WorldWideScience

Sample records for lanceolata plantation wood

  1. Natural Resistance of Two Plantation Woods Populus × canadensis cv. and Cunninghamia lanceolata to Decay Fungi and Termites

    Xing Jia-qi; Momohara Ikuo; Ohmura Wakako

    2005-01-01

    Natural durability of two plantation woods, Chinese fir and I-214 poplar, was investigated thoroughly by three testing methods, namely an accelerated laboratory decay test, a fungus cellar test and a field test. Aft er the decay test using Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor, Chinese fir and the I-214 poplar showed 34% and 69% of mass loss, respectively, indicating they should be classified as slightly durable and non-durable wood. This conclusion was confirmed by the fungus cellar test and the field test. Like the performance in the decay test, I-214 poplar showed no resistance to termites either in the laboratory or in the field,whereas Chinese fir would be classified as moderately resistant.

  2. Study on Cultivation Nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations with Multi-generation Management

    2003-01-01

    Based on the previous study on cultivation nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations of first generation, the cultivation nutrition of C. lanceolata plantations with multi-generation was studied. The results show that there are significant differences in the growth, development and nutrient assimilation among C. lanceolata plantations with different generations and nutrition conditions. These differences are closely related to the land fertility decline of C. lanceolata plantations. This paper de...

  3. Chemical composition of decomposing stumps in successive rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations

    HUANG Zhiqun; XU Zhihong; BOYD Sue; WILLIAMS David

    2005-01-01

    Decomposition of stumps in successive rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations was studied using a chronosequence approach. The results showed that decomposition rate constant of Chinese fir stump was 0.02695 as calculated from Olson's model. The N content of stump increased during the first two-year decomposition. When the dead stump C/N ratio was 463.2 ± 27.3, the stumps started to release N. The pattern of P release was similar to that for N. However, K content of stumps showed a consistent declining trend over time during the whole decomposition. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with cross polarization and magic-angle spinning (13C CPMAS-NMR) was used to analyse organic carbon (C) components in decomposing stumps. The 13C CPMAS-NMR spectra of stumps displayed that stump was dominated by cellulose and hemicellulose. The spectra also showed the accumulation of intensity in alkyl C, aromatic C, and carboxyl C spectral regions, which was expected as the labile cellulose and hemicellulose components in O-alkyl C spectral region were selectively decomposed first.

  4. Structure and characterization of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood/MMT intercalation nanocomposite (WMNC)

    Wenhua Lü; Guangjie ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    With water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin as an intermediate,Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood/montmorillonite nanocomposite (WMNC) was prepared through vacuum impregnation and character-ized with XRD, SEM, FTIR and TG-DTA analyses. The XRD analysis indicated that the wood crystallinity of WMNC decreased, the MMT exfoliated and some nano silicate layers entered into the non-crystallized micro-fibrillar region of the wood cell wall. Wood structure is anisotropic and its impregnation is anisotropic. Due to the nonuniformity of the MMT organic modification, PF intercalation and wood impregnation, the MMT config-uration and distribution in wood were diverse. The SEM graphs of WMNC showed that some silicate grains were blocked in the wood cell lumen,some silicate layers adhered to the inner surface of the wood cell wall, and some exfoliated MMT layers even penetrated the wood cell wall. The obtained hydroxyl of WMNC increased and its ether linking decreased. It was considered that MMT and wood interacted not only with hydroxyl bonds,but also involved some chemical linking.Compared with untreated wood and the PF-impreg, the pyrolysis process of WMNC changed; its starting decomposing temperature decreased and its pyrolysis weight loss at high temperatures greatly decreased. The WMNC indicated certain nanoeffects of the composition of the inorganic MMT nanolamellae.

  5. The Influence of S_2 Microfibril Angle on Longitudinal and Tangential Shrinkage in China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Plantation

    2002-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to investigate the variation of microfibril angle (Mfa), tracheid morphology and shrinkage within China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation tree. The second objective was to discuss the relationship between Mfa and tracheid morphology, and the influence of Mfa on longitudinal and tangential shrinkage. The results showed that the mean value of Mfa decreased from the 2nd (30.8°) to 26th growth ring (7.7°); the radial variation of latewood tracheid length ranged f...

  6. Plantation Forests for Sustainable Wood Supply and Development in China

    2003-01-01

    With the implementation of Natural Forests Protection Program, wood resource base in China is shifting from naturally grown forests to plantation forests. This paper reviews: 1) The evolution of Chinese decade-long reforestation program and its contribution to sustainable wood supply and development, and 2) impacts of "China's Natural Forest Protection Program and " Fast-Growing and High-Yield Plantation Program in China " on China's wood supply and sustainability. In addition, this paper highlights Chi...

  7. [Comparison on concentrations and quality of dissolved organic matter in throughfall and stemflow in a secondary forest of Castanopsis carlesii and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    Lü, Mao-Kui; Xie, Jin-Sheng; Jiang, Miao-Hua; Luo, Shui-Jin; Zeng, Shao-Juan; Ji, Shu-Rong; Wan, Jing-Juan; Yang, Yu-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, monthly variation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations as well as humification and aromaticity indices in throughfall and stemflow from secondary broadleaved Castanopsis carlesii (BF) forest and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation (CP) were measured. The DOC concentrations in throughfall were significantly higher with greater variation in BF than in CP. The concentrations of DOC in throughfall were averagely 7.2 and 3.2 times of those in rainfall in BF and CP forests, respectively. The DOC concentrations of stemflow in CP were averagely 2.5 times as much as those in BF, and the DOC concentrations in stemflow tended to be greater in dry season than in rain season for the two forests. A significantly negative relationship was' found between the DOC concentrations in stemflow and the amounts of stemflow for both BF and CP. Moreover, the humification and aromaticity indices of DOM in throughfall in BF was significantly greater than in CP. In contrast, the humification and aromaticity indices of DOM from stemflow of CP were significantly greater than those of BF. This result indicated that the structure of DOM from throughfall was more complex in BF than in CP, and the structure of DOM from stemflow was vice versa. These results indicated that DOM in stemflow and throughfall showed significant variations in quantity and quality between BF and CP and may greatly impact the accumulation of soil organic carbon. PMID:25509068

  8. Study on Drying Characteristic of Chinese Fir and Poplar Plantation Wood

    ZHOUYongdong; LIXiaoling

    2004-01-01

    The drying characteristic was studied for plantation wood of Chinese fir and poplar, which are typical plantation wood of southern and northern part of China, respectively. Through lO0-degree-method the drying characteristic and basic drying condition were gotten, then drying schedule was developed for practical drying, the results showed that the drying schedule is suitable for Chinese fir and poplar plantation lumber, but shrinkage is large. The recommendation was made that enough dead weight is needed to decrease shrinkage in drying process. The drying quality of the two species of lumber is good in conventional drying method.

  9. Energy capacity of black wattle wood and bark in different spacing plantations

    Elder Eloy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the energetic description of wood and bark biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in two spacing plantations: 2.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.0 m and 1.5 m, during 36 months after the planting. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Frederico Westphalen, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Biomass (BIO, calorific value, basic density, ash content, volatile matter and fixed carbon content and energy density (ED of wood and bark were determined. The smallest spacing plantation presented the highest production per unit area of BIO and ED of wood and bark.

  10. Silviculture conditions and wood properties of Samanea saman and Enterolobium cyclocarpum in 19-year-old mixed plantations

    M.F. Obando

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objective of this work is to examine wood properties of a mixed plantation of Samanea saman and Enterolobium cyclocarpum, combined with native species of Costa Rica.Area of study: Mixed plantation in dry tropical zone of Costa Rica.Material and Methods: It was measured by total diameter, heartwood, bark thickness, several physical wood properties (green density, specific gravity, volumetric, tangential and radial shrinkage and moisture content and wood color.Main results: The largest of this diameter are reached when S. saman is planted with E. cyclocarpum, E. cyclocarpum and Swietenia macrophylla and Simarouba glauca. Meanwhile the largest total diameter and heartwood in E. cyclocarpum was found when this species is planted with Dalbergia retusa. Heartwood percentage, bark percentage, and some physical properties are not affected when S. saman or E. cyclocarpum are planted with other species. However, parameters of wood color were affected mixture plantation of S. saman or E. cyclocarpum with other species. The lowest difference between wood from mixed plantations and wood from trees growing in native forests is produced when S. saman is mixed with E. cyclocarpum, but this last species is mixed with Hymenaea courbaril and produced wood with the lowest difference in wood color compared to trees growing in the natural forest.Research highlights: S. saman and E. cyclocarpum tress planted in a mixed plantation produce variation in breast diameter, physical properties, heartwood percentage and wood color.Keywords: silvicultural condition; wood properties; tropical species; plantation species.

  11. Review of wood fuel from precommercial thinning and plantation clearing in Canada

    Precommercial thinning and plantation cleaning offer opportunities for increasing the availability of wood fuel in Canada. In 1992, approximately 130 000 ha were treated with precommercial thinning or stand cleaning. Manual methods predominate in these silvicultural activities; however, at stand densities greater than 10 000 - 15 000 stems/ha, mechanized systems are more economical. Recovering this biomass for wood fuel would require changes to silvicultural systems and harvesting technology

  12. Wood ash effects on C and N dynamics of a soil from a Pinus pinaster plantation

    Gómez-Rey, Maria Xesus; Madeira, Manuel; Coutinho, João; Vasconcelos, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    Effects of wood ash (loose and pelleted) on chemical properties and microbial activity in an Arenosol from a Pinus pinaster plantation were assessed through laboratory incubation. Wood ash was applied at a rate of 0, 4 and 8 g kg-1 soil both alone or together with N. Loose ash significantly increased pH values and extractable nutrients from the soil. Net nitrification was stimulated by it application. Amounts of microbial biomass C were lower in soils with loose ash than in the control. Basal...

  13. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AMONG WOOD PROPERTIES AND GROWTH IN WILD CHERRY PLANTATIONS

    Michela Nocetti,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the major users of cherry wood (Prunus avium L., and its cultivation has been increasing since the early nineties, together with studies aimed at improving genotypes, with a selection usually based on growth, stem form, vigor, and tree adaptation. Here, the phenotypic correlations between growth rate and the physical and mechanical properties of wood are investigated in two wild cherry plantations. X-ray microdensitometry was also applied to analyze the age-age correlations of wood density. It was shown that growth rate did not affect wood properties, and density was confirmed to be the trait that best represents the main properties of wood. The absence of relationships between wood density and growth rate was confirmed by densitometric analysis, although an increase of wood density with an increase of ring width was detected for very narrow rings (less than 3 mm wide. The average density at age 7 to 8 was observed to be highly correlated (r > 0.90 to the average density of a 19-year-old tree, allowing reliable estimation of the wood properties of older trees by early investigation of young trees.

  14. Wood-polymer composites from Philippine tree plantation species by radiation polymerization I. Uptake and irradiation parameters

    Radiation catalyzed polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in various Philippine tree plantation species were investigated. Wood samples measuring 1x6cm were impregnated with monomer at reduced pressure and gamma irradiated for various doses at a dose rate of 0.53 kGy/h. The parameters used to assess the polymerization reaction were the uptake of monomer by the wood samples, monomer conversion, and polymer loading in the irradiated samples. The uptake and polymerization data indicate that coconut wood, rubber wood, bagras, and Moluccan sau could be potential raw materials for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPC). (author). 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. Summary of an international review

    This paper summaries the results of an international of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. The economic and biological benefits from early thinning have been well documented. However, removing forest biomass during early stages of stand development from sites which are low in one or more nutrients may contribute a loss of nutrients and organic matter. Depending on the pre-thinning density and the thinning intensity, the potential yield of wood fuel from early thinning may be as much as 79 dry tons per hectare. Thus, wood fuel from the thinnings could be an important source of revenue to forest owners and would contribute to domestic energy requirements. Motor-manual felling predominates in early thinning, mainly due to the lack of appropriate technology for thinning small trees. However, the productivity of motor-manual felling is greatly affected by the initial stand density and declines dramatically at densities greater than 10 000 stems per ha. Under these conditions, purpose-built wood fuel harvesters with small-tree harvesting capability offer the greatest potential for increasing felling productivity and reducing the cost of wood fuel. The cost of wood fuel from early thinnings varies widely between countries from USD 25.00 - 87.50 per dry ton depending on stand conditions, harvesting system, transport distance, domestic tax rates, and stumpage prices. At the low end of this range, wood fuel chips from early thinning are competitive with wood fuel produced from mill waste, the residues from clearfell operations, or from later thinnings

  16. Drying Characteristics and Drying Schedules of Tropical Plantation Wood in China

    2011-01-01

    Drying characteristics of 5 species of tropical plantation wood were studied by the100℃-test method. The results showed that almost every sample had some light end checks and thesamples of Eucalyptus citriodora and E. exserta were severer than the others in the end check.E. grandis × E. urophylla and Acacia mangium were the severest in internal checks, followed byE. grandis, E. exserta and E. citriodora. And E. grandis and E. grandis × E. urophylla were theseverest in cross-section deformation, followed by ...

  17. 电阻应变法测定杉木弹性常数的研究%Study on Determining the Elastic Constants of Wood of Cunninghamia lanceolata by Means of Electric Resistance-Strain Gauges

    邵卓平; 祝山

    2001-01-01

    The elastic constants of wood of Cunninghamia lanceolata was determined and the limits of orthotropic model adopted for wood was studied. The results showed that the elastic constants of wood could be determined by means of electric resistance-strain gauges,and the constants was satisfied to the limits of orthotropic.%测试杉木的弹性常数,研究木材采用正交各向异性体模型的限制条件。结果表明,可以采用电阻应变法以单轴压缩试件测定木材弹性常数;所测木材弹性常数满足正交各向异性材料的限制条件。

  18. Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of plantation Acacia mangium wood.

    Pinto, Paula C; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Pascoal Neto, Carlos

    2005-10-01

    The wood of Acacia mangium, a prominent fast-growing plantation species used in the pulp-and-paper industry and, so far, poorly investigated for its chemical structure, was submitted to a detailed characterization of its main macromolecular components. Lignin (28% wood weight) isolated by mild acidolysis and characterized by permanganate oxidation, 1H and 13C NMR, and GPC, showed a very low content of syringylpropane-derived units (S:G:H of 48:49:3), a high degree of condensation, a low content of beta-O-4 ( approximately 0.40-0.43 per C6) structures, and a Mw of 2230. Glucuronoxylan (14% wood weight) isolated by alkaline (KOH) or by dimethyl sulfoxide extraction was characterized by methylation analysis, 1H NMR, and GPC. About 10% of the xylopyranose (Xylp) units constituting the linear backbone were substituted at O-2 with 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues. Almost half of the Xylp units (45%) were O-2 (18%), O-3 (24%) or O-2,3 (3%) acetylated. X-ray diffraction analysis of cellulose (46% wood weight), isolated according to the Kürschner-Hoffer method, showed a degree of crystallinity of 67.6%. PMID:16190642

  19. 杉木人工纯林与混交林下几种土壤养分对比及与生长的关系%Comparison of several soil nutritions in pure Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations and mixed forests, and relationship between nutrition and growth factors

    衣晓丹; 王新杰

    2013-01-01

    After comparing the soil nutritions in pure Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations and mixed forests of C. lanceolata and Pinus massoniana, Phyllostachys heterocycla, Michelia macclurel, Schima superba and Vernicia fordii, the correlation analysis on soil nutrition content and C. lanceolata growth factor was conducted. The results are as followings: (1) The nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter contents raised and the soil pH decreased in mixed forests of C. lanceolata and Pinus massoniana; the nitrogen and potassium contents increased in mixed forests of C. lanceolata and P. heterocycla; the nitrogen and organic matter contents increased and the soil pH decreased in mixed forests of C. lanceolata and V. fordii; the soil pH raised in mixed forests of C. lanceolata and S. superba. (2) There were significantly influences of soil pH, organic contents on DBH, height of C. lanceolata. And there was a significantly influence of nitrogen content on height of C. lanceolata. The stimulative influences of five forest stand types on growth factors of C. lanceolata ordered from high to low as following: P. massoniana > V. fordii > P. heterocycla> M. macclurel. And the mixed forests of C. lanceolata and S. superba can't improve the growth of C. lanceolata.%对杉木纯林以及杉木分别与马尾松、毛竹、火力楠、木荷、油桐构成的混交林下的土壤养分进行了对比,并对土壤养分和杉木生长因子进行相关分析.结果表明:(1)杉木马尾松混交林可以提高土壤中氮素、磷素和有机质含量,降低土壤pH;杉木毛竹混交林可以提高土壤中的氮素和钾含量;杉木油桐混交林可以提高土壤氮素和有机质含量,降低土壤pH;杉木木荷混交林可以提高土壤pH.(2)土壤pH和有机质含量对杉木的胸径和树高影响显著,全氮含量对杉木树高影响显著,五种混交林分类型对于杉木生长因子的提高程度从高到低依次为杉×马>杉×油>杉×毛>杉×

  20. Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus

    Mehari, A.

    1997-11-01

    This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

  1. Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash

    Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha-1 (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem-soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed

  2. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette; Pedersen, Lars Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to export of nutrients from the forest. Recirculation of nutrients from wood chip combustion by ash spreading in forests has been proposed as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine the effect of...... wood chip ash application on soil chemistry in a 44-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation on a nutrient-poor soil in Denmark and to investigate the effect of applying different ash types and doses. Soil samples were collected and analyzed 2.5years (3 growing seasons) after ash application....... This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an...

  3. CONTROL PROCEDURES OF VOLUME OF ESTIMATED AND HARVESTED WOOD IN A PLANTATION OF Pinus spp. IN PARANÁ STATE

    Silvane Vatraz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814585The objective of this research was to improve the operating procedures of control of the volume of timber estimated by the forest inventory and the effectively harvested volume in order to reduce inconsistencies in the forest planning practiced in a forestry plantation of Pinus spp. in Paraná state. Accordingly, we used the tools of quality: storming and PDCA Cycle through an exploratory research project to study together. The study showed an inconsistency initial volume – 24,73% of the volume estimated by the inventory and the effectively harvested wood. This inconsistency was composed of operational failures in the activities of Forest Inventory (+13,84%, Forest Harvesting (+15,62% and Expedition Wood (-3,08%. The application of quality tools helped in the identification of inconsistency, as well as the revelation of operational failures, which suggested some routine monitoring and checking each of the activities involved in managing operational forestry.  

  4. Relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab system and extractive and phenol content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from fast-growth plantations.

    Moya, Róger; Soto Fallas, Roy; Jiménez Bonilla, Pablo; Tenorio, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b*) of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*. PMID:22450677

  5. Relationship Between Wood Color Parameters Measured by the CIELab System and Extractive and Phenol Content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from Fast-Growth Plantations

    Carolina Tenorio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b* of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

  6. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the method of pay back period

    Keča Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar plantations are a category of fixed assets in forestry, i.e. the assets with a biological character. They are related to their site, they are cultivated for a relatively long time and they have a relatively long utilization cycle, with the yield development determined by the plantation growth and age. Plantations transfer their value gradually to the obtained products during the period of their harvesting, and, by the realization of the products, the means invested in the plantation establishment are reproduced. The period of investments in poplar growing can be relatively long, and so is the period of harvesting. Therefore, it is important to determine the time of the return of the capital invested in these and similar plantations. This paper presents the analysis of commercial profitability of poplar cultivation according to the indicator for the assessment of projects in agriculture and forestry - pay back period. The application of pay back period (PBP calculation can affect greatly the reliability of predicting the degree of economic effectiveness of investments, and also the potential risks for the investor in his decisions on the investments in poplar cultivation. The analysis of poplar clone I-214 plantations was carried out in the area of Ravni Srem, under different rotations and soil types. Based on the analysis of costs and receipts in different plantation ages, and using the method of pay back period, the objective of the study was to evaluate the possible pay back period of invested capital in wood production in poplar plantations. PBP is practically unacceptable by the investor under the discount rate of 6%. The most favorable situation is in the youngest stands, using the discount rate of 2%. The situation regarding the pay back period in the over-aged stands is utterly unfavorable, so the credit cannot be repaid under any conditions. This fact supports the idea that the production cycle length should be shortened.

