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Sample records for lanceolata plantation wood

  1. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m{sup 3} or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m{sup 3} or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  2. MDF/HDF Production from Plantation Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Alpár, Tibor Fáczán, István Rácz, Gabor Kátoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the raw material base for the newly built MDF/HDF production line in Mohács, Hungary. The desired raw material for the factory is 80 % poplar and 20 % other species (conifers and broad leaved species. These raw materials should be obtained from wood plantations. Laboratory experiments were done in production of MDF and HDF boards with the following raw materials: 5 and 10 year old Pannonia poplar (Populus x euramericana Pannónia, I214 poplar (Populus x euramericana ‘I214’, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra. The selected trees were evaluated based on the following parameters: diameter, bark volume, ability for barking, ability for chipping, fiber yield, fiber quality, energy consumption of defibrating, chemical analysis of waste water after defibrating. MDF and HDF boards were made in laboratory from clear poplar species, and from a mixture of poplar and Austrian pine and poplar and black locust. In both cases of mixing, the ratio of poplar and other wood species was 80:20. Ureaformaldehyde adhesive and ammonium-sulphate hardener were used during board production. Also some paraffin was added to increase the moisture resistance. The following board characteristics were tested: bending strength, internal bond, modulus of elasticity, thickness swelling, density, moisture content, formaldehyde content. Except the values of internal bond, the results were very satisfactory, highly above the standard requirements. The reason for the low internal bond values is as follows: - in the laboratory we could not apply a proper blending of fibers and additives, - mat forming by hand. In spite of this, we are sure that an actual technological test production will give good results.

  3. The role of wood ant Formica polyctena in the cycling of phosphorus in spruce plantations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Kal?ík, Ji?í

    Utsjoki : Kevo Subarctic Research Station, 2004. s. 1-2. [Workshop on the Role of Red Wood Ant s in Carbon and Nutrient Dynamics of Forest Ecosystem. 10.09.2004-11.09.2004, Utsjoki] Keywords : wood ant s * cycling of phosphorus * spruce plantations Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Some Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Juvenile Wood from Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold Plantations

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    Cengiz Guler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some chemical, physical and mechanical properties of juvenile wood from black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold plantations. Black pine, one of the important softwood species covers the most of the plantations in Turkey. Black pines that naturally grow in Duzce were 20-23 years old with the dimensions of 13-17 cm utilized in this study. Specimens were prepared and tested according to Turkish standards. The physical properties were measured and air and oven dry wood densities were found to be 0.464 and 0.431 g cm–3, respectively. The volume weight was 0.383 g cm–3. The radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkage values were 4.05, 6.19 and 10.24%, respectively. The radial, tangential and volumetric swelling values were also found to be 3.69, 7.79 and 11.5%, respectively. The mechanical tests resulted in that the static bending and compression strengths were 79.1 and 42.4 N mm–2, respectively. In addition juvenile wood had higher lignin and lower holocellulose content compared to the mature wood. Conclusively, the physical and mechanical properties of juvenile pine wood examined in this study were observed to be lower compared to the mature pine wood.

  5. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AMONG WOOD PROPERTIES AND GROWTH IN WILD CHERRY PLANTATIONS

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    Michela Nocetti,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the major users of cherry wood (Prunus avium L., and its cultivation has been increasing since the early nineties, together with studies aimed at improving genotypes, with a selection usually based on growth, stem form, vigor, and tree adaptation. Here, the phenotypic correlations between growth rate and the physical and mechanical properties of wood are investigated in two wild cherry plantations. X-ray microdensitometry was also applied to analyze the age-age correlations of wood density. It was shown that growth rate did not affect wood properties, and density was confirmed to be the trait that best represents the main properties of wood. The absence of relationships between wood density and growth rate was confirmed by densitometric analysis, although an increase of wood density with an increase of ring width was detected for very narrow rings (less than 3 mm wide. The average density at age 7 to 8 was observed to be highly correlated (r > 0.90 to the average density of a 19-year-old tree, allowing reliable estimation of the wood properties of older trees by early investigation of young trees.

  6. Wood-polymer composites from Philippine tree plantation species by radiation polymerization I. Uptake and irradiation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation catalyzed polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in various Philippine tree plantation species were investigated. Wood samples measuring 1x6cm were impregnated with monomer at reduced pressure and gamma irradiated for various doses at a dose rate of 0.53 kGy/h. The parameters used to assess the polymerization reaction were the uptake of monomer by the wood samples, monomer conversion, and polymer loading in the irradiated samples. The uptake and polymerization data indicate that coconut wood, rubber wood, bagras, and Moluccan sau could be potential raw materials for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPC). (author). 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Some Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Juvenile Wood from Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz Guler; Yalcin Copur; Mehmet Akgul; Umit Buyuksari

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some chemical, physical and mechanical properties of juvenile wood from black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantations. Black pine, one of the important softwood species covers the most of the plantations in Turkey. Black pines that naturally grow in Duzce were 20-23 years old with the dimensions of 13-17 cm utilized in this study. Specimens were prepared and tested according to Turkish standards. The physical properties were measured and air and ove...

  8. Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehari, A.

    1997-11-01

    This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Assessment of cost-efficiency for wood production in poplar plantations in Ravan Srem, based on internal rate of return

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    Ke?a Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the commercial cost efficiency analysis of poplar plantations, according to project evaluation indicator in agriculture and forestry - internal rate of return (IRR. The analysis was performed for planting poplar clone I-214 in the area of Ravan Srem, planting space 6×6 m, with different rotations and on different soil types. The methodology, used in this paper refers to the implementation of the dynamic method of economic research, which explains the discount rate, according to which, the current value of cash flow will be equal to the current value of the cash outflaw. The research goal was to check the justifica­tion of funds invested in wood production in poplar plantations, based on revenues and cost analysis in different plantation ages, using the IRR. The research showed that the IRR for 12 sample plots varied in interval 4.32-6.94% with average rate of 5.63%. The internal rates are larger for plantations on good quality soil types, regarding of poplar plantation (aluvial semigleyic soil, and for shorter rotations and vice versa. The IRR values higher than 12% were not found in researched framework of cost-revenues changes rate. The sensitive analysis proved that the project is very easily affected by cost-revenues changes. .

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD FROM THREE PLANTATION SOFTWOODS

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    Elio José Santini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Woods from plantation stands of parana, slash and loblolly pines, thinned at least once, were tested with the objective of comparing physical and mechanical properties. Five threes from each specie were harvested from selected stands. The stems were bucked into logs and then transported to the sawmill cooperating in this study. The logs were processed into planks, which were air seasoned, and then cut into pieces according to ASTM standards. Although the average strength of parana pine was slightly larger than the two other pines, significant differences were found only in the tests of static bending (modulus of elasticity and tension at the proportional limit, compression parallel to the grain (maximum crushing strength, modulus of elasticity and tension at the proportional limit and hardness (cross-section. The  properties  were  not  different  for  slash  and loblolly pines, except in tension perpendicular to the grain, where the strength of loblolly pine was higher than the others. No differences were found for specific gravity and shrinkage among the species.

  11. STUDY OF WOOD SAWDUST WITH ADDITION OF PLANTATION WASTES AS A GROWTH MEDIUM ON YIELDS AND QUALITY OF WHITE OYSTER MUSHROOM

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    Imam Mudakir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the use of wood sawdust as a medium for growth and the optimum addition ratio of plantation wastes that can increase the yields and quality of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD consisting of 7 levels of treatment ratio of wood sawdust and plantation wastes. The data analysis involved one way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s 5%. The results showed that the wood sawdust can be used as growing medium, and the addition of plantation wastes can increase the yields and the quality of white oyster mushroom. The addition of cocoa and coffee wastes with a ratio 25% was the optimum ratio treatment which increased the number of fruiting bodies, caps diameter, production weight, Biologycal Eficiency Ratio (BER and protein, fats, carbohydrates and fiber content in white oyster mushrooms. It is recommended to be applied because both treatments would increase the yield and quality of white oyster mushroom.

  12. CONTROL PROCEDURES OF VOLUME OF ESTIMATED AND HARVESTED WOOD IN A PLANTATION OF Pinus spp. IN PARANÁ STATE

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    Silvane Vatraz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814585The objective of this research was to improve the operating procedures of control of the volume of timber estimated by the forest inventory and the effectively harvested volume in order to reduce inconsistencies in the forest planning practiced in a forestry plantation of Pinus spp. in Paraná state. Accordingly, we used the tools of quality: storming and PDCA Cycle through an exploratory research project to study together. The study showed an inconsistency initial volume – 24,73% of the volume estimated by the inventory and the effectively harvested wood. This inconsistency was composed of operational failures in the activities of Forest Inventory (+13,84%, Forest Harvesting (+15,62% and Expedition Wood (-3,08%. The application of quality tools helped in the identification of inconsistency, as well as the revelation of operational failures, which suggested some routine monitoring and checking each of the activities involved in managing operational forestry.  

  13. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to export of nutrients from the forest. Recirculation of nutrients from wood chip combustion by ash spreading in forests has been proposed as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine the effect of wood chip ash application on soil chemistry in a 44-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation on a nutrient-poor soil in Denmark and to investigate the effect of applying different ash types and doses. Soil samples were collected and analyzed 2.5years (3 growing seasons) after ash application. This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an increase in Cd was found in the O-horizon, corresponding to the amount added in the ashes. Generally, no other increase in soil contents of the heavy metals was seen. Hardening of the wood ash did not decrease the chemical impact on the soil chemistry as compared to non-treated ash whereas an increase in ash application dose increases the liming effect.

  14. Effect of plantation population density on wood properties and quality of wood-based composition board from Leucaena in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.L.; Ma, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    Wood density, compression strength and longitudinal modulus of rupture were determined in three-year-old Leucaena leucocephala growing at 2500, 5000 or 10,000 trees/ha in East Taiwan. Test properties tended to decrease as the tree population increased. Differences in modulus of elasticity were not significant and compression strength and wood density were not significantly different for trees growing at 5000 or 10,000 hectare. Amount of bark increased with tree population resulting in a decrease in particle sizes from whole tree chipping. The higher yield of fines in chips from trees grown with more stems/ha had a detrimental effect on bending strength of particleboard, though internal bond was not affected. It is concluded that metarials in this study were more suitable for medium density than low density particleboard.

  15. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the method of pay back period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke?a Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar plantations are a category of fixed assets in forestry, i.e. the assets with a biological character. They are related to their site, they are cultivated for a relatively long time and they have a relatively long utilization cycle, with the yield development determined by the plantation growth and age. Plantations transfer their value gradually to the obtained products during the period of their harvesting, and, by the realization of the products, the means invested in the plantation establishment are reproduced. The period of investments in poplar growing can be relatively long, and so is the period of harvesting. Therefore, it is important to determine the time of the return of the capital invested in these and similar plantations. This paper presents the analysis of commercial profitability of poplar cultivation according to the indicator for the assessment of projects in agriculture and forestry - pay back period. The application of pay back period (PBP calculation can affect greatly the reliability of predicting the degree of economic effectiveness of investments, and also the potential risks for the investor in his decisions on the investments in poplar cultivation. The analysis of poplar clone I-214 plantations was carried out in the area of Ravni Srem, under different rotations and soil types. Based on the analysis of costs and receipts in different plantation ages, and using the method of pay back period, the objective of the study was to evaluate the possible pay back period of invested capital in wood production in poplar plantations. PBP is practically unacceptable by the investor under the discount rate of 6%. The most favorable situation is in the youngest stands, using the discount rate of 2%. The situation regarding the pay back period in the over-aged stands is utterly unfavorable, so the credit cannot be repaid under any conditions. This fact supports the idea that the production cycle length should be shortened.

  16. VARIATION IN ANISOTROPIC SHRINKAGE OF PLANTATION-GROWN PINUS RADIATA WOOD

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eric, Wang; Taian, Chen; Shusheng, Pang; Andrew, Karalus.

    Full Text Available Anisotropic shrinkage of 27-year old Pinus radiata wood was measured from green to oven-dry condition. The samples were prepared from 21 discs cut from seven trees at different stem heights of 0.1m, 5.2m and 10.3m above ground, respectively. Longitudinal shrinkage was found to vary from 0.02% to 2.3 [...] 4%, with peak values near the pith decreasing towards the bark. The variation was more pronounced at the 0.1m height. The longitudinal shrinkage also showed a trend of decrease with the stem height above the ground. Tangential and radial shrinkage was found to increase with growth ring number from the pith, but the variation along the stem height did not show a clear trend. The results confirmed that the pith-to-bark variation and vertical variation of the anisotropic shrinkage were significant for radiata pine. Large differences were also observed among corewood, transition wood and outerwood. Microfibril angle (MFA) was believed to the main reason for these variations.

  17. VARIATION IN ANISOTROPIC SHRINKAGE OF PLANTATION-GROWN PINUS RADIATA WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anisotropic shrinkage of 27-year old Pinus radiata wood was measured from green to oven-dry condition. The samples were prepared from 21 discs cut from seven trees at different stem heights of 0.1m, 5.2m and 10.3m above ground, respectively. Longitudinal shrinkage was found to vary from 0.02% to 2.34%, with peak values near the pith decreasing towards the bark. The variation was more pronounced at the 0.1m height. The longitudinal shrinkage also showed a trend of decrease with the stem height above the ground. Tangential and radial shrinkage was found to increase with growth ring number from the pith, but the variation along the stem height did not show a clear trend. The results confirmed that the pith-to-bark variation and vertical variation of the anisotropic shrinkage were significant for radiata pine. Large differences were also observed among corewood, transition wood and outerwood. Microfibril angle (MFA was believed to the main reason for these variations.

  18. Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area

  19. Equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para plantio de Ocotea porosa Estimating wood volume in plantation of Ocotea porosa

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    Andreia Taborda dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Conhec

    er o volume de madeira de uma floresta é de extrema relevância. Equações de volume para espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista se restringem quase que exclusivamente a araucária. Equações de volume para imbuia Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso são inexistentes. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo desenvolver equação de volume e relação hipsométrica para árvore individual de Ocotea porosa na região de Rio Negro, PR. Foram derrubadas 12 árvores, com DAP entre 3,98 cm e 43,13 cm e altura entre 5,1 m e 20,4 m. Foi feita cubagem rigorosa de cada uma das árvores. Para desenvolvimento da equação de volume, foram testados onze modelos matemáticos. Os critérios utilizados para a seleção da melhor equação foram o coeficiente de determinação ajustado, o erro padrão da estimativa em porcentagem, o valor de F calculado e análise gráfica de resíduos. O modelo de Kopezky-Gehrart apresentou alto coeficiente de determinação ajustado (0,97, baixo erro padrão da estimativa (16,7% e alto valor de F calculado (382,6, com boa distribuição de resíduos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o modelo pode ser utilizado para quantificação de volume com casca, o que é muito importante em conjunto com outras informações, para tomada de decisão no manejo florestal.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

    To know the volume of wood from a forest is extremely important. Volume equations for species from the Araucaria Forest are restricted almost exclusively to plantations of araucaria. Equations for Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso plantations are inexistent. The present work aims to develop equation for individual tree volume and hypsometric relation from an Ocotea porosa, established in the region of Rio Negro, PR. Twelve trees were logged with DBH from 3.98 cm to 43.13 cm and height from 5.1 m to 20.4 m. All the trees were measured and cubed. Eleven mathematical models were tested for the development of the volume equation. The criteria used for selecting the best equation were the adjusted coefficient of determination, the standard error of estimative in percentage, the value of F calculated and graphical analysis of the residuals. The model-Kopezky Gehrart, presented a high coefficient of determination (0.97, low standard error of estimate (16.7% and high value of calculated F (382.6, with good distribution of residuals. The results indicate that this model can be used to quantify the volume with bark, which is very important in conjunction with other information for decision making in forest management.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.13

  20. Carbon isotope compositions (?(13) C) of leaf, wood and holocellulose differ among genotypes of poplar and between previous land uses in a short-rotation biomass plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, M S; Fichot, R; Broeckx, L S; Vanholme, B; Boerjan, W; Ceulemans, R

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of water use to produce biomass is a key trait in designing sustainable bioenergy-devoted systems. We characterized variations in the carbon isotope composition (?(13) C) of leaves, current year wood and holocellulose (as proxies for water use efficiency, WUE) among six poplar genotypes in a short-rotation plantation. Values of ?(13) Cwood and ?(13) Cholocellulose were tightly and positively correlated, but the offset varied significantly among genotypes (0.79-1.01‰). Leaf phenology was strongly correlated with ?(13) C, and genotypes with a longer growing season showed a higher WUE. In contrast, traits related to growth and carbon uptake were poorly linked to ?(13) C. Trees growing on former pasture with higher N-availability displayed higher ?(13) C as compared with trees growing on former cropland. The positive relationships between ?(13) Cleaf and leaf N suggested that spatial variations in WUE over the plantation were mainly driven by an N-related effect on photosynthetic capacities. The very coherent genotype ranking obtained with ?(13) C in the different tree compartments has some practical outreach. Because WUE remains largely uncoupled from growth in poplar plantations, there is potential to identify genotypes with satisfactory growth and higher WUE. PMID:24906162

  1. Propiedades físico-mecánicas de madera de teca de plantaciones comerciales / Properties of the wood from commercial teak plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl, Rodríguez Anda; Juan Francisco, Zamora Natera; José Antonio, Silva Guzmán; Eduardo, Salcedo Pérez; Francisco Javier, Fuentes Talavera.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físico-mecánicas de la madera de Tectona grandis (teca) procedente de plantaciones comerciales del sureste mexicano fueron analizadas. Se eligieron árboles de 9 y 15 años del estado de Campeche, 21 años de Chiapas y 15 años de Tabasco. Se recolectaron 10 trozas de 3 m de longitud por [...] edad y procedencia. Las propiedades físicas y mecánicas se evaluaron conforme a las normas DIN. La densidad normal fluctuó de 0.55 a 0.66 g cm-3. La contracción máxima radial y tangencial fue 2-2.8 % y 4.3-5.1 % (baja), su anisotropía 1.8-2.2 (de buena a alta), sin diferencia estadísticamente significativa (P>0.05) por edad y procedencia. La madera de 15 años de Tabasco fue superior en el módulo de elasticidad a flexión (9 479 N mm-2), cizallamiento (11.3 N mm-2), dureza Brinell longitudinal (49 N mm-2) y lateral (28 N mm-2). En tanto que, la de 15 años de Campeche presentó los valores más elevados de resistencia a flexión (108 N mm-2) y compresión longitudinal (48 N mm-2). La de 21 años de Chiapas exhibió los mejores resultados de módulo de elasticidad a compresión longitudinal (10 920 N mm-2) y al trabajo por impacto (41 kJ m-2). La de 9 años de Campeche fue la que tuvo los menores registros en todos los ensayos mecánicos. Abstract in english The physical-mechanical properties of Tectona grandis (teak) timber from commercial plantations of the Mexican Southeast were analyzed. 9 and 15 year old trees of the state of Campeche, 21 year old trees of Chiapas and 15 year old trees of Tabasco were selected. Ten 3 m long logs were collected by a [...] ge and origin. The physical and mechanical properties were evaluated according to the DIN norms. The normal density fluctuated between 0.55 and 0.66 g cm-3. The highest radial and tangential contraction was 2-2.8 % and 4.3-5.1 % (low); the anisotropy was 1.8-2.2 (good to high), without a statistically significant difference (P>0.05) by age or origin. The 15 year old timber of Tabasco had the highest modulus of elasticity at bending (9 479 N mm-2), shear strength (11.3 N mm-2), and longitudinal (49 N mm-2) and lateral (28 N mm-2) Brinell hardness. On the other hand, the 15 year old timber of Campeche showed higher values for resistance to bending (108 N mm-2) and longitudinal compression (48 N mm-2). 21 year old timber of Chiapas exhibited the best results in terms of modulus of elasticity at longitudinal compression (10 920 N mm-2) and resistance to impact strength (41 kJ m-2). The 9 year old wood of Campeche was the one with the lowest values in all mechanical assays.

  2. Modeling the effects of climate change and management on the dead wood dynamics in boreal forest plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    The present research examines the joint effects of climate change and management on the dead wood dynamics of the main tree species of the Finnish boreal forests via a forest ecosystem simulator. Tree processes are analyzed in stands subject to multiple biotic and abiotic environmental factors. A special focus is on the implications for biodiversity conservation thereof. Our results predict that in boreal forests, climate change will speed up tree growth and accumulation ending up in a higher stock of dead wood available as habitat for forest-dwelling species, but the accumulation processes will be much smaller in the working landscape than in set-asides. Increased decomposition rates driven by climate change for silver birch and Norway spruce will likely reduce the time the dead wood stock is available for dead wood-associated species. While for silver birch, the decomposition rate will be further increased in set-aside in relation to stands under ordinary management, for Norway spruce, set-asides can counterbalance the enhanced decomposition rate due to climate change thereby permitting a longer persistence of different decay stages of dead wood. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the cost-benefit method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke?a Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of polar cultivation was analyzed based on one of the indicators for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects - cost-benefit (r. Poplar plantations of the clone I-214 of different rotations and on different soil types were analyzed in the area of Ravni Srem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the justification of the invested financial means in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts at different plantation ages, using the cost-benefit method. It was found that in all 13 analyzed compartments, the average cost-benefit ratio was 0.36. This means that the costs at the discount rate of 12% are about 2.8 times higher than the receipts. Accordingly, it can be asserted that it is economically unjustified to invest in the projected stands, but only in the case when the value of social capital accounts for 12%. Based on the analysis of sensitivity of the cost-benefit method, it was concluded that cost benefit ratio for p=8-12% was below 1 within the study range of costs and receipts changes, while for p=4-6% this ratio was above 1 in some cases of decrease in costs, i.e. increase in receipts. It was noted that the change in r depending on the change in costs, developed by the exponential function, and the change in r depending on the change in receipts developed by the linear function. Also, it was concluded that at the lower discount rates, the values of r moved towards 1, so for 8% r=0.71, and for 6% r=0.94. The value at the discount rate of 4% indicates that the project is cost-effective and that the invested € 1 makes € 1.22. This fact is especially important when poplar cultivation projects are ranked. For this reason, this method is used for the evaluation of social benefits, i.e. for economic analyses. It is almost never applied in the analysis of private investments.

