor-manual felling predominates in early thinning, mainly due to the lack of appropriate technology for thinning small trees. However, the productivity of motor-manual felling is greatly affected by the initial stand density and declines dramatically at densities greater than 10 000 stems per ha. Under these conditions, purpose-built wood fuel harvesters with small-tree harvesting capability offer the greatest potential for increasing felling productivity and reducing the cost of wood fuel. The cost of wood fuel from early thinnings varies widely between countries from USD 25.00 - 87.50 per dry ton depending on stand conditions, harvesting system, transport distance, domestic tax rates, and stumpage prices. At the low end of this range, wood fuel chips from early thinning are competitive with wood fuel produced from mill waste, the residues from clearfell operations, or from later thinnings

  9. Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehari, A.

    1997-11-01

    This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

  10. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette; Pedersen, Lars Bo; Skov, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to export of nutrients from the forest. Recirculation of nutrients from wood chip combustion by ash spreading in forests has been proposed as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine the effect of wood chip ash application on soil chemistry in a 44-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation on a nutrient-poor soil in Denmark and to investigate the effect of applying different ash types and d...

  11. Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha-1 (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem-soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed

  12. Comparative study of the thermal behavior of wood and bark of young shoots obtained from an energy plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, E.; Jakab, E.; Varhegyi, G. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 17, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Szepesvary, P. [Department of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Marosvoelgyi, B. [Institute of Energetics, University of West Hungary, Sopron (Hungary)

    2004-11-01

    We have performed thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS) analysis of young wood samples from a short rotation forestry plantation to get information about their thermal behavior. Poplar (Populus x euramericana, Populus x interamericana), willow (Salix alba) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) species have been studied. The ratio of wood and bark in these young shoots is significantly different from that of an older wood. That is why great emphasis has been put on the comparative study of the decomposition characteristics of wood and bark. Considerable differences have been found in these investigations: more volatiles are produced from wood than from bark; the temperature range and the rate of decomposition also differ. The TG/MS results are interpreted in terms of the chemical composition characterized by Klason lignin and ash content. One of the main differences between the chemical composition of wood and bark is the amount of inorganic ions: the mineral matter content is significantly higher in the bark than in the wood. We have pretreated the samples with a hot water washing procedure in order to eliminate a significant part of these inorganic components and investigate their effects on the thermal decomposition of the samples. The results imply that the thermal behavior of wood and bark are still considerably different after the elimination of some of the inorganic components, however, the macromolecular components decompose at similar temperatures in wood and bark. Since we had a large number of samples and TG/MS data, we have employed a chemometric tool, principal component analysis (PCA) to help the evaluation of the results and the comparison of the samples.

  13. Time course of ?1¹³C in poplar wood: genotype ranking remains stable over the life cycle in plantations despite some differences between cellulose and bulk wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Fahad; Richard, Béatrice; Le Thiec, Didier; Montpied, Pierre; Paillassa, Eric; Brignolas, Franck; Dreyer, Erwin

    2011-11-01

    Genetic differences in ?¹³C (isotopic composition of dry matter carbon) have been evidenced among poplar genotypes at juvenile stages. To check whether such differences were maintained with age in trees growing in plantations, we investigated the time course of ?¹³C as recorded in annual tree rings from different genotypes growing at three sites in southwestern France and felled at ?15-17 years. Wood cores were cut from tree discs to record the time course of annual basal area increment (BAI). The isotopic ratio ?¹³C was recorded in bulk wood and in extracted cellulose from the annual rings corresponding to the period 1996-2005. Discrimination against ¹³C between atmosphere and tissues (?¹³C) was computed by taking into account the inter-annual time course of ?¹³C in the atmosphere. Annual BAI increased steadily and stabilized at about 8 years. An offset in ?¹³C of ?1‰ was recorded between extracted cellulose and bulk wood. It was relatively stable among genotypes within sites but varied among sites and increased slightly with age. Site effects as well as genotype differences were detected in ?¹³C recorded from the cellulose fraction. Absolute values as well as the genotype ranking of ?¹³C remained stable with age in the three sites. Genotype means of ?¹³C were not correlated to annual BAI. We conclude that genotypic differences of ?¹³C occur in older poplar trees in plantations, and that the differences as well as the genotype ranking remain stable while trees age until harvest. PMID:22011967

  14. STUDY OF WOOD SAWDUST WITH ADDITION OF PLANTATION WASTES AS A GROWTH MEDIUM ON YIELDS AND QUALITY OF WHITE OYSTER MUSHROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mudakir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the use of wood sawdust as a medium for growth and the optimum addition ratio of plantation wastes that can increase the yields and quality of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD consisting of 7 levels of treatment ratio of wood sawdust and plantation wastes. The data analysis involved one way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s 5%. The results showed that the wood sawdust can be used as growing medium, and the addition of plantation wastes can increase the yields and the quality of white oyster mushroom. The addition of cocoa and coffee wastes with a ratio 25% was the optimum ratio treatment which increased the number of fruiting bodies, caps diameter, production weight, Biologycal Eficiency Ratio (BER and protein, fats, carbohydrates and fiber content in white oyster mushrooms. It is recommended to be applied because both treatments would increase the yield and quality of white oyster mushroom.

  15. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to export of nutrients from the forest. Recirculation of nutrients from wood chip combustion by ash spreading in forests has been proposed as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine the effect of wood chip ash application on soil chemistry in a 44-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation on a nutrient-poor soil in Denmark and to investigate the effect of applying different ash types and doses. Soil samples were collected and analyzed 2.5years (3 growing seasons) after ash application. This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an increase in Cd was found in the O-horizon, corresponding to the amount added in the ashes. Generally, no other increase in soil contents of the heavy metals was seen. Hardening of the wood ash did not decrease the chemical impact on the soil chemistry as compared to non-treated ash whereas an increase in ash application dose increases the liming effect.

  16. Short-rotation plantations. Wood from the acre - that's the way; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Holz vom Acker - So geht's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setzer, Frank [Deutsche Landwirtschaftsgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Fachgebiet Forstwirtschaft und Bioenergie; Landgraf, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Poplar or willow instead of rapeseed and wheat? It is not quite obviously: There is no question that one may achieve still more profits by means of cultivation of quality wheat than the cultivation of fast growing wood. However, under certain circumstances birch trees, robinia et cetera may be a very lucrative alternative to grassland or low yield rye cultivation. Especially with currently rising timber prices. The book under consideration is a practical decision support for whom a short-rotation plantations is worthwhile as well as how to create and maintain a short-rotation plantation.

  17. Effect of plantation population density on wood properties and quality of wood-based composition board from Leucaena in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.L.; Ma, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    Wood density, compression strength and longitudinal modulus of rupture were determined in three-year-old Leucaena leucocephala growing at 2500, 5000 or 10,000 trees/ha in East Taiwan. Test properties tended to decrease as the tree population increased. Differences in modulus of elasticity were not significant and compression strength and wood density were not significantly different for trees growing at 5000 or 10,000 hectare. Amount of bark increased with tree population resulting in a decrease in particle sizes from whole tree chipping. The higher yield of fines in chips from trees grown with more stems/ha had a detrimental effect on bending strength of particleboard, though internal bond was not affected. It is concluded that metarials in this study were more suitable for medium density than low density particleboard.

  18. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the method of pay back period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke?a Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar plantations are a category of fixed assets in forestry, i.e. the assets with a biological character. They are related to their site, they are cultivated for a relatively long time and they have a relatively long utilization cycle, with the yield development determined by the plantation growth and age. Plantations transfer their value gradually to the obtained products during the period of their harvesting, and, by the realization of the products, the means invested in the plantation establishment are reproduced. The period of investments in poplar growing can be relatively long, and so is the period of harvesting. Therefore, it is important to determine the time of the return of the capital invested in these and similar plantations. This paper presents the analysis of commercial profitability of poplar cultivation according to the indicator for the assessment of projects in agriculture and forestry - pay back period. The application of pay back period (PBP calculation can affect greatly the reliability of predicting the degree of economic effectiveness of investments, and also the potential risks for the investor in his decisions on the investments in poplar cultivation. The analysis of poplar clone I-214 plantations was carried out in the area of Ravni Srem, under different rotations and soil types. Based on the analysis of costs and receipts in different plantation ages, and using the method of pay back period, the objective of the study was to evaluate the possible pay back period of invested capital in wood production in poplar plantations. PBP is practically unacceptable by the investor under the discount rate of 6%. The most favorable situation is in the youngest stands, using the discount rate of 2%. The situation regarding the pay back period in the over-aged stands is utterly unfavorable, so the credit cannot be repaid under any conditions. This fact supports the idea that the production cycle length should be shortened.

  19. Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning: New Zealand opportunities and experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently no precommercial thinning operations on harvesting of wood fuels in New Zealand. Precommercial thinning of New Zealand's planted production forests for wood fuel could, however, provide over 7 % (about 400 PJ) of New Zealand's energy needs between the years 2000 and 2010. The dispersed nature of the resource, the likely environmental impacts (nutrient removal and soil damage), availability of substantial quantities of lower cost residue from cleafell harvesting operations and the competition for the resource from conventional fiber users may result in the potential not being quickly realized 13 refs

  20. Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the parallel and perpendicular direction, according to EN standards. The OSB panels produced with four species and the mixture of these species showed average values of mechanical properties above the minimum standard established by the CSA 437/1993. The results of the physical and mechanical properties obtained indicate the feasibility of the use of wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach and Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing.

  1. VARIATION IN ANISOTROPIC SHRINKAGE OF PLANTATION-GROWN PINUS RADIATA WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anisotropic shrinkage of 27-year old Pinus radiata wood was measured from green to oven-dry condition. The samples were prepared from 21 discs cut from seven trees at different stem heights of 0.1m, 5.2m and 10.3m above ground, respectively. Longitudinal shrinkage was found to vary from 0.02% to 2.34%, with peak values near the pith decreasing towards the bark. The variation was more pronounced at the 0.1m height. The longitudinal shrinkage also showed a trend of decrease with the stem height above the ground. Tangential and radial shrinkage was found to increase with growth ring number from the pith, but the variation along the stem height did not show a clear trend. The results confirmed that the pith-to-bark variation and vertical variation of the anisotropic shrinkage were significant for radiata pine. Large differences were also observed among corewood, transition wood and outerwood. Microfibril angle (MFA was believed to the main reason for these variations.

  2. High Risk Posture on Motor-Manual Short Wood Logging System in Acacia mangium Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor-manual logging has been considered as the most dominant logging system in Java Island, Indonesia. The system-which consisted of felling, delimbing, bucking, hauling, and transporting activities- involves a combination of stress factors e.q. difficult work postures, generation of force, and lifting techniques. In the other hand, combination of the three is well associated with high risk of work-related musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs, including musculoskeletal disorders. This research aimed to assess difficult work posture on felling, delimbing, bucking, and manually short wood hauling by employing rapid entire body assessment (REBA technique and muscular pain scoring based on the worker's perceive. It was revealed that felling and manual hauling were scored 4 in the REBA action level, indicated very high MSIs risk level, and categorized as “necessary now” for an injury risk preventive action. The workers' pain scoring indicated that low back (spine in general disorders resulting in low back pain has been considered to be the one of the leading safety issues in the felling and manual hauling. Regardless to complex mechanism of how the personal risk and environmental factors associated with manual material handling injuries, job-related factors approach should be underlined in the MSIs prevention initiative in motor-manual logging. Keywords: motor-manual logging, difficult work posture, REBA, MSIs, low back pain

  3. Fast-growing trees on agricultural terrain. A guid for energy wood plantations; Schnellwachsende Baumarten auf landwirtschaftlichen Flaechen. Leitfaden zur Erzeugung von Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelcke, B. [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Political goals of the EU involve an increase of the share of renewables in primary energy consumption to 12 percent of the gross national consumption by 2010. In Germany, renewables had a share of 3.6 percent in 2004, with a share of 9.3 percent in the electricity market, 4.2 percent in the heat market and 1.6 percent in the biofuels market. Biomass from agriculture and forestry has different shares in these sectors; combustion of solid biomass for heat production is the most common use. The demand for wood is growing as a result of improved political boundary conditions (EEG) and the rising cost of fossil fuels. Wood plantations on farmland are an interesting economic alternative. Synfuels from biomass are a further marketing chance for biomass, preferably wood. Fast-growing trees with harvest times of 3 - 5 years are paraticularly interesting. This way, farmland will still be farmland but with a permanent forest plantation culture. (orig.)

  4. Equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para plantio de Ocotea porosa Estimating wood volume in plantation of Ocotea porosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Taborda dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Conhec

    er o volume de madeira de uma floresta é de extrema relevância. Equações de volume para espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista se restringem quase que exclusivamente a araucária. Equações de volume para imbuia Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso são inexistentes. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo desenvolver equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para árvore individual de Ocotea porosa na região de Rio Negro, PR. Foram derrubadas 12 árvores, com DAP entre 3,98 cm e 43,13 cm e altura entre 5,1 m e 20,4 m. Foi feita cubagem rigorosa de cada uma das árvores. Para desenvolvimento da equação de volume, foram testados onze modelos matemáticos. Os critérios utilizados para a seleção da melhor equação foram o coeficiente de determinação ajustado, o erro padrão da estimativa em porcentagem, o valor de F calculado e análise gráfica de resíduos. O modelo de Kopezky-Gehrart apresentou alto coeficiente de determinação ajustado (0,97, baixo erro padrão da estimativa (16,7% e alto valor de F calculado (382,6, com boa distribuição de resíduos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o modelo pode ser utilizado para quantificação de volume com casca, o que é muito importante em conjunto com outras informações, para tomada de decisão no manejo florestal.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

    To know the volume of wood from a forest is extremely important. Volume equations for species from the Araucaria Forest are restricted almost exclusively to plantations of araucaria. Equations for Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso plantations are inexistent. The present work aims to develop equation for individual tree volume and hypsometric relation from an Ocotea porosa, established in the region of Rio Negro, PR. Twelve trees were logged with DBH from 3.98 cm to 43.13 cm and height from 5.1 m to 20.4 m. All the trees were measured and cubed. Eleven mathematical models were tested for the development of the volume equation. The criteria used for selecting the best equation were the adjusted coefficient of determination, the standard error of estimative in percentage, the value of F calculated and graphical analysis of the residuals. The model-Kopezky Gehrart, presented a high coefficient of determination (0.97, low standard error of estimate (16.7% and high value of calculated F (382.6, with good distribution of residuals. The results indicate that this model can be used to quantify the volume with bark, which is very important in conjunction with other information for decision making in forest management.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

  5. Forests, woods, forest plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In protected areas the forest ecosystem management is directed to define the best approaches with high protection levels from ecological, historical, anthropological and landscape point of view. The conservation purposes have to be taken in consideration to not disturb the natural and functional processes, and therefore any forest human activity has to be done. Through a detailed analysis of the relations among functionality, stability, productivity and genetic diversity, the statement of the reasons for application of close-to-nature silviculture is described and discussed. Some specific silvicultural systems are illustrated on the basis of very large quantity of data and information originated from researches carried out for long time. A major challenge facing modern silviculture is to reconcile the traditional objectives of timber production with the demand for multifunctional forest ecosystems which arises from the society. The preservation of the functionality is strictly related to the forest genetic pool which is the basis of biodiversity, as it represents the basis for adaptation and survival of species and individual.

  6. Nonlinear Mixed-Effects (NLME) Diameter Growth Models for Individual China-Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Trees in Southeast China

    OpenAIRE

    XU, HAO; Sun, Yujun; Wang, Xinjie; Fu, Yao; Dong, Yunfei; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the smallest absolute mean residual and root mean square error and the largest adjusted coefficient of determination. To account for autoc...

  7. Propiedades físico-mecánicas de madera de teca de plantaciones comerciales / Properties of the wood from commercial teak plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl, Rodríguez Anda; Juan Francisco, Zamora Natera; José Antonio, Silva Guzmán; Eduardo, Salcedo Pérez; Francisco Javier, Fuentes Talavera.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físico-mecánicas de la madera de Tectona grandis (teca) procedente de plantaciones comerciales del sureste mexicano fueron analizadas. Se eligieron árboles de 9 y 15 años del estado de Campeche, 21 años de Chiapas y 15 años de Tabasco. Se recolectaron 10 trozas de 3 m de longitud por [...] edad y procedencia. Las propiedades físicas y mecánicas se evaluaron conforme a las normas DIN. La densidad normal fluctuó de 0.55 a 0.66 g cm-3. La contracción máxima radial y tangencial fue 2-2.8 % y 4.3-5.1 % (baja), su anisotropía 1.8-2.2 (de buena a alta), sin diferencia estadísticamente significativa (P>0.05) por edad y procedencia. La madera de 15 años de Tabasco fue superior en el módulo de elasticidad a flexión (9 479 N mm-2), cizallamiento (11.3 N mm-2), dureza Brinell longitudinal (49 N mm-2) y lateral (28 N mm-2). En tanto que, la de 15 años de Campeche presentó los valores más elevados de resistencia a flexión (108 N mm-2) y compresión longitudinal (48 N mm-2). La de 21 años de Chiapas exhibió los mejores resultados de módulo de elasticidad a compresión longitudinal (10 920 N mm-2) y al trabajo por impacto (41 kJ m-2). La de 9 años de Campeche fue la que tuvo los menores registros en todos los ensayos mecánicos. Abstract in english The physical-mechanical properties of Tectona grandis (teak) timber from commercial plantations of the Mexican Southeast were analyzed. 9 and 15 year old trees of the state of Campeche, 21 year old trees of Chiapas and 15 year old trees of Tabasco were selected. Ten 3 m long logs were collected by a [...] ge and origin. The physical and mechanical properties were evaluated according to the DIN norms. The normal density fluctuated between 0.55 and 0.66 g cm-3. The highest radial and tangential contraction was 2-2.8 % and 4.3-5.1 % (low); the anisotropy was 1.8-2.2 (good to high), without a statistically significant difference (P>0.05) by age or origin. The 15 year old timber of Tabasco had the highest modulus of elasticity at bending (9 479 N mm-2), shear strength (11.3 N mm-2), and longitudinal (49 N mm-2) and lateral (28 N mm-2) Brinell hardness. On the other hand, the 15 year old timber of Campeche showed higher values for resistance to bending (108 N mm-2) and longitudinal compression (48 N mm-2). 21 year old timber of Chiapas exhibited the best results in terms of modulus of elasticity at longitudinal compression (10 920 N mm-2) and resistance to impact strength (41 kJ m-2). The 9 year old wood of Campeche was the one with the lowest values in all mechanical assays.

  8. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood is a renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much...

  9. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the cost-benefit method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke?a Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of polar cultivation was analyzed based on one of the indicators for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects - cost-benefit (r. Poplar plantations of the clone I-214 of different rotations and on different soil types were analyzed in the area of Ravni Srem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the justification of the invested financial means in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts at different plantation ages, using the cost-benefit method. It was found that in all 13 analyzed compartments, the average cost-benefit ratio was 0.36. This means that the costs at the discount rate of 12% are about 2.8 times higher than the receipts. Accordingly, it can be asserted that it is economically unjustified to invest in the projected stands, but only in the case when the value of social capital accounts for 12%. Based on the analysis of sensitivity of the cost-benefit method, it was concluded that cost benefit ratio for p=8-12% was below 1 within the study range of costs and receipts changes, while for p=4-6% this ratio was above 1 in some cases of decrease in costs, i.e. increase in receipts. It was noted that the change in r depending on the change in costs, developed by the exponential function, and the change in r depending on the change in receipts developed by the linear function. Also, it was concluded that at the lower discount rates, the values of r moved towards 1, so for 8% r=0.71, and for 6% r=0.94. The value at the discount rate of 4% indicates that the project is cost-effective and that the invested € 1 makes € 1.22. This fact is especially important when poplar cultivation projects are ranked. For this reason, this method is used for the evaluation of social benefits, i.e. for economic analyses. It is almost never applied in the analysis of private investments.

  10. Wood color variation in undried and kiln-dried plantation-grown lumber of Vochysia guatemalensis Variación del color de la madera aserrada en estado verde y seca al horno de Vochysia guatemalensis proveniente de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Aguilar-Tova; Róger Moya; Carolina Tenorio,

    2009-01-01

    Vochysia guatemalensis has been planted over large tropical areas to obtain lumber products. However, compared with naturally-grown material variations in wood color have been noted. In the current research, trees from two 8-year-old fast-grown plantations were sampled from different climatic conditions in order to identify the causes of color variation. The study evaluated the heartwood presence, grain pattern, distance from pith, height within the tree, and effect of drying schedules. The w...

  11. Propiedades de la madera y relación del estado nutrimental con el crecimiento en teca / Properties of wood and the relationship between nutritional status and growth in teak plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alina Luisa, Ypushima-Pinedo; Eduardo, Salcedo Pérez; Ricardo, Manríquez González; José Antonio, Silva Guzmán; Juan Francisco, Zamora Nátera; Efrén, Hernández Álvarez.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available En México existe cada vez mayor interés en producir madera de calidad a partir de Tectona grandis, cuyo rendimiento sea capaz de satisfacer la demanda del mercado internacional, lo que es sumamente relevante ya que la teca tiene gran valor económico y su comercialización puede derivar en la obtenció [...] n de importantes ganancias; sin embargo aún no se cuenta con suficiente información para lograrlo. En el presente estudio se evaluaron los caracteres anatómicos de densidad básica, de resistencia al ataque de hongos y de las condiciones edafoclimáticas en dos plantaciones de nueve años en los estados de Veracruz (húmedo) y Nayarit (seco). Hubo diferencias significativas según la procedencia de la planta respecto al diámetro total de fibra y de lumen, al grosor de la pared de las fibras, al diámetro total, a la longitud de los vasos y al porcentaje de duramen; por otro lado, no existieron en cuanto a la longitud de fibras, el ancho y largo de los radios y la densidad básica. La resistencia al efecto de los hongos por parte del duramen está en función del tipo de hongo y no de la plantación de origen. El Ca y el K foliar se relacionaron con la altura y el DAP, respectivamente; así como el Ca del suelo, pH y la CIC (capacidad de intercambio catiónico) con la altura. La proporción de duramen y el DAP fueron mayores en las maderas provenientes de Veracruz. Abstract in english In Mexico there is a growing interest in producing high-quality wood from Tectona grandis with a yield that can meet the demands of the international market; this is very relevant, as teak has a high economic value, and its commercialization may bring considerable profits. However, there is still no [...] t enough information to achieve this. The present study assessed the anatomical features of basic density, resistance to attack by fungi and edaphoclimatological conditions in two nine-year-old plantations in the states of Veracruz (humid) and Nayarit (dry). There were significant differences in the total fiber and lumen diameter, fiber wall thickness, total diameter, vessel length, and heartwood percentage, according to the origin of the plant; on the other hand, there were no differences in fiber length, width and length of the radii or density. Heartwood resistance to the effect of the fungi is determined by the type of fungus, not by the origin of the plantation. Foliar Ca and K were related to height and DBH, respectively. Soil Ca, pH and CEC (cation exchange capacity) were related to height. Both the heartwood proportion and DBH were higher in timber from Veracruz.

  12. Dinâmica do afilamento do tronco e da produção de madeira em plantios de Araucaria angustifolia / Dynamic of stem taper and wood production in Araucaria angustifolia plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Afonso, Figueiredo Filho; Sintia Valerio, Kohler; João Luiz, Felde; Andrea Nogueira, Dias.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou avaliar a evolução da forma e do sortimento em plantios de Araucaria angustifolia. Os dados provieram de 30 árvores amostradas em plantios estabelecidos entre as décadas de 1940-1960 na Floresta Nacional de Irati, Paraná. As árvores foram submetidas à técnica de análise de tronc [...] o completa que permite a reconstituição de todo o crescimento passado. Os dados gerados possibilitaram a obtenção de diâmetros às diferentes alturas e nas várias idades de cada árvore. O perfil médio por idade foi gerado com funções de afilamento e funções splines cúbicas foram usadas para determinar a dinâmica do sortimento por classe de idade. Também foram realizados estudos sobre a evolução da forma do tronco com fatores de forma. Os resultados foram apresentados com a média de todas as árvores e agrupando-as em duas classes de sítio e indicam que aos 50 anos as árvores atingem um volume médio de1,20 m³, dos quais, 14% poderia ser utilizado para laminação, 66,2% para serraria 2, 15,9% para serraria 1, 3,7% para celulose e 0,3% destinados para resíduos. Nessa mesma idade, os sítios I e II apresentaram volume total médio de 1,94 m³ e 0,57 m³, respectivamente. O Polinômio de 5º grau ajustado para as classes de idade indicou que a forma do tronco melhora com a idade, tornando-os mais cilíndricos. Essa mesma tendência pode ser constatada com o fator de forma, o qual, praticamente, estabilizou-se a partir dos 35 anos de idade, em um valor de aproximadamente 0,6. Abstract in english The research aimed to evaluate the evolution of stem taper and wood assortment in plantations of Araucaria angustifolia. The data came from 30 sampled trees in plantations established between the decades of 1940-1960 in Irati National Forest, Parana State, Brazil. The trees were subjected to the tec [...] hnique of complete stem analysis that allows reconstitution of the entire past growth. The data generated allowed the obtaintion of diameter at different heights at various ages. The mean stem profile by age was obtained from taper functions and cubic splines functions were used to evaluate the evolution of wood assortment by age classes. We also conducted studies on the stem taper dynamics with the use of form factors. The results were presented with the mean of all trees and grouping them into two site classes, when the trees are 50 years old they reach an average volume of 1.20 m³, of which 14% could be used for lamination, 66.2% for sawmill 2, 15.9% for sawmill 1, 3.7% for pulpwood and only 0.3% would be residuals. In this same age the sites I and II had mean total volume of 1.94 m³ and 0.57 m³, respectively. The 5th degree polynomial function adjusted by age classes allowed to infer that stem tapering improves with age, with the stem becoming more cylindrical. This same trend can be established on the form factor, which practically stabilized after the 35 years of age, at a value of about 0.6.

  13. Alterações nas características químicas da madeira com a substituição do K por Na em plantações de eucalipto / Changes in chemical properties of wood with substitution of K by Na in eucalyptus plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Roberto, Sette Jr; Mario, Tomazello Filho; Francides Gomes da, Silva Jr; Jean Paul, Laclau.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando à substituição parcial do potássio pelo sódio na fertilização das plantações florestais, avaliou-se o efeito da ação isolada desses nutrientes nas características químicas da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram plantadas árvores no espaçamento de 2 m x 3 m e aplicados 116 kg ha-1 de [...] K e 68,5 kg ha-1 de Na. Árvores de eucalipto foram cortadas do 1º ao 4º ano após o plantio, em cada tratamento de fertilização, sendo seccionados discos de madeira em diferentes alturas do tronco e demarcados os anéis de crescimento anuais, estimados por um modelo de perfil do tronco. Amostras representativas de cada anel de crescimento, posição longitudinal e tratamento foram obtidas para determinação dos teores de lignina, holocelulose e extrativos. As árvores de eucalipto que receberam aplicação de potássio e de sódio não sofreram alterações significativas nas característias químicas, indicando que a substituição do K pelo Na na fertilização de plantações florestais de eucalipto pode ser adotada sem que as características químicas da madeira juvenil presente em árvores jovens se alterem. As avaliações anuais indicaram redução significativa dos teores médios de lignina e extrativos totais e aumento dos terores médios de holocelulose com a elevação da idade das árvores. Consistentes alterações nos teores dos componentes químicos do lenho por posição longitudinal e por anel de crescimento foram observadas. Abstract in english With the purpose of partial substitution of potassium by sodium in the forest plantations fertilization, the effect of the isolated performance of these nutrients on the chemical properties of young wood in Eucalyptus grandis trees was evaluated. Trees were planted at a 2mx3m spacing and 116 kg.ha-1 [...] of K and 68.5 kg.ha-1 of Na were applied to them. Eucalypt trees were cut down from the 1st to the 4th year after planting in each fertilization treatment, being sectioned disks of wood in different positions of the trunk and marked the annual growth rings, estimated by a stem profile model. Representative samples of each annual ring, longitudinal position and treatment were obtained for determining the lignin, holocellulose and extractives. Eucalyptus trees that received application of potassium and sodium did not change significantly in chemical properties, indicating that the substitution of K by Na in fertilization of Eucalyptus plantations can be adopted without the alteration of the chemical properties in the young wood in the young trees. Annual evaluations indicated a significant reduction in average content of lignin and total extractives and an increase in average contents of holocellulose with increasing age of the trees. Consistent changes in the levels of chemical properties of wood for the longitudinal and ring growth were observed.

  14. Conversion of a natural broad-leafed evergreen forest into pure plantation forests in a subtropical area: Effects on carbon storage

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guang-Shui; Yang, Yu-Sheng; Xie, Jin-Sheng; Guo, Jian-Fen; Gao, Ren; Qian, Wei

    2005-01-01

    For the last several decades, native broad-leafed forests in many areas of south China have been converted into plantations of more productive forest species for timber use. This paper presents a case study examining how this forest conversion affects ecosystem carbon storage by comparing 33 year-old plantations of two coniferous trees, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, CF) and Fokienia hodginsii (FH) and two broadleaved trees, Ormosia xylocarpa (OX) and Castanopsis kawakamii (CK), with a...

  15. Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, especie forestal con potencial para ser introducida en sistemas silvopastoriles / Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, forest species with potential to be submitted in sylvopastoral systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María L., Román-Miranda; Luis A., Martínez-Rosas; Antonio, Mora-Santacruz; Pablo, Torres-Morán; Agustín, Gallegos-Rodríguez; Adriana, Avendaño-López.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de especies forestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria contribuye a reducir la presión en los bosques naturales y se pueden incorporar en áreas no arboladas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad nutritiva, germinación, desarrollo de plántula en vivero y divers [...] idad de usos de Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. El material comestible y las semillas se colectaron en Tomatlán, Jalisco. Se realizaron análisis bromatológicos, pruebas de escarificación y evaluación de plántula en vivero sobre tres suelos con diferente pH. El experimento se analizó en un diseño completamente al azar con comparación de medias de Tukey (P ? 0.05). Además, se hicieron entrevistas a productores, una revisión bibliográfica y consulta de ejemplares en los herbarios para conocer los usos locales y potenciales de la especie. Los resultados indican alto contenido de materia seca (97.40 %) y proteína cruda (29.05 %), mayor germinación en los tratamientos térmicos, mejor desarrollo de la plántula en el suelo ligeramente ácido (6.57) y la diversidad de usos incluye leña, forraje y madera, entre otros. Por el alto valor nutritivo y diversidad de usos en el medio rural, L. lanceolata representa una opción viable para utilizarse en sistemas silvopastoriles del trópico seco. Abstract in english The usefulness of forest species in agricultural production systems is an option that helps to reduce the pressure in natural forests; they can also be used in treeless areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, germination, development of seedlings grown in nursery and va [...] riety of uses of Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. Edible material and seeds were collected in Tomatlán, Jalisco. Bromatologic analyses, scarification tests and the evaluation of seedlings grown in nursery using three soils with different pH values were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized, with Tukey (P?0.05) test for media comparison. A survey study, bibliographical revision and review of specimens in the herbariums were used to know the local and potential diversity of uses of this specie. Results show high content of dry matter (97.40 %) and crude protein (29.05 %), greater germination using heat treatments, better seedling development in slightly acid soil (6.57) and the diversity of uses including firewood, forage and timber among others. L. lanceolata represents a viable option to be used in dry tropical silvopastoral systems due to the high nutritional value and the diversity of uses in rural areas.

  16. Anatomia comparada do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. em áreas de cerrado e de plantação de Pinus elliottii Engelm. / Comparative wood anatomy of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. in "cerrado" and plantation area of Pinus elliottii Engelm.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agnes E., Luchi; Luiz C. Pereira, Silva; Marcelo A., Moraes.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura anatômica do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. foi analisada pela observação do caule e da raiz de espécimes provenientes de duas áreas de cerrado, uma com vegetação característica e outra, em que a vegetação original foi substituída por monocultura de Pinus elliotti Engelm. As dua [...] s áreas situam-se na Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu. As amostras foram coletadas pelo método não destrutivo. Os dados quantitativos das características analisadas foram obtidos mediante contagens e medições nos elementos de vasos, fibras e parênquima axial e radial, através das secções histológicas e tecido dissociado. Esses dados foram submetidos à prova não paramétrica de Mann-Whitney que mostrou diferenças significativas para 12 das 18 características analisadas. Dentre essas, apenas o diâmetro das pontoações intervasculares e das radiovasculares e a porcentagem de parênquima axial, apresentaram médias maiores para os espécimes da área de plantio. A análise estrutural do lenho demonstrou a presença de anéis de crescimento, delimitados pelo achatamento das paredes radiais das fibras, observada em todos os espécimes, indicando uma adaptação fisiológica e anatômica ao período de seca que ocorre anualmente na região. A baixa ocorrência de idioblastos secretores, nos espécimes da área de plantio, fornece indício sobre as possíveis alterações fisiológicas induzidas pela presença da plantação de Pinus elliottii em área de cerrado. Abstract in english The anatomical structure of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. wood was analyzed comparing stem and root samples from a caracteristic "cerrado" area, and another area with cultivated monoculture of Pinus elliotti Engelm. Both areas are inside the "Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu". [...] The samples were collected by non-destructive method. The quantitative analyzed characteristics data were obtained by counting and measuring in vessel elements, fibers, axial and radial parenchyma, in both histological sections and dissociated tissue. These data were submitted to the no parametric proof of Mann-Whitney that showed significant differences for 12 of the 18 analyzed characteristics. Among these, only intervessel pits diameter, vessel-ray pits diameter, and axial parenchyma percentage, showed larger averages for the plantation area specimens. Soil moisture data were obtained together with water soil retention curve. The structural analysis demonstrated the presence of growth rings delimited by radially flattened walls fibres observed in all studied specimens. This characteristic indicates a physiologic and anatomical adaptation of specimens to the drought period that occurs annually in the region. The low secretory idioblast occurrence in plantation area specimens indicates the possible physiologic alterations induced by the presence of Pinus elliottii plantation in "cerrado" area.

  17. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas; Mertz, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Carbon (C) conservation and sequestration in many developing countries needs to be accompanied by socio-economic improvements. Tree crop plantations can be a potential path for coupling climate change mitigation and economic development by providing C sequestration and supplying wood and non-wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the Un...

  18. A Mixed-Effects Model with Different Strategies for Modeling Volume in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangyi, Mei; Yujun, Sun; Hao, Xu; de-Miguel, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH), and aboveground height (h) to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level. PMID:26445505

  19. A Mixed-Effects Model with Different Strategies for Modeling Volume in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangyi, Mei; Yujun, Sun; Hao, Xu; de-Miguel, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH), and aboveground height (h) to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level. PMID:26445505

  20. Crecimiento maderable y biomasa aérea en plantaciones jóvenes de Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. Et Cham. En Zacualpan, Veracruz / Wood growth and aerial biomass in young plantations of Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. In Zacualpan, Veracruz

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Domingo, Romo Guzmán; Hermilio, Navarro Garza; Héctor Manuel, De los Santos Posadas; Oliverio, Hernández Romero; Javier, López Upton.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La superficie de bosques nativos a escala mundial disminuye en proporciones alarmantes, pues cada año se deforestan 13 millones de ha, y para México, en particular, se ha calculado una tasa de deforestación anual de 0.25 % para bosques templados y de 0.76 % para selvas. La creciente demanda de produ [...] ctos maderables en el país ha impulsado el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales forestales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar un sistema de crecimiento maderable, con variables dasométricas y de edad a partir de los datos tomados en una crono-secuencia en plantaciones de Pinus patula establecidas del 2000 al 2007 en áreas agropecuarias reconvertidas. Se presenta un modelo de índice de sitio con base en una familia de curvas polimórficas generadas con el modelo de Chapman-Richards. En la condición promedio se pueden lograr rendimientos de 15 m³ ha-1año-1 durante los primeros 10 años de crecimiento, mientras que en las mejores condiciones es factible alcanzar hasta 30 m³ ha-1 año-1. La captura de carbono fue estimada en 31.3, 41.2, 51.0 y 60.2 Mg ha-1, respectivamente, para los años 9, 11, 13 y 15. A partir de los resultados de ocho años, y las proyecciones, se infiere que la zona tiene un alto potencial productivo tanto de madera como de captura de CO². Abstract in english The area of native forests around the world is being reduced at alarming rates, since every year 13 million ha are deforested and particularly in Mexico, an 0.25 % annual deforestation rate for temperate forests and of 0.76 % for tropical forests has been determined. The growing demand of timber pro [...] ducts in this country has encouraged the establishment of commercial forest plantations. The aim of this paper was to analyze a wood growth system with mensuration and age variables from the data taken in a chronosequence in Pinus patula plantations established from 2000 to 2007 in recovered agriculture and livestock formerly used areas. A site index model is here presented based upon a polymorphic curve family generated by the Chapman-Richards model. In the average condition can be reached 15 m3 ha-1year-1 yields during the first 10 years, while under the best conditions it is feasible to get as much as 30 m3 ha-1 year-1. Carbon sequestration was estimated as 31.3, 41.2, 51.0 and 60.2 Mg ha-1, respectively, for the 9, 11, 13 and 15 years. From the results of eight years and the projections it is inferred that the zone has a high productive potential both of wood and of carbon sequestration.

  1. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyang Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, followed by rewatering under controlled environmental conditions. Based on observed morphological changes, plantlets experienced mild, moderate, or severe water stress before rehydration. Transcriptome analysis of plantlets, representing control and mild, moderate, and severe drought-stress treatments, and the rewatered plantlets, identified several thousand genes whose expression was altered in response to drought stress. Many genes whose expression was tightly coupled to the levels of drought stress were identified, suggesting involvement in Chinese fir drought adaptation responses. These genes were associated with transcription factors, signal transport, stress kinases, phytohormone signalling, and defence/stress response. The present study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource and the first dynamic transcriptome profiles of Chinese fir under drought stress. The drought-responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Chinese fir.

  2. Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume em plantios de eucalyptus grandis Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume in eucalyptus grandis plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Márcio de Mello

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha, 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal.This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and volume, the data have presented, approximately, normal distribution. Based on variogram analysis, trunk number and wood volume variables were found to be spatially structured. The exponential semi-variogram model was the best model fitted to the experimental semi-variograms of the variables in different plot shapes and sample intensities. The spatial continuity of the trunk number variable was detected at all sample intensities and plot shapes. Therefore, the use of spatial statistics to process this variable will increase the precision of the estimates. Considering the volume, at sample intensity 1:10, we could not evaluate the existence of a spatial continuity structure. Under this condition, classic statistics should be used to process the forest inventory.

  3. Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume) em plantios de eucalyptus grandis / Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume) in eucalyptus grandis plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Márcio de, Mello; Frederico Silva, Diniz; Antônio Donizette de, Oliveira; Carlos Rogério de, Mello; José Roberto Soares, Scolforo; Fausto Weimar, Acerbi Junior.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. [...] Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha), 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal. Abstract in english This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose [...] and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and volume, the data have presented, approximately, normal distribution. Based on variogram analysis, trunk number and wood volume variables were found to be spatially structured. The exponential semi-variogram model was the best model fitted to the experimental semi-variograms of the variables in different plot shapes and sample intensities. The spatial continuity of the trunk number variable was detected at all sample intensities and plot shapes. Therefore, the use of spatial statistics to process this variable will increase the precision of the estimates. Considering the volume, at sample intensity 1:10, we could not evaluate the existence of a spatial continuity structure. Under this condition, classic statistics should be used to process the forest inventory.

  4. Trabajabilidad de la madera de Pinus oaxacana Mirov. proveniente de una plantación en el Estado de México / Workability of Pinus oaxacana Mirov. wood from a plantation in the State of Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Machuca-Velasco; Amparo, Borja-de la Rosa; Emilio, Morales-Villalba; Rogelio, Flores Velásquez.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La calidad de maquinado es diferente en cada especie, por tanto, es necesario conocer las características y propiedades que intervienen en este proceso, tales como; la estructura anatómica, contenido de humedad, densidad básica, velocidad de crecimiento, número de anillos de crecimiento por pulgada [...] y dirección del grano. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las características de los ensayos de cepillado, lijado, moldurado, torneado y barrenado en la madera de Pinus oaxacana Mirov. El material de estudio se obtuvo en la plantación localizada a un costado de la División de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Los ensayos de maquinado, la evaluación de los defectos y clasificación se realizaron según la Norma ASTM-D 1666-87, con algunas modificaciones realizadas en función de la maquinaria y contenidos de humedad. En general, la madera de P. oaxacana fue clasificada como una especie con excelente trabajabilidad, exceptuando el ensayo de moldurado en el corte preliminar que fue clasificado como bueno. Este ensayo mejoró en el segundo corte, por lo tanto, la especie puede ser utilizada en la elaboración de productos con mayor valor agregado, por ejemplo; en puertas, ventanas, marcos, piezas torneadas, molduras, lambrín o recubrimientos y muebles en general. Abstract in english Machining quality is different for each species and, as a result, it is necessary to know the characteristics and properties involved in this process, such as the anatomical structure, moisture content, specific gravity, growth rate, number of growth rings per inch, and grain direction. The aim of t [...] his study was to determine the machining properties of Pinus oaxacana Mirov. wood in planing, sanding, shaping, turning and boring tests. The test material was obtained in a plantation located on one side of the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo forestry department. Machining tests, defect evaluation and grading were performed as set out by ASTM-D 1666-87, with some modifications in terms of machinery and moisture contents. In general, P. oaxacana wood was graded as having excellent workability, except in the first shaping test cut where it was graded as good. This test result improved in the second cut. Therefore, the species can be used in the manufacture of finished products with higher value added, such as doors, windows, frames, turned parts, moldings, furring and furniture in general.

  5. Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caridad, Carballo Guerra; Teresita, Alfaro López; Zoe, Palazón López; Raúl, Ramos Gálves; Carlos A, Rodríguez Ferrada; Cristina, Cabezas Landrian; Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Miralys, Reyes Arias.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 [...] min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal. Abstract in english This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sod [...] ium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa) for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

  6. Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Carballo Guerra

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal.This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sodium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

  7. The influence of tree species mixture on ecosystem-level carbon accumulation and water use in a mixed boreal plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Granier, André; Gessler, Arthur; Pollastrini, Martina; Bonal, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the world, huge areas have been occupied by monospecific tree plantations in order to fulfil the increasing demand for industrial wood products. The use of mixed-species plantations has recently been advocated as a potential compromise between maintaining high-volume wood production and conserving other ecosystem services. Yet little is known about the impact of tree species mixture on species- and ecosystem-level carbon accumulation and water use in mixed plantations. We combined ...