  7. Study on Chemical Components of Alkaline Nitrobenzene Oxidation from Plantation Woods

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the chemical components and the chemical structure of lignin of Chinese fir and Poplar I-214 from plantationforest. The results revealed that the contents ofchemical component in heart wood and sapwood were almost the same except ethanol-benzene extract both in Chinese fir and in Poplar I-214, The contents of ash, holocellulose, α -cellulose, pentosan, ethanol-benzene extract and cold-water extract in Poplar I-214 were higher than that in Chinesefir, The content of lignin in Poplar...

  8. Variation Within Trees of Wood Anatomical Properties in Chinese-Fir Plantation and Their Relationship Modeling Equations

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis on the variation pattern of early- and latewood tracheid morphological parameters along tree (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) height, including length and width, wall thickness, tissue proportion, cell wall percentage, width of growth rings, and on the relationship among them are conducted. The results indicate an initially rapid and then gentle increase of tracheid length and width, thickness of the radial wall and tangential wall of tracheid, area percentage of tracheid from pi...

  9. Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area

  10. High Risk Posture on Motor-Manual Short Wood Logging System in Acacia mangium Plantation

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor-manual logging has been considered as the most dominant logging system in Java Island, Indonesia. The system-which consisted of felling, delimbing, bucking, hauling, and transporting activities- involves a combination of stress factors e.q. difficult work postures, generation of force, and lifting techniques. In the other hand, combination of the three is well associated with high risk of work-related musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs, including musculoskeletal disorders. This research aimed to assess difficult work posture on felling, delimbing, bucking, and manually short wood hauling by employing rapid entire body assessment (REBA technique and muscular pain scoring based on the worker's perceive. It was revealed that felling and manual hauling were scored 4 in the REBA action level, indicated very high MSIs risk level, and categorized as “necessary now” for an injury risk preventive action. The workers' pain scoring indicated that low back (spine in general disorders resulting in low back pain has been considered to be the one of the leading safety issues in the felling and manual hauling. Regardless to complex mechanism of how the personal risk and environmental factors associated with manual material handling injuries, job-related factors approach should be underlined in the MSIs prevention initiative in motor-manual logging. Keywords: motor-manual logging, difficult work posture, REBA, MSIs, low back pain

  11. Wood

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood is a...... renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood...... has shrinked by 30% since the preindustrial times and in countries like China (with a historic tradition for wooden architecture) we could observe enormous desertification. What does this mean for the use of wood in modern architecture ? A critical reflection is needed. In too many cases...

  12. 杉木人工林林窗特征因子与闽楠幼林生长关系的研究%Research on the Relationship Between Gap Characteristics of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations and the Growth of Gap Regeneration Phoebe bournei Seedlings

    欧建德

    2014-01-01

    16 canopy gaps in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations forest and preserving rate,ground diameter, and tree height of 3-year old Phoebe bournei.plantation in mingxi,Fujian Province was investigated,and analyzed the effects of gap characteristics on planting regeration.The results showed that,in the order of affect on preserva-tion rate and height growth of P.bournei.seedlings,the order of gap characteristics factors was canopy openness>gaps minor axis>gaps long axis >gap size.In order of affect on seedlings ground diameter,it was canopy open-ness>gaps minor axis>gap size >gaps long axis.There was a significant downward opening quadric parabolic relationship between canopy openness,gaps minor axis,gaps long axis,gap size and seedlings preservation rate, height,ground diameter.Comprehensive preservation rate,tree height and diameter growth performance,ideal gaps minor axis was range of 5.10 -6.26 m,reasonable ranges was of 1.23-10.13 m.Ideal gaps long axis was range of 7.37 -7.88 m,reasonable was range of 3.44 -11.81 m.Ideal gap size was range of 15.0 -35.6 m2, reasonable was range of 0 -88.38 m2.Ideal canopy openness was range of 0.429-0.507,reasonable was range of 0.160-0.776.%通过对福建明溪杉木人工林中16个林冠的林窗长轴和短轴及人工植苗3年生闽楠的保存率、地径和树高进行调查,分析林窗特征对闽楠植苗更新的影响。结果表明,影响闽楠幼林保存率和树高的林窗特征因子的主次排序为开阔度>短轴>长轴>面积;影响闽楠地径生长因子的主次顺序为开敝度>短轴>面积>长轴。林窗短轴、长轴、面积与开阔度等林窗特征因子与闽楠保存率、树高与地径生长均存在显著性的开口向下的二次抛物线方程的线性关系。综合闽楠幼林保存率、树高和地径生长表现,林窗短轴的理想的取值范围为5.10~6.26 m,合理取值范围为1.23~10.13 m;林窗长轴的理想的取值范围为7.37~7.88 m

  13. 杉木人工林林窗特征因子与闽楠幼林生长关系的研究%Research on the Relationship Between Gap Characteristics of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations and the Growth of Gap Regeneration Phoebe bournei Seedlings

    欧建德

    2014-01-01

    通过对福建明溪杉木人工林中16个林冠的林窗长轴和短轴及人工植苗3年生闽楠的保存率、地径和树高进行调查,分析林窗特征对闽楠植苗更新的影响。结果表明,影响闽楠幼林保存率和树高的林窗特征因子的主次排序为开阔度>短轴>长轴>面积;影响闽楠地径生长因子的主次顺序为开敝度>短轴>面积>长轴。林窗短轴、长轴、面积与开阔度等林窗特征因子与闽楠保存率、树高与地径生长均存在显著性的开口向下的二次抛物线方程的线性关系。综合闽楠幼林保存率、树高和地径生长表现,林窗短轴的理想的取值范围为5.10~6.26 m,合理取值范围为1.23~10.13 m;林窗长轴的理想的取值范围为7.37~7.88 m,合理取值范围为3.44~11.81 m;林窗面积的理想的取值范围为15.0~35.6 m2,合理取值范围为0~88.38 m2;林窗开阔度的理想的取值范围为0.429~0.507,合理取值范围为0.160~0.776。%16 canopy gaps in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations forest and preserving rate,ground diameter, and tree height of 3-year old Phoebe bournei.plantation in mingxi,Fujian Province was investigated,and analyzed the effects of gap characteristics on planting regeration.The results showed that,in the order of affect on preserva-tion rate and height growth of P.bournei.seedlings,the order of gap characteristics factors was canopy openness>gaps minor axis>gaps long axis >gap size.In order of affect on seedlings ground diameter,it was canopy open-ness>gaps minor axis>gap size >gaps long axis.There was a significant downward opening quadric parabolic relationship between canopy openness,gaps minor axis,gaps long axis,gap size and seedlings preservation rate, height,ground diameter.Comprehensive preservation rate,tree height and diameter growth performance,ideal gaps minor axis was range of 5.10 -6.26 m,reasonable ranges was of 1.23-10.13 m.Ideal gaps long axis was

  14. VENEER AND PLYWOOD PRODUCTION OF GUAPURUVU WOOD (Schizolobium parayba Blake.) COMING FROM A MIXED PLANTATION OF BRAZILIAN TREE SPECIES

    Geraldo Bortoletto Júnior; Ugo Leandro Belini

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the guapuruvu wood(Schizolobium parayba), coming a mixed plantings of Brazilian native species, for veneer and plywoodproduction. The peeling yield was 61%, linking green veneer and peeling wood. The obtained veneers, afterclipped and dried, they were graded according to Brazilian Standards (NBR 9531/1986). Thefollowing grades o veneer were obtained: 2% of grade A, 24% of grade B, 48% of grade C and 26%of grade D. After, it was manu...

  15. Development of a Compatible Taper Function and Stand-Level Merchantable Volume Model for Chinese Fir Plantations

    Tang, Xiaolu; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Fehrmann, Lutz; Álvarez-González, Juan Gabriel; Lu, Yuanchang; Kleinn, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook) is one of the most important plantation tree species in China with good timber quality and fast growth. It covers an area of 8.54 million hectare, which corresponds to 21% of the total plantation area and 32% of total plantation volume in China. With the increasing market demand, an accurate estimation and prediction of merchantable volume at tree- and stand-level is becoming important for plantation owners. Although there are many studies on...

  16. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the cost-benefit method

    Keča Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of polar cultivation was analyzed based on one of the indicators for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects - cost-benefit (r. Poplar plantations of the clone I-214 of different rotations and on different soil types were analyzed in the area of Ravni Srem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the justification of the invested financial means in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts at different plantation ages, using the cost-benefit method. It was found that in all 13 analyzed compartments, the average cost-benefit ratio was 0.36. This means that the costs at the discount rate of 12% are about 2.8 times higher than the receipts. Accordingly, it can be asserted that it is economically unjustified to invest in the projected stands, but only in the case when the value of social capital accounts for 12%. Based on the analysis of sensitivity of the cost-benefit method, it was concluded that cost benefit ratio for p=8-12% was below 1 within the study range of costs and receipts changes, while for p=4-6% this ratio was above 1 in some cases of decrease in costs, i.e. increase in receipts. It was noted that the change in r depending on the change in costs, developed by the exponential function, and the change in r depending on the change in receipts developed by the linear function. Also, it was concluded that at the lower discount rates, the values of r moved towards 1, so for 8% r=0.71, and for 6% r=0.94. The value at the discount rate of 4% indicates that the project is cost-effective and that the invested € 1 makes € 1.22. This fact is especially important when poplar cultivation projects are ranked. For this reason, this method is used for the evaluation of social benefits, i.e. for economic analyses. It is almost never applied in the analysis of private investments.

  17. VENEER AND PLYWOOD PRODUCTION OF GUAPURUVU WOOD (Schizolobium parayba Blake. COMING FROM A MIXED PLANTATION OF BRAZILIAN TREE SPECIES

    Geraldo Bortoletto Júnior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the guapuruvu wood(Schizolobium parayba, coming a mixed plantings of Brazilian native species, for veneer and plywoodproduction. The peeling yield was 61%, linking green veneer and peeling wood. The obtained veneers, afterclipped and dried, they were graded according to Brazilian Standards (NBR 9531/1986. Thefollowing grades o veneer were obtained: 2% of grade A, 24% of grade B, 48% of grade C and 26%of grade D. After, it was manufactured plywood of grade B/C/B, glued with urea-formaldehydeadhesive, and their properties of static bending (MOR and MOE and bonding line strength in shear test (dry and wet were appraised. Treatments (1, 2 and 3 varied according to the formulation of theglue (35, 50 and 65% of wheat flour in relation to the pure adhesive. The results indicated that theguapuruvu wood has potential for veneer and plywood production. The plywood showed significantdifference between treatments in the static bending (perpendicular MOR and shear (dry and wet. Theplywood presents possibility of interior and intermediate use for the formulations 1 and 2, and interioruse for the formulation 3. The plywood has potential for use in furniture, packing and box factory.

  18. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering

    Ruiyang Hu; Bo Wu; Huiquan Zheng; Dehuo Hu; Xinjie Wang; Hongjing Duan; Yuhan Sun; Jinxing Wang; Yue Zhang; Yun Li

    2015-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, ...

  19. Inhibition of the growth of Alexandrium tamarense by algicidal substances in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata).

    Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Xin-Lian; Qi, Yu-Zao

    2009-10-01

    The wood sawdust from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) exhibited stronger inhibition on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense than those from alder (Alnus cremastogyne), pine (Pinus massoniana), birch (Betula alnoides) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum). The water extract, acetone-water extract and essential oil from fir sawdust were all shown to inhibit the growth of A. tamarense. The inhibition of fir essential oil was the strongest among all the above wood sources while the half effective concentration was only 0.65 mg/L. These results suggested that the fir essential oil may play an important role in the algicidal effect of Chinese fir. PMID:19634014

  20. The wood of teak (Tectona grandis L.)

    Budija, Franc; Čufar, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Teak (Tectona grandis L.) belongs to most precious and desired wood species. Because of reduced supply of teak wood from natural forests in Southeast Asia,mainly the plantation wood from different tropical regions is available on the market. We present the properties of nature grown teak wood compared tothose of wood from the plantations. Teak wood from natural forests generallycontains a greater portion of coloured heartwood containing hydrophobic caoutchouc and high content of biologically ...

  1. Research on Change of Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Chinese fir Plantation

    2002-01-01

    This article emphatically reviews the difference of soil biological activities, biochemical activities and soil chemical properties between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of first rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) plantation. It also reviews their dynamic patterns during Chinese fir plantation development. The results show that the contents of organic and inorganic nutrients in the rhizosphere soil of young, half-mature and near-mature Chinese fir of first-rotation ...

  2. Study on the effect of stump height and number of coppice shoots per stump on some anatomical properties of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. wood growth in Nineveh plantation

    Kasir, W.A.; Barno, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Fiber length, diameter, wall thickness, the ratio of fiber length to diameter, and vessel element length and diameter were recorded from wood samples collected in an irrigated stand. Stump height significantly affected all anatomical features recorded except fiber wall thickness. The number of coppice shoots had significant effects on all features except vessel diameter. Anatomical variation was greater in the radial direction than along the stem axis. The use of wood from low stumps with 4 shoots is recommended, although wood produced under all conditions studied can be useful for some products. 18 references.

  3. CONTROL PROCEDURES OF VOLUME OF ESTIMATED AND HARVESTED WOOD IN A PLANTATION OF Pinus spp. IN PARANÁ STATE

    Silvane Vatraz; Fabricio Quadros Borges

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814585The objective of this research was to improve the operating procedures of control of the volume of timber estimated by the forest inventory and the effectively harvested volume in order to reduce inconsistencies in the forest planning practiced in a forestry plantation of Pinus spp. in Paraná state. Accordingly, we used the tools of quality: storming and PDCA Cycle through an exploratory research project to study together. The study showed an inconsisten...

  4. Codonopsis lanceolata: A Review of Its Therapeutic Potentials.

    Hossen, Muhammad Jahangir; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-03-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) is dicotyledonous herbaceous perennial plant, predominantly found in Central, East, and South Asia. This plant has been widely used in traditional medicine and is considered to have medicinal properties to treat diseases and symptoms such as bronchitis, coughs, spasm, psychoneurosis, cancer, obesity, hyperlipidemia, edema, hepatitis, colitis, and lung injury. C. lanceolata contains many biologically active compounds, including polyphenols, saponins, tannins, triterpene, alkaloids, and steroids, which contribute to its numerous pharmacological activities. Through systematic studies, the pharmacological actions of these compounds have been revealed. Therapeutic potentialities of C. lanceolata and its previously reported molecular mechanisms are described in this review. PMID:26931614

  5. A New Bislabdane-type Diterpenoid from Cunninghamia lanceolata

    2000-01-01

    A new bislabdane-type diterpenoid lanceolactin (1), was isolated from the roots of Cunninghamia lanceolata. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, especially 2D-NMR techniques.

  6. Effect of ACQ-D Treatment on the Surface Free Energy of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata)

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the contact angles of three different reference liquids (including distilled water, diiodomethane, and formamide) and PF resin on the surfaces of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) samples untreated or treated with different concentrations of ACQ-D (ammoniacal copper quat Type D) solutions were measured. Then, the surface free energy was calculated by two approaches: acid-base approach and geometric mean approach. ACQ-D treatment caused higher contact angles and lower surface free energies at a retention level corresponding to the commodity treated wood products. When wood was treated with much higher concentrations of ACQ-D, the total surface free energy of wood would be higher than the untreated control. Acid-base/polar components related with the hydrogen bonding state in wood were considered to be responsible for the observed changes according to the applied approaches. The hydrophobic properties and also higher contact angles of PF resin drop on wood surfaces after ACQ-D treatment at a reasonable retention level confirms the changes on surface free energy.

  7. Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil

    Lopes Eduardo da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational and production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.

  8. Contribution of the renewable energy sources rape oil and biomass from wood plantations to climate protection; Beitrag der nachwachsenden Energietraeger Rapsoel und Biomasse aus Holzplantagen zum Klimaschutz

    Teepe, R.; Brumme, R.; Flessa, H.; Beese, F. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde und Waldernaehrung

    1999-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to find out whether and to what extent the N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} budgets of poplar plantations and rape fields have potential for cutting carbon dioxides and, hence, influence the ecological valuation of the alternative energy sources poplar chipwood and rape oil. N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} budgets were measured over a period of 1.5 years; annual budgets were converted into carbon dioxide equivalents. Furthermore, net energy yield was calculated and trace gas emissions from all production steps were established. From this the carbon dioxide conservation effect of the two renewable energy sources and the influence of soil-related trace gas emissions could be determined. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war es, zu untersuchen, ob und in welchem Mass die N{sub 2}O- und CH{sub 4}-Fluesse auf der Pappelplantage und dem Rapsfeld das CO{sub 2}-Einsparungspotential und damit die oekologische Bewertung der alternativen Energietraeger Pappel-Hackschnitzel und Rapsoel beeinflussen. Dazu wurden die N{sub 2}O- und CH{sub 4}-Fluesse im Verlauf von 1 {sup 1}/{sub 2} Jahren gemessen und die annuellen Fluesse in CO{sub 2}-Aequivalenten umgerechnet. Weiterhin wurden der Netto-Energieertrag berechnet und die Spurengasemissionen aus allen Produktionsschritten ermittelt. Hieraus liess sich der CO{sub 2}-Einsparungseffekt der beiden nachwachsenden Rohstoffe und der Einfluss der bodenbuertigen Spurengasfluesse bestimmen. (orig.)

  9. Shady Plantations

    Hastrup, Frida

    2011-01-01

    practice and analysis, data and theory, I discuss anthropological knowledge-making as a truly lateral endeavour that engages in describing and cultivating a shared capacity for world-making, the challenge then being to find the right story of sameness and difference, without ascribing fixity and...... these, as they are realized in social encounters. This calls for a view of theory and analysis as generative of objects in the world, rather than applied to them from some fictitious elsewhere or posterity. Exploring the plantation and the shelter it offers as an intertwinement and simultaneity of...

  10. Assessing 62 Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Breeding Parents in a 12-Year Grafted Clone Test

    Huiquan Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook is one of the major commercial conifer species in China. The present study concentrated on the assessment of growth, wood property traits, and strobili number in a 12-year grafted clone test of 62 Chinese fir breeding parents, aiming to describe the variation and correlations between these traits and to identify parent clones with the highest potential for future breeding. The results indicate that all of the growth (height, diameter at breast height, stem volume, crown-width and wood property (wood basic density and hygroscopicity traits varied significantly (p < 0.01 among clones, with coefficients of variation ranging from 7.6% to 30.6%. Furthermore, these traits consistently had a moderate to high (0.39–0.87 repeatability estimate (broad-sense heritability. Remarkable clonal differences were also observed for the production of male and female strobili. Phenotypic correlations among growth traits were strong (p < 0.01 and positive. Significantly negative correlations (p < 0.01 or 0.05 were found between wood basic density and growth (except for height and hygroscopicity. The production of male and female strobili appeared to be significantly (p < 0.01 positively correlated with each other. A notable number of faster-growing parent clones were identified (n = 30; 11 of these had higher density wood with an average realized gain of 10.5% in diameter, and a 5.4% gain in wood basic density. When selection was made for growth and strobili, 10 faster-growing parent clones with medium to high production of female strobili were identified.