  4. VENEER AND PLYWOOD PRODUCTION OF GUAPURUVU WOOD (Schizolobium parayba Blake. COMING FROM A MIXED PLANTATION OF BRAZILIAN TREE SPECIES

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    Geraldo Bortoletto Júnior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the guapuruvu wood(Schizolobium parayba, coming a mixed plantings of Brazilian native species, for veneer and plywoodproduction. The peeling yield was 61%, linking green veneer and peeling wood. The obtained veneers, afterclipped and dried, they were graded according to Brazilian Standards (NBR 9531/1986. Thefollowing grades o veneer were obtained: 2% of grade A, 24% of grade B, 48% of grade C and 26%of grade D. After, it was manufactured plywood of grade B/C/B, glued with urea-formaldehydeadhesive, and their properties of static bending (MOR and MOE and bonding line strength in shear test (dry and wet were appraised. Treatments (1, 2 and 3 varied according to the formulation of theglue (35, 50 and 65% of wheat flour in relation to the pure adhesive. The results indicated that theguapuruvu wood has potential for veneer and plywood production. The plywood showed significantdifference between treatments in the static bending (perpendicular MOR and shear (dry and wet. Theplywood presents possibility of interior and intermediate use for the formulations 1 and 2, and interioruse for the formulation 3. The plywood has potential for use in furniture, packing and box factory.

  5. Propiedades de la madera y relación del estado nutrimental con el crecimiento en teca / Properties of wood and the relationship between nutritional status and growth in teak plantations

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    Alina Luisa, Ypushima-Pinedo; Eduardo, Salcedo Pérez; Ricardo, Manríquez González; José Antonio, Silva Guzmán; Juan Francisco, Zamora Nátera; Efrén, Hernández Álvarez.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available En México existe cada vez mayor interés en producir madera de calidad a partir de Tectona grandis, cuyo rendimiento sea capaz de satisfacer la demanda del mercado internacional, lo que es sumamente relevante ya que la teca tiene gran valor económico y su comercialización puede derivar en la obtenció [...] n de importantes ganancias; sin embargo aún no se cuenta con suficiente información para lograrlo. En el presente estudio se evaluaron los caracteres anatómicos de densidad básica, de resistencia al ataque de hongos y de las condiciones edafoclimáticas en dos plantaciones de nueve años en los estados de Veracruz (húmedo) y Nayarit (seco). Hubo diferencias significativas según la procedencia de la planta respecto al diámetro total de fibra y de lumen, al grosor de la pared de las fibras, al diámetro total, a la longitud de los vasos y al porcentaje de duramen; por otro lado, no existieron en cuanto a la longitud de fibras, el ancho y largo de los radios y la densidad básica. La resistencia al efecto de los hongos por parte del duramen está en función del tipo de hongo y no de la plantación de origen. El Ca y el K foliar se relacionaron con la altura y el DAP, respectivamente; así como el Ca del suelo, pH y la CIC (capacidad de intercambio catiónico) con la altura. La proporción de duramen y el DAP fueron mayores en las maderas provenientes de Veracruz. Abstract in english In Mexico there is a growing interest in producing high-quality wood from Tectona grandis with a yield that can meet the demands of the international market; this is very relevant, as teak has a high economic value, and its commercialization may bring considerable profits. However, there is still no [...] t enough information to achieve this. The present study assessed the anatomical features of basic density, resistance to attack by fungi and edaphoclimatological conditions in two nine-year-old plantations in the states of Veracruz (humid) and Nayarit (dry). There were significant differences in the total fiber and lumen diameter, fiber wall thickness, total diameter, vessel length, and heartwood percentage, according to the origin of the plant; on the other hand, there were no differences in fiber length, width and length of the radii or density. Heartwood resistance to the effect of the fungi is determined by the type of fungus, not by the origin of the plantation. Foliar Ca and K were related to height and DBH, respectively. Soil Ca, pH and CEC (cation exchange capacity) were related to height. Both the heartwood proportion and DBH were higher in timber from Veracruz.

  6. Immunosuppressive properties of Pluchea lanceolata leaves

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    Bhagwat D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To investigate the immunosuppressive potential of Pluchea lanceolata 50% ethanolic extract (PL and its bioactive chloroform fraction (PLC. Materials and Methods : Preliminary screening of the Pluchea lanceolata 50% ethanolic extract (PL was carried out with basic models of immunomodulation, such as, the humoral antibody response (hemagglutination antibody titers, cell-mediated immune response (delayed-type hypersensitivity, skin allograft rejection test, in vitro (C. albicans method, and in vivo phagocytosis (carbon clearance test. The extract was then fractionated with chloroform, n-butanol, and water to receive the respective fractions by partitioning. These fractions were employed for flow cytometry to study the T-cell specific immunosuppressive potential of these fractions. Results : Oral administration of PL at doses of 50 to 800 mg/kg in mice, with sheep red blood cells (SRBC as an antigen, inhibited both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, as evidenced by the production of the circulating antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitiviy reaction results, respectively, and the immune suppression was statistically significant (P < 0.01 in Balb/C mice. PL also decreased the process of phagocytosis both in vitro (31.23% and ex vivo (32.81% and delayed the graft rejection time (30.76%. To study the T-cell-specific activities, chloroform, n-butanol, and water fractions from P. lanceolata were tested for T-cell specific immunosuppressive evaluation, wherein only the chloroform fraction (PLC showed significant (P < 0.01 suppression of CD8+ / CD4+ T-cell surface markers and intracellular Th1 (IL-2 and IFN- Y cytokines at 25 - 200 mg/kg p.o. doses. PLC, however, did not show significant suppression of the Th2 (IL-4 cytokine. Conclusion : The findings from the present investigation reveal that P. lanceolata causes immunosuppression by inhibiting Th1 cytokines.

  7. Dinâmica do afilamento do tronco e da produção de madeira em plantios de Araucaria angustifolia / Dynamic of stem taper and wood production in Araucaria angustifolia plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Afonso, Figueiredo Filho; Sintia Valerio, Kohler; João Luiz, Felde; Andrea Nogueira, Dias.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou avaliar a evolução da forma e do sortimento em plantios de Araucaria angustifolia. Os dados provieram de 30 árvores amostradas em plantios estabelecidos entre as décadas de 1940-1960 na Floresta Nacional de Irati, Paraná. As árvores foram submetidas à técnica de análise de tronc [...] o completa que permite a reconstituição de todo o crescimento passado. Os dados gerados possibilitaram a obtenção de diâmetros às diferentes alturas e nas várias idades de cada árvore. O perfil médio por idade foi gerado com funções de afilamento e funções splines cúbicas foram usadas para determinar a dinâmica do sortimento por classe de idade. Também foram realizados estudos sobre a evolução da forma do tronco com fatores de forma. Os resultados foram apresentados com a média de todas as árvores e agrupando-as em duas classes de sítio e indicam que aos 50 anos as árvores atingem um volume médio de1,20 m³, dos quais, 14% poderia ser utilizado para laminação, 66,2% para serraria 2, 15,9% para serraria 1, 3,7% para celulose e 0,3% destinados para resíduos. Nessa mesma idade, os sítios I e II apresentaram volume total médio de 1,94 m³ e 0,57 m³, respectivamente. O Polinômio de 5º grau ajustado para as classes de idade indicou que a forma do tronco melhora com a idade, tornando-os mais cilíndricos. Essa mesma tendência pode ser constatada com o fator de forma, o qual, praticamente, estabilizou-se a partir dos 35 anos de idade, em um valor de aproximadamente 0,6. Abstract in english The research aimed to evaluate the evolution of stem taper and wood assortment in plantations of Araucaria angustifolia. The data came from 30 sampled trees in plantations established between the decades of 1940-1960 in Irati National Forest, Parana State, Brazil. The trees were subjected to the tec [...] hnique of complete stem analysis that allows reconstitution of the entire past growth. The data generated allowed the obtaintion of diameter at different heights at various ages. The mean stem profile by age was obtained from taper functions and cubic splines functions were used to evaluate the evolution of wood assortment by age classes. We also conducted studies on the stem taper dynamics with the use of form factors. The results were presented with the mean of all trees and grouping them into two site classes, when the trees are 50 years old they reach an average volume of 1.20 m³, of which 14% could be used for lamination, 66.2% for sawmill 2, 15.9% for sawmill 1, 3.7% for pulpwood and only 0.3% would be residuals. In this same age the sites I and II had mean total volume of 1.94 m³ and 0.57 m³, respectively. The 5th degree polynomial function adjusted by age classes allowed to infer that stem tapering improves with age, with the stem becoming more cylindrical. This same trend can be established on the form factor, which practically stabilized after the 35 years of age, at a value of about 0.6.

  8. Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, ESPECIE FORESTAL CON POTENCIAL PARA SER INTRODUCIDA EN SISTEMAS SILVOPASTORILES

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    Mar\\u00EDa L. Rom\\u00E1n-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de especies forestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria contribuye a reducir la presión en los bosques naturales y se pueden incorporar en áreas no arboladas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad nutritiva, germinación, desarrollo de plántula en vivero y diversidad de usos de Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. El material comestible y las semillas se colectaron en Tomatlán, Jalisco. Se realizaron análisis bromatológicos, pruebas de escarificación y evaluación de plántula en vivero sobre tres suelos con diferente pH. El experimento se analizó en un diseño completamente al azar con comparación de medias de Tukey (P ? 0.05. Además, se hicieron entrevistas a productores, una revisión bibliográfica y consulta de ejemplares en los herbarios para conocer los usos locales y potenciales de la especie. Los resultados indican alto contenido de materia seca (97.40 % y proteína cruda (29.05 %, mayor germinación en los tratamientos térmicos, mejor desarrollo de la plántula en el suelo ligeramente ácido (6.57 y la diversidad de usos incluye leña, forraje y madera, entre otros. Por el alto valor nutritivo y diversidad de usos en el medio rural, L. lanceolata representa una opción viable para utilizarse en sistemas silvopastoriles del trópico seco.

  9. Alterações nas características químicas da madeira com a substituição do K por Na em plantações de eucalipto / Changes in chemical properties of wood with substitution of K by Na in eucalyptus plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Roberto, Sette Jr; Mario, Tomazello Filho; Francides Gomes da, Silva Jr; Jean Paul, Laclau.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando à substituição parcial do potássio pelo sódio na fertilização das plantações florestais, avaliou-se o efeito da ação isolada desses nutrientes nas características químicas da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram plantadas árvores no espaçamento de 2 m x 3 m e aplicados 116 kg ha-1 de [...] K e 68,5 kg ha-1 de Na. Árvores de eucalipto foram cortadas do 1º ao 4º ano após o plantio, em cada tratamento de fertilização, sendo seccionados discos de madeira em diferentes alturas do tronco e demarcados os anéis de crescimento anuais, estimados por um modelo de perfil do tronco. Amostras representativas de cada anel de crescimento, posição longitudinal e tratamento foram obtidas para determinação dos teores de lignina, holocelulose e extrativos. As árvores de eucalipto que receberam aplicação de potássio e de sódio não sofreram alterações significativas nas característias químicas, indicando que a substituição do K pelo Na na fertilização de plantações florestais de eucalipto pode ser adotada sem que as características químicas da madeira juvenil presente em árvores jovens se alterem. As avaliações anuais indicaram redução significativa dos teores médios de lignina e extrativos totais e aumento dos terores médios de holocelulose com a elevação da idade das árvores. Consistentes alterações nos teores dos componentes químicos do lenho por posição longitudinal e por anel de crescimento foram observadas. Abstract in english With the purpose of partial substitution of potassium by sodium in the forest plantations fertilization, the effect of the isolated performance of these nutrients on the chemical properties of young wood in Eucalyptus grandis trees was evaluated. Trees were planted at a 2mx3m spacing and 116 kg.ha-1 [...] of K and 68.5 kg.ha-1 of Na were applied to them. Eucalypt trees were cut down from the 1st to the 4th year after planting in each fertilization treatment, being sectioned disks of wood in different positions of the trunk and marked the annual growth rings, estimated by a stem profile model. Representative samples of each annual ring, longitudinal position and treatment were obtained for determining the lignin, holocellulose and extractives. Eucalyptus trees that received application of potassium and sodium did not change significantly in chemical properties, indicating that the substitution of K by Na in fertilization of Eucalyptus plantations can be adopted without the alteration of the chemical properties in the young wood in the young trees. Annual evaluations indicated a significant reduction in average content of lignin and total extractives and an increase in average contents of holocellulose with increasing age of the trees. Consistent changes in the levels of chemical properties of wood for the longitudinal and ring growth were observed.

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE PROCEDIMIENTOS SIMPLIFICADOS EN LA CUANTIFICACIÓN VOLUMÉTRICA DE UNA PLANTACIÓN DE PINO / Evaluation of simplified procedures for quantifying wood volume in a plantation of pine / Avaliação dos procedimentos simplificados na quantificação volumétrica de uma plantação de pino

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eder Miguel, Pereira; José, Imaña-Encinas; Alba, Valéria Rezende.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A quantificação do volume sólido de madeira em plantações florestais é essencial para a gestão adequada dos povoamentos florestais e sua correspondente comercialização. Os métodos de amostragem tradicionalmente usados em inventários florestais são onerosos e dispendiosos, sendo de fundamental import [...] ância a obtenção de métodos rápidos, baratos e precisos que facilitem a quantificação volumétrica adequada, especialmente em plantações de áreas relativamente pequenas. O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em comparar quatro métodos de amostragem para determinar o volume de madeira de uma plantação de Pinus. Três dos métodos foram baseados unicamente em medições do diâmetro e o quarto correspondeu ao procedimento para o dimensionamento de 553 árvores. Em oito terrenos circulares de 600 m2 cada um situados aleatoriamente. Obteve-se o volume de madeira por hectare. Observou-se que os métodos de obtenção do volume não diferiram significativamente para um erro máximo permissível de 10%, considerando o nível de significância de ? = 0.05. Os métodos permitiram a estimativa confiável do volume de madeira por unidade de área, com uma pequena vantagem do método que utilizou o diâmetro de Hohenadl. Abstract in spanish La cuantificación del volumen sólido de madera en plantaciones forestales es imprescindible para la adecuada ordenación de los rodales y su correspondiente comercialización. Los métodos de muestreo utilizados tradicionalmente en los inventarios forestales son onerosos y dispendiosos siendo de fundam [...] ental importancia la obtención de métodos rápidos, baratos y precisos que faciliten la correspondiente cuantificación volumétrica sobre todo en plantaciones de áreas relativamente pequeñas. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en comparar cuatro métodos de muestreo para determinar el volumen de madera de una plantación de Pinus. Tres de los métodos se fundamentaron exclusivamente en mediciones del diámetro y el cuarto correspondió al procedimiento de la cubicación de 553 árboles. En ocho parcelas circulares de 600 m² cada una ubicadas aleatoriamente se obtuvo el volumen de madera por hectárea. Se observó que los métodos de obtención del volumen no presentaron diferencias significativas para un error máximo admisible de 10% considerado del nivel de significancia de ? = 0.05. Los métodos permitieron la estimación confiable del volumen de madera por unidad de área, con una pequeña ventaja del método que utilizó el diámetro de Hohenadl. Abstract in english Quantification of wood volume in forests stands is necessary for forest management of plantations particularly with respect to the timber trade. Traditional sampling methods used in forest inventories are onerous and costly. Development of rapid, cheap and precise methods which facilitate the corres [...] ponding volumetric quantification are desirable. It was compared four sampling methods for determining wood volume in a Pinus plantation. Three of those methods are based exclusively on diameter measurement, whereas the fourth is based on wood volume. Eight randomly located 600 m² plots were used where each method was applied to determine the wood volume per hectare. There were no significant differences in methods for determining wood volume with a permitted maximum error of 10%, and a significance level of ? = 0.05. All methods provided reliable estimations of wood volume per unit area, although the Hohenadl diameter method performed slightly better.

  11. Wood color variation in undried and kiln-dried plantation-grown lumber of Vochysia guatemalensis Variación del color de la madera aserrada en estado verde y seca al horno de Vochysia guatemalensis proveniente de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

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    Diana Aguilar-Tova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vochysia guatemalensis has been planted over large tropical areas to obtain lumber products. However, compared with naturally-grown material variations in wood color have been noted. In the current research, trees from two 8-year-old fast-grown plantations were sampled from different climatic conditions in order to identify the causes of color variation. The study evaluated the heartwood presence, grain pattern, distance from pith, height within the tree, and effect of drying schedules. The wood color was measured by CIEL*a*b* systems.Wood color of Vochysia guatemalensis is a combination of different tonalities of lightness (L*, redness (a*, and yellowness (b*, however, the lightness and yellowness components were the dominant tones. The color of heartwood and sapwood were different before and after drying. A negative relationship was found between a* and L*, and a* and b* in the undried state, but no relationship was found between L* and b*. The L* index is only correlated with heartwood presence in undried wood. In dried wood, only a relationship between a* and L* is maintained, while other color parameters were affected by climate, drying schedule and heartwood presence, the L* parameter being the most affected. The dried wood displays a lighter surface than the wood before drying. The variations in the dried wood suggest that it is useful to establish dried lots of lumber according to the drying schedule, source and presence of sapwood and heartwood.La especie Vochysia guatemalensis ha sido plantada sobre largas áreas en regiones tropicales. Así mismo, han sido observadas grandes variaciones del color de su madera. En la investigación fueron muestreadas plantaciones de 8 años de edad en diferentes condiciones de clima con el fin de establecer las causes de variación de la madera. Fueron evaluadas la presencia de duramen, el patrón de aserrío, la distancia de la medula y el programa de secado. El color fue medido por el sistema CIELab. Fue encontrado que la madera de V. guatemalensis presenta una combinación de tonalidades de claros (L*, rojos (a* y amarrillos (b*, siendo los colores claros y amarrillos los tonos dominantes. El color del duramen y la albura fueron diferentes antes y después del secado. Una negativa correlación entre a* y L*, y a* y b* fue encontrada, pero ninguna correlación fue observada entre L* y b*. El índice L* fue el único parámetro correlacionado con el duramen en madera verde. En la madera seca, solamente se mantuvo la relación a* y L*, mientras que los parámetros del color fueron afectados por el clima, programa de secado y duramen, siendo L* el más afectado. La madera seca presentó una superficie más clara que la madera antes del secado. Las variaciones en madera seca sugieren la conveniencia de establecer lotes de secado de acuerdo al programa de secado aplicado, procedencia y presencia de albura y duramen.

  12. Anatomia comparada do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. em áreas de cerrado e de plantação de Pinus elliottii Engelm. / Comparative wood anatomy of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. in "cerrado" and plantation area of Pinus elliottii Engelm.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agnes E., Luchi; Luiz C. Pereira, Silva; Marcelo A., Moraes.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura anatômica do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. foi analisada pela observação do caule e da raiz de espécimes provenientes de duas áreas de cerrado, uma com vegetação característica e outra, em que a vegetação original foi substituída por monocultura de Pinus elliotti Engelm. As dua [...] s áreas situam-se na Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu. As amostras foram coletadas pelo método não destrutivo. Os dados quantitativos das características analisadas foram obtidos mediante contagens e medições nos elementos de vasos, fibras e parênquima axial e radial, através das secções histológicas e tecido dissociado. Esses dados foram submetidos à prova não paramétrica de Mann-Whitney que mostrou diferenças significativas para 12 das 18 características analisadas. Dentre essas, apenas o diâmetro das pontoações intervasculares e das radiovasculares e a porcentagem de parênquima axial, apresentaram médias maiores para os espécimes da área de plantio. A análise estrutural do lenho demonstrou a presença de anéis de crescimento, delimitados pelo achatamento das paredes radiais das fibras, observada em todos os espécimes, indicando uma adaptação fisiológica e anatômica ao período de seca que ocorre anualmente na região. A baixa ocorrência de idioblastos secretores, nos espécimes da área de plantio, fornece indício sobre as possíveis alterações fisiológicas induzidas pela presença da plantação de Pinus elliottii em área de cerrado. Abstract in english The anatomical structure of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. wood was analyzed comparing stem and root samples from a caracteristic "cerrado" area, and another area with cultivated monoculture of Pinus elliotti Engelm. Both areas are inside the "Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu". [...] The samples were collected by non-destructive method. The quantitative analyzed characteristics data were obtained by counting and measuring in vessel elements, fibers, axial and radial parenchyma, in both histological sections and dissociated tissue. These data were submitted to the no parametric proof of Mann-Whitney that showed significant differences for 12 of the 18 analyzed characteristics. Among these, only intervessel pits diameter, vessel-ray pits diameter, and axial parenchyma percentage, showed larger averages for the plantation area specimens. Soil moisture data were obtained together with water soil retention curve. The structural analysis demonstrated the presence of growth rings delimited by radially flattened walls fibres observed in all studied specimens. This characteristic indicates a physiologic and anatomical adaptation of specimens to the drought period that occurs annually in the region. The low secretory idioblast occurrence in plantation area specimens indicates the possible physiologic alterations induced by the presence of Pinus elliottii plantation in "cerrado" area.

  13. Anatomia comparada do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. em áreas de cerrado e de plantação de Pinus elliottii Engelm. Comparative wood anatomy of Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. in "cerrado" and plantation area of Pinus elliottii Engelm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes E. Luchi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura anatômica do lenho de Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. foi analisada pela observação do caule e da raiz de espécimes provenientes de duas áreas de cerrado, uma com vegetação característica e outra, em que a vegetação original foi substituída por monocultura de Pinus elliotti Engelm. As duas áreas situam-se na Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu. As amostras foram coletadas pelo método não destrutivo. Os dados quantitativos das características analisadas foram obtidos mediante contagens e medições nos elementos de vasos, fibras e parênquima axial e radial, através das secções histológicas e tecido dissociado. Esses dados foram submetidos à prova não paramétrica de Mann-Whitney que mostrou diferenças significativas para 12 das 18 características analisadas. Dentre essas, apenas o diâmetro das pontoações intervasculares e das radiovasculares e a porcentagem de parênquima axial, apresentaram médias maiores para os espécimes da área de plantio. A análise estrutural do lenho demonstrou a presença de anéis de crescimento, delimitados pelo achatamento das paredes radiais das fibras, observada em todos os espécimes, indicando uma adaptação fisiológica e anatômica ao período de seca que ocorre anualmente na região. A baixa ocorrência de idioblastos secretores, nos espécimes da área de plantio, fornece indício sobre as possíveis alterações fisiológicas induzidas pela presença da plantação de Pinus elliottii em área de cerrado.The anatomical structure of Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. wood was analyzed comparing stem and root samples from a caracteristic "cerrado" area, and another area with cultivated monoculture of Pinus elliotti Engelm. Both areas are inside the "Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Moji-Guaçu". The samples were collected by non-destructive method. The quantitative analyzed characteristics data were obtained by counting and measuring in vessel elements, fibers, axial and radial parenchyma, in both histological sections and dissociated tissue. These data were submitted to the no parametric proof of Mann-Whitney that showed significant differences for 12 of the 18 analyzed characteristics. Among these, only intervessel pits diameter, vessel-ray pits diameter, and axial parenchyma percentage, showed larger averages for the plantation area specimens. Soil moisture data were obtained together with water soil retention curve. The structural analysis demonstrated the presence of growth rings delimited by radially flattened walls fibres observed in all studied specimens. This characteristic indicates a physiologic and anatomical adaptation of specimens to the drought period that occurs annually in the region. The low secretory idioblast occurrence in plantation area specimens indicates the possible physiologic alterations induced by the presence of Pinus elliottii plantation in "cerrado" area.