  8. Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) diameter growth models for individual China-Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) trees in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Sun, Yujun; Wang, Xinjie; Fu, Yao; Dong, Yunfei; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the smallest absolute mean residual and root mean square error and the largest adjusted coefficient of determination. To account for autocorrelation in the repeated-measures data, we developed one-level and nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) models, constructed on the selected base model; the NLME models incorporated random effects of the tree and plot. The best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were identified by Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and -2 logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced with two residual variance functions, a power function and an exponential function. The autocorrelation was addressed with three residual autocorrelation structures: a first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)] and a compound symmetry structure (CS). The one-level (tree) NLME model performed best. Independent validation data were used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating the NLME models. PMID:25084538

  9. Sistema de policultivos en plantas medicinales: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata y Plantago major System of polycultures in medicinal plants: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lérida Acosta de la Luz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: existe una tendencia creciente por los agricultores a desarrollar las producciones agrícolas mediante sistemas de policultivos. Objetivos: demostrar las ventajas del sistema de policultivo sobre el monocultivo basados en el incremento del rendimiento de masa vegetal de las especies que lo integran. Métodos: en la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se investigó sobre suelo ferralítico rojo hidratado (ferralsols, en una plantación establecida de Aloe vera (L. N. L. Burm. cultivo perenne y principal, el intercalamiento de varias especies: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L.; cultivos de períodos vegetativos cortos para aprovechar el espacio entre surcos que requiere esta planta; se determinó el rendimiento de masa vegetal fresca en cada una de las especies de esta compleja asociación y se compararon con los de sus respectivos cultivos únicos o monocultivos. Los valores obtenidos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza, además se calculó el incremento productivo a partir del cual se determinó el uso equivalente de la tierra. Resultados: de forma general, se encontró en todas las especies componentes del policultivo (cultivo permanente y plantas intercaladas ventajas sobre el monocultivo en cuanto a sus rendimientos, sin afectación de los principios activos, así como el aumento de la eficiencia productiva de los suelos. Conclusiones: se demostró en las especies estudiadas la superioridad que ofrece el sistema de siembra por policultivo.Foundations: there is an increasing trend on the part of the agriculturists to develop productions by polyculture systems. Objectives: to show the advantages of the polyculture system over the monoculture based on the increase of the yield of plant mass of the species included. Methods: in an established plantation of Aloe vera (L. N. L. Burm., perennial and main culture, with hydrated red ferriferous soil (ferralsols, at "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants, it was investigated the intercropping of various species: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.; cultures of short vegetative periods used to avail the space between furrows required by this plant. The yielding of fresh plant mass was also determined in each of the species of this complex association and they were compared with those of their respective unique cultures or monocultures. The values obtained were analyzed by variance analysis. The productive growth from which the equivalent use of the soil was determined was calculated, too. Results: generally, in all the species composing the polyculture (permanent culture and intercropped plants there were advantages over the monoculture as regards their yieldings without affecting the active principles. An increase of the productive efficiency of the soils was also observed. Conclusions: the superiority of the polyculture system was proved in the studied species.

  10. The Effects of Wood Bleaching Chemicals on The Surface Gloss and the Adhesion Strength of Varnishes

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇ?FÇ?, Ayhan; ATAR, Musa

    1998-01-01

    In this research, sodium hydroxide + hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide + calcium hydroxide + hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid were applied to pine (Pinus sylvestris L), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky), ash wood (Fraxinus lanceolata) and oak (Quercus petraea spp.) for bleaching. Next, acrylic, synthetic, polyurethane and acid-catalyzed varnishes aplied on the bleached wood samples. Afterwards, the effects of these bleaches on the surface brightness and the adh...

  11. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  12. Practical isolation of polygodial from Tasmannia lanceolata: a viable scaffold for synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Jeremy; Jordan, Timothy B; Paull, Brett; Bissember, Alex C; Smith, Jason A

    2015-12-14

    Polygodial, a valuable sesquiterpene dialdehyde featuring an epimerizable stereocenter was efficiently extracted and isolated in gram-scale quantities (3.3% w/w) from Tasmannia lanceolata (Tasmanian native pepper) via a recently developed rapid pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) technique that utilises an unmodified household espresso machine. This method was compared to the maceration of T. lanceolata under a range of conditions. Polygodial was used to achieve semi-syntheses of closely related sesquiterpene natural products drimendiol, (-)-drimenol, (+)-euryfuran, and some non-natural derivatives. PMID:26377594

  13. Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masvingwe

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

  14. Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report

    OpenAIRE

    C. Masvingwe; M. Mavenyengwa

    2012-01-01

    Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

  15. Investigating the effect of Phlomis lanceolata Boiss and hohen on cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Soltani-Nasab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Phlomis lanceolata is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation and wounds. As most of Phlomis species have shown cytotoxic activity against proliferation of different cell lines, a biological investigation of P. lanceolata was carried out in this study. The aim of this study was to find out the in vitro cytotoxic activity of total extract and different fractions of Phlomis lanceolata on four cell lines. Cytotoxic activity of the metanolic total extract and partition fractions of chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether of flowering aerial parts of Phlomis lanceolata on the HT29, Caco2, T47D and NIH3T3 cell lines is examined by MTT. Petroleum ether fraction showed high cytotoxic activity against proliferation of all four cell lines. Presence of heavy triterpens and lipophil compounds recognized by TLC test in Petroleum ether fraction is responsible for high cytotoxic activity. The results emphasize the importance of phytochemical studies which could lead to the discovery of new active compounds.

  16. THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Othman Sulaiman,; Nurjannah Salim,; Noor Afeefah Nordin,; Rokiah Hashim; , Mazlan Ibrahim,; Masatoshi Sato,

    2012-01-01

    Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to revie...

  17. Cambodia Report : Feeding China's Expanding Demand for Wood Pulp : A Diagnostic Assessment of Plantation Development, Fiber Supply, and Impacts on Natural Forests in China and in the South East Asia Region

    OpenAIRE

    Roda, Jean-Marc; Rathi, Santosh,

    2006-01-01

    After decades of war, Cambodia is one of the world's poorest nations, its economy and its political life are still suffering from the civil war that racked the country during the latter part of the 20th century. Rice and rubber were traditionally the principal exports of Cambodia, but exports fell sharply after the onset of the civil war, which put most of the rubber plantations out of operation. By the 1990s, however, rubber plantings had been undertaken as part of a national recovery progra...

  18. Sistema de policultivos en plantas medicinales: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata y Plantago major / System of polycultures in medicinal plants: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Horacio, Rodríguez González; Isabel, Hechevarría Sosa; Masgloiris, Milanés Figueredo; Carlos, Rodríguez Ferradá.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: existe una tendencia creciente por los agricultores a desarrollar las producciones agrícolas mediante sistemas de policultivos. Objetivos: demostrar las ventajas del sistema de policultivo sobre el monocultivo basados en el incremento del rendimiento de masa vegetal de las especies que [...] lo integran. Métodos: en la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se investigó sobre suelo ferralítico rojo hidratado (ferralsols), en una plantación establecida de Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm. cultivo perenne y principal, el intercalamiento de varias especies: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L.; cultivos de períodos vegetativos cortos para aprovechar el espacio entre surcos que requiere esta planta; se determinó el rendimiento de masa vegetal fresca en cada una de las especies de esta compleja asociación y se compararon con los de sus respectivos cultivos únicos o monocultivos. Los valores obtenidos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza, además se calculó el incremento productivo a partir del cual se determinó el uso equivalente de la tierra. Resultados: de forma general, se encontró en todas las especies componentes del policultivo (cultivo permanente y plantas intercaladas) ventajas sobre el monocultivo en cuanto a sus rendimientos, sin afectación de los principios activos, así como el aumento de la eficiencia productiva de los suelos. Conclusiones: se demostró en las especies estudiadas la superioridad que ofrece el sistema de siembra por policultivo. Abstract in english Foundations: there is an increasing trend on the part of the agriculturists to develop productions by polyculture systems. Objectives: to show the advantages of the polyculture system over the monoculture based on the increase of the yield of plant mass of the species included. Methods: in an establ [...] ished plantation of Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm., perennial and main culture, with hydrated red ferriferous soil (ferralsols), at "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants, it was investigated the intercropping of various species: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.; cultures of short vegetative periods used to avail the space between furrows required by this plant. The yielding of fresh plant mass was also determined in each of the species of this complex association and they were compared with those of their respective unique cultures or monocultures. The values obtained were analyzed by variance analysis. The productive growth from which the equivalent use of the soil was determined was calculated, too. Results: generally, in all the species composing the polyculture (permanent culture and intercropped plants) there were advantages over the monoculture as regards their yieldings without affecting the active principles. An increase of the productive efficiency of the soils was also observed. Conclusions: the superiority of the polyculture system was proved in the studied species.

  19. Cost and Productivity of Harvesting High-value Hybrid Poplar Plantations in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    ZANUTTINI, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    As the importance of hybrid poplar plantations continues to increase, these stands may soon represent a strategic source of wood products for many temperate-region countries. Financial success from growing these plantations depends on obtaining the highest value recovery at the lowest harvest cost, which has motivated a gradual shift toward mechanized harvesting. This study compared the harvesting efficiency and cost of different harvesting procedures based on manual, semimechanized, and mech...

  20. Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations of Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Moya J; Murillo R; Portuguez E; Fallas JL; Ríos V; Kottman F; Verjans JM; Mata R; Alvarado A

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age) were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand o...

  1. Chemical composition of soil organic matter by analytical pyrolysis - GC/MS in forest plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Sarante Santana, G.; Knicker, Heike; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The global demand for forest products such as wood, pulp and paper promoted the expansion of forest plantation areas and also the forest industry sector. According to ABRAF (Brazilian Association of Planted Forest Producers), the country’s area of forest plantations was 7 million ha in 2011 and it is expected to further increase up to 8 million ha until 2014. Several studies have indicated changes in the soil organic matter (SOM) stocks after introduction of forest in grassland...

  2. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Carbon (C) conservation and sequestration in many developing countries needs to be accompanied by socio-economic improvements. Tree crop plantations can be a potential path for coupling climate change mitigation and economic development by providing C sequestration and supplying wood and non-wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 tC/ha) and orange (76 tC/ha) plantations have a much lower C content, and oil palm (45 tC/ha) has the lowest C potential, assuming that the yield is not used as biofuel. There is considerable C sequestration potential in plantations if they are established on land with modest C content such as degraded forest or agricultural land, and not on land with oldgrowth forest. We also show that simple C assessment methods can give reliable results, which makes it easier for developing countries to partake in REDD+ or other payment schemes.

  3. Determination of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antimicrobial Activity on Salivary Streptococci and Lactobacilli and Chemical Characterisation of the Phenolic Content of a Plantago lanceolata Infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria Fabrizio; Cantile, Tiziana; Roberto, Lia; Ingenito, Aniello; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Roscetto, Emanuela; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Zarrelli, Armando; Pollio, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Plant extracts may be suitable alternative treatments for caries. Aims. To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Plantago lanceolata herbal tea (from flowers and leaves) on cariogenic bacteria and to identify the major constituents of P. lanceolata plant. Materials and Methods. The MIC and MBC against cariogenic bacteria were determined for P. lanceolata tea. Subsequently, a controlled random clinical study was conducted. Group A was instructed to rinse w...

  4. Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiling to Elucidate Effectiveness of Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon Yong Choi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata fermented by lactic acid on controlling gene expression levels related to obesity was observed in an oligonucleotide chip microarray. Among 8170 genes, 393 genes were up regulated and 760 genes were down regulated in feeding the fermented C. lanceolata (FCL. Another 374 genes were up regulated and 527 genes down regulated without feeding the sample. The genes were not affected by the FCL sample. It was interesting that among those genes, Chytochrome P450, Dmbt1, LOC76487, and thyroid hormones, etc., were mostly up or down regulated. These genes are more related to lipid synthesis. We could conclude that the FCL possibly controlled the gene expression levels related to lipid synthesis, which resulted in reducing obesity. However, more detailed protein expression experiments should be carried out.

  5. Pasture management under hardwood plantations: legume implantation vs. mineral fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Diaz, M.L.; Moreno, G; Bertomeu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Europe, and particulartly Spain, have a shortage of quality wood. Indeed, there is a growing interest from many owners into these species with intensive management, which are compatible with the implantation of silvopastoral systems. The fertilization is one of the most controversial management practices that is used for reducing rotation length. The implantation of legumes, which are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, could allow reducing the economic costs of these plantations, improve the p...

  6. Tree Biomass Estimation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Based on Bayesian Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiongqing; Duan, Aiguo; Zhang, JianGuo

    2013-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) is the most important conifer species for timber production with huge distribution area in southern China. Accurate estimation of biomass is required for accounting and monitoring Chinese forest carbon stocking. In the study, allometric equation was used to analyze tree biomass of Chinese fir. The common methods for estimating allometric model have taken the classical approach based on the frequency interpretation of probability. However, m...

  7. Contracciones y propiedades físicas de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas de plantación en Costa Rica / Skrinkages and physical properties of Acacia mangium Willd, Tectona grandis L. f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, plantation wood from Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Freddy, Muñoz-Acosta; Pablo A., Moreno-Perez.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con las normas ASTM D 2395-02 y D 143-94, se determinó la contracción total y normal en dirección radial (CR), tangencial (CT) y volumétrica (CV) y el coeficiente CT/ CR total y normal de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas provenientes de p [...] lantación. También se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas como peso específico básico (PEB), PE12% y PEanhidro, densidad verde (DV) y normal (DN), punto de saturación de la fibra (PSF) y contenido de humedad (CH). Algunos criterios de clasificación, propuestos por otros investigadores, se aplicaron para categorizar la estabilidad dimensional y propiedades físicas de estas especies. Se encontró que la CR, CT, CV totales y CTtotal/CRtotal tienen diferencias significativas entre especies, al igual que las propiedades físicas PEB y PSF. El índice CTtotal/CRtotal indicó que T. grandis tiene mejor estabilidad dimensional. La relación lineal (R²= 0.7769) indicó que el PSF es un buen indicador de la magnitud de la CVtotal. Las especies de plantación de este estudio comparadas con las del bosque natural tienen estabilidad dimensional similar pero menor PEB. Abstract in english Based on ASTM standards D 2395-02 and D 143-94, total and normal shrinkage in radial (RS), tangential (TS) and volumetric (VS) directions and the total and normal TS/RS ratio were determined in the plantation woods Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L.f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev. Also, ph [...] ysical properties such as basic specific gravity (BSG), SG12% and SGovendry, green density (GD) and normal density (ND), fiber saturation point (FSP) and moisture content (MC) were determined. Some classification criteria, proposed by other researchers, were used to categorize the dimensional stability and physical properties of these species. Significant differences were found among the species for total RS, TS, VS and TStotal/RStotal, as well as for the physical properties BSG and FSP. The TStotal/RStotal ratio indicated that T. grandis has better dimensional stability. The linear regression (R²= 0.7769) indicated that FSP is a good indicator of VStotal magnitude. The plantation species of this study compared with those of the natural forest have similar dimensional stability but lower BSG.

  8. Avaliação do potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata para produção de painéis OSB / Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Setsuo, Iwakiri; Daniele Cristina, Potulski; Felipe Gustavo, Sanches; Janice Bernardo da, Silva; Rosilani, Trianoski; Williams Carlos, Pretko.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Os painéis foram produzidos em laboratório com densidade nominal de 0,75 g/cm³, utilizando r [...] esina fenol-formaldeído em quantidade de 6% de sólido resinoso e 1% de emulsão de parafina. Foram avaliadas as propriedades de absorção de água e inchamento em espessura 2 e 24 horas, tração perpendicular, módulo de elasticidade e de ruptura paralelo e perpendicular, de acordo com as normas EN 317, 318 e 310/2003, respectivamente. Os painéis OSB produzidos com as 4 espécies e mistura destas, apresentaram valores médios de propriedades físicas e mecânicas acima do requisito mínimo estabelecido pela norma CSA 437/1993. Os resultados das propriedades físicas e mecânicas obtidas indicam a viabilidade de uso das madeiras de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde [...] resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the parallel and perpendicular direction, according to EN standards. The OSB panels produced with four species and the mixture of these species showed average values of mechanical properties above the minimum standard established by the CSA 437/1993. The results of the physical and mechanical properties obtained indicate the feasibility of the use of wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach and Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing.

  9. A report on the quality control parameters of aerial parts of Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae / Relatório sobre os parâmetros de controle de qualidade das partes aéreas de Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saleemulla, Khan; Ruchi, Rawat; AKS, Rawat; Annie, Shirwaiker.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae, é uma planta que tem sido usada como medicinal na Índia como um antipirético, analgésico anti-reumático e calmante. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estabelecer os padrões morfológicos e anatômicos e caracterizar o extrato(s) de P. lanceolata pela t [...] riagem fitoquímica preliminar como parâmetro de controle de qualidade para a matéria-prima. Abstract in english Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae, is a weed that has been used as an indigenous medicine in India as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic and nervine tonic. This paper aims at setting the morphological and anatomical standards and to characterize the extract(s) of P. lanceolat [...] a by preliminary phytochemical screening as quality control parameter for the raw material.

  10. Determination of the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity on salivary Streptococci and Lactobacilli and chemical characterisation of the phenolic content of a Plantago lanceolata infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria Fabrizio; Cantile, Tiziana; Roberto, Lia; Ingenito, Aniello; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Roscetto, Emanuela; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Zarrelli, Armando; Pollio, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Plant extracts may be suitable alternative treatments for caries. Aims. To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Plantago lanceolata herbal tea (from flowers and leaves) on cariogenic bacteria and to identify the major constituents of P. lanceolata plant. Materials and Methods. The MIC and MBC against cariogenic bacteria were determined for P. lanceolata tea. Subsequently, a controlled random clinical study was conducted. Group A was instructed to rinse with a P. lanceolata mouth rinse, and Group B received a placebo mouth rinse for seven days. The salivary colonisation by streptococci and lactobacilli was investigated prior to treatment and on the fourth and seventh days. Finally, the P. lanceolata tea was analysed for its polyphenolic content, and major phenolics were identified. Results and Discussion. P. lanceolata teas demonstrate good in vitro antimicrobial activity. The in vivo test showed that Group A subjects presented a significant decrease in streptococci compared to Group B. The phytochemical analysis revealed that flavonoids, coumarins, lipids, cinnamic acids, lignans, and phenolic compounds are present in P. lanceolata infusions. Conclusions. P. lanceolata extract could represent a natural anticariogenic agent via an antimicrobial effect and might be useful as an ancillary measure to control the proliferation of cariogenic flora. PMID:25767805

  11. Global wood production : assessment of industrial round wood supply from forest management systems in different global regions

    OpenAIRE

    Arets, E.J.M.M.; Meer, P.J., van der; Verwer, C.C.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Tolkamp, G.W.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Oorschot, M., van

    2011-01-01

    To meet the global demand for wood the old forest management module of the IMAGE integrated assessment model (Bouwman et al. 2006) only applied clear felling. As a consequence in whole gird cells the forest was completely harvested. In reality, however, there many different ways to produce wood, ranging from selective logging to clear felling and forestry plantations. Each of these logging systems will have different effects on the area needed for wood production and impact on remaining fores...

  12. Soil microbial properties in Eucalyptus grandis plantations of different ages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.T, Cortez; L.A.P.L, Nunes; L.B, Rodrigues; N, Eisenhauer; A.S.F, Araújo.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are increasingly used in Brazil to produce wood and energy, although the long-term consequences for ecosystem processes have rarely been evaluated. We investigated the soil microbial properties (soil microbial C, N, respiration, carbon use efficiency, and microbial C-to-N rati [...] o) among Eucalyptus grandis plantations of differing ages (1 to 4 years) in Northeast Brazil. An adjacent native forest was used as a reference. In general, soil microbial properties decreased in initial years of land-use change, but recovered to conditions comparable to an adjacent native forest after four years in the rainy season, but not in the dry season. The varying effects of Eucalyptus plantations and native forests between seasons may reflect differences in soil microbial communities with different responses to environmental conditions. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring and microbial community analysis in order to adequately assess and understand the impacts of exotic forest plantations on soil microbial properties.

  13. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  14. Soil erosion: perennial crop plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Plantation agriculture is an important form of land-use in the tropics. Large areas of natural and regenerated forest have been cleared for growing oil palm, rubber, cocoa, coffee, and other perennial tree crops. These crops grown both on large scale plantations and by smallholders are important source of income for many farmers in tropical regions. It is generally assumed that a perennial tree cover protects the soil better against erosion than do annual crops. But tree crops may require se...

  15. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese dos frutos e sementes de Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae = Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruits and seeds of Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marzinek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clusia lanceolata Cambess é espécie arbustiva da Mata Atlântica. Caracteriza-se por ser dioica, com flores estaminadas e pistiladas grandes, vistosas, de coloração rosa, apresentando a parte interna vinácea. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie, visando classificar corretamente o seu tipo de fruto e, também, confirmar a origem do apêndice carnoso que envolve as sementes. O material botânico utilizado constou de flores em antese e frutos, em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento, coletados de dois espécimes. Os estudos morfológicos e anatômicos foram realizados segundo técnicas usuais. O fruto é cápsula septífraga, esférica, de coloração verde-avermelhado. O exocarpo é unisseriado; o mesocarpo parenquimático contém numerosos ductos secretores e feixes vasculares, de disposição principalmente longitudinal. O endocarpo é derivado da epiderme interna do ovário e de três a quatro camadas subepidérmicas, cujas células alongam-se tangencialmente e a parede que delimita o lóculo sofre lignificação. A abertura se faz pela sutura carpelar, por meio de uma faixa de células parenquimáticas de tamanho reduzido, que se bifurca em direção aos lóculos no meio dos septos. Os óvulos anátropos bitegumentados, com endotélio e hipóstase, originam sementes também anátropas, exotégmicas e envolvidas por arilo de origem funicular e exostomal. O embrião é hipocotilar.Clusia lanceolata Cambess. is a shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. The plant is dioecious, with large, showy, pink staminate and pistillate flowers that are wine-colored internally. The morphological and structural aspects of the fruits and seeds of this species are described here in order to correctly classify the fruit type and to determine the origin of the fleshy appendage that surrounds the seeds. The botanical material utilized here contained flowers in anthesis and fruits in four stages of development, and were collected from two different plants. The morphological and anatomical studies were performed according to traditional techniques. The fruit is a septifrage, spherical capsule with a reddish-green coloration. The exocarp is uniseriate; the parenchymatous mesocarp contains numerous secretory ducts and vascular bundles arranged in predominantly longitudinal positions. The endocarp is derived from the internal epidermis of the ovary and has from three to four subepidermal layers whose component cells are tangentially elongated, and the cell walls lining the locule become lignified. The fruits open by means of the carpelar suture, along a stand of small parenchymous cells that bifurcate in the direction of the locules, in the midst of the septum. The anatropous bitegumentedovules, with an endothelium and hypostase, give rise to seeds that are likewise anatropous, exotegmic, and wrapped in an aril that has a funicular and exostomal origin. The embryo is hypocotylar.

  16. Physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactures with tropical plantation species for structural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Camacho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Concrete, steel and plastics are the materials used for construction in Costa Rica. Meanwhile, wood from plantation are being introduced in the market. The present study aims to characterize and measured some physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactured with veneers of Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Acacia mangium coming from forest plantations for structural use. It was produced three plywood boards of each species and general characterization of them was done, and physical and mechanical properties were determined. The results shown that panels manufactured with T. grandis wood presented physical and mechanical properties higher than G. arborea and A. mangium. In accordance with standards of Voluntary Products Standart PS 1-95 and PS 1-09 of the United States, structural plywood of G. arborea can be grouped in grade 3, and plywood manufactured with T. grandis and A. mangium wood in grade 2. All species can be used in the manufacture of structural elements.

  17. CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Naji,; Mohd. Hamami Sahri,; Tadashi Nobuchi,; Edi Suhaimi Bakar

    2011-01-01

    Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and plantin...

  18. Gueideline for efficient and sustainable production of wood fuel. 3. ed.; Leitlinie zur effizienten und umweltvertraeglichen Erzeugung von Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, A.; Vetter, A.; Reinhold, G.

    2006-12-15

    The guideline addresses the following topics: legal aspects, combustion properties and specifications of wood fuels, site-related requirements, cultivation techniques, nutrients and fertilizers, soil working, plantation, maintenance and pest management, diseases and pests, harvesting, transport, storage, economic analysis. (uke)

  19. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  20. Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sievers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta" ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó un potrero de igual composición botánica, pero con una baja carga parasitaria, y el grupo de terneros "Plantago" pastoreó un potrero sembrado con P. lanceolata, también con una baja carga parasitaria. Este manejo se mantuvo durante 60 días. Cada semana se pesaron todos los animales y se les tomaron muestras fecales para realizar recuento de huevos y diferenciación genérica de larvas. Cada dos semanas se estableció la carga parasitaria del pasto de los potreros utilizados. La pluviosidad se registró diariamente. La carga parasitaria del pasto del potrero contaminado fue alta durante todo el ensayo. A las tres semanas de iniciado el período de suplementación se inició en ambos grupos un aumento de los recuentos (hpg promedio de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus que se diferenciaron significativamente (P 0,05. Se concluye que la suplementación con Plantago lanceolata redujo significativamente la oviposición de los parásitos gastrointestinales.The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Plantago lanceolata (narrow leaf plantain, as a supplemental forage, reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. The trial was conducted on a farm in the 10th Region, Chile. Two groups of 15 calves weighing 171.4 ± 19.8 kg grazed 17 hours a day on a pasture composed mainly of gramineous and with a high infestation of trichostrongylid nematode larvae. During the remaining 7 hours, the "control" group grazed in a pasture of similar botanic composition but with a low parasite burden; the "plantago" group grazed in a pasture specially sown with P. lanceolata with also a low parasite burden. This regimen was maintained for 60 days. Each week the animals were weighed and faecal samples were gathered to determine the nematode egg count (epg and larvae generic differentiation. Grass samples were taken every two weeks from all pastures to establish their level of parasite burden. Precipitation was measured daily. The parasite burden of grass in the contaminated pasture was high during the whole period. Three weeks after the initiation of the trial, an increase in the average of eggs per gram of faeces (epg was observed. A significant difference (P 0.05. It is concluded that the inclusion of P. lanceolata as a supplemental forage significantly reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal parasites.

  1. Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros / Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G, Sievers; S, Nannig.

    Full Text Available El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta") ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon [...] 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó un potrero de igual composición botánica, pero con una baja carga parasitaria, y el grupo de terneros "Plantago" pastoreó un potrero sembrado con P. lanceolata, también con una baja carga parasitaria. Este manejo se mantuvo durante 60 días. Cada semana se pesaron todos los animales y se les tomaron muestras fecales para realizar recuento de huevos y diferenciación genérica de larvas. Cada dos semanas se estableció la carga parasitaria del pasto de los potreros utilizados. La pluviosidad se registró diariamente. La carga parasitaria del pasto del potrero contaminado fue alta durante todo el ensayo. A las tres semanas de iniciado el período de suplementación se inició en ambos grupos un aumento de los recuentos (hpg) promedio de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus que se diferenciaron significativamente (P 0,05). Se concluye que la suplementación con Plantago lanceolata redujo significativamente la oviposición de los parásitos gastrointestinales. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Plantago lanceolata (narrow leaf plantain), as a supplemental forage, reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. The trial was conducted on a farm in the 10th Region, Chile. Two groups of 15 calves weighing 171.4 ± 19.8 kg grazed [...] 17 hours a day on a pasture composed mainly of gramineous and with a high infestation of trichostrongylid nematode larvae. During the remaining 7 hours, the "control" group grazed in a pasture of similar botanic composition but with a low parasite burden; the "plantago" group grazed in a pasture specially sown with P. lanceolata with also a low parasite burden. This regimen was maintained for 60 days. Each week the animals were weighed and faecal samples were gathered to determine the nematode egg count (epg) and larvae generic differentiation. Grass samples were taken every two weeks from all pastures to establish their level of parasite burden. Precipitation was measured daily. The parasite burden of grass in the contaminated pasture was high during the whole period. Three weeks after the initiation of the trial, an increase in the average of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) was observed. A significant difference (P 0.05). It is concluded that the inclusion of P. lanceolata as a supplemental forage significantly reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal parasites.

  2. Les variations de couleur dans l'aubier et le duramen de jeunes arbres de Tectona grandis, en relation avec les caractéristiques des plantations, du site et de la durabilité

    OpenAIRE

    Moya, Róger; Berrocal, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    * Wood colour of Tectona grandis produced from fast-growth plantations is highly variable and the causes of this variation are relatively unknown.* With the purpose of understanding the colour variation, different fast-growth plantations were sampled with different growth rates, tree ages, and sites.* Wood colour was measured with a CIELab system, where three variables are estimated: coordinate L* for lightness, coordinate a* defines redness and coordinate b* defines yellowness.* Results show...

  3. Short-rotation plantations. Processes, economic efficiency and ecological balance; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Verfahren, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Oekobilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Frank [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft, Freising (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    A short-rotation plantation is defined as the cultivation of fast-growing species of trees on agricultural land. Following the harvest, the trees sprout from the floor. Thus, the trees can be utilized repeatedly. The stocks produce enormous growth rates. Nearly 5,000 to 6,000 litre of heating oil can be conserved by means of the wood growing on an area of one hectare annually. The well organized harvest is decisive for the economic efficiency. The ecological balance presents the short-rotation plantations as a very extensive form of land use.

  4. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  5. DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DE Sacoila lanceolata (AUBL. GARAY (ORCHIDACEAE EM FRAGMENTO MESÓFILO DE PIRASSUNUNGA, SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PICCOLI, Mariani Cristina Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sacoila lanceolata stands out for its wide geographical distribution and ability to invade disturbed areas. The present study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of species, besides verifying the correlation between immature and mature plants with the climatic patterns in Fragment Seasonal Semi-deciduous forest of the state of São Paulo. The identification of the distribution pattern occurred for the allocation of 20 plots of 20 x 10 m, later reduced to 10 x 10 m was calculated Morisita Index (MI and the ratio Variance / Mean (R. To identify correlations used the Spearman correlation coefficient (r. Immature and mature showed aggregation in plots of 100 m² and 200 m², being higher for mature in both cases. The correlation coefficient obtained between immature and mature was greater than 0.88, indicating dependence between these populations. All abiotic factors analyzed, mainly temperature and relative humidity, were important for the allocation of plants along the plots. Sacoila lanceolata destaca-se por sua ampla distribuição geográfica e capacidade de invadir ambientes perturbados. O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar a distribuição espacial da espécie, além de verificar se há correlação entre imaturos e maturos com os padrões microclimáticos em Fragmento Estacional Semidecidual do Estado de São Paulo. A identificação do padrão de distribuição ocorreu pela alocação de 20 parcelas de 20 x 10 m, posteriormente reduzidas para 10 x 10 m, onde foram calculados o Índice de Morisita (IM e a Razão Variância/Média (R. Para identificação das correlações utilizou-se o índice de correlação de Sperman (r. Imaturos e maturos apresentaram agregação nas parcelas de 100 m² e 200 m², sendo esta maior para maturos em ambos os casos. O índice de correlação obtido entre imaturos e maturos foi superior a 0,88, indicando dependência entre tais populações. Todos os fatores abióticos analisados, principalmente temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, mostraram-se importantes para a alocação das plantas ao longo das parcelas.

  6. THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Sulaiman,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to review the current status of oil palm biomass, including the availability of this tree, in order to illustrate the potential of oil palm biomass as an alternative source for compressed wood. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of compressed wood from oil palm trunk. This paper will cover the background of compressed wood and the possibilities of producing compressed wood using oil palm trunk as a raw material.

  7. Distribution of metabolites in galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata and its antioxidant activity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafaela O., Ferreira; Almir R. de, Carvalho Junior; Telma M.G. da, Silva; Rosane N., Castro; Tania M.S. da, Silva; Mário G. de, Carvalho.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata Cambess., Clusiaceae, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The chemical composition of both oils was similar, with a predominance of sesquiterpene caryophyllenes. The extracts from the leaves were evaluat [...] ed regarding total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. Galled leaves showed higher levels of phenolics and proanthocyanidins, since the content of flavonoids was higher in non-galled leaves. The chromatographic profiles of extracts were obtained by using HPLC/DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Electrospray ionisation (ESI) in positive and negative ion mode was used to identify four flavones C-glycosides in both extracts. The study constitutes a first report on the chemical research of C. lanceolata. The extract from galled leaves had a higher antioxidant activity.

  8. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke?a Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  9. Evaluación del efecto genotóxico en extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor y matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vizoso Parra

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Mediante 2 ensayos de genotoxicidad, segregación mitótica en Aspergillus nidulans D-30 y la inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón se procedió a evaluar la posible acción genotóxica de los extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor y Matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla. En el ensayo de segregación mitótica se evaluaron los extractos fluidos de llantén menor y manzanilla con 5 y 6 concentraciones en un rango de 0,6 a 4,76 y 0,016 a 0,652 mg de sólidos totales/mL respectivamente. En el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos se probaron para el llantén menor dosis de 1,875; 3,750 y 6,000 g/kg peso corporal (pc y en el caso de la manzanilla dosis de 1,23; 1,96 y 2,45 g/kg pc. En ninguno de los ensayos realizados se detectó la ocurrencia de efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos.Potential genotoxic action of fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. (Llantén menor, and Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomille was assessed by 2 genotoxic trials: mitotic spreading in D-30 Aspergillus nidulans and micronuclei induction in bone marrow of the mouse. In mitotic spreading trial, fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. and Chamomille, with 5 and 6 concentrations in a range of 0,6-4,76, and 0,016-0,652 mg of total solids/mL, respectively, were assessed. In micronuclei induction trial, for Plantago lanceolata L., dose of 1875; 3,750, and 6,000 g/kg of body weight (bw, and in the case of Chamomille, dose of 1,23; 1,96, and 2,45 g/kg of bw,were tested. In none of trials performed, it was possible to detect occurrence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

  10. Evaluación del efecto genotóxico en extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ángel, Vizoso Parra; Alberto, Ramos Ruiz; Aida, Villaescusa González; Mercedes, Décalo Michelena; José, Betancourt Badell.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Mediante 2 ensayos de genotoxicidad, segregación mitótica en Aspergillus nidulans D-30 y la inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón se procedió a evaluar la posible acción genotóxica de los extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla). E [...] n el ensayo de segregación mitótica se evaluaron los extractos fluidos de llantén menor y manzanilla con 5 y 6 concentraciones en un rango de 0,6 a 4,76 y 0,016 a 0,652 mg de sólidos totales/mL respectivamente. En el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos se probaron para el llantén menor dosis de 1,875; 3,750 y 6,000 g/kg peso corporal (pc) y en el caso de la manzanilla dosis de 1,23; 1,96 y 2,45 g/kg pc. En ninguno de los ensayos realizados se detectó la ocurrencia de efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos. Abstract in english Potential genotoxic action of fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. (Llantén menor), and Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomille) was assessed by 2 genotoxic trials: mitotic spreading in D-30 Aspergillus nidulans and micronuclei induction in bone marrow of the mouse. In mitotic spreading trial, fluid [...] extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. and Chamomille, with 5 and 6 concentrations in a range of 0,6-4,76, and 0,016-0,652 mg of total solids/mL, respectively, were assessed. In micronuclei induction trial, for Plantago lanceolata L., dose of 1875; 3,750, and 6,000 g/kg of body weight (bw), and in the case of Chamomille, dose of 1,23; 1,96, and 2,45 g/kg of bw),were tested. In none of trials performed, it was possible to detect occurrence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

  11. Light and Nutrient Dependent Responses in Secondary Metabolites of Plantago lanceolata Offspring Are Due to Phenotypic Plasticity in Experimental Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehe-Steier, Annegret; Roscher, Christiane; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2015-01-01

    A few studies in the past have shown that plant diversity in terms of species richness and functional composition can modify plant defense chemistry. However, it is not yet clear to what extent genetic differentiation of plant chemotypes or phenotypic plasticity in response to diversity-induced variation in growth conditions or a combination of both is responsible for this pattern. We collected seed families of ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) from six-year old experimental grasslands of varying plant diversity (Jena Experiment). The offspring of these seed families was grown under standardized conditions with two levels of light and nutrients. The iridoid glycosides, catalpol and aucubin, and verbascoside, a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside, were measured in roots and shoots. Although offspring of different seed families differed in the tissue concentrations of defensive metabolites, plant diversity in the mothers' environment did not explain the variation in the measured defensive metabolites of P. lanceolata offspring. However secondary metabolite levels in roots and shoots were strongly affected by light and nutrient availability. Highest concentrations of iridoid glycosides and verbascoside were found under high light conditions, and nutrient availability had positive effects on iridoid glycoside concentrations in plants grown under high light conditions. However, verbascoside concentrations decreased under high levels of nutrients irrespective of light. The data from our greenhouse study show that phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation rather than genetic differentiation in response to plant community diversity is responsible for variation in secondary metabolite concentrations of P. lanceolata in the six-year old communities of the grassland biodiversity experiment. Due to its large phenotypic plasticity P. lanceolata has the potential for a fast and efficient adjustment to varying environmental conditions in plant communities of different species richness and functional composition. PMID:26336100

  12. Cleaning of drainage water from agricultural land using a willow plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment using a willow plantation as a vegetation filter for cleaning of drainage water from agricultural land was established on a sandy soil in southwestern Sweden. Large amounts of nitrogen rich drainage water were collected in a pond, pumped into the willow plantation and distributed by flooding in shallow furrows. Measurements of the nitrogen content in the green willow leaves and in the percolating groundwater showed that large amounts of nitrogen supplied with the irrigation water were taken up effectively by the willow root system. The stem biomass production rates were high. The experiment showed that an irrigated willow plantation can act as a vegetation filter for cleaning of nitrogen in polluted drainage water and at the same time produce wood biomass for energy purposes. (au)

  13. Characterization of copper-resistant rhizosphere bacteria from Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata for copper bioreduction and biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2012-04-01

    Copper is a toxic heavy metal widely used to microbial control especially in agriculture. Consequently, high concentrations of copper residues remain in soils selecting copper-resistant organisms. In vineyards, copper is routinely used for fungi control. This work was undertaken to study copper resistance by rhizosphere microorganisms from two plants (Avena sativa L. and Plantago lanceolata L.) common in vineyard soils. Eleven rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated, and four displayed high resistance to copper. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Pseudomonas putida (A1), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (A2) and Acinetobacter sp. (A6), isolated from Avena sativa rhizosphere, and Acinetobacter sp. (T5), isolated from Plantago lanceolata rhizosphere. The isolates displayed high copper resistance in the temperature range from 25°C to 35°C and pH in the range from 5.0 to 9.0. Pseudomonas putida A1 resisted as much as 1,000 mg L(-1) of copper. The isolates showed similar behavior on copper removal from liquid medium, with a bioremoval rate of 30% at 500 mg L(-1) after 24 h of growth. Speciation of copper revealed high copper biotransformation, reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), capacity. Results indicate that our isolates are potential agents for copper bioremoval and bacterial stimulation of copper biosorption by Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata. PMID:22002857

  14. The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

  15. Climate benefits from alternative energy uses of biomass plantations in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of tree plantations in rural areas in Uganda could provide renewable energy to rural communities, while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from conventional electricity sources and unsustainable forest use. The study evaluates the greenhouse gas benefits that could be produced by biomass based energy systems in Anaka, a rural settlement in the Amuru district in northern Uganda. Two alternative energy uses are explored: a) electricity production through wood gasification and b) traditional fuelwood use. It is estimated that a small-scale wood gasifier could provide electricity for basic community services by planting less than 10 ha of new short rotation coppices (SRCs). The gasification system could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by traditional diesel based electricity generators in terms of CO2-eq. (0.61–0.83 t MWh?1 or 7.1 t y?1 per hectare of SRCs). It was also estimated that traditional use of fuelwood in households is currently unsustainable, i.e. the consumption of wood is higher than the annual growth from natural wood resources in the study area. It is estimated that 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could render the current consumption of wood sustainable. In this way, the CO2 emissions produced through unsustainable extraction of wood could be avoided (2.0–7.3 t per capita per year or 50–130 t y?1 per hectare of SRCs). -- Highlights: ? We assessed the GHG benefits of short rotation coppices for bioenergy in Uganda. ? The GHG benefits of two energy uses are explored: gasification and fuelwood use. ? The gasifier could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by diesel generators. ? 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could avoid unsustainable fuelwood use. ? Fuelwood production is more efficient in terms of GHG savings per hectare

  16. Antiinflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Phlomis lanceolata Boiss. and Hohen. Extracts and Examination of their Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohajer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of total extract and four fractions (ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water from Phlomis lanceolata (Lamiaceae in mice. The plant material was extracted with methanol. In order to estimate the polarity of the active compounds, the total extract was dissolved in water and the water soluble portion was successively partitioned between ether, ethyl acetate and n-buthanol. The total extract and four fractions were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC by use of specific reagents. Dose of 100 mg kg 1 of each extracts were used in carrageenan-induced paw edema, formalin and writhing nociception tests in mice. All compounds reduced paw edema in comparison to the control group at 1, 3, 5 and 7 h post carrageenan injection. The total, ether and aqueous extracts were similar to indomethacin while the ethyl acetate extract was weaker than indomethacin in reduction of paw edema. All extracts induced antinociception in both phases of formalin test. The total and ether extracts were as potent as indomethacin in both phases of formalin test. The ethyl acetate extract was weaker than indomethacin in the second phase of formalin-test while the n-butanol and aqueous extracts showed more antinociception than indomethacin in the second phase of formalin test. All extracts as well as indomethacin induced antinociception in writhing test in comparison to control. The total and aqueous extracts induced the same antinociception as indomethacin while ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol showed weaker antinociception than indomethacin. Positive results for iridoids and phenolic compounds were indicated by phytochemical analysis of total extract. Phenolic compounds were found in four fractions whereas only n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed positive results for iridoid glycosides. The higher antinociceptive effects of n-butanol and aqueous extracts in the inflammatory phase of formalin test among different extracts tested, might back to the presence of iridoid glycosides, phenolic glycosides or other glycosides. These data suggest that different extracts of P. lanceolata produce different antinociceptive activities that could be due to the effect of one or a combination of the bioactive components in each extract.

  17. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  18. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari; K. Pourali,; A. Fakhrian Roghani

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 ?m, and 7.1 ?m, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-w...

  19. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  20. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  1. Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2014-01-01

    Social vulnerability to disturbances is influenced by the economic and political context in which actors and institutions both enable and constrain household access to productive resources. These resources are crucial as a means for mitigating, coping, and responding to impacts of natural disturbances. The Vietnamese Government has formulated policies aimed at achieving dual objectives of socio-economic development and environmental protection through the expansion of plantation forests. Negativ...

  2. Plantation agriculture in the tropics - environmental issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Plantation agriculture is more than 400 years old and contributes to the regional and national economies in many tropical countries. This paper reviews some of the main environmental issues related to plantation agriculture with perennial crops, including soil erosion, soil fertility decline, pollution, carbon sequestration and biodiversity. Soil erosion and soil fertility decline are of concern in some areas, but in most plantations these are being checked by cover crops and inorganic fertil...

  3. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009.

  4. [Phenomenological models of the forest plantations growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, A S; Sukhovol'ski?, V G; Ovchinnikova, T M

    2008-01-01

    Phenomenological models of the forest plantations growth are analyzed. Those derived from the Verhulst's model are shown to fail describing qualitative effects reflecting tree growth, phytomass withdrawals, and plantation restoration. The method of phase portraits is used for exploration of the forest ecosystem dynamics, which allows to describe regulatory mechanisms of the growth processes, regulation delay, and feedback types. A bistable phenomenological model is suggested herewith to characterize dynamic processes in the forest ecosystems. Principal patterns of formation of the forest plantations at different stages of the forest generation processes are considered on the basis of that model, and ecological effects responsible for the plantation dynamics are revealed. PMID:18409396

  5. WOOD WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Theodoro Muller

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in the rubbed surfaces reaching 170 ºC, and the consequent change of state of the lignin and hemicelluloses, that then melt and flow. The process results in the detachment of wood cells, and in a formation of a fibers entanglement network immersed in a matrix of molten material which then solidifies. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs obtained shows a considerable physic-chemical reorganization in the bulk of the joint. This new composition of detachment wood cells/fibers of the two surfaces, a entanglement network immersed in a matrix of molten polymericmaterial, mainly melted lignin, yields in the interface of the welding a bond of considerable strength.