  11. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  12. [Population density of Eucalyptus urophylla plantation].

    Huang, B; Lu, C

    2000-02-01

    This paper dealt with the relationships and correlation models of the population density of 5.6 years old Eucalyptus urophylla plantation with its crown width, diamter at breast height(DBH), tree height, individual standing volume, stand volume, wood properties and survital rate. The results showed that the population density remarkably affected DBH, individual standing volume, crown width, live branch height, stand volume and wood fiber width; but not affect tree height, basic density of wood, and length of wood fibers. It had a positive relationship with stand volume, live branch height and wood fibers width, and a negative relationship with DBH, individual standing volume and crown width. In addition, E. urophylla had a wide range of reasonable density. For short-rotation puplwoods, the optimum planting density of E. urophylla is 2000 individuals per hectare. PMID:11766582

  13. 福建含笑和杉木纯林及混交林中龄期生物量研究%Biomass of Half-Matured Mixed Forest of Michelia fujianensis and Cunninghamia lanceolata and Their Pure Stands

    黄兴亮

    2012-01-01

    为了解福建含笑和杉木混交对其中龄期生长量、生物量及土壤肥力的影响,对福建省建瓯市中龄期福建含笑和杉木纯林及混交林进行研究.结果表明:福建含笑和杉木混交林中杉木的平均胸径、平均树高和单株材积分别比杉木纯林提高了2.3%、2.9%和8.5%;混交林土壤肥力各指标较各树种纯林均有所提高;各林分总生物量以混交林为最高,其排序为:混交林(121.13t/hm2)>杉木纯林(107.27t/hm2)>福建含笑纯林(84.50t/hm2).%A comparative study was conducted on the mid aged pure stands of Michelia fujianensis, Cunninghamia lanceolata and their mixed plantation in Jianou Municipality of Fujian Province to explore the influence of stand composition on the growth rate and biomass of the mid aged trees, as well as on the soil fertility. The results showed that the average DBH, average height and the average stocking of the Cunninghamia lanceolata individual trees in the mixed plantations was respectively increased by 2. 3% , 2. 9% and 8. 5% compared to those of in the pure plantation. The soil fertility indexes of the mixed plantations were generally higher than those pure stands of either tree species. The total biomass of the mixed plantations was the highest and the order of this index was mixed plantation (121. 13 t/hm2) > pure Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations (107.27 t/hm2) > pure Michelia fujianensis plantations (84. 50 t/hm2).

  14. Equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para plantio de Ocotea porosa Estimating wood volume in plantation of Ocotea porosa

    Andreia Taborda dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Conhec

    er o volume de madeira de uma floresta é de extrema relevância. Equações de volume para espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista se restringem quase que exclusivamente a araucária. Equações de volume para imbuia Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso são inexistentes. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo desenvolver equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para árvore individual de Ocotea porosa na região de Rio Negro, PR. Foram derrubadas 12 árvores, com DAP entre 3,98 cm e 43,13 cm e altura entre 5,1 m e 20,4 m. Foi feita cubagem rigorosa de cada uma das árvores. Para desenvolvimento da equação de volume, foram testados onze modelos matemáticos. Os critérios utilizados para a seleção da melhor equação foram o coeficiente de determinação ajustado, o erro padrão da estimativa em porcentagem, o valor de F calculado e análise gráfica de resíduos. O modelo de Kopezky-Gehrart apresentou alto coeficiente de determinação ajustado (0,97, baixo erro padrão da estimativa (16,7% e alto valor de F calculado (382,6, com boa distribuição de resíduos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o modelo pode ser utilizado para quantificação de volume com casca, o que é muito importante em conjunto com outras informações, para tomada de decisão no manejo florestal.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

    To know the volume of wood from a forest is extremely important. Volume equations for species from the Araucaria Forest are restricted almost exclusively to plantations of araucaria. Equations for Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso plantations are inexistent. The present work aims to develop equation for individual tree volume and hypsometric relation from an Ocotea porosa, established in the region of Rio Negro, PR. Twelve trees were logged with DBH from 3.98 cm to 43.13 cm and height from 5.1 m to 20.4 m. All the trees were measured and cubed. Eleven mathematical

  15. A Mixed-Effects Model with Different Strategies for Modeling Volume in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations.

    Mei Guangyi

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H, diameter at breast height (DBH, and aboveground height (h to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level.

  16. Flavonoid profile and antileukemic activity of Coreopsis lanceolata flowers.

    Pardede, Antoni; Mashita, Koharu; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2016-06-15

    Coreopsis lanceolata is a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. In this study, flavonoid profile and antileukemic potential of yellow flowers of the plant were investigated. The total flavonoid content in EtOAc fraction of the flower methanol extract was found to be 420mg/g and showed the inhibition of cell proliferation and possible induction of apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Our phytochemical research led to the isolation of rare flavonoids including a flavanone, chalcones, and aurones; in particular, 4-methoxylanceoletin demonstrated the potent antiproliferative activity. Comparison with other Asteraceaeous flowers by UPLC-MS analysis indicated that the isolates are characteristic constituents of C. lanceolata. PMID:27155901

  17. Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves

    Irina Neta GOSTIN

    2009-01-01

    Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in th...

  18. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES

    Jing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three extractives from China-fir were obtained by a sequential extraction processes with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The components of the three extractives were analyzed: (1 The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis showed that in addition to the presence of cedrol, naphthalenes comprised a relatively large percentage of both the hexane extract (10.39% and the ethyl acetate extract (9.43%. (2 Total phenolic contents analysis showed that phenols took up 6.66 % of the ethyl acetate extract and 22.8% of the methanol extract. All extracts, even with low concentrations, presented fair antifungal activities against two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Irpex lacteus and two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Cedrol and naphthalenes were partly responsible for the bioactivities. The synergistic effect of phenols and antifungal compounds also contributed to the wood decay resistance.

  19. Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume em plantios de eucalyptus grandis Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume in eucalyptus grandis plantations

    José Márcio de Mello

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha, 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal.This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and

  20. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limit...

  1. Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves

    Irina Neta GOSTIN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in the assimilatory cells, especially from palisade parenchyma. The necrotic areas shows hypertrophied assimilatory cells with thick walls and tannin deposits. Solid deposits are present on both on upper and lower epidermis.

  2. [Soil quality assessment of forest stand in different plantation esosystems].

    Huang, Yu; Wang, Silong; Feng, Zongwei; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qingkui; Hu, Yalin; Yan, Shaokui

    2004-12-01

    After a clear-cutting of the first generation Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in 1982, three plantation ecosystems, pure Michelia macclurei stand (PMS), pure Chinese-fir stand (PCS) and their mixed stand, were established in spring 1983, and their effects on soil characteristics were evaluated by measuring some soil physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical parameters. After 20 years' plantation, all test indices showed differences among different forest management models. Both PMS and MCM had a favorable effect on soil fertility maintenance. Soil quality assessment showed that some soil functions, e.g., water availability, nutrient availability, root suitability and soil quality index were all in a moderate level under the mixed and pure PMS stands, whereas in a relatively lower level under successive PCS stand. The results also showed that there existed close correlations between soil total organic C (TOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), microbial biomass-C (Cmic) and other soil physical, chemical and biological indices. Therefore, TOC, CEC and Cmic could be used as the indicators in assessing soil quality in this study area. In addition, there were also positive correlations between soil microbial biomass-C and TOC, soil microbial biomass-N and total N, and soil microbial biomass-P and total P in the present study. PMID:15825426

  3. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  4. Properties of Wood/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    LV Wenhua; ZHAO Guangjie

    2006-01-01

    With montmorillonite (MMT) organically modified as organophilic-MMT (OMMT) and water-soluble phenol formaldehyde resin (PF) as intermediate, the nanocomposites of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood and MMT, i.e. WMNC, were prepared via nano intercalation compounding, some properties of WMNC were analyzed. Results show that, compared with Chinese fir wood and its PF-impreg, WMNC has lower humidity and water absorption, better dimension stability, higher longitudinal compressive strength, abrasive resistance, fire-resistance, and water-leaching resistance with a very low mass ratio about 3% of MMT. The nano intercalation compounding of wood and exfoliated MMT nanolamellae is very promising. More studies should be carried out to fully reveal the nanosize effects and the special properties of WMNC.

  5. Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME diameter growth models for individual China-Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata trees in Southeast China.

    Hao Xu

    Full Text Available An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the smallest absolute mean residual and root mean square error and the largest adjusted coefficient of determination. To account for autocorrelation in the repeated-measures data, we developed one-level and nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME models, constructed on the selected base model; the NLME models incorporated random effects of the tree and plot. The best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were identified by Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and -2 logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced with two residual variance functions, a power function and an exponential function. The autocorrelation was addressed with three residual autocorrelation structures: a first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1] and a compound symmetry structure (CS. The one-level (tree NLME model performed best. Independent validation data were used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating the NLME models.

  6. Cambodia Report : Feeding China's Expanding Demand for Wood Pulp : A Diagnostic Assessment of Plantation Development, Fiber Supply, and Impacts on Natural Forests in China and in the South East Asia Region

    Roda, Jean-Marc; Rathi, Santosh,

    2006-01-01

    After decades of war, Cambodia is one of the world's poorest nations, its economy and its political life are still suffering from the civil war that racked the country during the latter part of the 20th century. Rice and rubber were traditionally the principal exports of Cambodia, but exports fell sharply after the onset of the civil war, which put most of the rubber plantations out of operation. By the 1990s, however, rubber plantings had been undertaken as part of a national recovery progra...

  7. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Teak Plantations of Different Agro-Climatic Zones and Age-Gradations of Southern India

    Milkuri Chiranjeeva Reddy; R. M. Priya; S. L. Madiwalar

    2014-01-01

    Carbon sequestration potential of teak plantations in different agro-climatic zones of Southern India, viz. Northern Dry Zone, Northern Transition Zone, and Hilly Zone were studied. Teak plantations belonging to three age gradations viz. 10, 15 and 20 years were considered for the study. Above ground biomass was computed based on volume estimation and wood density after considering three 10 x 10 m plots. Carbon sequestration potential of teak plantations on farmlands differed significantly wi...

  8. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran

    FATEMEH GHEIBI; MOSLEM AKBARINIA; YAHYA KOOCH

    2015-01-01

    Gheibi F, Akbarinia M, Kooch Y. 2015. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Biodiversitas 16: 10-15. Forest plantation is a common action in order to restore the degraded forests in Hyrcanian forests of Iran. This study compares the plant biodiversity in four 25-year-old stands of plantation, adjacent understory of alder (Alnus subcordata C. A. Mey.), maple (Acer insigne Boiss.), sequoia or red wood (Sequo...

  9. The Ameliorating Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Jin Bae Weon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae have been traditionally used to treat lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. The present study was performed to evaluate the cognitive-enhancing effects of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata in scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. Cognitive abilities were determined by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Mice orally received fermented C. lanceolata extract at doses of 100, 300, or 500 mg/kg body weight. Fermented C. lanceolata extract (500 mg/kg body weight, p.o. significantly shortened the escape latency times that were increased by scopolamine on the 4th day of trial sessions in the Morris water maze task. In addition, it exerted longer step-through latency times than those of the scopolamine-treated group in the passive avoidance test. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of fermented C. lanceolata extract on glutamate-induced neurocytotoxicity were investigated in HT22 cells. Fermented C. lanceolata extract showed a relative protection ratio of 59.62% at 500 μg/mL. In conclusion, fermented C. lanceolata extract ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairments, exerted neuroprotective effects, and improved activity compared to that found with original C. lanceolata. Further study will be required to investigate the mechanisms underlying this cognitive-enhancing activity.

  10. The push for plantations

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben; Casse, Thorkil; Nielsen, Thomas Theis

    2013-01-01

    We observe signs of social differentiation, where poor households end up serving as causal labour for the richer families on their acacia plantations. In addition, the poor can be rendered more vulnerable after becoming labourers, because they may not longer have an alternative source of income, ......, yet they still face the risk of increasing frequency of typhoon exposure....

  11. Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations of Central America

    Fernández-Moya J; Murillo R; Portuguez E; Fallas JL; Ríos V; Kottman F; Verjans JM; Mata R; Alvarado A

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age) were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand o...

  12. Selecting Evaluation Indices for Cleaner Production of Plantation Logging in Southern China with Fuzzy Clustering Methods

    Yu, Aihua; Gallagher, Tom; Zhao, Chen; Zhao, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, China has shown a significant reduction in natural forest resources, while the increasing area of plantations has made greater contributions to the huge demand for wood. In southern China, these new plantations have produced some problems such as environmental hazards of logging operations and the most reasonable use of forest resources. A new management process called »cleaner production« is defined as reducing pollution from its source, increasing the rate of utilization of ...

  13. Physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactures with tropical plantation species for structural use

    Diego Camacho; Roger Moya; Carolina Tenorio

    2012-01-01

    Concrete, steel and plastics are the materials used for construction in Costa Rica. Meanwhile, wood from plantation are being introduced in the market. The present study aims to characterize and measured some physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactured with veneers of Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Acacia mangium coming from forest plantations for structural use. It was produced three plywood boards of each species and general characterization of them was done, and...

  14. Effects of Increased UVB radiation on plant-insect interactions: Plantago lanceolata and Junonia coenia

    Seeds of P. lanceolata were collected from a local population and 4 replicates of 42 maternal families were grown for 90 days in the greenhouse with at two levels of supplemental UVB radiation (6 and 12 kJ day-1 BE300). Higher UVB radiation increased leaf hair density and decreased plant size during early growth; family identity affected these also. Leaves excised from a subset of the plants were fed to ultimate instar larvae of J. coenia and assayed for iridoids. Increased UVB radiation did not alter the iridoid content of the leaves or the growth of the larvae. In a separate experiment, P. lanceolata growing under the two levels of UVB irradiation were infested with neonate larvae and larval growth was monitored. Larval growth was not markedly altered by enhanced UVB. These findings suggest that increased UVB is unlikely to alter the suitability of P. lanceolata as a host for J. coenia

  15. Climate change policy distortions in the wood and food market

    Ajani, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The widespread shift of Australia’s wood products industry away from native forests to an agricultural regime–wood plantations–has enhanced forestry industry competitiveness. Wood now competes against food for agricultural land, water and other resources (including government support). New plantings have increased substantially since the mid 1990s via plantation managed investment schemes (MIS), arousing protest in the traditional agricultural sector and claims of unfair government policy tre...

  16. Energy plantation for solving the crisis of fuel and energy

    Singhal, O.P.

    1985-10-01

    Concentrated efforts are required for achieving better social foresty in rural areas of India. There are a large number of tree species that can be considered for energy plantations. Some of the fuel wood plants are described: subabul, eucalyptus, agathi, babul, ber, casuarina, imli, karanji, pardeshibabul, siris, jamun, and neem. Carbohydrate plants contain sugar and starch and serve as the source of energy in the form of food and fuel. The latex of some plants can be processed as fuel oil. (Refs. 29).

  17. Effect of intensive planting density on tree growth, wood density and fiber properties of maple (Acer velutinum Boiss.)

    Naji HR; Nia MF; Kiaei M; Abdul-Hamid H; Soltani M; Faghihi A

    2016-01-01

    Planting density is a major factor in determining tree growth and wood quality. Although the effect of low planting density on the variation of tree and wood characteristics has been already reported, the effect of intensive initial densities in plantations has not been fully assessed yet. In this study, the effect of intensive planting densities on tree growth, wood density and fiber cell properties was investigated in the context of the development of densely-stocked maple plantations for w...

  18. Forest Plantations and Water Consumption: A Strategy for Hydrosolidarity

    W. P. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study of a deliberate change in the design of a new Eucalyptus plantation, aimed at alleviating water impacts, was carried out in an experimental catchment located in the center part of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. It involved the identification of saturated areas in the catchment, based essentially on topographic analysis, as a tool to help in zoning of the new forest plantation, with the objective of improving the flow of water to downstream users, as well as to avoid water quality changes. The design involved the allocation of part of the identified saturated areas as water conservation areas, as well as a change in the spacing of the planting. Measurements of tree growth at the age of two years of the new plantation reveal that the forest productivity of the new plantation design, in terms of projected annual wood increment at the end of the rotation, will be similar to the old plantation scheme, despite the loss of planted area. Preliminary results of the continuous monitoring of the catchment water balance appear to indicate that the objective of increasing the catchment water yield may possibly also be achieved.

  19. Reproductive behavior of Chiroxiphia Lanceolata (Pipridae: Birds) in a forest of Tolima, Colombia Comportamiento reproductivo de Chiroxiphia lanceolata (Pipridae: aves) en un bosque intervenido del Tolima, Colombia

    Laverde Oscar; Pacheco Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The reproductive behavior of Chiroxiphia lanceolata (Pipridae) was studied in a secondary disturbed forest in the Hacienda El Paraiso (Ibague, Tolima, Colombia) at 860 m over the sea level, between march to may 2002. The areas, sequence, frequency and length
    of 5 fundamental behavioral phases were described to establish their variation during the day. The twig height and shape were the main features wed by males to select hangers. The males prefer slender, right or slightly bent, d...

  20. Tree biomass and soil carbon stocks in indigenous forests in comparison to plantations of exotic species in the Taita Hills of Kenya

    Omoro, Loice M A; Starr, Mike; Pellikka, Petri K. E.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon (C) densities of the tree biomass and soil (0-50 cm) in indigenous forest and plantations of eucalyptus, cypress and pine in the Taita Hills, Kenya were determined and compared. The cypress and pine plantations were about 30-years-old and eucalyptus plantations about 50-years-old. Biomass C densities were estimated from breast height diameter and wood density using allometric functions developed for tropical species and an assumed C content of 50 %. Belowground biomass C densities were...

  1. Creep of Chinese Fir Wood Treated by Different Reagents

    Xue Feng-lian; Zhao Guang-jie; Lü Wen-hua

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different reagents on changes of the crystalline region and amorphous region(Matrix) in wood cell walls, the creep behavior of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood treated with dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) and diethyl amine, sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfoxide mixture (DEA-SO2-DMSO), and the untreated wood at oven-dried,air-dry and water-saturated states during adsorption and desorption processes were all examined in air or in water. The measurements were carried out at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The load is constant with 62 g or 0.607 6 N. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The instantaneous compliance Jo and the creep compliance J of specimens decrystallized with DEA-SO2-DMSO solution were bigger than those of DMSO swollen wood, and the latter was still much bigger than those of untreated wood. 2) For untreated wood, Jo and J increased with equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood, but there was not apparent correlation between wood EMC and the relative compliance. 3) Specimens treated with DMSO and DEA-SO2-DMSO mixture were recrystallized after immersion in water, and the degree of recrystallization of the former was larger. 4) For oven-dried specimens, the creep compliances in water were bigger than those in air. But for fiber-saturated and water-saturated specimens they were nearly equivalent to each other.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA variation within P-type cytoplasmic male sterility of Plantago lanceolata L

    Groenendijk, C.F.M.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Van Brederode, J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    MtDNA restriction fragment polymorphisms were found between cytoplasmic male-sterility types P and R of Plantago lanceolata with the homologous probe pPl311 and maize mtDNA fragments derived from the regions of atp1, cox1 and cox2. No mtDNA differences were observed between male-sterile and restored

  3. Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids from Stellaria dichotoma var.lanceolata

    Jian Guang Luo; Li Hua Cao; Ling Yi Kong

    2012-01-01

    Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids,dichotomine K (1) and dichotomine L (2),were isolated from the roots of Chinese medicinal plant Stellaria dichotoma L.var.lanceolata Bge.Structures of 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic means.