  14. Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil

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    Lopes Eduardo da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational and production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.

  15. Financial Analysis of Keora (Sonneratia apetala) Plantations in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jonaed Kabir; Abul Kalam Azad; Islam, S. S.; Mohammed Abu Taher Hossain

    2012-01-01

    An attempt has been taken to compare economic performance of different ages of keora (Sonneratia apetala) Plantations in coastal zone in this paper. The main objective was to find out financial rotation and profitability of keora plantation. The existing market price of round wood per cubic meter and fuel wood per ton were found to be Tk. 2650 to Tk. 3530 and Tk. 670 to Tk. 940 respectively near plantation area in 2003. The harvesting and processing costs were estimated as 20% and 10% of the ...

  16. Efeito da cinza de biomassa na dinâmica do C e N do solo de uma plantação de pinus pinaster / Wood ash effects on C and N dynamics of a soil from a pinus pinaster plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Xesús, Gómez-Rey; Manuel, Madeira; João, Coutinho; Ernesto, Vasconcelos.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, através de incubação aeróbia, o efeito da aplicação de cinza de biomassa florestal nas características químicas e na actividade microbiana de um Arenossolo de um povoamento de Pinus pinaster Ait. As doses de cinza aplicadas foram de 0, 4, e 8 g kg-1 solo, sob forma pulverulenta ou peleti [...] zada, e na presença ou ausência de fertilizante azotado. A aplicação de cinza sob forma pulverulenta aumentou rápida e significativamente os valores de pH e os teores de bases de troca e de P extraível do solo. A nitrificação líquida foi igualmente estimulada. A quantidade de C microbiano nos solos com cinza pulverulenta foi inferior ao controlo, não sendo observados efeitos significativos para a respiração basal do solo. O quociente metabólico foi superior na fase inicial da incubação. Os efeitos observados foram, em geral, tanto mais intensos quanto maior a dose de cinza aplicada e mais acentuados na presença de N. A cinza aplicada sob forma peletizada não produziu um efeito tão acentuado nas características do solo nem na elevação da alcalinidade, determinando uma fraca influência na dinâmica de C e na produção de nitrato. Em sistemas como o estudado a aplicação de cinza sob forma peletizada é preferível, ao originar um efeito mais prolongado da sua acção, devendo ser acompanhada de fertilizantes azotados para aumentar a disponibilidade de N no solo. Abstract in english Effects of wood ash (loose and pelleted) on chemical properties and microbial activity in an Arenosol from a Pinus pinaster plantation were assessed through laboratory incubation. Wood ash was applied at a rate of 0, 4 and 8 g kg-1 soil both alone or together with N. Loose ash significantly increase [...] d pH values and extractable nutrients from the soil. Net nitrification was stimulated by it application. Amounts of microbial biomass C were lower in soils with loose ash than in the control. Basal respiration was not affected by treatments. Effects increased with the increment of applied ash and when applied together with N. Application of pelleted ash produced smaller changes in soil chemical characteristics, net nitrification and C dynamic. Results suggest that, in N limited soils, wood ash should be applied in the pelleted form because changes in chemical soil properties are slower and the potential loss of N is much less as compared to the loose ash. Pelleted ash should be applied together with N fertilizer to improve soil N availability.

  17. Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, especie forestal con potencial para ser introducida en sistemas silvopastoriles / Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, forest species with potential to be submitted in sylvopastoral systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María L., Román-Miranda; Luis A., Martínez-Rosas; Antonio, Mora-Santacruz; Pablo, Torres-Morán; Agustín, Gallegos-Rodríguez; Adriana, Avendaño-López.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de especies forestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria contribuye a reducir la presión en los bosques naturales y se pueden incorporar en áreas no arboladas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad nutritiva, germinación, desarrollo de plántula en vivero y divers [...] idad de usos de Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. El material comestible y las semillas se colectaron en Tomatlán, Jalisco. Se realizaron análisis bromatológicos, pruebas de escarificación y evaluación de plántula en vivero sobre tres suelos con diferente pH. El experimento se analizó en un diseño completamente al azar con comparación de medias de Tukey (P ? 0.05). Además, se hicieron entrevistas a productores, una revisión bibliográfica y consulta de ejemplares en los herbarios para conocer los usos locales y potenciales de la especie. Los resultados indican alto contenido de materia seca (97.40 %) y proteína cruda (29.05 %), mayor germinación en los tratamientos térmicos, mejor desarrollo de la plántula en el suelo ligeramente ácido (6.57) y la diversidad de usos incluye leña, forraje y madera, entre otros. Por el alto valor nutritivo y diversidad de usos en el medio rural, L. lanceolata representa una opción viable para utilizarse en sistemas silvopastoriles del trópico seco. Abstract in english The usefulness of forest species in agricultural production systems is an option that helps to reduce the pressure in natural forests; they can also be used in treeless areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, germination, development of seedlings grown in nursery and va [...] riety of uses of Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. Edible material and seeds were collected in Tomatlán, Jalisco. Bromatologic analyses, scarification tests and the evaluation of seedlings grown in nursery using three soils with different pH values were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized, with Tukey (P?0.05) test for media comparison. A survey study, bibliographical revision and review of specimens in the herbariums were used to know the local and potential diversity of uses of this specie. Results show high content of dry matter (97.40 %) and crude protein (29.05 %), greater germination using heat treatments, better seedling development in slightly acid soil (6.57) and the diversity of uses including firewood, forage and timber among others. L. lanceolata represents a viable option to be used in dry tropical silvopastoral systems due to the high nutritional value and the diversity of uses in rural areas.

  18. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three extractives from China-fir were obtained by a sequential extraction processes with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The components of the three extractives were analyzed: (1 The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis showed that in addition to the presence of cedrol, naphthalenes comprised a relatively large percentage of both the hexane extract (10.39% and the ethyl acetate extract (9.43%. (2 Total phenolic contents analysis showed that phenols took up 6.66 % of the ethyl acetate extract and 22.8% of the methanol extract. All extracts, even with low concentrations, presented fair antifungal activities against two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Irpex lacteus and two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Cedrol and naphthalenes were partly responsible for the bioactivities. The synergistic effect of phenols and antifungal compounds also contributed to the wood decay resistance.

  19. Crecimiento maderable y biomasa aérea en plantaciones jóvenes de Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. Et Cham. En Zacualpan, Veracruz / Wood growth and aerial biomass in young plantations of Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. In Zacualpan, Veracruz

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Domingo, Romo Guzmán; Hermilio, Navarro Garza; Héctor Manuel, De los Santos Posadas; Oliverio, Hernández Romero; Javier, López Upton.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La superficie de bosques nativos a escala mundial disminuye en proporciones alarmantes, pues cada año se deforestan 13 millones de ha, y para México, en particular, se ha calculado una tasa de deforestación anual de 0.25 % para bosques templados y de 0.76 % para selvas. La creciente demanda de produ [...] ctos maderables en el país ha impulsado el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales forestales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar un sistema de crecimiento maderable, con variables dasométricas y de edad a partir de los datos tomados en una crono-secuencia en plantaciones de Pinus patula establecidas del 2000 al 2007 en áreas agropecuarias reconvertidas. Se presenta un modelo de índice de sitio con base en una familia de curvas polimórficas generadas con el modelo de Chapman-Richards. En la condición promedio se pueden lograr rendimientos de 15 m³ ha-1año-1 durante los primeros 10 años de crecimiento, mientras que en las mejores condiciones es factible alcanzar hasta 30 m³ ha-1 año-1. La captura de carbono fue estimada en 31.3, 41.2, 51.0 y 60.2 Mg ha-1, respectivamente, para los años 9, 11, 13 y 15. A partir de los resultados de ocho años, y las proyecciones, se infiere que la zona tiene un alto potencial productivo tanto de madera como de captura de CO². Abstract in english The area of native forests around the world is being reduced at alarming rates, since every year 13 million ha are deforested and particularly in Mexico, an 0.25 % annual deforestation rate for temperate forests and of 0.76 % for tropical forests has been determined. The growing demand of timber pro [...] ducts in this country has encouraged the establishment of commercial forest plantations. The aim of this paper was to analyze a wood growth system with mensuration and age variables from the data taken in a chronosequence in Pinus patula plantations established from 2000 to 2007 in recovered agriculture and livestock formerly used areas. A site index model is here presented based upon a polymorphic curve family generated by the Chapman-Richards model. In the average condition can be reached 15 m3 ha-1year-1 yields during the first 10 years, while under the best conditions it is feasible to get as much as 30 m3 ha-1 year-1. Carbon sequestration was estimated as 31.3, 41.2, 51.0 and 60.2 Mg ha-1, respectively, for the 9, 11, 13 and 15 years. From the results of eight years and the projections it is inferred that the zone has a high productive potential both of wood and of carbon sequestration.

  20. Trabajabilidad de la madera de Pinus oaxacana Mirov. proveniente de una plantación en el Estado de México / Workability of Pinus oaxacana Mirov. wood from a plantation in the State of Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Machuca-Velasco; Amparo, Borja-de la Rosa; Emilio, Morales-Villalba; Rogelio, Flores Velásquez.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La calidad de maquinado es diferente en cada especie, por tanto, es necesario conocer las características y propiedades que intervienen en este proceso, tales como; la estructura anatómica, contenido de humedad, densidad básica, velocidad de crecimiento, número de anillos de crecimiento por pulgada [...] y dirección del grano. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las características de los ensayos de cepillado, lijado, moldurado, torneado y barrenado en la madera de Pinus oaxacana Mirov. El material de estudio se obtuvo en la plantación localizada a un costado de la División de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Los ensayos de maquinado, la evaluación de los defectos y clasificación se realizaron según la Norma ASTM-D 1666-87, con algunas modificaciones realizadas en función de la maquinaria y contenidos de humedad. En general, la madera de P. oaxacana fue clasificada como una especie con excelente trabajabilidad, exceptuando el ensayo de moldurado en el corte preliminar que fue clasificado como bueno. Este ensayo mejoró en el segundo corte, por lo tanto, la especie puede ser utilizada en la elaboración de productos con mayor valor agregado, por ejemplo; en puertas, ventanas, marcos, piezas torneadas, molduras, lambrín o recubrimientos y muebles en general. Abstract in english Machining quality is different for each species and, as a result, it is necessary to know the characteristics and properties involved in this process, such as the anatomical structure, moisture content, specific gravity, growth rate, number of growth rings per inch, and grain direction. The aim of t [...] his study was to determine the machining properties of Pinus oaxacana Mirov. wood in planing, sanding, shaping, turning and boring tests. The test material was obtained in a plantation located on one side of the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo forestry department. Machining tests, defect evaluation and grading were performed as set out by ASTM-D 1666-87, with some modifications in terms of machinery and moisture contents. In general, P. oaxacana wood was graded as having excellent workability, except in the first shaping test cut where it was graded as good. This test result improved in the second cut. Therefore, the species can be used in the manufacture of finished products with higher value added, such as doors, windows, frames, turned parts, moldings, furring and furniture in general.

  1. Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume) em plantios de eucalyptus grandis / Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume) in eucalyptus grandis plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Márcio de, Mello; Frederico Silva, Diniz; Antônio Donizette de, Oliveira; Carlos Rogério de, Mello; José Roberto Soares, Scolforo; Fausto Weimar, Acerbi Junior.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. [...] Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha), 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal. Abstract in english This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose [...] and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and volume, the data have presented, approximately, normal distribution. Based on variogram analysis, trunk number and wood volume variables were found to be spatially structured. The exponential semi-variogram model was the best model fitted to the experimental semi-variograms of the variables in different plot shapes and sample intensities. The spatial continuity of the trunk number variable was detected at all sample intensities and plot shapes. Therefore, the use of spatial statistics to process this variable will increase the precision of the estimates. Considering the volume, at sample intensity 1:10, we could not evaluate the existence of a spatial continuity structure. Under this condition, classic statistics should be used to process the forest inventory.

  2. Continuidade espacial para características dendrométricas (numero de fustes e volume em plantios de eucalyptus grandis Spatial continuity for dendrometric characteristcis (trunk number and wood volume in eucalyptus grandis plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Márcio de Mello

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a continuidade espacial do número de fustes e do volume nas diferentes formas e intensidades amostrais de Eucalyptus grandis com idade entre 3 e 4 anos. A área de estudo abrangeu quatro talhões, totalizando 104,71 ha, pertencentes à Ripasa S/A Celulose e Papel. Os dados para a realização do estudo de variabilidade espacial foram coletados em parcelas circulares e em parcelas em linhas distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas intensidades de 1:4 (1 parcela a cada 4 ha, 1:7 e 1:10. Foi possível verificar que, tanto em número de fustes quanto em volume, os dados apresentaram distribuição aproximadamente normal. Pela análise variográfica, foi verificado que as características número de fustes e volume de madeira apresentaram-se estruturadas espacialmente. O modelo exponencial foi o que se ajustou melhor aos semivariogramas experimentais das características nas diferentes formas de parcela e intensidade amostral. A continuidade espacial foi detectada em todas as intensidades amostrais e formas de parcelas avaliadas, quanto a número de fustes. Portanto, o uso da estatística espacial no processamento dessa variável aumentará a precisão das estimativas. No caso de volume, na intensidade amostral 1:10 não foi possível detectar continuidade espacial. Em tal condição, deve-se utilizar a estatística clássica para processamento do inventário florestal.This study aimed to verify the spatial continuity of trunk number and wood volume in different plot shapes and sample intensities of Eucalyptus grandis plantations with age varying from three to four years. The study area includes four stands, totalizing 104.71 hectares owned by Ripasa S/A Cellulose and Paper Company. The data for accomplishing the spatial variability study were collected in circular and line plots distributed systematically in the area at 1:4, 1:7 and 1:10 intensities. It was possible to verify that both for trunk number and volume, the data have presented, approximately, normal distribution. Based on variogram analysis, trunk number and wood volume variables were found to be spatially structured. The exponential semi-variogram model was the best model fitted to the experimental semi-variograms of the variables in different plot shapes and sample intensities. The spatial continuity of the trunk number variable was detected at all sample intensities and plot shapes. Therefore, the use of spatial statistics to process this variable will increase the precision of the estimates. Considering the volume, at sample intensity 1:10, we could not evaluate the existence of a spatial continuity structure. Under this condition, classic statistics should be used to process the forest inventory.

  3. Financial Analysis of Keora (Sonneratia apetala Plantations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonaed Kabir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been taken to compare economic performance of different ages of keora (Sonneratia apetala Plantations in coastal zone in this paper. The main objective was to find out financial rotation and profitability of keora plantation. The existing market price of round wood per cubic meter and fuel wood per ton were found to be Tk. 2650 to Tk. 3530 and Tk. 670 to Tk. 940 respectively near plantation area in 2003. The harvesting and processing costs were estimated as 20% and 10% of the standing value of the trees. The value of IRR and other economic determinants for timber were varied among Coastal Afforestation Divisions mainly due to different rates of siltation, salinity and other factors involved on the forest floor in coastal zone. However, applying the economic determinants throughout coastal zone, financially remarkable rotation age for timber was found to be within 14th to 16th year of plantation and rotation age forfuel wood as 9th year of plantation. Applying the same economic determinants keora plantation was also found as profitable in coastal zone in Bangladesh.

  4. Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Carballo Guerra

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal.This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sodium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

  5. Desinfección química de plantas medicinales II: Plantago lanceolata L

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caridad, Carballo Guerra; Teresita, Alfaro López; Zoe, Palazón López; Raúl, Ramos Gálves; Carlos A, Rodríguez Ferrada; Cristina, Cabezas Landrian; Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Miralys, Reyes Arias.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se expone un método para la desinfección del material vegetal de Plantago lanceolata L., llantén menor, con el fin de disminuir su contaminación microbiana y asegurar su calidad. El procedimiento adecuado fue el lavado con agua potable y posterior inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5 % durante 5 [...] min. Los resultados de los análisis microbiológicos y físico-químico demostraron que el hipoclorito actúa sobre la contaminación microbiológica y que los parámetros físico-químicos se encuentran dentro del rango permisible según lo establecido en la norma ramal de esta droga vegetal. Abstract in english This paper presents a disinfecting method for the vegetal material of Plantago lanceolata L., which is aimed at reducing the microbial pollution of this plant to assure its quality. It was found that the adequate procedure was to wash the material with drinking water and then to submerge it into sod [...] ium hypochlorite (0.5% OCINa) for five minutes. The results of the microbiological and physical-chemical analyses showed that OCINa controlled the microbiological pollution and that physical-chemical parameters were within the allowable range in accordance with the branch standard for this vegetal drug.

  6. [Effects of Cunninghamia lanceolata-broadleaved tree species mixed leaf litters on active soil organic matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-kui; Wang, Si-long; Yu, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yan-xin

    2007-06-01

    With incubation test, this paper studied the effects of Cunninghamia lanceolata leaf litter and its mixture with the litters of main broadleaved tree species in subtropical China, such as Alnus cremastogyne, Kalopanax septemlobus and Michelia macclurei on active soil organic matter. The results showed that adding leaf litters into soil could significantly increase soil microbial biomass C and N, respiration rate and dissolved organic C, and mixed leaf litters were more effective than C. lanceolata leaf litter in increasing soil dissolved organic C. By the end of the incubation, the increment of soil microbial biomass C and N, respiration rate, and dissolved organic C in treatments C. lanceolata leaf litter and C. lanceolata-broadleaved tree species mixed leaf litters was 49% and 63%, 35% and 75%, 65% and 100%, and 66% and 108%, respectively, compared with control. The addition of leaf litters had no significant effects on soil microbial quotient and microbial biomass C/N ratio. PMID:17763716

  7. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  8. Sistema de policultivos en plantas medicinales: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata y Plantago major System of polycultures in medicinal plants: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lérida Acosta de la Luz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: existe una tendencia creciente por los agricultores a desarrollar las producciones agrícolas mediante sistemas de policultivos. Objetivos: demostrar las ventajas del sistema de policultivo sobre el monocultivo basados en el incremento del rendimiento de masa vegetal de las especies que lo integran. Métodos: en la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se investigó sobre suelo ferralítico rojo hidratado (ferralsols, en una plantación establecida de Aloe vera (L. N. L. Burm. cultivo perenne y principal, el intercalamiento de varias especies: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L.; cultivos de períodos vegetativos cortos para aprovechar el espacio entre surcos que requiere esta planta; se determinó el rendimiento de masa vegetal fresca en cada una de las especies de esta compleja asociación y se compararon con los de sus respectivos cultivos únicos o monocultivos. Los valores obtenidos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza, además se calculó el incremento productivo a partir del cual se determinó el uso equivalente de la tierra. Resultados: de forma general, se encontró en todas las especies componentes del policultivo (cultivo permanente y plantas intercaladas ventajas sobre el monocultivo en cuanto a sus rendimientos, sin afectación de los principios activos, así como el aumento de la eficiencia productiva de los suelos. Conclusiones: se demostró en las especies estudiadas la superioridad que ofrece el sistema de siembra por policultivo.Foundations: there is an increasing trend on the part of the agriculturists to develop productions by polyculture systems. Objectives: to show the advantages of the polyculture system over the monoculture based on the increase of the yield of plant mass of the species included. Methods: in an established plantation of Aloe vera (L. N. L. Burm., perennial and main culture, with hydrated red ferriferous soil (ferralsols, at "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants, it was investigated the intercropping of various species: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.; cultures of short vegetative periods used to avail the space between furrows required by this plant. The yielding of fresh plant mass was also determined in each of the species of this complex association and they were compared with those of their respective unique cultures or monocultures. The values obtained were analyzed by variance analysis. The productive growth from which the equivalent use of the soil was determined was calculated, too. Results: generally, in all the species composing the polyculture (permanent culture and intercropped plants there were advantages over the monoculture as regards their yieldings without affecting the active principles. An increase of the productive efficiency of the soils was also observed. Conclusions: the superiority of the polyculture system was proved in the studied species.

  9. Effects of Increased UVB radiation on plant-insect interactions: Plantago lanceolata and Junonia coenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of P. lanceolata were collected from a local population and 4 replicates of 42 maternal families were grown for 90 days in the greenhouse with at two levels of supplemental UVB radiation (6 and 12 kJ day-1 BE300). Higher UVB radiation increased leaf hair density and decreased plant size during early growth; family identity affected these also. Leaves excised from a subset of the plants were fed to ultimate instar larvae of J. coenia and assayed for iridoids. Increased UVB radiation did not alter the iridoid content of the leaves or the growth of the larvae. In a separate experiment, P. lanceolata growing under the two levels of UVB irradiation were infested with neonate larvae and larval growth was monitored. Larval growth was not markedly altered by enhanced UVB. These findings suggest that increased UVB is unlikely to alter the suitability of P. lanceolata as a host for J. coenia

  10. James River Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floating down the James River through the Chesapeake Bay, one begins to take note of the stately plantations that line the banks of this body of water, particularly around Richmond. As part of their ongoing Travel Itinerary series, the National Park Service has created this tribute to the cultural and historic landscape along the James River. What is particularly striking about the site is its ability to tell the stories of these plantations in a way that is well rounded in its perspective and its incorporation of compelling maps and narrative descriptions. To get a better sense of the history of the region, visitors may want to start by reading one (or all) of the three essays offered on the site. Of course, the visually inclined may wish to look at an interactive map offered on the site that will allow them access to information about a number of the plantations, such as the ancestral manses of Kittiewan or Westover.

  11. Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations of Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Moya J; Murillo R; Portuguez E; Fallas JL; Ríos V; Kottman F; Verjans JM; Mata R; Alvarado A

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age) were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand o...

  12. Chemical composition of soil organic matter by analytical pyrolysis - GC/MS in forest plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Sarante Santana, G.; Knicker, Heike; Gonza?lez-vila, Francisco Javier; Gonza?lez-pe?rez, Jose? Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The global demand for forest products such as wood, pulp and paper promoted the expansion of forest plantation areas and also the forest industry sector. According to ABRAF (Brazilian Association of Planted Forest Producers), the country’s area of forest plantations was 7 million ha in 2011 and it is expected to further increase up to 8 million ha until 2014. Several studies have indicated changes in the soil organic matter (SOM) stocks after introduction of forest in grassla...

  13. Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone / Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luiz, Gava; José Leonardo de Moraes, Gonçalves.