  6. Federal tax incentives and disincentives for the adoption of wood-fuel electric-generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we estimate the effects of current federal tax policy on the financial criteria that investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) and non-utility electricity generators (NUGs) use to evaluate wood-fuel electric-generating technologies, distinguishing between dedicated-plantation and wood-waste fuels. Accelerated tax depreciation, the 1.5 cent/kWh production tax credit for the dedicated-plantation technology, and the alternative minimum tax are the most important tax provisions. The results indicate that federal tax laws have significantly different effects on the evaluation criteria, depending on the plant's ownership (IOU vs NUG) and type of fuel (dedicated-plantation vs wood-waste). (Author)

  7. Impact of defoliation on the regrowth capacity and the shoot metabolite profile of Plantago lanceolata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankoke, Helga; Müller, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    After defoliation challenges, plants should invest their resources in a way that maximizes their fitness, which may lead to trade-offs in investment in physiological versus chemical traits. Thereby, the regrowth capacity of plants may highly depend on the type and the severity of defoliation. In the present study, we investigated the phenotypic plasticity of Plantago lanceolata L. in response to different defoliation events in a comprehensive way, measuring various traits. This herbaceous species grows on ruderal sites and typically suffers from repeated substantial losses of shoot biomass due to mowing and/or herbivory during the growing season. To study treatment-specific effects of defoliation on resource allocation and induction of defence responses, plants were exposed either to (repeated) mechanical clipping or to herbivory by the generalist Grammia incorrupta (Lepidoptera). Next to regrowth and physiological leaf traits such as the water content, the specific leaf area and C/N ratios of these plants, primary and secondary metabolites in leaves were analyzed with a metabolite profiling approach using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The different defoliation treatments strongly affected the regrowth capacity of clipped and herbivore-treated plants, leading to additive changes in physiological leaf traits. As a response to the defoliation treatments, clipped and herbivore-treated plants reduced mainly carbon-based primary metabolites such as sorbitol, and glucose, suggesting that the different defoliation challenges similarly limited the ability of carbon fixation. Yet, only in response to herbivory but not to clipping, plants induced defence compounds, which indicates the importance of treatment-specific responses despite severe resource limitations. Overall, the different responses to defoliation by clipping and herbivory may reflect allocation constraints and/or adaptive plasticity. PMID:24036062

  8. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A. C. Kaplan; Mírian P. Rodarte; Maria P. H. Amaral; Aílson A. L. Araújo; Míriam A. O. Pinto; Maria S. Alves; Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira; Orlando V. de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli&l...

  9. Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, D.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  10. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  11. Water use, water limitation, and water use efficiency in a Eucalyptus plantation Utilización del agua, limitación hídrica y eficiencia del uso del agua en una plantación de Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    JOSE LUIZ STAPE; DAN BINKLEY; Ryan, Michael G; ANTONIO DO NASCIMENTO GOMES

    2004-01-01

    Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production worldwide, but the ecophysiology of resource limitation on growth remains poorly quantified. We investigated the production ecology of a 3.4- to 5.4- year-old plantation of clonal Eucalypus grandis x urophylla in northeastern Brazil on a sandy Oxisol during two years (one wet, and one with normal rainfall). We measured wood production and estimated water use (transpired water) in control and irrigated treatments. W...

  12. Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Aparecida Verde de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689.Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are kidney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

  13. Comparison of Different Wood Species as Raw Materials for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Klašnja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Most projections of the global energy use predict that biomass will be an important component of primary energy sources in the coming decades. Short rotation plantations have the potential to become an important source of renewable energy in Europe because of the high biomass yields, a good combustion quality as solid fuel, ecological advantages and comparatively low biomass production costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the wood of black locust Robinia pseudoacacia, white willow Salix alba L., poplars Populus deltoides and Populus x euramericana cl.I-214, aged eight years were examined. Immediately after the felling, sample discs were taken to assess moisture content, ash content, the width of growth rings, wood densities and calorific values, according to the standard methodology. Results:The mean values of willow, poplar and black locust wood density were 341 kg/m3, 336 kg/m3 and 602 kg/m3,respectively. The average heating values of willow poplar and black locust wood were 18.599 MJ/kg, 18.564 MJ/kg and 21.196 MJ/kg, respectively. The FVI index (average values was higher for black locust (17.186 than for poplar and willow clones, which were similar: 11.312 and 11.422 respectively. Conclusions: Black locust wood with a higher density, calorific value and ash content compared to poplar and willow wood proved to be a more suitable raw material as RES. However, it is very important, from the aspect of the application of wood of these tree species as RES, to also consider the influence of the biomass yield per unit area of the plantations established as “energy plantations”.

  14. Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar (Populus sp. plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76" plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G partitioning to latent (LE and sensible (H heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008 to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009, and H/(Rn-G from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (?=H/LE were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs had the greatest response to drought (+43%, but the aerodynamic and climatological resistances did not change significantly (p > 0.05. Partial correlation analysis indicated that Rs was the dominant factor in controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the major factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (? = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively, and the LE / LEeq ratio ranged from 0.81 and 0.68 in wet and dry years, respectively. In general, the dry surface conditions dominated in this poplar plantation ecosystem regardless of soil water availability suggesting that fast-growing and water use-intensive species like poplar plantations are poorly adapted for the water limited region.

  15. Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76") plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G) partitioning to latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G) ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008) to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009), and H/(Rn-G) from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (?=H/LE) were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs) had the greatest response to drought (+43%), but the aerodynamic and climatological resistances did not change significantly (p > 0.05). Partial correlation analysis indicated that Rs was the dominant factor in controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the major factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (? = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively), and the LE / LEeq ratio ranged from 0.81 and 0.68 in wet and dry years, respectively. In general, the dry surface conditions dominated in this poplar plantation ecosystem regardless of soil water availability suggesting that fast-growing and water use-intensive species like poplar plantations are poorly adapted for the water limited region.

  16. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1) and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1), respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1)). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential. PMID:26186367

  17. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  18. Acute and subchronic (28 days) oral toxicity studies of Codonopsis lanceolata extract in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young-Hyun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Lee, Jin-Ha; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata is a perennial plant that has been used as a food and in traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, and inflammation in East Asia including Korea, Japan, and China. However, information regarding its toxicity is limited. Therefore, we performed a safety evaluation of aqueous C. lanceolata root extract (CLE) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Assessment of acute toxicity revealed that CLE did not influence mortality, clinical appearance, body weight gain, or necropsy findings at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. In the subchronic oral toxicity, data revealed that several significant alteration in food consumption, water consumption, protein excretion, WBCs levels, TGs, BUN levels, and the absolute and relative weights in the liver, spleen and lungs. However, these changes were transient and were not considered treatment related because they showed no apparent dose dependent. These results suggest that CLE (1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg body weight/day) administered orally does not cause acute or subchronic toxicity to male or female rats. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of CLE was determined to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. PMID:25724632

  19. Anti-Tumor Effect of Steamed Codonopsis lanceolata in H22 Tumor-Bearing Mice and Its Possible Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Xu, Qi; He, Yu-Fang; Liu, Ying; Yang, Shu-Bao; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies confirmed that steaming and the fermentation process could significantly improve the cognitive-enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Codonopsis lanceolata, the anti-tumor efficacy of steamed C. lanceolata (SCL) and what mechanisms are involved remain largely unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor effect in vivo of SCL in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results clearly indicated that SCL could not only inhibit the tumor growth, but also prolong the survival time of H22 tumor-bearing mice. Besides, the serum levels of cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), were enhanced by SCL administration. The observations of Hoechst 33258 staining demonstrated that SCL was able to induce tumor cell apoptosis. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SCL treatment significantly increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of H22 tumor tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, LC/MS analysis of SCL indicated that it mainly contained lobetyolin and six saponins. Taken all together, the findings in the present study clearly demonstrated that SCL inhibited the H22 tumor growth in vivo at least partly via improving the immune functions, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:26426041

  20. Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f. plantations of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Moya J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand of 150 teak trees ha-1 at age 19 would accumulate (kg ha-1 405 N, 661 Ca, 182 K, 111 Mg, 33 P, 53 S, 9 Fe, 0.47 Mn, 0.22 Cu, 0.92 Zn, 1 B; whereas the expected nutrient export by timber harvest (bole and bark is (kg ha-1 220 N, 281 Ca, 88 K, 63 Mg, 23 P, 39 S, 6 Fe, 0.13 Mn, 0.10 Cu, 0.21 Zn, 0.40 B. Hence, teak nutrition should pay special attention to N and K, together with Ca the nutrients most accumulated by teak. In addition, P and B could also be limiting planted teak forest productivity due to their general soil deficiencies. Proposed models estimate the amount of nutrients removed from the site during timber harvests, information that can be used by plantation managers to avoid soil nutrient depletion, approaching sustainability in forest plantation management.

  1. Conference: 'Heating with Wood'. An alternative to fossil fuels? Status and perspectives. Documentation; Tagung: 'Heizen mit Holz'. Eine Alternative zur fossilen Energie? Stand der Technik und neue Perspektiven. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Main topics of the meeting ''Heating with wood'' were: resource assessment, economical aspects, logistics, cogeneration, district heating, plantation and harvesting of fast growing trees, new heating systems.(uke)

  2. Effects of fertilization and competition on plant biomass allocation and internal resources: Does Plantago lanceolata follow the rules of economic theory?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jane?ek, Št?pán; Patá?ová, E.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 49, ?. 1 (2014), s. 49-64. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/09/0963; GA ?R GA526/07/0808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : allocation * Plantago lanceolata * plasticity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  3. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  4. Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD7, 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha-1, respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

  5. DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF METHYL METHACRYLATE HARDENED HYBRID POPLAR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dan Ding,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the dimensional stability of fast-growing poplar clones wood after treatment by impregnation with methyl methacrylate (MMA. Six hybrid poplar clones from one plantation in Quebec were sampled. The effects of hardening with MMA on density as well as longitudinal, radial, tangential, and volumetric swelling properties (S, water uptake capacity (D, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE, and water repellent efficiency (WRE after soaking were investigated. Hardening treatment increased the density of all poplar woods by 1.2 to 1.6 and decreased the inner water migration rate during soaking. S and D values of hardened woods were significantly lower than those of controls, depending on the clone type. ASE and WRE values suggested that incorporating MMA effectively improved the dimensional stability of poplar wood at the early soaking stage, but was less effective in the long term.

  6. DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF METHYL METHACRYLATE HARDENED HYBRID POPLAR WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Dan Ding,; Ahmed Koubaa,; Abdelkader Chaala

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the dimensional stability of fast-growing poplar clones wood after treatment by impregnation with methyl methacrylate (MMA). Six hybrid poplar clones from one plantation in Quebec were sampled. The effects of hardening with MMA on density as well as longitudinal, radial, tangential, and volumetric swelling properties (S), water uptake capacity (D), anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), and water repellent efficiency (WRE) after soaking were investigated. Hardening treatment incr...

  7. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration of carbon. The same is likely to be true for managed forests in other temperate regions. If wood from additional felling is used, it would be most effective to use it in products that stay in circulation for a long time, only to be used for energy at the end of its service life. An increase in wood demand may lead to an intensification of forest management, which may temporarily increase carbon sequestration rates and biomass yields. This would eventually reduce the payback times. However, it must be noted that it would still take a substantial amount of time for the intensification of forest management to become effective, especially when it includes drastic measures, such as converting natural forests into plantations. Short rotation plantations with fast growing trees on agricultural land may be another option, but in these cases there are similarities with the direct and indirect land-use change effects related to energy crops. Further analysis is required to enable a clear judgment on the impact of these options. Products are not the only place of storing carbon with a beneficial effect on climate change. The combination of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) on large industrial sites where biomass is converted into energy carriers, such as transport fuel and electricity, is projected to be beneficial, as well. Even landfill sites may serve as storage of carbon in wood waste, as pieces of wood hardly degrade.

  8. Programming plantation lines on driverless tractors

    OpenAIRE

    Fabris, Antonio Elias; Nascimento, Marcelo Zanchetta do; Batista, Valério Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in Agricultural Engineering include image processing, robotics and geographic information systems (GIS). Some tasks are still accomplished manually, like drawing plantation lines that optimize productivity. Herewith we present an algorithm to find the optimal plantation lines in linear time. The algorithm is based upon classical results of Geometry which enabled a source code with only 573 lines. We have implemented it in Matlab for sugar cane, and it can be ...

  9. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ? 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ? 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  10. THE VIBRATIONAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR WOOD DURING MOISTURE SORPTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Jiang,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational properties of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata wood were investigated in this study as a function of changes in moisture content (MC and grain direction. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE and logarithmic decrement (? were examined using a cantilever beam vibration testing apparatus. It was observed that DMOE and ? of wood varied widely during moisture adsorption and desorption. The DMOE of wood conditioned by the adsorption process showed significant increases during the later stages of conditioning when the MC scarcely changed. However, with the desorption process, the DMOE did not increase as much during the later stages of conditioning, though they increased during the early stages of conditioning when the MC greatly decreased. These results suggest that wood in an unstable state, caused via the existing state of moisture, shows different vibrational behaviors. Furthermore, the parallel to grain direction showed much higher DMOE and lower ? when compared to the perpendicular to grain direction. The variation of vibrational properties between parallel and perpendicular to grain direction under constant MC and during moisture adsorption process could be attributed due to the microscopic, macroscopic molecular, as well as chemical constituents of wood.

  11. Commercial Profitability of Poplar Plantation with Reference to the Damages Caused by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Ke?a

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Due to the fact that poplar rotation is one of the shortest in forestry, and as production of poplar wood requires rational and well-planned management, the potentials of sites and species must be maximally utilised. The main characteristics of the procedure of investment in poplar cultivation, is the fact that the conditions for the beginning of production and their exploitation are not created simultaneously. The main goal of the work reported in this paper was to examine the financial effects of different discount rates on the cost-efficiency values of studied poplar plantation, based on an analysis of the present value of costs and revenues over a stated time period using different methods of investment appraisal. Material and Methods: Investment Appraisal also known as Capital Budgeting is used to asses whether capital expenditure on particular poplar plantations will be beneficial for the entity or not. The investigated plantation was established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214 on alluvial semigley, with planting spacing 6 x 3 m, aged 26 years, for technical wood production. The data used in this study were collected from the archives of the, according to the age at plantation established and from the management and materials books of the forest enterprise “Vojvodinašume”. During two-year study, the material was collected from study plot in order to assess the density, distribution and significance of individual fungal organisms present in the plantation. Identification was based on the morphological characteristics of species. Results and Conclusion: Under the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 26 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in this studied plot because of the better sites (alluvial semigley and youngness of the stand. For the studied sample plot IRR is 6.94. R for the r=12% in the study compartment is 0.407. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor under the discount rate of 6%. In the studied plot altogether 11 species of fungi causing significant damages in hybrid poplar plantations were identified. Two were found on cortical tissue, 6 on leaves and 3 species are causing decay. Number of trees attacked with decaying fungi, like Fomes fomentarius, Trametes suaveolens, was bellow 2%/ two percentage.

  12. Energy partitioning and surface resistance of a poplar plantation in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; Chen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been, on the one hand, broadly used in northern China for urban greening, combating desertification, as well as for paper and wood production. On the other hand, such plantations have been questioned occasionally for their possible negative impacts on water availability due to the higher water-use nature of poplar trees compared with other tree species in water-limited dryland regions. To further understand the acclimation of poplar species to semiarid environments and to evaluate the potential impacts of these plantations on the broader context of the region's water supply, we examine the variability of bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning in a poplar (Populus euramericana cv. "74/76") plantation located in northern China over a 4-year period, encompassing both dry and wet conditions. The partitioning of available energy to latent heat flux (LE) decreased from 0.62 to 0.53 under mediated meteorological drought by irrigation applications. A concomitant increase in sensible heat flux (H) resulted in the increase of a Bowen ratio from 0.83 to 1.57. Partial correlation analysis indicated that surface resistance (Rs) normalized by leaf area index (LAI; Rs:LAI) increased by 50 % under drought conditions and was the dominant factor controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the main factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (? = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively). Rs was also a major regulator of the LE / LEeq ratio, which decreased from 0.81 in wet years to 0.68 in dry years. All physiological and bioclimatological metrics indicated that the water demands of the poplar plantation were greater than the amount available through precipitation, highlighting the poor match of a water-intensive species like poplar for this water-limited region.

  13. Rapid discrimination of cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata in different ages by FT-IR and 2DCOS-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Xu, Chang-hua; Huang, Jian; Li, Guo-yu; Liu, Xin-Hu; Sun, Su-qin; Wang, Jin-hui

    2014-07-01

    Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata) root, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to treat lung ailments, rheumatism, menstrual disturbance and bruises with a long history in China and some other Asian countries. In this study, four types of Deodeok with different growth years were discriminated and identified by a Tri-step infrared spectroscopy method (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (conventional FT-IR) coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2DCOS-IR) under thermal perturbation. Although only small differences were found in the FT-IR spectra of the samples, the positions and intensities of peaks around 1736, 1634, 1246, 1055, 1033, 818, 779 cm-1 could be considered as the key factors for discriminating them. The differences among them were amplified by their SD-IR spectra. The 2DCOS-IR spectra provided obvious dynamic chemical structure information of Deodeok samples, which present different particular auto peak clusters in the range of 875-1130 cm-1 and 1170-1630 cm-1, respectively. It was demonstrated that the content of triterpene were decreasing when C. lanceolata were growing older, but the relative content of saccharides initially increased and decreased significantly afterwards. It indicated a general trend that the content of polysaccharides accumulated with increasing years. Specifically, the content of polysaccharides accumulated in the root of 2-year-old plant was the lowest, 4-years-old was the highest, and then the content decreased gradually. Furthermore, according to the differences of locations and intensities of auto-peaks in 2D-IR spectra, the integral changes of components were revealed. This study offers a promising method inherent with cost-effective and time-saving to characterize and discriminate the complicated system like Deodeok.

  14. The research of some physical properties of wood Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortuneii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoški? Borislav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The density, shrinkage and swelling of Paulownia elongata and P. fortuneii wood were researched. The study material was provided by Boda Vukovojac, B. Sc., who established the Paulownia plantation and sample plots on the territory of the Municipality Bela Crkva. The study results show the differences between the analyzed properties of these two species. The study results were also compared with the results of the similar species of wood. The data shows that the study wood can be used in wood products that are not subject to great loads during exploitation. Further study should investigate the liability of these wood species to form tension wood and deformations in the conditions of variable hygroscopic moisture.

  15. Albedo of a hybrid poplar plantation in central Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D. T.; Bernier, P. Y.; Orchansky, A.; Thomas, B.

    2012-04-01

    Canada's boreal forest resources are coming under increasing pressure from competing land-uses, including establishment of protected areas, and losses of harvestable forest to mining and oil and gas exploration. In the prairie region, concerns about lack of wood supply for pulpmills and potential opportunities for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation, have spurred interest in afforestation of marginal agricultural land, notably with fast-growing hybrid poplars (HP). However, global modelling studies suggest that a shift from grassland or crops to forest cover in temperate and boreal regions could result in reduced surface albedo, particularly in winter, causing an increase in radiative forcing and reducing any climate mitigation benefits due to net GHG removal. We report on seven growing seasons of measurements of short-wave canopy albedo using tower-mounted instruments, along with eddy covariance measurements of carbon, water and energy balance, at a site in central Alberta planted with HP cuttings in spring 2005. The data show little systematic change in average albedo as vegetation has changed from bare ground to a plantation of 6 m trees. Reasons for this include very wide (3 m) spacing between the trees, and snow cover which often persists for 4-5 months and is highly visible below the bare canopies during winter. While measurements should continue as the trees grow larger, we postulate that extensive afforestation with HP is unlikely to have major effects on regional-scale surface albedo compared to the agricultural systems they replace. Normal rotation lengths are 15-20 years, hence even if older plantations have significantly lower winter albedo, their contribution to the regional average would be relatively small because they will cover only a small fraction of the landscape (e.g., compared to forests of boreal conifers or temperate broadleaved species).

  16. Fuel plantation research. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, J.

    1977-08-01

    Research in chemical induction of lightwood is summarized. Four large-scale proof of concept studies have been installed that test five paraquat treatments on a total of 71,228 trees. This wood will be used in actual pulp mill and extraction plant runs to determine oleoresin recovery and possible processing problems. Nearly 3,000 wood samples have been collected to ascertain duration of treatment effects. Results of complementary studies are also reported; most of these are concerned with optimization of paraquat application techniques and the effect of species differences on these methods. A large study was installed to field screen selected insecticides for insect pest control in lightwood operations, and interim results are presented. Dowco 214 (Reldon) proved to be an adequate substitute for BHC and 0.5% concentrations were as effective as 1%. Ten northern and seven western conifer species were tested for their reaction to paraquat treatment. All members of genus Pinus showed appreciable resin soaking but other coniferous genera did not. Feasibility of oleoresin substitution for petrochemicals was investigated.

  17. Private valuation of carbon sequestration in forest plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitart, A. Bussoni [Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica. Avda. E. Garzon, 780, CP 12.900, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, L.C. Estraviz [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' , Universidad de Sao, Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Approval of the Clean Development Mechanism, provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, enables countries with afforested land to trade in carbon emissions reduction certificates related to carbon dioxide equivalent quantities (CO{sub 2-e}) stored within a certain forest area. Potential CO{sub 2-e} above base line sequestration was determined for two forest sites on commercial eucalyptus plantations in northern Brazil (Bahia). Compensation values for silvicultural regimes involving rotation lengths greater than economically optimal were computed using the Faustmann formula. Mean values obtained were US$8.16 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} and US$7.19 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} for average and high site indexes, respectively. Results show that carbon supply is more cost-efficient in highly productive sites. Annuities of US$18.8 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and US$35.1 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and yearly payments of US$4.4 m{sup -} {sup 3} and US$8.2 m{sup -} {sup 3} due for each marginal cubic meter produced were computed for high and average sites, respectively. The estimated value of the tonne of carbon defines minimum values to be paid to forest owners, in order to induce a change in silvicultural management regimes. A reduction of carbon supply could be expected as a result of an increase in wood prices, although it would not respond in a regular manner. For both sites, price elasticity of supply was found to be inelastic and increased as rotation length moved further away from economically optimal: 0.24 and 0.27 for age 11 years in average- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This would be due to biomass production potential as a limiting factor; beyond a certain threshold value, an increase in price does not sustain a proportional change in carbon storage supply. The environmental service valuation model proposed might be adequate for assessing potential supply in plantation forestry, from a private landowner perspective, with an economic opportunity cost. The model is not applicable to low commercial value forest plantations. (author)

  18. Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    There exists a significant potential for utilising perennial energy plantations in protecting and restoring polluted water and land resources in Sweden. By optimising the design, location and management, several additional environmental services could be obtained which will increase the value of the energy plantations, thereby improving future market conditions for biomass. Multi-functional energy plantations (mainly Salix but also energy grass) can be divided into two categories, those designed for dedicated environmental services (e.g. vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and shelter belts against soil erosion), and those generating more general benefits (e.g. soil carbon accumulation, increased soil fertility, cadmium removal and increased hunting potential). The practical potential of those two categories is estimated to be equivalent to up to 3% and more than 20% of the total Swedish arable land, respectively. The regional conditions of utilising multi-functional plantations vary, however, with the best possibilities in densely populated areas dominated by farmland. The economic value of multi-functional plantations is normally highest for those designed for dedicated environmental services. Purification of wastewater has the highest value, which could exceed the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, followed by treatment of polluted drainage water in vegetation filters and buffer zones (equivalent to more than half of the production cost), recirculation of sewage sludge (around half of the production cost), erosion control (around one fourth) and increased hunting potential (up to 15% of the production cost). The value of increased hunting potential varies due to nearness to larger cities and in which part of Sweden the plantation is located. The economic value of cadmium removal and increased soil fertility is equivalent to a few percent of the production cost, but the value of cadmium removal might increase in the future if this problem will be valued differently. The value of increased carbon accumulation in mineral soils and reduced carbon dioxide emissions from organic soils is estimated to be equivalent to a few percent and half the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, respectively. These values may also change in the future if carbon sinks in agriculture will be included as an approved mitigation option within the Kyoto agreement. Based on an analysis of possible combinations of environmental services achieved in specific plantations, it is estimated that biomass can be produced to an negative cost in around 100,000 hectares of multi-functional energy plantations, when the value of the environmental services is included. The production cost in another 250,000 hectares of plantations is estimated to be halved. This is equivalent to around 6 and 11 TWh biomass per year, respectively. Economic incentives also exist for municipal wastewater plants for utilising vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. Cadmium removal and increased soil fertility will give a minor increase in the income for the farmer. However, cadmium removal will result in increased costs later in the Salix fuel chain, due to increased costs of flue gas cleaning during combustion. Thus, to overcome this economic barrier, subsidies will probably be needed to heating plants utilising cadmium-contaminated biomass. The possibilities of achieving an income from increased soil carbon accumulation will depend on if this option will be an approved mechanism. Today, the Swedish greenhouse gas mitigation policy does not include this option. Some of the potential multi-functional energy plantations (e.g. buffer strips for reducing nutrient leaching and vegetation filters for treatment of polluted drainage water) results in increased cultivation costs for the farmer, thus increased economic barriers. Examples of measures to overcome such barriers are dedicated subsidies for multi-functional plantations established at specific locations, or on a certain type of soil. The concept of mu

  19. Study with an isotopic method using tritiated water of hydric exchanges in Plantago maritima L. var Graminaea and Plantago lanceolata L.: effect of an antitranspirant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study with an isotopic method using tritiated water of total hydric exchanges in an halophyte (Plantago maritima) and a glycophyte (Plantago lanceolata) grown in the presence or not of NaCl and treated or not by an antitranspirant, point out two facts: the specific origin for the plant salinity resistances and the stomatal nature which characterizes the modality for the efficience of antitranspirant tested

  20. Hemipteran diversity in Endau-Rompin plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Asraf; Rahim, Faszly

    2015-09-01

    Study on hemipteran at Endau Rompin Plantation (LER), Pahang was conducted at oil palm plantation planted at different type of soils. The aim of the study was to determine hemipteran diversity in oil palm ecosystem. Sampling was done from April 2012 to September 2012 by using Malaise and impact traps. Cicadellidae was the most abundance and dominance family with 105 individuals and 6 species (=morphospecies) recorded. The rarefaction curve becomes flatter to the right indicating a reasonable number of individual samples have been taken. Peat area show high Shannon index and Margalef index values compared to clay area.There were significant differences in hemipteran community between three type of soils (?2=98.751,df=58,poil palm plantation is affected by the type of soil.

  1. Plantation forestry diseases in Zambia: Contributing factors and management options

    OpenAIRE

    Chungu, Donald; Muimba-Kankolongo, Ambayeba; Wingfield, Michael J.; Roux, Jolanda

    2010-01-01

    * Plantation forestry in Zambia is based mainly on non-native Eucalyptus and Pinus species and constitutes an important component of the country's economy. The productivity of these plantations is, however, threatened by several factors, including fungal pathogens that reduce timber quality and cause tree mortality.* In this paper we present a review of diseases affecting plantation forestry and highlight factors that may favour their development and severity in the country.* Plantation healt...

  2. Wood's Lamp Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    newsletter | contact Share | Wood's Lamp Examination A A A The Wood’s lamp examination is simply ultraviolet light used to show fluorescence, as in ... presence of bacteria causing erythrasma. Procedure Overview A Wood's lamp is a device that emits ultraviolet (UV) ...

  3. Managing declining yields from ageing tea plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Mark G; Prakash, Sudhir; Hazarika, Mridul; Burgess, Paul J; Sakrabani, Ruben

    2014-06-01

    Strong growth in the demand for tea requires further increases in the productivity of plantations. Declining or stagnant yields are commonly observed in older plantations. Possible controlling factors for yield decline are reviewed including ageing of plants, chronic disease and sub-optimal soil conditions such as excess soil acidity and low soil organic matter. Management options for addressing these factors are evaluated, including replanting. A systematic approach to decision-making about replanting is presented. Practice for replanting is reviewed and it is concluded that evidence to support a general case for replanting is limited, unless based on the introduction of more productive clones and/or better plant spacing. PMID:24464583

  4. Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makombu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

  5. Nutritional, carbon and energy evaluation of Eucalyptus nitens short rotation bioenergy plantations in northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-García M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides essential information related to the nutrient and carbon levels and the energy potential of Eucalytpus nitens (Deane & Maiden Maiden bionenergy plantations located in northwestern Spain. Nutritional analysis showed that leaves and bark had the highest concentrations of N, P, K and Mg. Carbon concentration was constant for all above-ground tree components. Nutrients and carbon were analyzed at stand level according to plantation productivity. Stemwood, the main tree component at the end of the rotation, had the highest nutrient content, except for N and Ca, which were highest in leaves and bark respectively. Based on this study, the nutrient content per ha of above-ground biomass was 243-706 kg N, 44-122 kg P, 131-375 kg K, 121-329 kg Ca and 25-67 kg Mg at the end of the bioenergy rotation (6-12 years, depending on site quality and 19-56 Mg C ha-1. Energy analysis showed a fairly constant Net Calorific Value for wood, 18.32 ± 0.19 MJ kg-1. The results obtained are valuable for selecting the most appropriate forest management system in these bioenergy plantations, and thereby promote the sustainable use of woody crops.

  6. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha-'1) and 86 % higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  7. Control con medios naturales de los principales insectos y hongos que afectan a Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L. / Control with natural means of the main insects and fungi affecting Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Magdalena, Rivera Amita; Masgloiris, Milanés Figueredo; Silvino Raúl, Ramos Gálvez.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: controlar con productos naturales, de origen vegetal y biológico, las principales plagas y enfermedades que afectan a las especies medicinales Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Plantago major L. (llantén). MÉTODOS: para el control de las plagas y enfermedades se evaluó el efecto de [...] 3 plaguicidas de origen botánico: Tabaquina®, subproducto de Nicotiana tabacum L. (tabaco); semillas secas maceradas de Melia azederach L. (paraíso) y follaje seco macerado de Lantana camara L. variedad camara (lantana), extraídos por repercolación con etanol 70 %. Como medio biológico para el control de estos insectos y hongos se evaluó el efecto de 2 hongos mezclados Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; cada tratamiento se replicó 3 veces además de la parcela donde no se aplicaron productos. RESULTADOS: en el caso de Systena basalis resultaron ser efectivos el extracto de Melia azederach y la mezcla de Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; mientras que para el hongo Sclerotium rolfsii, aunque con los productos probados no hubo un control total, se apreció una disminución notable en el grado de incidencia, por lo que deben utilizarse para su eliminación técnicas agrícolas adecuadas. Respecto a Diabrotica balteata y Cercospora plantagenis su presencia no constituyó plaga y sí se observó control con cualquiera de los tratamientos evaluados. CONCLUSIONES: se logró un control adecuado de las plagas con los tratamientos probados.

  8. Grapple processor for plantation thinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, W.D.; Lanford, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    A small boom-mounted grapple processor, the Valmet 940, was tested in a first thinning of loblolly pine in Alabama. The processor followed a small feller-buncher which built large bunches (16 stems) at about 27-ft intervals along an access corridor. The processor delimbed and cross-cut the wood into 7.5 ft bolts, forming a neat pile at the side of the access corridor for subsequent forwarding. Production averaged 2.5 stems per minute. Regression equations were developed to predict processing time per tree, moving time per tree, and total time per tree. Processing time per tree was greatly dependent on average tree size. Moving time per tree was closely related to the distance travelled from the previous bunch and the number of trees in the current bunch. The major component of total time was processing time. Slash piles remaining after forwarding were much smaller with this system than with manual methods since tops were deposited in the access corridors where subsequent machine traffic reduced the slash. A grapple processor appears well suited to southern pine thinnings where it can replace dangerous and physically demanding manual operations. 2 references.

  9. Harvesting Short-Rotation Poplar Plantations for Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Spinelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, short rotation forest has become very popular in recent years, with over 4,000 hectares already planted – almost exclusively with clone poplar. The study models the performance of modified forage harvesters on a range of short-rotation poplar plantations, identifies technical obstacles to the deployment of these machines and suggests solutions that may expand the capability of modified forage harvesters when treating short-rotation poplar. Data were collected from 16 operations, covering a total of 50 hectares and producing over 1000 green tonnes of wood chips. The average yield of the fields harvested during the trials was about 20 green tonnes/ha year, equivalent to 8 oven-dry tonnes/ha for a 60% average moisture content, measured in the laboratory. Gross machine productivity ranged from 9 to 44 green tonnes/scheduled machine hour (gt/SMH, with an average value of 25 gt/SMH.Of course, this result is affected by other factors than just forager performance, which is potentially much higher. A model was developed to predict harvesting performance and cost, showing that harvesting cost can be maintained below the 15 Euro/green tonne (2 Euro/GJ ceiling only if field stocking exceeds 40 or 50 gt/ha when rows are long 300 and 100 m, respectively. The study also shows the need to optimize operations. Over a quarter of the total worksite time is occupied by unproductive delays, which may be reduced with improved planning and maintenance.

  10. What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that although stand density may have a significant impact on boundary layer conductance in young stands, it does not account for the ''density effect''. Our tests of the light quality hypothesis were slowed due to poor plantation establishment in the early phase of this study. In a variable density experiment we detected significant changes in R:FR related to density. Also in that study we measured a significant enhancement of tree height at high density. However, after three years of growth, the study trees did not show significant differences in stem diameter related to density. Experimenters at Weyerhaeuser therefore decided not to harvest the trees at the end of the 3rd growth year, as originally planned. In a 1-year study of seedlings planted in raised beds subjected to different light quality treatments using transparent plastic film, we found that tree height but not diameter increased in response to decreased R:FR. At this point, we conclude that R:FR remains a viable hypothesis for the ''density effect'', but evidence is not conclusive. We expect that continued measurements in the variable density test plot at Weyerhaeuser will add more evidence in the future

  11. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  12. CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Naji,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

  13. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  14. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  15. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  16. [Effects of different type urban forest plantations on soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-zhen; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

    2009-12-01

    Aimed to study the effects of different urban forest plantations on soil fertility, soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Picea koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in Northeast Forestry University's Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base in the 1950s, with two sites of neighboring farmland and abandoned farmland as the control. The soils in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica were near neutral, those in mixed plantation, L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis were slightly acidic, and that in Q. mongolica was acidic. The contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, available P and K, and hydrolysable N tended to decrease with soil depth. There existed significant differences in the chemical indices of the same soil layers among different plantations. The soil fertility was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > B. platyphylla > abandoned farmland > farmland > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > L. gmelinii > Q. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, suggesting that the soil fertility in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica and in mixed plantation increased, while that in needle-leaved forest plantations tended to decrease. PMID:20353050

  17. Ectomycorrhizal Colonization and Diversity in Relation to Tree Biomass and Nutrition in a Plantation of Transgenic Poplars with Modified Lignin Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Lara; Lohaus, Gertrud; Sirrenberg, Anke; Karlovsky, Petr; Bastien, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Wood from biomass plantations with fast growing tree species such as poplars can be used as an alternative feedstock for production of biofuels. To facilitate utilization of lignocellulose for saccharification, transgenic poplars with modified or reduced lignin contents may be useful. However, the potential impact of poplars modified in the lignification pathway on ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, which play important roles for plant nutrition, is not known. The goal of this study was to investiga...

  18. Ectomycorrhizal colonization and diversity in relation to tree biomass and nutrition in a plantation of transgenic poplars with modified lignin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Lara; Lohaus, Gertrud; Sirrenberg, Anke; Karlovsky, Petr; Bastien, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Wood from biomass plantations with fast growing tree species such as poplars can be used as an alternative feedstock for production of biofuels. To facilitate utilization of lignocellulose for saccharification, transgenic poplars with modified or reduced lignin contents may be useful. However, the potential impact of poplars modified in the lignification pathway on ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, which play important roles for plant nutrition, is not known. The goal of this study was to investigate EM colonization and community composition in relation to biomass and nutrient status in wildtype (WT, Populus tremula × Populus alba) and transgenic poplar lines with suppressed activities of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase, and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase in a biomass plantation. In different one-year-old poplar lines EM colonization varied from 58% to 86%, but the EM community composition of WT and transgenic poplars were indistinguishable. After two years, the colonization rate of all lines was increased to about 100%, but separation of EM communities between distinct transgenic poplar genotypes was observed. The differentiation of the EM assemblages was similar to that found between different genotypes of commercial clones of Populus × euramericana. The transgenic poplars exhibited significant growth and nutrient element differences in wood, with generally higher nutrient accumulation in stems of genotypes with lower than in those with higher biomass. A general linear mixed model simulated biomass of one-year-old poplar stems with high accuracy (adjusted R(2)?=?97%) by two factors: EM colonization and inverse wood N concentration. These results imply a link between N allocation and EM colonization, which may be crucial for wood production in the establishment phase of poplar biomass plantations. Our data further support that multiple poplar genotypes regardless whether generated by transgenic approaches or conventional breeding increase the variation in EM community composition in biomass plantations. PMID:23516610

  19. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.; Damkilde, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood. Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely ...

  20. Efecto terapéutico en el tratamiento del Acné Vulgar usando principios activos de MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. y PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA / Therapeutic effect in the treatment of Acne Vulgaris using active principies MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. and PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Noelia, Carvajal Yañez; Deysi, Canaviri; Marizol, Callejas; Paola, Carrasco.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El acné es una inflamación crónica de la unidad pilosebácea que compromete regiones del cuerpo como el rostro, cuello, hombros y parte del tronco superior y es una causa de consulta que afecta comúnmente a personas entre los 15 a 25 años de edad. El siguiente estudio pretende medir los efectos terap [...] éuticos que existen en el tratamiento del acné vulgar usando los principios activos de las plantas MEUSSA OFFICINALIS L y PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA. Es un ensayo clínico a doble ciego controlado paralelo con una muestra de 20 pacientes voluntarios, el tipo de muestreo fue por conveniencia. Los escenarios del estudio fueron: el laboratorio de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Mayor de San Simón donde se realizó el procedimiento de extracción de los principios activos y hogares de los participantes donde se les entregó el tratamiento y se realizaron los controles. Fueron 20 pacientes voluntarios de los cuales 4 abandonaron el tratamiento y se continuó con 11 pacientes mujeres y 5 varones. Los resultados muestran que el grupo tratado con principios activos tuvo un promedio de 5 a 8 días siendo más breve en comparación del grupo control, ningún paciente presentó reacciones adversas al tratamiento y el sexo que tuvo mejores resultados con el tratamiento fue el masculino. Podemos concluir que el uso de los principios activos de plantas naturales para tratar el acné vulgar presenta diferentes grados de eficacia, siendo relevante el tiempo y las concentraciones de los principios activos. Abstract in english Acne is a chronic inflammation of the pilosebaceous unit that engages regions of the body like the face, neck, shoulders and upper trunk and is a cause of consultation that commonly affects people between 15 to 25 years old. The next study aims to measure the therapeutic effects that exist in the tr [...] eatment of acne vulgaris using the active ingredients of plants MELISSA OFFICINAUS L y PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA It's a clinical trial double blind parallel controlled with a sample of 20 patient volunteers, the type of sampling was convenience.The stages of the study were: the laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Mayor of San Simón where took place the procedure for extraction of active principies and homes of participants where they were handed treatment and carried out the checks.They were 20 volunteer patients, of whom 4 abandoned treatment and continued with 5 men and 11 women patients. The results show that the group treated with active ingredients had an average of 5 to 8 days still shorter compared to the control group, no patient presented adverse reactions to treatment and sex that had better results with treatment was the male.We can conclude that the use of the active principies of natural plants to treat acné vulgaris has different degrees of effectiveness, still relevant time and the concentrations of the active ingredients.

  1. Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil / Planejamento de colheita e transporte de madeira usando o programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) em uma plantação de pinus no sudeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo da Silva, Lopes; Carlos Cardoso, Machado; Amaury Paulo de, Souza; Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares, Ribeiro.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a aplicabilidade do programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte florestal em condições brasileiras. Os aspectos avaliados foram a definição dos subsistemas de colheita e a det [...] erminação de uma rota compatível de transporte de madeira. Inicialmente, determinou-se o custo operacional e de produção das máquinas em sete subsistemas de colheita tecnicamente viáveis para a região de estudo, como também os índices de qualidade e de custos de construção e manutenção de estradas, os quais foram utilizados como dados de entrada no SNAP III. Posteriormente, verificou-se, através de um estudo de caso, a aplicabilidade do programa como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. De acordo com os resultados, constatou-se que há três categorias de estradas de ocorrência na área de estudo: principal, secundária e terciária, as quais, com base no índice de qualidade encontrado, permitiram uma velocidade média do veículo de transporte de 41,0 30,3 e 24,3 km/hora e um custo de construção de US$ 5.084,30, US$ 2.275,28 e US$ 1.650,00/km, respectivamente. Quanto ao uso do SNAP III como ferramenta de apoio ao planejamento, o sistema mostrou-se com elevado potencial, podendo auxiliar no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. O programa foi capaz de definir com eficiência os subsistemas de colheita técnica e economicamente viável, a rota ótima de transporte e as estradas em uso em cada período do horizonte de planejamento. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational a [...] nd production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.

  2. Can we predict carbon stocks in tropical ecosystems from tree diversity? Comparing species and functional diversity in a plantation and a natural forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jaen, Maria C; Potvin, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    • Linking tree diversity to carbon storage can provide further motivation to conserve tropical forests and to design carbon-enriched plantations. Here, we examine the role of tree diversity and functional traits in determining carbon storage in a mixed-species plantation and in a natural tropical forest in Panama. • We used species richness, functional trait diversity, species dominance and functional trait dominance to predict tree carbon storage across these two forests. Then we compared the species ranking based on wood density, maximum diameter, maximum height, and leaf mass per area (LMA) between sites to reveal how these values changed between different forests. • Increased species richness, a higher proportion of nitrogen fixers and species with low LMA increased carbon storage in the mixed-species plantation, while a higher proportion of large trees and species with high LMA increased tree carbon storage in the natural forest. Furthermore, we found that tree species varied greatly in their absolute and relative values between study sites. • Different results in different forests mean that we cannot easily predict carbon storage capacity in natural forests using data from experimental plantations. Managers should be cautious when applying functional traits measured in natural populations in the design of carbon-enriched plantations. PMID:20958305

  3. Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

  4. Phenology of wood formation and its genetic variability in larch : A step towards a better understanding of wood formation in relation to climate

    OpenAIRE

    Gauchat Funes Drewes, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Larix is a genus of high interest for plantation due to its fast growth rate and appreciated wood quality. Larch has a great potential to be introduced in middle and lowland afforestations as an alternative to Douglas-fir. One important question for breeders is adaptation to environment. It is particularly relevant in the context of climatic changes where a strong decrease of soil water availability during the growth period is predicted. Three larch species are used by foresters in France for...