  4. Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates on growth and arsenic accumulation in Plantago lanceolata L

    The role of indigenous and non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata L. growing on substrate originating from mine waste rich in As was assessed in a pot experiment. P. lanceolata inoculated with AMF had higher shoot and root biomass and lower concentrations of As in roots than the non-inoculated plants. There were significant differences in As concentration and uptake between different AMF isolates. Inoculation with the indigenous isolate resulted in increased transfer of As from roots to shoots; AMF from non-polluted area apparently restricted plants from absorbing As to the tissue; and plants inoculated with an AMF isolate from Zn–Pb waste showed strong As retainment within the roots. Staining with dithizone indicated that AMF might be actively involved in As accumulation. The mycorrhizal colonization affected also the concentration of Cd and Zn in roots and Pb concentration, both in shoots and roots. - Highlights: ► The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in As uptake was studied. ► Growth of Plantago lanceolata was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. ► Arsenic concentration and uptake significantly depended on the AMF isolate. ► Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may be useful for bioremediation of As contaminated wastes. - Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata strongly depends on the origin of fungal isolates.

  5. THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD

    Othman Sulaiman; Nurjannah Salim,; Noor Afeefah Nordin; Rokiah Hashim; , Mazlan Ibrahim,; Masatoshi Sato

    2012-01-01

    Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to revie...

  6. Relations Between Permeability and Structure of Wood

    Bao Fucheng; Zhao Youke; Lü Jianxiong

    2003-01-01

    The permeability and the structure of heartwood and sapwood of the solvent-exchange dried and the air-dried green-wood of Chinese-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) and masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were measured inorder to study the relations between the permeability and the structure. The results showed that the permeability of sapwood of boththe air-dried and the solvent-exchange dried wood was higher than that of heartwood, and the permeability of the solvent-exchangeddried heartwood and sapwood was higher than that of the air-dried. A higher permeability of wood was attributed to, on the one hand,a bigger number of flow path per unit area of the wood perpendicular to the flow direction resulted from a bigger number ofunaspirated pits per unit area and a bigger number of effective pit openings per membrane, and on the other hand, a smaller numberof tracheid in series connection per unit length parallel to flow direction resulted from a longer tracheid length and an effectivetracheid length for permeability.

  7. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations

    Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years. Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N; Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.

  8. The role of plantation sinks

    In this paper it is argued that in the long term biofuel should play a significant role in global climate policy. Recent technological developments, as well as sustainable development criteria, would favour growing biofuel in community- scale plantations in developing countries. It is also pointed out that the lead times involved in growing biofuels are so great that the inclusion of biofuel plantation sinks in the CDM for the first commitment period would be desirable. It is suggested that to meet opposition to the inclusion of plantation sinks in the first commitment period plantation, sinks should be linked to biofuels technology development and production, and a biofuels obligation for plantation sink projects in the CDM should be established. (Author)

  9. Preparation and characterization of wood/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Lü Wen-hua; Zhao Guang-jie; Xue Zheng-hua

    2006-01-01

    With montmorillonite (MMT) organically modified as organophilic MMT (OMMT) and water-soluble phenol formaldehyde resin (PF) as intermediate, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood/MMT nanocomposites (WMNC) were prepared via nano intercalation compounding and characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR. Results show that: 1) the preparation of OMMT is very successful; 2) the self-made PF can effectively intercalate into MMT to increase markably its gallery distance and even exfoliate its nano silicate laminae; 3) the XRD analysis indicates that some exfoliated MMT enters the non-crystallized region of microfibrils in wood cell walls and the crystallinity degree of wood in WMNC decreases; 4) the SEM graphs show that multiform MMT exists in WMNC. Some grains block in wood cell lumen, some layers adhere to the wood surface of the inner cell wall and some exfoliated nanolaminae even insert into wood cell walls; and 5) the FTIR analysis suggests that MMT and wood in WMNC perhaps interact via certain chemical bonding.

  10. Efeito da cinza de biomassa na dinâmica do C e N do solo de uma plantação de pinus pinaster Wood ash effects on C and N dynamics of a soil from a pinus pinaster plantation

    Maria Xesús Gómez-Rey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, através de incubação aeróbia, o efeito da aplicação de cinza de biomassa florestal nas características químicas e na actividade microbiana de um Arenossolo de um povoamento de Pinus pinaster Ait. As doses de cinza aplicadas foram de 0, 4, e 8 g kg-1 solo, sob forma pulverulenta ou peletizada, e na presença ou ausência de fertilizante azotado. A aplicação de cinza sob forma pulverulenta aumentou rápida e significativamente os valores de pH e os teores de bases de troca e de P extraível do solo. A nitrificação líquida foi igualmente estimulada. A quantidade de C microbiano nos solos com cinza pulverulenta foi inferior ao controlo, não sendo observados efeitos significativos para a respiração basal do solo. O quociente metabólico foi superior na fase inicial da incubação. Os efeitos observados foram, em geral, tanto mais intensos quanto maior a dose de cinza aplicada e mais acentuados na presença de N. A cinza aplicada sob forma peletizada não produziu um efeito tão acentuado nas características do solo nem na elevação da alcalinidade, determinando uma fraca influência na dinâmica de C e na produção de nitrato. Em sistemas como o estudado a aplicação de cinza sob forma peletizada é preferível, ao originar um efeito mais prolongado da sua acção, devendo ser acompanhada de fertilizantes azotados para aumentar a disponibilidade de N no solo.Effects of wood ash (loose and pelleted on chemical properties and microbial activity in an Arenosol from a Pinus pinaster plantation were assessed through laboratory incubation. Wood ash was applied at a rate of 0, 4 and 8 g kg-1 soil both alone or together with N. Loose ash significantly increased pH values and extractable nutrients from the soil. Net nitrification was stimulated by it application. Amounts of microbial biomass C were lower in soils with loose ash than in the control. Basal respiration was not affected by treatments. Effects increased with the

  11. Development of a Compatible Taper Function and Stand-Level Merchantable Volume Model for Chinese Fir Plantations

    Tang, Xiaolu; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Fehrmann, Lutz; Álvarez-González, Juan Gabriel; Lu, Yuanchang; Kleinn, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook) is one of the most important plantation tree species in China with good timber quality and fast growth. It covers an area of 8.54 million hectare, which corresponds to 21% of the total plantation area and 32% of total plantation volume in China. With the increasing market demand, an accurate estimation and prediction of merchantable volume at tree- and stand-level is becoming important for plantation owners. Although there are many studies on the total tree volume estimation from allometric models, these allometric models cannot predict tree- and stand-level merchantable volume at any merchantable height, and the stand-level merchantable volume model was not seen yet in Chinese fir plantations. This study aimed to develop (1) a compatible taper function for tree-level merchantable volume estimation, and (2) a stand-level merchantable volume model for Chinese fir plantations. This “taper function system” consisted in a taper function, a merchantable volume equation and a total tree volume equation. 46 Chinese fir trees were felled to develop the taper function in Shitai County, Anhui province, China. A second-order continuous autoregressive error structure corrected the inherent serial autocorrelation of different observations in one tree. The taper function and volume equations were fitted simultaneously after autocorrelation correction. The compatible taper function fitted well to our data and had very good performances in diameter and total tree volume prediction. The stand-level merchantable volume equation based on the ratio approach was developed using basal area, dominant height, quadratic mean diameter and top diameter (ranging from 0 to 30 cm) as independent variables. At last, a total stand-level volume table using stand basal area and dominant height as variables was proposed for local forest managers to simplify the stand volume estimation. PMID:26799399

  12. Dynamics of soil nutrients in larch plantations

    Yan Deren; Chen Jinglian

    1999-01-01

    The annual dynamic changes of soil nutrients were measured in pure larch plantation and in mixed larch plantation in the arboretum of Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science, Huhehaote. The results showed that soil nutrients in pure larch plantations changed rapidly in July and August. The variation of soil nutrients is more stable in mixed larch plantation. Compared with the pure larch plantation, the content of soil nutrients in mixed larch plantation obviously increased. The soil degradation occurred in the pure larch plantation, and related to the forest age.

  13. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  14. Structural and productive-developmental characteristics of white willow plantations of different density on humogley in Donji Srem

    Andrašev Siniša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in two plantations of white willow (Salix alba L. in Donji Srem on the humogley soil type (hydromorphic black soil, which belongs to a narrow-leaved ash forest with remote sedge (Carici remotae - Fraxinetum angustifoliae Jov. et Tom., 1979. The plantations are located in the same depression. The SP (sample plot-1 plantation is 21 years old with a 6×6 m planting spacing, and the SP-2 plantation is 27 years old with a 3×3m planting spacing. Elements of stem growth in the SP-1 plantation showed that with the white willow planting spacing of 6×6 m and a planned 25-year production cycle it is possible to obtain about 250 m3•ha-1 of timber volume, with an 80% net share of technical wood and a 20 % share of pulp wood. The plantation in SP-2 is at the age, which is well above the optimum age in terms of rational management, and the total volume at the age of 27 years is about 300 m3•ha-1, with a 53.7% net share of technical wood and a 46.3% share of pulpwood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

  15. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  16. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin; Marcelo Nogueira

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental pro...

  17. Physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactures with tropical plantation species for structural use

    Diego Camacho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Concrete, steel and plastics are the materials used for construction in Costa Rica. Meanwhile, wood from plantation are being introduced in the market. The present study aims to characterize and measured some physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactured with veneers of Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Acacia mangium coming from forest plantations for structural use. It was produced three plywood boards of each species and general characterization of them was done, and physical and mechanical properties were determined. The results shown that panels manufactured with T. grandis wood presented physical and mechanical properties higher than G. arborea and A. mangium. In accordance with standards of Voluntary Products Standart PS 1-95 and PS 1-09 of the United States, structural plywood of G. arborea can be grouped in grade 3, and plywood manufactured with T. grandis and A. mangium wood in grade 2. All species can be used in the manufacture of structural elements.

  18. Overview of Rattan Plantation Management

    2003-01-01

    Rattans are climbing spiny plants that are regarded as an important kind of commercial non-timber forest products. Rattan resources are dwindling rapidly due to over-exploitation in the wild and the loss of tropical forest cover. These threaten the sustainable utilization of rattan resources and long-term survival of the rattan industry. The development of rattan plantation and the improvement of management technique are hence important. The major issues on plantation management are reviewed in this pap...

  19. Fungi associated to bark lesions of Eucalyptus globulus stems in plantations from Uruguay Fungos asociados as lesões da casca do caule de Eucalyptus globulus em plantações no uruguai

    Raquel Alonso; Susana Tiscornia; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lina Bettucci

    2009-01-01

    Trees with stem bark lesions are frequently observed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations, particularly in the central west region of Uruguay. These lesions constitute a problem for trunk decortications at harvest and they also facilitate the access of fungi that could cause wood decay. Seven, three and oneyear-old plantations, located at three sites in close proximity were selected. Four types of trunk lesions were present in trees regardless the age of plantation and more than one typ...

  20. Provenance effect on the ring structure of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) wood by X-ray microdensitometry

    Nocetti, Michela; Chaix, Gilles; Nicola MACCHIONI

    2011-01-01

    • Context : Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is a tropical timber which is appreciated worldwide and has been planted into many regions of the tropics. It is essential to obtain information about provenance variation of basic wood properties in order to preserve the wood quality of end-products derived from future plantations. Figuring is one of the wood characteristics valued for panelling and furniture and it is an important parameter to evaluate the quality of teak wood. The ring structure affe...

  1. Intercrops under coconut plantations

    The successes of growing intercrops under coconut plantations are controlled by environmental factors which are influenced by the coconut growth and characters, interception of solar radiation, as well as the coconut space and system of planting. Assuming that soil fertility be able to be manipulated by certain treatments, then climatic factors become priority to be considered for selection of intercrops. Coconut palms grow well on areas of 500 m asl., 27-32 deg. C temperature, and 1,500-3,000 mm in annual rainfall with even distribution throughout the year. Each kind (tall, dwarf, hybrid) of coconut performs specific growth characters, mainly on its root system and canopy coverage, as well as general conditions due to its growth phase (young, productive, senile). Above such conditions greatly influence the kind of crops suitable for development under coconut trees. However space and system of coconut planting give various conditions of interception solar radiation to ground surface, which means by manipulating both space and system, environmental requirement is able to be achieved accordingly

  2. Short-rotation plantations. Processes, economic efficiency and ecological balance; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Verfahren, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Oekobilanz

    Burger, Frank [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft, Freising (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    A short-rotation plantation is defined as the cultivation of fast-growing species of trees on agricultural land. Following the harvest, the trees sprout from the floor. Thus, the trees can be utilized repeatedly. The stocks produce enormous growth rates. Nearly 5,000 to 6,000 litre of heating oil can be conserved by means of the wood growing on an area of one hectare annually. The well organized harvest is decisive for the economic efficiency. The ecological balance presents the short-rotation plantations as a very extensive form of land use.

  3. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

    Fernanda Cristina Pierre; Adriano Wagner Ballarin; Hernando Lara Palma

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume). The materi...

  4. THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN.) WOOD

    O Unsal; S Korkut; C Atik

    2003-01-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and co...

  5. Coconut lumber for wood decks (Cocos nucifera L.):decay resistance against Basidiomycetes fungi

    Jourez, Benoît; Verheyen, Cécile; Van Acker, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Since a couple of years, manufactured products of coconut wood for outdoor uses like wood decks have been proposed on the European market. These are presented as an alternative for traditional tropical timbers. In the past, coconut wood was neglected and burned for sanitary reasons and lack of interest at industrial scale. Plantation coconut trees at end of production of copra constitute a renewable resource with high added value. In order to convince the markets, natural durability for outdo...

  6. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  7. Chemical Characterization and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Potential of Volatile Components of Aerial Parts of Pluchea lanceolata (DC. Oliv. & Hiern

    Pooja Srivastava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata (DC. Oliv. & Hiern (Rasana is an important medicinal plant due to its usage in number of Ayurvedic formulations. First time, chemical composition of essential oil from the aerial part of P. lanceolata was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibitory activity of the essential oil was also evaluated using mouse brain homogenate. The major components were linalool (32.2%, β-caryophyllene (8.5%, α-terpineol (8.0%, spathulenol (7.4%, linalylacetate (5.6%, naphthalene, 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl- (4.3%, α-copaene (3.6%, epi-cubebol (3.6% and trans-α-bergamontene (3.1%. The experimental results showed that hydrodistilate of P. lanceolata significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity (IC 50 value 2.54 ± 0.03 µg/mL.

  8. Identification and characterization of genic microsatellites in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook (Taxodiaceae

    Xu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic resources for conventional breeding programs are extremely limited for coniferous trees, and existing simple sequence repeat markers are usually identified through the laborious process of hybridization screening. Therefore, this study aimed to identify gene-based microsatellites in the Chinese fir, Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook by screening transcript data. We identified 5200 microsatellites. Trinucleotide motifs were most common (47.94% and were followed by tetranucleotide motifs (24.92%. The AG/CT motif (43.93% was the most abundant dinucleotide repeat, whereas AAG/CTT (25.07% was the most common trinucleotide repeat. A total of 411 microsatellite primer pairs were designed and 97 polymorphic loci were identified by 8 genotypes. The number of alleles per locus (Na in these polymorphic loci ranged from 2 to 5 (mean, 2.640, the Ho values were 0.000-1.000 (mean, 0.479, and the HE values were 0.125-0.775 (mean, 0.462. The polymorphic information content (PIC values were 0.110-0.715 (mean, 0.383. Seventy-two of the 97 polymorphic markers (74.23% were present within genes with predicted functions. In addition, in genetic diversity and segregation analyses of 16 genotypes, only 5.88% of the polymorphic loci displayed segregation distortion at the p<0.05 level. Transferable amplification of a randomly selected set of 30 genic microsatellites showed that transferability decreased with increasing evolutionary distance between C. lanceolata and target conifers. Thus, these 97 genic markers will be useful for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization, genome mapping and marker-assisted breeding in C. lanceolata, and evolutionary genetic analysis in Taxodiaceae.

  9. Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Hye-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL were evaluated in a high-calorie/high-fat-diet (HFD- induced obesity rat model and 3T3-L1 cells. The Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a normal diet (ND or a HFD for a period of 12 weeks. The rats were subdivided into groups: ND, ND + wild Codonopsis lanceolata (wCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., ND + cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata (cCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD, HFD + wCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD + cCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., and HFD + sibutramine. The body weight gains of the administered HFD + CL (wCL or CCL were lower than those of the rats fed with only the HFD group. Moreover, the weight of adipose pads and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the group administered HDL + CL were significantly lower than in the HFD group. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with wCL inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. These results suggest that CL has a great potential as a functional food with anti-obesity effects and as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity.

  10. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  11. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  12. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  13. Effects of Inorganic acid catalysts on liquefaction of wood In phenol

    Zhang Qiuhui; Zhao Guangjie; Chen Jinpeng

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain the effects of acid catalysts on wood liquefaction in phenol, we investigated the liquefaction of wood powder from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and poplar (Triploid Populus tomentosa Carr) in the presence of phenol with the following weak inorganic acids as catalysts: phosphoric acid (85%),sulfuric acid (36%),hydrochloric acid (37%)and oxalic acid (99.5%).Results show that phosphoric acid (85%) and sulfuric acid (36%) are better than the other catalysts.It was found that lower residue ratios can be obtained under defined reaction conditions: phenol/wood ratio is 4,a 10% catalyst based on the weight of phenol,a temperature of 150℃ for 2 h and phosphoric or sulfuric acid.The residue ratios are 3.2% and 4.0%,respectively.

  14. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Prevents Suppression of Actual Nitrification Rates in the (Myco-)Rhizosphere of Plantago lanceolata

    S.D.VERESOGLOU

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of herbaceous plants engage into arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and consideration of their mycorrhizal status should be embodied in studies of plant-microbe interactions.To establish reliable AM contrasts,however,a sterilized re-inoculation procedure is commonly adopted.It was questioned whether the specific approach is sufficient for the studies targeting the bacterial domain,specifically nitrifiers,a group of autotrophic,slow growing microbes.In a controlled experiment mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Plantago lanceolata were grown up in compartmentalized pots to study the AM effect on nitrification rates in the plant rhizosphere.Nitrification rates were assayed following an extensive 3-week bacterial equilibration step of the re-inoculated soil and a 13-week plant growth period in a controlled environment.Under these specific conditions,the nitrification potential levels at harvest were exceptionally low,and actual nitrification rates of the root compartment of non-mycorrhizal P.lanceolata were significantly lower than those of any other compartment.It is then argued that the specific effects should be attributed to the alleged higher growth rates of non-mycorrhizal plants that are known to occur early in the AM experiment.It is concluded that the specific experimental approach is not suitable for the study of microbes with slow growth rates.