    Full Text Available Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação [...] celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas árvores representativas das diferentes classes de diâmetro à altura do peito para avaliação de suas biomassas e para a análise de extrativos e componentes da madeira. Os atributos físicos do solo, sobretudo o teor de argila, diretamente relacionado à quantidade de água disponível, foram os que mais afetaram a produtividade e a qualidade da madeira. A densidade básica da madeira não se alterou nas diferentes classes de solo. O teor de lignina total diminuiu e o de holocelulose aumentou exponencialmente com o aumento do teor de argila do solo (até cerca de 350 a 400 g kg-1 de argila). O teor de extrativos da madeira não foi afetado pelos atributos do solo. O rendimento de celulose depurada relacionou-se exponencialmente com o teor de argila do solo. Abstract in english The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at [...] the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay). The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.

  14. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Carbon (C) conservation and sequestration in many developing countries needs to be accompanied by socio-economic improvements. Tree crop plantations can be a potential path for coupling climate change mitigation and economic development by providing C sequestration and supplying wood and non-wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 tC/ha) and orange (76 tC/ha) plantations have a much lower C content, and oil palm (45 tC/ha) has the lowest C potential, assuming that the yield is not used as biofuel. There is considerable C sequestration potential in plantations if they are established on land with modest C content such as degraded forest or agricultural land, and not on land with oldgrowth forest. We also show that simple C assessment methods can give reliable results, which makes it easier for developing countries to partake in REDD+ or other payment schemes.

  15. Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates on growth and arsenic accumulation in Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of indigenous and non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata L. growing on substrate originating from mine waste rich in As was assessed in a pot experiment. P. lanceolata inoculated with AMF had higher shoot and root biomass and lower concentrations of As in roots than the non-inoculated plants. There were significant differences in As concentration and uptake between different AMF isolates. Inoculation with the indigenous isolate resulted in increased transfer of As from roots to shoots; AMF from non-polluted area apparently restricted plants from absorbing As to the tissue; and plants inoculated with an AMF isolate from Zn–Pb waste showed strong As retainment within the roots. Staining with dithizone indicated that AMF might be actively involved in As accumulation. The mycorrhizal colonization affected also the concentration of Cd and Zn in roots and Pb concentration, both in shoots and roots. - Highlights: ? The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in As uptake was studied. ? Growth of Plantago lanceolata was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. ? Arsenic concentration and uptake significantly depended on the AMF isolate. ? Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may be useful for bioremediation of As contaminated wastes. - Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata strongly depends on the origin of fungal isolates.

  16. Clusiamyia nitida gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi) associada com Clusia lanceolata Camb. (Clusiaceae) no Brasil Clusiamyia nítida gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi) associated with Clusia lanceolata Camb. (Clusiaceae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidi (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described and illustrated (exuvia, male, female and gall). The species was found in association with Clusia lanceolata (Clusiaceae).

  17. Clusiamyia nitida gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associada com Clusia lanceolata Camb. (Clusiaceae no Brasil Clusiamyia nítida gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Clusia lanceolata Camb. (Clusiaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidi (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described and illustrated (exuvia, male, female and gall. The species was found in association with Clusia lanceolata (Clusiaceae.

  18. Sistema de policultivos en plantas medicinales: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata y Plantago major / System of polycultures in medicinal plants: Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Horacio, Rodríguez González; Isabel, Hechevarría Sosa; Masgloiris, Milanés Figueredo; Carlos, Rodríguez Ferradá.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: existe una tendencia creciente por los agricultores a desarrollar las producciones agrícolas mediante sistemas de policultivos. Objetivos: demostrar las ventajas del sistema de policultivo sobre el monocultivo basados en el incremento del rendimiento de masa vegetal de las especies que [...] lo integran. Métodos: en la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se investigó sobre suelo ferralítico rojo hidratado (ferralsols), en una plantación establecida de Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm. cultivo perenne y principal, el intercalamiento de varias especies: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L.; cultivos de períodos vegetativos cortos para aprovechar el espacio entre surcos que requiere esta planta; se determinó el rendimiento de masa vegetal fresca en cada una de las especies de esta compleja asociación y se compararon con los de sus respectivos cultivos únicos o monocultivos. Los valores obtenidos se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza, además se calculó el incremento productivo a partir del cual se determinó el uso equivalente de la tierra. Resultados: de forma general, se encontró en todas las especies componentes del policultivo (cultivo permanente y plantas intercaladas) ventajas sobre el monocultivo en cuanto a sus rendimientos, sin afectación de los principios activos, así como el aumento de la eficiencia productiva de los suelos. Conclusiones: se demostró en las especies estudiadas la superioridad que ofrece el sistema de siembra por policultivo. Abstract in english Foundations: there is an increasing trend on the part of the agriculturists to develop productions by polyculture systems. Objectives: to show the advantages of the polyculture system over the monoculture based on the increase of the yield of plant mass of the species included. Methods: in an establ [...] ished plantation of Aloe vera (L.) N. L. Burm., perennial and main culture, with hydrated red ferriferous soil (ferralsols), at "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants, it was investigated the intercropping of various species: Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria recutita L., Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.; cultures of short vegetative periods used to avail the space between furrows required by this plant. The yielding of fresh plant mass was also determined in each of the species of this complex association and they were compared with those of their respective unique cultures or monocultures. The values obtained were analyzed by variance analysis. The productive growth from which the equivalent use of the soil was determined was calculated, too. Results: generally, in all the species composing the polyculture (permanent culture and intercropped plants) there were advantages over the monoculture as regards their yieldings without affecting the active principles. An increase of the productive efficiency of the soils was also observed. Conclusions: the superiority of the polyculture system was proved in the studied species.

  19. Determination of saponins in Maesa lanceolata by LC-UV: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunis, Mart H B L; Foubert, Kenn; Pollier, Jacob; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Goossens, Alain; Vlietinck, Arnold J; Pieters, Luc A C; Apers, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Triterpene saponins are a class of plant natural products with a wide range of bioactivities, which makes them an interesting research subject. The small tree Maesa lanceolata, growing in African countries, is used in traditional medicine against various diseases. In previous work a triterpenoid saponin mixture was isolated from the leaves of M. lanceolata and the compounds were identified as closely related oleanane type triterpenes [Apers, S., Foriers, A., Sindambiwe, J.B., Vlietinck, A., Pieters, L., 1998. Separation of a triterpenoid saponin mixture from Maesa lanceolata: semi preparative reversed-phase wide pore high performance liquid chromatography with temperature control. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 18, 737; Apers, S., De Bruyne, T.E., Claeys, M., Vlietinck, A.J., Pieters, L.A.C., 1999. New acylated triterpenoid saponins from Maesa lanceolata. Phytochemistry 52, 1121]. The compounds showed virucidal, haemolytic, molluscicidal and antiangiogenic activity [Apers, S., Baronikova, S., Sindambiwe, J.B., Witvrouw, M., De Clercq, E., Vanden Berghe, D., Van Marck, E., Vlietinck, A., Pieters, L., 2001. Antiviral, haemolytic and molluscicidal activities of triterpenoid saponins from Maesa lanceolata: establishment of structure-activity relationships. Planta Med. 67, 528; Apers, S., Bürgermeister, J., Baronikova, S., Vermeulen, P., Paper, D., Van Marck, E., Vlietinck, A.J., Pieters, L.A.C., 2002. Antiangiogenic activity of natural products: in vivo and in vitro test models. J. Pharm. Belg. 57 (Hors-série 1), 47]. Here we report the development of an extraction and quantification method to analyse saponin compounds in roots and leaves of M. lanceolata. After a purification step using C(18) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the samples were analysed on a LC-UV/MS system. The identification of the peaks from the different saponins was confirmed based on the retention time and mass spectrum. The quantification was performed using the UV signals. The standard oleanolic acid curve was linear over a concentration range of 2.8-140.0mug/mL. The recovery from the leaves was 94.5%. The precision of the method with respect to time and concentration was acceptable, with relative standard deviation (RSD%) values of 4.9 and 4.3, respectively. PMID:17981308

  20. Energy plantations as an investment alternative: tax and legal aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, W.L.

    1984-10-01

    This report focuses on the tax aspects of investments in energy plantation business enterprises. Alternative tax treatments and associated tax issues are discussed in detail. This is followed by a discussion of investment structures appropriate for a range of investor types. The concluding section attempts to assess the impact of these tax considerations on the potential for energy plantations over the next twenty years. Findings indicate that energy plantation offer the potential to provide wood with a location utility second only to that of wood-processing plant residue. Energy plantations will become feasible as the location utility of available supplies of existing timber decreases. The availability of tax incentives should speed up the adoption of this technology. Unless it can be shown that the tax incentives available to producers of nonrenewable energy sources exceed those available to the producers of renewable energy sources, the application of the tax treatment afforded timber producers to energy plantation investors should be sufficient. The analysis reported herein concludes that trees grown for harvest as an energy source will qualify as ''timber'', and not as an agricultural crop under the Internal Revenue Code. It is expected that detailed investment analyses of alternative tax treatments and investment structures would confirm that treatment as timber would provide more favorable after-tax returns than treatment as a crop. An exception might be where substantial initial investments in land improvements are required. Treatment as a farm corp would, under certain circumstances, allow the deduction of these expenditures. 61 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Carbon sequestration through afforestation: Role of tropical industrial plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared to the temperate zone, carbon sequestration by trees is much faster in the tropical belt due to favorable climatic conditions. However net sequestration in tropics is much less than actual CO2 assimilation as bulk of wood produced is primarily consumed as fuel. On the other hand, the use of wood for making durable products like paper, pulp, veneer, etc. does not return the absorbed CO2 back to the atmosphere immediately. Due to abundant availability of wood as an industrial raw material in the temperate belt, wood-based manufacturing industry is largely concentrated in the temperate region, mainly western Europe, Scandinavia and North America. Despite excellent conditions for tree growth and presence of vast tracts of significantly underutilized land, Asia, Africa and Latin America are net importers of wood products. The demand for these products is projected to rise at a significantly higher rate in the immediate future and beyond, due to a variety of reasons. Industrial plantations in the tropics can not only make developing countries emerge as the new manufacturing base to meet the global demand for wood-based products, they can prove to be efficient and economically viable means to bring about a net reduction in atmospheric CO2. However, this will require a reorientation of land-use policies as well as policies governing production of wood as a raw material, in order to stimulate the required level of investment in this sehe required level of investment in this sector. 27 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  2. Contracciones y propiedades físicas de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas de plantación en Costa Rica / Skrinkages and physical properties of Acacia mangium Willd, Tectona grandis L. f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, plantation wood from Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Freddy, Muñoz-Acosta; Pablo A., Moreno-Perez.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con las normas ASTM D 2395-02 y D 143-94, se determinó la contracción total y normal en dirección radial (CR), tangencial (CT) y volumétrica (CV) y el coeficiente CT/ CR total y normal de Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L. f. y Terminalia amazonia A. Chev, maderas provenientes de p [...] lantación. También se determinaron algunas propiedades físicas como peso específico básico (PEB), PE12% y PEanhidro, densidad verde (DV) y normal (DN), punto de saturación de la fibra (PSF) y contenido de humedad (CH). Algunos criterios de clasificación, propuestos por otros investigadores, se aplicaron para categorizar la estabilidad dimensional y propiedades físicas de estas especies. Se encontró que la CR, CT, CV totales y CTtotal/CRtotal tienen diferencias significativas entre especies, al igual que las propiedades físicas PEB y PSF. El índice CTtotal/CRtotal indicó que T. grandis tiene mejor estabilidad dimensional. La relación lineal (R²= 0.7769) indicó que el PSF es un buen indicador de la magnitud de la CVtotal. Las especies de plantación de este estudio comparadas con las del bosque natural tienen estabilidad dimensional similar pero menor PEB. Abstract in english Based on ASTM standards D 2395-02 and D 143-94, total and normal shrinkage in radial (RS), tangential (TS) and volumetric (VS) directions and the total and normal TS/RS ratio were determined in the plantation woods Acacia mangium Willd., Tectona grandis L.f. and Terminalia amazonia A. Chev. Also, ph [...] ysical properties such as basic specific gravity (BSG), SG12% and SGovendry, green density (GD) and normal density (ND), fiber saturation point (FSP) and moisture content (MC) were determined. Some classification criteria, proposed by other researchers, were used to categorize the dimensional stability and physical properties of these species. Significant differences were found among the species for total RS, TS, VS and TStotal/RStotal, as well as for the physical properties BSG and FSP. The TStotal/RStotal ratio indicated that T. grandis has better dimensional stability. The linear regression (R²= 0.7769) indicated that FSP is a good indicator of VStotal magnitude. The plantation species of this study compared with those of the natural forest have similar dimensional stability but lower BSG.

  3. Avaliação do potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata para produção de painéis OSB / Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Setsuo, Iwakiri; Daniele Cristina, Potulski; Felipe Gustavo, Sanches; Janice Bernardo da, Silva; Rosilani, Trianoski; Williams Carlos, Pretko.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de uso da madeira de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Os painéis foram produzidos em laboratório com densidade nominal de 0,75 g/cm³, utilizando r [...] esina fenol-formaldeído em quantidade de 6% de sólido resinoso e 1% de emulsão de parafina. Foram avaliadas as propriedades de absorção de água e inchamento em espessura 2 e 24 horas, tração perpendicular, módulo de elasticidade e de ruptura paralelo e perpendicular, de acordo com as normas EN 317, 318 e 310/2003, respectivamente. Os painéis OSB produzidos com as 4 espécies e mistura destas, apresentaram valores médios de propriedades físicas e mecânicas acima do requisito mínimo estabelecido pela norma CSA 437/1993. Os resultados das propriedades físicas e mecânicas obtidas indicam a viabilidade de uso das madeiras de Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, Grevilea robusta, Melia azedarach e Toona ciliata, e mistura destas espécies, para produção de painéis OSB. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde [...] resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the parallel and perpendicular direction, according to EN standards. The OSB panels produced with four species and the mixture of these species showed average values of mechanical properties above the minimum standard established by the CSA 437/1993. The results of the physical and mechanical properties obtained indicate the feasibility of the use of wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach and Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing.

  4. Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiling to Elucidate Effectiveness of Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon Yong Choi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata fermented by lactic acid on controlling gene expression levels related to obesity was observed in an oligonucleotide chip microarray. Among 8170 genes, 393 genes were up regulated and 760 genes were down regulated in feeding the fermented C. lanceolata (FCL. Another 374 genes were up regulated and 527 genes down regulated without feeding the sample. The genes were not affected by the FCL sample. It was interesting that among those genes, Chytochrome P450, Dmbt1, LOC76487, and thyroid hormones, etc., were mostly up or down regulated. These genes are more related to lipid synthesis. We could conclude that the FCL possibly controlled the gene expression levels related to lipid synthesis, which resulted in reducing obesity. However, more detailed protein expression experiments should be carried out.

  5. Soil microbial properties in Eucalyptus grandis plantations of different ages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.T, Cortez; L.A.P.L, Nunes; L.B, Rodrigues; N, Eisenhauer; A.S.F, Araújo.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are increasingly used in Brazil to produce wood and energy, although the long-term consequences for ecosystem processes have rarely been evaluated. We investigated the soil microbial properties (soil microbial C, N, respiration, carbon use efficiency, and microbial C-to-N rati [...] o) among Eucalyptus grandis plantations of differing ages (1 to 4 years) in Northeast Brazil. An adjacent native forest was used as a reference. In general, soil microbial properties decreased in initial years of land-use change, but recovered to conditions comparable to an adjacent native forest after four years in the rainy season, but not in the dry season. The varying effects of Eucalyptus plantations and native forests between seasons may reflect differences in soil microbial communities with different responses to environmental conditions. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring and microbial community analysis in order to adequately assess and understand the impacts of exotic forest plantations on soil microbial properties.

  6. Effect of Cultivation Methods on Wood Static Bending Properties in Alnus Glutinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kiaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine radial variation of wood density, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR and stress at elastic limit in plantation and natural alder (Alnus glutinosa forests in north of Iran. Testing samples were taken at breast height of the stem and at three radial positions (10, 50 and 90 % of radius for both cultivation methods (natural and plantation forests to determine wood mechanical strength properties according to the ASTM standard. Analysis of variance indicated that cultivation methods (natural and plantation forest, radial position and interaction between planting position and radial direction had no significant effects on the modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR and stress at elastic limit in alder wood. Only the radial position had a significant effect on the wood density. Wood density was increased along radial direction from the pith to the periphery for both planting conditions. Overall, the mechanical strength properties in plantation forest were slightly higher than in natural forest. The relationship between wood density and mechanical properties were analyzed by linear regression. A positive relationship was found between wood density and mechanical properties for both planting conditions. These relationships were stronger in plantation forest than in natural forest.

  7. A report on the quality control parameters of aerial parts of Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae / Relatório sobre os parâmetros de controle de qualidade das partes aéreas de Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saleemulla, Khan; Ruchi, Rawat; AKS, Rawat; Annie, Shirwaiker.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae, é uma planta que tem sido usada como medicinal na Índia como um antipirético, analgésico anti-reumático e calmante. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estabelecer os padrões morfológicos e anatômicos e caracterizar o extrato(s) de P. lanceolata pela t [...] riagem fitoquímica preliminar como parâmetro de controle de qualidade para a matéria-prima. Abstract in english Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, Asteraceae, is a weed that has been used as an indigenous medicine in India as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic and nervine tonic. This paper aims at setting the morphological and anatomical standards and to characterize the extract(s) of P. lanceolat [...] a by preliminary phytochemical screening as quality control parameter for the raw material.

  8. Physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactures with tropical plantation species for structural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Camacho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Concrete, steel and plastics are the materials used for construction in Costa Rica. Meanwhile, wood from plantation are being introduced in the market. The present study aims to characterize and measured some physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels manufactured with veneers of Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Acacia mangium coming from forest plantations for structural use. It was produced three plywood boards of each species and general characterization of them was done, and physical and mechanical properties were determined. The results shown that panels manufactured with T. grandis wood presented physical and mechanical properties higher than G. arborea and A. mangium. In accordance with standards of Voluntary Products Standart PS 1-95 and PS 1-09 of the United States, structural plywood of G. arborea can be grouped in grade 3, and plywood manufactured with T. grandis and A. mangium wood in grade 2. All species can be used in the manufacture of structural elements.

  9. Determination of the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity on salivary Streptococci and Lactobacilli and chemical characterisation of the phenolic content of a Plantago lanceolata infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria Fabrizio; Cantile, Tiziana; Roberto, Lia; Ingenito, Aniello; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Roscetto, Emanuela; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Zarrelli, Armando; Pollio, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Plant extracts may be suitable alternative treatments for caries. Aims. To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Plantago lanceolata herbal tea (from flowers and leaves) on cariogenic bacteria and to identify the major constituents of P. lanceolata plant. Materials and Methods. The MIC and MBC against cariogenic bacteria were determined for P. lanceolata tea. Subsequently, a controlled random clinical study was conducted. Group A was instructed to rinse with a P. lanceolata mouth rinse, and Group B received a placebo mouth rinse for seven days. The salivary colonisation by streptococci and lactobacilli was investigated prior to treatment and on the fourth and seventh days. Finally, the P. lanceolata tea was analysed for its polyphenolic content, and major phenolics were identified. Results and Discussion. P. lanceolata teas demonstrate good in vitro antimicrobial activity. The in vivo test showed that Group A subjects presented a significant decrease in streptococci compared to Group B. The phytochemical analysis revealed that flavonoids, coumarins, lipids, cinnamic acids, lignans, and phenolic compounds are present in P. lanceolata infusions. Conclusions. P. lanceolata extract could represent a natural anticariogenic agent via an antimicrobial effect and might be useful as an ancillary measure to control the proliferation of cariogenic flora. PMID:25767805

  10. Determination of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antimicrobial Activity on Salivary Streptococci and Lactobacilli and Chemical Characterisation of the Phenolic Content of a Plantago lanceolata Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Lia; Ingenito, Aniello; Roscetto, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Plant extracts may be suitable alternative treatments for caries. Aims. To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Plantago lanceolata herbal tea (from flowers and leaves) on cariogenic bacteria and to identify the major constituents of P. lanceolata plant. Materials and Methods. The MIC and MBC against cariogenic bacteria were determined for P. lanceolata tea. Subsequently, a controlled random clinical study was conducted. Group A was instructed to rinse with a P. lanceolata mouth rinse, and Group B received a placebo mouth rinse for seven days. The salivary colonisation by streptococci and lactobacilli was investigated prior to treatment and on the fourth and seventh days. Finally, the P. lanceolata tea was analysed for its polyphenolic content, and major phenolics were identified. Results and Discussion. P. lanceolata teas demonstrate good in vitro antimicrobial activity. The in vivo test showed that Group A subjects presented a significant decrease in streptococci compared to Group B. The phytochemical analysis revealed that flavonoids, coumarins, lipids, cinnamic acids, lignans, and phenolic compounds are present in P. lanceolata infusions. Conclusions. P. lanceolata extract could represent a natural anticariogenic agent via an antimicrobial effect and might be useful as an ancillary measure to control the proliferation of cariogenic flora. PMID:25767805

  11. CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Naji,; Mohd Hamami Sahri; Tadashi Nobuchi,; Edi Suhaimi Bakar

    2011-01-01

    Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and plantin...

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Orlando V.; Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira; Alves, Maria S.; Arau?jo, Ai?lson A. L.; Pinto, Mi?riam A. O.; Amaral, Maria P. H.; Rodarte, Mi?rian P.; Kaplan, Maria A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine sh...

  13. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A. C. Kaplan; Mírian P. Rodarte; Maria P. H. Amaral; Aílson A. L. Araújo; Míriam A. O. Pinto; Maria S. Alves; Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira; Sousa, Orlando V.

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ?-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and ?-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli...

  14. Genome-wide analysis reveals dynamic changes in expression of microRNAs during vascular cambium development in Chinese fir, Cunninghamia lanceolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zongbo; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Manman; Wan, Yinglang; Cao, Dechang; Lu, Shanfa; Lin, Jinxing

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that play key roles in the process of plant development. To date, extensive studies of miRNAs have been performed in a few model plants, but few efforts have focused on small RNAs (sRNAs) in conifers because of the lack of reference sequences for their enormous genomes. In this study, Solexa sequencing of three sRNA libraries obtained from dormant, reactivating, and active vascular cambium in Chinese ?r (Cunninghamia lanceolata) using tangential cryosectioning identified 20 known miRNA families and 18 novel potential miRNAs, of which nine novel miRNA precursors were validated by RT-PCR and sequencing. More than half of these novel miRNAs displayed stage-specific expression patterns in the vascular cambium. Furthermore, analysing the 103 miRNAs and their predicted targets indicated that about 70% appeared to negatively regulate their targets, of which two target genes involved in the regulation of cambial cell division were validated via RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA ends (RLM 5'-RACE) and transient co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Interestingly, miRNA156 and miRNA172 may regulate the phase transition in vascular cambium from dormancy to active growth. These results provide new insights into the important regulatory functions of miRNAs in vascular cambium development and wood formation in conifers. PMID:25795740

  15. Out of the woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L

    1992-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity. PMID:12285836

  16. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  17. Les variations de couleur dans l'aubier et le duramen de jeunes arbres de Tectona grandis, en relation avec les caractéristiques des plantations, du site et de la durabilité

    OpenAIRE

    Moya, Róger; Berrocal, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    * Wood colour of Tectona grandis produced from fast-growth plantations is highly variable and the causes of this variation are relatively unknown.* With the purpose of understanding the colour variation, different fast-growth plantations were sampled with different growth rates, tree ages, and sites.* Wood colour was measured with a CIELab system, where three variables are estimated: coordinate L* for lightness, coordinate a* defines redness and coordinate b* defines yellowness.* Results show...