  5. Growth and water use of forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This symposium was held February 4-7, 1991 in Bangalore, India for the purpose of providing a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on plant growth and water use by forest plantations. Attention is focused on Eucalyptus species. Their high growth rates and their ability to grow within a wide range of site conditions make them attractive species for both commercial and social forestry applications. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  6. Innovating tree plantation design: spiralographing agroforestry

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, J.H.N.; Crous-Duran, J.; Merouani, H.; Paulo, J.A.; Tomé, M.

    2014-01-01

    Most of forestry or agroforestry artificial plantations either have an orthogonal design, or curvilinear under contour lines to prevent soil erosion. These designs are known to maximize machinery workflow or erosion control respectively. As in many occasions in land use management, what optimizes machinery operation is not what optimizes prevention of soil loss and vice versa. An alternative and intermediate design system such as an Archimedes spiral could offer in one han...

  7. Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering- och tungmetallfloeden'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hillevi; Nilsson, Torbjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2001-12-01

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

  8. Hydrological impact of Eucalyptus plantation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Ian R.; Hall, Robin L.; Prasanna, K. T.

    1993-10-01

    A brief review is given of the results of hydrological studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species on water resources, erosion and soil nutrients at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. New results on the impacts of the plantations on raindrop-induced erosion and preliminary results from studies that are aimed at improving the water use efficiency of the plantations are also presented. The erosion studies indicate that soil detachment resulting from net rainfall beneath Eucalyptus camaldulensis will be greater than beneath Pinus caribaea but less than that beneath the indigenous species, Tectona grandis. The water use efficiency studies, which make use of a controlled environment facility, have confirmed that in the dry zone of southern India water availability is the principal limiting factor on growth although, when water is available, nutrient limitations become important. Removal of both water and nutrient stress results typically in a fivefold increase in volume growth for the first year of growth.

  9. ADVANCES IN THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF Cuphea aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata : EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Cardenas-Sandoval

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea lanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina tradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h, el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de variosórganos de C. aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata . Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH + y ABTS + y el de poder reductor del fosfomolibdeno. La concentración más alta de compuestos fenólicos se presentó en las flores de C. lanceolata (62.79 0.06 mg equivalentes deácido gálico (EAG / g peso seco (PS; mientras que la de flavonoides en las hojas de C. aequipetala (196.83 2.9 mg equivalentes de quercetina (EQ / g PS. Las hojas de C. aequipetala var. hispida presentaron la actividad de captura de radicales libres DPPH (173.33 2.12 mol trolox / g PS, las flores de C. aequipetala la de captura de radicales libres ABTS (541.10 2.32 mol trolox / g PS mientras que el poder reductor más alto se observó en las hojas de C. aequipetala (1186.25 3.17 mol trolox / g PS. Se encontró una correlación positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes. El análisis químico cualitativo mediante TLC indicó la prescencia del flavonoide quercetina 3- - D -glucósido en todas las especies de Cuphea y de otros flavonoides menos polares en C. aequipetala var. hispida . Cuphea spp. es una fuente natural de compuestos fenólicos.

  10. Floodplains and wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between floodplains and wood date to the Carboniferous, when stable, multithread channel deposits appear with the evolution of tree-like plants. Foundational geologic texts, such as Lyell's, 1830Principles of Geology, describe floodplain-wood interactions, yet modern technical literature describes floodplain-wood interactions in detail for only a very limited range of environments. This likely reflects more than a century of deforestation, flow regulation, and channel engineering, including instream wood removal, which has resulted in severe wood depletion in most of the world's river networks. Instream wood affects floodplain form and process by altering flow resistance, conveyance and channel-floodplain connectivity, and influencing lateral and vertical accretion of floodplains. Instream wood reflects floodplain form and process as the floodplain influences wood recruitment via bank erosion and overbank flow, and wood transport and storage via floodplain effects on stage-discharge relations and flow resistance. Examining turnover times for instream wood at the reach scale in the context of a wood budget, floodplain characteristics influence fluvial transport and dynamics (wood recruitment), valley geometry (wood transport and storage), and hydraulics and river biota (wood decay and breakage). Accumulations of wood that vary from in situ jams and beaver dams in small channels to transport jams and log rafts in very large rivers can create stable, multithread channels and floodplain wetlands. Floodplain-wood interactions are best understood for a subset of small to medium-sized rivers in the temperate zone. We know little about these interactions on very large rivers, or on rivers in the tropical or boreal regions. This review suggests that most, if not all, channels and floodplains within forested catchments in the temperate zone historically had much greater wood loads and consequently much more obvious and important influences from wood than do heavily modified contemporary catchments. For many rivers in the temperate zone, direct and indirect removal of instream wood very likely caused a fundamental shift in channel and floodplain process and form, as has been demonstrated in detail for specific rivers of diverse size in several regions. Failure to explicitly include floodplain-wood interactions creates a misleading conceptual model of floodplain dynamics in forested catchments.

  11. The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveti? Vladan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass, additional products in the form of non-timber forest products and additional services in the form of shelterbelts and phytoremediation.

  12. Wood density variation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry; Avaliacao da densidade da madeira de Gmelina arborea pela aplicacao da densitometria de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roque, Roger Moya [Instituto Tecnologico da Costa Rica, Cartago (Costa Rica). Centro de Investigacao em Integracao Bosque-Industria. Dept. de Engenharia Florestal]. E-mail: rmoya@itcr.ac.cr; Tomazello, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Florestais]. E-mail: mtomazel@esalq.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The wood density constitutes the main wood quality parameter by its relationship with anatomical, physical and chemical properties and wood utilization. The modern and accurate methods - like X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the density spatial distribution in wood sections and pith-bark direction. On the other hand, emphasis to wood utilization from fast growing plantations, like Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica, has been done. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of 2 climatic conditions of Costa Rica on radial wood density variation of gmelina trees form fast growing plantations using the X-ray densitometry method. Wood samples were cut at DBH of gmelina trees and transversal thin laths were selected at north-south direction and conditioned at 12% moisture content equilibrium and X-rayed. The radiographic films were revealed and scanned a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the intra tree-ring density were determined by CRAD and CERD software. The results demonstrated that the climatic and forest management affects the wood density variability and the distinctness of tree-ring boundaries of gmelina trees, as well as, the applicability of X-ray densitometry in wood quality analysis. (author)

  13. Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Mohd Nazip

    2003-06-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information, thus helping to understand the dynamics of the rubber tree resource. The decrease in the area of rubber plantations and the increase in the area of mixed crops from 1989--1993 in south of KL were partly attributed to the adoption of a crop diversification policy which was driven by relatively poor natural rubber prices during that time. The decrease in the areas of rubber plantations from 1993--1999 in this area was primarily due to rapid urbanization and infrastructure development driven by demographic expansion in the area south of KL. This thesis makes a practical contribution to the development of methods for inventory of forest plantations by linking ground information with model projections based on satellite data. Additionally, the thesis demonstrates the development of monitoring tools to assess resource availability and variability over time, and establish its linkages to policies. The inventory information, models, and monitoring protocols are needed for effective resource management planning aimed at maximizing the potential benefits of rubber tree crops for wood and natural rubber supply in Malaysia.

  14. Efecto del raleo en el crecimiento y algunas propiedades de la madera de Eucalyptus nitens en una plantación de 15 años / Effect of thinning on growth and some properties of wood of Eucalyptus nitens in a plantation of 15 years old

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandro, Díaz Bravo; Miguel, Espinosa; Luis, Valenzuela; Jorge, Cancino; Jean P, Lasserre.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El raleo tiene implicancias económicas y técnicas tanto para producción forestal como para la actividad industrial. En el presente estudio se realizó la evaluación de un ensayo de intensidad de raleo en E. nitens, de 15 años de edad, intervenido a los 7 y 9 años, con densidades residuales de 300, 40 [...] 0, 500, 700 y un tratamiento testigo con 1070 arb ha-1. El objetivo es conocer el efecto del raleo en el diámetro y altura de los árboles, coeficiente de esbeltez, en los índices de competencia área potencialmente aprovechable (APA), área de proyección de copas (APC) y en las propiedades de la madera, densidad básica, módulo de elasticidad dinámico (MOEd) y las tensiones de crecimiento evaluadas con la deformación residual longitudinal de la fibra (DRL). Los resultados mostraron que el raleo afectó el diámetro, coeficiente de esbeltez, APA y APC, no así la altura. El raleo tampoco tuvo efecto en la densidad básica de la madera y en el DRL. Por otra parte el MOEd fue afectado por el raleo, pero sin mostrar claras tendencias respecto de su intensidad. El efecto de la orientación del fuste en el MOEd y el DRL, mostró valores significativamente mayores en la orientación Sur. Abstract in english Thinning has significant technical and economic implications for both forest managers and industrial end users. In the present study a 15 year old Eucalyptus nitens thinning experiment was evaluated. Thinnings operations were carried out at 7 and 9 years, with final stockings of 300, 400, 500, 700 a [...] nd a control treatment of 1070 trees ha-1. The aim was to determine the effect of thinning on (i) stem diameter and tree height, stem slenderness ratio, (ii) competition indices: potentially usefull area (PUA), crown projection area (CPA) and (iii) wood properties: basic density, dynamic modulus of elasticity (Moed) and growth stresses evaluated using the residual deformation of the fiber length (DRL). The results showed that thinning affected tree diameter, slenderness index, PUA and CPA, but not total height. Thinning had no effect on basic density and DRL. On the other hand Moed was affected by thinning, but did not show a clear trend with thinning intensity. The effect of the stem orientation on DRL and Moed showed significantly higher values on the South side.

  15. Efecto del raleo en el crecimiento y algunas propiedades de la madera de Eucalyptus nitens en una plantación de 15 años Effect of thinning on growth and some properties of wood of Eucalyptus nitens in a plantation of 15 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Díaz Bravo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El raleo tiene implicancias económicas y técnicas tanto para producción forestal como para la actividad industrial. En el presente estudio se realizó la evaluación de un ensayo de intensidad de raleo en E. nitens, de 15 años de edad, intervenido a los 7 y 9 años, con densidades residuales de 300, 400, 500, 700 y un tratamiento testigo con 1070 arb ha-1. El objetivo es conocer el efecto del raleo en el diámetro y altura de los árboles, coeficiente de esbeltez, en los índices de competencia área potencialmente aprovechable (APA, área de proyección de copas (APC y en las propiedades de la madera, densidad básica, módulo de elasticidad dinámico (MOEd y las tensiones de crecimiento evaluadas con la deformación residual longitudinal de la fibra (DRL. Los resultados mostraron que el raleo afectó el diámetro, coeficiente de esbeltez, APA y APC, no así la altura. El raleo tampoco tuvo efecto en la densidad básica de la madera y en el DRL. Por otra parte el MOEd fue afectado por el raleo, pero sin mostrar claras tendencias respecto de su intensidad. El efecto de la orientación del fuste en el MOEd y el DRL, mostró valores significativamente mayores en la orientación Sur.Thinning has significant technical and economic implications for both forest managers and industrial end users. In the present study a 15 year old Eucalyptus nitens thinning experiment was evaluated. Thinnings operations were carried out at 7 and 9 years, with final stockings of 300, 400, 500, 700 and a control treatment of 1070 trees ha-1. The aim was to determine the effect of thinning on (i stem diameter and tree height, stem slenderness ratio, (ii competition indices: potentially usefull area (PUA, crown projection area (CPA and (iii wood properties: basic density, dynamic modulus of elasticity (Moed and growth stresses evaluated using the residual deformation of the fiber length (DRL. The results showed that thinning affected tree diameter, slenderness index, PUA and CPA, but not total height. Thinning had no effect on basic density and DRL. On the other hand Moed was affected by thinning, but did not show a clear trend with thinning intensity. The effect of the stem orientation on DRL and Moed showed significantly higher values on the South side.

  16. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried ...

  17. Wood–water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the performance of wood for decades ahead is important when using the material for structural purposes. The performance is closely related to the hierarchical material structure of wood and the dependent interaction with water in the structure. Accurately predicting wood performance therefore requires an understanding of material structure from molecular to macroscopic level as well as of the impact of water molecules. The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of wo...

  18. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners.

  19. Water use in a sugarcane plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Osvaldo M.R.; Rocha, Humberto R.; Gash, John H.; Ligo, Marcos A.V.; Tatsch, Jonatan D.; Freitas, Helber C.; Brasilio, Emília

    2012-01-01

    The evapotranspiration (E) from a sugarcane plantation in the southeast Brazil was measured by the eddy-covariance method during two consecutive cycles. These represented the second (393 days) and third year (374 days) re-growth (ratoon). The total E in the first cycle was 829 mm, accounting for 69% of rainfall, whereas in the second cycle, it was 690 mm, despite the total rainfall (1353 mm) being 13% greater. The ratio of E to available energy, the evaporative fraction, exhibited a smaller v...

  20. Macrofungi Community in Rubber Plantations and a Forest of Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Osemwegie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent plots in rubber plantations and a lowland forest, each measuring 25x25 m, were randomly laid out using coloured ribbons and studied twice a month for macrofungi for a period of 14 months. A total of 435 fruit bodies belonging to 93 different species of macrofungi were encountered, 70% of which were identified. Identified taxa were distributed into 4 Classes, 9 Orders and 28 Families with the class Hymenomycetes and family Tricholomataceae as the best represented taxa. Agaric (52% and polypores mushrooms (31% were also recorded as the best represented life-forms while wood-based substrates recorded 70% of the total mushroom taxa encountered during the study. The species richness and diversity estimate of 100 randomization accumulation sample order of mushroom abundance data from each of the sampled plots showed that the forest (Plot E had the best species richness and diversity index values compared to plot A, B, C and D.

  1. Isolation and characterization of mold fungi and insects infecting sawmill wood, and their inhibition by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalawate, Aparna; Mehetre, Sayaji

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the isolation, identification, and characterization of wood-rotting fungi and insects, and their inhibition was studied using gamma radiation. Products manufactured from plantation timber species are deteriorated by wood-rotting fungi such as Hypocrea lixii, Fusarium proliferatum, and Aspergillus flavus, and insects such as powderpost beetles. Proper preservation methods are necessary for ensuring a long service life of wood products. In this study, wood samples were treated with 2.5% copper ethanolamine boron (CEB) (10% w/v) and subsequently irradiated with gamma rays (10 kGy). It was observed that CEB-treated and gamma-irradiated samples controlled fungi and powderpost beetles significantly. As wood is a dead organic material, penetration of chemicals into it is very difficult. Gamma rays easily pass through wooden objects with hidden eggs and dormant spores of insects and fungi, respectively. Gamma irradiation was proved very effective in reducing damage caused by both fungi and insects.

  2. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  3. Tracking deforestation, tree plantation expansion, and forest regrowth in a Costa Rican biological corridor using a Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, M. E.; Sesnie, S.; Arroyo, J.; Walker, W. S.; Soto, C.; Chazdon, R. L.; Sanchun, A.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wood demand and voluntary carbon markets have driven a rapid global expansion in tropical tree plantations. To effectively monitor this expansion, new remote sensing-based methods are needed that can overcome difficulties in distinguishing between tree plantations, mature forests, and forest regrowth using low-cost moderate-resolution (10-100 m) satellite sensors. The objective of this study was to accurately map changes in the area of these three forest types in northern Costa Rica using Landsat imagery spanning a 25 year period (1986-2011). We mapped forest and tree plantation cover in a fragmented tropical landscape spanning approximately 2500 km2: the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC). In 1996, the Costa Rican government banned deforestation country-wide and concentrated payments for environmental services (PES) within Biological Corridors to promote native tree plantations and protect forests on private land. To evaluate this program's long-term success, we first tracked forest cover change over time and then distinguished between spectrally-similar forest types. We classified five dates (1986, 1996, 2001, 2005, and 2011) of multispectral Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (30 m resolution). Using Random Forests, we classified each single-date Landsat image first to forest/nonforest and then to thirteen land cover classes (Figures 1-3). To improve mapping of reforestation, final land cover classification was constrained by forest masks integrated over the time series. Training and validation data (1932 polygons covering 2185 ha) were collected using field data and aerial photography; final accuracy analysis was conducted by withholding twenty bootstrapped samples of the training data. Overall mean change-detection accuracy for the forest mask time series was 95.1% (Kappa= 0.93) and the overall land cover accuracy for all maps was greater than 80%. For tree plantations, the inclusion of multitemporal data improved classification accuracy over single-date imagery alone; in the 2011 classification, the user's accuracy for native tree plantations increased from 56% to 77%. Results indicate that, over the last 15 years, the deforestation ban and PES payments have been effective in protecting mature forests, especially within the Corridor. The area of regrowth forest declined however, indicating that agricultural pressures on easily-clearable land are increasing. Tree plantations expanded rapidly over the time period analyzed, although the largest increases occurred in exotic tree plantations outside the corridor. We found that it is possible to accurately distinguish tropical tree plantations, secondary forest, and mature forest using moderate-resolution optical sensors like Landsat, but extensive training data and multitemporal imagery was necessary to accurately map tree plantations in this area. Despite the effectiveness of the deforestation ban, it did not prevent an expansion of intensive agriculture and the long-term clearing of forest regrowth.

  4. How James Wood Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  5. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  6. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  7. [Economic damage level for leaf-cutting ants in function of the productivity index of eucalyptus plantations in an Atlantic Forest region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A; Zanetti, R; Calegario, N

    2011-01-01

    The production and quality of eucalyptus plantations have been studied in areas with different densities of ant nests, being important to estimate losses caused by leaf-cutting ants. The effects of leaf-cutting ant on wood production in differents productivity sites were studied in eucalyptus plantations in the region of Atlantic Forest, Minas Gerais State, Brazil from 2003 to 2006. Data of plots of the continuous forest inventory and data of leaf-cutting ant monitoring in eucalyptus plantations were obtained. Each unitary increment in the area of Atta spp. nests per hectare reduced the wood production of the eucalyptus forest between 0.04 and 0.13 m³.ha(-1), resulting in a level of economic damage for leaf-cutting ants between 13.4 and 39.2 m².ha(-1), in this region. Moreover, this study innovated when using indices of forest productivity (site index) that promote better adjustment of the models and produce estimate more accurate of the level of economic damage for leaf-cutting ants in cultivated forests, allowing to conclude that the increase of the total area of ant nests reduces the wooden volume of eucalyptus, proportionally to the productive potential of the forest. PMID:21952966

  8. The State and the Development of Industrial Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmalik Sudarmalik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of industrial plantation forest is a form of principal-agent relationship, in which the Ministry of Forestry as a principal gives utilization permit to the entrepreneur as an agent, known as the Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit on Planted Forest. This utilization permit obtained by the agents is operationally conducted by other parties through a cooperative agreement. The purpose of this study is to obtain an information regarding to the state position in the development of industrial plantation forest. The study was conducted in Riau Province, using the constructivist paradigm with phenomenological method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews to selected informants. Data were also obtained from the review of documents to complement the interview. Data analysis was conducted using property rights and principal agent theories. The phenomenon of multi-chain transfer of the management rights of plantation forest that occoured in the observed companies showed that the state was unable to effectively control to the forest plantation. The study recommends that state should issue regulation to decrease or stops further transfer of the management rights of plantation forest. However, further study needs to overcome the existing over accumulation of plantation forest in a few hands.Keywords: industrial plantation forest, property right, principal agent, the state position, authority

  9. SOIL FAUNA CHARACTERIZATION IN Eucalyptus spp. PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garlet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810545Forest soils provide good conditions for the development and the establishment of soil fauna, manly by the deposition of litter. However, monoculture systems conducted in a single substrate by providing food, can promote the development of certain animal groups over others, causing outbreaks of pest species. The aim of this study was to characterize the soil fauna and its relationship with meteorological variables, in plantations of Eucalyptus spp. This study was conducted in six stands of Eucalyptus from three species: Eucalyptus dunni Maiden, Eucalyptus grandis Maiden and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake (clone hybrid and two ages (planted in 2006 and 2007.

  10. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  11. Photosynthetic adaptation to light intensity in plants native to shaded and exposed habitats. [Rumex acetosa; Geum rivale; Lamium galeobdolon; Plantago lanceolata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkman, O.; Holmgren, P.

    1966-01-01

    Photosynthetic adaptation to light intensity has been studied in clones of populations from shaded and exposed habitats of Rumex acetosa and Geum rivale. Clones of the shade species Lamium galeobdolon and the sun species Plantago lanceolata were also included for comparison. The plants were grown under controlled conditions at a high and a low light intensity. The capacity of photosynthetic carbon dioxide uptake at low as well as at saturating light intensities was determined on single attached leaves. As was previously demonstrated in Solidago virgaurea, clones of populations native to shaded and to exposed environments show differences in the photosynthetic response to light intensity during growth. The data provide evidence that populations of the same species native to habitats with contrasting light intensities differ in their photosynthetic properties in an adaptive manner in a similar mode as sun and shade species. 1 reference, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  12. The methanol extract of Euonymus laxiflorus, Rubia lanceolata and Gardenia jasminoides inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduce serum uric acid level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Min; Cheng, Shu-Fen; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Lee, Jang-Chang; Chen, Jih-Jung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Way, Tzong-Der

    2014-08-01

    Chinese herbal medicinal plants, Euonymus laxiflorus (EL), Rubia lanceolata (RL) and Gardenia jasminoides (GJ), have been used wildly to treat arthritis and gout in Taiwan for decades. To understand the beneficial effects of these three plants, their xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity in vitro and hypouricaemic activity in vivo were investigated. Our results suggested that methanol extracts were better than water extracts for inhibition of XO activity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, except the water extract of GJ, which exhibited the strongest radical scavenging effect. In animal study, the serum urate level was significantly decreased after oral administration of higher dose (0.39g/kg) methanol extract of the mixture of three plants (ERG). In addition, methanol extract of ERG reduced the pain reaction time in the second phase of formalin induced pain. The results provide useful information on the pharmacological activities of these plants for the potential in treating hyperuricemia. PMID:24845958

  13. Effects of extending rotation period on plant species diversity in Larix kaempferi plantations in central Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaike, Takuo; Hayashi, Atsuko

    2004-01-01

    We compared the plant species diversity of forest-floor vegetation in long-rotation Larix kaempferi plantations with standard-rotation plantations and abandoned coppice forest in central Japan. Species diversity and richness did not differ between the standard- and long-rotation plantations. However, the composition of tall-tree species, of different seed-dispersal types, in long-rotation plantations differed from that in standard-rotation plantations, but was similar to that in abandoned cop...

  14. Life on wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ockelmann, Kurt W.; Dinesen, Grete Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Deep-sea mussels associated with sunken wood are less well known in terms of anatomy, biology and evolution than their bathymodioline allies from cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. During the Danish ?Ingolf Expedition? (1895?96) to the Northeast Atlantic, two pieces of pinewood were collected from a depth of 1836 m. The wood was inhabited by several hundred individuals of the deep-sea mussel Idas argenteus and the wood-boring pholadid Xyloredo ingolfia. Idas argenteus is the type specie...

  15. Biomechanics and transgenic wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Lothar; Telewski, Frank W

    2006-10-01

    Wood, or secondary xylem, is composed mostly of three components-cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Yet this apparent simplicity is deceiving because the sophisticated arrangement of the components on various structural levels, ranging from intricate molecular architecture to defined cellular arrangements to tissue morphology, makes wood a challenging and interesting subject of biomechanical investigation. Recent advances in genetic transformation, providing easier access to wood of specifically altered composition or structure, have opened new opportunities for research on the intricate relation between material structure and composition and mechanical properties. At the same time, investigations into the mechanical properties have provided new information regarding the structural configuration of wood. The present paper reviews the work conducted in this field and outlines future perspectives and prospects for research. PMID:21642090

  16. Hunger for wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2011-07-01

    The EU climate protection targets imply that Europe will need more mood. The preferred options for increasing wood supply require innovations in shredding technology in order to broaden the raw material base. (orig.)

  17. Disaster risk assessment at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rudzani A. Makhado; Amani T. Saidi

    2013-01-01

    This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004) and the United Nations International Strategy...

  18. Green Gold. On variations of truth in plantation forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined by the world's largest environmental organization WWF and an insurance and banking company called OHRA in 1993. Thousands of people invested, many millions of Guilders were transferred and about a...

  19. Depauperate Avifauna in Plantations Compared to Forests and Exurban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Haskell; Evans, Jonathan P; Pelkey, Neil W.

    2006-01-01

    Native forests are shrinking worldwide, causing a loss of biological diversity. Our ability to prioritize forest conservation actions is hampered by a lack of information about the relative impacts of different types of forest loss on biodiversity. In particular, we lack rigorous comparisons of the effects of clearing forests for tree plantations and for human settlements, two leading causes of deforestation worldwide. We compared avian diversity in forests, plantations and exurban areas on t...

  20. Quambalaria species associated with plantation and native eucalypts in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Pegg, Geoffrey S.; O'Dwyer, Cecilia; Carnegie, Angus J.; Burgess, Treena I.; Wingfield, Michael J; Drenth,Andre

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine which species of Quambalaria are associated with shoot blight symptoms on Corymbia spp. An additional aim was to determine the presence and impact of quambalaria shoot blight on Eucalyptus species used in plantation development in subtropical and tropical regions of eastern Australia. Surveys identified three Quambalaria spp. –Q. pitereka, Q. eucalypti and Q. cyanescens– from native and plantation eucalypts, as well as amenity plantings, including the first confi...

  1. Avalanches in wood compression

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Tero; Miksic, Amandine; Ovaska, Markus; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-01-01

    Wood is a multi-scale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power-laws. The stress- strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" ...

  2. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Damkilde, Lars

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excita...

  3. Advances in the phytochemistry of Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata: Extraction and quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity / Avances en la fitoquímica de Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata: Extracción y cuantificación de los compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B.A., Cardenas-Sandoval; A.R., López-Laredo; B.P., Martínez-Bonfil; K., Bermúdez-Torres; G., Trejo-Tapia.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea tanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina iradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h), el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de v [...] arios órganos de C. aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata. Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH•+ y ABTS•+) y el de poder reductor del fosfomolibdeno. La concentración mas alta de compuestos fenólicos se presentó en las flores de C. lanceolata (62.79±0.06 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico (EAG)/g pesos seco (PS); mientras que la de flavonoides en las hojas de C. aequipetala (196.83±2.9 mg equivalentes de quercetina (EQ)/g PS). Las hojas de C. aequipetala var. hispida presentaron la actividad de captura de radicales libres DPPH (173.33±2.12 ?mol trolox/g PS), las flores de C. aequipetala la de captura de radicales libres ABTS (541.10±2.32 ?mol trolox/g PS) mientras que el poder reductor más alto se observó en las hojas de C. aequipetala (1186.25±3.17 ?mol trolox/g PS). Se encontró una correlación positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes. El análisis químico cualitativo mediante TLC indicó la prescencia del flavonoide quercetina 3-3-D-glucosido en todas las especies de Cuphea y de otros flavonoides menos polares en C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. es una fuente natural de compuestos fenólicos. Abstract in english Cuphea aequipetala and Cuphea lanceolata native to Mexico are used in folk medicine. Extraction procedure standardization was performed and the amount of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids was determined in methanol extracts (obtained by stirring for 24 h) from various organs of C. aequipetala, [...] C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata. The antioxidant properties of extracts were compared using in vitro free radical-scavenging assays (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•+) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+)) and the reducing power of phosphomolybdenum (PPM). A significant correlation was found between antioxidant activity and the amount of antioxidant components. Flowers of C. lanceolata showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (62.79±0.05 mg gallic acid equivalfnts (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) and the highest content of flavonoids was found in leaves of C. aequipetala (196.83±2.9 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g DW). The highest free radical-scavenging fctivity against DPPH•+ was found in -eaves of C. aeqrnpetala var. hispida (173.33±2.12 ?mol trolox/g DW), for ABTS- in flowers ol C. aequipetala (541.10±2.32 ?mol trolox/g DW) and for 5PM in leaves oS C. aequipetala (1186.25±3.17 ?mol trolox/g DW). Qualitative analysis indicated the presence of the flavonoid quercetin 3-?-D-glucoside in all the species of Cuphea amongst other less polar flavonoids in C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. are prospective sources of phenolic compounds.

  4. More wood of better quality: intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Eucalyptus spp. for pulpwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campinhos, E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, there was an inability of the species to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that new silvicultural techniques should be developed and also new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce a better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated mainly because of the new technique of rooting cuttings developed by Aracruz, which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantations. The first results have already enabled good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content and resistance to disease.

  5. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alexander

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  6. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruce, Alexander; Emerson Barbosa de, Oliveria; Emily, Haigh; Lourenço Leal de, Almeida.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested), aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to [...] identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926), Lu. migonei (França 1920), Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959) and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939) were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912), was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  7. Review of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaning is carried out in order to influence the competitive situation of controlling the distribution of volume growth and the quality of timber. today, cleaning is conducted on about 200 000 ha per year in Sweden, most if which is cleaned motor-manually. The degree of mechanization is less than 1 % of. The biomass content of a cleaned stand is generally low, ranging from 1 to 2 tons dry matter per ha, but in some stands it can amount to over 20 tons per ha. The main motivation for removing biomass from a cleaned stand is the possibility of reducing overall cleaning costs. Few studies have been made on the environmental effects of the biomass removal in connection with cleaning. Studies made in connection with thinning, primarily conifers, indicate that the negative effects, such as increased soil acidification, reduced pools of base cations and nitrogen losses, can occur. It should be possible to compensate these undesirable effects through measures such as fertilization or ash recycling. Estimates of impacts on the flora and fauna suggests that effects are small and reversible. However, certain biotopes require special attention. Cost and performance studies indicate that it can be profitable for individual landowners to remove biofuel from very tall, dense stands, whereas better technology is required for more commercial operations. The development of such techniques is under way today. For large-scale removal of biofuel in connection with cleaning, simple forecasting tools will have to be developed that can help in determining when and where biomass should be removed. The decision should be based on economic, ecological and technical considerations. Furthermore, thorough analyses of the effects on the nutrient balance need to be made, and any reductions in the quality and growth of timber need to be quantified 21 refs

  8. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production - Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a "safety net" to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to offer viable and attractive economic perspectives to farmers and other land managers besides of the potential ecological benefits of SRCs. For this reason, an integrated tool for scenario analysis was developed within the BEST project ("BEAST - Bio-Energy Allocation and Scenario Tool"). It combines ecological assessments with calculations of economic revenue as a basis for a participative regional dialog on sustainable land use and climate protection goals. Results show a substantial capacity for providing renewable energy from economically competitive arable SRC sites while generating ecological synergies. PMID:26106595

  9. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production – Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today’s agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a “safety net” to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to offer viable and attractive economic perspectives to farmers and other land managers besides of the potential ecological benefits of SRCs. For this reason, an integrated tool for scenario analysis was developed within the BEST project (“BEAST – Bio-Energy Allocation and Scenario Tool”). It combines ecological assessments with calculations of economic revenue as a basis for a participative regional dialog on sustainable land use and climate protection goals. Results show a substantial capacity for providing renewable energy from economically competitive arable SRC sites while generating ecological synergies. PMID:26106595

  10. Wood for the Trees”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the t rees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resou rce rather than the collective wood[s] , implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of fore st and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high - value timber. By the late twentieth c entury, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movement s against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region . Wood for the t rees , curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington , plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawi lil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial p ole , Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into c olonisation , Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory s tick , and Añ A Wojak’s (2008 Unread b ook (in a forgotten language . Our art writing on the works, a practi ce informed by Bal (2002, Mueck e (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to t hat which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  11. Evaluación financiera de plantaciones forestales de caoba en Quintana Roo / Financial assessment of mahogany forest plantations in Quintana Roo state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Xavier, García Cuevas; Bartolo, Rodríguez Santiago; Juan, Islas Gutiérrez.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones forestales en México no han tenido resultados de acuerdo al esfuerzo y recursos invertidos en ellas. El problema fundamental es que no se les ha dado el seguimiento requerido, en virtud de que el éxito de los programas actuales debe medirse por el porcentaje de supervivencia en el c [...] ampo, así como por el crecimiento y rendimiento de madera y no por el número de plantas que se producen en los viveros. Además, para hacer de las plantaciones forestales una actividad económica rentable, es necesario proporcionar apoyos a los productores, a través del Gobierno Federal y la banca nacional. Bajo este contexto, el presente trabajo se realizó con datos obtenidos en el centro y sur de Quintana Roo, en los municipios de José María Morelos, Felipe Carrillo Puerto y Otón Pompeyo Blanco. La información recopilada es de tipo financiero (costos y beneficios ha-1) e indicadores financieros para plantaciones forestales comerciales, entre los que destacan: VPN = 162,344.2, TIR = 13.37 y B/C = 4.10, que les servirán a los productores y financiadores en el proceso de toma de decisiones. Finalmente, se analizan y discuten los indicadores financieros y el análisis de sensibilidad sobre su rentabilidad. Los resultados indican que las plantaciones pueden ser un buen negocio en Quintana Roo. Abstract in english Forest plantations operations in Mexico have not produced results according to the efforts and resources invested in them. The main problem is that they have not received the necessary follow-up as the success of the existing programs should be measured by the per cent of survival in the field, as w [...] ell as its growth and wood yield and not by the number of plants produced in the nursery. In addition, to make a profitable business out of forest plantations support must be provided to producers, in which the Federal Government and the national banks should be involved. In this context, this work was carried out with information from the Centre and South of Quintana Roo State, in the municipalities of José María Morelos, Felipe Carrillo Puerto and Othon Pompeyo Blanco. Financial information is presented (benefits, cost /ha-1) and financial indicators obtained for commercial forest plantations), being among the most important: VPN = 162,344.2, TIR = 13.37 and B/C = 4.10, which will be used to support producers and funders to make decisions. Finally, the financial indicators and the sensitivity on the profitability of forest plantations are analyzed and discussed. These results indicate that plantations can be an attractive business in Quintana Roo, México.

  12. Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, David L. (Rte. 1, Box 257, Moose Lake, MN 55767)

    1988-11-15

    A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester.

  13. Plantation forestry in Brazil: the potential impacts of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most climatic changes predicted to occur in Brazil would replace yields of silvicultural plantations, mainly through increased frequency and severity of droughts brought on by global warming and by reduction of water vapor sources in Amazonia caused by deforestation. Some additional negative effects could result from changes in temperature, and positive effects could result from CO2 enrichment. The net effects would be negative, forcing the country to expand plantations onto less-productive land, requiring increased plantation area (and consequent economic losses) out of proportion to the climatic change itself. These impacts would affect carbon sequestration and storage consequences of any plans for subsidizing silviculture as a global warming mitigation option. Climate change can be expected to increase the area of plantations needed to supply projected internal demand for and exports of end products from Brazil. June-July-August (dry season) precipitation reductions indicated by simulations reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) correspond to rainfall declines in this critical season of approximately 34% in Amazonia, 39% in Southern Brazil and 61% in the Northeast. As an example, if rainfall in Brazilian plantation areas (most of which are now in Southern Brazil) were to decline by 50%, the area needed in 2050 would expand by an estimated 38% over the constant climate case, bringing the total area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. These large areas of additional plantations imply substantial social and environmental impacts. Further addition of plantation area as a global warming response option would augment these impacts, indicating the need for caution in evaluating carbon sequestration proposals. (author)

  14. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under 4 climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future stem wood production and net ecosystem production of Pinus radiata plantations in southwestern Australia were estimated in this modelling study, which was conducted in order to determine the potential effects of anticipated severe rainfall reductions in the region. Four climate change and emission scenarios were considered as well as simulations of the present climate. Results of the study showed that stem wood production and NEP were not significantly influenced by moderate changes in temperature. However, stem wood production and NEP decreased significantly under the most pessimistic climate change scenarios. Results of the study suggested that a trade-off between the positive effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on plant and water use efficiency and the negative impacts of decreased rainfall and increased temperatures. Changes in heterotrophic respiration lagged behind changes in plant growth. It was concluded that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential will require modelling tools capable of characterizing interactions between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, as well as the potential range of climate change scenarios. 53 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  15. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under 4 climate change scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simioni, G.; Ritson, P.; McGrath, J. [Forest Products Commission, Perth, WA (Australia); Austalian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). CRC for Greenhouse Accounting; Kirschbaum, M.U.F. [Landcare Research, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Dumbrell, I.; Copeland, B. [Forest Products Commission, Bunbury, WA (Australia)

    2009-09-15

    The future stem wood production and net ecosystem production of Pinus radiata plantations in southwestern Australia were estimated in this modelling study, which was conducted in order to determine the potential effects of anticipated severe rainfall reductions in the region. Four climate change and emission scenarios were considered as well as simulations of the present climate. Results of the study showed that stem wood production and NEP were not significantly influenced by moderate changes in temperature. However, stem wood production and NEP decreased significantly under the most pessimistic climate change scenarios. Results of the study suggested that a trade-off between the positive effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) on plant and water use efficiency and the negative impacts of decreased rainfall and increased temperatures. Changes in heterotrophic respiration lagged behind changes in plant growth. It was concluded that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential will require modelling tools capable of characterizing interactions between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, as well as the potential range of climate change scenarios. 53 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere of the major land use types of the tropical rain forest margin area in South East Asia and quantification of the impact that land use change from undisturbed primary rain forest to pasture has on these interactions is task of subprogramme B1 within the DFG-funded project STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins). In order to fulfill the projects tasks the different major land use types have to be investigated and each ecosystem characterized one by one and compared to a reference site in an undisturbed primary rain forest, to see the changes in the atmosphere-biospheric interactions, i. e. in water and carbon household, with land use change and thus the impact on regional climate. One of the major land use types in the valleys around the Lore Lindu National Park on Sulawesi are Cacao plantations, Theobroma cacao. A site in the Palolo valley near the village Nopu was chosen as research site since the area there is covered with small Cacao fields which form to one big area of Cacao and matches the requirements of the applied research approach. Since Cacao trees need to be shaded especially when younger, shadow trees had been planted and trees of the former forest had been left standing to serve as wind breaks and sun shades. The plantations in Nopu, Palolo valley, consist not only of fields of cultivated Cacao, but also serve as environment and home to the farmers and their families. The whole area of Cacao plantation is interspersed with wooden farm houses, which are also sources of carbon dioxide due to cooking or small power plants etc. and thus have to be taken into account when looking at the carbon household of this specific ecosystem. An estimation of the components of the carbon and water household and the contribution of the humans living within this environment to the carbon household of Cacao plantations of this ecosystem is subject of this presentation. From December 2001 until April 2002 and June 2002 until now eddy-covariance measurements have been performed above a Cacao plantation in Nopu measuring time series of water vapour, CO2, air temperature, three-dimensional wind vector, photosyntetic active radiation and the surface temperature of the Cacao canopy at 10 Hz. Additionally, net radiation balance and soil heat fluxes have been measured. In order to assess the carbon input caused by the humans living in the ecosystem, a mapping of the site area has been carried out, including investigations of consumption of fire wood and use of machines, like generators for example. In order to obtain the energy balance equation of the canopy surface, also the radiation balance and the heat flux into the canopy have to be evaluated.

  17. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-12-01

    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (?E(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. PMID:23123593

  18. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  19. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP(TM))is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTPTM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTPTM. The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  20. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  1. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  2. Controlled human wood smoke exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Lykke Ali; Møller, Peter; Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Bønløkke, Jakob; Massling, Andreas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to wood smoke is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas knowledge on systemic effects is limited. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and microvascular function (MVF) after controlled wood smoke exposure.

  3. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  4. Prospect of Neem Plantation at Arafat, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. U Mridha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indicaA.Juss. is a multipurpose agroforestry tree that is well adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions and has gained worldwide recognition for its pharmaceutical and pesticidal properties.The world's largest pure Neem plantations are available in the plains of Arafat, Saudi Arabia where 50,000 thousands Neem trees were planted to provide shade from the blazing summer sun for the millions of Hajis (Muslim pilgrims. Sporadic mature Neem trees are also found in Medinah, Taif and elsewhereof the Kingdom. The Neem tree is adapted to Arafat under harsh climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia and the plantation may be extended to other parts of the Kingdom as a avenue tree and also to minimize the desertification under changing climatic conditions and to improve the environmental condition of the country. At Arafat mixed plantations may be advocated to save the present plantation which may come from climate change as well as pest and diseases problems. So care must be taken to monitor the diseases of Neem tree at Arafat on a regularbasis. Because of insufficient growth of Neem at Arafat the methods of green cultivation with microbial inoculants, organic fertilizers, mycotrophic green manure plants may be practiced for successful plantation.

  5. Avalanches in Wood Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, T.; Miksic, A.; Ovaska, M.; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-07-01

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  6. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored thro...

  7. De novo characterization of the Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata transcriptome and analysis of candidate genes involved in cellulose and lignin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hua-Hong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata is an important timber species that accounts for 20–30% of the total commercial timber production in China. However, the available genomic information of Chinese fir is limited, and this severely encumbers functional genomic analysis and molecular breeding in Chinese fir. Recently, major advances in transcriptome sequencing have provided fast and cost-effective approaches to generate large expression datasets that have proven to be powerful tools to profile the transcriptomes of non-model organisms with undetermined genomes. Results In this study, the transcriptomes of nine tissues from Chinese fir were analyzed using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. Approximately 40 million paired-end reads were obtained, generating 3.62 gigabase pairs of sequencing data. These reads were assembled into 83,248 unique sequences (i.e. Unigenes with an average length of 449 bp, amounting to 37.40 Mb. A total of 73,779 Unigenes were supported by more than 5 reads, 42,663 (57.83% had homologs in the NCBI non-redundant and Swiss-Prot protein databases, corresponding to 27,224 unique protein entries. Of these Unigenes, 16,750 were assigned to Gene Ontology classes, and 14,877 were clustered into orthologous groups. A total of 21,689 (29.40% were mapped to 119 pathways by BLAST comparison against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database. The majority of the genes encoding the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathways of cellulose and lignin were identified in the Unigene dataset by targeted searches of their annotations. And a number of candidate Chinese fir genes in the two metabolic pathways were discovered firstly. Eighteen genes related to cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were cloned for experimental validating of transcriptome data. Overall 49 Unigenes, covering different regions of these selected genes, were found by alignment. Their expression patterns in different tissues were analyzed by qRT-PCR to explore their putative functions. Conclusions A substantial fraction of transcript sequences was obtained from the deep sequencing of Chinese fir. The assembled Unigene dataset was used to discover candidate genes of cellulose and lignin biosynthesis. This transcriptome dataset will provide a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetics research of C. lanceolata.

  8. Phytosanitary risks of wood chips

    OpenAIRE

    Kopinga, J.; Moraal, L.G.; Verwer, C.C.; A.P.P.M. (Sandra). Clerkx

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the potential risks of spreading harmful pests and diseases by wood chips. Wood chipping is used as a measure against spread of certain harmful insects in wood, but is not effective to prevent spread of bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Here additional measures like composting and heating are necessary. Also in the biofuel chain infestations and spread of diseases are possible. For both the biofuel and phytosanitary wood chains the potential risks are described.

  9. Wood-pastures of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta; Beaufoy, Guy; Bergmeier, Erwin; Kirby, Keith; Montero, María Jesús; Moreno, Gerardo; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Van Uytvanck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Wood-pastures are archetypes of High Nature Value Farmlands in Europe and hold exceptional ecological, social, and cultural values. Yet, wood-pastures have been through a sharp decline all over Europe, mainly due to processes of agricultural intensification and abandonment. Recently, wood-pastures have found increasing attention from conservation science and policy across Europe. In this paper we (i) perform the first pan-European assessment of wood-pastures, considering individual countries and...