  15. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  16. THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD

    Othman Sulaiman,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to review the current status of oil palm biomass, including the availability of this tree, in order to illustrate the potential of oil palm biomass as an alternative source for compressed wood. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of compressed wood from oil palm trunk. This paper will cover the background of compressed wood and the possibilities of producing compressed wood using oil palm trunk as a raw material.

  17. Climate benefits from alternative energy uses of biomass plantations in Uganda

    The establishment of tree plantations in rural areas in Uganda could provide renewable energy to rural communities, while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from conventional electricity sources and unsustainable forest use. The study evaluates the greenhouse gas benefits that could be produced by biomass based energy systems in Anaka, a rural settlement in the Amuru district in northern Uganda. Two alternative energy uses are explored: a) electricity production through wood gasification and b) traditional fuelwood use. It is estimated that a small-scale wood gasifier could provide electricity for basic community services by planting less than 10 ha of new short rotation coppices (SRCs). The gasification system could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by traditional diesel based electricity generators in terms of CO2-eq. (0.61–0.83 t MWh−1 or 7.1 t y−1 per hectare of SRCs). It was also estimated that traditional use of fuelwood in households is currently unsustainable, i.e. the consumption of wood is higher than the annual growth from natural wood resources in the study area. It is estimated that 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could render the current consumption of wood sustainable. In this way, the CO2 emissions produced through unsustainable extraction of wood could be avoided (2.0–7.3 t per capita per year or 50–130 t y−1 per hectare of SRCs). -- Highlights: ► We assessed the GHG benefits of short rotation coppices for bioenergy in Uganda. ► The GHG benefits of two energy uses are explored: gasification and fuelwood use. ► The gasifier could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by diesel generators. ► 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could avoid unsustainable fuelwood use. ► Fuelwood production is more efficient in terms of GHG savings per hectare

  18. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  19. 林分树种组成对闽南山地典型人工林生长的长期影响%Long-term Effects of Stand Species Composition on Growth of Typical Plantations in Mountain Area of Souther Fujian Province

    宋志佣

    2015-01-01

    In order to reveal the long-term effects on growth & productivity of typical plantations under different management modes in Southern Fujian Province,the mature pure forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata ,the mixed forest of C.lanceolata+Pinus massoniana +Schima superba and the mixed forest of C.lanceolata+Pinus masso-niana +Michelia macclurei were selected as the research subject,the growth and productivity of the target species were investigated.Result showed that compared with the pure forest,the growth of C.lanceolata was increased by adopting management modes of mixed forest;the stocking volume of the mixed forest is also significantly higher than that of pure forest;the stock volume of five strains of C.lanceolata + five strains of Pinus massoniana is the highest,being 1 56.85 m3 hm-2 .%为揭示不同经营方式对闽南山地典型人工林生长和生产力的长期影响,选择成熟的杉木纯林、杉木+马尾松+木荷混交林和杉木+马尾松+火力楠混交林为研究对象,对目标树种的生长和林分生产力进行了调查研究,结果表明:与纯林相比,混交林的经营方式均提高了杉木的生长量,林分蓄积量也显著高于杉木纯林,以5杉木5马尾松林分的蓄积量最高,为156.85 m3 hm-2。

  20. An Assessment of Financial and Economic Feasibility of Selected Forest Plantation Species

    Pitigala, G.H; H.M. Gunatilake

    2002-01-01

    The forest cover of the country has declined significantly and the remaining natural forests provide valuable environmental services. Since logging reduces the supply of environmental services, alternative sources of timber play an important role in sustainable management of forestlands. Forest plantations are alternatives to logging natural forests for timber and other wood products. The objective of this study is to examine the financial and economic feasibility of selected forest plantatio...

  1. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  2. Wood density variation and tree ring distinctness in Gmelina arborea trees by x-ray densitometry

    Roger Moya

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its relationship with other properties, wood density is the main wood quality parameter. Modern, accuratemethods such as X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the spatial distribution of density in wood sections and to evaluatewood quality. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of growing conditions on wood density variation andtree ring demarcation of gmelina trees from fast growing plantations in Costa Rica. The wood density was determined by X-raydensitometry method. Wood samples were cut from gmelina trees and were exposed to low X-rays. The radiographic films weredeveloped and scanned using a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the wood density was determined by CRAD and CERDsoftware. The results showed tree-ring boundaries were distinctly delimited in trees growing in site with rainfall lower than 2510 mm/year. It was demonstrated that tree age, climatic conditions and management of plantation affects wood density and its variability. Thespecific effect of variables on wood density was quantified by for multiple regression method. It was determined that tree yearexplained 25.8% of the total variation of density and 19.9% were caused by climatic condition where the tree growing. Wood densitywas less affected by the intensity of forest management with 5.9% of total variation.

  3. An intensive plantation of poplars

    Maussion, J. de

    1993-12-31

    A french land owner and forester planted 3.6 ha of short rotation coppice on a meadow with the technical support of Cellulose Forest Association (AFOCEL). The crop of poplars can either be sold to trituration industries or used as energy source for the heating. Moreover, an intensive plantation of poplars can solve the problem of set-aside lands fixed by the PAC (European Agricultural Policy). (TEC). 2 figs.

  4. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels. PMID:26685670

  5. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  6. Protective effect of stress-induced liver damage by saponin fraction from Codonopsis lanceolata.

    Kim, Min Ho; Lee, Jaehwi; Yoo, Dae Sung; Lee, Yong Gyu; Byeon, Se Eun; Hong, Eock Kee; Cho, Jae Youl

    2009-10-01

    Saponins are valuable principles found in various herbal medicine with pharmaceutical, cosmetical and nutraceutical merits. In this study, we evaluated the protective role of saponin fraction (Cl-SF), prepared from Codonopsis lanceolata, an ethnopharmacologically famous plant in Korea, China and Japan, on water immersion stress-induced liver damage and radical generation. Cl-SF clearly decreased the up-regulated levels of serum glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase induced by water-immersed stress conditions. Furthermore, Cl-SF seemed to block the stress-induced radicals. Thus, Griess and DPPH assays revealed that Cl-SF significantly suppressed both radical generation in sodium nitroprusside-treated RAW264.7 cells and nitric oxide production in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Therefore, these results suggest that Cl-SF may be considered as a promising stress-regulatory principle with radical scavenging actions. PMID:19898808

  7. Carbon Return and Dynamics of Litterfall in Natural Forest and Monoculture Plantation of Castanopsis kawakamii in Subtropical China

    Guo Jianfen; Xie Jinsheng; Lu Haoliang; Liu Dongxia; Yang Yusheng; Chen Guangshui

    2004-01-01

    The amount of carbon returned through litterfall and its seasonal pattern were studied in a natural forest of Castanopsis kawakamii (NF) and adjacent monoculture plantations of C. kawakamii (CK) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) (CF) in Sanming, Fujian Province, China. Mean annual carbon return through total litterfall over 3 years (from 1999 to 2001) was 5.097 t·hm-2 in the NF, 4.337 t·hm-2 in the CK and 2.502 t·hm-2 in the CF respectively. Of the total carbon return in the three forests, leaf contribution accounted for 58.96%, 68.53% and 56.12% and twig 24.41%, 22.34% and 26.18%, respectively. The seasonal patterns of carbon return from total litterfall and leaf-litter were quite similar among the three forests. A peak of carbon input from litterfall in the NF and the CK occurred in spring except for the highest annual C return through branch litter of the NF in summer, while the CF showed the maximum C return in summer. The results of this study demonstrate that the natural forest has a greater C return through litterfall than monoculture plantations, which is beneficial to the increase of soil organic matter storage and the maintenance of soil fertility.

  8. [The influence of oil heat treatment on wood decay resistance by Fourier infrared spectrum analysis].

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ling; Feng, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Wood preservative treatment can improve defects of plantation wood such as easy to corrupt and moth eaten. Among them heat-treatment is not only environmental and no pollution, also can improve the corrosion resistance and dimension stability of wood. In this test Poplar and Mongolian Seoteh Pine was treated by soybean oil as heat-conducting medium, and the heat treatment wood was studied for indoor decay resistance; wood chemical components before and after treatment, the effect of heat treatment on wood decay resistance performance and main mechanism of action were analysed by Fourier infrared spectrometric. Results showed that the mass loss rate of poplar fell from 19.37% to 5% and Mongolian Seoteh Pine's fell from 8.23% to 3.15%, so oil heat treatment can effectively improve the decay resistance. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that the heat treatment made wood's hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl groups in largely reduced, absorbing capacity decreased and the moisture of wood rotting fungi necessary was reduced; during the heat treatment wood chemical components such as cellulose, hemicellu lose were degraded, and the nutrient source of wood rotting fungi growth necessary was reduced. Wood decay fungi can grow in the wood to discredit wood is because of that wood can provide better living conditions for wood decay fungi, such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and so on. The cellulose and hemicellulose in wood is the main nutrition source of wood decay fungi. So the oil heat-treatment can reduce the cellulose, hemicellulose nutrition source of wood decay fungi so as to improve the decay resistance of wood. PMID:25208386

  9. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    of carbon. The same is likely to be true for managed forests in other temperate regions. If wood from additional felling is used, it would be most effective to use it in products that stay in circulation for a long time, only to be used for energy at the end of its service life. An increase in wood demand may lead to an intensification of forest management, which may temporarily increase carbon sequestration rates and biomass yields. This would eventually reduce the payback times. However, it must be noted that it would still take a substantial amount of time for the intensification of forest management to become effective, especially when it includes drastic measures, such as converting natural forests into plantations. Short rotation plantations with fast growing trees on agricultural land may be another option, but in these cases there are similarities with the direct and indirect land-use change effects related to energy crops. Further analysis is required to enable a clear judgment on the impact of these options. Products are not the only place of storing carbon with a beneficial effect on climate change. The combination of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) on large industrial sites where biomass is converted into energy carriers, such as transport fuel and electricity, is projected to be beneficial, as well. Even landfill sites may serve as storage of carbon in wood waste, as pieces of wood hardly degrade.

  10. Wood density variation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry

    The wood density constitutes the main wood quality parameter by its relationship with anatomical, physical and chemical properties and wood utilization. The modern and accurate methods - like X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the density spatial distribution in wood sections and pith-bark direction. On the other hand, emphasis to wood utilization from fast growing plantations, like Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica, has been done. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of 2 climatic conditions of Costa Rica on radial wood density variation of gmelina trees form fast growing plantations using the X-ray densitometry method. Wood samples were cut at DBH of gmelina trees and transversal thin laths were selected at north-south direction and conditioned at 12% moisture content equilibrium and X-rayed. The radiographic films were revealed and scanned a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the intra tree-ring density were determined by CRAD and CERD software. The results demonstrated that the climatic and forest management affects the wood density variability and the distinctness of tree-ring boundaries of gmelina trees, as well as, the applicability of X-ray densitometry in wood quality analysis. (author)

  11. Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors

    Pandey, D.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  12. Conference: 'Heating with Wood'. An alternative to fossil fuels? Status and perspectives. Documentation; Tagung: 'Heizen mit Holz'. Eine Alternative zur fossilen Energie? Stand der Technik und neue Perspektiven. Dokumentation

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Main topics of the meeting ''Heating with wood'' were: resource assessment, economical aspects, logistics, cogeneration, district heating, plantation and harvesting of fast growing trees, new heating systems.(uke)

  13. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  14. Plus Tree Resource Survey and Genebank Construction for Cunninghamia lanceolata%乐昌油杉优树资源调查及收集区营建

    郑会全; 胡德活; 王润辉; 韦如萍; 晏姝; 朱火生; 粱瑞友; 赖旭恩

    2013-01-01

    对广东省乐昌地区杉木林分进行调查,共筛选出104份乐昌油杉优树资源.对优树生长、形质、材质等性状进行测定分析,结果表明:优树群体生长性状(树高、胸径、单株材积)均值明显高于样地群体值(P<0.01),性状表现水平(PL)皆在77.0以上;入选优树树高、胸径、单株材积现实增益分别为0.4% ~ 97.1%、32.3% ~ 131.8%、82.6% ~ 712.5%;优树高径比、冠径比变幅分别为38.9 ~76.5、8.7 ~21.9;优树木材基本密度、红心材比率、木材干缩性、木材吸水性总体变幅则分别为0.251 1~0.393 1 g/cm3、29.2% ~72.3%、0.8% ~ 32.4%、189.0% ~ 332.9%;其中,木材干缩性变异程度最大,CV值达100%,而木材基本密度变异程度较低,CV值仅为11%.以平均木材质测定值为阈值对优树进行分类,不同优树群体均可分选出一定数量生长材质皆优单株.研究还对乐昌油杉优树资源进行了有效保存(就地保存与异地保存),收集区资源合计保存率为98.1%.%Based on a large-scale investigation into Cunninghamia lanceolata stands in Lechang area of Guangdong Province, a total of 104 plus trees of C. lanceolata were screened out, and the trait indexes including height, DBH, form index, standing volume, wood quality and growth properties of the plus trees were measured and analyzed. The results showed that the average values of tree height, DBH, and standing volume of the plus tree population were all significantly (P <0. 01) higher than those of the sample plot population, whose phenotype level was above 77. 0. Further analyses revealed that the real gain of tree height, DBH, and standing volume indexes of the plus trees could achieve to 0. 4% -97. 1% , 32. 3% - 131. 8% , and 82. 6% -712. 5% respectively. The height-DBH ratio and the crown-DBH diameter ratio ranged from 38. 9 to 76.5, and from 8. 7 to 21. 9 individually. The basic wood density (DEN) , red-heartwood ratio

  15. Wettability of Poplar Wood Impregnated by Phenol-formaldehyde Resin

    2009-01-01

    In this study,plantation poplar wood was first impregnated by low molecular weight phenol-formaldehyde(PF) resin solution by vacuum-pressure process.And then the wettability of sanded and non-sanded radial and tangential sections from un-impregnated and impregnated poplar wood was tested respectively by the measurement of contact angles using different liquids.Finally,the surface free energy of different samples was estimated by the plot extrapolation method.The results showed that the wettability of woo...

  16. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURAL VARIATION IN THE Calophyllum brasiliense WOOD

    Ricardo Marques Barreiros; Simone Simões Amaral; Carlos Alberto Oliveira de Matos; Alex Siqueira Costa

    2016-01-01

    Favorable silvicultural and technological characteristics of the species Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. have led to the emergence of commercial plantations. Scientific literature offers only medium and general data on some variables of this species, not reporting specific variables prior to the time of the study, such as age, spacing, among others, perhaps because the wood is mostly from native forests. Given the knowledge gap regarding the characterization of guanandi wood, the aim of this wo...

  17. Preparation of Chinese fir wood/MMT nanocomposites and the factors affecting it

    Lü Wen-hua; Zhao Guang-jie

    2007-01-01

    The nano intercalation compounding of wood and MMT has important implications for the modification of wood and for the development of new materials. With water-soluble phenol formaldehyde resin as an intermediary, the nanocomposites of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood and montmorillonite (MMT) were prepared via three impregnation methods, i.e. normal pressure, once and twice vacuum methods. Based on the weight percent gain (WPG) of impregnated wood, the effects of compounding wood and MMT in terms of concentration, impregnating temperature and time, wood moisture content and wood extraction treatments, on sapwood and heartwood are discussed. Results show that: 1) the optimum MMT concentration in the impregnation solution is 3% for sapwood and 5% for heartwood; 2) room temperature is suitable in practice; 3) treatment pressure should be set at a high enough value in order to ensure sufficient permeation; 4) the effects of different impregnation methods on sapwood and heartwood are different, the heartwood extractives affect WPG significantly; cell wall permeability of sapwood is better than that of heartwood;5) the cold water, hot water and benzene-ethanol solution extractions can all greatly improve the permeability of heartwood, hot water can dissolve some hemicellulose of low aggregation and hot water extraction improves wood cell wall permeability; 6) with an increase in wood moisture content, the permeable space in wood is reduced, but with a certain amount of water, instantaneous spaces are created and the permeation dynamic increases. This effect is especially apparent for difficult impregnating situations in heartwood and impregnation under normal pressure.

  18. Wood Based Panel Industry in Indonesia: Production and Trade

    Makkarennu; Nakayasu, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Forest products industry plays an important role for Indonesia economic through a significant role as domestic product, foreign exchange, and government revenue in the period 1980-2007. The Indonesian wood processing industry experienced both rapid growth and structural change in this period. However, the growth of this industry has decreased in line with the decline log production from natural forests, while the production of logs from plantation forest has not been able to replace it. This ...

  19. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  20. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks

    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2 and 4 h (T4, were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7% and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4% were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata.

  1. Plantation-Seeding Forest Plantations – the New Method for Regeneration of Coniferous Forests at Large Clearings on Burned Lands

    V. V. Tarakanov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The new method of restoration of coniferous stands on large felling areas on burnt lands that lack seed trees is discussed. It involves limited planting of big grafted seedlings of quality wood, that have a high level of seed production, with the purpose of the subsequent natural sowing on these territories. Results of two-year-old research on approbation of the method on cuttings on large felling areas on burnt lands in conditions of the mid-Ob' river pine forests are stated. A good viability of «seed cultures» is noted. There is damage of the grafting pines by elk. Therefore there is a problem of protecting plantations against elk. For preservation of a high level of genetic variability of pine stands it is desirable to use in «seed cultures» the best trees from local plantings.

  2. Cytochrome c allergens isolated from the pollens of the dicotyledons English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and Paterson's curse (Echium plantagineum).

    Matthews, P A; Baldo, B A; Howden, M E

    1988-01-01

    Two cytochrome c allergens were isolated from extracts of the pollens of the dicotyledons English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and Paterson's Curse (Echium plantagineum) by ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration and preparative isoelectric focusing. They were characterized by their absorption spectra, mol. wt, pI and amino acid composition. The cytochromes c bound specific IgE in the sera of hypersensitive patients by RAST. Preliminary evidence for allergenic cross-reactivity between them was obtained by RAST inhibition. PMID:2830502

  3. Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China

    M. Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar (Populus sp. plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76" plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G partitioning to latent (LE and sensible (H heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008 to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009, and H/(Rn-G from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (β=H/LE were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs had the greatest response to drought (+43%, but the aerodynamic and climatological resistances did not change significantly (p > 0.05. Partial correlation analysis indicated that Rs was the dominant factor in controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the major factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (Ω = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively, and the LE / LEeq ratio ranged from 0.81 and 0.68 in wet and dry years, respectively. In general, the dry surface conditions dominated in this poplar plantation ecosystem regardless of soil water availability suggesting that fast-growing and water use-intensive species like poplar plantations are poorly adapted for the water limited region.

  4. Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76") plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G) partitioning to latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G) ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008) to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009), and H/(Rn-G) from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (β=H/LE) were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs) had the greatest response to drought (+43%), but the aerodynamic and climatological resistances did not change significantly (p > 0.05). Partial correlation analysis indicated that Rs was the dominant factor in controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the major factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (Ω = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively), and the LE / LEeq ratio ranged from 0.81 and 0.68 in wet and dry years, respectively. In general, the dry surface conditions dominated in this poplar plantation ecosystem regardless of soil water availability suggesting that fast-growing and water use-intensive species like poplar plantations are poorly adapted for the water limited region.

  5. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  6. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  7. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Jin Bae Weon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ- induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC.