  18. THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Sulaiman,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to review the current status of oil palm biomass, including the availability of this tree, in order to illustrate the potential of oil palm biomass as an alternative source for compressed wood. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of compressed wood from oil palm trunk. This paper will cover the background of compressed wood and the possibilities of producing compressed wood using oil palm trunk as a raw material.

  19. Elevated ozone affects the genetic composition of Plantago lanceolata L. populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelliker, Roland [Molecular Ecology and Air Pollution/Climate Groups, Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: roland.koelliker@art.admin.ch; Bassin, Seraina; Schneider, David; Widmer, Franco; Fuhrer, Juerg [Molecular Ecology and Air Pollution/Climate Groups, Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    The genetic composition and diversity of Plantago lanceolata L. populations were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to test for differences in an old semi-natural grassland after five years of treatment with ambient or elevated ozone (O{sub 3}) using a free-air fumigation system. Genetic diversity in populations exposed to elevated O{sub 3} was slightly higher than in populations sampled from control plots. This effect was significant for AFLP-based measures of diversity and for SSR markers based on observed heterozygosity. Also, a small but significant difference in genetic composition between O{sub 3} treatments was detected by analysis of molecular variance and redundancy analysis. The results show that micro-evolutionary processes could take place in response to long-term elevated O{sub 3} exposure in highly diverse populations of outbreeding plant species. - Five years of exposure indicated a small but significant influence of elevated O{sub 3} on genetic composition and diversity of Plantago lanceolata L. populations.

  20. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Babanezhad, M. [Department of statistics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vitharana, U.W.A. [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Wuytack, T.; Potters, G. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Samson, R., E-mail: Roeland.Samson@ua.ac.b [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2010-03-15

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  1. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  2. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese dos frutos e sementes de Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae = Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruits and seeds of Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marzinek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clusia lanceolata Cambess é espécie arbustiva da Mata Atlântica. Caracteriza-se por ser dioica, com flores estaminadas e pistiladas grandes, vistosas, de coloração rosa, apresentando a parte interna vinácea. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie, visando classificar corretamente o seu tipo de fruto e, também, confirmar a origem do apêndice carnoso que envolve as sementes. O material botânico utilizado constou de flores em antese e frutos, em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento, coletados de dois espécimes. Os estudos morfológicos e anatômicos foram realizados segundo técnicas usuais. O fruto é cápsula septífraga, esférica, de coloração verde-avermelhado. O exocarpo é unisseriado; o mesocarpo parenquimático contém numerosos ductos secretores e feixes vasculares, de disposição principalmente longitudinal. O endocarpo é derivado da epiderme interna do ovário e de três a quatro camadas subepidérmicas, cujas células alongam-se tangencialmente e a parede que delimita o lóculo sofre lignificação. A abertura se faz pela sutura carpelar, por meio de uma faixa de células parenquimáticas de tamanho reduzido, que se bifurca em direção aos lóculos no meio dos septos. Os óvulos anátropos bitegumentados, com endotélio e hipóstase, originam sementes também anátropas, exotégmicas e envolvidas por arilo de origem funicular e exostomal. O embrião é hipocotilar.Clusia lanceolata Cambess. is a shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. The plant is dioecious, with large, showy, pink staminate and pistillate flowers that are wine-colored internally. The morphological and structural aspects of the fruits and seeds of this species are described here in order to correctly classify the fruit type and to determine the origin of the fleshy appendage that surrounds the seeds. The botanical material utilized here contained flowers in anthesis and fruits in four stages of development, and were collected from two different plants. The morphological and anatomical studies were performed according to traditional techniques. The fruit is a septifrage, spherical capsule with a reddish-green coloration. The exocarp is uniseriate; the parenchymatous mesocarp contains numerous secretory ducts and vascular bundles arranged in predominantly longitudinal positions. The endocarp is derived from the internal epidermis of the ovary and has from three to four subepidermal layers whose component cells are tangentially elongated, and the cell walls lining the locule become lignified. The fruits open by means of the carpelar suture, along a stand of small parenchymous cells that bifurcate in the direction of the locules, in the midst of the septum. The anatropous bitegumentedovules, with an endothelium and hypostase, give rise to seeds that are likewise anatropous, exotegmic, and wrapped in an aril that has a funicular and exostomal origin. The embryo is hypocotylar.

  3. Coconut lumber for wood decks (Cocos nucifera L.):decay resistance against Basidiomycetes fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Jourez, Benoît; Verheyen, Cécile; VAN ACKER, JORIS

    2011-01-01

    Since a couple of years, manufactured products of coconut wood for outdoor uses like wood decks have been proposed on the European market. These are presented as an alternative for traditional tropical timbers. In the past, coconut wood was neglected and burned for sanitary reasons and lack of interest at industrial scale. Plantation coconut trees at end of production of copra constitute a renewable resource with high added value. In order to convince the markets, natural durability for outdo...

  4. THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN.) WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Unsal, O.; Korkut, S.; Atik, C.

    2003-01-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and co...

  5. Cleaning of drainage water from agricultural land using a willow plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment using a willow plantation as a vegetation filter for cleaning of drainage water from agricultural land was established on a sandy soil in southwestern Sweden. Large amounts of nitrogen rich drainage water were collected in a pond, pumped into the willow plantation and distributed by flooding in shallow furrows. Measurements of the nitrogen content in the green willow leaves and in the percolating groundwater showed that large amounts of nitrogen supplied with the irrigation water were taken up effectively by the willow root system. The stem biomass production rates were high. The experiment showed that an irrigated willow plantation can act as a vegetation filter for cleaning of nitrogen in polluted drainage water and at the same time produce wood biomass for energy purposes. (au)

  6. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke?a Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  7. THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Unsal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn., which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and colour change of the wood specimens were tested in comparison with untreated specimens. The results showed that density, swelling, and hardness decreased with increasing treatment temperature and durations while heat treatment made the colour of the wood specimens darker

  8. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut growth and especially on radial increment, a very important matter being common walnut the target species with a very appreciated and valuable wood.

  9. Climate benefits from alternative energy uses of biomass plantations in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of tree plantations in rural areas in Uganda could provide renewable energy to rural communities, while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from conventional electricity sources and unsustainable forest use. The study evaluates the greenhouse gas benefits that could be produced by biomass based energy systems in Anaka, a rural settlement in the Amuru district in northern Uganda. Two alternative energy uses are explored: a) electricity production through wood gasification and b) traditional fuelwood use. It is estimated that a small-scale wood gasifier could provide electricity for basic community services by planting less than 10 ha of new short rotation coppices (SRCs). The gasification system could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by traditional diesel based electricity generators in terms of CO2-eq. (0.61–0.83 t MWh?1 or 7.1 t y?1 per hectare of SRCs). It was also estimated that traditional use of fuelwood in households is currently unsustainable, i.e. the consumption of wood is higher than the annual growth from natural wood resources in the study area. It is estimated that 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could render the current consumption of wood sustainable. In this way, the CO2 emissions produced through unsustainable extraction of wood could be avoided (2.0–7.3 t per capita per year or 50–130 t y?1 per hectare of SRCs). -- Highlights: ? We assessed the GHG benefits of short rotation coppices for bioenergy in Uganda. ? The GHG benefits of two energy uses are explored: gasification and fuelwood use. ? The gasifier could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by diesel generators. ? 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could avoid unsustainable fuelwood use. ? Fuelwood production is more efficient in terms of GHG savings per hectare

  10. The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

  11. Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sievers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta" ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó un potrero de igual composición botánica, pero con una baja carga parasitaria, y el grupo de terneros "Plantago" pastoreó un potrero sembrado con P. lanceolata, también con una baja carga parasitaria. Este manejo se mantuvo durante 60 días. Cada semana se pesaron todos los animales y se les tomaron muestras fecales para realizar recuento de huevos y diferenciación genérica de larvas. Cada dos semanas se estableció la carga parasitaria del pasto de los potreros utilizados. La pluviosidad se registró diariamente. La carga parasitaria del pasto del potrero contaminado fue alta durante todo el ensayo. A las tres semanas de iniciado el período de suplementación se inició en ambos grupos un aumento de los recuentos (hpg promedio de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus que se diferenciaron significativamente (P 0,05. Se concluye que la suplementación con Plantago lanceolata redujo significativamente la oviposición de los parásitos gastrointestinales.The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Plantago lanceolata (narrow leaf plantain, as a supplemental forage, reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. The trial was conducted on a farm in the 10th Region, Chile. Two groups of 15 calves weighing 171.4 ± 19.8 kg grazed 17 hours a day on a pasture composed mainly of gramineous and with a high infestation of trichostrongylid nematode larvae. During the remaining 7 hours, the "control" group grazed in a pasture of similar botanic composition but with a low parasite burden; the "plantago" group grazed in a pasture specially sown with P. lanceolata with also a low parasite burden. This regimen was maintained for 60 days. Each week the animals were weighed and faecal samples were gathered to determine the nematode egg count (epg and larvae generic differentiation. Grass samples were taken every two weeks from all pastures to establish their level of parasite burden. Precipitation was measured daily. The parasite burden of grass in the contaminated pasture was high during the whole period. Three weeks after the initiation of the trial, an increase in the average of eggs per gram of faeces (epg was observed. A significant difference (P 0.05. It is concluded that the inclusion of P. lanceolata as a supplemental forage significantly reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal parasites.

  12. Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros / Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G, Sievers; S, Nannig.

    Full Text Available El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta") ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon [...] 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó un potrero de igual composición botánica, pero con una baja carga parasitaria, y el grupo de terneros "Plantago" pastoreó un potrero sembrado con P. lanceolata, también con una baja carga parasitaria. Este manejo se mantuvo durante 60 días. Cada semana se pesaron todos los animales y se les tomaron muestras fecales para realizar recuento de huevos y diferenciación genérica de larvas. Cada dos semanas se estableció la carga parasitaria del pasto de los potreros utilizados. La pluviosidad se registró diariamente. La carga parasitaria del pasto del potrero contaminado fue alta durante todo el ensayo. A las tres semanas de iniciado el período de suplementación se inició en ambos grupos un aumento de los recuentos (hpg) promedio de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus que se diferenciaron significativamente (P 0,05). Se concluye que la suplementación con Plantago lanceolata redujo significativamente la oviposición de los parásitos gastrointestinales. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Plantago lanceolata (narrow leaf plantain), as a supplemental forage, reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. The trial was conducted on a farm in the 10th Region, Chile. Two groups of 15 calves weighing 171.4 ± 19.8 kg grazed [...] 17 hours a day on a pasture composed mainly of gramineous and with a high infestation of trichostrongylid nematode larvae. During the remaining 7 hours, the "control" group grazed in a pasture of similar botanic composition but with a low parasite burden; the "plantago" group grazed in a pasture specially sown with P. lanceolata with also a low parasite burden. This regimen was maintained for 60 days. Each week the animals were weighed and faecal samples were gathered to determine the nematode egg count (epg) and larvae generic differentiation. Grass samples were taken every two weeks from all pastures to establish their level of parasite burden. Precipitation was measured daily. The parasite burden of grass in the contaminated pasture was high during the whole period. Three weeks after the initiation of the trial, an increase in the average of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) was observed. A significant difference (P 0.05). It is concluded that the inclusion of P. lanceolata as a supplemental forage significantly reduces the egg output of gastrointestinal parasites.

  13. DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DE Sacoila lanceolata (AUBL. GARAY (ORCHIDACEAE EM FRAGMENTO MESÓFILO DE PIRASSUNUNGA, SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PICCOLI, Mariani Cristina Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sacoila lanceolata stands out for its wide geographical distribution and ability to invade disturbed areas. The present study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of species, besides verifying the correlation between immature and mature plants with the climatic patterns in Fragment Seasonal Semi-deciduous forest of the state of São Paulo. The identification of the distribution pattern occurred for the allocation of 20 plots of 20 x 10 m, later reduced to 10 x 10 m was calculated Morisita Index (MI and the ratio Variance / Mean (R. To identify correlations used the Spearman correlation coefficient (r. Immature and mature showed aggregation in plots of 100 m² and 200 m², being higher for mature in both cases. The correlation coefficient obtained between immature and mature was greater than 0.88, indicating dependence between these populations. All abiotic factors analyzed, mainly temperature and relative humidity, were important for the allocation of plants along the plots. Sacoila lanceolata destaca-se por sua ampla distribuição geográfica e capacidade de invadir ambientes perturbados. O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar a distribuição espacial da espécie, além de verificar se há correlação entre imaturos e maturos com os padrões microclimáticos em Fragmento Estacional Semidecidual do Estado de São Paulo. A identificação do padrão de distribuição ocorreu pela alocação de 20 parcelas de 20 x 10 m, posteriormente reduzidas para 10 x 10 m, onde foram calculados o Índice de Morisita (IM e a Razão Variância/Média (R. Para identificação das correlações utilizou-se o índice de correlação de Sperman (r. Imaturos e maturos apresentaram agregação nas parcelas de 100 m² e 200 m², sendo esta maior para maturos em ambos os casos. O índice de correlação obtido entre imaturos e maturos foi superior a 0,88, indicando dependência entre tais populações. Todos os fatores abióticos analisados, principalmente temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, mostraram-se importantes para a alocação das plantas ao longo das parcelas.

  14. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  15. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari,; K. Pourali,; Fakhrian Roghani, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 ?m, and 7.1 ?m, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre...

  16. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  17. ADVANCES IN THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF Cuphea aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata : EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas-sandoval, B. A.; Pez-laredo, A. R. L. U. F.; Cdnez-bonfil, B. P. Mart U.; Fadez-torres, K. Berm U.; Trejo-tapia, G.

    2012-01-01

    Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea lanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina tradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h), el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de variosórganos de C. aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata . Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH + y ABTS + ) y el de poder reduc...

  18. Wooded areas

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009.

  19. Efecto de la alimentación suplementaria con Plantago lanceolata sobre la oviposición de parásitos gastrointestinales en terneros Effect of the supplementary feeding with Plantago lanceolata on the egg output of gastrointestinal nematodes in calves

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers, G; S Nannig

    2006-01-01

    El propósito fue determinar si Plantago lanceolata ("Llantén de hoja angosta") ingerida como forraje suplementario reduce la oviposición de los nemátodos gastrointestinales en terneros. El ensayo se realizó en un predio de la X Región, Chile. Dos grupos de 15 terneros de 171,4 ± 19,8 kg, pastorearon 17 horas diarias un potrero contaminado con una alta carga de larvas de nemátodos trichostrongilidos. Las 7 horas restantes, el grupo de terneros "Testigo" pastoreó un potrero de igual co...

  20. WOOD WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Theodoro Muller

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in the rubbed surfaces reaching 170 ºC, and the consequent change of state of the lignin and hemicelluloses, that then melt and flow. The process results in the detachment of wood cells, and in a formation of a fibers entanglement network immersed in a matrix of molten material which then solidifies. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs obtained shows a considerable physic-chemical reorganization in the bulk of the joint. This new composition of detachment wood cells/fibers of the two surfaces, a entanglement network immersed in a matrix of molten polymericmaterial, mainly melted lignin, yields in the interface of the welding a bond of considerable strength.

  1. Distribution of metabolites in galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata and its antioxidant activity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafaela O., Ferreira; Almir R. de, Carvalho Junior; Telma M.G. da, Silva; Rosane N., Castro; Tania M.S. da, Silva; Mário G. de, Carvalho.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata Cambess., Clusiaceae, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The chemical composition of both oils was similar, with a predominance of sesquiterpene caryophyllenes. The extracts from the leaves were evaluat [...] ed regarding total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. Galled leaves showed higher levels of phenolics and proanthocyanidins, since the content of flavonoids was higher in non-galled leaves. The chromatographic profiles of extracts were obtained by using HPLC/DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Electrospray ionisation (ESI) in positive and negative ion mode was used to identify four flavones C-glycosides in both extracts. The study constitutes a first report on the chemical research of C. lanceolata. The extract from galled leaves had a higher antioxidant activity.

  2. Federal tax incentives and disincentives for the adoption of wood-fuel electric-generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we estimate the effects of current federal tax policy on the financial criteria that investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) and non-utility electricity generators (NUGs) use to evaluate wood-fuel electric-generating technologies, distinguishing between dedicated-plantation and wood-waste fuels. Accelerated tax depreciation, the 1.5 cent/kWh production tax credit for the dedicated-plantation technology, and the alternative minimum tax are the most important tax provisions. The results indicate that federal tax laws have significantly different effects on the evaluation criteria, depending on the plant's ownership (IOU vs NUG) and type of fuel (dedicated-plantation vs wood-waste). (Author)

  3. Evaluación del efecto genotóxico en extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor y matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vizoso Parra

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Mediante 2 ensayos de genotoxicidad, segregación mitótica en Aspergillus nidulans D-30 y la inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón se procedió a evaluar la posible acción genotóxica de los extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor y Matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla. En el ensayo de segregación mitótica se evaluaron los extractos fluidos de llantén menor y manzanilla con 5 y 6 concentraciones en un rango de 0,6 a 4,76 y 0,016 a 0,652 mg de sólidos totales/mL respectivamente. En el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos se probaron para el llantén menor dosis de 1,875; 3,750 y 6,000 g/kg peso corporal (pc y en el caso de la manzanilla dosis de 1,23; 1,96 y 2,45 g/kg pc. En ninguno de los ensayos realizados se detectó la ocurrencia de efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos.Potential genotoxic action of fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. (Llantén menor, and Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomille was assessed by 2 genotoxic trials: mitotic spreading in D-30 Aspergillus nidulans and micronuclei induction in bone marrow of the mouse. In mitotic spreading trial, fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. and Chamomille, with 5 and 6 concentrations in a range of 0,6-4,76, and 0,016-0,652 mg of total solids/mL, respectively, were assessed. In micronuclei induction trial, for Plantago lanceolata L., dose of 1875; 3,750, and 6,000 g/kg of body weight (bw, and in the case of Chamomille, dose of 1,23; 1,96, and 2,45 g/kg of bw,were tested. In none of trials performed, it was possible to detect occurrence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

  4. High elevation Plantago lanceolata plants are less resistant to herbivory than their low elevation conspecifics: is it just temperature?

    OpenAIRE

    Pellissier, Loïc; Roger, Aurélien; Bilat, Julia; Rasmann, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Traits that mediate species interactions are evolutionarily shaped by biotic and abiotic drivers, yet we know relatively little about the relative importance of these factors. Herbivore pressure, along with resource availability and ‘third-party’ mutualists, are hypothesized to play a major role in the evolution of plant defence traits. Here, we used the model system Plantago lanceolata, which grows along steep elevation gradients in the Swiss Alps, to investigate the effect of elevation,...

  5. Evaluación del efecto genotóxico en extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ángel, Vizoso Parra; Alberto, Ramos Ruiz; Aida, Villaescusa González; Mercedes, Décalo Michelena; José, Betancourt Badell.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Mediante 2 ensayos de genotoxicidad, segregación mitótica en Aspergillus nidulans D-30 y la inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón se procedió a evaluar la posible acción genotóxica de los extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Matricaria recutita L. (manzanilla). E [...] n el ensayo de segregación mitótica se evaluaron los extractos fluidos de llantén menor y manzanilla con 5 y 6 concentraciones en un rango de 0,6 a 4,76 y 0,016 a 0,652 mg de sólidos totales/mL respectivamente. En el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos se probaron para el llantén menor dosis de 1,875; 3,750 y 6,000 g/kg peso corporal (pc) y en el caso de la manzanilla dosis de 1,23; 1,96 y 2,45 g/kg pc. En ninguno de los ensayos realizados se detectó la ocurrencia de efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos. Abstract in english Potential genotoxic action of fluid extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. (Llantén menor), and Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomille) was assessed by 2 genotoxic trials: mitotic spreading in D-30 Aspergillus nidulans and micronuclei induction in bone marrow of the mouse. In mitotic spreading trial, fluid [...] extracts of Plantago lanceolata L. and Chamomille, with 5 and 6 concentrations in a range of 0,6-4,76, and 0,016-0,652 mg of total solids/mL, respectively, were assessed. In micronuclei induction trial, for Plantago lanceolata L., dose of 1875; 3,750, and 6,000 g/kg of body weight (bw), and in the case of Chamomille, dose of 1,23; 1,96, and 2,45 g/kg of bw),were tested. In none of trials performed, it was possible to detect occurrence of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

  6. Wood density variation and tree ring distinctness in Gmelina arborea trees by x-ray densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Moya

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its relationship with other properties, wood density is the main wood quality parameter. Modern, accuratemethods such as X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the spatial distribution of density in wood sections and to evaluatewood quality. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of growing conditions on wood density variation andtree ring demarcation of gmelina trees from fast growing plantations in Costa Rica. The wood density was determined by X-raydensitometry method. Wood samples were cut from gmelina trees and were exposed to low X-rays. The radiographic films weredeveloped and scanned using a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the wood density was determined by CRAD and CERDsoftware. The results showed tree-ring boundaries were distinctly delimited in trees growing in site with rainfall lower than 2510 mm/year. It was demonstrated that tree age, climatic conditions and management of plantation affects wood density and its variability. Thespecific effect of variables on wood density was quantified by for multiple regression method. It was determined that tree yearexplained 25.8% of the total variation of density and 19.9% were caused by climatic condition where the tree growing. Wood densitywas less affected by the intensity of forest management with 5.9% of total variation.