  10. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Wan, Hui; Niemz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) joints (150mm x 20mm x 10mm) were bonded with seven commercially available resins (PUR, PVAc, EPI, MF, MUF1, PRF and MUF2) and tested at six temperatures (20, -20, -30, -40,...

  11. FEATURES OF GROWTH AND EFFICIENCY OF FIELD-PROTECTION PLANTATIONS OF TAMBOV REGION ??????????? ????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balandin A. V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the parameters of growth of main tree species depending on planting density, placement of plants, location in the profile of plantations, the effectiveness of plantations

  12. 77 FR 53839 - Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; East McCloud Plantations Thinning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ...Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; East McCloud Plantations Thinning Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...which would treat conifer plantations on approximately 9,266 acres to improve forest health and increase...

  13. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  14. Is spatial structure the key to promote plant diversity in Mediterranean forets plantations?

    OpenAIRE

    González-Moreno, P.; J.L. Quero; Poorter, L.; Bonet, F.J.; Zamora, R.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean forest plantations are currently under an intense debate related to their ecological function, sustainability and future performance. In several Mediterranean countries, efforts are directed to convert pine plantations into mixed and more diverse forests. This research aims to evaluate the effect of the spatial configuration of pine plantations on regeneration and plant diversity in order to facilitate plantation management towards more diversified stands. Spatial characteristic...

  15. Socio-environmental Implications of the Establishment of Roadside Plantation at Jhang Road, Faisalabad

    OpenAIRE

    Aamir Nawaz; D.M. Zahid; Muhammad Qasim; Shakeel Ahmed

    2004-01-01

    Study on the extent of establishment of roadside plantation was carried out at Jhang Road Faisalabad during 2000. The study was aimed at finding out possible solutions to degraded conditions of Jhang Roadside plantation, through field survey (site survey) and social survey (evaluation of public perception). It was also intended to be helpful in future planning involving plantation in the cities in particular along roads. It was concluded that for sustainable roadside plantation, future planni...

  16. Tree Plantation Will not Compensate Natural Woody Vegetation Cover Loss in the Atlantic Department of Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyi, MS.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with land use and land cover changes for a 33 years period. We assessed these changes for eight land cover classes in the south of Benin by using an integrated multi-temporal analysis using three Landsat images (1972 Landsat MSS, 1986 Landsat TM and 2005 Landsat ETM+. Three scenarios for the future were simulated using a first-order Markovian model based on annual probability matrices. The contribution of tree plantations to compensate forest loss was assessed. The results show a strong loss of forest and savanna, mainly due to increased agricultural land. Natural woody vegetation ("forest", "wooded savanna" and "tree and shrub savanna" will seriously decrease by 2025 due to the expansion of agricultural activities and the increase of settlements. Tree plantations are expected to double by 2025, but they will not compensate for the loss of natural woody vegetation cover. Consequently, we assist to a continuing woody vegetation area decrease. Policies regarding reforestation and forest conservation must be initiated to reverse the currently projected tendencies.

  17. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Wood waste in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today's percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December's 1997 'Climate Change Summit' in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab

  19. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  20. Welding of solid wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Žup?i?

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the up-to-date knowledge and results of the application of wood welding techniques at the Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb. Wood welding technologies have been developed as a new way of bonding timber by using high temperature generatedby friction and pressure. Timber is assembled without any adhesives. During the process the surface layer of timber (lignin, which is in direct contact with its counterpart, melts due to high pressure and temperature, which is usually generated by mechanical friction of the elements being connected. The cell structure in the interface area of timber is completely destroyed, while in the welding area the density is increased due to the destruction of wood cells. The cell walls are broken, as a result of exposure to high temperatures, mechanical pressure and chemical process, which occur during the cooling stage.Only natural materials are used in wood welding, which makes these products eco-friendly. In case of recycling, welded products may be disposed of just as natural timber, without the release of toxic substances.

  1. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    OpenAIRE

    MALKOÇO?LU, Abdulkadir; Özdemir, Turgay; Arz, Nurdan

    2011-01-01

    Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized  within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractiv...

  2. Caracterización de la madera joven de Tectona grandis L. f. plantada en Brasil / Characterization of young wood Tectona grandis L. f. planted in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeimy Blanco, Flórez; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Tarcisio, Lima; Paulo Ricardo Gherardi, Hein; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva.

    Full Text Available La teca (Tectona grandis L. f.) es considerada una de las maderas más valiosas debido a sus excelentes propiedades físicas y estéticas. En Brasil esta especie está siendo ampliamente plantada dada su adaptación a las condiciones climáticas del país y a su corta edad de rotación (20 a 25 años). Un ci [...] clo rápido de crecimiento es factor determinante en la calidad y aptitud final de la madera considerando que se genera una mayor proporción de madera juvenil, en muchos casos con características inferiores a la madera adulta. En este sentido el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar algunas propiedades físicas y mecánicas de madera joven de Tectona grandis L. f. y compararlas con datos observados en maderas de plantaciones de la especie en otros lugares alrededor del mundo. Fueron determinadas la proporción de albura y duramen, excentricidad de la médula, densidad básica, contracciones dimensionales y propiedades mecánicas. Los resultados mostraron que, aunque se trata de madera joven, las características de la madera de plantaciones de teca en Brasil son semejantes a las maderas de teca adulta provenientes de otros lugares de plantación, fue determinado un alto contenido de duramen, alta estabilidad dimensional y mayor rigidez, comparado con lo encontrado en la literatura para ese nivel de edad, lo cual la hace apta para variedad de usos. Abstract in english Teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) is considered one of the most valuable timbers due to its excellent physical and aesthetic properties. In Brazil, this species is widely planted because of its adaptation to the climatic conditions of the country and its short rotation age (20-25 years). Rapid growth is [...] an important factor in the quality and end use suitability of the wood considering that it generates a higher proportion of juvenile wood, often with lower characteristics than mature wood. The aim of this study was to determinate some physical and mechanical properties of juvenile wood of Tectona grandis L. f. and compare with data observed in teakwood from plantations in other places around the world. The proportion of sapwood and heartwood, pith eccentricity, basic density, stiffness, strength and dimensional shrinkage were determined. The findings showed that, although it was non-mature wood, the characteristics of Brazil plantations teak wood resemble the mature teak wood from plantations elsewhere. The content of heartwood, dimensional stability and stiffness were higher than those found in the literature for teak wood with similar age range: so brazilian non-mature teak wood from plantations is suitable for a variety of uses.

  3. RETENTION AND PENETRATION OF CCA IN WOOD OF FIRST AND SECOND ROTATION OF Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lúcia Agostini Valle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989292This study aimed to evaluate the retention and penetration of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C as well as some wood properties of two rotations of two natural hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, aiming their use as treated wood. The study was conducted with material from commercial plantations, with 63 months of age. For the wood characterization, the relationship sapwood-heartwood, the basic density and the size of fibers and vessels were evaluated. For the evaluation of treated wood, the penetration and retention of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C were determined. Four trees per rotation and genetic material were used, which subsequently were split into three logs, in a total of 12 logs for each treatment. The preservative treatment was performed using the full cell process in autoclave using CCA solution with 2% concentration of active ingredients. The treatment process used was effective under the conditions required by the NBR 9480, with retention values ??higher than the minimum required by the standard, which is 6.5 kg/m3 of CCA per treated wood, and in addition, provided deep penetration and regular condom in sapwood of all timber treated. There are no restrictions on the use of wood from the first and second rotation for preservative treatment, based on the properties evaluated. There was no correlation between the type C CCA retention and wood properties evaluated.

  4. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND INTRA-RING WOOD DENSITY PROFILES IN Gmelina arborea APPLYING X-RAY DENSITOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tomazelo-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Four annual tree-rings (2 of juvenile wood and 2 of mature wood were sampled from fast-growth plantations ofGmelina arborea in two climatic conditions (dry and wet tropical in Costa Rica. Each annual tree-ring was divided in equal parts ina radial direction. For each part, X-ray density as well as vessel percentage, length and width fiber, cell wall thickness and lumendiameter were measured. Wood density and profile patterns of cell dimension demonstrated inconsistency between juvenile andmature wood and climatic conditions. The Pearson correlation matrix showed that intra-ring wood density was positively correlatedwith the cell wall thickness and negatively correlated with vessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width. The forwardstepwise regressions determined that: (i intra-ring wood density variation could be predicted from 76 to 96% for anatomicalvariation; (ii cell wall thickness was the most important anatomical feature to produce intra-ring wood density variation and (iii thevessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width were the second most statically significant characteristics to intra-ring wooddensity, however, with low participation of the determination coefficient of stepwise regressions.

  5. Observations of evapotranspiration in a break of slope plantation susceptible to periodic drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Break of slope (BOS) plantations are advocated as a means of water table control in areas where groundwater flows through colluvial deposits overlying low permeability bedrock. It is also believed that BOS plantations can supplement their water use requirements by exploiting shallow groundwater at the breaks in topographic slope. Although BOS plantations are attracting much interest from landholders, relevant research on their hydrologic function is limited. We compared measurements of BOS plantation and pasture evapotranspiration during spring, when the weather was warm and soils moist, and late summer when drought conditions prevailed In spring we found that pasture evapotranspiration was 65% of that of the plantation, whereas in summer, pasture evapotranspiration was equivalent to only 35% of plantation evapotranspiration. Rainfall interception by the canopy of the plantation was found to be twice that of the pasture. The greater evapotranspiration of the plantation reinforces the notion that trees can help to reduce groundwater recharge and alleviate dryland salinity and water logging. During the summer drought period, daily plantation transpiration was only 20% of that measured during spring. This suggested that the plantation was not utilising groundwater supplies but was instead 'mining' soil moisture supplies. Isotopic analysis of soil and tree water supported this hypothesis. The BOS plantation we studied is not behaving in the manner expected, and our findings raise some doubt as to mooted advantages of establishing plantations in 'break of slope' positions

  6. Canker diseases that limit the establishment of energy plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbes, M.; Lin, D. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry

    1996-09-01

    Pathogens of generally minor importance, but endemic to the geographic location of tree farms, can very significantly limit the economic viability of these plantations since the intensive cultivation, characteristic of energy plantations, create favorable conditions for disease development. Canker diseases of stems and branches are the most destructive; among these the Septoria canker is the most serious. Strategies, objectives, and results of experiments to date to develop new clones of fast-growing poplar hybrids that are resistant to Septoria canker were described. 22 refs.

  7. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  8. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  9. Optimizing the extraction yield of polyprenols from needles of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook using response surface methodology and its antioxidative activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An improved optimization method was used, combining a single-factor experiment and Response Surface Methodology to optimize the medium for the extraction yield of polyprenols from the needles of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was used with extraction temperatures, extraction times, and liquid-solid ratio as independent variables to understand and optimize the extraction yield of polyprenols. A mathematical model with a high coefficient of determination was obtained and could be employed to optimize polyprenols extraction. From the optimized values of extraction temperature 71.4 ?, extraction time 5.96 h, and liquid-solid ratio 9.3:1, the extraction yield of polyprenols was 1.22 ± 0.04% (N = 3, which agreed closely with the predicted value (1.27%. Besides, polyprenols were demonstrated to have a strong antioxidative ability in vitro. Scavenging percentages of superoxide radical and DPPH by polyprenols were up to 75.6% and 56.9%, respectively.

  10. Lancemaside A isolated from Codonopsis lanceolata and its metabolite echinocystic acid ameliorate scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Il-Hoon; Jang, Se-Eun; Joh, Eun-Ha; Chung, Jayong; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-12-15

    The rhizome of Codonopsis lanceolata (family Campanulaceae), which contains lancemaside A as a main constituent, has been used as herbal medicine to treat inflammation, insomnia, and hypomnesia. Lancemaside A and echinocystic acid, which is its metabolite by intestinal microflora, potently inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in a dose-dependent manner, with IC?? value 13.6 ?M and 12.2 ?M, respectively. Its inhibitory potency is comparable with that of donepezil (IC??=10.9 ?M). Lancemaside A and echinocystic acid significantly reversed scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits on passive avoidance task. Lancemaside A orally administered 5h before treatment with scopolamine reversed scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits more potently than one orally administered 1h before. Echinocystic acid more potently reversed it than lancemaside A. Lancemaside A and echinocystic acid significantly reversed scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits on the Y-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Lancemaside A and echinocystic acid also increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB). Based on these findings, orally administered lancemaside A may be metabolized to echinocystic acid, which may be absorbed into the blood and ameliorate memory and learning deficits by inhibiting AChE activity and inducing BDNF and p-CREB expressions. PMID:23079229

  11. Effectiveness of selected preservatives in protecting Ugandan grown Eucalyptus grandis wood against termite attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E Ssemaganda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Termites are one of the major wood destroying agents in the tropics and with the increasing rate of deforestation, there is a need to protect wood from biodegradation in order to extend its service life. In this study the incidence and severity of termite attack on Eucalyptus grandis sapwood treated with CCA, used engine oil and neem extract were investigated. Sixty samples (20 × 20 × 300mm were prepared from the sapwood at mid-height of the tree of E. grandis and air seasoned for two weeks then treated with the preservatives. An area of 20m by 20m in a pine plantation and 15 plots of 1m by 1m were selected at random. Four samples, one from each treatment, were placed at the corners of the selected plots. Inspection and evaluation of stakes was made by visual assessments after every 30 days for any sign of termite attack for a period of 8 months. The specimens were removed from the ground, damage assessed and returned to the ground. After 4 weeks all the untreated wood samples had been attacked, neem extract treated wood samples were attacked after 17 weeks and used engine oil treated samples after 30 weeks. None of the CCA treated wood samples were attacked by the end of study period. Chi square analysis showed a high association between treatment and incidence as well as between treatment and severity. It was recommended that further research be carried out on neem extract using different concentrations.

  12. Effectiveness of selected preservatives in protecting Ugandan grown Eucalyptus grandis wood against termite attack

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I. E, Ssemaganda; P, Mugabi; S. B, Tumwebaze.

    Full Text Available Termites are one of the major wood destroying agents in the tropics and with the increasing rate of deforestation, there is a need to protect wood from biodegradation in order to extend its service life. In this study the incidence and severity of termite attack on Eucalyptus grandis sapwood treated [...] with CCA, used engine oil and neem extract were investigated. Sixty samples (20 × 20 × 300mm) were prepared from the sapwood at mid-height of the tree of E. grandis and air seasoned for two weeks then treated with the preservatives. An area of 20m by 20m in a pine plantation and 15 plots of 1m by 1m were selected at random. Four samples, one from each treatment, were placed at the corners of the selected plots. Inspection and evaluation of stakes was made by visual assessments after every 30 days for any sign of termite attack for a period of 8 months. The specimens were removed from the ground, damage assessed and returned to the ground. After 4 weeks all the untreated wood samples had been attacked, neem extract treated wood samples were attacked after 17 weeks and used engine oil treated samples after 30 weeks. None of the CCA treated wood samples were attacked by the end of study period. Chi square analysis showed a high association between treatment and incidence as well as between treatment and severity. It was recommended that further research be carried out on neem extract using different concentrations.

  13. Nitrogen removal and its determinants in hybrid Populus clones for bioenergy plantations after two biennial rotations in two temperate sites in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of bioenergy coppice plantations is strongly affected by the Nitrogen (N balance, whose removal is very high due to the frequent harvest of large quantities of biomass composed of small-sized shoots. Poplar bioenergy coppice plantations could have a Nitrogen removal comparable to herbaceous crops. In this study, five hybrid poplar genotypes (“AF2”, “AF6”, “Monviso”, “83.148.041”, “I214” were compared for tree morphological traits related to yield, N removal in the harvested biomass and Nitrogen wood concentration (N% after two biennial coppice rotations in two experimental plantations located in northern Italy. N removal was primarily influenced by biomass production, and linear positive relationships between biomass yield and N removal were established. N removal also varied greatly among genotypes due to clonal differences in yield and in N%, in relation to significant differences among clones for their branching and sprouting habits. In the first rotation, branchiness was positively correlated to N% with a significant coefficient of determination (R2=0.813, while at the end of the second rotation it was also significantly correlated to the shoots per stool ratio (R2=0.804. “Monviso” and “83.148.041” were the clones showing the highest yield, but also a high N% associated to an high level of branchiness and shoots per stool ratio. Our results highlight that poplar genotype selection for sustainable N management should be aimed at genotypes with low wood N concentration, coupling high yield with low branching and sprouting habits as in the case of the clone “AF2”.

  14. Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First a map of grass contamination (of May 1986) in Styria, Austria and the sites of plantation of medical herbs are given. Then tables of radioactivity of several dried herbs and of infusions, tinctures and essential oils are presented. There is no danger to the users of drugs. 2 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (qui)

  15. Labile carbon dynamics in a Florida Slash pine plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses simulation model of a 29-yr-old slash pine plantation extended to include a separate labile carbon pool and estimates of the growth and maintenance components of respiration of pine foliage, stems and branches, and roots. New tissue growth is examined and results of the model are given

  16. Environmental Development cum Forest Plantation Planning and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, C. D.

    This textbook covers environmental conservation through forest plantation planning and management for all levels of forestry professionals and non-professionals in India and abroad. The book is divided into six parts and 29 sections in sequential order. Part I contains details on site selection, site preparations, site clearance, layout, and…

  17. La différenciation spatiale de l’économie de plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric MOLLARD

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Le chorème de la zone d’attraction, mis en oeuvre à trois reprises, propose une modélisation de l’usage du sol en économie de plantation. Son application successive donne naissance à des interactions qui expliquent certains déséquilibres géographiques dans la région proche d’Abidjan.

  18. Yield models for commercial willow biomass plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, Blas [Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-801 01 Joensuu (Finland); Aronsson, Paer [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7016, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    A yield model for willow plantations for bioenergy production in Sweden was developed based on recorded production of 2082 commercial plantations during the period 1989-2005. The model predicts yield for the first, second and third harvest using oats (avena) production as agro-climatic index. The mean annual yields were 2.6, 4.2 and 4.5 oven dry tonnes (odt) per hectare during the first, second and third cutting cycles, respectively. The yield correlated inversely with the length of the cutting cycle. The results of the study show significant differences between growers, which suggest the importance of proper management in the establishment and tending of the plantations. Model estimates for 25% of the best growers vary from 4.0 to 6.3 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 5-year-rotation plantations during the first cutting cycle, and from 5.4 to 7.1 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 4-year-rotations for the second cutting cycle. The proposed model can be applied in policy making and for management planning. (author)

  19. The response of macroinvertebrates to artificially enhanced detritus levels in plantation streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, J. L.; Dobson, M.

    The leaves and wood from vegetation surrounding headwater streams constitute a major food source for aquatic invertebrates, providing they are retained upon the streambed and not transported downstream. This study investigated the response of aquatic invertebrates to artificially increased detritus retention, in an effort to reproduce the naturally occurring build up of dead organic matter associated with streams in old-growth forest. The background detrital standing stock in streams in Kielder Forest (Northumberland, UK) was low, approximately 32 gm-2. Two streams flowing through dense conifer plantation and one in open broadleaved woodland were manipulated by the addition of logs over a 10 m stream reach. After several months, log addition significantly enhanced detrital standing stocks in both conifer and broadleaved streams. Total invertebrate abundance, taxon richness and the numbers of certain numerically dominant families were significantly higher in experimental than reference reaches in both conifer and broadleaved streams. This response was most marked for detritivores, whilst non-detritivore groups often showed no response to the manipulation. Whilst in the short term the responses to enhanced retention may reflect a redistribution of the local fauna, it is argued that over a longer time-scale, a genuine increase in invertebrate density and diversity could occur. Allowing old-growth forest to develop in planted valley bottoms may be a viable management option for conservation. If established alongside streams, it would ensure continuous input of woody material and the fauna may benefit from the resulting increase in detritus retention.

  20. MARKET VALUE OF TEAK PLANTATIONS (Tectona grandis Linn. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CORDOBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. Vergara Córdoba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L. has great stability in changing environments and is resistant to degradation by biotic and abiotic agents. For these reasons, its wood is considered one of the most valuable in the world. The objective of this study was to estimate the value of teak timber in Cordoba, Colombia. Permanent circular plots were used. The commercial value of the potential timber production in each plot were estimated based on the age, quality and size of logs, volume (by diameter class, potential use and transport. The results showed that trees at the field El Limon (San Antero. with the highest volume of timber production, had the lowest commercial value (67.5%. The highest commercial value was found in Guazimal (Canalete, with a decrease in the real value of 56.7%. The diameter of the trees was the most important factor on the commercial value of the trees, this suggest that it is very important to improve the selection of the planting material and the management of the crop. This paper shows the current value of teak plantations in the department of Córdoba and it will be as a reference point for future research in this area.

  1. Below-ground biomass production and allometric relationships of eucalyptus coppice plantation in the central highlands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short rotations of Eucalyptus plantations under coppice regime are extensively managed for wood production in Madagascar. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass production and partitioning and their potential in terms of carbon sequestration. If above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on established allometric relations, below-ground (BGB) estimates are much less common. The aim of this work was to develop allometric equations to estimate biomass of these plantations, mainly for the root components. Data from 9 Eucalyptus robusta stands (47–87 years of plantation age, 3–5 years of coppice-shoot age) were collected and analyzed. Biomass of 3 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weight of AGB components (leaves, branches and stems) were estimated as a function of basal area of all shoots per stump and dry weight for BGB components (mainly stump, coarse root (CR) and medium root (MR)) were estimated as a function of stump circumference. Biomass was then computed using allometric equations from stand inventory data. Stand biomass ranged from 102 to 130 Mg ha?1 with more than 77% contained in the BGB components. The highest dry weight was allocated in the stump and in the CR (51% and 42% respectively) for BGB parts and in the stem (69%) for AGB part. Allometric relationships developed herein could be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations which present similar stand density and growing conditions; anyhow, more is needed to be investigated in understanding biomass production and partitioning over time for this kind of forest ecosystem. -- Highlights: ? We studied the potential of old eucalyptus coppices in Madagascar to mitigate global warming. ? Biomass measurement, mainly for below-ground BGB (stump, coarse-medium-and fine roots) was provided. ? BGB allometry relationships for short rotation forestry under coppice were established. ? BGB were found to be important with their 102-130MgC ha-1 (<77% of the C in the studied ecosystem). ? Importance of the study in a country like Madagascar for developing CDM and REDD activities.

  2. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (Wc; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (Wa) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha-1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha-1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

  3. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

  4. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep is observed. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and attempted explained at a microstructural level. The outline of a model explaining the interaction of the effect of load duration and the effect of the loading sequences is presented.

  5. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  6. Optimized wood manufacturing with main focus on wood drying

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Optimization is performed on two applications from woodmanufacturing, with the main focus on wood drying. As anintroductory study of optimization, the design of a modernracing ski is investigated. The skating ski, which is partlybuilt up by wood, is optimized against maximum stiffness withthe restriction of a limited upper weight. Wood drying is treated as an optimization problem. The totaldrying time is minimized, at the same time as restrictions onmoisture content, stresses and deformations...

  7. L’Habitation Beauséjour : une plantation martiniquaise remarquable et pérenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent-Christian Ursulet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aux Antilles françaises les anciennes propriétés de colons ne se nomment pas plantations mais « habitations », espace et mode de vie étant différents de ceux d’Amérique Latine, du Sud des Etats-Unis, ou des Grandes Antilles. L’Habitation Beauséjour, située sur des terres propices aux cultures d’exportation, dans le nord de la Martinique, est un exemple remarquable de domaine colonial qui a conservé une structure traditionnelle avec plantations, bâtiments principaux d’habitation, bâtiments de production, aménagement hydraulique, logements pour le personnel. Au cœur des rapports d’exploitation qu’engendrent les sociétés de type colonial, nous nous trouvons à Beauséjour devant une demeure créole dont la structure n’a pas varié de façon fondamentale au cours de son histoire.In French West-Indies, the old colonial estates are not called plantations, but “habitations”, because the geographic space as well as the way of life differed here from the vast plantations of Latin America, Southern United States and Greater Antilles. The « Habitation Beauséjour » situated on land that is good for growing export crops, in northern Martinique, is an instructive exemple of colonial estate preserving a traditional structure with plantations, main buildings, production buildings, hydraulic land-scaping, and buildings for housing and use of employees. The « Habitation Beauséjour » is more than many others a Creole estate with a persistent structure that has remained unchanged over its history and through the change due to the end of the exploitive relations generated by colonial societies.

  8. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  9. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  10. ASSESSMENT OF DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF GMELINA ARBOREA WOOD USING MODIFIED GREEN HOUSE DRYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Mayowa OWOYEMI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dimensional stability of Gmelina arborea wood was investigated using the modified greenhouse dryer. Daily temperature and relative humidity patterns in the Greenhouse and air-dry shed were assessed to determine their influence on the moisture variation, density, volumetric shrinkage and volumetric swelling of Gmelina arborea after drying for 40 days. Wood samples were obtained from a twenty-year old plantation at the Federal University of Technology, Akure. For laboratory work, 45 freshly cut samples of 20mm x 20mm x 60mm were dried in the oven at 105?C for 24 hours until they attained constant weight while for field experiment, 45 freshly cut samples of 25mm x 75mm x 450mm Gmelina arborea wood were loaded into the Greenhouse dryer and air-dry shed respectively. The result obtained for average daily temperature and relative humidity pattern in the greenhouse for the period was 31.17?C and 77.29% respectively while 22.47?C and 84.57% were recorded for air drying shed. The attainable moisture content for Green house dryer after 40 days of drying was found to be 19.05% while air-dry medium was 31.46% which showed that greenhouse medium dried the wood below fibre saturation point, a better performance over air drying method. Wood samples of Gmelina arborea in the Greenhouse dryer were found to be more stable in terms of swelling and shrinkage attained. The result of the overall mean density for Gmelina arborea wood was found to be 463.89kg/m3 which classified the wood as non-refractory because of its low density

  11. Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Stocks in an Indigenous Tree (Mytilaria laosensis) Plantation Chronosequence in Subtropical China

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Angang; Hongyan JIA; Zhao, Jinlong; Tao, Yi; Li, Yuanfa

    2014-01-01

    More than 60% of the total area of tree plantations in China is in subtropical, and over 70% of subtropical plantations consist of pure stands of coniferous species. Because of the poor ecosystem services provided by pure coniferous plantations and the ecological instability of these stands, a movement is under way to promote indigenous broadleaf plantation cultivation as a promising alternative. However, little is known about the carbon (C) stocks in indigenous broadleaf plantations and thei...

  12. Using Wood’s Light as a Diagnostic Tool for Vaginal Atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Ulubay, Mustafa; Ozturk, Mustafa; Fidan, Ulas; Keskin, Ugur; Alanbay, Ibrahim; Karaca, Riza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Wood’s light lamp is a device that emits ultraviolet (UV) light and is a useful diagnostic tool for dermatologic disorders. The change in the thickness of vaginal mucosa, in vaginal atrophy, causes a change in its colour under Wood’s light. We wanted to assess the feasibility of Wood’s light (WL) as a diagnostic tool for vaginal atrophy.

  13. In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 / Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena A, Ferrari Mateus; Cacilda M, Duarte Rios Faria¹; Renato V, Botelho; Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Silvana G, Martins Ferreira; Welton L, Zaluski.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates pa [...] ra el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2)nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne [...] incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2) hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.

  14. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible contribution of short rotation cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations was investigated using the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) technique. Three poplar species were grown in an SRC plantation for three growing seasons. Above-ground and below-ground biomass increased by 15 to 27 per cent and by 22 to 38 per cent, respectively; light-efficiency also increased as a result. Depletion of inorganic nitrogen from the soil increased after three growing seasons at elevated carbon dioxide levels, but carbon dioxide showed no effect on stem wood density. Stem wood density also differed significantly from species to species. These results confirmed inter-specific differences in biomass production in poplar, and demonstrated that elevated carbon dioxide enhanced biomass productivity and light-use efficiency of a poplar short rotation cultivation ecosystem without changing biomass allocation. The reduction in soil nitrogen raises the possibility of reduced long-term biomass productivity. 60 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  16. A New Ecological Model Oriented Forest Plantation Map of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Q.; Hurtt, G. C.; Zhao, M.; Chini, L. P.; Fisk, J. P.; Liang, S.

    2012-12-01

    China has been implementing unprecedented afforestation programs since the middle 1980s to restore ecosystem services and mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon from atmosphere to biosphere. Over the past three decades, China has planted 120-160 million hectares of trees, accounting for about 70% of its current forested area. Planted forest ecosystems are different in biophysical and biochemical characteristics from natural forests. To accurately estimate regional carbon storage change in China, the spatio-temporal information of planted forests must be taken into account and distinguished from natural forests. The goal of this research is to create the first ecological model-oriented plantation map of China using coupled remote sensing data and statistical data. We divided our research into three steps. Firstly, to quantitatively characterize forest-plantation area, we proposed a Plantation Potential Index (PPI) that demonstrated the possibility of artificial forest establishment in a 1km by 1km grid. MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) data produced by the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) were employed to distinguish forest and non-forest area for each year from 2001-2010. Then time series of Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS were utilized to identify new growth forests and their establishment time by using a logistic growth function. With the identified new forests, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), NDVI variance, soil degradation level and the ratio of annual Land Surface Temperature maximum (LSTmax) to Enhanced Vegetation Index maximum (EVImax) were combined to construct PPI for each grid. Secondly, we built up a spatial allocation model to automatically assign statistical data from each province to map pixels based on their PPI values. Finally, we validated our plantation map at locations where independent field or documentary data were available and depicted plantation classification accuracy. After careful examination, we provided a layer of uncertainty map to quantify the varying range of each pixel value. With the new ecological model-oriented forest plantation map, we can better simulate the carbon budget in China and evaluate the afforestation programs. Results from this research can benefit land-use reconstructions and projections as well as the coupled human-earth system modeling study.

  17. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese dos frutos e sementes de Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.3567 Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruits and seeds of Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.3567

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marzinek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Clusia lanceolata Cambess é espécie arbustiva da Mata Atlântica. Caracteriza-se por ser dioica, com flores estaminadas e pistiladas grandes, vistosas, de coloração rosa, apresentando a parte interna vinácea. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie, visando classificar corretamente o seu tipo de fruto e, também, confirmar a origem do apêndice carnoso que envolve as sementes. O material botânico utilizado constou de flores em antese e frutos, em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento, coletados de dois espécimes. Os estudos morfológicos e anatômicos foram realizados segundo técnicas usuais. O fruto é cápsula septífraga, esférica, de coloração verde-avermelhado. O exocarpo é unisseriado; o mesocarpo parenquimático contém numerosos ductos secretores e feixes vasculares, de disposição principalmente longitudinal. O endocarpo é derivado da epiderme interna do ovário e de três a quatro camadas subepidérmicas, cujas células alongam-se tangencialmente e a parede que delimita o lóculo sofre lignificação. A abertura se faz pela sutura carpelar, por meio de uma faixa de células parenquimáticas de tamanho reduzido, que se bifurca em direção aos lóculos no meio dos septos. Os óvulos anátropos bitegumentados, com endotélio e hipóstase, originam sementes também anátropas, exotégmicas e envolvidas por arilo de origem funicular e exostomal. O embrião é hipocotilar.Clusia lanceolata Cambess. is a shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. The plant is dioecious, with large, showy, pink staminate and pistillate flowers that are wine-colored internally. The morphological and structural aspects of the fruits and seeds of this species are described here in order to correctly classify the fruit type and to determine the origin of the fleshy appendage that surrounds the seeds. The botanical material utilized here contained flowers in anthesis and fruits in four stages of development, and were collected from two different plants. The morphological and anatomical studies were performed according to traditional techniques. The fruit is a septifrage, spherical capsule with a reddish-green coloration. The exocarp is uniseriate; the parenchymatous mesocarp contains numerous secretory ducts and vascular bundles arranged in predominantly longitudinal positions. The endocarp is derived from the internal epidermis of the ovary and has from three to four subepidermal layers whose component cells are tangentially elongated, and the cell walls lining the locule become lignified. The fruits open by means of the carpelar suture, along a stand of small parenchymous cells that bifurcate in the direction of the locules, in the midst of the septum. The anatropous bi-tegumented ovules, with an endothelium and hypostase, give rise to seeds that are likewise anatropous, exotegmic, and wrapped in an aril that has a funicular and exostomal origin. The embryo is hypocotylar.

  18. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  19. Wood-Based Bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Michael; Sletten, Thea Marcelia

    2014-01-01

    During recent years increased attention has been given to second-generation wood-based bioenergy. The carbon stored in the forest is highest when there is little or no harvest from the forest. Increasing the harvest from a forest, in order to produce more bioenergy, may thus conflict with the direct benefit of the forest as a carbon sink. We analyze this conflict using a simple model where bioenergy and fossil energy are perfect substitutes. Our analysis shows how the social optimum will depe...

  20. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  1. Wood-plastic composites using woods native to Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced polymerization of methylmethacrylate and copolymerization of styrene-acrylonitrile mixture in mamrase Carpinus betulus was carried out by means of ?-ray, under different moisture levels and additives. Under all conditions the degree of polymerization was as high as 60%. No pronounced differences were observed in the kinetics of the polymerization of MMA either with moisture content of wood nor with kind and amount of additives. At high moisture (80% RH) content the dimensional stability of wood-PMMA was increased four fold as compared with untreated wood. The hardness increased about 100% for a weight conversion of monomer of about 30 to 40%. Hardness of this wood-polymer composite is comparable to that of the best noble woods in the world. (author)

  2. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 ?m, and 7.1 ?m, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70°C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

  3. Wood gas; Holz gibt Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, Claudia

    2011-06-17

    Sixty years ago, wood gas was even used as a car fuel. Today, this ancient technology is experiencing a renaissance. Small cogeneration plants with wood gasifiers are ideal for renewable and decentral power supply concepts for tomorrow. Until then, there is much pioneering work to do until plants will be ready for serial production.

  4. Wood heating systems; Gut Holz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, V.

    2008-07-15

    While heating with wood is more labour-intensive, it is climate-friendly and may be economically efficient. The contribution presents a market survey of 86 modern wood-fuelled boilers, i.e. 14 more than in the year before. (orig.)

  5. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  6. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation is observed between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and an explanation at a microstructural level is attempted. The outline of a model explaining the interaction of the effect of load duration and the effect of the loading sequences is presented.

  7. Harvesting Short-Rotation Poplar Plantations for Biomass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaele Spinelli; Carla Nati; Natascia Magagnotti

    2008-01-01

    In Italy, short rotation forest has become very popular in recent years, with over 4,000 hectares already planted – almost exclusively with clone poplar. The study models the performance of modified forage harvesters on a range of short-rotation poplar plantations, identifies technical obstacles to the deployment of these machines and suggests solutions that may expand the capability of modified forage harvesters when treating short-rotation poplar. Data were collected from 16 operations, cov...

  8. Individual Tree Simulation and Stand Visualization of Pinus Tabulaeformis Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjun Liang; Yintong Zang; Guodong Ding; Guanglei Gao; Lina Ren

    2011-01-01

    Forest visualization is a scientific, technical and efficient assistant tool for forest resources data management, forest management plan assesses and designs. Expending little time and investment but providing huge amount of benefits, forest visualization tools play a more increasingly important role in modern forest management, especially in China that has the largest plantation in the world. In this present paper, we reported a successful application of forest visualization of Pinus tabul...

  9. Wood bending using microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a new technique of wood bending where microwave irradiation is used to heat and soften wet wood specimens. Compared to the traditional steaming procedure, this procedure offers many advantages : (i) as the heating occurs inside the specimen, complete softening is obtained very quickly; (ii) temperature can be easily controlled in order to obtain the best processing conditions; (iii) the benefit will be especially big in the case of large specimens whose pretreatment may take hours with steaming; (iv) in general, the applicability of wood bending is enlarged, i.e. new wood species and specimens with lower quality can endure larger deformations with a reduced loss. In the case where drastic strain levels are required, the forming and setting operations should be done inside the microwave oven, in order to take advantage of the additional ''mechano-sorptive'' flexibility appearing when wood dries under load

  10. Impacts of afforestation and silviculture on the soil C balance of tropical tree plantations: belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epron, D.; Koutika, L.; Mareschal, L.; Nouvellon, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forest plantations will provide a large part of the global wood supply which is anticipated to increase sharply in the next decades, becoming a valuable source of income in many countries, where they also contribute to land use changes that impact the global carbon (C) cycle. Tropical forest plantations established on previous grasslands are potential C sinks offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When they are managed on short rotations, the aboveground biomass is frequently removed and transformed into wood products with short lifetimes. The soil is thus the only compartment for durable C sequestration. The soil C budget results from the inputs of C from litterfall, root turnover and residues left at logging stage, balanced by C losses through heterotrophic respiration and leaching of organic C with water flow. Intensive researches have been conducted these last ten years in eucalypt plantations in the Congo on the effects of management options on soil fertility improvement and C sequestration. Our aim is to review important results regarding belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion in relation to management options. We will specifically address (i) the soil C dynamics after afforestation of a tropical savannah, (ii) the impact of post-harvest residue management, and (iii) the beneficial effect of introducing nitrogen fixing species for C sequestration. Our results on afforestation of previous savannah showed that mechanical soil disturbance for site preparation had no effect on soil CO2 efflux and soil C balance. Soil C increased after afforestation despite a rapid disappearance of the labile savannah-derived C because a large fraction of savannah-derived C is stable and the aboveground litter layer is as the major source of CO2 contributing to soil CO2 efflux. We further demonstrated that the C stock in and on the soil slightly increased after each rotation when large amounts of residues are left at logging stage and that most of eucalypt-derived C is recovered in the fine particulate organic matter fraction (0.25-0.05 mm) and the organo-mineral fraction (plantation with nitrogen fixing trees might be an important strategy of reforestation or afforestation to offset C emissions.

  11. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume. The material (Eucalyptus grandis wood and industrial residues - recycled pallets and sawdust was supplied by Eucatex S. A. Ind. e Com. located in Botucatu - Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where the panels had been manufactured in Eucatex plant. Physical tests were carried out at the Process Laboratories of Eucatex and in the Materials Testing Laboratory, Rural Engineering Department of the College of Agronomic Sciences - Sao Paulo State University - UNESP. Results revealed that panels had very good physical performance, attending, in general, to all the technical specifications established by the product standards, even in the treatments with higher addition of residues. The final moisture content of the panel presented effect in the properties studied with general trend of reduction in water absorption and swelling in thickness when the moisture content increased from 9% for 12,5%.

  12. Predicting the morphological characteristics and basic density of Eucalyptus wood using the NIRS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Cássia Viana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to apply the near infrared spectroscopy technique (NIRS for fast prediction of basic density and morphological characteristics of wood fibers in Eucalyptus clones. Six Eucalyptus clones aged three years were used, obtained from plantations in Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce and Santa Bárbara, in Minas Gerais state. The morphological characteristics of the fibers and basic density of the wood were determined by conventional methods and correlated with near infrared spectra using partial least square regression (PLS regression. Best calibration correlations were obtained in basic density prediction, with values 0.95 for correlation coefficient of cross validation (Rcv and 3.4 for ratio performance deviation (RPD, in clone 57. Fiber length can be predicted by models with Rcv ranging from 0.61 to 0.89 and standard error (SECV ranging from 0.037 to 0.079 mm. The prediction model for wood fiber width presented higher Rcv (0.82 and RPD (1.9 values in clone 1046. Best fits to estimate lumen diameter and fiber wall thickness were obtained with information from clone 1046. In some clones, the NIRS technique proved efficient to predict the anatomical properties and basic density of wood in Eucalyptus clones.

  13. Individual Tree Simulation and Stand Visualization of Pinus Tabulaeformis Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Liang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest visualization is a scientific, technical and efficient assistant tool for forest resources data management, forest management plan assesses and designs. Expending little time and investment but providing huge amount of benefits, forest visualization tools play a more increasingly important role in modern forest management, especially in China that has the largest plantation in the world. In this present paper, we reported a successful application of forest visualization of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr plantation using the outstanding stand visualization tool, Landscape Management System-Stand Visualization System (LMS-SVS in Mulan-Weichang Forestry Administration of Hebei province, China. In addition, the outcomes of stand visual simulation were also analyzed and discussed. The study indicates that the LMS-SVS can provide direct, three-dimensional and elegant plan, profile and perspective views, and extensive statistical charts of the experimental P. tabulaeformis Carr plantation. In the fictitious forest environment, using freely individual tree marking, the LMS-SVS can design or modify the forest management plans, and simulates the whole forest management process for certain goals. As a conclusion, the LMS-SVS is an ideal tool for visual forest management and has broad prospects for a modern forestry in China.

  14. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ??of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  15. Estimation of Carbon Stocks in Coffee Plantation in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Wibawa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is closely related with the amount of carbon stored in an ecosystem. A research to determine the amount of carbon stock in the coffee farms has been conducted in Sumberbaru and Silo Sub-districts in Jember district, Kaliwining Experimental Station (ES in Jember district, Sumberasin ES in Malang district and Andungsari ES in Bondowoso district. Carbon stock was measured using the method of Rapid Carbon Stock’s Assessment (RaCSA developed by ICRAF. Measurements were made on the observation plots of 200 m2, with 3 replications. Results of measurement of carbon stock on coffee plantations showed that the increased carbon stock was proportional with the age of plants. Carbon stock in coffee plantation depends on the shade tree system. In the monoculture coffee leucaena used as shade trees, the carbon stock was lower then in multistrata system (agroforestry used several kinds of shade trees. Carbon stock on coffee plant in the estate more than smallholder. The average of carbon stock on Robusta coffee at the age of 30 years amounted to 29.38 Mg ha-1, it is greater than the carbon deposit on Arabica coffee that is 22.02 Mg ha-1.Key words: Carbon stock, coffee plantation, Arabica, Robusta, smallholder, agroforestri

  16. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation

  17. Assessment of radiation health risk in Cameron Highlands tea plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to the natural radiation is quite common except that the level varies from one place to another. The level of radiation will depend on the type of rocks and soil on that particular area, where the granitic rocks tend to contribute more to the background radiation. The present study was conducted in two of the Tea Plantations in Cameron Highlands, where it has been in operation for more than 50 years. The landscape is hilly type and the workers have to pluck the tea leaves manually. Practically, there are spending long hours in the plantation area. There were thirteen locations for soil sampling and surface dose in-situ measurement. Soil samples were taken back to the UiTM laboratory in Shah Alam for further analysis. Samples were clean, dried, ground and sieve to obtain homogenous samples before analysis. Samples were packed in a plastic container around 400 g, sealed and leave it for 3 weeks to allow radionuclides to reach secular equilibrium, before counting using gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector. The spectrum was analysed using gamma vision software to calculate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K. From the radium equivalent values, one can estimate the external hazard index, the absorb dose and cumulative effective dose received by the person who spend their time in the study area. The results show the external hazard index more than one for one of the tea plantation, but the cumulative effective dose is still below the recommended level. (author)

  18. An Assessment of Tree Plantation Activity among Smallholders in the District of Ranau, Sabah

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Lintangah; Andy Russel Mojiol; Julius Kodoh; Majhinus Solimun

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the tree plantation activity among smallholders in the District of Ranau, Sabah. There were six range areas involved, namely Kundasang, Randagong, Nalapak, Lohan-Bongkud, Timbua and Perancangan. The objectives of the study have been to identify the type of tree species planted, the distribution of tree plantation areas, the planting practiced, and the perception of small holders towards tree plantation activity. Data were gathered by direct observation, inter...