  8. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    Weon, Jin Bae; Eom, Min Rye; Jung, Youn Sik; Hong, Eun-Hye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ-) induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC. PMID:27313637

  9. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Weon, Jin Bae; Eom, Min Rye; Jung, Youn Sik; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ-) induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC. PMID:27313637

  10. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  11. Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f. plantations of Central America

    Fernández-Moya J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand of 150 teak trees ha-1 at age 19 would accumulate (kg ha-1 405 N, 661 Ca, 182 K, 111 Mg, 33 P, 53 S, 9 Fe, 0.47 Mn, 0.22 Cu, 0.92 Zn, 1 B; whereas the expected nutrient export by timber harvest (bole and bark is (kg ha-1 220 N, 281 Ca, 88 K, 63 Mg, 23 P, 39 S, 6 Fe, 0.13 Mn, 0.10 Cu, 0.21 Zn, 0.40 B. Hence, teak nutrition should pay special attention to N and K, together with Ca the nutrients most accumulated by teak. In addition, P and B could also be limiting planted teak forest productivity due to their general soil deficiencies. Proposed models estimate the amount of nutrients removed from the site during timber harvests, information that can be used by plantation managers to avoid soil nutrient depletion, approaching sustainability in forest plantation management.

  12. Assemblages and species diversity of wood destroying termites in different land use systems in Western Ghat, India

    Rashmi Ramesh Shanbhag; R.Sundararaj

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution,abundance and assemblage of termites depend mainly on the local conditions and habitats in which they thrive.Striking differences are observed in the species richness,number of clades and functional diversity of termite assemblage between different habitats.This study aim was to examine effect of human interference in the diversity of wood destroying termite in forest areas as well as managed and unmanaged plantations in South India.Termites attacking trees and wooden logs were collected from forest areas,managed plantations and unmanaged plantations.The termites collected were identified and compared for species abundance,richness and species diversity.Results show that the species composition and species diversity of the wood destroying termites vary according to the conditions.The species diversity measures revealed that there is a significance variation among the forest fauna and plantations.The forest areas have the highest species composition compared to plantations.Species richness is high forest areas.Even though the abundance of termites are more in unmanaged plantations,there is no significant difference related to species diversity among the managed and unmanaged plantations.

  13. The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development

    Ivetić Vladan; Vilotić Dragica

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted) forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass), additio...

  14. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  15. Ecosystem-based greenhouse budgets in oil palm plantations differ with plantation age

    Meijide, Ana; Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; June, Tania; Veldkamp, Edzo; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Global increase in demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia. Oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia, together with those in Kalimantan, are responsible for half of the world's palm oil production. Available studies point to plantations being large carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks due to the high photosynthetic rates of oil palm as a result of high fertilizer inputs, especially in large-scale plantations. However, methane (CH4) uptake in the soil of oil palm plantations is reduced and soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions increased right after nitrogen (N) fertilization. Greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets at the ecosystem level are still missing, and the few available information was derived from mature plantations, pointing to a lack of knowledge on the changes of these GHG budgets with plantation age. With the aim of quantifying CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2-year old (non-productive) oil palm plantation and was subsequently moved to a 12-year old (productive) plantation. Both sites were on Acrisol soils and were located in Jambi province, Sumatra. Chamber-based measurements of soil GHG fluxes were also carried out along the EC footprint. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), based on EC measurement, showed that the non-productive plantation was a strong CO2 source (990 g C m-2 yr-1) whereas the productive plantation was a CO2 sink (-790 g C m-2 yr-1). For CH4 fluxes, both plantations showed similar soil CH4 uptake that led to a small carbon sink of (~1.3 g C m-2 yr-1). Soil N2O fluxes were high in the productive plantation (3.26 ± 1.73 kg N ha-1 yr-1), as measurements were carried out in a plantation with high fertilization rates. In the non-productive plantation, soil N2O fluxes were lower and were associated with fertilization events. Our results show that the global warming potential of a non-productive oil

  16. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  17. Comparison of Different Wood Species as Raw Materials for Bioenergy

    Bojana Klašnja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Most projections of the global energy use predict that biomass will be an important component of primary energy sources in the coming decades. Short rotation plantations have the potential to become an important source of renewable energy in Europe because of the high biomass yields, a good combustion quality as solid fuel, ecological advantages and comparatively low biomass production costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the wood of black locust Robinia pseudoacacia, white willow Salix alba L., poplars Populus deltoides and Populus x euramericana cl.I-214, aged eight years were examined. Immediately after the felling, sample discs were taken to assess moisture content, ash content, the width of growth rings, wood densities and calorific values, according to the standard methodology. Results:The mean values of willow, poplar and black locust wood density were 341 kg/m3, 336 kg/m3 and 602 kg/m3,respectively. The average heating values of willow poplar and black locust wood were 18.599 MJ/kg, 18.564 MJ/kg and 21.196 MJ/kg, respectively. The FVI index (average values was higher for black locust (17.186 than for poplar and willow clones, which were similar: 11.312 and 11.422 respectively. Conclusions: Black locust wood with a higher density, calorific value and ash content compared to poplar and willow wood proved to be a more suitable raw material as RES. However, it is very important, from the aspect of the application of wood of these tree species as RES, to also consider the influence of the biomass yield per unit area of the plantations established as “energy plantations”.

  18. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism primer screening on Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    Huiquan Zheng; Hongjing Duan; Dehuo Hu; Ruping Wei; Yun Li

    2015-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) is one of the most important coniferous tree species used for timber production in China. Here, we conducted a sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) primer screening assay with a total of 594 primer combinations, using 22 forward and 27 reverse primers on four repre-sentative Chinese fir genotypes. The obtained results indicated that Chinese fir genomic DNA has a notable amplification bias on the employed forward or reverse primer nucleotides (3' selection bases). Out of the tested primer sets, 35 primer combinations with clearly distin-guished bands, stable amplification, and rich polymorphism were selected and identified as optimal primer sets. These optimal primer pairs gave a total of 379 scorable bands, including 265 polymorphic bands, with an average of 10.8 bands and 7.6 polymorphic bands per primer combination. The produced band number for each optimal primer set ranged from 7 to 14 with a percentage of polymorphic bands spanning from 33.3 to 100.0%. These primer combinations could facilitate the next SRAP analysis assays in Chinese fir.

  19. Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike

    In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD7, 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha-1, respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

  20. Obstacles for Plantation to Get FSC Certification in China

    2010-01-01

    The development of plantation plays a very important role in forestry industry development in China because of its unique advantages. However, the ecological and environmental issues urgently require sustainable plantation development. FSC certification for sustainable forest management balances the economic, environmental and social benefits and contributes to sustainable development of plantation. FSC certification for plantation is significantly important to China with the most plantation area in the wor...

  1. Breeding Strategy of Acacia Hybrid (Acacia mangium × A. auriculiformis) to Increase Forest Plantation Productivity in Indonesia

    Sri Sunarti; Mohamad Na'iem; Eko Bhakti Hardiyanto; Sapto Indrioko

    2013-01-01

    Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium× A.auriculiformis) shows better growth and wood properties, and tolerance to pest and disease. Currently, acacia hybrid breeding strategy was developed through naturally hybrid selected from trees grown in plantation. However, mass propagation of acacia hybrid using such kind of strategy was not satisfied due to ageing effect. This study was aimed to develop a new acacia hybrid breeding strategy using controlled pollination hybridization technique. The strategy w...

  2. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  3. [Caloric value and ash content of dominant plants in plantation communities in Heshan of Guangdong, China].

    Zeng, Xiao-ping; Cai, Xi-an; Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xing-quan

    2009-03-01

    Different parts of twenty dominant plant species in five plantation communities on the subtropical hilly lands in Heshan of Gunagdong as well as the litters from three of the five plantation communities were sampled, and their gross caloric value (GCV) and ash content were measured by using a PARR-1281 oxygen bomb calorimeter and a muffle furnace. Based on the measurements, the ash-free caloric value (AFCV) of the samples was calculated, and the characteristics of caloric value and ash content of the samples, according to plant part, individual, and plant growth form, were analyzed. The results showed that the GCV and AFCV of leaf, branch, stem wood, stem bark, and root were in the range of 10.7-22.17 kJ x g(-1) and 13.89-23.04 kJ x g(-1), respectively. The GCV and AFCV of leaf were significantly higher than those of other parts (P shrub layer (19.46 kJ x g(-1) > herb layer (18.77 kJ x g(-1)), with indigenous coniferous tree (19.86 kJ x g(-1)) > indigenous broad-leaved tree (19.55 kJ x g(-1)) > exotic eucalyptus (19.18 kJ x g(-1)), while the mean ash content was just the opposite. In Acacia mangium, coniferous, and Schima plantation communities, the GCV and AFCV of litters were higher than those of various plant parts (P mangium and coniferous plantations had higher mean GCV and AFCV than the litters and fresh leaves of tree layer, while the fresh leaves of tree layer in Schima plantation showed higher mean GCV and AFCV. PMID:19637580

  4. Energy partitioning and surface resistance of a poplar plantation in northern China

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; Chen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been, on the one hand, broadly used in northern China for urban greening, combating desertification, as well as for paper and wood production. On the other hand, such plantations have been questioned occasionally for their possible negative impacts on water availability due to the higher water-use nature of poplar trees compared with other tree species in water-limited dryland regions. To further understand the acclimation of poplar species to semiarid environments and to evaluate the potential impacts of these plantations on the broader context of the region's water supply, we examine the variability of bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning in a poplar (Populus euramericana cv. "74/76") plantation located in northern China over a 4-year period, encompassing both dry and wet conditions. The partitioning of available energy to latent heat flux (LE) decreased from 0.62 to 0.53 under mediated meteorological drought by irrigation applications. A concomitant increase in sensible heat flux (H) resulted in the increase of a Bowen ratio from 0.83 to 1.57. Partial correlation analysis indicated that surface resistance (Rs) normalized by leaf area index (LAI; Rs:LAI) increased by 50 % under drought conditions and was the dominant factor controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the main factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (Ω = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively). Rs was also a major regulator of the LE / LEeq ratio, which decreased from 0.81 in wet years to 0.68 in dry years. All physiological and bioclimatological metrics indicated that the water demands of the poplar plantation were greater than the amount available through precipitation, highlighting the poor match of a water-intensive species like poplar for this water-limited region.

  5. IMPORTANCE OF THE FORESTS PLANTATIONS OF Eucalyptus

    Rosa Martínez Ruiz; Hilda S. Azpíroz Rivero; José Luís Rodríguez De la O.; Víctor M. CetinaAlcalá y M. A. Gutiérrez Espinoza

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARYThe worldwide consumption of wood is distributed between the energy necessities, firewood and charcoal (more than 50 %), the sawmill wood, posts, dismount and construction (20 %) and the dedicated to the industry of the cellulose and the paper (27 %). The world previsions for the wood consumption in the year 2000 surpasses the 4000 m3 millions, what supposes a shortage of 1000 millions. There is a shortage in the world of wood as of energy, what converts to the forest production in pri...

  6. Hygroexpansion of Wood during Moisture Adsorption and Desorption Processes

    Ma Er-ni; Zhao Guang-jie; Cao Jin-zhen

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the shrinking and swelling behavior of wood at a non-equilibrium state, the moisture sorption processes of wood under constant and changing conditions were studied. For the static sorption experiment, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) specimens were subjected to the adsorption processes at 25℃, 10 different relative humidity environments and the moisture contents were measured at distinct time intervals of adsorption processes. For the dynamic sorption experiment, the specimens were exposed to periodically and linearly varying relative humidity between 45% and 75% at 25℃. Moisture content as well as radial and tangential dimensional changes in response to the changing relative humidity were measured. The main results from the experiments indicated that: the moisture sorption isotherms of Chinese fir at equilibrium state and different stages of adsorption processes could be characterized by S-shape curves. From the non-equilibrium state to the equilibrium state, the sigmoid moisture sorption isotherms changed from smooth, gradually increasing values to a steep rise at 100% humidity. Furthermore, under dynamic conditions with a constant temperature and a linearly and periodically varying relative humidity, the moisture content as well as radial and tangential dimensional changes of the specimens generally waved but lagged behind the relative humidity change.

  7. Dense poplar plantations as the raw material for the production of energy

    Klašnja Bojana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher heating value of wood and bark was determined for several poplar (Populus spp clones. The study included the juvenile one year old plants of the following clones: P.×euramericana cl. ostia, P. nigra cl.53/86, P. deltoides cl. PE 19/66, P.×euramericana cl. I-214, P. deltoides cl. S6-7 and P.×euramericana cv. robusta. By using FVI which takes into account ash content, wood bulk density, and moisture content, it was determined that poplar wood can be a significant energy raw material, primarily thanks to its short rotation cycle and a very high wood volume increment. Significant differences were determined in the values of wood basic density which affect the higher heating value of the study poplar clones, and consequently the yield (weight of biomass produced per unit area of dense plantations. This is reflected also on the estimated amount of energy that can be produced by the combustion of biomass of the whole one year old plants.

  8. Oil palm plantations fail to support mammal diversity.

    Yue, Sam; Brodie, Jedediah F; Zipkin, Elise F; Bernard, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural expansion is the largest threat to global biodiversity. In particular, the rapid spread of tree plantations is a primary driver of deforestation in hyperdiverse tropical regions. Plantations tend to support considerably lower biodiversity than native forest, but it remains unclear whether plantation traits affect their ability to sustain native wildlife populations, particularly for threatened taxa. If animal diversity varies across plantations with different characteristics, these traits could be manipulated to make plantations more "wildlife friendly." The degree to which plantations create edge effects that degrade habitat quality in adjacent forest also remains unclear, limiting our ability to predict wildlife persistence in mixed-use landscapes. We used systematic camera trapping to investigate mammal occurrence and diversity in oil palm plantations and adjacent forest in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Mammals within plantations were largely constrained to locations near native forest; the occurrence of most species and overall species richness declined abruptly with decreasing forest proximity from an estimated 14 species at the forest ecotone to -1 species 2 km into the plantation. Neither tree height nor canopy cover within plantations strongly affected mammal diversity or occurrence, suggesting that manipulating tree spacing or planting cycles might not make plantations more wildlife friendly. Plantations did not appear to generate strong edge effects; mammal richness within forest remained high and consistent up to the plantation ecotone. Our results suggest that land-sparing strategies, as opposed to efforts to make plantations more wildlife-friendly, are required for regional wildlife conservation in biodiverse tropical ecosystems. PMID:26910955

  9. Signature wood modifications reveal decomposer community history.

    Jonathan S Schilling

    Full Text Available Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as 'signatures' that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot to infer rot type (binary and fungal nutritional mode (gradient, respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1 spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias, and 2 brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects. Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying 'rot type' along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot, as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case. These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the

  10. Signature wood modifications reveal decomposer community history.

    Schilling, Jonathan S; Kaffenberger, Justin T; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei

    2015-01-01

    Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as 'signatures' that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying 'rot type' along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the links

  11. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks

    Kaplan, Maria A. C.; Rodarte, Mírian P.; Maria P. H. Amaral; Araújo, Aílson A. L.; Míriam A. O. Pinto; Maria S. Alves; Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira; Orlando V. Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli&l...

  13. A model of supplying poplar wood for Iranian paper & wood factories

    Majid Azizi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design a method for an appropriate alternative to supply poplar wood as raw material for wood and paper factories in Iran.Due to the destruction of the forests and lack of proper plantation,replacement of the forest wood by the fast growing wood is vital to satisfy all requirements of these factories.A hierarchy was used to prioritize benefits,opportunities,costs and risks (BOCR) using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) ratings approach.To evaluate the "control criteria" of the system,a control hierarchy was also created and prioritized by applying the Analytic Network Process (ANP).A total of four major control criteria in the system are prioritized where each one controls a network structure evaluated by using ANP.The final synthesis results of the system showed that internal poplar tree farming supplied by the forest product factories was the best choice among three potential alternatives (factory procurement,external procurement and mix procurement).

  14. Ethanolamine iin impregnated wood

    Humar, Miha; Petrič, Marko

    2000-01-01

    Wood preservation is necessary and is economically important. Copper compoundsare used for wood preservation because of their good fungicidal properties. Since copper compounds do not fix into wood, they can leach out ofit. A presence of chromium prevents leaching of copper from wood. Recently, many countries intend to bound or limit the use of chromium salts. Therefore, experts looking for other suitable compounds to fix copper and amines seem to be suitable substitutes for chromium. We repo...

  15. Wettability of modified wood

    Sedighi Moghaddam, Maziar

    2015-01-01

    Despite many excellent properties of wood which make it suitable for many applications, it suffers from a number of disadvantages limiting its use. For instance, modification is needed to reduce water sorption and to improve decay resistance, dimensional stability and weathering performance. In addition, wood/liquid interaction such as water wettability on wood plays an important role in design and characteristics of many processes and phenomena such as adhesion, coating, waterproofing, wood ...

  16. Fuel plantation research. Progress report

    Stubbs, J.

    1977-08-01

    Research in chemical induction of lightwood is summarized. Four large-scale proof of concept studies have been installed that test five paraquat treatments on a total of 71,228 trees. This wood will be used in actual pulp mill and extraction plant runs to determine oleoresin recovery and possible processing problems. Nearly 3,000 wood samples have been collected to ascertain duration of treatment effects. Results of complementary studies are also reported; most of these are concerned with optimization of paraquat application techniques and the effect of species differences on these methods. A large study was installed to field screen selected insecticides for insect pest control in lightwood operations, and interim results are presented. Dowco 214 (Reldon) proved to be an adequate substitute for BHC and 0.5% concentrations were as effective as 1%. Ten northern and seven western conifer species were tested for their reaction to paraquat treatment. All members of genus Pinus showed appreciable resin soaking but other coniferous genera did not. Feasibility of oleoresin substitution for petrochemicals was investigated.

  17. Fire retardants for wood

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  18. Moisture Transport in Wood

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood...