  7. Comparison of Different Wood Species as Raw Materials for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Klašnja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Most projections of the global energy use predict that biomass will be an important component of primary energy sources in the coming decades. Short rotation plantations have the potential to become an important source of renewable energy in Europe because of the high biomass yields, a good combustion quality as solid fuel, ecological advantages and comparatively low biomass production costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the wood of black locust Robinia pseudoacacia, white willow Salix alba L., poplars Populus deltoides and Populus x euramericana cl.I-214, aged eight years were examined. Immediately after the felling, sample discs were taken to assess moisture content, ash content, the width of growth rings, wood densities and calorific values, according to the standard methodology. Results:The mean values of willow, poplar and black locust wood density were 341 kg/m3, 336 kg/m3 and 602 kg/m3,respectively. The average heating values of willow poplar and black locust wood were 18.599 MJ/kg, 18.564 MJ/kg and 21.196 MJ/kg, respectively. The FVI index (average values was higher for black locust (17.186 than for poplar and willow clones, which were similar: 11.312 and 11.422 respectively. Conclusions: Black locust wood with a higher density, calorific value and ash content compared to poplar and willow wood proved to be a more suitable raw material as RES. However, it is very important, from the aspect of the application of wood of these tree species as RES, to also consider the influence of the biomass yield per unit area of the plantations established as “energy plantations”.

  8. Leishmaniasis vector potential of Lutzomyia spp. in Colombian coffee plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburg, A; Montoya-Lerma, J; Jaramillo, C; Cruz-Ruiz, A L; Ostrovska, K

    1991-01-01

    Potential vectors of Leishmania braziliensis Vianna were assessed at four study sites in the mountainous Valle del Cauca, western Colombia, from March to June 1989. In an active focus of transmission at 1450 m altitude, a coffee plantation at Versalles, there were high densities of antropophilic phlebotomines: Lutzomyia columbiana (Ritorcelli & Van Ty) and Lu.townsendi (Ortiz), both in the verrucarum species group, and of Lu.pia (Fairchild & Hertig). At a comparable altitude in a forest reserve at Yotoco where leishmaniasis is unknown, Lu.pia was the prevalent species and Lu.townsendi was absent. In two localities at 1150 m altitude, there were plentiful Lu.lichyi (Floch & Abonnenc) plus both species in the verrucarum group, but Lu.pia was absent. One of these localities, a coffee plantation at Villa Hermosa where a leishmaniasis outbreak occurred in 1986, was compared with a leishmaniasis-free, partly wooded nature reserve at Mateguadua. No natural infections of Leishmania were found in a total of 1896 wild-caught female phlebotomines belonging to at least seven species. It remains unclear why Leishmaniasis transmission is associated with coffee plantations in this part of Colombia. Laboratory-bred Lu.lichyi females were invariably autogenous, and blood-seeking females of this species were always parous. Parity rates in wild-caught females of other species were 55% Lu.pia, 24% Lu.columbiana and 14% Lu.townsendi. Female Lutzomyia infected artificially with Le.braziliensis promastigotes developed peripylarian infections. Higher proportions of Lu.townsendi (96%) and Lu.columbiana (78%) became infected but these species developed lower rates of stomodaeal infections (P less than 0.1) than Lu.lichyi (37%) or Lu.pia (44%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1768906

  9. Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, D.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of Total Flavone of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of total flavone of branches and leaves of Cunninghamia lanceolata (TFC to provide a scientific basis for its clinical use and resource development. TFC was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in mice or rats using chemical and thermal models of nociception, including acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate latency test, formalin test and carrageenan induced paw oedema test. Results showed that TFC given orally can significantly attenuate acetic acid-induced writhing in mice in a dose-dependent manner. In the hot plate latency test, TFC showed common activity in prolonging duration time only at the highest dose (400 mg/kg. Each dose of TFC could not significantly inhibit the first phase but was active in the later phase of formalin-induced pain, whereas morphine showed notable activity in the two phases. In the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model, TFC could significantly and dose-dependently reduce the carrageenan-induced paw edema at the third and fifth hour, and decrease the content of PEG2 in paw edema tissue and that of COX-2 in blood serum. It may be concluded that TFC showed both anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, showing that it can be of importance in drug development, especially in the field of pain and inflammation.

  11. Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar (Populus sp. plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76" plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G partitioning to latent (LE and sensible (H heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008 to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009, and H/(Rn-G from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (?=H/LE were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs had the greatest response to drought (+43%, but the aerodynamic and climatological resistances did not change significantly (p > 0.05. Partial correlation analysis indicated that Rs was the dominant factor in controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the major factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (? = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively, and the LE / LEeq ratio ranged from 0.81 and 0.68 in wet and dry years, respectively. In general, the dry surface conditions dominated in this poplar plantation ecosystem regardless of soil water availability suggesting that fast-growing and water use-intensive species like poplar plantations are poorly adapted for the water limited region.

  12. Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76") plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G) partitioning to latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G) ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008) to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009), and H/(Rn-G) from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (?=H/LE) were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs) had the greatest response to drought (+43%), but the aerodynamic and climatological resistances did not change significantly (p > 0.05). Partial correlation analysis indicated that Rs was the dominant factor in controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the major factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (? = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively), and the LE / LEeq ratio ranged from 0.81 and 0.68 in wet and dry years, respectively. In general, the dry surface conditions dominated in this poplar plantation ecosystem regardless of soil water availability suggesting that fast-growing and water use-intensive species like poplar plantations are poorly adapted for the water limited region.

  13. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditint is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  14. Wood marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn Fritsche (None; )

    2005-08-23

    There are several insects that can cause damage to trees and wooden structures. Carpenter ants have attacked this truss by chewing small holes in it. Termites also chew holes in wood and will commonly infest houses. They weaken the structure of the house by chewing the wooden beams.

  15. Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f. plantations of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Moya J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand of 150 teak trees ha-1 at age 19 would accumulate (kg ha-1 405 N, 661 Ca, 182 K, 111 Mg, 33 P, 53 S, 9 Fe, 0.47 Mn, 0.22 Cu, 0.92 Zn, 1 B; whereas the expected nutrient export by timber harvest (bole and bark is (kg ha-1 220 N, 281 Ca, 88 K, 63 Mg, 23 P, 39 S, 6 Fe, 0.13 Mn, 0.10 Cu, 0.21 Zn, 0.40 B. Hence, teak nutrition should pay special attention to N and K, together with Ca the nutrients most accumulated by teak. In addition, P and B could also be limiting planted teak forest productivity due to their general soil deficiencies. Proposed models estimate the amount of nutrients removed from the site during timber harvests, information that can be used by plantation managers to avoid soil nutrient depletion, approaching sustainability in forest plantation management.

  16. Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Ricardo, Gherardi Hein; José, Tarcísio Lima.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA) for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA wit [...] h wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m) in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k) using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91). The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

  17. Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91. The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

  18. Natural durability, physical and mechanical properties of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica Manetti) wood from Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti, Michele; De Capua, Enrico; Nicola MACCHIONI; Monachello, Salvatore

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the technological characterisation of Atlas cedar wood from artificial plantation in South Italy. Atlas cedar seems to be one of the most promising species for reforestation in Central-South Italy, due to its ecological adaptability, quality of standing trees, even without thinnings and pruning, and productivity of the stands. From a 30-year-old stand in Sicily 6 trees were selected in order to analyse the natural durability of wood against fungi, according to European S...

  19. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration of carbon. The same is likely to be true for managed forests in other temperate regions. If wood from additional felling is used, it would be most effective to use it in products that stay in circulation for a long time, only to be used for energy at the end of its service life. An increase in wood demand may lead to an intensification of forest management, which may temporarily increase carbon sequestration rates and biomass yields. This would eventually reduce the payback times. However, it must be noted that it would still take a substantial amount of time for the intensification of forest management to become effective, especially when it includes drastic measures, such as converting natural forests into plantations. Short rotation plantations with fast growing trees on agricultural land may be another option, but in these cases there are similarities with the direct and indirect land-use change effects related to energy crops. Further analysis is required to enable a clear judgment on the impact of these options. Products are not the only place of storing carbon with a beneficial effect on climate change. The combination of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) on large industrial sites where biomass is converted into energy carriers, such as transport fuel and electricity, is projected to be beneficial, as well. Even landfill sites may serve as storage of carbon in wood waste, as pieces of wood hardly degrade.

  20. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  1. DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF METHYL METHACRYLATE HARDENED HYBRID POPLAR WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Dan Ding,; Ahmed Koubaa,; Abdelkader Chaala

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the dimensional stability of fast-growing poplar clones wood after treatment by impregnation with methyl methacrylate (MMA). Six hybrid poplar clones from one plantation in Quebec were sampled. The effects of hardening with MMA on density as well as longitudinal, radial, tangential, and volumetric swelling properties (S), water uptake capacity (D), anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), and water repellent efficiency (WRE) after soaking were investigated. Hardening treatment incr...

  2. Decomposition dynamic of fine roots in a mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Tsoongiodendron odorum in mid-subtropics

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Guang-Shui; Guo, Jian-Fen; Lin, Peng

    2004-01-01

    Decomposition of fine roots (< 2 mm in diameter, viz. < 0.5 mm, 0.5-1.0 mm, 1.0-2.0 mm) was studied by means of litter bag in a mixed forest of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) and Tsoong's tree (Tsoongiodendron odorum Chun) in Sanming, Fujian, China. In a 540 d period of decay, fine roots in all litter bags decomposed in a three-phase manner: (a) for the Chinese fir, an initial, relatively low rate of decay up to 90 d followed by a period of rapid weight loss until 270 d, ...

  3. Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD7, 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha-1, respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

  4. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ? 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ? 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  5. Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Aparecida Verde de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689.Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are kidney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

  6. Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae) / Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Débora Aparecida Verde de, Andrade; Flavia Aparecida, Ortolani; José Roberto, Moro; Fabíola Vitti, Moro.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, [...] polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689. Abstract in english Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are ki [...] dney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

  7. Commercial Profitability of Poplar Plantation with Reference to the Damages Caused by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Ke?a

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Due to the fact that poplar rotation is one of the shortest in forestry, and as production of poplar wood requires rational and well-planned management, the potentials of sites and species must be maximally utilised. The main characteristics of the procedure of investment in poplar cultivation, is the fact that the conditions for the beginning of production and their exploitation are not created simultaneously. The main goal of the work reported in this paper was to examine the financial effects of different discount rates on the cost-efficiency values of studied poplar plantation, based on an analysis of the present value of costs and revenues over a stated time period using different methods of investment appraisal. Material and Methods: Investment Appraisal also known as Capital Budgeting is used to asses whether capital expenditure on particular poplar plantations will be beneficial for the entity or not. The investigated plantation was established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214 on alluvial semigley, with planting spacing 6 x 3 m, aged 26 years, for technical wood production. The data used in this study were collected from the archives of the, according to the age at plantation established and from the management and materials books of the forest enterprise “Vojvodinašume”. During two-year study, the material was collected from study plot in order to assess the density, distribution and significance of individual fungal organisms present in the plantation. Identification was based on the morphological characteristics of species. Results and Conclusion: Under the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 26 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in this studied plot because of the better sites (alluvial semigley and youngness of the stand. For the studied sample plot IRR is 6.94. R for the r=12% in the study compartment is 0.407. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor under the discount rate of 6%. In the studied plot altogether 11 species of fungi causing significant damages in hybrid poplar plantations were identified. Two were found on cortical tissue, 6 on leaves and 3 species are causing decay. Number of trees attacked with decaying fungi, like Fomes fomentarius, Trametes suaveolens, was bellow 2%/ two percentage.

  8. INTERFERENCE IN THE EUCALYPTUS PULP QUALITY AND YIELD DUE TO WOOD MULTIPLE USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Monteiro de Carvalho

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year plantation of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid established in the vicinity of Mogi-Guaçu/SP was evaluated, according to a simulation of multiple use of the wood. Part of the raw material produced was sent to sawn wood industry. The quality and yield of the cellulose produced in laboratory of three wood portions of the plantation was compared. In Treatment 1, the cellulose produced from the whole wood of the trees was evaluated; in Treatment 2 only the first portion of the tree was used, from wood of the soil base up to 4m height, wood that would be destined to sawnwood in a multiple use situation; finally, Treatment 3 evaluated the portion of the wood above 4 m of height. The possible interferences of multiple use of the wood in the yield and quality of the cellulose were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the retreat of the most vigorous logs of the trees didn't harm the quality and yield of the cellulose.

  9. Acute and subchronic (28 days) oral toxicity studies of Codonopsis lanceolata extract in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young-Hyun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Lee, Jin-Ha; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata is a perennial plant that has been used as a food and in traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, and inflammation in East Asia including Korea, Japan, and China. However, information regarding its toxicity is limited. Therefore, we performed a safety evaluation of aqueous C. lanceolata root extract (CLE) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Assessment of acute toxicity revealed that CLE did not influence mortality, clinical appearance, body weight gain, or necropsy findings at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. In the subchronic oral toxicity, data revealed that several significant alteration in food consumption, water consumption, protein excretion, WBCs levels, TGs, BUN levels, and the absolute and relative weights in the liver, spleen and lungs. However, these changes were transient and were not considered treatment related because they showed no apparent dose dependent. These results suggest that CLE (1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg body weight/day) administered orally does not cause acute or subchronic toxicity to male or female rats. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of CLE was determined to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. PMID:25724632

  10. The research of some physical properties of wood Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortuneii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoški? Borislav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The density, shrinkage and swelling of Paulownia elongata and P. fortuneii wood were researched. The study material was provided by Boda Vukovojac, B. Sc., who established the Paulownia plantation and sample plots on the territory of the Municipality Bela Crkva. The study results show the differences between the analyzed properties of these two species. The study results were also compared with the results of the similar species of wood. The data shows that the study wood can be used in wood products that are not subject to great loads during exploitation. Further study should investigate the liability of these wood species to form tension wood and deformations in the conditions of variable hygroscopic moisture.

  11. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argen Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  12. Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

    2011-12-01

    Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P biomass was 73 Mg C ha-1 in NR stand, 43 Mg C ha-1 in Sa plantation, 21 Mg C ha-1 in Am plantation and 18 Mg C ha-1 in Ao plantation respectively. The averaged total soil carbon stock up to 1 m soil depth in plantation site was estimated to be 167 ± 58 Mg C ha-1 which was nearly two times higher than that of current paddy fields 85 ± 17 Mg C ha-1. These facts suggest the feasibility of the mangrove plantation and induced natural regeneration as a carbon sequestration tool. The establishment of mangrove plantations appeared to be one measure for reducing the risk of cyclone damage after the Cyclone Nargis. This may reduce future human loss by cyclones and also improve the life of local people by increasing timber resources and environmental services.

  13. Species trials for biomass plantations in Hawaii: a first appraisal. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, T.H.; Whitesell, C.D.

    1985-08-01

    Fast-growing trees producing high-density wood are required to justify from an exonomic standpoint short rotation biomass plantations. Nine species trials were established on five sub-tropical sites on the island of Hawaii. Survival and growth of 27 introduced species and the native Acacia koa were appraised at one or more locations, for periods from 24 to 60 months. Performance varied greatly, within, and between all species tested. Eucalyptus saligna and E. grandis usually proved to be the species best adapted to well drained sites. Most failures a-d unsatisfactory performances related to harsh site conditions, such as low soil fertility, droughts, and high winds.

  14. Albedo of a hybrid poplar plantation in central Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D. T.; Bernier, P. Y.; Orchansky, A.; Thomas, B.

    2012-04-01

    Canada's boreal forest resources are coming under increasing pressure from competing land-uses, including establishment of protected areas, and losses of harvestable forest to mining and oil and gas exploration. In the prairie region, concerns about lack of wood supply for pulpmills and potential opportunities for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation, have spurred interest in afforestation of marginal agricultural land, notably with fast-growing hybrid poplars (HP). However, global modelling studies suggest that a shift from grassland or crops to forest cover in temperate and boreal regions could result in reduced surface albedo, particularly in winter, causing an increase in radiative forcing and reducing any climate mitigation benefits due to net GHG removal. We report on seven growing seasons of measurements of short-wave canopy albedo using tower-mounted instruments, along with eddy covariance measurements of carbon, water and energy balance, at a site in central Alberta planted with HP cuttings in spring 2005. The data show little systematic change in average albedo as vegetation has changed from bare ground to a plantation of 6 m trees. Reasons for this include very wide (3 m) spacing between the trees, and snow cover which often persists for 4-5 months and is highly visible below the bare canopies during winter. While measurements should continue as the trees grow larger, we postulate that extensive afforestation with HP is unlikely to have major effects on regional-scale surface albedo compared to the agricultural systems they replace. Normal rotation lengths are 15-20 years, hence even if older plantations have significantly lower winter albedo, their contribution to the regional average would be relatively small because they will cover only a small fraction of the landscape (e.g., compared to forests of boreal conifers or temperate broadleaved species).

  15. Evaluation of Mycosphaerella impact on eucalypts plantations in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD is one of the most important diseases of eucalypts plantations worldwide. However, only recently it has become relevant in Portugal. Caused by a complex of Mycosphaerella species, this disease reduces the photosynthetic area and can cause tree defoliation. In extreme cases it causes reduction in the volume of wood produced. In order to relate the observed symptoms of MLD with the presence of the pathogen and at the same time obtaining an evaluation of eucalypt clones and family susceptibility, two experimental plantations were established in places where the disease has been detected. Data on the percentage of affected crown (necrosis or defoliation were collected and some of the Mycosphaerella species present were identified (M. africana, M. communis, M. grandis, M. lateralis, M. marksii, M. nubilosa, M. parva, M. vespa and M. walkeri.A doença das manchas das folhas do eucalipto é uma das mais importantes nas plantações de eucalipto, tendo-se só recentemente tornado relevante em Portugal. Esta doença, causada por um complexo de espécies de Mycosphaerella, reduz a área fotossintética da árvore, podendo causar desfolha, com consequente redução da taxa de crescimento e do volume de madeira produzido. Com o objectivo de relacionar os sintomas observados com a presença do agente patogénico e avaliar a susceptibilidade de clones e famílias de eucalipto, foram estabelecidas duas plantações experimentais em locais onde foi detectada a doença. Foram recolhidos dados relativos à percentagem de área da copa afectada (por necroses ou desfolha e identificadas as espécies de Mycosphaerella associadas (M. africana, M. communis, M. grandis, M. lateralis, M. marksii, M. nubilosa, M. parva, M. vespa e M. walkeri.

  16. Effects of fertilization and competition on plant biomass allocation and internal resources: Does Plantago lanceolata follow the rules of economic theory?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jane?ek, Št?pán; Patá?ová, E.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 49, ?. 1 (2014), s. 49-64. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/09/0963; GA ?R GA526/07/0808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : allocation * Plantago lanceolata * plasticity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2013

  17. THE VIBRATIONAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR WOOD DURING MOISTURE SORPTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Jiang,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational properties of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata wood were investigated in this study as a function of changes in moisture content (MC and grain direction. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE and logarithmic decrement (? were examined using a cantilever beam vibration testing apparatus. It was observed that DMOE and ? of wood varied widely during moisture adsorption and desorption. The DMOE of wood conditioned by the adsorption process showed significant increases during the later stages of conditioning when the MC scarcely changed. However, with the desorption process, the DMOE did not increase as much during the later stages of conditioning, though they increased during the early stages of conditioning when the MC greatly decreased. These results suggest that wood in an unstable state, caused via the existing state of moisture, shows different vibrational behaviors. Furthermore, the parallel to grain direction showed much higher DMOE and lower ? when compared to the perpendicular to grain direction. The variation of vibrational properties between parallel and perpendicular to grain direction under constant MC and during moisture adsorption process could be attributed due to the microscopic, macroscopic molecular, as well as chemical constituents of wood.

  18. Private valuation of carbon sequestration in forest plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitart, A. Bussoni [Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica. Avda. E. Garzon, 780, CP 12.900, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, L.C. Estraviz [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' , Universidad de Sao, Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Approval of the Clean Development Mechanism, provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, enables countries with afforested land to trade in carbon emissions reduction certificates related to carbon dioxide equivalent quantities (CO{sub 2-e}) stored within a certain forest area. Potential CO{sub 2-e} above base line sequestration was determined for two forest sites on commercial eucalyptus plantations in northern Brazil (Bahia). Compensation values for silvicultural regimes involving rotation lengths greater than economically optimal were computed using the Faustmann formula. Mean values obtained were US$8.16 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} and US$7.19 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} for average and high site indexes, respectively. Results show that carbon supply is more cost-efficient in highly productive sites. Annuities of US$18.8 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and US$35.1 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and yearly payments of US$4.4 m{sup -} {sup 3} and US$8.2 m{sup -} {sup 3} due for each marginal cubic meter produced were computed for high and average sites, respectively. The estimated value of the tonne of carbon defines minimum values to be paid to forest owners, in order to induce a change in silvicultural management regimes. A reduction of carbon supply could be expected as a result of an increase in wood prices, although it would not respond in a regular manner. For both sites, price elasticity of supply was found to be inelastic and increased as rotation length moved further away from economically optimal: 0.24 and 0.27 for age 11 years in average- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This would be due to biomass production potential as a limiting factor; beyond a certain threshold value, an increase in price does not sustain a proportional change in carbon storage supply. The environmental service valuation model proposed might be adequate for assessing potential supply in plantation forestry, from a private landowner perspective, with an economic opportunity cost. The model is not applicable to low commercial value forest plantations. (author)

  19. Estimation of Timber Production of Five Species of the Tamaulipas Thorny Shrubs Growing in Native Stands and Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngangyo Heya Maginot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shrub species have a great capacity to develop in extreme climatic conditions; this ability has a direct influence on their development and productivity in timber and firewood. In this paper, the timber’s production of experimental plantation aged 28 years of Acacia berlandieri (Benth., Havardia pallens (Benth. Britton & Rose, Helietta parvifolia (Gray Benth., Ebenopsis ebano (Berl. Barneby and Acacia wrightii (Benth. species is quantified and compared with the production of the same species developed naturally in the native bush. The variables recorded were the number of shoots per tree, total height, basal diameter and diameter at breast height of each tree to determine the volume of wood with the Smalian equation. The results indicate that the volume of usable wood was higher in experimental plantation than that on native vegetation for H. parvifolia, A. berlandieri and H. pallens. The species that produced the highest volume of timber were H. parvifolia (0.396 m3·ha-1·year-1 in plantations and E. ebano (0.118 m3·ha-1·year-1 in native shrubs, species with lower production were H. pallens (0.059 m3·ha-1·year-1 and A. berlandieri (0.052 m3·ha-1·year-1 in the native area. The highest number of shoots was registered for A. berlandieri and H. parvifolia, with eight shoots per tree in experimental plantations of both species compared with native vegetation, which was five and three shoots per tree respectively. These results high-light the importance of developing plantations in degraded areas of scrub, which can increase timber volume production.