  19. Sustainable Management of a Matured Oil Palm Plantation in UPM Campus, Malaysia Using Airborne Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruzaman Jusoff

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and reliable near-real time information is needed for a sustainable oil palm plantation management, especially on plant quality and health. Airborne remote sensing provides the effective recent agricultural crop information for the oil palm plantation industry planning, management and sustainable development. A study on the characteristic of a matured oil palm plantation in UPM campus was conducted using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing technique. Airborne hyperspectral remote s...

  20. Vulnerability of Plantation Carbon Stocks to Defoliation under Current and Future Climates

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Keryn Paul; Michael Battaglia; Jody Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Plantation species globally are susceptible to a range of defoliating pests, but pest damage is rarely considered when estimating biomass C sequestered by these forests. We examined the impacts of defoliation on Eucalyptus globulus plantation C stocks under current and future climates using Mycospharella Leaf Disease (MLD) as a case study, hypothesising that biomass C sequestered in plantations would decrease with a warming and drying climate, and that impacts of defoliation would be strongly...

  1. Soil Carbon Stocks Decrease following Conversion of Secondary Forests to Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conve...

  2. Conservation Value of Forest Plantations: A Study of Four Timber Species in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Mayuri R Wijesinghe; V. R. de Silva

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential of forest plantations in Sri Lanka consisting of teak, mahoganyand two species of eucalyptus, to facilitate the conservation of biodiversity using two taxonomic groups,the plants and birds. Their diversity in plantations at a harvestable age were compared with that of anatural forest. Enumerations of plants and dbh/height measurements were conducted in quadrates, whileavifauna was recorded along transects. Results show that plantation forests supported a reas...

  3. Reptiles in Monterey pine plantations of the Coastal Range of Central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra V, Uribe; Cristián F, Estades.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Chile, most of the timber industry depends on Monterey pine (Pinus radíala (D. Don.)) plantations, which now cover more than 1.5 million ha. In spite of the intensive management of these plantations, they are home to a large number of wildlife species. One of the least known groups in [...] this type of environment are reptiles. For this reason, we conducted a study on the distribution and abundance of reptiles at plantations of different ages in seven sites in the Coastal Range of Central Chile. RESULTS: From seven species that could be potentially found in the study region, a total of five species were recorded, with Liolaemus lemniscatus (Gravenhorst) being the most abundant (with up to 160 ind*ha-1). Detectability of species was similar in young and mature plantations but Liolaemus tenuis (Duméril and Bibron), the most colorful species, showed a higher detection probability than the other species. The highest abundance of reptiles was found in young plantations, and the density of L. lemniscatus and Liolaemus chiliensis (Lesson) declined significantly with plantation development. Liolaemus schroederi (Müller and Hellmich) increased significantly its numbers in 4- to 5-year-old plantations and remained with similar densities in mature plantations. L. tenuis density was low in all plantations and showed no relationship with age. The snake Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann) was recorded very few times and only in young plantations. Vegetation characteristics explained a significant proportion of the variation in the abundance of reptiles, with dense understories negatively affecting the abundance of lizards, likely by reducing the amount of heat and sunlight reaching the plantation's interior. The type of microhabitats with the highest number of lizard records was scrub and harvest debris. CONCLUSIONS: This work confirms the role of pine plantations as habitat for an important proportion of reptile species in South Central Chile and provides some relationships with management variables that can be used to enhance the contribution of these artificial forests to biodiversity conservation.

  4. Barriers to plantation activities in different agro-ecological zones of Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Palm, Matilda; Ostwald, Madelene; Murty, Indu; Chaturvedi, Rakesh; Ravindranath, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses environmental and socio-economic barriers for plantation activities on local and regional level and investigates the potential for carbon finance to stimulate the increased rates of forest plantation on wasteland, i.e., degraded lands, in southern India. Building on multidisciplinary field work and results from the model GCOMAP, the aim is to (1) identify and characterize the barriers to plantation activities in four agro-ecological zones in the state of Karnataka and (2) ...

  5. Identification of fungal pathogens occurring in eucalypt and pine plantations in Zambia by comparing DNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Chungu, Donald; Muimba-Kankolongo, Ambayeba; Wingfield, Michael J.; Roux, Jolanda

    2010-01-01

    Commercial forestry plantations in Zambia were initiated during the 1960s. Since then, very little attention has been given to diseases that impact negatively on the production of these plantations. Recent field surveys have highlighted the occurrence and impact of several diseases. This study was undertaken to determine, to species level, the identity of fungal pathogens associated with diseases of eucalypt and pine plantations in the country. Fungal morphology and DNA sequence data of the i...

  6. Way to Measure the Concept Precarious Working Conditions in Oil Palm Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Kumar M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm plantations are the backbone of the Malaysian economy, since day immemorial. When you look intothe past, the workers in the oil palm plantations were dominated by Indian and Chinese communities. Later dueto the sigma associate with oil palm plantations jobs viz., dirty, dangerous and distance, the Indians and Chineseworkers moved away from the oil palm work and they were replaced by Indonesians and Philippines. Theseforeign workers whom having the legal and illegal status under enforcement in Malaysia, have been living inremotely located inhabitations engaging in ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ wise oil palm plantations. Though thelarger oil palm plantation companies ensure minimum living and working conditions for the foreign workers,vastly located small holding plantations never follow such minimum and fair working environment. Theseconditions to be correlated with the term “precarious working conditions’ in small holding oil palm plantations.Due to lack of availability of the locals to engage in oil palm work, the plantations have to depend on foreignworkers do all these ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ workers in oil palm plantations. Except a few literatureavailable from Amnesty international and local NGOs, there is less evidence to prove the existence of suchexploitative working conditions in oil palm plantations. In order to explore precarious working conditions in oilpalm plantations thus a qualitative research study is conducted in the Sabah region of the Eastern Part ofMalaysia. The study followed, triangulation method through interviews with the migrated foreign workers, (legaland illegal, focus group discussions and Delphi technique with the identification of experts in the field to arriveat the factors and categories related to the theme ‘precarious working conditions’ in oil palm plantations. Theoutcome of the study fixes the variables that need to be concentrated for a higher level research throughquantitative research.

  7. Way to Measure the Concept Precarious Working Conditions in Oil Palm Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Dileep Kumar M.; Noor Azizi Ismail; Normala S Govindarajo

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm plantations are the backbone of the Malaysian economy, since day immemorial. When you look intothe past, the workers in the oil palm plantations were dominated by Indian and Chinese communities. Later dueto the sigma associate with oil palm plantations jobs viz., dirty, dangerous and distance, the Indians and Chineseworkers moved away from the oil palm work and they were replaced by Indonesians and Philippines. Theseforeign workers whom having the legal and illegal status under enfor...

  8. Control of termites in tea (Camellia sinensis L(0) Kuntz) plantations of Barak Valley, Assam, (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, B. K.; Bhattacharjee, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Termites cause serious damage to tea plantations in Barak Valley, Assam (India) especially during the dry season (i.e. September-March). Tea plantations in the southwest facing slopes are worst affected possibly due to poor soil moisture and shade. Termites also cause considerable damage to the vegetation growing in and around tea plantations. Both chemical and phytopesticides were effective for the control of termites. Among chemical pesticides, endosulphan, chloropyriphos and phorate were e...

  9. Mapping Deciduous Rubber Plantation Areas and Stand Ages with PALSAR and Landsat Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and updated finer resolution maps of rubber plantations and stand ages are needed to understand and assess the impacts of rubber plantations on regional ecosystem processes. This study presented a simple method for mapping rubber plantation areas and their stand ages by integration of PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. The L-band PALSAR 50-m mosaic images were used to map forests (including both natural forests and rubber trees and non-forests. For those PALSAR-based forest pixels, we analyzed the multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We first studied phenological signatures of deciduous rubber plantations (defoliation and foliation and natural forests through analysis of surface reflectance, Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and generated a map of rubber plantations in 2009. We then analyzed phenological signatures of rubber plantations with different stand ages and generated a map, in 2009, of rubber plantation stand ages (?5, 6–10, >10 years-old based on multi-temporal Landsat images. The resultant maps clearly illustrated how rubber plantations have expanded into the mountains in the study area over the years. The results in this study demonstrate the potential of integrating microwave (e.g., PALSAR and optical remote sensing in the characterization of rubber plantations and their expansion over time.

  10. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adži? Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  11. National wood in dealings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the authors analyze the management of state enterprise Forests of the Slovak Republic. The firm manages long-term loss. Economic losses are caused mainly because the company is controlled by government political parties. There has also been found that the in the branch plant in Liptovsky Hradok foresters are missing twenty thousand cubic meters of timber worth in excess of one million Euros. Only in this race bad debts amounted to four million Euros. In 2007 timber production reached more than 3.9 million m3. Plant is already preparing a recovery plan. It has increased the production of wood chips. The company produces just over one hundred thousand tons annually chips yet. In the future it wants to produce five hundred thousand.

  12. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 oC and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by increasing the combustion pressure to above 80 bar, resulting in the recovered latent heat being available at more than 200 oC. It can then be used to increase the cycle efficiency by about 15% by pre-heating the boiler water and/or combustion air etc. A further advantage is that the high pressure of the combustion gases also reduces the superheater tube stress since it can balance the steam pressure. The key advantage of this high pressure flue gas is that it is above the pressure at which carbon dioxide 'condenses' to a liquid or supercritical gas at atmospheric temperature. Thus when used with oxy-fuel combustion, the carbon dioxide flue gas from which the moisture has been condensed can be cooled to atmospheric temperature and the supercritical CO2 can be fed directly into the pipes leading to the sequestration site. An important consideration of these strategies is to ensure that non-condensable gases in the exhaust, including oxygen and nitrogen, do not adversely affect the 'condensation' processes. When oxy-fuel combustion is used, the flame temperature must be moderated by a cool diluent. Recycled carbon dioxide is often proposed for this duty. However, since the latent heat is recovered, the moisture or even additional water can fulfil this role. This latter option may be advantageous since it is more efficient to pump wood chip fuel in water into the high pressure zone rather than feed solid wood particles. Surplus water can be simply drained and the wet wood chips are a good fuel when the latent heat of the moisture in the fuel gases is recovered into the power cycle. Bearing in mind that it is much more efficient to pump a liquid to high pressure than to compress the same material as a gas, indicates that cryogenic oxygen is a suitable material to use for an efficient power station that generates energy from biomass (or other fuels such as coal etc). Finally, combustion of the hydrogen from the water-gas reaction with oxygen allows the steam temperature in the turbine to be increased to the 'gas-turbine engine' range of 1000-1400 oC and hence the biomass and/

  13. Wood : A sustainable building material ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood is a renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size has shrinked by 30% since the preindustrial times and in countries like China (with a historic tradition for wooden architecture) we could observe enormous desertification. What does this mean for the use of wood in modern architecture ? A critical reflection is needed. In too many cases, sustainability with wood is only proclaimed but does not stand close examination. In its extreme, this originally healthy building material thoughtlessly is turned into a toxic structure. But based on a deeper look into contradictions and revealing the potentials of using wood, the lecture focuses on the positive and highly inspiring examples and presents wooden architecture at its best.

  14. Ecological effects of wood fuel utilization and wood ash recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing interest for and utilization of wood fuels have resulted in deepening concern for the nutrient and mineral balance in forest soils. In 14 papers, the ecological implications of whole tree utilization and ash recycling is thoroughly treated

  15. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalç?n ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  16. USANS study of wood structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood performs a vascular and structural function in trees. In this study we used the double-crystal diffractometer BT5 at the NIST Center for Neutron Scattering (Gaithersburg, USA) to study the pore structure inside wood sections. The slit-smeared intensity of scattered neutrons was measured from wood sections in directions parallel, orthogonal and transverse to the tree's trunk axis over a scattering vector range 0.00004-0.002 A-1. The interpretation of the data in terms of a reductionist model consisting of infinitely long cylinders (cell lumens) is discussed

  17. USANS study of wood structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Christopher J.; Knott, Robert B.; Searson, Matthew; Conroy, Jann P.

    2006-11-01

    Wood performs a vascular and structural function in trees. In this study we used the double-crystal diffractometer BT5 at the NIST Center for Neutron Scattering (Gaithersburg, USA) to study the pore structure inside wood sections. The slit-smeared intensity of scattered neutrons was measured from wood sections in directions parallel, orthogonal and transverse to the tree's trunk axis over a scattering vector range 0.00004-0.002 Å -1. The interpretation of the data in terms of a reductionist model consisting of infinitely long cylinders (cell lumens) is discussed.

  18. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  19. Radiation disinfestation of wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infestation of wood by insects, fungi and nematodes has been, for decades, a major challenge to trade in wood products around the world. The damage that can be inflicted on plants and animals through the introduction of unwanted pests into importing regions can reach hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Now that Methyl Bromide's days appear to be numbered, alternative methods of pest eradication in wood products for export must be sought at once, so as to avoid last minute scrambling by the industry when Methyl Bromide becomes finally and irreversibly unavailable. Other existing technologies are either costly (e.g. kiln drying) or still under development (e.g. RF vacuum drying and RF steam sterilization). This paper examines a variety of risk mitigation methods and presents an outline of a radiation processing system for wood disinfestation

  20. Respiratory diseases in wood workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Carosso, A.; Ruffino, C; Bugiani, M

    1987-01-01

    A survey was carried out on wood workers and on a group of unexposed, healthy controls. One group of wood workers (group A) were asymptomatic and another (group B) had symptoms either of chronic cough and dyspnoea on exertion (B1) or dyspnoea at work and bronchial hyperreactivity (B2). The control group (group C) was randomly selected from among a population of laboratory workers. No significant differences were found among the groups with respect to the frequency of atopy but the prevalence ...

  1. Disaster risk assessment at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzani A. Makhado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004 and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR 2002. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, single factor was also applied. This study found that Roburnia Plantation is highly exposed to fire risks. The mean (± s.d. output from the Wisner risk equation shows that fire is the highest risk at 7.7 ± 0.3, followed by harsh weather conditions at 5.6 ± 0.4 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 2.3 ± 0.2. Similarly, the mean (± s.d. output from the UNISDR risk equation also shows that fire is the highest risk at 2.9 ± 0.2, followed by harsh weather conditions at 2.2 ± 0.3 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 1.3 ± 0.2. There was no significant deference in the risk analysis outputs (p = 0.13. This study also found that the number of fire incidents were low during summer, but increased during winter and spring. This variation is mainly due to a converse relationship with rainfall, because the availability of rain moistens the area as well as the fuel. When the area and fuel is moist, fire incidents are reduced, but they increase with a decrease in fuel moisture.

  2. Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity of herbs of harvests 1986 and 1987 - both from the regions of Styria (Austria) with the most important fallout from Chernobyl - are compared. As expected, the radioactive contamination from harvest 1987 is much lower than that from 1986, restricted to Cs 134 and Cs 137 and very low absolutely. Values of soil contamination in the plantation regions are also listed. Hypotheses on the mechanism of radioactivity uptake from the contaminated soils, in particular the importance of potassium-containing fertilizers, are put forward. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (qui)

  3. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and agroforests, streams draining oil palm show greater biological activity, as indicated by elevated pH and reduced dissolved oxygen levels. Moreover, turbidity is elevated in young oil palm plantations watersheds compared to forest, agroforest, and old oil palm land covers. We discuss the implications of these findings for communities and ecosystems.

  4. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.; Nanos, G.D.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Gemtos, T.A.; Paraskevopoulos, A.; Galanis, M.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650 trees in total. Weed control was practiced during the previous 3 years using post emergence herbicides under no-tillage over about 2/3 of the field, and over the remaining 1/3 by mechanical weeding using ...

  5. Effects of Wood Species, Thickness and Cross-Section Factors on Wood Moisture Change of Some Wood Species in the Indoor Climatical Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Üçüncü, Kemal

    2000-01-01

    The effects of wood species, thickness and cross-section factors on wood moisture content under centrally heated indoor conditions in Trabzon. Factors of thickness, cross-section and wood species were found to affect daily wood moisture content variation, but these factors did not appear to affect the average monthly wood moisture content. Strong relationship were found between average monthly wood moisture and wood equilibrium moisture contents (r 2 =0.9972), and wood moisture content, t...

  6. Stand age characteristics and soil properties affect species composition of vascular plants in short rotation coppice plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Baum,Sarah; Weih, Martin; Bolte, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Woody biomass plantations on agricultural sites are an attractive source of biomass for bioenergy, but their effects on local biodiversity are unclear. This study’s objective was to evaluate the influences of light availability, plantation age, and soil properties on phytodiversity in short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations. Ground vegetation mapping, irradiance measurement (PAR), and surface soil analyses were conducted in 15 willow and poplar SRC plantations in Central Sweden and Northern ...

  7. Wood characteristics of Terminalia amazonia, Vochysia guatemalensis and Hyeronima alchorneoides planted in Costa Rica Características de la madera de Terminalia amazonia, Vochysia guatemalensis y Hyeronima alchorneoides plantadas en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Róger Moya; Laura Leandro; Olman Murillo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the esthetic and structural characteristics, as well as the wood decay resistance of Terminalia amazonia, Vochysia guatemalensis, and Hyeronima alchorneoides trees from fast-growth condition in a tropical humid region of Costa Rica. A total of 10 trees of T. amazonia, V. guatemalensis and H. alchorneoides each, were randomly selected for harvesting from forest plantations. Young trees of all three species showed very poor esthetic characteristics i...

  8. USE OF VARITIES-CRABS FOR CREATION OF MONOVARIETAL APPLE-TREE PLANTATIONS ????????????? ?????? — ?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravina I. V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There was shown the perspective of variety-crab use as pollinators of apple-tree plantations. There were shown the economic characteristics of varieties-crabs (terms and length of pollen fertility etc. There was made the selection of pollinators (crabs and main industrial varieties for creation of monovarietal apple-tree plantations

  9. Short-rotation eucalypt plantations in Brazil: Social and environmental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brasil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    1995-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the historical and current legislative, social, and environmental aspects of the establishment of large-scale eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The report consolidates the vast experience and knowledge relating to these forest plantation systems and highlights lessons learned and new trends. The overview should prove useful to those interested in comparing or beginning similar endeavors.

  10. Mapping the expansion and distribution of willow plantations for bioenergy in Sweden: Lessons to be learned about the spread of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Where and when farmers will adopt new energy crops is a key issue for the proper development of a country's energy strategy on renewables based in bioenergy. This paper analyses the spread of willow cultivation for bioenergy in Sweden, during the period 1986-2005, linked to the changes in the policies of promotion of wood-energy crops and to the local economic framework. To perform the study, a geostatistic method based on kernel analysis is applied, in order to identify the spatial grouping patterns of growers and plantations, and the areas where cultivation was successful. The analysis of the resulting figures shows that the development of an infrastructure and a market for willow chips are essential pre-conditions for the development of short rotation coppice for bioenergy. The results of this study confirm that probably the most important factor in the location of willow plantations is the existence of consumers that can guarantee a long-term demand for willow chips. The tools and methods presented, and its analysis, can provide a better understanding of the interactions between the biomass producers, the energy consumers and the different local and national actors. (author)

  11. Mapping the expansion and distribution of willow plantations for bioenergy in Sweden: Lessons to be learned about the spread of energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, Blas [University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, PO Box 111, FI 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Gonzalez-Olabarria, Jose Ramon [Centre Tecnologic Forestal de Catalunya, Pujada del Seminari, s/n. 25280 Solsona (Lleida) (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Where and when farmers will adopt new energy crops is a key issue for the proper development of a country's energy strategy on renewables based in bioenergy. This paper analyses the spread of willow cultivation for bioenergy in Sweden, during the period 1986-2005, linked to the changes in the policies of promotion of wood-energy crops and to the local economic framework. To perform the study, a geostatistic method based on kernel analysis is applied, in order to identify the spatial grouping patterns of growers and plantations, and the areas where cultivation was successful. The analysis of the resulting figures shows that the development of an infrastructure and a market for willow chips are essential pre-conditions for the development of short rotation coppice for bioenergy. The results of this study confirm that probably the most important factor in the location of willow plantations is the existence of consumers that can guarantee a long-term demand for willow chips. The tools and methods presented, and its analysis, can provide a better understanding of the interactions between the biomass producers, the energy consumers and the different local and national actors. (author)

  12. Eco-exergy and emergy based self-organization of three forest plantations in lower subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bio-thermodynamic structures of a mixed native species plantation, a conifer plantation and an Acacia mangium plantation in Southern China were quantified over a period of 15 years based on eco-exergy methods. The efficiencies of structural development and maintenance were qu...

  13. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  14. O cultivo da araucária para produção de pinhões como ferramenta para a conservação Plantation of Brazilian pine to nuts production as a conservation tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A madeira da araucária (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze teve grande importância econômica no Brasil, principalmente entre 1930 e 1970. O desmatamento ocasionou a redução drástica do tamanho populacional de araucária e atualmente ela integra a lista de espécies brasileiras ameaçadas de extinção. O objetivo dessa revisão foi apresentar o potencial de geração de renda do cultivo de araucária para produção de pinhões e a consequente conservação da espécie. Segundo o que se observou na literatura, o pinhão pode gerar mais renda que a madeira da araucária, quando são utilizadas técnicas de manejo adequadas. O cultivo da araucária com interesse econômico do pinhão é uma ferramenta eficaz para aumentar os plantios e diminuir a exploração das araucárias remanescentes. É necessário propor estratégias em parceria entre organizações de produtores e coletores, pesquisadores e órgãos governamentais brasileiros para desenvolver e aprimorar técnicas adequadas de manejo, processamento e comercialização do pinhão. The wood of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze had great economic importance in Brazil, mainly between 1930 to 1970. The deforestation caused a drastic reduction in population size of Brazilian pine and currently it integrates the list of Brazilian threatened species. The aim of thisreview was to present the potential of generating income from Brazilian pine plantation for pine nuts production and the consequent species conservation. According to the literature, pine nuts can generate more income than Brazilian pine wood, when used appropriate management techniques. The plantation with economic interest in pine nuts is an effective tool to increase planting and reduce exploitation of the Brazilian pine remaining. It is necessary to propose strategies in partnership among producer and collectors organizations, researchers and Brazilians government agencies to develop and improve management techniques, processing and marketing of the pine nuts.

  15. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  16. Uniformização da cor da madeira jovem de teca pela termorretificação / Color uniformization of the young teak wood by heat treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana de Oliveira, Lopes; Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia; Alexandre Miguel do, Nascimento; João Vicente de Figueiredo, Latorraca.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a uniformidade da cor da madeira de teca (peças contendo cerne e alburno) após a aplicação de tratamentos termorretificadores. A madeira utilizada foi oriunda de árvores jovens (12 anos) provenientes de plantios de diferentes espaçamentos. Amostras de madeira com [...] 150 x 75 x 20 mm foram termorretificadas a 180 e 200 ºC, durante 2h30. As análises colorimétricas foram realizadas com o auxílio de um espectrofotômetro no espaço CIE-L*a*b*. Os tratamentos termorretificadores proporcionaram maior uniformidade às peças de madeira de teca, sendo o tratamento a 200 ºC o mais efetivo, o que demonstra o potencial da termorretificação para a obtenção de produtos de madeira de maior valor agregado. A cor da madeira termorretificada a 180 ºC apresentou maior uniformidade no espaçamento menos adensado, entretanto ele não apresentou efeito na uniformidade da cor da madeira termorretificada a 200 ºC. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the uniformity of the color of the teak wood (pieces containing heartwood and sapwood) after application of heat treatments. The wood was originated from young trees (12 years old) from plantations of different spacings. Wood samples of 150 x 75 x 20 mm were [...] heat treated at 180 and 200 ºC during 2:30 hours. Color analysis were performed by using a spectrophotometer in the CIE-L*a*b* space. Heat treatments provided greater uniformity to the teak wood pieces and the treatment at 200 ºC was the most effective, which demonstrates the potential of heat treatment to obtain wood products of higher added value. The color of the wood heat-treated at 180 ºC had higher uniformity in the least dense spacing; however, it had no effect on color uniformity of the wood heat-treated at 200 ºC.

  17. A new method for determining water uptake in elderberry plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    T?kei, László; Dunkel, Zoltán; Jung, András

    A considerable quantity of elderberry ( Sambucus nigra L.) fruit gets yearly on the market in Hungary. The decisive majority of this quantity is harvested from feral plants. The area of elderberry plantations is only 150-180 ha in spite of the fact that it would be possible to produce this valuable fruit on larger surface if suitable watering system were applied. The fruit of elderberry is important from the aspect of food industry. The goal of present study is promoting the effective irrigation of elder berry plantation. The experiments were carried out in the Experimental Farm of the University for Horticulture and Food Industry in Szigetcsép from 1989. The measuring of the water demand of elderberry using the heat pulse method was started in 1996. The measurement of the sap-flow in the trunk is a new element of phyto-climate researches. The development of the equipment was started in 1991 and improvement of the method is still going on. In this phase, first of all the connections between sap-flow velocity and meteorological data were investigated. Summarising the experiences of the trials it can be announced that: (1) The water circulation of elder plants principally depends on the conditions of atmosphere. It is barely sensitive to the water content of the soil. (2) The transpiration intensity reacts sensitively to the change of meteorological conditions. (3) The changing rate of the transpiration coefficient is particularly large in certain intervals of the meteorological elements.

  18. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development,it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in termof polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province.These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.

  19. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development, it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in term of polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province. These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.  

  20. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new Russian architects appeared. With their own aesthetics.After Pavlov had left Irkutsk, near his house appeared another one, it was not a log house, and its style was glaringly unfriendly. And soon the Fisherman's House burnt down. Not with vexation, but naturally, with smoke and fire. The author of the building next door considers the rebuilding of the lost house unpractical.

  1. Wood waste production for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood wastes are a product of regular selective thinning. Selective thinning is done along silvicultural lines, mostly with a view to obtaining a large proportion of high-grade wood products. In so far the widely deplored discrepancy between expenditure for forest care and profits from the sale of the accruing types of wood does not necessarily mean that wood waste production is ineconomical. In fact, wood waste production is economical as long as the cost of handling wood wastes is balanced by profits. (orig.)

  2. WOOD MODIFICATION BY HEAT TREATMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Esteves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood heat treatment has increased significantly in the last few years and is still growing as an industrial process to improve some wood properties. The first studies on heat treatment investigated mainly equilibrium mois-ture, dimensional stability, durability and mechanical properties. Mass loss, wettability, wood color, and chemical transformations have been subsequently extensively studied, while recent works focus on quality control, modeling, and study the reasons for the improvements. This review explains the recent interest on the heat treatment of wood and synthesizes the major publications on this subject on wood properties, chemical changes, wood uses, and quality control.

  3. Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg-1 for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries.

  4. Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Shyong [Division of Forest Utilization, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. 53 Nanhai Rd., Taipei 10066 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg{sup -1} for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries. (author)

  5. Regeneración natural del matorral espinoso tamaulipeco en una plantación de Eucalyptus spp. / Natural regeneration of the tamaulipan thornscrub in an Eucalyptus spp. plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dinorah Dalila, Martínez Hernández; Javier, Jiménez Pérez; Eduardo, Alanís Rodríguez; José Isidro, Uvalle Sauceda; Pamela Anabel, Canizales Velázquez; Luis, Rocha Domínguez.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones forestales con especies exóticas generan controversia a nivel mundial y tal es el caso de la presencia de eucaliptos en México. En el presente estudio se caracterizó la regeneración natural de vegetación leñosa en el Matorral Espinoso Tamaulipeco (MET), que se localiza en el noreste [...] del país, dentro de una plantación original de Eucalyptus spp. La investigación se llevó a cabo 27 años después de su establecimiento y en ella se instalaron 11 sitios de muestreo de 250 m² (10 x 25 m) para evaluar todos los ejemplares con crecimiento secundario que presentaran un diámetro basal (d0.50) mayor o igual a 0.5 cm. Los datos recabados permitieron estimar índices de riqueza y diversidad, así como abundancia relativa, dominancia y frecuencia; con estos números se calculó el Índice de Valor de Importancia. Se demostró que en la zona existe renovación de las especies de interés en la siembra original y los parámetros poblacionales propios son similares a las de otras áreas con características parecidas; además se presentó sucesión ecológica, después de haber sido sujetas a actividades agrícolas, pecuarias y forestales (matarrasa). Se registró alta densidad (4 301 ind ha-1) y mayor cantidad de individuos de clases diamétricas bajas ( Abstract in english Forest plantations with exotic species are of great controversy worldwide. This research characterizes the natural regeneration of woody vegetation of Tamaulipan thornscrub (MET) in a plantation of Eucalyptus spp. Eleven sampling sites of 250 m² (10 x 25 m) were established in the plantation area an [...] d all wood species larger than one centimeter of basal diameter were registered and measured. Richness and diversity indices as well as values of relative abundance, dominance, frequency were estimated which were used to calculate the Importance Value Index. Results show that there is natural regeneration of native woody species under the plantation of Eucalyptus spp.; density, crown area, richness and diversity values were similar to other regenerated areas after agricultural activities, livestock and forestry (clear cutting). High density (4 301 ind ha-1) and more individuals of lower diameter classes (

  6. Sustainability Assessment of a Self-Consumption Wood-Energy Chain on Small Scale for Heat Generation in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Verani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of a small-scale self-consumption wood-energy chain for heat generation in central Italy was analyzed from a technical, economic and energetic point of view. A micro-chain was developed within the CRA-ING farm at Monterotondo (Rome, Italy: The purpose of this system was to produce biomass for supplying a heating plant within the CRA-ING property as a substitute for diesel fuel. A poplar short rotation coppice, established with clones AF2, AF6 and Monviso, fed the micro-chain. The rotation was biennial. The average plantation production (Mgd.m.·ha?1·year?1 was 10.2, with a maximum of 13.53 for the twin-rows AF2 and a minimum of 8.00 for the single-row Monviso. The economic assessment was based on the Net Present Value (NPV method and the equivalent annuity cost, and found an average saving of 15.60 €·GJ?1 of heat generated by the wood chips heating system in comparison with the diesel heating system over a 10 year lifetime of the thermal power plant. The energy assessment of the poplar plantation, carried out using the Gross Energy Requirements method, reported an energy output/input ratio of 12.3. The energy output/input ratio of the whole micro-chain was 4.5.

  7. The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

  8. Predicting effects of plantation expansion on streamflow regime for catchments in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plantations on mean annual streamflow is well understood and, there are robust methods available for assessing the impact. Plantations also affect streamflow regime, leading to reductions in low flow and increased number of zero-flow days. Understanding changes in streamflow regime following plantation expansion is important for developing water resources and environmental flow strategy. This study evaluated the impacts of plantations on streamflow regime from 15 catchments in Australia. The selected catchments range in size from 0.6 to 1136 km2 and represent different climatic conditions and management practices. The catchments have at least 20 yr and in most cases 35 yr of continuous daily streamflow data and well documented plantation records. Catchments with perennial streamflow in the pre-treatment periods showed relatively uniform reductions in most flows after plantation expansions, whereas catchments with ephemeral streamflow showed more dramatic reductions in low flows, leading to an increased number of zero-flow days. The Forest Cover Flow Change (FCFC model was tested using the data from the selected catchments and comparison of predicted and observed flow duration curves showed that 14 of the 15 catchments have coefficients of efficiency greater than 0.8. The results indicate that the model is capable of predicting plantation impacts on streamflow regime.

  9. An interdisciplinary framework to evaluate bioshield plantations: Insights from peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico; Shanker, Kartik

    2015-02-01

    Bioshields or coastal vegetation structures are currently amongst the most important coastal habitat modification activities in south-east Asia, particularly after the December 2004 tsunami. Coastal plantations have been promoted at a large scale as protection against severe natural disasters despite considerable debate over their efficacy as protection measures. In this paper, we provide an interdisciplinary framework for evaluating and monitoring coastal plantations. We then use this framework in a case study in peninsular India. We conducted a socio-ecological questionnaire-based survey on government and non-government organizations directly involved in coastal plantation efforts in three 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami affected states in mainland India. We found that though coastal protection was stated to be the primary cause, socio-economic factors like providing rural employment were strong drivers of plantation activities. Local communities were engaged primarily as daily wage labour for plantation rather than in the planning or monitoring phases. Application of ecological criteria has been undermined during the establishment and maintenance of plantations and there was a general lack of awareness about conservation laws relating to coastal forests. While ample flow of international aid has fuelled the plantation of exotics in the study area particularly after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, the long term ecological consequences need further evaluation and rigorous monitoring in the future.

  10. Community perceptions towards the establishment of an urban forest plantation: a case of Dzivaresekwa, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mureva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of urban forest communities not only depend on the government and nongovernmental organizations, but also strongly rely on local community stewardship. A study was carried out to assess community perceptions on the establishment of an urban forest plantation among urban residents in Dzivaresekwa, an urban area in Harare. Randomized systematic sampling was used to select 150 households and one resident per household was interviewed using a pretested questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The objectives of the study were to determine how age and gender and employment status variables, were related to the urban residents’ perceptions towards establishment of a forest plantation in an urban area. Most females (58.3% viewed the plantation as a threat while most men (51.7% viewed the plantation as a recreational area. The highest proportion (61.9% of the middle age group (21-40 years perceived the plantation as a source of employment. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.040 between gender and the general perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. However, there was no statistically significant relationship (p = 0.203 between age groups and the perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. It is concluded that the community had diverse perceptions on urban community forestry.

  11. Photodegradation of wood and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photochemical degradation is a key process of the weathering that occurs when wood is exposed outdoors. It is also a major cause of the discoloration of wood in indoor applications. The effects of sunlight on the chemical composition of wood are superficial in nature, but estimates of the depth at which photodegradation occurs in wood vary greatly from 80 microm to as much as 2540 mic rom. Better understanding of the photodegradation of wood through depth profile analysis is desirable because it would allow the development of more effective photo-protective treatments that target the surface layers of wood most susceptible to photodegradation. This paper briefly describes fundamental aspects of photodegradation of wood and reviews progress made in the field of depth profile study on the photodegradation of wood. (author)

  12. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  13. Wood fuelled boiler operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

  14. Tropical forest plantation resources. Assessment of extent and methods for yield estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, D. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics

    1996-12-01

    In this thesis the role of tropical forest plantations in economic development and in reverting deforestation in the tropical countries has been addressed. The development of the forest plantation resource over years has been described. Recent trends indicate that countries generally lay emphasis on increasing the gross area of plantations and inadequate attention to technical as well as policy and legislation aspects. The total reported area of plantations in 1990 was 43.9 million ha. Eucalypts covered the largest area of 23 percent. The plantation area increased during 1981-90 at the rate of 2.6 million ha annually. Based on 56 inventories of plantations in 18 countries, the net plantation area has been estimated at 70 percent of the reported area. In a review, it was found that reliable growth and yield studies to estimate yields of tropical plantations even at a national level, were inadequate. To address this deficiency a generic model for estimating potential yield by climatic factors has been formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L.F.), as a case study. Available yield plot data of teak from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast were used in the study. Climatic factors explained 59 percent of the variation in potential yield of teak (MAI at 50 years). The annual rainfall and relative humidity were the most important explanatory variables. However, the increase in their values above 2000 mm and 70 percent, respectively, resulted in successively less influence. The length of growing season and the maximum temperature of the warmest months of the growing season were also significant. Based on the studies, recommendations for realizing the potential value of tropical plantations and future assessment have been made. 49 refs

  15. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  16. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, ?-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of ?-Raman and ?-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested

  17. Methods for size classification of wood chips

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Hans; Böhm, Thorsten; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Temmerman, Michaël; Rabier, Fabienne; Golser, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Methods for size classification of wood chips were analysed in an international round robin using 13 conventional wood chip samples and two specially prepared standard samples, one from wood chips and one from hog fuel. The true size distribution of these two samples (according to length, width and height) had been determined stereometrically (reference method) using a digital calliper gauge and by weighing each of the about 7000 wood particles per sample. Five different horizontal a...

  18. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture and temperature distorting the internal bonding state. A problem arises when studying hydrogen bonding in wood since matched wood specimens of the same species will have very different internal bonding st...

  19. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions. European Wood-Pastures in Transition examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological va...

  20. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    OpenAIRE

    Gradimir Danon; Milosav An?eli?; Branko Glavonji?; Ratko Kadovi?; Mladen Furtula

    2010-01-01

    Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for ...

  1. New insights into wood and cement interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Govin, Alexandre; Peschard, Arnaud; Fredon, Emmanuel; Guyonnet, René

    2005-01-01

    This work deals with the influence of poplar extractives and poplar alkaline degradation products on the hydration of cement. The wood chemical composition was characterized to determine the impact of soft alkaline conditions on wood fiber. Some of the constituents were hydrolyzed and converted into carboxylic acids, which were identified and quantified. Monitoring by electrical conductivity clearly showed that wood extractives are less effective than wood alkaline degradation products in inh...

  2. Wood energy. Significance, potentials, challenges; Holzenergie. Bedeutung, Potenziale, Herausforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drossart, Inga; Muehlenhoff, Joerg

    2013-04-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the importance, potentials and challenges of wood energy. In particular, the following aspects are considered: (1) Importance of wood for heat supply and electricity supply; (2) Timber inventories and timber use; (3) Efficiency of wood utilization; (4) Does Germany have enough wood?; (5) Forest and wood as climate protectors; (6) Wood utilization and nature conservation.

  3. Province-scale comparison between harvest wood products reported by ISTAT and forested areas reported by INFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The future agreements on the LULUCF sector will probably implement the role of harvest wood products (HWP for climate change mitigation. As highlighted by many Authors however, for Italy to quantify the amount of HWP will impose a number of issues mainly related to the inconsistency of the data provided by the National Institute for Statistic (ISTAT. New data collected by the National Forest and Carbon Inventory (INFC will probably provide useful information. In the meantime, however, a comparison based on the forest area reported by INFC and data on HWP provided by ISTAT, both scaled at province level, could be proposed. The 2005 was assumed as reference year for both data sources. At this purpose, grouping the 103 Italian provinces in 9 groups mainly based on the 20 administrative regions, the Pearson coefficient of correlation was estimated, for each group, comparing the amount of harvest reported by ISTAT with (i the forest area, (ii the plantation area and (iii the total forest area, including both plantations and forests. Possible outliers were identified estimating the harvest rates per hectare of forest and considering the interquantile range of these values. A linear model was finally applied between the total forest area and the total amount of harvest estimated at regional level. The results highlighted a strong correlation between the amount of harvest reported by ISTAT and the forest area reported by INFC for 13 out of 21 regions. For 5 regions, including Lombardia, Piemonte, Lazio, Umbria and Marche the amount of harvest was only correlated with the area of plantations. No correlation was detected for Toscana region. Based on the harvest rate per hectare, 5 provinces out of 103 were identified as outliers. The amount of harvest reported for 3 of these provinces (Cremona, Mantova and Pavia was clearly referred to plantations. The analysis of the studentized residuals based on the application of the linear model, highlighted outliers values also for Piemonte region. As in the previous case, the amount of harvest reported for this region was probably partially referred to plantations. We could therefore speculate that for many regions data reported by national statistics as referred to the amount of harvest in forest, were statistically correlated with the forest area detected by INFC. However, for some important regions, such as Piemonte and Lombardia, they were clearly correlated with plantations.

  4. Hybrid poplar plantations in a floodplain have balanced impacts on farmland and woodland birds

    OpenAIRE

    Archaux, F.; Martin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Les plantations de peuplier hybride augmentent en surface dans le monde entier et elles sont souvent accusées d'appauvrir les communautés d'oiseaux. Nous avons réalisé 124 points d'écoute dans un paysage où les plantations, les forêts semi-naturelles et les milieux agricoles représentent des surfaces similaires. Comme attendu,les densités des oiseaux étaient plus fortes dans les secteurs dominés par la forêt que dans ceux dominés par les plantations, essentiellement du fait de la rareté des e...

  5. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality.

  6. WOOD COLOR CHANGES BY AMMONIA FUMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Mikle?i?,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of ammonia gas on wood color changes in response to an increasing demand for dark colored wood specimens. The darker wood color in ammonia fuming is accomplished through chemical reactions between ammonia gas and wood compounds. We exposed oak, maple, spruce, and larch wood samples to ammonia gas for 16 days. During fuming, the color changes were studied using CIE L*a*b* parameters. After fuming, the changes in extractives content, tannin, and nitrogen content were analyzed. The chemical changes of wood and residues of wood extractives after fuming were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Oak wood reacted intensively with ammonia gas in a very short time, and the darkening was prominent for all the investigated wood species. It was established that tannin had no major influence on color changes of maple and larch wood in the ammonia-fuming process. The FTIR spectra of fumed wood indicated involvement of carbonyl groups, and the FTIR spectra of wood extractives indicated involvement of carbonyl, aromatic, and alcohol groups in reaction with ammonia gas.

  7. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    OpenAIRE

    Fazia FOUCHAL; Dubois, Frederic; Sauvat, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  8. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  9. Photodegradation of pesticides in float system effluent from tobacco plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. de C. de S., Schneider; B. V., Trolli; M. da S., Mazuim; G., Hauch; N. de M., Baccar; E. L., Machado.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several crops can generate liquid effluent containing pesticide residues. In the region of the Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brazil, one type of effluent results from the float system used in the tobacco seedling plantation. This system is an alternative that substitutes for the conventional seedbeds of to [...] bacco production. The tobacco is germinated on polystyrene tray beds on a water blade that may contain pesticides residues following the transplant of seedlings to the farm. In this paper, we have simulated in the laboratory, the photo-degradation of the pesticides present in the effluent of the float system, including the pesticides metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid. Photolysis and photoperoxidation were the methods used. The experiments were performed with a mercury vapor light bulb of 80, 125 and 250 W. The obtained results show that the photodegradation of the metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid in an optimized system presents considerable reproducibility and high degradation, requiring less time.