  19. Potential greenhouse gas benefits of transatlantic wood pellet trade

    Power utility companies in the United Kingdom are using imported wood pellets from the southern region of the United States for electricity generation to meet the legally binding mandate of sourcing 15% of the nation’s total energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. This study ascertains relative savings in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a unit of electricity generated using imported wood pellet in the United Kingdom under 930 different scenarios: three woody feedstocks (logging residues, pulpwood, and logging residues and pulpwood combined), two forest management choices (intensive and non-intensive), 31 plantation rotation ages (year 10 to year 40 in steps of 1 year), and five power plant capacities (20–100 MW in steps of 20 MW). Relative savings in GHG emissions with respect to a unit of electricity derived from fossil fuels in the United Kingdom range between 50% and 68% depending upon the capacity of power plant and rotation age. Relative savings in GHG emissions increase with higher power plant capacity. GHG emissions related to wood pellet production and transatlantic shipment of wood pellets typically contribute about 48% and 31% of total GHG emissions, respectively. Overall, use of imported wood pellets for electricity generation could help in reducing the United Kingdom’s GHG emissions. We suggest that future research be directed to evaluation of the impacts of additional forest management practices, changing climate, and soil carbon on the overall savings in GHG emissions related to transatlantic wood pellet trade. (paper)

  20. CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.

    Hamid Reza Naji,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

  1. Private valuation of carbon sequestration in forest plantations

    Guitart, A. Bussoni [Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica. Avda. E. Garzon, 780, CP 12.900, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, L.C. Estraviz [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' , Universidad de Sao, Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Approval of the Clean Development Mechanism, provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, enables countries with afforested land to trade in carbon emissions reduction certificates related to carbon dioxide equivalent quantities (CO{sub 2-e}) stored within a certain forest area. Potential CO{sub 2-e} above base line sequestration was determined for two forest sites on commercial eucalyptus plantations in northern Brazil (Bahia). Compensation values for silvicultural regimes involving rotation lengths greater than economically optimal were computed using the Faustmann formula. Mean values obtained were US$8.16 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} and US$7.19 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} for average and high site indexes, respectively. Results show that carbon supply is more cost-efficient in highly productive sites. Annuities of US$18.8 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and US$35.1 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and yearly payments of US$4.4 m{sup -} {sup 3} and US$8.2 m{sup -} {sup 3} due for each marginal cubic meter produced were computed for high and average sites, respectively. The estimated value of the tonne of carbon defines minimum values to be paid to forest owners, in order to induce a change in silvicultural management regimes. A reduction of carbon supply could be expected as a result of an increase in wood prices, although it would not respond in a regular manner. For both sites, price elasticity of supply was found to be inelastic and increased as rotation length moved further away from economically optimal: 0.24 and 0.27 for age 11 years in average- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This would be due to biomass production potential as a limiting factor; beyond a certain threshold value, an increase in price does not sustain a proportional change in carbon storage supply. The environmental service valuation model proposed might be adequate for assessing potential supply in plantation forestry, from a private landowner perspective, with an economic opportunity cost. The model is

  2. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  3. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  4. Hemipteran diversity in Endau-Rompin plantation

    Bakri, Asraf; Rahim, Faszly

    2015-09-01

    Study on hemipteran at Endau Rompin Plantation (LER), Pahang was conducted at oil palm plantation planted at different type of soils. The aim of the study was to determine hemipteran diversity in oil palm ecosystem. Sampling was done from April 2012 to September 2012 by using Malaise and impact traps. Cicadellidae was the most abundance and dominance family with 105 individuals and 6 species (=morphospecies) recorded. The rarefaction curve becomes flatter to the right indicating a reasonable number of individual samples have been taken. Peat area show high Shannon index and Margalef index values compared to clay area.There were significant differences in hemipteran community between three type of soils (χ2=98.751,df=58,poil palm plantation is affected by the type of soil.

  5. Assessment of the effect of quality factors on the assortment structure in poplar plantations

    Danilović Milorad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality factors affecting the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations were researched on nine temporary sample plots in the period 1997-2004, from the aspect of the implementation of roundwood standards. Sample plots were selected depending on the factors, the effect of which was studied. The following factors were researched: clonal species, planting pattern, flood risk, pruning of branches, plantation position and age. The study was performed by the original methodology. Based on the study results, it is concluded that knots have the highest effect on the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations, regardless of the site and stand conditions. Their effect rises significantly with the increase of tree diameter. Also, the analyses show that the number of large and rotten knots on the tree trunk increases considerably with the older age. In the flooded area, the sweep of the lower part of the stem is more intensive and multiple curvatures are frequent on the trees growing immediately along the river, whereas curvature decreases with the distance from the river bank. Based on the study results, it is concluded that the percentage of best quality assortments is considerably reduced by the above wood defects.

  6. Seasonality on the rainfall partitioning of a fast-growing tree plantation under Mediterranean conditions

    molina, antonio; llorens, pilar; biel, carme

    2014-05-01

    Studies on rainfall interception in fast-growing tree plantations are less numerous than those in natural forests. Trees in these plantations are regularly distributed, and the canopy cover is clumped but changes quickly, resulting on high variability in the volume and composition of water that reach the soil. In addition, irrigation supply is normally required in semiarid areas to get optimal wood production; consequently, knowing rainfall interception and its yearly evolution is crucial to manage the irrigation scheme properly. This work studies the rainfall partitioning seasonality in a cherry tree (Prunus avium) plantation orientated to timber production under Mediterranean conditions. The monitoring design started on March 2012 and consists of a set of 58 throughfall tipping buckets randomly distributed (based on a 1x1 m2 grid) in a plot of 128 m2 with 8 trees. Stemflow is measured in all the trees with 2 tipping buckets and 6 accumulative collectors. Canopy cover is regularly measured throughout the study period, in leaf and leafless periods, by mean of sky-orientated photographs taken 50 cm above the center of each tipping bucket. Others tree biometrics are also measured such as diameter and leaf area index. Meteorological conditions are measured at 2 m above the forest cover. This work presents the first analyses describing the rainfall partitioning and its dependency on canopy cover, distance to tree and meteorological conditions. The modified Gash' model for rainfall interception in dispersed vegetation is also preliminary evaluated.

  7. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

    In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha-'1) and 86 % higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  8. Nutritional, carbon and energy evaluation of Eucalyptus nitens short rotation bioenergy plantations in northwestern Spain

    González-García M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study provides essential information related to the nutrient and carbon levels and the energy potential of Eucalytpus nitens (Deane & Maiden Maiden bionenergy plantations located in northwestern Spain. Nutritional analysis showed that leaves and bark had the highest concentrations of N, P, K and Mg. Carbon concentration was constant for all above-ground tree components. Nutrients and carbon were analyzed at stand level according to plantation productivity. Stemwood, the main tree component at the end of the rotation, had the highest nutrient content, except for N and Ca, which were highest in leaves and bark respectively. Based on this study, the nutrient content per ha of above-ground biomass was 243-706 kg N, 44-122 kg P, 131-375 kg K, 121-329 kg Ca and 25-67 kg Mg at the end of the bioenergy rotation (6-12 years, depending on site quality and 19-56 Mg C ha-1. Energy analysis showed a fairly constant Net Calorific Value for wood, 18.32 ± 0.19 MJ kg-1. The results obtained are valuable for selecting the most appropriate forest management system in these bioenergy plantations, and thereby promote the sustainable use of woody crops.

  9. Influence of Thinning on Soil CO2 Efflux in Chinese Fir Plantations

    TIAN Da-Lun; YAN Wen-De; FANG Xi; KANG Wen-Xing; DENG Xiang-Wen; WANG Guang-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Forest management is expected to influence soil CO2 efflux (FCO2) as a result of changes in microenvironmental conditions,soil microclimate,and root dynamics.Soil FCO2 rate was measured during the growing season of 2006 in both thinning and non-thinning locations within stands ranging from 0 to 8 years after the most recent thinning in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations in Huitong Ecosystem Research Station,Hunan,China.Soil temperature and moisture were also measured to examine relationships between FCO2 and soil properties.Forest thinning resulted in huge changes in FCO2 that varied with time since cutting.Immediately following harvest (year 0) FCO2 in thinning area increased by about 30%,declined to 20%-27% below pre-cutting levels during years 4-6,and recovered to pro-cutting levels at 8 years post-cutting.A similar temporal pattern,but with smaller changes,was found in non-thinning locations.The initial increase in FCO2 could be attributed to a combination of root decay,soil disturbance,and increased soil temperature in gaps,while the subsequent decrease and recovery to the death and gradual regrowth of active roots.Strong effects of soil temperature and soil water content on FCO2 were found.Forest thinning mainly influenced FCO2 through changes in tree root respiration,and the net result was a decrease in integrated FCO2 flux through the entire felling cycle.

  10. Wood decay at sea

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar

    Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

    2011-12-01

    Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P < 0.001), and followed by Sa plantation (69 Mg ha-1 and 32 Mg ha-1), Am plantation (25 Mg ha-1 and 27 Mg ha-1) and Ao plantation (21 Mg ha-1 and 26 Mg ha-1). The total carbon stock in biomass was 73 Mg C ha-1 in NR stand, 43 Mg C ha-1 in Sa plantation, 21

  12. Complex geometries in wood

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  13. What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?

    Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie

    2002-07-21

    In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that

  14. 重庆市四面山几种人工林地土壤水分特性研究%Soil Water Characteristics of Different Plantations in Simian Mountain of Chongqing City

    王冉; 张洪江; 王伟; 杜士才; 程金花; 吴煜禾

    2011-01-01

    采用压力膜仪法测定了重庆市四面山5种人工林地(杉木人工纯林,杉木×马尾松人工混交林,木荷×香樟×思栎×枫香人工混交林,木荷×思栎人工混交林,杉木×马尾松×木荷人工混交林)的土壤水分特征曲线,并据此对这5种人工林地的土壤水分特性进行了分析.结果表明,采用Gardner于1970提出的经验方程θ=aSA-6能够较好地模拟这5种人工林的土壤水分含量与土壤水吸力间的关系,且拟合后的决定系数均达到0.99;通过对拟合参数a值的比较得出,5种人工林地的持水能力的顺序为:木荷×杉木×马尾松人工林(a=0.328)>木荷×香樟×思栎×枫香人工林(a=0.248)>杉木人工林(a=0.225)>木荷×思栎人工林(a=0.218)>杉木×马尾松人工林(a=0.206);通过拟合方程计算得出5种人工林土壤有效水上限吸力值为0.03 MPa比较合适,而根据比水容量的计算显示,吸力值为0.15 MPa时,植物所能吸收到的土壤水量显著减少,故把此吸力值作为易有效水与难有效水的界限;通过比较ab值(即拟合参数a与b的乘积,土壤水吸力S=1.00×105 Pa时的比水容量)和易有效水含量两个指标得出,5种林地不同土层的供水性能变化规律性不明显,但5种人工林地整体的供水性能顺序为:木荷×香樟×思栎×枫香人工林(ab=0.065,易有效水11.704)>杉木人工林(ab=0.062,易有效水10.677)>木荷×思栎人工林(ab=0.058,易有效水10.485)>木荷×杉木×马尾松人工林(ab=0.058,易有效水10.003)>杉木×马尾松人工林(ab=0.056,易有效水9.980).%Soil water characteristic curves were determined using a pressure-membrane extraction apparatus for the soils collected on five different plantations, i.e. , pure fir forest(Cunninghamia lanceolata), fir and pine(Pinus massoniana) mixed forest, and three other mixed broad-leaved forest(Schima superba × Cinnamornum camphora × Lithocarpus glaber × Liquidarnbar formsana

  15. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran

    FATEMEH GHEIBI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gheibi F, Akbarinia M, Kooch Y. 2015. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Biodiversitas 16: 10-15. Forest plantation is a common action in order to restore the degraded forests in Hyrcanian forests of Iran. This study compares the plant biodiversity in four 25-year-old stands of plantation, adjacent understory of alder (Alnus subcordata C. A. Mey., maple (Acer insigne Boiss., sequoia or red wood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don Endl. and mixed stand (maple and sequoia, located in Salmanshahr of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Research carried out in, 10 sample plots with 20m × 20m area which taken by systematic-random in each plantation. All understory species were identified, recorded and then the biodiversity indices (diversity, richness and evenness were calculated. Our findings show that the planted species had significant effects on understory diversity. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest and lowest diversity (Simpson and Shanon-Winer and richness (Margalef and Menhinic indices occurred in sequoia and alder stands, respectively. The evenness indices (Camargo and Smith-Wilson were significantly greater in maple, sequoia and mixed stands compared with the alder type. As a conclusion, floristic change trends were different according to the planted tree species. A good understanding of the complexity of vegetation processes requires long-term monitoring of vegetation change.

  16. 不同固含量低分子酚醛树脂浸渍改性杉木板材性能的研究%The Effects of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Impregnation on the Main Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cunninghamia lanceolata Lumber

    王向歌; 金菊婉; 邓玉和; 韩书广; 庄寿增

    2014-01-01

    To improve the physical and mechanical properties of Cunninghamia lanceolata wood lumber,low molecular weight phenol formaldehyde resin was impregnated into the lumber via a “vacuum-pressure”process. The distribution characteristic of resin was investigated in the length and thickness directions.The results showed that the dimensional stability of Cunninghamia lanceolata had increased gradually after impregnating with the 10%, 20%,30% concentrations of PF resin.The modulus of rupture remained unchanged after it increased from 64.5 MPa to 75 .0 MPa.The modulus of elasticity and hardness were increased by 6.1%,27.5%,48.2% and 29.8%、63.1%,73.8%,respectively.However,the impact toughness of Cunninghamia lanceolata decreased gradually with the increase of weight gain rate of resin.In the length direction,the resin distributes uniformly.In the thickness direction,the content of resin in the edge is more than that in the inside.%为改善杉木的物理力学性能,采用真空-加压浸渍工艺,对速生杉木进行低分子酚醛树脂增强改性处理,分析不同树脂增重率对改性杉木性能的影响,以及树脂在木材长度和厚度方向上的分布特点。结果表明,杉木经过固含量为10%、20%、30%的酚醛树脂浸渍处理后,其尺寸稳定性随树脂固含量的增加逐渐提高,静曲强度由64.5 MPa提高至75.0 MPa,弹性模量和表面硬度分别提高了6.1%、27.5%、48.2%和29.8%、63.1%、73.8%,但冲击韧性随着树脂增重率的增加而逐渐降低;树脂在木材长度方向上分布均匀,在厚度方向上木材表面多于其内部。

  17. Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering- och tungmetallfloeden'

    Eriksson, Hillevi; Nilsson, Torbjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2001-12-01

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

  18. Wood pellet seminar

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  19. Physiological and morphological variation in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in two populations of Plantago lanceolata

    Klus, D.J.; Kalisz, S.; Tonsor, S.J. (Michigan State Univ., Hickory Corners (United States))

    1993-06-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Duke University Phytotron to determine the nature and extent of genetic variation in response to elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide in 44 families from two populations of Plantago lanceolata. 10 seedlings from each maternal family were divided equally between ambient and elevated greenhouses and were grown for 60 days. At the end of that period measurements of assimilation and transpiration were made, the plants were harvested and seven morphological traits were measured. Analysis of the data reveals that genetic variation in response to elevated carbon dioxide exists at the family level for assimilation, and at the population level for three of the morphological traits: number of vegetative shoots per plant, diameter of the vegetative shoots, and number of leaves per shoot. Thus, the potential for elevated carbon dioxide to act as an agent of natural selection exists within this plant species.

  20. Rapid discrimination of cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata in different ages by FT-IR and 2DCOS-IR

    Zhu, Yun; Xu, Chang-hua; Huang, Jian; Li, Guo-yu; Liu, Xin-Hu; Sun, Su-qin; Wang, Jin-hui

    2014-07-01

    Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata) root, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to treat lung ailments, rheumatism, menstrual disturbance and bruises with a long history in China and some other Asian countries. In this study, four types of Deodeok with different growth years were discriminated and identified by a Tri-step infrared spectroscopy method (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (conventional FT-IR) coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2DCOS-IR) under thermal perturbation. Although only small differences were found in the FT-IR spectra of the samples, the positions and intensities of peaks around 1736, 1634, 1246, 1055, 1033, 818, 779 cm-1 could be considered as the key factors for discriminating them. The differences among them were amplified by their SD-IR spectra. The 2DCOS-IR spectra provided obvious dynamic chemical structure information of Deodeok samples, which present different particular auto peak clusters in the range of 875-1130 cm-1 and 1170-1630 cm-1, respectively. It was demonstrated that the content of triterpene were decreasing when C. lanceolata were growing older, but the relative content of saccharides initially increased and decreased significantly afterwards. It indicated a general trend that the content of polysaccharides accumulated with increasing years. Specifically, the content of polysaccharides accumulated in the root of 2-year-old plant was the lowest, 4-years-old was the highest, and then the content decreased gradually. Furthermore, according to the differences of locations and intensities of auto-peaks in 2D-IR spectra, the integral changes of components were revealed. This study offers a promising method inherent with cost-effective and time-saving to characterize and discriminate the complicated system like Deodeok.

  1. Ectomycorrhizal Colonization and Diversity in Relation to Tree Biomass and Nutrition in a Plantation of Transgenic Poplars with Modified Lignin Biosynthesis

    Danielsen, Lara; Lohaus, Gertrud; Sirrenberg, Anke; Karlovsky, Petr; Bastien, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Wood from biomass plantations with fast growing tree species such as poplars can be used as an alternative feedstock for production of biofuels. To facilitate utilization of lignocellulose for saccharification, transgenic poplars with modified or reduced lignin contents may be useful. However, the potential impact of poplars modified in the lignification pathway on ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, which play important roles for plant nutrition, is not known. The goal of this study was to investiga...

  2. Ectomycorrhizal colonization and diversity in relation to tree biomass and nutrition in a plantation of transgenic poplars with modified lignin biosynthesis.

    Lara Danielsen

    Full Text Available Wood from biomass plantations with fast growing tree species such as poplars can be used as an alternative feedstock for production of biofuels. To facilitate utilization of lignocellulose for saccharification, transgenic poplars with modified or reduced lignin contents may be useful. However, the potential impact of poplars modified in the lignification pathway on ectomycorrhizal (EM fungi, which play important roles for plant nutrition, is not known. The goal of this study was to investigate EM colonization and community composition in relation to biomass and nutrient status in wildtype (WT, Populus tremula × Populus alba and transgenic poplar lines with suppressed activities of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase, and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase in a biomass plantation. In different one-year-old poplar lines EM colonization varied from 58% to 86%, but the EM community composition of WT and transgenic poplars were indistinguishable. After two years, the colonization rate of all lines was increased to about 100%, but separation of EM communities between distinct transgenic poplar genotypes was observed. The differentiation of the EM assemblages was similar to that found between different genotypes of commercial clones of Populus × euramericana. The transgenic poplars exhibited significant growth and nutrient element differences in wood, with generally higher nutrient accumulation in stems of genotypes with lower than in those with higher biomass. A general linear mixed model simulated biomass of one-year-old poplar stems with high accuracy (adjusted R(2 = 97% by two factors: EM colonization and inverse wood N concentration. These results imply a link between N allocation and EM colonization, which may be crucial for wood production in the establishment phase of poplar biomass plantations. Our data further support that multiple poplar genotypes regardless whether generated by transgenic approaches or

  3. How James Wood Works

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  4. Method of stabilizing wood

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  5. Economy of wood supply

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  6. Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    There exists a significant potential for utilising perennial energy plantations in protecting and restoring polluted water and land resources in Sweden. By optimising the design, location and management, several additional environmental services could be obtained which will increase the value of the energy plantations, thereby improving future market conditions for biomass. Multi-functional energy plantations (mainly Salix but also energy grass) can be divided into two categories, those designed for dedicated environmental services (e.g. vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and shelter belts against soil erosion), and those generating more general benefits (e.g. soil carbon accumulation, increased soil fertility, cadmium removal and increased hunting potential). The practical potential of those two categories is estimated to be equivalent to up to 3% and more than 20% of the total Swedish arable land, respectively. The regional conditions of utilising multi-functional plantations vary, however, with the best possibilities in densely populated areas dominated by farmland. The economic value of multi-functional plantations is normally highest for those designed for dedicated environmental services. Purification of wastewater has the highest value, which could exceed the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, followed by treatment of polluted drainage water in vegetation filters and buffer zones (equivalent to more than half of the production cost), recirculation of sewage sludge (around half of the production cost), erosion control (around one fourth) and increased hunting potential (up to 15% of the production cost). The value of increased hunting potential varies due to nearness to larger cities and in which part of Sweden the plantation is located. The economic value of cadmium removal and increased soil fertility is equivalent to a few percent of the production cost, but the value of cadmium removal might increase in the

  7. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURAL VARIATION IN THE Calophyllum brasiliense WOOD

    Ricardo Marques Barreiros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Favorable silvicultural and technological characteristics of the species Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. have led to the emergence of commercial plantations. Scientific literature offers only medium and general data on some variables of this species, not reporting specific variables prior to the time of the study, such as age, spacing, among others, perhaps because the wood is mostly from native forests. Given the knowledge gap regarding the characterization of guanandi wood, the aim of this work was to quantitatively study: (i the morphological structural variation of the wood cells, and (ii the distinction between juvenile and mature wood, for the species from a pure plantation, whose growth history are known. Five specimens were sampled, within a population of 135 trees, with 13 years of age and 4.0 x 2.5 m spacing. The results indicated average values of 1134, 21.02, 12.88 and 4.07 μm for the length, width, and diameter of the lumen and mean wall fiber thickness, respectively. 13-years-old guanandi wood was characterized as juvenile.