  20. Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    There exists a significant potential for utilising perennial energy plantations in protecting and restoring polluted water and land resources in Sweden. By optimising the design, location and management, several additional environmental services could be obtained which will increase the value of the energy plantations, thereby improving future market conditions for biomass. Multi-functional energy plantations (mainly Salix but also energy grass) can be divided into two categories, those designed for dedicated environmental services (e.g. vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and shelter belts against soil erosion), and those generating more general benefits (e.g. soil carbon accumulation, increased soil fertility, cadmium removal and increased hunting potential). The practical potential of those two categories is estimated to be equivalent to up to 3% and more than 20% of the total Swedish arable land, respectively. The regional conditions of utilising multi-functional plantations vary, however, with the best possibilities in densely populated areas dominated by farmland. The economic value of multi-functional plantations is normally highest for those designed for dedicated environmental services. Purification of wastewater has the highest value, which could exceed the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, followed by treatment of polluted drainage water in vegetation filters and buffer zones (equivalent to more than half of the production cost), recirculation of sewage sludge (around half of the production cost), erosion control (around one fourth) and increased hunting potential (up to 15% of the production cost). The value of increased hunting potential varies due to nearness to larger cities and in which part of Sweden the plantation is located. The economic value of cadmium removal and increased soil fertility is equivalent to a few percent of the production cost, but the value of cadmium removal might increase in the future if this problem will be valued differently. The value of increased carbon accumulation in mineral soils and reduced carbon dioxide emissions from organic soils is estimated to be equivalent to a few percent and half the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, respectively. These values may also change in the future if carbon sinks in agriculture will be included as an approved mitigation option within the Kyoto agreement. Based on an analysis of possible combinations of environmental services achieved in specific plantations, it is estimated that biomass can be produced to an negative cost in around 100,000 hectares of multi-functional energy plantations, when the value of the environmental services is included. The production cost in another 250,000 hectares of plantations is estimated to be halved. This is equivalent to around 6 and 11 TWh biomass per year, respectively. Economic incentives also exist for municipal wastewater plants for utilising vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. Cadmium removal and increased soil fertility will give a minor increase in the income for the farmer. However, cadmium removal will result in increased costs later in the Salix fuel chain, due to increased costs of flue gas cleaning during combustion. Thus, to overcome this economic barrier, subsidies will probably be needed to heating plants utilising cadmium-contaminated biomass. The possibilities of achieving an income from increased soil carbon accumulation will depend on if this option will be an approved mechanism. Today, the Swedish greenhouse gas mitigation policy does not include this option. Some of the potential multi-functional energy plantations (e.g. buffer strips for reducing nutrient leaching and vegetation filters for treatment of polluted drainage water) results in increased cultivation costs for the farmer, thus increased economic barriers. Examples of measures to overcome such barriers are dedicated subsidies for multi-functional plantations established at specific locations, or on a certain type of soil. The concept of mu

  1. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C.W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  2. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha-'1) and 86 % higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  3. Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makombu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

  4. Assessment of the effect of quality factors on the assortment structure in poplar plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilovi? Milorad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality factors affecting the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations were researched on nine temporary sample plots in the period 1997-2004, from the aspect of the implementation of roundwood standards. Sample plots were selected depending on the factors, the effect of which was studied. The following factors were researched: clonal species, planting pattern, flood risk, pruning of branches, plantation position and age. The study was performed by the original methodology. Based on the study results, it is concluded that knots have the highest effect on the assortment quality structure in poplar plantations, regardless of the site and stand conditions. Their effect rises significantly with the increase of tree diameter. Also, the analyses show that the number of large and rotten knots on the tree trunk increases considerably with the older age. In the flooded area, the sweep of the lower part of the stem is more intensive and multiple curvatures are frequent on the trees growing immediately along the river, whereas curvature decreases with the distance from the river bank. Based on the study results, it is concluded that the percentage of best quality assortments is considerably reduced by the above wood defects.

  5. Assortment structure in poplar plantation Populus x euramerjcana I-214 based on European standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilovi? Milorad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Assortment structure in poplar plantation Populus x euramericana I-214 was obtained by European standard for round wood. Based on the data of theoretical cutting, the correlation between total volume of assortments and tree diameter at breast height was established. Model of the function representing the relation between total volume of assortments of superior quality and tree diameter is reciprocal. The relation between total volumes of normal-quality assortments can be represented by a logarithm model of the function, and the relation between total volume of assortments which cannot be classified into any quality class and tree diameter is best represented by a degree model. Knots up to the height of 6 m had a significant effect on the percentage of classes of superior quality. If the lower branches were pruned from standing trees up to the height of 6 m, the percentage of this class would increase averagely by 22.07%. This shows that pruning of lower branches is a very significant plantation tending measure and that it should be performed in time. Sweep also caused the decrease of percentage of superior assortments, but not to the expected degree, because the plantation is situated along the river Sava.

  6. Genetic Differentiation and Phenotypic Plasticity I. Responses in Three Plantago lanceolata L. Populations upon Changes in Mineral Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtisam Hammad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three populations of Plantago lanceolata L. were analyzed for genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity. Eight randomly taken samples of each population were grown at two nutrient levels and subjected to alterations in mineral supply. Growth and root respiration was followed during the experiment. With respect to all measured characteristic genetic differentiation on population level was demonstrated. Overall phenotypic plasticity of the measured characteristics and differences in estimated genetic variation were present. High relative growth rate was correlated with high root respiration. High relative growth rate was correlated with high root respiration and high Ca2+ - Mg2+ - stimulated ATPase activity in roots. Ecological significance of the results and correlation with habitat properties are discussed.

  7. Do differences in carbon allocation strategy account for large difference in productivity among four tropical Eucalyptus plantations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epron, D.; Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Kinana, A.; Mazoumbou, J.; Almeida, J. D.; Deleporte, P.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for wood products is not satisfied by natural forests, and forest plantations are expected to provide a larger part of the global wood supply in the future. Eucalyptus is the dominant species planted in the tropics. Intensification of wood production will rely mainly on gain of productivity and on extension of afforested area on marginal zones. Wood production does not only depend on gross primary production (GPP) but also on carbon partitioning between growth (NPP) and respiration, and on NPP partitioning among the different plant organs (allocation). Less than one third of GPP is allocated to wood production in planted forest ecosystems and we hypothesized that this fraction varies among genotypes, or because of soil fertility, in relation to productivity. The partitioning of aboveground NPP between leaf, branch and stem growth was compared in four Eucalyptus plantations located in Congo and Brazil over an entire rotation (6 years). In addition, total below ground carbon allocation was estimated from soil respiration and litter fall measurements. Two clones differing in productivity were studies in Congo where productivity is known to be much less important than in Brazil. Two plots (fertilized or not with K) were studied in Brazil. In Congo, the wood production was twice higher in the most productive clone (UG) compared to the less productive one (PF1). This was due to a higher aboveground NPP, the surplus being allocated to wood production. In addition, an increase in leaf lifespan reduced the amount of carbon allocated to leaf production. Similar conclusions can be drawn when comparing K+ fertilised and control stand in Brazil where most of the surplus of aboveground NPP in fertilised plots was allocated to wood production and where leaf lifespan was also increased. Soil respiration increased in both sites with increasing NPP reflecting that more carbon is allocated below ground in these stands. A better understanding of genetic and environmental control on carbon allocation is required for accurately predicted tree yield, especially in marginal area where plantations are thought to extent.

  8. Investigaciones agrícolas en especies de uso frecuente en la medicina tradicional: IV. Llantén menor. Plantago lanceolata L

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lérida, Acosta de la Luz; Víctor, Fuentes Fiallo; Carlos, Rodríguez Ferradá.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantago lanceolata (Llantén menor), es una especie apreciada popularmente como medicinal. En la actualidad se encuentra entre las plantas que se ha aprobado su empleo como droga seca y extracto fluido por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba para su incorporación al Sistema Nacional de Salud, por [...] lo que se requieren grandes cantidades de material vegetal obtenidos a través de su cultivo. En la Estación Experimental de Plantas Medicinales "Dr. Juan Tomás Roig" se realizaron una serie de investigaciones que permitieron aconsejar efectuar los semilleros entre mediados de octubre e inicios de noviembre, su plantación a distancia de 45 x 20 cm y la realización de 3 recolecciones del material vegetal; la primera alrededor de los 45 d después del trasplante, las restantes con frecuencia de 30 d, lográndose un rendimiento total fresco de más de 20 toneladas por hectárea. Abstract in english Plantago lanceolata (Plantago minor) is popularly considered as a medicinal species. At present, it is among the plants whose use as a dry drug and as a fluid extract in the National Health System has been approved by the Ministry of Public Health. That´s why, it is necessary to obtain large quantit [...] ies of vegetable material through its growth. A series of investigations made at "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay" Experimental Station allowed to recommend the preparation of seed plots between mid-October and the beginning of November, to plant the seed at a distance of 45 x 20 cm and to harvest the vegetable material 3 times; the first at about 45 days after transplantation and the rest at intervals of 30 days, achieving a total fresh yield of 20 tons by hectare.

  9. Rapid discrimination of cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata in different ages by FT-IR and 2DCOS-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Xu, Chang-hua; Huang, Jian; Li, Guo-yu; Liu, Xin-Hu; Sun, Su-qin; Wang, Jin-hui

    2014-07-01

    Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata) root, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to treat lung ailments, rheumatism, menstrual disturbance and bruises with a long history in China and some other Asian countries. In this study, four types of Deodeok with different growth years were discriminated and identified by a Tri-step infrared spectroscopy method (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (conventional FT-IR) coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2DCOS-IR) under thermal perturbation. Although only small differences were found in the FT-IR spectra of the samples, the positions and intensities of peaks around 1736, 1634, 1246, 1055, 1033, 818, 779 cm-1 could be considered as the key factors for discriminating them. The differences among them were amplified by their SD-IR spectra. The 2DCOS-IR spectra provided obvious dynamic chemical structure information of Deodeok samples, which present different particular auto peak clusters in the range of 875-1130 cm-1 and 1170-1630 cm-1, respectively. It was demonstrated that the content of triterpene were decreasing when C. lanceolata were growing older, but the relative content of saccharides initially increased and decreased significantly afterwards. It indicated a general trend that the content of polysaccharides accumulated with increasing years. Specifically, the content of polysaccharides accumulated in the root of 2-year-old plant was the lowest, 4-years-old was the highest, and then the content decreased gradually. Furthermore, according to the differences of locations and intensities of auto-peaks in 2D-IR spectra, the integral changes of components were revealed. This study offers a promising method inherent with cost-effective and time-saving to characterize and discriminate the complicated system like Deodeok.

  10. Comparison of Juglans regia L. bare-root nursery stocks for plantations: morphological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Good results in plantations are strictly related to the fitness of the nursery stock. Plant fitness, or quality, depends on inherent genetic characters and on physiological and physical (dimensional, morphological and nutritional characteristics. In arboriculture for wood production the role of stock quality is essential for a prompt expression of plant growth potential. So the necessity to define stock quality standards is widely recognized, though is still discussed how to assess stock cultural value by characteristics easy to measure. First step in such activities is to individuate in the above-ground part of the plantlets some traits related to the root system development. The study was carried out in two public forest nurseries (property of Regione Piemonte on 163 Juglans regia seedlings and transplants produced for wood plantations. In order to evaluate Walnut nursery stock production, different kinds of bare-root seedlings and transplants have been compared. For each kind, shoot and root system dimensional and morphological traits have been investigated after assignment of plants in 3 dimensional (height categories. Relations between shoots and roots traits have been studied to allow a visual evaluation of nursery plants based on data easy to collect. This study is to be considered a preliminary survey in the evaluation of stock quality based on field performance.

  11. Energy Characteristics of Wood-Chips Produced from Salix Viminalis - Clone ULV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Dzurenda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the energy characteristics of wood-chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV, which was cultivated in an energy plantation. The higher heating value of wood and bark of Salix viminalis was assessed through an experimental measurement in a special calorimeter for solid fuels, model IKA C 200. The lower heating value of wood and bark was calculated from the higher heating value Qs, taking into account hydrogen Hdaf and water contentWr in fuel samples that were assessed in a laboratory. The higher heating value and lower heating value of a dry Salix viminalis wood (QSW = 19 520 kJ/kg and QnW =18 044 kJ/kg were assessed by these analyses. The higher heating value and lower heating value of a dry Salix viminalis bark were also assessed (QSB = 19 389 kJ/kg, and QnB = 17 997 kJ/kg. The share of bark of 19.35%was assessed in wood-chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV, in accordance with the Slovak Technical Norm STN 48 0058 for wood assortments, wood chips containing leaves, and sawdust. The lower heating value of wood chips produced from Salix viminalis - clone ULV in dry state was calculated, based on the lower heating value of salix wood, the lower heating value of salix bark, and the share of bark in wood chips as a weighted average Qn CH = 18 035 kJ/kg.

  12. CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Naji,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

  13. Applications in wood plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today the radiation production of wood plastic composites or wood acrylic composites is a very viable and commercial industry. The goal of this paper is to briefly review the current status of wood acrylics in the United States. The first step will be a description of wood acrylics. That is, what are the physical and chemical properties of wood acrylics that make them of interest to the scientist and even more important, to the consumer. Next, highlights of the production process will be described, followed by a discussion of current wood acrylic applications and the basis for these applications. Finally, potential areas for future expansion will be summarized. (author)

  14. The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Mutual Help Association, Abbeville, LA.

    The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program started in 1970 as an alternative to poverty for sugar cane workers in Louisiana. The document discusses the various aspects of the poverty conditions that exist in the area, such as: housing, diet, health, education, and lack of consumer information, and how these existing conditions are to be changed…

  15. High resolution temporal variation in wood properties in irrigated and non-irrigated Eucalyptus globulus
    ---
    Variations temporelles à haute résolution des propriétés du bois d'Eucalyptus globulus irrigués et non irrigués

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, David M.; Downes, Geoffrey M.; O Grady, Anthony P.; Read, Jennifer; Worledge, Dale

    2009-01-01

    * Environmental determinants of wood properties variation were examined in Eucalyptus globulus, a globally important hardwood plantation species, in southern Tasmania, Australia. * Radial variation in wood properties, measured with the SilviScan system, were re-scaled from distance to time abscissa using stem radial growth data measured with dendrometers. With this re-scaled data it was possible to evaluate how water availability and temperature affected wood density, microfibril angle (MFA) ...

  16. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  17. Fire retardants for wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajkovi?

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal colonization and diversity in relation to tree biomass and nutrition in a plantation of transgenic poplars with modified lignin biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Lara; Lohaus, Gertrud; Sirrenberg, Anke; Karlovsky, Petr; Bastien, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Wood from biomass plantations with fast growing tree species such as poplars can be used as an alternative feedstock for production of biofuels. To facilitate utilization of lignocellulose for saccharification, transgenic poplars with modified or reduced lignin contents may be useful. However, the potential impact of poplars modified in the lignification pathway on ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, which play important roles for plant nutrition, is not known. The goal of this study was to investiga...

  19. Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil / Planejamento de colheita e transporte de madeira usando o programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) em uma plantação de pinus no sudeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo da Silva, Lopes; Carlos Cardoso, Machado; Amaury Paulo de, Souza; Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares, Ribeiro.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a aplicabilidade do programa SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte florestal em condições brasileiras. Os aspectos avaliados foram a definição dos subsistemas de colheita e a det [...] erminação de uma rota compatível de transporte de madeira. Inicialmente, determinou-se o custo operacional e de produção das máquinas em sete subsistemas de colheita tecnicamente viáveis para a região de estudo, como também os índices de qualidade e de custos de construção e manutenção de estradas, os quais foram utilizados como dados de entrada no SNAP III. Posteriormente, verificou-se, através de um estudo de caso, a aplicabilidade do programa como ferramenta de apoio no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. De acordo com os resultados, constatou-se que há três categorias de estradas de ocorrência na área de estudo: principal, secundária e terciária, as quais, com base no índice de qualidade encontrado, permitiram uma velocidade média do veículo de transporte de 41,0 30,3 e 24,3 km/hora e um custo de construção de US$ 5.084,30, US$ 2.275,28 e US$ 1.650,00/km, respectivamente. Quanto ao uso do SNAP III como ferramenta de apoio ao planejamento, o sistema mostrou-se com elevado potencial, podendo auxiliar no planejamento da colheita e do transporte. O programa foi capaz de definir com eficiência os subsistemas de colheita técnica e economicamente viável, a rota ótima de transporte e as estradas em uso em cada período do horizonte de planejamento. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program) as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational a [...] nd production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.

  20. Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

  1. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  2. Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering- och tungmetallfloeden'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hillevi; Nilsson, Torbjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2001-12-01

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

  3. Control con medios naturales de los principales insectos y hongos que afectan a Plantago lanceolata L. y Plantago major L. / Control with natural means of the main insects and fungi affecting Plantago lanceolata L. and Plantago major L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Magdalena, Rivera Amita; Masgloiris, Milanés Figueredo; Silvino Raúl, Ramos Gálvez.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: controlar con productos naturales, de origen vegetal y biológico, las principales plagas y enfermedades que afectan a las especies medicinales Plantago lanceolata L. (llantén menor) y Plantago major L. (llantén). MÉTODOS: para el control de las plagas y enfermedades se evaluó el efecto de [...] 3 plaguicidas de origen botánico: Tabaquina®, subproducto de Nicotiana tabacum L. (tabaco); semillas secas maceradas de Melia azederach L. (paraíso) y follaje seco macerado de Lantana camara L. variedad camara (lantana), extraídos por repercolación con etanol 70 %. Como medio biológico para el control de estos insectos y hongos se evaluó el efecto de 2 hongos mezclados Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; cada tratamiento se replicó 3 veces además de la parcela donde no se aplicaron productos. RESULTADOS: en el caso de Systena basalis resultaron ser efectivos el extracto de Melia azederach y la mezcla de Beauveria bassiana y Trichoderma viridis; mientras que para el hongo Sclerotium rolfsii, aunque con los productos probados no hubo un control total, se apreció una disminución notable en el grado de incidencia, por lo que deben utilizarse para su eliminación técnicas agrícolas adecuadas. Respecto a Diabrotica balteata y Cercospora plantagenis su presencia no constituyó plaga y sí se observó control con cualquiera de los tratamientos evaluados. CONCLUSIONES: se logró un control adecuado de las plagas con los tratamientos probados.

  4. Innovating tree plantation design: spiralographing agroforestry

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, J.H.N.; Crous-Duran, J.; Merouani, H.; Paulo, J.A.; Tomé, M.

    2014-01-01

    Most of forestry or agroforestry artificial plantations either have an orthogonal design, or curvilinear under contour lines to prevent soil erosion. These designs are known to maximize machinery workflow or erosion control respectively. As in many occasions in land use management, what optimizes machinery operation is not what optimizes prevention of soil loss and vice versa. An alternative and intermediate design system such as an Archimedes spiral could offer in one han...

  5. Hydrological impact of Eucalyptus plantation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Ian R.; Hall, Robin L.; Prasanna, K. T.

    1993-10-01

    A brief review is given of the results of hydrological studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species on water resources, erosion and soil nutrients at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. New results on the impacts of the plantations on raindrop-induced erosion and preliminary results from studies that are aimed at improving the water use efficiency of the plantations are also presented. The erosion studies indicate that soil detachment resulting from net rainfall beneath Eucalyptus camaldulensis will be greater than beneath Pinus caribaea but less than that beneath the indigenous species, Tectona grandis. The water use efficiency studies, which make use of a controlled environment facility, have confirmed that in the dry zone of southern India water availability is the principal limiting factor on growth although, when water is available, nutrient limitations become important. Removal of both water and nutrient stress results typically in a fivefold increase in volume growth for the first year of growth.

  6. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

    2010-07-01

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  7. The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveti? Vladan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass, additional products in the form of non-timber forest products and additional services in the form of shelterbelts and phytoremediation.

  8. FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Pirraglia; Ronalds Gonzales,; Daniel Saloni; Jeff Wright; Joseph Denig

    2011-01-01

    Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental compositi...

  9. Controversy. The wood war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  10. Efecto del raleo en el crecimiento y algunas propiedades de la madera de Eucalyptus nitens en una plantación de 15 años / Effect of thinning on growth and some properties of wood of Eucalyptus nitens in a plantation of 15 years old

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandro, Díaz Bravo; Miguel, Espinosa; Luis, Valenzuela; Jorge, Cancino; Jean P, Lasserre.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El raleo tiene implicancias económicas y técnicas tanto para producción forestal como para la actividad industrial. En el presente estudio se realizó la evaluación de un ensayo de intensidad de raleo en E. nitens, de 15 años de edad, intervenido a los 7 y 9 años, con densidades residuales de 300, 40 [...] 0, 500, 700 y un tratamiento testigo con 1070 arb ha-1. El objetivo es conocer el efecto del raleo en el diámetro y altura de los árboles, coeficiente de esbeltez, en los índices de competencia área potencialmente aprovechable (APA), área de proyección de copas (APC) y en las propiedades de la madera, densidad básica, módulo de elasticidad dinámico (MOEd) y las tensiones de crecimiento evaluadas con la deformación residual longitudinal de la fibra (DRL). Los resultados mostraron que el raleo afectó el diámetro, coeficiente de esbeltez, APA y APC, no así la altura. El raleo tampoco tuvo efecto en la densidad básica de la madera y en el DRL. Por otra parte el MOEd fue afectado por el raleo, pero sin mostrar claras tendencias respecto de su intensidad. El efecto de la orientación del fuste en el MOEd y el DRL, mostró valores significativamente mayores en la orientación Sur. Abstract in english Thinning has significant technical and economic implications for both forest managers and industrial end users. In the present study a 15 year old Eucalyptus nitens thinning experiment was evaluated. Thinnings operations were carried out at 7 and 9 years, with final stockings of 300, 400, 500, 700 a [...] nd a control treatment of 1070 trees ha-1. The aim was to determine the effect of thinning on (i) stem diameter and tree height, stem slenderness ratio, (ii) competition indices: potentially usefull area (PUA), crown projection area (CPA) and (iii) wood properties: basic density, dynamic modulus of elasticity (Moed) and growth stresses evaluated using the residual deformation of the fiber length (DRL). The results showed that thinning affected tree diameter, slenderness index, PUA and CPA, but not total height. Thinning had no effect on basic density and DRL. On the other hand Moed was affected by thinning, but did not show a clear trend with thinning intensity. The effect of the stem orientation on DRL and Moed showed significantly higher values on the South side.