  10. Nutrient losses in forest plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic nutrients are lost from terrestrial ecosystems through the harvesting of plant products, leaching, soil erosion and volatilization of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. In this study, carried out in a tropical rain forest ecosystem in Sabah, Malaysia, losses of inorganic nutrients through log removal and runoff/leaching to stream water were compared in clear-fellings, harvested and prepared for planting in two different ways: (i) tractor logging/burning; (ii) and manual logging/no burning. The major findings of the study were that nutrient losses in stream water were reduced by 50% and growth of the planted forest was twice as fast on the catchment where soil disturbance was minimized and burning not used. Weeds were more abundant after burning, and the extra weeding needed increased costs for plantation establishment. Ways of decreasing the loss of inorganic nutrients when clear-felling tropical rain forests are discussed. 32 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Body of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Michon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Friday 16 July 1852. Sunrise. The end of the night. It rained. It isn’t raining anymore. Large slate clouds run across the sky. Flaubert hasn’t slept. He goes out into the garden at Croisset: lime trees, then poplars, then the Seine. An outbuilding on a bank beside some water. He’s finished Part One of Madame Bovary.That Sunday, he would write Louise Colet how at dawn on Friday he’d felt strong, serene, blest in sense and in purpose. The dawn wind does him good. He has a tired fat handsome face, a calm fat handsome face. He loves writing. He loves the world.“Deprived of a party, country, house, personal life, etc., he made writing his only reason to live, and it grips one’s heart how seriously he takes the written world.” These words of Pasolini’s pertain to Gombrowicz. But they might just as well be applied to Flaubert, and one’s heart would not be gripped any less, maybe more. For, if Flaubert had a personal life (as Gombrowicz did after all, but then Pasolini always goes very fast, he pretended not to have one; just as he pretended to have no house, country, freedom, mother named Caroline, orphaned niece also named Caroline, Seine at the end of the path, rolling on before his eyes, sharecroppers’ hillside groves, heaps of disciples and flatterers, well-meaning interns hard at work on his behalf in the corridors of Paris journals and salons: all things Gombrowicz truly did not have, that he, Flaubert, had. Flaubert pretended to have none of all that, that which he had, and for him this pretension became real; he patched together a mask which comprised his skin, and with which he wrote his books; skin and mask had been so well glued that when he wished to retire it, he found nothing more in his hand than an indissoluble mixture of flesh and cardboard under the thick clown moustache. Perhaps it wasn’t truly the clown that he played so much as the monk, and not just to the stands, but in his own eyes and to himself: he was not only a defrocked friar with the guys or on the street; he donned the silk babouches when he went home too. He dispossessed himself of the Seine that rolled on before his eyes; the small girl who lived on her feet, whom he puts to death in all his books, he hardly saw her; the loveliest girls of his day, the finest too for sure, who wanted him, so that he happened to come – he dispossessed himself of them, whether he came or opted to come no more, which amounted to the same thing; no apples from Norman orchards, no trees deep in the woods, no unlaced Louise Colet, no lilies, no young laughter, no Louise Colet weeping at his door, he kissed it all off, laughed over it and kissed it off, cried about it and kissed it off, he was not there. In fact he had nothing, he was deprived of everything, since it was in his head.

  12. Efficiency of natural wood extractives as wood preservatives against termite attack

    OpenAIRE

    A Syofuna; A. Y Banana; G Nakabonge

    2012-01-01

    Wood extractives play a major role in the protection of wood against termite and fungal attack. Wood extractives from three hard wood species of Milicia excelsa, Albizia coriaria and Markhamia lutea that are known to be very resistant against termite attack and fungal decay were studied to assess their role as wood preservatives in Uganda. Acetone, hexane and distilled water were used in the extraction of these compounds from the outer heartwood of the selected durable species. Extraction was...

  13. Caractérisation des plantations privées de teck (Tectona grandis L.f.) du département de l'Atlantique au Sud-Bénin

    OpenAIRE

    Atindogbe, G.; Fonton, NH.; Fandohan, B.; Lejeune, P.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of private teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in the Atlantic Department of South Benin. Teak plantations are an undeniable asset, representing socio-economic and environmental importance in South Benin. Plantation owners see teak as an asset, enabling them to supplement their income through timber production and sales. Sustainable management of teak plantations requires a high level of knowledge and understanding of the resource by plantation owners. The snowball sampli...

  14. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008. The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in eastern Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology 132, 306-314. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approach. Catena 85, 231-236. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F., Bodi, M.B. 2009. Effects of ants on water and soil losses from organically-managed citrus orchards in eastern Spain. Biologia 64, 527-531. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009b. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34, 1822-1830. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 117-123. 10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A.,Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., Caravaca. F. 2010. Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research 109, 110-115. 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005. García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28, 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a Spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) in Northern Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development 24, 188-204. DOI 10

  15. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment rate fully comparable to a tertiary effluent quality with regard to biodegradable organic material and eutrophying nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Introductory analyses of the costs of a wastewater irrigated willow plantation for bio-fuel production indicate that the benefits of the wastewater treatment per se appear to be greater than the benefits from the increased production of wood chips. The risks of contamination via faecal micro-organisms of animals and humans seem possible to reduce or eliminate if proper precautions are taken. The awareness of the hygienic aspects is among the most important issues to deal with concerning the public acceptance. The gathered opinion from the members of the multidisciplinary project team is that the concept of recycling wastewater or fractions of wastewater within willow plantations for combined energy production and wastewater treatment would be worth developing on a wider scale. Experiences from a few full-scale facilities in Sweden are well in accordance with the findings outlined here. The fact that wastewater could be treated at reasonable costs might encourage the municipal sector as well as the energy and agricultural industry in Europe to further expand the concept with increased willow plantation areas as a consequence. This would increase the opportunities for an over all better environment for generations to come.

  16. Wood quality of white willow

    OpenAIRE

    André Leclercq

    1997-01-01

    Based upon an exhaustive work made by Sacré (1974) and a review of the literature sine 1960, the author gathered together the anatomical, physical and mechanical characteristics, the machining behaviour (industrial sawing, planing, surfacing, shaping, mortising and nailing) and wood end-uses of white willow.

  17. Wood quality of white willow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclercq

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon an exhaustive work made by Sacré (1974 and a review of the literature sine 1960, the author gathered together the anatomical, physical and mechanical characteristics, the machining behaviour (industrial sawing, planing, surfacing, shaping, mortising and nailing and wood end-uses of white willow.

  18. Permian Silicified Wood in Oman.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matysová, Petra; Grygar, Tomáš

    -, ?. 15 (2009), s. 14-18. ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : silicified wood * Oman * geology Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry www.geologyoman.com/gso/Haj(Nov09).pdf

  19. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust : Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.

  20. Certified enterprise with plantation forest management: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Erica Busch; Helena Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation occurring in Brazil increased society's perception of environmental problems arising from them. Because of this awareness, lumber companies faced the challenge of demonstrating to consumers how they are reducing the environmental impacts of their operations. As a means of marketing, many suppliers of certified wood advertise themselves as practitioners of environmental responsibility. This study aimed to analyze a certified forest company, as a case study, in order to verify if ...

  1. Potential application of multipolarization SAR for pine-plantation biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Tseng

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the technique and the potential utility of multipolarization Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for pine-plantation biomass estimation. Three channels of SAR data, one from the Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-A and the other two from the aircraft SAR, were acquired over the Baldwin County, Alabama, study area. The SIR-A data were acquired with HH polarization and the aircraft SAR data with VV and VH polarizations. Linear regression techniques are used to estimate the pine-plantation biomass, tree height, and age using 21 test plots. The results indicate that the multipolarization data are highly related to the plantation biomass. The results suggest a potential application of multipolarization SAR for pine-plantation biomass estimation.

  2. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  3. Why Simulate a Sample of Recycled Wood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bouslamti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood products follow the same cycle as other materials: manufacture, use and disposal. For certain applications, chemical additives are added to wood to increase its durability against biological and physical attack. At the end of life, waste wood is chipped or crushed before being recovered as raw material for new products or as fuel for energy. In recycled wood, there is the potential that some wood particles are contaminated by hazardous substances, such as organic or heavy metal preservatives. Therefore there is a need for a quality control method of assessing recovered wood that is on the one hand sufficiently precise and on the other not too expensive to preclude the use of recycling wood in to new products. This paper covers some preliminary research that is part of a large study that aims to develop a robust analytical method for recovered wood. However the extreme variability of recovered wood makes it difficult to develop such protocols on real recovered wood samples. Consequently, model chip piles with known contamination levels were created to simulate real world recovered wood samples.

  4. Why Simulate a Sample of Recycled Wood?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Bouslamti; M.A, Irle; Belloncle, C; V, Salvador; M, Bondu; S, Hulo; B, Caron.

    Full Text Available Wood products follow the same cycle as other materials: manufacture, use and disposal. For certain applications, chemical additives are added to wood to increase its durability against biological and physical attack. At the end of life, waste wood is chipped or crushed before being recovered as raw [...] material for new products or as fuel for energy. In recycled wood, there is the potential that some wood particles are contaminated by hazardous substances, such as organic or heavy metal preservatives. Therefore there is a need for a quality control method of assessing recovered wood that is on the one hand sufficiently precise and on the other not too expensive to preclude the use of recycling wood in to new products. This paper covers some preliminary research that is part of a large study that aims to develop a robust analytical method for recovered wood. However the extreme variability of recovered wood makes it difficult to develop such protocols on real recovered wood samples. Consequently, model chip piles with known contamination levels were created to simulate real world recovered wood samples.

  5. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David; Macintosh, Andrew; Mackey, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize fully the mitigation value of native forest conservation. Our analyses provide evidence for decision-making about the circumstances under which forest management provides mitigation benefits. PMID:26436916

  6. [Soil heavy metals concentration in different type plantations in Harbin City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-zhen; Lu, Xiao-jing; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

    2011-03-01

    In order to understand the soil heavy metals characteristics in different type plantations in Harbin City, 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Pinus koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in the Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base of Northeast Forestry University in the 1950s to analyze the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, and As, and the comprehensive pollution index was used to assess the soil heavy metals pollution in the plantations, based on the background values of black soil in the City. There existed significant differences in the heavy metals concentration in the same soil layers among different type plantations. In the test plantations, the concentrations of soil heavy metals except As and Ni tended to decrease with soil depth. In the same soil layers, Zn had the highest concentration (62.29-126.35 mg x kg(-1)), while Cd had the lowest one (0.06-0.47 mg x kg(-1)). The abundance and accumulation tendency of test heavy metals in the plantations was in the order of Zn>Pb>Cu(Ni)> Ni(Cu)>As>Cd, and Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu>Ni>As, respectively. There existed positive correlations among soil Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations in the plantations except F. mandshurica, and the concentrations of these four heavy metals in the plantations except F. mandshurica and Q. mongolica were positively correlated with soil organic matter, N, P, and K. The concentrations of soil Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were higher than the background values, suggesting the anthropogenic inputs; while those of Ni and As were similar to or lower than the background values, suggesting the origin from soil materials. The soil comprehensive pollution index of the plantations was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis > L. gmelinii >B. platyphylla > Q. mongolica. PMID:21657015

  7. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by ?(13) C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher ?(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the ?(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that ?(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of ?(13) C values with depth. PMID:25707391

  8. Estimation and economic evaluation of aboveground carbon storage of Tectona grandis plantations in Western Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Derwisch, Sebastian; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Olschewski, Roland; Hölscher, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Tropical tree plantations may play an important role in mitigating CO2 emissions through their potential to capture and sequester carbon from the atmosphere. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as well as voluntary initiatives provide economic incentives for afforestation and reforestation efforts through the generation and sale of carbon credits. The objectives of our study were to measure the carbon (C) storage potential of 1, 2 and 10-years old Tectona grandis plantations in the provinc...

  9. Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Hassan Ahmad; Aiman Hanis Jasmi

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation) stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests). Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhino...

  10. Can Management Improve the Value of Shade Plantations for the Endemic Species of Sao Tome Island?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lima, Ricardo F.; Viegas, Leonel; Sole, Nelson; Soares, Estevao; Dallimer, Martin; Atkinson, Philip W.; Barlow, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa and coffee are among the most valuable tropical crops, with much of their production in areas of high biodiversity. Although this could suggest a conflict between agricultural expansion and biodiversity conservation, these crops are normally grown in shade plantations—a more biodiversity-friendly agroforestry system. Using São Tomé Island as a case study, we examined if shade plantation can benefit biodiversity by protecting extinction-prone island endemic species. We found that shade plan...

  11. Redistribution of the solar radiation and the rain inside of coffee plantations (Arabic Coffea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following review presents a series of studies on microclimates of non-shaded and shaded conditions of coffee plantations (Coffea arabica L.) in Colombia. Likewise, The redistribution of solar radiation and the temperature, as well as the energy balance, of the coffee plant and the crop are described. The results on the components of water balance and transport of nutrients within the coffee plantations are reported

  12. Natural Forest Biomass Estimation Based on Plantation Information Using PALSAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Sawada, Haruo

    2014-01-01

    Forests play a vital role in terrestrial carbon cycling; therefore, monitoring forest biomass at local to global scales has become a challenging issue in the context of climate change. In this study, we investigated the backscattering properties of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data in cashew and rubber plantation areas of Cambodia. The PALSAR backscattering coefficient (?0) had different responses in the two plantation types be...

  13. Soil carbon stocks decrease following conversion of secondary forests to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha(-1) in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha(-1) to an increase of 8 Mg C ha(-1). In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes. PMID:23894456

  14. Carbon and nutrient stocks of tea plantations differing in age, genotype and plant population density

    OpenAIRE

    Kamau, D.M.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Oenema, O.

    2008-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial evergreen shrub managed intensively for continuous growth of young shoots. Most tea plantations were established at the expense of native forest. Change in carbon (C) and nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) accumulation in forests over time has been intensively studied, but how C and NPK stocks in tea plantations are associated with age, genotype and plant density have not been reported yet in literature. To get a better insight in the ef...

  15. Productivity and Profitability of Forest Machines in the Harvesting of Normal and Overgrown Willow Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Fulvio Di Fulvio; Dan Bergström; Kalvis Kons; Tomas Nordfjell

    2012-01-01

    Forage harvesters used in Short Rotation Willow Coppice (SRWC) plantations in Sweden suffer from an inability to efficiently harvest stems thicker than 6 – 7 cm at stump height. An alternative, when harvesting in such plantations, might be to use forest machines fitted with accumulating felling heads. This study aimed to measure the time consumption and to compare the costs of two forest machine systems in a normal (N) and an overgrown (O) SRWC, where the respective biomass densities were 36 ...

  16. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Callisto, M.; F. A. R. Barbosa; Moreno, P.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

  17. Do the rubber plantations in tropical China act as large carbon sinks?

    OpenAIRE

    Song Q-H; Tan Z-H; Zhang Y-P; Sha L-Q; Deng X-B; Deng Y; Zhou W-J; Zhao J-F; Zhao J-B; Zhang X; Zhao W.; Yu G-R; Sun X-M; Liang N-S

    2014-01-01

    The regrowth of tropical secondary forests and plantations can not offset the carbon release caused by tropical deforestation, consequently determining net carbon losses on tropical lands. However, large uncertainties remain in relation to this assumption. Here, we used a biometric method to estimate the net dry matter production and net ecosystem production in a rubber forest, the most widespread plantation type in tropical Southeast Asia. According to biometric estimates made during the stu...

  18. Selection of trees for rubbing by red and roe deer in forest plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Jaime,; Bugalho, Miguel; Cortez, José Paulo; Iason, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Antler rubbing is a form of behaviour by which deer may damage and ultimately induce mortality of trees. Understanding factors affecting selection of trees for rubbing may contribute to mitigation of negative effects of such behaviour in plantations or woodlands. We analysed characteristics of trees rubbed by red and roe deer along transects established in plantations of Pinus pinaster (Aiton), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, Betula alba L. and Quercus robur L. in Northeast Portugal. T...

  19. Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status

    OpenAIRE

    Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canade...

  20. Spatial distribution of mammals in relation to spruce plantations in birch forests of northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Juell, Kristoffer Hovind

    2007-01-01

    Spruce plantations in coastal birch forests of northern Norway might affect the spatial activity of mammals in the landscape. To investigate this relationship, I censused tracks of mammals in the winter according to the Finnish wildlife triangle method and analysed these at three spatial scales; tree stand level, landscape level and regional level, the two first being related to spruce. The spatial activity of mammals did not show any distinct responses to spruce plantations at the level of s...

  1. Vital status of trees plantations of the Shevchenko park in Zaporizhzhya city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Yalovenko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The tree plantation’s vital status of the Shevchenko Park in Zaporizhzhya city was estimated according to N. P. Krasinsky’s method modified by Y. Z. Kulagin. The vitality of individual plants and stands as a whole was assessed according to V. A. Alekseev. The growth class of tree stands and the influence of the age class on the forest capacity class were determined. The defectiveness of tree stems in the park was estimated.

  2. Characteristics of Soil Fauna Communities and Habitat in Small-Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe

    OpenAIRE

    Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid; Tati Suryati Syamsudin; Franciscus Xaverius Susilo; Endah Sulistyawati; Hasbullah Syaf

    2013-01-01

    The composition of soil fauna community have played an important role in regulating decomposition and nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystems (include cocoa plantation). Changes in food availability and conditions in the soil habitat can affect the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. This study aimed: (i) to analyze the pattern of changes in soil fauna community composition and characteristic of soil habitat based on the increasing age of cocoa plantation, and (ii) to identify taxa of soil fau...

  3. On an interactive system to support the management of industrial rubber tree (hevea) plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Koussoube, S.; Ndoutoume, J.L.; Noussi, R.

    1996-01-01

    The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) for the needs of industrial plantations management, has occupied more and more important place during the last years. In the case of the hevea culture, this can be explained by the need expressed by agronomists to achieve development, inventory, maintenance and farming operations, on the plantations, by means of aerial images, topographic and descriptive data. Most of these operations integrate decisional procedures using model...

  4. Can Management Improve the Value of Shade Plantations for the Endemic Species of Sao Tome Island?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lima, Ricardo F.; Viegas, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa and coffee are among the most valuable tropical crops, with much of their production in areas of high biodiversity. Although this could suggest a conflict between agricultural expansion and biodiversity conservation, these crops are normally grown in shade plantations—a more biodiversity-friendly agroforestry system. Using São Tomé Island as a case study, we examined if shade plantation can benefit biodiversity by protecting extinction-prone island endemic species. We found that shade plantations held rich assemblages, even in comparison with forest: we estimated 30 bird and 74 tree species occurring in plantations compared to 24 bird and 108 tree species in forests. However, the structure of the assemblages was significantly different between ecosystems, with an average dissimilarity of 33.8 percent and 87.9 percent for birds and trees, respectively. Shade plantations had consistently less endemic species than the forest; we estimated a drop from 17 to 13 in birds and from 17 to 3 in trees. We also found that despite marked differences in the response of bird species to the vegetation characteristics of shade plantations, there was a strong positive link between aboveground tree biomass and endemic species richness and abundance. These results show that shade plantations hold assemblages impoverished in endemic species, but that management can improve their value for the conservation of these species. Finally, we suggest that biodiversity-friendly certification and carbon markets are used to implement and guarantee the long-term economical sustainability of practices that favor the endemic species in São Tomé's shade plantations.

  5. Comparison of biodiversity between plantation and natural forests in Sabah using moths as indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Chey, Vun Khen

    1994-01-01

    ?The Malaysian state of Sabah, in northern Borneo, started massive monoculture forest plantations of fast-growing introduced tree species in the mid-1970's to replace part of the harvested tropical rain forest. Many people, particularly conservationists in the West, are very much against this sort of reforestation as they fear it would spell a permanent loss to the Bornean rain forest biodiversity. This project was carried out at the more established forest plantations of Sabah...

  6. Technical and Economical Evaluations of Maritime Pine Plantations in Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tunçtaner, Korhan; Da?demir, ?smet; Ertekin, Murat; ÖZEL, Halil Bar??

    2012-01-01

    AbstractIn this study, technical and economical evaluations of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations, established at Bart?n-Karaçaydere between the years of 1979 and 1984, were made. 60 sample plots were allocated by representing the establishment techniques of mechanization and labour. The data were collected from the plots concerning growth, yield and economics, in the year of 2003. Reasonable growth rates were obtained in maritime pine plantations, in spite of the negative ...

  7. Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) Plantations Provide Additional Habitats for Vascular Plant Species in Agricultural Mosaic Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Baum,Sarah; Bolte, Andreas; Weih, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Increasing loss of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes is often debated in the bioenergy context, especially with respect to non-traditional crops that can be grown for energy production in the future. As promising renewable energy source and additional landscape element, the potential role of short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations to biodiversity is of great interest. We studied plant species richness in eight landscapes (225 km2) containing willow and poplar SRC plantations (1,600 m2)...

  8. Treating wood with chemical preservatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the Canadian wood is treated with chemicals to protect it against fungi. Some is treated to preserve its appearance until it is installed in a building, while other wood, used for windows, doors and outdoor furniture, is treated more extensively to protect it from decay for many years, and also from insects. Some of the chemicals used are: IPBC - 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate; TBTO - tributyltin oxide; and CCA - chromated copper arsenate. The problem facing the lumber industry was quality assurance: how to ensure that the correct amount of chemical was applied. The required amounts were well known from previous studies, but application of the correct amounts was not always achieved at the lumber mill. The problem then became how to measure the amounts of the chemicals in large numbers of wood samples quickly and reliably. Classical methods of chemical analysis, which require dissolving the sample, could not be used for two reasons. First, they are not reliable, because the chemical may form insoluble species in the wood; even if the chemical is soluble, it is still necessary to dissolve the whole piece of wood to be able to measure it. Second, they are too labour-intensive and costly. Even modern instrumental techniques that shine light or charged particles onto the piece of wood will not do the job, because they only see the chemicals at the surface, not what has penetrated. The answer is a nuclear technique. Only neutrons and high energy g radiation can easily penetrate a piece of wood several millimetres thick to probe what is inside. In neutron activation analysis (NAA) the sample is bombarded with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. The neutrons cause nuclear reactions in the atoms of heavy elements (but not of the light elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen found in wood) and turn them into radioactive isotopes. After a few seconds the sample is removed from the reactor and placed in front of a ? ray detector. The radioactive heavy elements emit ? rays of variable energy and g rays at specific energies characteristic of the element. The g rays are detected with a germanium semiconductor spectrometer and the number of ? rays detected at an element's energy gives the amount of the element. At Ecole polytechnique in Montreal we have a small nuclear reactor called SLOWPOKE (only 5 kg uranium) that is easy to use and that is routinely used for NAA. It produces enough neutrons to easily activate the iodine in IPBC, the tin in TBTO or the arsenic in CCA. We needed to optimize our NAA method for the fast and reliable analysis of large numbers of wood samples. The NAA technique is accurate and reliable because it is simple and direct. The expertise we have developed in this field has made us the authority in several disputed cases

  9. Bretton Woods 2 is dead, long live Bretton Woods 3?

    OpenAIRE

    Bibow, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out to investigate the forces and conditions that led to the emergence of global imbalances preceding the worldwide crisis of 2007-09, and both the likelihood and the potential sustainability of reemerging global imbalances as the world economy recovers from that crisis. The 'Bretton Woods 2' hypothesis of sustainable global imbalances featuring a quasi-permanent U.S. current account deficit overlooked that the domestic counterpart to the United States' external deficit-soarin...

  10. Ductility of Wood and Wood Members Connected with Mechanical Fasteners

    OpenAIRE

    Pirinen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Ductility is the extent to which material can plastically deform without losing its load bearing capacity. Ductility is essential in accidental situations, areas of high seismicity, and in cases of static overloading. In general, ductility can be understood as a safeguard against the unknown. In the past two decades, the status of wood as a building material has become more suitable for high rise buildings; however only a limited amount of updates have been made to the standards. This the...

  11. System analysis of a bio-energy plantation: full greenhouse gas balance and energy accounting (POPFULL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Berhongaray, G.; Broeckx, L.; De Groote, T.; ElKasmioui, O.; Fichot, R.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Verlinden, M.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    In recent year the environmental impact of fossil fuels and their reduced availability are leading to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources, among them bio-energy. However, the cost/benefit in establishing, managing, and using these plantations for energy production should be quantified together with their environmental impact. In this project we are performing a full life cycle analysis (LCA) balance of the most important greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O and O3), together with full energy accounting of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with fast-growing trees. We established the plantation two years ago and we have been monitoring net fluxes of CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, in combination with biomass pools (incl. soil) and fluxes, and volatile organic carbon (VOCs). This poplar plantation will be monitored for another two years then harvested and transformed into bio-energy. For the energy accounting we are performing a life cycle analysis and energy efficiency assessments over the entire cycle of the plantation until the production of electricity and heat. Here we present an overview of the results from the first two years from the plantation establishment, and some of the projections based on these first results.

  12. Evaluation of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Poplar Plantations in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil physical and chemical properties and some quantitative characteristics of Populus deltoides Marsh (clone 79.51 plantations and relationships between them were evaluated in Guilan plain of north of Iran. Two same aged poplar plantations with low and high qualities were selected. In each poplar plantation, fifteen sample plots with systematic sampling method were selected. In each sample plot diameter at breast height (DBH as well as height of all trees within them was determined. Soil samples were taken from 0-20cm in each plot and soil texture, water holding capacity (WHC, bulk density (B.D and particle density (P.D as well as soil porosity, O.C, N, available P and exchangeable K were determined for each soil sample in laboratory. Tree data and soil properties between two plantations were analysed using independent samples t-test (Student’s t test at p < 0.05. The results showed that among soil physical properties, percentage of clay, sand, B.D and WHC and amongst soil chemical properties O.C, N, available P and exchangeable K were significantly different between two plantations. Heavy textured soils with high B.D are undesirable for growing of populus deltoides in study area. The results also indicated that poor quality plantations has negative effect on soil nutrient and reduces its fertility. Reduction of nutrient availability had negative effects on quantity and quality of poplar trees.

  13. Differential Performance between Two Timber Species in Forest Logging Gaps and in Plantations in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Fayolle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To develop silvicultural guidelines for high-value timber species of Central African moist forests, we assessed the performance of the pioneer Milicia excelsa (iroko, Moraceae, and of the non-pioneer light demander Pericopsis elata (assamela, Fabaceae in logging gaps and in plantations in highly degraded areas in south-eastern Cameroon. The survival and size of each seedling was regularly monitored in the silvicultural experiments. Differences in performance and allometry were tested between species in logging gaps and in plantations. The two species performance in logging gaps was significantly different from plantations and concurred with the expectations of the performance trade-off hypothesis but not with the expectations of species light requirements. The pioneer M. excelsa survived significantly better in logging gaps while the non-pioneer P. elata grew significantly faster in plantations. The high mortality and slow growth of M. excelsa in plantations is surprising for a pioneer species but could be explained by herbivory (attacks from a gall-making psyllid. Identifying high-value native timber species (i with good performance in plantations such as P. elata is of importance to restore degraded areas; and (ii with good performance in logging gaps such as M. excelsa is of importance to maintain timber resources and biodiversity in production forests.

  14. Avian species diversity in oil palm plantations of Agusan Del Sur and Compostela Valley, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly M. Cagod

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm trees have become the most expanding equatorial crops in the world and theirproduct, palm oil, is produced, traded and used more than any other vegetable oil worldwide. Theexpansion of oil palm cultivation, however, is frequently cited as a major factor causing deforestationthat may result in biodiversity losses in tropical countries. In this study, an assessment of the avifaunain oil palm plantations in Agusan del Sur and Compostela Valley, Mindanao, Philippines was done fromApril 2010 to July 2010. Sampling sites were categorized based on the age/growth of palm trees. Linetransect method, mist netting and birdwatching were used to gather data on avifauna. Eighty-eightspecies were recorded. Species richness, abundance, and number of endemic species were also recordedto be higher in mature plantations than in young plantations. A significant difference was noted in birdabundance found in the different age groups of oil palm plantations in Agusan del Sur. Thirty-oneendemic species were recorded, one of which is Mindanao endemic. Three vulnerable species,Gallicolumba criniger (Mindanao bleeding-heart, Alcedo argentata (silvery kingfisher and Ficedulabasilanica (little slaty flycatcher were recorded both in the young and mature plantations. TheAethopyga primigenius (grey-hooded sunbird, a near threatened species was recorded in matureplantations only. The presence of these vulnerable species in all study sites indicates the need to protectthe degraded secondary residual forest and forest patches along the plantation.

  15. Carbon stock of oil palm plantations and tropical forests in Malaysia : A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kho, Lip Khoon; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, the main land change process is the establishment of oil palm plantations on logged-over forests and areas used for shifting cultivation, which is the traditional farming system. While standing carbon stocks of old-growth forest have been the focus of many studies, this is less the case for Malaysian fallow systems and oil palm plantations. Here, we collate and analyse Malaysian datasets on total carbon stocks for both above- and below-ground biomass. We review the current knowledge on standing carbon stocks of 1) different forest ecosystems, 2) areas subject to shifting cultivation (fallow forests) and 3) oil palm plantations. The forest ecosystems are classified by successional stage and edaphic conditions and represent samples along a forest succession continuum spanning pioneer species in shifting cultivation fallows to climax vegetation in old-growth forests. Total carbon stocks in tropical forests range from 4 to 384MgC/ha, significantly wider than the range of total carbon stocks of oil palm plantations, 2 to 60MgC/ha. Conversion of old-growth forest areas to oil palm plantations leads to substantial reduction in carbon storage, while conversion of forest fallows to oil palm plantations may sustain or even increase the standing carbon stock.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF WOOD RAW MATERIAL PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES ON WOOD QUALITY CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ünver, Saliha; ACAR, H. Hulusi

    2011-01-01

    Wood raw material production without barked round is 3.5 billion m3 in the world. According to their amounts, industrial wood products set out log, fiber chip and pulp wood respectively in. Wood raw material produced in Turkey is not enough for market demand, so 9% of industrial wood demand has been imported. For this reason, the quality loses are as important as the quantity loses, which can be occurred during wood raw material production. Both preserving of continuity of forest so...

  17. Advantages of the use of energy wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Regional Forestry Associations it would be possible to develop the harvesting of energy wood by increasing the use of it. The study was made at the areas of 34 regional forestry associations as an inquiry to the executive managers, as well as the persons responsible for timber trade, harvesting or regional affairs. The inquiries studied the use of energy wood and the user of them at the areas of the associations, as well as the amounts of harvesting and the realization of it. Only a third of the associations have large energy wood consuming plants (using more than 500 m3 energy wood per year). The closest large energy wood consuming plant was in the average 31 km from the office of the association. The average energy wood use of the plant was 20 000 m3/a, the variation being 700 - 200 000 m3/a. The energy wood purchase range of the plants varied from few kilometers to hundred kilometers, the average being 47 km. Most of the energy wood was harvested from forest regeneration areas. Some of the energy wood is also harvested from young forest maintenance and thinning areas. The estimated harvesting of energy wood in 1999 was 6300 m3. A part of the energy wood is used for heating the farms and other small real estates, and a part is used for heating larger buildings like schools, hospitals, factories. The fees to the associations for purchase of energy wood varied significantly. The range was 2.00 - 11.00 FIM/m3. One association charged 300 FIM/parcel, and in one association the price depend on the amount of wood acquired from the lot, the unit price being 0.5 FIM/m3. It appeared that the associations estimated the use of energy wood to increase. The level in 1999 was 6300 m3 and it is estimated to increase to 14 300 m3 in 2005. The associations estimated that the levels can only be achieved if the stumpage price of energy wood may not be 0.0 FIM. Even a marginal price would lead to an increased harvesting of energy wood. The associations estimated that the reasonable price of energy wood of the regeneration fellings to be 1-10 FIM/m3, and that of the first thinning, stem and rotten wood 5-50 FIM/m3

  18. Termite Communities in Sugarcane Plantations in Southeastern Brazil: an Ecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Termites are key components of soil fauna, playing an essential role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. However, they can cause significant economic losses in commercial plantations, such as sugar cane. Therefore, the correct identification of termite species is critical for pest control. Here, we evaluated the species richness, abundance and functional groups of termites in sugarcane plantations in 53 cities throughout the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. We also analyzed the influence of macroclimatic variables on termite species distribution and functional groups. We found 22 taxa of two families, of which the most frequent species were Termitidae (96.51%. Within this family, Apicotermitinae had the highest frequency of occurrence (37.12%, followed by Termitinae (30.57%, Syntermitinae (27.95%, and Nasutitermitinae (0.8 %. The other family, Rhinotermitidae, had the lowest frequency (3.5%, being represented only by Heterotermes sulcatus Mathews. We classified Neocapritermes opacus Hagen (29.26%, Apicotermitinae sp.2 (24.89%, Cornitermes cumulans Kollar (13.10%, and Apicotermitinae sp.1 (6.99% as common taxa. The remaining 18 species were classified as rare. The most common functional group was humus-feeders (37%, followed by wood-feeders (34%, grass-litter feeders (25%, and intermediate feeders (4%. Climate influenced the distribution of common species, humus-feeders and grass-litter feeders. Regarding the pest status of termites in sugar cane plantations, we suggest that the exasperated use of pesticide in the last decades has reduced the abundance of species considered pests (e.g. Heterotermes and reinforce the importance of ecological approaches for determining the best pest control methods. Comunidades de Cupins em Cultivos de Cana-de-Açúcar no Estado de São Paulo: Uma Abordagem Ecológica Resumo. Os cupins são importantes componentes da fauna de solo, atuando na decomposição da matéria orgânica e ciclagem de nutrientes. Porém, em cultivos de cana-de-açúcar, podem provocar perdas econômicas significativas. A correta identificação das espécies de cupins é um ponto crítico para o controle daquelas que adquiriram e/ou que podem atingir o status de praga. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a riqueza, a abundância e os grupos funcionais destes insetos em canaviais de 53 municípios do estado de São Paulo. Paralelamente, avaliou se as variáveis macroclimáticas influenciam a distribuição das comunidades de cupins e dos grupos funcionais. A riqueza obtida foi de 22 táxons. Da família Termitidae (96,51%, a maior frequência de ocorrência foi da subfamília Apicotermitinae (37,12%, seguindo-se Termitinae (30,57%, Syntermitinae (27,95% e Nasutitermitinae (0,8%. A família Rhinotermitidae (3,5% esteve representada apenas por Heterotermes sulcatus Mathews. Quatro táxons foram considerados comuns em canaviais, Neocapritermes opacus Hagen (29,26%, Apicotermitinae sp.2 (24,89%, Cornitermes cumulans Kollar (13,10% e Apicotermitinae sp.1 (6,99% e os 18 restantes foram classificados como raros. O grupo funcional mais frequente foi o dos humívoros (37%, seguido por xilófagos (34%, comedores de serrapilheira (25% e intermediários (4%. O clima influenciou a distribuição das espécies comuns, bem como dos grupos funcionais dos humívoros e dos comedores de serrapilheira. Sugere-se que o uso intensivo de pesticidas nas últimas décadas reduziu a abundância de espécies até então consideradas praga em cana-de-açúcar (ex. Heterotermes, o que reforça a importância dos estudos ecológicos para a definição de métodos de controle mais adequados.

  19. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  20. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux...

  1. Isolation of lignin from wood

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis was to know well the different lignin isolation methods from various wood species and black liquor, and then the lignin obtained was identified by spectrophotometric methods which were UV and FTIR spectroscopy, to analyze and compare the physical and chemical properties of lignin, such as lignin content and color with different pH values, and their chemical structures, etc. The experimental part of this study was performed in the laboratory of Saimaa U...

  2. Investigation of diverse leaf-wood and coniferous wood regardin their usability for the production of wood-plastic-combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By impregnation with an acrylic monomer mixture and by polymerization with gamma radiation wood-plastic combinations with high dimensional stability have been made from 34 wood species. Data for monomer uptake, density, hardness, impact bending, swelling by volume and weight, and weatherability are presented. Furthermore the attempt of an aesthetic evaluation of the wood-plastic combinations has been made. The optical impression has been compared with the technological behaviour. As a result several wood species turned out to be especially suitable for the production of wood-plastic combinations of high quality. These woods are ramin, lime, abachi, walnut, bubinga, niangon and mutenye, with some restrictions also spruce, okoume, corola pine and dibetou. (author)

  3. Extraction of oil palm plantations on the undulating terrains in the Borneo using PALSAR Global Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Y.; Ishii, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Nagai, S.; Suzuki, R.

    2013-12-01

    Conversions of forests and peat swamps into oil palm plantations might cause decrease of net ecosystem production, change of water stream and loss of biodiversity. Most of the oil plantations in the South East Asia have been expanded in the past decade. For monitoring the distribution and condition of these plantations, the PALSAR Global Mosaic data set (PGM) have been utilized. This PGM is one of the L-Band Synthetic Aparture Radar (SAR) data sets orthorectified and mosaicked (unified). Unlike optical satellite imagery, the L-band SAR is useful especially for cloudy tropic regions. In addition, PGM have high resolution (about 10 m) and contains cross polarization (HV) SAR data which is useful for observation of forest because cross polarization SAR data contain data of the volume scattering which reflect the volume of plant bodies. On the other hand, topographic effect in PGM is not reduced sufficiently because of low resolution of DEM utilized to make PGM. As a result, pixel value of PGM is affected by the highlight effect especially in undulating terrains. These undulating terrains consist of rises which have about 10m height, exist in about 100m horizontal interval and cause striped patterns on SAR images. These patterns result in difficulty in extracting oil palm plantation using SAR imagery in the undulating terrains. However, many papers extracting oil palm plantations didn't show the accuracy of distributions extracted as oil palm plantation in the undulating terrains and thus it isn't clear how well oil palm plantations on the undulating terrains can be extracted. In this study, we carried out a supervised classification and extracted oil palm plantations in the north-west of Borneo Island. The Island is a part of the South East Asia and contains undulating terrains. In this extraction, we used the PGM data, a learning model and the training data made from PGM data, aerial photograph, high resolution optical satellite data and field survey data. After extraction, we assessed accuracy of the area extracted as oil palm plantations on undulating terrains using land cover maps made from high resolution aerial photo graph, optical satellite imagery and field survey data. In addition, we discussed the distribution of each land covers in a feature space (scatter diagram for many types of values such as pixel value and filtered pixel value which belong to each land covers) and discussed the structure of the learning model for extraction. As a result, we confirmed that the oil palm plantations on the undulating terrains can be extracted with high accuracy when PGM is used.

  4. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  5. Response of soil respiration and ecosystem carbon budget to vegetation removal in Eucalyptus plantations with contrasting ages

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping Wu; Zhanfeng Liu; Guomin Huang; Dima Chen; Weixin Zhang; Yuanhu Shao; Songze Wan; Shenglei Fu

    2014-01-01

    Reforested plantations have substantial effects on terrestrial carbon cycling due to their large coverage area. Although understory plants are important components of reforested plantations, their effects on ecosystem carbon dynamics remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of vegetation removal/understory removal and tree girdling on soil respiration and ecosystem carbon dynamics in Eucalyptus plantations of South China with contrasting ages (2 and 24 years old). We...

  6. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, K.; Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Brunet, J.

    2010-01-01

    Reforestation of ex-arable land in temperate regions increases the area of potential habitat for forest plants. However, the herbaceous plant layer of these plantations contains fewer forest species than comparable plantations at continuously forested sites. One of the reasons for this might be differences in recruitment. The present study addresses post-dispersal seed predation, mainly of woody plants, as the factor limiting the recolonization of young oak plantations in southern Sweden. Our ob...

  7. Assessing the potential of natural woody species regeneration for the conversion of Norway spruce plantations on alluvial soils

    OpenAIRE

    Hérault, Bruno; Thoen, Daniel; Honnay, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    In the perspective of the conversion of Norway spruce plantations, there is a need for foresters to assess the potential of the natural woody species regeneration. We studied 50 Norway spruce plantations on alluvial soils throughout the Grand-duché de Luxembourg and compared the regeneration characteristics (species composition, spatial heterogeneity) with 42 riverine deciduous stands (the target communities). Within the Norway spruce plantations, Fraxinus excelsior and Acer pseudoplatanus we...

  8. Woody Species Diversity in Forest Plantations in a Mountainous Region of Beijing, China: Effects of Sampling Scale and Species Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Shuang; Ma, Keming; Fu, Bojie; Anand, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.), planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.), and natural secondary d...

  9. Evaluating Public Plantation and Community Planted Forests under the CDM and REDD+ Mechanism for Carbon Stock in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL; Ishwar Chandra DUTTA; Pramod Kumar JHA; Sidhibir KARMACHARYA; Samshul Mohammad HAQUE

    2013-01-01

    Public plantations (PPs) and Community planted forests (CPFs) are inimitable types of participatory forest management practices in Nepal, but their eligibility issues under the framework of clean development mechanism (CDM) and reducing emission from the deforestation and forest degradation mechanism (REDD+) are not evaluated. So, to explore the management system of PP and CPF, we compared forest carbon stocks in plantations and evaluated these plantations under these mechanisms as objective...

  10. Testing different methods of forest height and aboveground biomass estimations from ICESat/GLAS data in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdadi, N.; le Maire, G.; Fayad, I.; Bailly, J.S; Nouvellon, Y.; Lemos, C.; Hakamada, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) has provided a useful dataset for estimating forest heights in many areas of the globe. Most of the studies on GLAS waveforms have focused on natural forests and only a few were conducted over forest plantations. This work set out to estimate the stand-scale dominant height and aboveground biomass of intensively managed Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil using the most commonly used models developed for natural forests. These forest plantations are v...

  11. Ecosystem Carbon Stock Influenced by Plantation Practice: Implications for Planting Forests as a Measure of Climate Change Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Chengzhang; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming,; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha?1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, pla...

  12. Biomass Accumulation and Carbon Sequestration in Four Different Aged Casuarina equisetifolia Coastal Shelterbelt Plantations in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Faming; Xu, Xin; Zou, Bi; Guo, Zhihua; LI, ZHIAN; Zhu, Weixing

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of kilometers of shelterbelt plantations of Casuarina equisetifolia have been planted to protect the southeast coastline of China. These plantations also play an important role in the regional carbon (C) cycling. In this study, we examined plant biomass increment and C accumulation in four different aged C. equisetifolia plantations in sandy beaches in South China. The C accumulated in the C. equisetifolia plant biomass increased markedly with stand age. The annual rate of C accumul...

  13. The Incidence of Pests and Diseases on Teak Plantation, Grown from Tissue Culture in Kendal Forest, District Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    Sumardi; S M WIDYASTUTI

    2002-01-01

    Damages caused by pests and diseases were observed in 2-year-old teak plantation in Kendal Forest district, Central Java. The plantation was established using containerized plantlets produced from tissue culture technique and planted through taungya system with corn and groundnut as intercrops in two compartments. Results showed that some less important pests commonly observed in direct seeding of teak plantation turned out to become prevalent damage in both compartments. Bee hole borer, comm...

  14. Diversidad de termitas (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae) en plantaciones de caucho en Puerto López (Meta, Colombia) / Diversity of termites (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae) in rubber-tree plantations in Puerto López (Meta, Colombia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olga Patricia, PINZÓN; Ana María, Hernández; Leonardo Andrés, Malagón.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron la diversidad y la abundancia relativa de termitas en asociación con plantaciones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis) de diferentes edades en un núcleo forestal de la altillanura bien drenada de los Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta). Se muestrearon tres edades de plantación en dos época [...] s climáticas: lluviosa de 2009 (mayo, julio) y seca de 2010 (febrero, marzo), utilizando el método de transecto con modificaciones. Se encontraron 10 especies pertenecientes a las familias Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae) y Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae). La diversidad de termitas en plantaciones de caucho mayores a dos años fue predominantemente xilófaga y humívora siendo Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus y Grigiotermes sp. las especies con mayor frecuencia. La diversidad y abundancia de termitas xilófagas en asociación con el cultivo del caucho fue favorecida por la disponibilidad de recursos en las plantaciones de mayor desarrollo pero en ningún caso se observó actividad dañina sobre el cultivo. Los resultados sugieren un papel importante de H. convexinotatus en el reciclaje de residuos de madera, especialmente, en los rodales de mayor edad. Abstract in english The diversity and relative abundance of termites in association with rubber-tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations was estimated for different aged stands in well-drained plateau in the Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta). Three plantation ages were surveyed in two climate seasons: rainy in 2009 ( [...] May, June) and dry in 2010 (February, March), using the transect method with modifications. Ten species were found belonging to the families Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae) and Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae). Termite diversity in rubber plantations older than two years was predominately xylophagous and saprophagous, with Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus and Grigiotermes sp. being the most common species. The diversity and abundance of xylophagous termites in association with rubber trees was favored by the availability of resources in the more well developed plantations, but in no case was any damaging activity observed in the crop. The results suggest an important role for H. convexinotatus in the recycling of wood residues, especially in the older tree plantations.