  8. Shrinkage of the Toona ciliata wood from three counties in the south of Minas Gerais state

    Alessandra de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the shrinkage, in the bottom-up and pith-bark direction, of the australian cedar wood from three Counties in the south of Minas Gerais state, and also to check the variation in chemical composition of wood due the location of planting. The australian cedar wood was obtained with four years of age and in three cities in the south of Minas Gerais state (Campo Belo, Cana Verde and Santo Antonio do Amparo. The chemical constituents of wood, shrinkage values (tangential, radial, longitudinal and volumetric and the anisotropy coefficient. According to the results, there was no significant variation in the levels of holocellulose were determined, lignin, extractives and ashes between the three plantation sites evaluated. For the shrinkage of the wood in the bottom-up direction, there was no significant variation of the radial and longitudinal contractions for the three locations evaluated. However, significant variation was observed for the tangential and volumetric contractions for cities of Campo Belo and Cana Verde, and significant variation of Tangential contraction for the plantation of Santo Antonio do Amparo. In the pith-bark direction, significant variation was observed only on the radial contraction and the coefficient of anisotropy for location of Cana Verde.

  9. Experimental Investigation on Rotary Peeling Parameters of High Density Coconut Wood

    BAILLERES, Henri; DENAUD, Louis; Butaud, Jean-Claude; MCGAVIN, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Substantial quantities of senile coconut palms are present in plantations within the Asia-Pacific region. Once coconut palms become over-mature, their production of traditional products, such as coconuts, significantly decreases, resulting in profitability challenges for farmers. Presently, few profitable markets exist for over-mature, senile coconut palms. Using the coconut palm stem in composite or engineered wood products could, however, provide an attractive alternative. Due to some of it...

  10. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook under Aluminum Stress.

    Zhihui Ma

    Full Text Available Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration and longer periods of aluminum stress, the H+ ion flow gradually changed from influx into efflux; there was a large variation in the K+ efflux, which gradually decreased with increasing duration of aluminum stress; and 1 h of aluminum stress uniformly resulted in Ca2+ influx, but it changed from influx to efflux after a longer period of aluminum stress. Changes in the different concentrations of aluminum had the largest influence on Mg2+.

  11. Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

  12. Isolation and characterization of mold fungi and insects infecting sawmill wood, and their inhibition by gamma radiation

    Kalawate, Aparna; Mehetre, Sayaji

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the isolation, identification, and characterization of wood-rotting fungi and insects, and their inhibition was studied using gamma radiation. Products manufactured from plantation timber species are deteriorated by wood-rotting fungi such as Hypocrea lixii, Fusarium proliferatum, and Aspergillus flavus, and insects such as powderpost beetles. Proper preservation methods are necessary for ensuring a long service life of wood products. In this study, wood samples were treated with 2.5% copper ethanolamine boron (CEB) (10% w/v) and subsequently irradiated with gamma rays (10 kGy). It was observed that CEB-treated and gamma-irradiated samples controlled fungi and powderpost beetles significantly. As wood is a dead organic material, penetration of chemicals into it is very difficult. Gamma rays easily pass through wooden objects with hidden eggs and dormant spores of insects and fungi, respectively. Gamma irradiation was proved very effective in reducing damage caused by both fungi and insects.

  13. Plantation future of bamboo in China

    LIZhao-hua; MikioKOBAYASHI

    2004-01-01

    In the past, utilization of bamboo resources in China has been traditionally dominated by direct consumption of local farmers as minor forest products with weak linkage with market. In recent years, the over-supply of grains and rapid degradation of agricultural environment call for alternative crops that can be developed through integrating the environmental plantation with the market demands. Closely associated with forestry and agriculture, bamboo is able to deal with the new challenges which China's agriculture is facing. Of 534 documented bamboo species in China, 153 species produce edibleshoots and of which 56 species are recommended for agricultural plantation; 139 species provide timbers and of which 58 species recommended; 116 species can be splited as good strips for weaving and of which 22 species recommended; 88 species are considered as garden bamboos and of which 34 species recommended; 45 species are able to produce paper pulp and of which 18 species recommended.

  14. Crop modelling of eucalyptus plantations in Nicaragua

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2006-01-01

    In Nicaragua, at this moment, there is a potential for sugarmills to extend their power production and sell power to the national grid, both during and outside the sugarcane crushing season. During the sugarcane crushing season bagasse can be used as an energy source. An off-season fuel is eucalyptus from dedicated energy plantations. In Nicaragua two sugarmills ( "San Antonio" and "Victoria de Julio") have taken the initiative to implement this concept.

  15. Modeling Mortality of Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Thapa, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of mortality is an important component of forest growth and yield prediction systems, yet mortality remains one of the least understood components of the system. Whole-stand and individual-tree mortality models were developed for loblolly pine plantations throughout its geographic range in the United States. The model for predicting stand mortality were developed using stand characteristics and biophysical variables. The models were constructed using two modeling approache...

  16. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  17. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Damkilde, Lars

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  18. Transcriptome Characteristics and Six Alternative Expressed Genes Positively Correlated with the Phase Transition of Annual Cambial Activities in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    Wang, Zhanjun; Chen, Jinhui; Liu, Weidong; Luo, Zhanshou; Wang, Pengkai; Zhang, Yanjuan; Zheng, Renhua; Shi, Jisen

    2013-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanisms that govern cambial activity in angiosperms are well established, but little is known about these molecular mechanisms in gymnosperms. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook), a diploid (2n  = 2x  = 22) gymnosperm, is one of the most important industrial and commercial timber species in China. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in cambium tissue of Chinese fir. Methodology/Principal Findings ...

  19. Effects of fertilization and competition on plant biomass allocation and internal resources: Does Plantago lanceolata follow the rules of economic theory?

    Janeček, Štěpán; Patáčová, E.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 49-64. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR GA526/07/0808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : allocation * Plantago lanceolata * plasticity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  20. Wood construction under cold climate

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror;

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and...

  1. Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 can colonize and improve P uptake of Plantago lanceolata after exposure to ionizing gamma radiation in root organ culture.

    Kothamasi, David; Wannijn, Jean; van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; van Gompel, Axel; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2016-04-01

    Long-lived radionuclides such as (90)Sr and (137)Cs can be naturally or accidentally deposited in the upper soil layers where they emit β/γ radiation. Previous studies have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can accumulate and transfer radionuclides from soil to plant, but there have been no studies on the direct impact of ionizing radiation on AMF. In this study, root organ cultures of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 were exposed to 15.37, 30.35, and 113.03 Gy gamma radiation from a (137)Cs source. Exposed spores were subsequently inoculated to Plantago lanceolata seedlings in pots, and root colonization and P uptake evaluated. P. lanceolata seedlings inoculated with non-irradiated AMF spores or with spores irradiated with up to 30.35 Gy gamma radiation had similar levels of root colonization. Spores irradiated with 113.03 Gy gamma radiation failed to colonize P. lanceolata roots. P content of plants inoculated with non-irradiated spores or of plants inoculated with spores irradiated with up to 30.35 Gy gamma radiation was higher than in non-mycorrhizal plants or plants inoculated with spores irradiated with 113.03 Gy gamma radiation. These results demonstrate that spores of R. irregularis MUCL 41833 are tolerant to chronic ionizing radiation at high doses. PMID:26467250

  2. Optimization of Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Juliza Hidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera  as a barometer of national oil palm industry require efforts commodities and agro-industry development of oil palm. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financed plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder plantation productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing oil palm plantations which are to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims to identify potential criteria in influencing plantation productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. 

  3. Ectomycorrhizal status of a mature productive black truffle plantation

    Agueda, B. (Beatriz); Fernandez-Toiran, L.M. (Luz Marina); Miguel Velasco, A.M. (Ana Maria) de; Martinez-Peña, F. (Fernando)

    2010-01-01

    The truffle-plantation «Los Quejigares» was planted in 1971 by AROTZ-CATESA company. It is a 600 ha plot of Quercus ilexmycorrhizated with Tuber melanosporum at 1,250 m a.s.l. on calcareous soil. This plantation is the largest of the world and one of the eldest truffle-plantations of Spain and it is in full production. Knowledge of the mycorrhizal status of a mature black truffle plantation is significant for the improvement of truffle cultivation. Ectomycorrhizae were studied for ...

  4. The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development

    Ivetić Vladan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass, additional products in the form of non-timber forest products and additional services in the form of shelterbelts and phytoremediation.

  5. Wood - a carbon depot

    Lipušček, Igor; Tišler, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the global movement of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas due to its large quantities. We studied the carbon cycle with possibilities of its extension, and analysed the mechanisms that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and bind it into solid substances for a longer period of time. The focus was on carbon dioxide sink into biomass and carbon deposit in wood. On the basis of wood component data and chemical analysis of the components, we calculated th...

  6. Wood pellet research program

    Sohkansanj, S.; Bi, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Wood pellets are composed of waste wood materials such as sawmill residue, municipal landfill waste and grain crops. Due to the high temperature combustion used to form the waste materials into the pellet, no additives or glues are necessary to bind them. The pellets are typically used for home heating; heat and power production; poultry bedding; and in biorefineries. This presentation provided an outline of the University of British Columbia wood pellet research and development program. Research at the university is being conducted to develop new types of pellets. Researchers at the program also analyze the physical and chemical properties of pellets in order to optimize pellet density and heating values. Wood pellet modelling and simulation studies are carried out, and various training and education programs are also offered. Research is currently being conducted to develop a reactor for off-gassing experiments. This presentation also provided details of a study investigating the economics of wood pellet production and transport. Pellet production costs and feedstock costs were compared. A summary of the costs and energy inputs of pellet production included details of product storage; transportation and transfer; handling; and transportation to energy plants. It was concluded that more than 35 per cent of the energy content of biomass is used up in the processing and transport of Canadian wood pellets to Europe. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Wood pellet research program

    Wood pellets are composed of waste wood materials such as sawmill residue, municipal landfill waste and grain crops. Due to the high temperature combustion used to form the waste materials into the pellet, no additives or glues are necessary to bind them. The pellets are typically used for home heating; heat and power production; poultry bedding; and in biorefineries. This presentation provided an outline of the University of British Columbia wood pellet research and development program. Research at the university is being conducted to develop new types of pellets. Researchers at the program also analyze the physical and chemical properties of pellets in order to optimize pellet density and heating values. Wood pellet modelling and simulation studies are carried out, and various training and education programs are also offered. Research is currently being conducted to develop a reactor for off-gassing experiments. This presentation also provided details of a study investigating the economics of wood pellet production and transport. Pellet production costs and feedstock costs were compared. A summary of the costs and energy inputs of pellet production included details of product storage; transportation and transfer; handling; and transportation to energy plants. It was concluded that more than 35 per cent of the energy content of biomass is used up in the processing and transport of Canadian wood pellets to Europe. refs., tabs., figs

  8. The influence of mature oak stands and spruce plantations on soil-dwelling click beetles in lowland plantation forests

    Loskotová, Tereza; Horák, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Most European forests have been converted into forest plantations that are managed for timber production. The main goal of this paper was to determine the difference between mature native sessile oak (Quercus petraea) stands and non-indigenous Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations, with respect to communities of Athous click beetles in approximately 6,500 ha of lowland plantation forest area in the Czech Republic. Athous subfuscus was the most abundant and widespread species, followed by A....

  9. Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies

    Suratman, Mohd Nazip

    2003-06-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information

  10. Impacts of fertilization on water quality of a drained pine plantation: a worst case scenario.

    Beltran, Bray J; Amatya, Devendra M; Youssef, Mohamed; Jones, Martin; Callahan, Timothy J; Skaggs, R Wayne; Nettles, Jami E

    2010-01-01

    Intensive plantation forestry will be increasingly important in the next 50 yr to meet the high demand for domestic wood in the United States. However, forest management practices can substantially influence downstream water quality and ecology. This study analyses, the effect of fertilization on effluent water quality of a low gradient drained coastal pine plantation in Carteret County, North Carolina using a paired watershed approach. The plantation consists of three watersheds, two mature (31-yr) and one young (8-yr) (age at treatment). One of the mature watersheds was commercially thinned in 2002. The mature unthinned watershed was designated as the control. The young and mature-thinned watersheds were fertilized at different rates with Arborite (Encee Chemical Sales, Inc., Bridgeton, NC), and boron. The outflow rates and nutrient concentrations in water drained from each of the watersheds were measured. Nutrient concentrations and loadings were analyzed using general linear models (GLM). Three large storm events occurred within 47 d of fertilization, which provided a worst case scenario for nutrient export from these watersheds to the receiving surface waters. Results showed that average nutrient concentrations soon after fertilization were significantly (alpha = 0.05) higher on both treatment watersheds than during any other period during the study. This increase in nutrient export was short lived and nutrient concentrations and loadings were back to prefertilization levels as soon as 3 mo after fertilization. Additionally, the mature-thinned watershed presented higher average nutrient concentrations and loadings when compared to the young watershed, which received a reduced fertilizer rate than the mature-thinned watershed. PMID:20048317

  11. Wood for the trees

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  12. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with MultilureRM Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San Carlos

  13. Green Gold. On variations of truth in plantation forestry

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined

  14. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  15. Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun

    Makombu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

  16. Gene expression and proteomic analysis of shoot apical meristem transition from dormancy to activation in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.

    Xu, Huimin; Cao, Dechang; Chen, Yanmei; Wei, Dongmei; Wang, Yanwei; Stevenson, Rebecca Ann; Zhu, Yingfang; Lin, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to annual plants, in perennial plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) can undergo seasonal transitions between dormancy and activity; understanding this transition is crucial for understanding growth in perennial plants. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM development in trees. Here, light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that evident changes in starch granules, lipid bodies, and cell walls thickness of the SAM in C. lanceolata during the transition from dormancy to activation. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed that levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) increased and levels of abscisic acid (ABA) decreased from dormant to active stage. Examination of 20 genes and 132 differentially expressed proteins revealed that the expression of genes and proteins potentially involved in cell division and expansion significantly increased in the active stage, whereas those related to the abscisic acid insensitive 3(ABI3), the cytoskeleton and energy metabolism decreased in the dormant stage. These findings provide new insights into the complex mechanism of gene and protein expression and their relation to cytological and physiological changes of SAM in this coniferous species. PMID:26832850

  17. Improving the assessment method of seed vigor in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana based on oxygen sensing technology

    ZHAO Guang-wu; ZHONG Tai-lin

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen sensing technology was employed to study the rapid methods for seed vigor assessment of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana).Firstly,seeds of five lots were performed using accelerated aging (AA) into three vigor levels.Then,four oxygen sensing indices,including increased metabolism time (IMT),oxygen metabolism rate (OMR),critical oxygen pressure (COP),relative germination time (RGT) and the control indices such as laboratory germination indices,dehydrogenase activity (DA),and electrical conductivity (EC) were analyzed by the tests of 15 samples.The results of correlation analysis between these indices and field emergence performances based on two-year and two-spot data showed that RGT and OMR should be indicated as the optimal oxygen sensing indices to rapidly and automatically evaluate seed vigor of Chinese fir and Masson pine,respectively.On the basis,one-variable linear regression equations were built to forecast their field emergence performances by the two oxygen sensing indices.

  18. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

    2010-07-01

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  19. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  20. Organic acid exudation from the roots of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana seedlings under low phosphorus stress

    Yuanchun YU; Jian YU; Qihua SHAN; Li FANG; Defeng JIANG

    2008-01-01

    Organic acid exudation from the roots of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) seedlings under low phosphorus stress was studied using the solution culture method. The results revealed that organic acid exudation from the roots of Chinese fir and Masson pine seedlings under low phosphorus stress increased. Compared with P3 (KH2PO4, 0.5 mmol/L), the average organic acid exuda-tion from the root of Masson pine seedlings under P0 (KH2PO4, 0 mmol/L), P1 (KH2PO4, 0.03 mmol/L) and P2(KH2PO4, 0.09 mmol/L) increased by 328.6%, 267.9% and 126.4% respectively. Masson pine from Zhejiang Province in China had the highest organic acid exuda-tion. Under low phosphorus stress, the increase in organic acid exudation from the different provinces of Chinese fir and Masson pine varied. Masson pine from Zhejiang Province mainly increased oxalic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid and malic acid exudation, that from Guangxi Province mainly increased oxalic acid and tartaric acid exudation, and that from Guizhou Province, China mainly increased oxalic acid, tartaric acid and malic acid exudation. Chinese fir mainly increased oxalic acid and tartaric acid exudation.

  1. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP(TM))is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTPTM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTPTM. The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  2. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to...... 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  3. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  4. Energy from wood - an overview

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  5. Methane from wood

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  6. The coppice-with-standards silvicultural system as applied to Eucalyp-tus plantations-a review

    Antonio Carlos FERRAZ FILHO; José Roberto Soares; SCOLFORO; Blas MOLA-YUDEGO

    2014-01-01

    We review the management of Eucalyptus species under a coppice-with-standards (CWS) silvicultural system. CWS management results in product diversification, permitting production of small and large scale timber from the same stand. Eucalyptus species are suitable candidates for CWS management because: there are large worldwide plantation areas, sprouting capacity is high, and eucalypts are multipur-pose species. We discuss (1) short rotation Eucalyptus coppice manage-ment for energy and pulping and (2) Eucalyptus seedling management for solid wood products. We review the literature and discuss experi-ences with Eucalyptus managed under the CWS system. We also assess projects dealing with Eucalyptus coppice management, stand density regulation, pruning, and stand and wood quality. The growth environ-ment of the standard trees (heavy competition up to the first harvest, free growth afterwards) coupled with long rotations (>20 years) results in high quality logs for solid wood products. Early pruning should be ap-plied to enhance wood quality. We propose a system for the silvicultural management of Eucalyptus under the CWS system, elaborating on the consequences of initial planting density, site productivity, and standard tree densities as well as timing of basic silvicultural applications.

  7. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation is...

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WOOD TRANSPORTATION

    Sokolov A. P.; Shain V. A.; Syunev V. S.; Lappalainen J.

    2014-01-01

    The article gives an example of usage of the tool for round-wood transport planning from the Decision Support System “Forest Logistic Toolset” for com-pare of two approaches to the organization of international wood transportation

  9. Variation in root wood anatomy

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  10. Wood-pastures of Europe

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta;

    2015-01-01

    Wood-pastures are archetypes of High Nature Value Farmlands in Europe and hold exceptional ecological, social, and cultural values. Yet, wood-pastures have been through a sharp decline all over Europe, mainly due to processes of agricultural intensification and abandonment. Recently, wood-pasture...