  15. Diversidad de termitas (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae en plantaciones de caucho en Puerto López (Meta, Colombia Diversity of termites (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae in rubber-tree plantations in Puerto López (Meta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Patricia PINZÓN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron la diversidad y la abundancia relativa de termitas en asociación con plantaciones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis de diferentes edades en un núcleo forestal de la altillanura bien drenada de los Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta. Se muestrearon tres edades de plantación en dos épocas climáticas: lluviosa de 2009 (mayo, julio y seca de 2010 (febrero, marzo, utilizando el método de transecto con modificaciones. Se encontraron 10 especies pertenecientes a las familias Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae y Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae. La diversidad de termitas en plantaciones de caucho mayores a dos años fue predominantemente xilófaga y humívora siendo Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus y Grigiotermes sp. las especies con mayor frecuencia. La diversidad y abundancia de termitas xilófagas en asociación con el cultivo del caucho fue favorecida por la disponibilidad de recursos en las plantaciones de mayor desarrollo pero en ningún caso se observó actividad dañina sobre el cultivo. Los resultados sugieren un papel importante de H. convexinotatus en el reciclaje de residuos de madera, especialmente, en los rodales de mayor edad.The diversity and relative abundance of termites in association with rubber-tree (Hevea brasiliensis plantations was estimated for different aged stands in well-drained plateau in the Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta. Three plantation ages were surveyed in two climate seasons: rainy in 2009 (May, June and dry in 2010 (February, March, using the transect method with modifications. Ten species were found belonging to the families Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae and Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae. Termite diversity in rubber plantations older than two years was predominately xylophagous and saprophagous, with Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus and Grigiotermes sp. being the most common species. The diversity and abundance of xylophagous termites in association with rubber trees was favored by the availability of resources in the more well developed plantations, but in no case was any damaging activity observed in the crop. The results suggest an important role for H. convexinotatus in the recycling of wood residues, especially in the older tree plantations.

  16. Certified enterprise with plantation forest management: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Erica Busch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation occurring in Brazil increased society's perception of environmental problems arising from them. Because of this awareness, lumber companies faced the challenge of demonstrating to consumers how they are reducing the environmental impacts of their operations. As a means of marketing, many suppliers of certified wood advertise themselves as practitioners of environmental responsibility. This study aimed to analyze a certified forest company, as a case study, in order to verify if the process brought environmental benefits and social responsibility. Results indicated that forest management certification has brought advances in mitigating the impacts of forestry operations on the environment, forest workers and local communities.

  17. Estimating the bioenergy potential of Pinus radiata plantations in Chile / Estimación del potencial bioenergético de las plantaciones de Pinus radiata, en Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Acuña; Miguel, Espinosa; Jorge, Cancino; Rafael, Rubilar; Fernando, Muñoz.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó el potencial bioenergético para la producción de electricidad y bioetanol de las plantaciones de Pinus radiata D. Don en Chile, usando como base datos la superfcie de plantaciones por clase de edad y región administrativa. Mediante ecuaciones de densidad de la madera por clase de edad y re [...] gión, contenido de humedad de la madera y efciencia de una hipotética planta generadora de energía eléctrica, se estimó la electricidad producida por la biomasa a la edad de cosecha incluyendo los residuos de ésta. La producción de bioetanol fue estimada en 275 L por tonelada seca. El análisis de incertidumbre de la producción de bioenergía se obtuvo mediante funciones de densidad de probabilidades y un supuesto de 1,83 millones de ha de plantaciones de P. radiata al año 2030. Los parámetros empleados incluyen la edad de rotación, incremento medio anual, tasa de plantación anual, producción de residuos según edad de rotación y efciencia de la planta eléctrica. Las simulaciones fueron realizadas para un horizonte de 20 años (2010-2030). El modelo seguido estima que el potencial de generación de biomasa de los residuos de cosecha forestal y de la madera fustal de las plantaciones de P. radiata, podría cubrir el 83,4% de la capacidad instalada de energía eléctrica del Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC), que asciende a 294,8 PJ el año 2008 y casi cuadriplica (381%) al año 2030. Según el modelo, la biomasa de residuos podría suplir el 25% o el 15% de la mezcla de un 2 y 5% de gasolina con bioetanol, respectivamente, para el 2010. Si se considera además la biomasa fustal estos valores ascienden a 190 y 76%, respectivamente. Abstract in english The bioenergy potential for electricity and ethanol production of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Chile was modeled, on a regional basis, using radiata pine plantations areas by age class. Wood basic density equations based on age and growing region, wood moisture content variability, and the ef [...] fciency of a hypothetical power plant were used to estimate the amount of electricity produced by biomass at harvesting age including logging residues. Bioethanol yield was estimated at 275 L t-1 of dry biomass. The uncertainty of the bioenergy production were analyzed using probabilistic distribution functions and an estimate of 1.83 million ha-1 of radiata pine plantations by year 2030. Parameters considered for the uncertainty analyses included the rotation age, mean annual increment, annual planting rate, logging residue production by harvesting age, and power plant effciency. Simulations were projected for 20 years (2010-2030). The results of our model suggest that biomass of logging residues and bolewood of radiata pine plantations would produce 294.8 PJ by 2008, which would cover 83.4% of the current installed capacity of the Chile Power Central Interconnected System, and could increase to four times the 2008 estimate (381%) by 2030. Model predictions suggest that bioethanol produced using biomass residues could supply 15 to 25% of gasoline blends at 2% (E98) and 5% (E95), respectively, by year 2010. Bolewood biomass could supply 76% and 190%.

  18. SOCIAL EXCLUSION: GUATEMALAN YOUTH WITHIN COFFEE PLANTATIONS AT SOCONUSCO CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Itzel Ramírez-Ramos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexico's southern border is the entry point for different migratory flows, mainly from Central America, these flows have taken place under socioeconomic contexts and conditions which demand the constant livelihood strategies pursuit from people. This paper is focused on the agricultural laborers from Guatemalan origin, within coffee plantation farms at the Soconusco, Chiapas. The main objective is arguing how the lack of access -or restricted access- to education and the precarious inclusion to work and migration, have positioned youth population of migrant laborers, from Guatemalan origin, into social processes of social exclusion and vulnerability. It is concluded that conditions generated from these processes, preclude the generation of different work expectations, the access to a higher quality of life and the social mobility in a men and woman development crucial stage. The exposed information comes from quantitative and qualitative research methods. A nonrandom survey was applied to 129 families; 20 semi-structured interviews for children and adolescents within farms and 25 to actors involved in the recognition and performance of the human rights of migrant children in the southern Mexican border area.

  19. Matching species and sites for biomass plantations in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for matching species and sites for biomass plantations in Hawaii were utilized to estimate biomass yields and production costs for Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, and Leucaena leucocephala. The 'analogous site' method matches the environmental conditions, including soil, rainfall, temperature, and insolation parameters, of well-characterized experimental biomass research sites which produce known yields of these species with similar land areas, or with those areas that can be made similar through soil amendments and improvement, where no field trials exist. The result is the identification of sites with biomass growth, yield, and cost performances which are analogous to the experimental site. The 'regression model' method relates known site-specific biomass productivity with environmental and soil conditions and management practices developed from sites featuring widely different and distinct environmental conditions. Equations then enable the prediction of biomass performance and production costs for each species at any location statewide. The analytical results, using a geographical information system database and the above methods, are presented in map form to expedite the site selection process which indicates expected biomass yield and cost for several fast-growing tropical hardwood species in Hawaii

  20. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  1. Wood modification by heat treatment: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Wood heat treatment has increased significantly in the last few years and is still growing as an industrial process to improve some wood properties. The first studies on heat treatment investigated mainly equilibrium mois-ture, dimensional stability, durability and mechanical properties. Mass loss, wettability, wood color, and chemical transformations have been subsequently extensively studied, while recent works focus on quality control, modeling, and study the reasons for the improvements. ...

  2. Lung function: occupational exposure to wood dust

    OpenAIRE

    Baran S; Swietlik K; Teul I

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Occupational exposure to wood dust has been shown to cause several respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, sino-nasal adenocarcinoma, and impairment of lung function. The aim of the study was to estimate lung function (in the woodworking industry) among workers employed by wood processing, who run the risk of being expose to wood dust. Methods The study concerns a group of 70 workers aged 24-55. All the workers underwent general and la...

  3. Experimental micromechanical characterisation of wood cell walls

    OpenAIRE

    Eder, Michaela; Arnould, Olivier; Dunlop, John William Chapman; Hornatowska, Joanna; Salmén, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    The properties of wood and wood based materials are strongly dependent on the properties of its fibres; i.e. the cell wall properties. The ability to characterize these in order to increase our understanding of structure-property relationships is thus highly important. This article gives a brief overview of the state of the art in experimental techniques to characterize the mechanical properties of wood at both the level of the single cell and that of the cell-wall. Challenges, opportunities,...

  4. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection with nanometal oxides that allow wood texture to remain seen and higher resilience to scratch and abrasion with use of different nanoparticle shapes are some of the applications that are reviewed here. A variety o...

  5. Chemoselective transesterification of wood steroles by lipases

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Illanes; Lorena Álvarez; Gregorio Álvaro

    2008-01-01

    The chemoselective transesterification of wood sterols is a novel type application of lipases that is considered within a technological platform for the upgrading of black liquor from the Kraft pulping process. Wood sterols are a mixture of sterols and stanols (saturated sterols) in which more than 90% is represented by β-sitosterol and β-sitostanol. Both products are oriented to different markets, representing the fractionation of the wood sterols a significant added value. Both substances...

  6. Identification of beetles attacking wood during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Taskirawati, Ira; Arif, Astuti; Patimah

    2011-01-01

    several timber trading businesses located in Bantaeng, South Sulawesi. The attacked beetle species were identified according to their morphology and the condition of attacked woods including form, frass, tunnels and bored holes. Results showed that there were 12 families of beetles attacking different wood species at the research sites. Among them, eight families were identified as wood destroying beetles. They were Lyctidae attacking Vatica spp, Paraserianthes falcataria, Anis...

  7. Hybrid wood/steel elements under fire

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, L.F.M.; Almeida, P.M.L.; Fonseca, E.M.M. (Coord.); Barreira, Luísa; Coelho, Diana C.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a computational model for the fire resistance of wood/steel hybrid elements. Different design solutions will be presented. The most important factors for fire safety in hybrid elements are the thermal effects degradation and the charring depth formation in wood materials, and also the heat conduction extremely well in steel material. Unprotected steel elements under fire condition may suffer serious damage. The use of hybrid wood/steel elements c...

  8. How spectroscopy and microspectroscopy of degraded wood contribute to understand fungal wood decay

    OpenAIRE

    Fackler, Karin; Schwanninger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, mid and near infrared, and ultra violet (UV) spectra of wood contain information on its chemistry and composition. When solid wood samples are analysed, information on the molecular structure of the lignocellulose complex of wood e.g. crystallinity of polysaccharides and the orientation of the polymers in wood cell walls can also be gained. UV and infrared spectroscopy allow also for spatially resolved spectroscopy, and state-of-the-art mapping and imaging systems ...

  9. Morphology of wood species affecting wood-thermoplastic interaction: microstructure and mechanical adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    William Gacitua; Michael Wolcott

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the research presented here is to relate anatomical features of wood species that affect the interactions between polymeric phases and performance of wood plastic composites (WPC). These interactions are related to the probable interlocking volume and surface area for stress transfer in a WPC. Composites were produced from different wood species and analyzed using SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Results showed that wood species with high interfacial areas may increas...

  10. Influence of the moisture content on the shear strength of welded wood-to-wood connections

    OpenAIRE

    Stamm, Bernhard; Weinand, Yves; Hahn, Benjamin; Rossmair, Georg Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    Friction welding of wood is an innovative process, able to join pieces of wood without additional adhesives. Because of its hygroscopic properties, the wood matrix absorbs humidity at the surface from the surrounding atmosphere. Its moisture content is strongly dependent on ambient conditions and seasonal changes. Former research showed that after samples passed a certain moisture content threshold, the creation of welded wood-towood connections becomes difficult and shear strength is signifi...

  11. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m3 of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m-3). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r2>0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (Cu??, Cr??and As??) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ -1) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias, E-mail: matias@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako, E-mail: imsato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m{sup 3} of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m{sup -3}). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r{sup 2}>0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (Cu??, Cr??and As??) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ < 5mgkg{sup -1}) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  13. Climate protection and carbon in wood. Comparison of management strategies; Klimaschutz und Kohlenstoff in Holz. Vergleich verschiedener Strategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, J.

    2008-11-05

    Forests are important for climate protection: They sequester and store carbon, and provide timber for wood products and fossil fuel substitution. These functions interact in a complex way. From a climate protection point of view it is desirable to optimize these interactions, i.e. to maximize the amount of carbon stored in the whole system (called ''forest-timber-option'') and to analyse what impact a management decision at the local level has with regard to the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Inventory methods to estimate the total amount of carbon in a forest are needed. Classical forest inventories assess above-ground tree volume. To estimate total carbon in accordance with the requirements of the Kyoto-Protocol, these inventories need to be expanded with regard to the assessment of disturbances, dead wood decomposition, soil carbon, and the estimation of carbon from volume. Methods invented here can also be used to assess local-level management activities, or to ''factor out'' non-human-induced changes in carbon pools. The optimization of the ''forest-timber-option'' is restricted due to regulations of the Kyoto-Protocol, because forest-related measures are accounted for under other sectors than wood and timber use. Harvested timber is estimated as an ''emission'' from the forest, and forest owners have no benefit from the use of wood for industrial purposes. Here, an inclusion of forestry in emission trading schemes can be advantageous. Alternative ways to produce wood are short-rotation coppice plantations on agricultural soils. Information about growth and yield potentials are scarce for the regions where land availability is high. Aspen (P. tremula, P. tremuloides) was parameterized in an eco-physiological forest growth model (''4C'') to assess these potentials on sites in Eastern Germany under current and under changing climatic conditions. The results indicate that growth potentials are more sensitive to soil quality than to climatic conditions. Potential yields allow for incomes comparable to standard agriculture, but biodiversity and groundwater recharge may be negatively affected by large-scale plantations. An optimization of the ''forest-timber-option'' requests the use of timber from forests. Harvested timber substitutes additional 70 % of carbon from fossil fuels. Forests under total protection do store more carbon than managed forest, but not equivalent to the substitution effects. Total protection of forests is thus no viable means for climate protection under Central European conditions. (orig.)

  14. Allelic Variation in Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (LoCAD Associated with Wood Properties of Larix olgensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD catalyzes the key step in the lignin monomer biosynthesis pathway, but little is known about CADs in larch (Larix olgensis. Larch is one of the most important conifer plantation species and is used worldwide for reforestation and paper making. However, the presence of lignin is a significant barrier in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. In the current study, 240 individuals from the Northeast Forest University provenance progeny trial population were evaluated, and 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified in the CAD gene. We used a candidate gene-based association mapping approach to identify CAD gene allelic variants that were associated with growth and wood property traits in L. olgensis. We found that LoCAD harbors high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP diversity (?T = 0.00622 and ?W = 0.00646. The results of an association analysis indicated that nine SNPs and six haplotypes were significantly associated with wood property and growth traits, explaining between 1.35% and 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. There were strong associations between SNP (g.590G > T and SNP (g.1184A > T in LoCAD. These SNPs might represent two quantitative trait nucleotides that are important for the analysis of lignin content.

  15. Propriedades físicas da madeira de teca termorretificada / Physical properties of heat-treated teak wood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana de Oliveira, Lopes; Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia; Alexandre Miguel do, Nascimento; João Vicente de Figueiredo, Latorraca.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito de tratamentos termorretificadores nas propriedades físicas (densidade e teor de umidade) da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis L. f.), proveniente de plantios de diferentes espaçamentos. Amostras de madeira de cerne e alburno foram termorretificadas a 1 [...] 80ºC e 200ºC durante 2 horas e 30 minutos. A termorretificação afetou mais a densidade do cerne do que a densidade do alburno. As madeiras de cerne e alburno apresentaram uma redução média de 52% no teor de umidade de equilíbrio, após a termorretificação. O espaçamento entre árvores também afetou as propriedades físicas da madeira após a termorretificação. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat treatments on the physical properties (density and moisture content) of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) wood from plantations of different spacings. Heartwood and sapwood samples were heat treated at 180 ºC and 200 ºC for 2 hours and 30 mi [...] nutes. Heat treatment produced greater effect on heartwood density compared with sapwood density. Heartwood and sapwood presented an average reduction of 52% in equilibrium moisture content after heat treatment. Tree spacing also affected the physical properties of wood after heat treatment.

  16. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T. [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  17. Wood-energy in Europe: resources, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A voluntaristic policy for the development of wood fuel would contribute to save energy and to protect the environment. Different strategies of development exist at the European scale as demonstrated by a recent report ordered by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME). This paper gives a synthesis of this report. It deals successively with: the European wood resources (the northern and continental forests, the mountain and bocage regions, the Mediterranean forests); the 3 main resources: forest exploitation, wood transformation, recycling of waste wood; the different economical status of wood resources; the place of wood-fuel in the economy: estimation, complementarity of industrial and energy uses; technological files and perspectives of development: collection, transport, conditioning, fuel production and supply, technologies of energy production from wood (domestic heating, collective heating, cogeneration and mixed wood-coal combustion); future markets; strategy of development: forestry and agriculture, management, producers, environmental aspects, afforestation of abandoned lands, employment...; policies of European, national and regional authorities: political and financial help, regulations and standardizations, financial helps and fiscal policy, inter-region cooperation and R and D, advice and communication; contribution of wood-fuel to the energy supply of Europe. (J.S.)

  18. Tropical-wood-induced bullous erythema multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, S; Chen, K R; Pratchyapruit, W O; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of bullous erythema multiforme caused by an exotic wood, pao ferro (Machaerium scleroxylon). A 25-year-old female, a luthier (guitar maker) who often handles a variety of woods, developed bullous erythema multiforme. A patch test confirmed a positive reaction to one of the exotic woods, pao ferro. A subsequent accidental short contact with pao ferro 5 months following the first incidence induced a similar exudative erythema. Exotic woods such as pao ferro should be added to the list of contact allergens that can induce bullous erythema multiforme. PMID:10681619

  19. Kuidas tuua Eestisse Tiger Woods / Raul Ranne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ranne, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Reaalselt arvestades on tõenäosus, et Eestit väisab golfistaar Tiger Woods, muidugi olematu. Teoreetiliselt on see siiski võimalik. Vestlusest Jõelähtme golfiväljakut opereeriv Estonian Golf Country Clubi presidendi Mait Schmidtiga

  20. Oxygen consumption by conserved archaeological wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Martin N; Matthiesen, Henning

    2013-07-01

    Rates of oxygen consumption have been measured over extended time periods for 29 whole samples of conserved, archaeological wood and four samples of fresh, unconserved wood, at 50% relative humidity and room temperature. Samples from the Swedish Warship Vasa and the Danish Skuldelev Viking ships are included. Most rates were close to 1 ?g O2 (g wood)(-1) day(-1) and the process persisted for several years at least. Consumption of oxygen is related to change in chemical composition, which is, in turn, related to degradation. It is thus demonstrated that despite conservation, waterlogged archaeological wood continues to degrade in a museum climate. PMID:23715675

  1. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  2. The effect of wood extractives on the thermal stability of different wood species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares the thermal stability of different wood species, which is an important factor for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPCs), and investigates the effect of extraction on thermal properties. The chemical composition of four wood species -Quercus alba, Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia cyclops - has been determined, as the species is expected to affect the thermal stability of wood. Subsequently, the hot-water (HW) extractives, ethanol/cyclohexane (E/C) extractives and both extractives were eliminated from the wood via Soxhlet extraction and the thermal stability of the wood determined with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under identical conditions. The results suggest that a higher cellulose and lignin content leads to better thermal stability of wood in different temperature regimes. In all cases, the removal of extractives improved the thermal stability of the wood. The effect of combined extractions was more pronounced than of an individual extraction and E/C-extraction caused less improvement in the thermal stability of wood than HW extraction. The degradation of the investigated wood extractives occurred at low rates over a broad temperature range. Pure cellulose exhibited superior thermal stability compared to wood, but differences were observed between the investigated wood species

  3. The effect of wood extractives on the thermal stability of different wood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebani, A.N.; Reenen, A.J. van [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Meincken, M. [Department of Forest and Wood Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)], E-mail: mmein@sun.ac.za

    2008-05-30

    This study compares the thermal stability of different wood species, which is an important factor for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPCs), and investigates the effect of extraction on thermal properties. The chemical composition of four wood species -Quercus alba, Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia cyclops - has been determined, as the species is expected to affect the thermal stability of wood. Subsequently, the hot-water (HW) extractives, ethanol/cyclohexane (E/C) extractives and both extractives were eliminated from the wood via Soxhlet extraction and the thermal stability of the wood determined with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under identical conditions. The results suggest that a higher cellulose and lignin content leads to better thermal stability of wood in different temperature regimes. In all cases, the removal of extractives improved the thermal stability of the wood. The effect of combined extractions was more pronounced than of an individual extraction and E/C-extraction caused less improvement in the thermal stability of wood than HW extraction. The degradation of the investigated wood extractives occurred at low rates over a broad temperature range. Pure cellulose exhibited superior thermal stability compared to wood, but differences were observed between the investigated wood species.

  4. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  5. Variation in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux rates among species and canopy layers in a wet tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Bedoya-Arrieta, Ricardo; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    As tropical forests respond to environmental change, autotrophic respiration may consume a greater proportion of carbon fixed in photosynthesis at the expense of growth, potentially turning the forests into a carbon source. Predicting such a response requires that we measure and place autotrophic respiration in a complete carbon budget, but extrapolating measurements of autotrophic respiration from chambers to ecosystem remains a challenge. High plant species diversity and complex canopy structure may cause respiration rates to vary and measurements that do not account for this complexity may introduce bias in extrapolation more detrimental than uncertainty. Using experimental plantations of four native tree species with two canopy layers, we examined whether species and canopy layers vary in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux and whether the variation relates to commonly used scalars of mass, nitrogen (N), photosynthetic capacity and wood size. Foliar respiration rate varied threefold between canopy layers, ?0.74??mol?m(-2)?s(-1) in the overstory and ?0.25??mol?m(-2)?s(-1) in the understory, but little among species. Leaf mass per area, N and photosynthetic capacity explained some of the variation, but height explained more. Chamber measurements of foliar respiration thus can be extrapolated to the canopy with rates and leaf area specific to each canopy layer or height class. If area-based rates are sampled across canopy layers, the area-based rate may be regressed against leaf mass per area to derive the slope (per mass rate) to extrapolate to the canopy using the total leaf mass. Wood CO2 efflux varied 1.0-1.6??mol?m(-2)?s(-1) for overstory trees and 0.6-0.9??mol?m(-2)?s(-1) for understory species. The variation in wood CO2 efflux rate was mostly related to wood size, and little to species, canopy layer or height. Mean wood CO2 efflux rate per surface area, derived by regressing CO2 efflux per mass against the ratio of surface area to mass, can be extrapolated to the stand using total wood surface area. The temperature response of foliar respiration was similar for three of the four species, and wood CO2 efflux was similar between wet and dry seasons. For these species and this forest, vertical sampling may yield more accurate estimates than would temporal sampling. PMID:25597756

  6. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries; Determinacao de cobre, cromo e arsenio em madeira preservada (Eucalyptus sp.) pelas espectrometrias de fluorescencia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias

    2014-07-01

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  7. The legacy of George L. Beckford’s plantation economy thesis in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Besson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Plantation Economy, Land Reform and the Peasantry in a Historical Perspective: Jamaica 1838-1980. CLAUS STOLBERG & SWITHIN WILMOT(eds.- Kingston: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 1992. 145 pp. (Paper n.p. This interdisciplinary collection focuses on the integration of Jamaica's classical plantation economy with the world economy, and the impact of the plantation economy on the peasantry, land reform, and agrarian modemization in Jamaica from emancipation in 1838 up to 1980. The eight papers comprising the volume were, as a one-page editorial "Introduction" outlines, presented at a symposium at the University of the West Indies, Mona, and are dedicated to the late Professor George Beckford whose work on persistent poverty in plantation economies championed the Jamaican peasantry. As such, the book is a welcome addition to the literature on the Caribbean plantation-peasant interface. However, the chapters are uneven in quality, with some reflecting analytical weaknesses and a lack of historical depth. Typographical errors, grammatical mistakes, and poor documentation are also noticeable. In addition, contrasting perspectives emerge among the contributors and this is not addressed by the editors.

  8. Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dzaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E. The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane plantations of the Niari valley amounts to 50 tons per hectare. This carbon sequestration presents important values ranging from 60 to 80 tons per hectare (p<0.05 during the first two years of the new sprout (R 570 and Co 997 and a more or less stationary level up to the tenth new sprout of sugar cane for the variety NCO 376. These results depend on the environment conditions, the burning of sugarcane fields before harvesting to facilitate the processing of sugarcanes and also the flexibility in terms of adaptability of the sugarcane varieties cultivated. The sugarcane plantations contribute a great deal in the struggle against climate changes and their use in terms of bio fuel.

  9. Monitoring expansion of plantations in Lao tropical forests using Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phompila, Chittana; Lewis, Megan; Clarke, Kenneth; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2014-11-01

    Clearing of native forest for plantation expansion is a significant component of land use change in many tropical regions. The continuing expansion of plantations has many environmental consequences, including the loss and fragmentation of habitat, alteration of nutrient cycling processes, reduction in environmentally sequestered carbon, increased soil erosion and land degradation, and loss of biodiversity. The primary goal of this research was to develop and test remote sensing methods to detect the expansion of plantations in the southern part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). We used Landsat satellite imagery acquired between 2003 and 2012. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to three Landsat temporal image pairs (2003-2006, 2006-2009 and 2009-2012) to identify areas of change. Change identification accuracy was evaluated by comparison against 1,240 random sample locations which had been independently classified from Google Earth imagery from 2006 and 2012. It was found that one of the principal components detected change in areas of plantation in the study area, with producer's accuracy of 92% and user's accuracy of 79%. This method was relatively easy to implement, involved no image purchase costs, and could be used by ecologists or forestry managers seeking to monitor forest loss or plantation expansion.

  10. Replacing rubber plantations by rain forest in Southwest China--who would gain and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlheim, Michael; Börger, Tobias; Frör, Oliver

    2015-02-01

    The cultivation of rubber trees in Xishuangbanna Prefecture in China's Yunnan Province has triggered an unprecedented economic development but it is also associated with severe environmental problems. Rubber plantations are encroaching the indigenous rain forests at a large scale and a high speed in Xishuangbanna. Many rare plant and animal species are endangered by this development, the natural water management is disturbed, and even the microclimate in this region has changed over the past years. The present study aims at an assessment of the environmental benefits accruing from a reforestation project partly reversing the deforestation that has taken place over the past years. To this end, a Contingent Valuation survey has been conducted in Xishuangbanna to elicit local residents' willingness to pay for this reforestation program that converts existing rubber plantations back into forest. It is shown that local people's awareness of the environmental problems caused by increasing rubber plantation is quite high and that in spite of the economic advantages of rubber plantation there is a positive willingness among the local population to contribute financially to a reduction of existing rubber plantations for the sake of a partial restoration of the local rain forest. These results could be used for the practical implementation of a Payments for Eco-System Services system for reforestation in Xishuangbanna. PMID:25604061

  11. Do Extensive Rubber Plantation Influences Local Environment? A Case Study From Tripura, Northeast India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Majumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tripura is the second largest Natural Rubber (NR producing state of India. As most of the NR plantation in the state is rain dependent, it is observed that fluctuation in monsoon poses a serious threat to plantation growth of NR crops. The effect of such shift and fluctuation in climate ranges from surface and ground water level variation, air quality and soil preservation. At present no assessment is available to critically review the impact of large scale NR plantation on environment. In the present paper the effect and impact of annual rainfall deficit, depleted ground water level, average local atmospheric temperature variation and rainfall ground water recharge on NR plantation is studied for the state of Tripura. Considering the large scale accelerated NR plantation in the state, an attempt has been made to figure out the consequences related to water management. The multidirectional environmental threat to the state comprising annual rainfall deficit of 23.3 %, depleted ground water level and significant rise in average atmospheric temperature may severely hit the production of NR in the region. Moreover, the estimated requirement of water to produce ribbed smokes sheet (RSS will may escalate to more than 152140 kiloliters in the next ten years. The predicted amount of wastewater generated (directly or indirectly in RSS collection and industry processing effluents may cause large environmental issue due to their open disposal in many cases. Hence, also claims a threat to the rubber production and growth of the sector.

  12. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral...Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood products which are permanently installed...

  13. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515 Section 178.515...178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction...

  14. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  15. Recycling of wood ash in Sweden - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses on the recycling of wood ash from large scale wood combustion back to the forest soil. The heavy metal content of wood ashes, its highly alkaline nature, and environmental effects of recycling the ash are discussed. (UK)

  16. 7 CFR 2902.42 - Wood and concrete sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Items § 2902.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition...formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from damage...resistant. (2) Wood and concrete sealers for which...

  17. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  18. Soil Erosion Protection Potential of Young Paulownia Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchich, Avgusta; Djodjov, Christo

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is removal of soil and rock particles by water, wind, ice and gravity. It is widely recognized as a global soil threat. Soils impacted by different forms of erosion cover large areas around the world. While landscape, soil and climate conditions trigger soil erosion processes, the vegetation cover reduces the soil erosion risk. About 60 % of the area of agricultural land in Bulgaria is under erosion risk, which necessitates implementation of series of measures for soil erosion control. The aim of this study is to determine the erosion protection potential and the loss of soil nutrients of young Paulownia plantation. Field experiments have been set up under unirrigated conditions at the experimental field for soil erosion studies of the N. Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnology and Plant Protection near Suhodol. The local soils are Chromic Luvisols, moderately eroded. The altitude is 750 m and the slope gradient is 80. The experiment consists of four field plots for soil erosion studies, three of which planted with Paulownia Bellissima and a reference one with bare soil. The plants have been planted at a distance of 2 m between adjacent rows and 1 m between each two plants within the row. The size of each field plot is 32 m2 (4 m width and 8 m length). The plots are equipped with containers for collecting the surface runoff caused by erosive rainfall events. Biometrics, including the root-striking of the plants, their growth in height, foliage cover (projection) and stem diameter, was studied from May 13th to October 21st. The data reported cover the results from the studies during the first vegetation period after planting in the Spring of 2013. During the year four erosive rainfalls were observed with a total amount of 79.2 mm, resulting to a total amount of soil loss of 772 kg/ha from a planted plot and 551 kg/ha from bear soil. The total surface runoff is 156.7 m3/ha from planted plot and 153.1 m3/ha from bare soil. The total losses of N-NO3- are 0.994 kg/ha from plated plots and 0.718 kg/ha from bare soils and the losses of N-NH4+ are respectively 0.042 and 0.117 kg/ha. The results from biometrics showed that 58 % of the plants were found to have stroken roots; an average growth of 0.3 m and a mean increase in the number of leaves with 3 were recorded. The results reported here show that the losses of soil and nutrients from the field plots planted with Paulownia Bellissima are about 40 % higher than these from the plot with bare soil. This discouraging result needs further experimental and theoretical analyses. The research throughout the following years will give further information about the soil erosion protection potential of young Paulownia plantation.

  19. Laser applications in wood processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broenstad, B. M.; Auman, N.; Toennessen, K.

    1993-08-01

    Lasers have been used for special woodprocessing purposes for more than twenty years. Besides dieboard manufacturing, which was one of the earliest applications, CO2 lasers are also used for different cutting, marking and engraving operations. High quality slots in varying depths are produced in wood and different plywood materials at high cutting speeds and with excellent accuracy. Decorative marking operations are performed by means of masking techniques, or by moving a defocused beam over the workpiece. Formerly collected and stored data is directly used for laser cutting of card-board and 3D map modeling. Examples of products are shown, processing data given and limitations discussed.

  20. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Villani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  1. Gascoigne Wood - eagle or albatross?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoy, H.D.; Lowery, P.A. [RJB Mining (United Kingdom) Limited (United Kingdom). Gascoigne Wood Mine

    1995-11-01

    This paper reviews the history of Gascoigne Wood coal receiving and dispatch centre from conception through to the present. The design and development of the infrastructure is described with particular reference to the spine tunnels, major engineering installations and the system modifications undertaken to maintain a marketable product. Performance parameters are examined and a comparison made of the attributable and surface costs of a Selby Complex Mine with a similar size individual colliery. Finally, the changes envisaged in the future are discussed. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Reported costs for most aspects had a wide range. Currently, yields of 10-15 dry Mg/hectare/y are readily achievable. Using the cost and yield data, and assuming a biomass price of $40/dry Mg, a series of cash flow analyses were performed. For the low cost inputs, all scenarios were marginally profitable. For the high cost inputs, none of the scenarios were profitable. A current scenario, using figures for contract farming, was not profitable, however this system would break even with a yield of 23.3 dry Mg/hectare/y, within the range of some production clones. A future scenario using farm labour with increased productivity, product values, and machinery efficiencies yielded a profit-making situation. The addition of incentives increased profitability. There is great potential for the production of woody biomass in Canada as a feedstock for energy and other products. Continued and more intensive breeding and selection to develop high yielding stress tolerant clones, cost efficient harvesting systems, continued research into optimization of planting density, rotation length and cultural techniques, and characterization of promising clones with respect to nutrient-use efficiency, site requirements and pest/disease resistance are important areas for further work. 81 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  3. Global options for biofuels from plantations according to IMAGE simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the contribution of biofuels to the renewable energy supply and the transition towards it are discussed for the energy crops miscanthus, eucalyptus, poplar, wheat and sugar cane. Bio-electricity appears to be the most suitable option regarding energetic and financial aspects and in terms of avoided CO2 emissions. The IMAGE 2.0 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system, and mainly used here for making more realistic estimates. Dynamic calculations are performed to the year 2100. An IMAGE 2.0-based Conventional Wisdom scenario simulates, among other things, future energy demand and supply, future food production, future land cover patterns and future greenhouse gas emissions. Two biofuel scenarios are described in this report. The first consists of growing energy crops on set asides. According to a 'Conventional Wisdom' scenario, Canada, the U.S. and Europe and to a lesser extent Latin America will experience set asides due to a declining demand in agricultural area. The second biofuel scenario consists of growing energy crops on set asides and on 10% of the agricultural area in the developing countries. Growing energy crops on all of the areas listed above leads to an energy production that consists of about 12% of the total non-renewable energy use in 2050, according to the 'Conventional Wisdom' scenario. Furthermore, the energy related CO2 emissions are reduced with about 15% in 2050, compared to the Conventional Wisdom scenario. Financial aspects will have great influence on the success of growing energy crops. However, energy generated from biomass derived from plantations is currently more expensive than generating it from traditional fuels. Levying taxes on CO2 emissions and giving subsidies to biofuels will reduce the cost price difference between fossil fuels and biofuels

  4. IR absorption spectra of cellulose obtained from ozonated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Autlov, S. A.; Kharlanov, A. N.; Bazarnova, N. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic curves of ozone absorption by aspen wood were obtained. Processing of wood with peracetic acid gave cellulose samples. The yields of ozonated wood, water-soluble compounds, and cellulose were determined for the samples corresponding to different consumptions of ozone. The IR absorption spectra of wood and cellulose isolated from ozonated wood were analyzed. The supramolecular structure of cellulose can be changed by varying the conditions of wood ozonation.

  5. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD POLYACRYLONITRILE COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abid Ali; Dr .K.N.S Suman; Dr. V.V.S. Kesava Rao

    2011-01-01

    Wood polyacrolonitrile composite (WPC) from neem ,mango andcork wood was synthesized. The process was carried out through benzoyl peroxide(0.05mol/l)catalyzed impregnation polymerization of acrylonitrile,4mol/l,6mol/l into cork woodand mango wood in benzene medium at 75+-10c.The properties of WPCs over untreated woods were evaluated in terms of compressive test ,hardness of wood were improvedwith impregnation of polyacrylonitrile .Impregnation of polyacyrlonitrile (PAN) into neem wood,mango ...

  6. A Study of the Ultrastructure and Chemistry of Beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) Normal Wood Rays and Tension Wood Rays

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A thesis written about Beech tree wood rays. Tension wood and normal wood rays of American Beech Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. were examined by microscopy and chemical...

  7. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD POLYACRYLONITRILE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abid Ali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood polyacrolonitrile composite (WPC from neem ,mango andcork wood was synthesized. The process was carried out through benzoyl peroxide(0.05mol/lcatalyzed impregnation polymerization of acrylonitrile,4mol/l,6mol/l into cork woodand mango wood in benzene medium at 75+-10c.The properties of WPCs over untreated woods were evaluated in terms of compressive test ,hardness of wood were improvedwith impregnation of polyacrylonitrile .Impregnation of polyacyrlonitrile (PAN into neem wood,mango wood and cork woods were was confirmed through scanning electron microscope.

  8. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  9. On Erd?s–Wood’s conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Subburam; R Thangadurai

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we prove that infinite number of integers satsify Erd?s–Woods conjecture. Moreover, it follows that the number of natural numbers $\\leq x$ satisfies Erd?s–Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2.

  10. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - < #2...

  11. The automation of wood-cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, David

    2004-01-01

    Simon Schaffer explores the development of specific wood-cutting engines, run by steam. These allowed precision cutting and the mass production of standardised blocks. Prior to this development, wood-cutting was done with labour intensive pit saws, which were also inexact.

  12. Wood Variety Recognition on Mobile Devices.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Pavel; Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 2013, ?. 93 (2013), s. 52-52. ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA102/08/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : wood recognition * Markov random fields Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/vacha-wood variety recognition on mobile devices.pdf

  13. NeighbourWoods for Better Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis; Schipperijn, Jasper Jan

    2004-01-01

    This publication aims to contribute to the development af NeighbourWoods through socially-inclusive planning, design and management. It presents experiences from an international project supported by the European Commission which evaluated and developed approaches and tools to assist NeighbourWood planners, designers, and managers.

  14. Short communication. Restoring mono culture plantation using stand spatial structure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, G.; Ding, G.; Wang, H.; Zang, Y.; Liang, W.; An, Y.; He, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: To improve the quality of mono culture plantations in China. Area of study: Structure-based forest management was conducted in Rocky Mountain Area of Northern China. Material and methods: Stand spatial structure indicators of mingling degree, uniform angle index, neighborhood comparison and opening degree were comparably investigated to understand the changes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantations. Main results: The results indicated that structure-based forest management accounted for 0.403 and 0.448 of the significant variations in mingling degree and opening degree increments, and had no essential changes in uniform angle index and neighborhood comparison. Structure-based forest management is greatly beneficial to plantation quality, and it can be a source of improvement on stand structure. Research highlights: This improved information is essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on how best to restore degraded forests in China as well as the rest of the world. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. Contribution of a mixed forest plantation to avifauna conservation at Rio Cauca canyon, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The avifauna of a forest mixed plantation at Cauca river canyon in Caldas department; was monitored during 10 months. Fifty nine understory resident species were captured,10% of them presented high sensibility to habitat perturbation (forest specialists). Only those species with low sensibility (generalists) presented differences between monthly numbers of captures. Other 50 species associated to the plantation, including two endemic and 26% boreal migratory species were registered visually and/or by its vocalizations. The results suggest that this plantation plays a key role in the conservation of local avifauna, is habitat both for species associated with natural forests and for those with less habitat requirements. This type of reforestation with native species could be a restoration model for other degraded areas from the region.

  16. Wood fuel utilization in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About a quarter of California's primary energy consumption is used to produce electricity. At present more than 900 MW, representing 4-5 % of the total electric power, is currently generated with fuels derived from wood or agricultural residues. This represents an order of magnitudes increase in the use of these biomass fuels over a period of a decade. The increase are results of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978, as implemented in California. Prior to PURPA, most wood fuel was used by the forest products industry to generate process steam in low pressure boilers, although some of the larger facilities cogenerated electricity for internal use. PURPA required utilities to purchase power from small alternative producers at full incremental avoided costs. In 1983, the California Public Utilities Commission adopted an option, which provided long-term fixed prices for electricity. These prices, although 10-15 % lower than the avoided costs at the time, were in retrospect very favourable. Many small producers signed contracts, with the result that the additional capacity exceeded what the utilities could use. Facilities permitted under this offer had five years to complete construction. Due to the drop in avoided costs of the utilities and high current costs for biomass fuels, no new plants are expected for many years

  17. Are pine plantations valid tools for restoring Mediterranean forests? An assessment along gradients of climatic conditions, stand density and distance to seed sources

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Aparicio, Lorena; Zavala, Miguel A.; Bonet, Francisco J.; Zamora Rodríguez, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The ecological impacts of forest plantations are a focus of intense debate, from studies that consider plantations as "biological deserts" to studies showing positive effects on plant diversity and dynamics. This lack of consensus might be influenced by the scarcity of studies that examine how the ecological characteristics of plantations vary along abiotic and biotic gradients. Here we conducted a large-scale assessment of plant regeneration and diversity in plantations of sou...

  18. Occurrence of Platypus mutatus Chapuis (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) in a brazilwood experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil / Ocorrência de Platypus mutatus Chapuis (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) em um bosque experimental no sudeste do Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graziele S., Girardi; Rosana A., Giménez; Márcia R., Braga.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O cerne da madeira de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil, Pernambuco, ibirapitanga) é considerado o material mais adequado para a construção de arcos de violinos devido às suas propriedades vibracionais e a estabilidade. Embora a madeira dessa leguminosa seja resistente à deterioração causada por [...] fungos apodrecedores e cupins, um bosque experimental de pau-brasil no Sudeste do Brasil vem sendo atacado pelo besouro de ambrosia Platypus mutatus Chapuis (= Megaplatypus mutatus e P. sulcatus). Esse coleóptero invadiu cerca de 3% das árvores, principalmente na região central do bosque. A infestação por larvas e insetos adultos foi maior durante a estação seca (inverno) quando comparada ao período chuvoso (primavera e verão). Abstract in english The hardwood of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood, Pernambuco, ibirapitanga) is currently the most profitable material used for violin bow due to the unique vibrational properties and dimensional stability. Although this species is resistant to the wood decay caused by termites and rot fungi, an [...] experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil has been attacked by the ambrosia beetle Platypus mutatus Chapuis (= Megaplatypus mutatus and P. sulcatus). This species invaded ca. 3% of the individuals, mainly in the central part of the plantation. Infestation by larvae and adults was higher during the dry season (winter) when compared to the rainy period (spring and summer).

  19. Dimensional stability of heat treated wood floorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Živkovi?

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat treated wood (HTW is successfully applied for floorings due to its better moisture resistance, increased dimensional stability, and uniform colour change to darker, brownish colours. The aim of this work was to define the hygroscopic range and equilibrium moisture content at ambient conditions of heat treated wood of two wood species – ash and beech. Material was treated at two temperature levels, 190 and 210 °C, and the properties were compared with native wood. The reduction in dimensional changes is expressed by volumetric shrinking and Anti Shrink Efficiency (ASE. Additionally, parquet elements were made out of such HTW, oil-impregnated and waxed, and subsequently tested for water vapour and liquid water permeability. Shrinking gradients of HTW were not reduced in comparison with native beech wood, but the absolute reduction in water uptake resulted in cca 50 % lower EMC values and up to cca 60 % improved ASE values. Surface treatment further improved the hygroscopic properties of HTW.

  20. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)