  11. Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Mohd Nazip

    2003-06-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information, thus helping to understand the dynamics of the rubber tree resource. The decrease in the area of rubber plantations and the increase in the area of mixed crops from 1989--1993 in south of KL were partly attributed to the adoption of a crop diversification policy which was driven by relatively poor natural rubber prices during that time. The decrease in the areas of rubber plantations from 1993--1999 in this area was primarily due to rapid urbanization and infrastructure development driven by demographic expansion in the area south of KL. This thesis makes a practical contribution to the development of methods for inventory of forest plantations by linking ground information with model projections based on satellite data. Additionally, the thesis demonstrates the development of monitoring tools to assess resource availability and variability over time, and establish its linkages to policies. The inventory information, models, and monitoring protocols are needed for effective resource management planning aimed at maximizing the potential benefits of rubber tree crops for wood and natural rubber supply in Malaysia.

  12. Floods and Fluvial Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiti, F.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have recently addressed the complex interactions existing at various spatial scales among riparian vegetation, channel morphology and wood storage. The majority of these investigations has been carried out in relatively natural river systems, focusing mostly on the long-term vegetation-morphology dynamics under "equilibrium" conditions. Little is still known about the role of flood events - of different frequency/magnitude - on several aspects of such dynamics, e.g. entrainment conditions of in-channel wood, erosion rates of vegetation from channel margins and from islands, transport distances of wood elements of different size along the channel network. Even less understood is how the river's evolutionary trajectory may affect these processes, and thus the degree to which conceptual models derivable from near-natural systems could be applicable to human-disturbed channels. Indeed, the different human pressures - present on most river basins worldwide - have greatly impaired the morphological and ecological functions of fluvial wood, and the attempts to "restore" in-channel wood storage are currently carried out without a sufficient understanding of wood transport processes occurring during floods. On the other hand, the capability to correctly predict the magnitude of large wood transport during large floods is now seen as crucial - especially in mountain basins - for flood hazard mapping, as is the identification of the potential wood sources (e.g. landslides, floodplains, islands) for the implementation of sound and effective hazard mitigation measures. The presentation will first summarize the current knowledge on fluvial wood dynamics and modelling at different spatial and temporal scales, with a particular focus on mountain rivers. The effects of floods of different characteristics on vegetation erosion and wood transport will be then addressed presenting some study cases from rivers in the European Alps and in the Italian Apennines featuring different degrees of human alteration. Finally, several conclusions about the applicability of wood transport modelling and on rationale vegetation/wood management strategies will be drawn.

  13. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  14. Efecto terapéutico en el tratamiento del Acné Vulgar usando principios activos de MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. y PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA / Therapeutic effect in the treatment of Acne Vulgaris using active principies MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. and PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Noelia, Carvajal Yañez; Deysi, Canaviri; Marizol, Callejas; Paola, Carrasco.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El acné es una inflamación crónica de la unidad pilosebácea que compromete regiones del cuerpo como el rostro, cuello, hombros y parte del tronco superior y es una causa de consulta que afecta comúnmente a personas entre los 15 a 25 años de edad. El siguiente estudio pretende medir los efectos terap [...] éuticos que existen en el tratamiento del acné vulgar usando los principios activos de las plantas MEUSSA OFFICINALIS L y PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA. Es un ensayo clínico a doble ciego controlado paralelo con una muestra de 20 pacientes voluntarios, el tipo de muestreo fue por conveniencia. Los escenarios del estudio fueron: el laboratorio de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Mayor de San Simón donde se realizó el procedimiento de extracción de los principios activos y hogares de los participantes donde se les entregó el tratamiento y se realizaron los controles. Fueron 20 pacientes voluntarios de los cuales 4 abandonaron el tratamiento y se continuó con 11 pacientes mujeres y 5 varones. Los resultados muestran que el grupo tratado con principios activos tuvo un promedio de 5 a 8 días siendo más breve en comparación del grupo control, ningún paciente presentó reacciones adversas al tratamiento y el sexo que tuvo mejores resultados con el tratamiento fue el masculino. Podemos concluir que el uso de los principios activos de plantas naturales para tratar el acné vulgar presenta diferentes grados de eficacia, siendo relevante el tiempo y las concentraciones de los principios activos. Abstract in english Acne is a chronic inflammation of the pilosebaceous unit that engages regions of the body like the face, neck, shoulders and upper trunk and is a cause of consultation that commonly affects people between 15 to 25 years old. The next study aims to measure the therapeutic effects that exist in the tr [...] eatment of acne vulgaris using the active ingredients of plants MELISSA OFFICINAUS L y PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA It's a clinical trial double blind parallel controlled with a sample of 20 patient volunteers, the type of sampling was convenience.The stages of the study were: the laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Mayor of San Simón where took place the procedure for extraction of active principies and homes of participants where they were handed treatment and carried out the checks.They were 20 volunteer patients, of whom 4 abandoned treatment and continued with 5 men and 11 women patients. The results show that the group treated with active ingredients had an average of 5 to 8 days still shorter compared to the control group, no patient presented adverse reactions to treatment and sex that had better results with treatment was the male.We can conclude that the use of the active principies of natural plants to treat acné vulgaris has different degrees of effectiveness, still relevant time and the concentrations of the active ingredients.

  15. Available Nitrogen and Responses to Nitrogen Fertilizer in Brazilian Eucalypt Plantations on Soils of Contrasting Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pulito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations have seldom responded to N fertilization in tropical and subtropical regions of Brazil. This implies that rates of N mineralization have been adequate to supply tree needs. However, subsequent crop rotations with low N fertilization may result in declining concentrations of organic and potentially mineralizable N (N0, and consequent loss of wood productivity. This study investigated (a in situ N mineralization and N0 in soils of eucalypt plantations in São Paulo state, Brazil; (b tree growth responses to N fertilizer applied 6–18 months after planting; and (c the relationships between N0, other soil attributes and tree growth. We established eleven N fertilizer trials (maximum 240 kg ha?1 of N in E. grandis and E. grandis x urophylla plantations. The soil types at most sites were Oxisols and Quartzipsamments, with a range of organic matter (18 to 55 g kg?1 and clay contents (8% to 67% in the 0–20 cm layer. Concentrations of N0 were measured using anaerobic incubation on soil samples collected every three months (different seasons. The samples collected in spring and summer had N0 140–400 kg ha?1 (10%–19% total soil N, which were best correlated with soil texture and organic matter content. Rates of in situ net N mineralization (0–20 cm ranged from 100 to 200 kg ha?1 year?1 and were not correlated with clay, total N, or N0. These high N mineralization rates resulted in a low response to N fertilizer application during the early ages of stand growth, which were highest on sandy soils. At the end of the crop rotation, the response to N fertilizer was negligible and non-significant at all sites.

  16. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with MultilureRM Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.6%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton only 2 tephritids were captured: 1 A. striata and 1 A. obliqua. These results show the great diversity of tephritids in the fruit orchards studied. Most of these tephritid pests are poliphagous and able to use the same hosts. (author)

  17. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  18. ADVANCES IN THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF Cuphea aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata : EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Cardenas-Sandoval

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea lanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina tradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h, el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de variosórganos de C. aequipetala , C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata . Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH + y ABTS + y el de poder reductor del fosfomolibdeno. La concentración más alta de compuestos fenólicos se presentó en las flores de C. lanceolata (62.79 0.06 mg equivalentes deácido gálico (EAG / g peso seco (PS; mientras que la de flavonoides en las hojas de C. aequipetala (196.83 2.9 mg equivalentes de quercetina (EQ / g PS. Las hojas de C. aequipetala var. hispida presentaron la actividad de captura de radicales libres DPPH (173.33 2.12 mol trolox / g PS, las flores de C. aequipetala la de captura de radicales libres ABTS (541.10 2.32 mol trolox / g PS mientras que el poder reductor más alto se observó en las hojas de C. aequipetala (1186.25 3.17 mol trolox / g PS. Se encontró una correlación positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes. El análisis químico cualitativo mediante TLC indicó la prescencia del flavonoide quercetina 3- - D -glucósido en todas las especies de Cuphea y de otros flavonoides menos polares en C. aequipetala var. hispida . Cuphea spp. es una fuente natural de compuestos fenólicos.

  19. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  20. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  1. Tracking deforestation, tree plantation expansion, and forest regrowth in a Costa Rican biological corridor using a Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, M. E.; Sesnie, S.; Arroyo, J.; Walker, W. S.; Soto, C.; Chazdon, R. L.; Sanchun, A.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wood demand and voluntary carbon markets have driven a rapid global expansion in tropical tree plantations. To effectively monitor this expansion, new remote sensing-based methods are needed that can overcome difficulties in distinguishing between tree plantations, mature forests, and forest regrowth using low-cost moderate-resolution (10-100 m) satellite sensors. The objective of this study was to accurately map changes in the area of these three forest types in northern Costa Rica using Landsat imagery spanning a 25 year period (1986-2011). We mapped forest and tree plantation cover in a fragmented tropical landscape spanning approximately 2500 km2: the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC). In 1996, the Costa Rican government banned deforestation country-wide and concentrated payments for environmental services (PES) within Biological Corridors to promote native tree plantations and protect forests on private land. To evaluate this program's long-term success, we first tracked forest cover change over time and then distinguished between spectrally-similar forest types. We classified five dates (1986, 1996, 2001, 2005, and 2011) of multispectral Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (30 m resolution). Using Random Forests, we classified each single-date Landsat image first to forest/nonforest and then to thirteen land cover classes (Figures 1-3). To improve mapping of reforestation, final land cover classification was constrained by forest masks integrated over the time series. Training and validation data (1932 polygons covering 2185 ha) were collected using field data and aerial photography; final accuracy analysis was conducted by withholding twenty bootstrapped samples of the training data. Overall mean change-detection accuracy for the forest mask time series was 95.1% (Kappa= 0.93) and the overall land cover accuracy for all maps was greater than 80%. For tree plantations, the inclusion of multitemporal data improved classification accuracy over single-date imagery alone; in the 2011 classification, the user's accuracy for native tree plantations increased from 56% to 77%. Results indicate that, over the last 15 years, the deforestation ban and PES payments have been effective in protecting mature forests, especially within the Corridor. The area of regrowth forest declined however, indicating that agricultural pressures on easily-clearable land are increasing. Tree plantations expanded rapidly over the time period analyzed, although the largest increases occurred in exotic tree plantations outside the corridor. We found that it is possible to accurately distinguish tropical tree plantations, secondary forest, and mature forest using moderate-resolution optical sensors like Landsat, but extensive training data and multitemporal imagery was necessary to accurately map tree plantations in this area. Despite the effectiveness of the deforestation ban, it did not prevent an expansion of intensive agriculture and the long-term clearing of forest regrowth.

  2. [Aboveground biomass of three conifers in Qianyanzhou plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanran; Liu, Qijing; Chen, Yongrui; Hu, Lile; Yang, Fengting

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the regressive models of the aboveground biomass of Pinus elliottii, P. massoniana and Cunninghamia lanceolata in Qianyanzhou of subtropical China were established, and the regression analysis on the dry weight of leaf biomass and total biomass against branch diameter (d), branch length (L), d3 and d2L was conducted with linear, power and exponent functions. Power equation with single parameter (d) was proved to be better than the rests for P. massoniana and C. lanceolata, and linear equation with parameter (d3) was better for P. elliottii. The canopy biomass was derived by the regression equations for all branches. These equations were also used to fit the relationships of total tree biomass, branch biomass and foliage biomass with tree diameter at breast height (D), tree height (H), D3 and D2H, respectively. D2H was found to be the best parameter for estimating total biomass. For foliage-and branch biomass, both parameters and equation forms showed some differences among species. Correlations were highly significant (P biomass, with the highest for total biomass. By these equations, the aboveground biomass and its allocation were estimated, with the aboveground biomass of P. massoniana, P. elliottii, and C. lanceolata forests being 83.6, 72. 1 and 59 t x hm(-2), respectively, and more stem biomass than foliage-and branch biomass. According to the previous studies, the underground biomass of these three forests was estimated to be 10.44, 9.42 and 11.48 t x hm(-2), and the amount of fixed carbon was 47.94, 45.14 and 37.52 t x hm(-2), respectively. PMID:17066688

  3. Wood wastes: Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

  4. Soil fertility and mineral Nutrition of a biodynamic avocado plantation in Tenerife

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Carlos; Alvarez, C E; Carracedo Torres, A. E.; Iglesias, E

    1989-01-01

    The soil fertility of a biodynamic avocado plantation in Tenerife and its relation to mineral nutrition was studied and compared with similar variables investigated previously in conventional plantations. The surface soils of the biodynamic plantation showed pH. organic matter and available P. Ca. Mg and K averages significantly higher than those of the conventional plantations. As regards the foliar nutrient levels, the N, P, K, Mg and Cu averages were similar in both types of plantations, w...

  5. Wood pellet research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellets are composed of waste wood materials such as sawmill residue, municipal landfill waste and grain crops. Due to the high temperature combustion used to form the waste materials into the pellet, no additives or glues are necessary to bind them. The pellets are typically used for home heating; heat and power production; poultry bedding; and in biorefineries. This presentation provided an outline of the University of British Columbia wood pellet research and development program. Research at the university is being conducted to develop new types of pellets. Researchers at the program also analyze the physical and chemical properties of pellets in order to optimize pellet density and heating values. Wood pellet modelling and simulation studies are carried out, and various training and education programs are also offered. Research is currently being conducted to develop a reactor for off-gassing experiments. This presentation also provided details of a study investigating the economics of wood pellet production and transport. Pellet production costs and feedstock costs were compared. A summary of the costs and energy inputs of pellet production included details of product storage; transportation and transfer; handling; and transportation to energy plants. It was concluded that more than 35 per cent of the energy content of biomass is used up in the processing and transport of Canadian wood pellets to Europe. refs., tabs., figs, figs

  6. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Ognouabi Nina; Verhaegen Daniel; Carocha Victor; Rozenberg Philippe; Baillères Henri; Charpentier Jean-Paul; Pichavant Frédérique; Bedon Franck; Deweer Sylvie; Carouché Audrey; Gion Jean-Marc; Grima-Pettenati Jacqueline; Vigneron Philippe; Plomion Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs). In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage map...

  7. Importance of residual trees to birds in regenerating pine plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones JC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pine plantation establishment methods can alter vegetation composition and structure, thus affecting habitat important characteristics for declining early successional bird species. We evaluated eight vegetation characteristics, which varied due to a range of pine plantation establishment methods, to identify vegetation most closely associated with spring bird abundance in the Lower Coastal Plain of southern Mississippi, USA. Presence of residual trees and snags was positively related to relative abundance of 10 of 14 common species present in regenerating stands. Cover of woody vegetation was positively related to relative abundance of 4 species and negatively related to relative abundance of 2 species. For 5 species, increasing pine tree cover had a negative relationship with relative abundance. Residual trees and snags contributed to avian abundance and richness in regenerating pine plantations. Integration of habitat elements, such as residual trees that influence abundance of birds and other wildlife, with intensive pine plantation establishment can aid managers to attain wildlife conservation in intensively managed stands.

  8. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

    2006-05-04

    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  9. Productivity and carbon allocation in pure and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Epron, D.; Le Maire, G.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer inputs are required in fast growing eucalypt plantations to meet tree requirements, and to compensate for the large nitrogen outputs associated with wood exportation at the end of the short rotations. Due to the economic and potential environmental cost of fertilizers, mixed-species plantations (MSP) with N-fixing species (NFS) such as Acacia sp. might be an attractive option to improve the long-term soil N (and possibly soil carbon) status. In such MSP, increases in N availability may influence the productivity and C partitioning of the non-N fixing species. To investigate the effects of NFS on nutrient cycling, wood production, C sequestration, and soil fertility, a randomized block design including monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (100%E) and Acacia mangium (100%A), and mixtures of these species (50%E:50%A) was set up in southern Brazil. Our specific goals in the present study were to compare the production and C allocation patterns of these plantations, during the two last years of the 6-yr rotation. We hypothesized that 1) a large part of the differences in wood production between monospecific stands would be explained by differences in C allocation; and 2) the C allocation patterns of each species would be strongly modified in mixed- species plantations compared to mono-specific plantations due to inter-specific interactions and shifts in soil N status. Biomass increase (growth, G) in the different plant compartments was assessed by means of inventories and allometric relationships. Total aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and the productivity of each aboveground plant compartment were estimated from measurements of G and litterfall (L) (ANPP=G+L). Total belowground C allocations (TBCA) were estimated using a mass-balance approach as soil CO2 efflux C minus the C input from aboveground litter plus changes in the C stored in roots, in the forest floor litter layer, and in soil. Over this first rotation, mixing NFS with eucalypt did not increase wood production: at the end of the 6 yr-old rotation, total aboveground biomass was the highest in the 100%E stands (68.2 tC/ha), lowest in the MSP 50%E:50%A (62.0 tC/ha), and intermediary in the 100%A (66.0 tC/ha). Although 100%E stands had a stronger growth than 100%A during the first 4 yrs of the rotation, the reverse was observed at the end of the rotation: during the two last yrs, total growth was 15.9 tC/ha/yr for 100%A, and 12.7 and 10.4 tC/ha/yr for 100%E and 50%E50%A, respectively. These differences in growth were explained by differences in ANPP (19.2, 17.8 and 15.2 tC/ha/yr, for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%E50%A, respectively), and differences in the ratio litter production/ANPP (0.17, 0.29, and 0.31 for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%A50%E, respectively). Furthermore, the ratio TBCA/ANPP was the lowest in 100%A, and the highest in the MSPs (0.44, 0.62, and 0.78, for 100%A, 100%E, and 50%A50%E, respectively). These results suggest that inter-specific interactions have a strong effect on the C allocation pattern observed at the stand level in MSPs.

  10. Importance of residual trees to birds in regenerating pine plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Jc, Jones; Demarais S; Hanberry P; Bb, Hanberry

    2012-01-01

    Pine plantation establishment methods can alter vegetation composition and structure, thus affecting habitat important characteristics for declining early successional bird species. We evaluated eight vegetation characteristics, which varied due to a range of pine plantation establishment methods, to identify vegetation most closely associated with spring bird abundance in the Lower Coastal Plain of southern Mississippi, USA. Presence of residual trees and snags was positively related to rela...

  11. Green Gold. On variations of truth in plantation forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined by the world's largest environmental organization WWF and an insurance and banking company called OHRA in 1993. Thousands of people invested, many millions of Guilders were transferred and about a...

  12. Analysis of commercial profitability of poplar plantations aged 24 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke?a Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analysed in an artificial poplar plantation, rotation 25 years. The aim of the study was to check the justification of the invested financial means in artificial poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts in the period of 25 years, by using the method of analysis of commercial profitability. The evaluation of investments was performed by modern methods which, in this way, found their practical implementation in forestry.

  13. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible

  14. Wood for the Trees”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the t rees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resou rce rather than the collective wood[s] , implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of fore st and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high - value timber. By the late twentieth c entury, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movement s against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region . Wood for the t rees , curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington , plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawi lil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial p ole , Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into c olonisation , Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory s tick , and Añ A Wojak’s (2008 Unread b ook (in a forgotten language . Our art writing on the works, a practi ce informed by Bal (2002, Mueck e (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to t hat which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  15. Review of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaning is carried out in order to influence the competitive situation of controlling the distribution of volume growth and the quality of timber. today, cleaning is conducted on about 200 000 ha per year in Sweden, most if which is cleaned motor-manually. The degree of mechanization is less than 1 % of. The biomass content of a cleaned stand is generally low, ranging from 1 to 2 tons dry matter per ha, but in some stands it can amount to over 20 tons per ha. The main motivation for removing biomass from a cleaned stand is the possibility of reducing overall cleaning costs. Few studies have been made on the environmental effects of the biomass removal in connection with cleaning. Studies made in connection with thinning, primarily conifers, indicate that the negative effects, such as increased soil acidification, reduced pools of base cations and nitrogen losses, can occur. It should be possible to compensate these undesirable effects through measures such as fertilization or ash recycling. Estimates of impacts on the flora and fauna suggests that effects are small and reversible. However, certain biotopes require special attention. Cost and performance studies indicate that it can be profitable for individual landowners to remove biofuel from very tall, dense stands, whereas better technology is required for more commercial operations. The development of such techniques is under way today. For large-scale removal of biofuel in connection with cleaning, simple forecain connection with cleaning, simple forecasting tools will have to be developed that can help in determining when and where biomass should be removed. The decision should be based on economic, ecological and technical considerations. Furthermore, thorough analyses of the effects on the nutrient balance need to be made, and any reductions in the quality and growth of timber need to be quantified 21 refs

  16. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production – Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today’s agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a “safety net” to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to offer viable and attractive economic perspectives to farmers and other land managers besides of the potential ecological benefits of SRCs. For this reason, an integrated tool for scenario analysis was developed within the BEST project (“BEAST – Bio-Energy Allocation and Scenario Tool”). It combines ecological assessments with calculations of economic revenue as a basis for a participative regional dialog on sustainable land use and climate protection goals. Results show a substantial capacity for providing renewable energy from economically competitive arable SRC sites while generating ecological synergies. PMID:26106595

  17. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production - Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a "safety net" to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to offer viable and attractive economic perspectives to farmers and other land managers besides of the potential ecological benefits of SRCs. For this reason, an integrated tool for scenario analysis was developed within the BEST project ("BEAST - Bio-Energy Allocation and Scenario Tool"). It combines ecological assessments with calculations of economic revenue as a basis for a participative regional dialog on sustainable land use and climate protection goals. Results show a substantial capacity for providing renewable energy from economically competitive arable SRC sites while generating ecological synergies. PMID:26106595

  18. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M. E.; Gyenge, J. E.; Urquiza, M. M.; Varela, S.

    2012-11-01

    More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to understand how management practices can help to increase their adaptability to climate change. Growth magnitude and period, specific hydraulic conductivity, and anatomical traits (early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter, cell-wall thickness, tracheid length and bordered pit dimensions) were measured in the ring 2008-2009, which was formed during drought conditions. This drought event decreased annual stem growth by 30-38% and 58-65% respect to previous mean growth, in open vs. closed stand trees, respectively, indicating a higher sensitivity of the latter, which is opposite to reports from the same species growing in managed native forests in USA. Some wood anatomical variables did differ in more water stressed trees (lower cell wall thickness of early wood cells and higher proportion of small-lumen cells in late wood), which in turn did not affect wood function (hydraulic conductivity and resistance to implosion). Other anatomical variables (tracheid length, pit dimensions, early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter of early wood cells) did not differ between tree sizes and plantation density. The results suggest that severe drought affects differentially the amount but not the function and quality of formed wood in ponderosa pine growing at different competition levels. (Author) 41 refs.

  19. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  20. Evaluación financiera de plantaciones forestales de caoba en Quintana Roo / Financial assessment of mahogany forest plantations in Quintana Roo state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Xavier, García Cuevas; Bartolo, Rodríguez Santiago; Juan, Islas Gutiérrez.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones forestales en México no han tenido resultados de acuerdo al esfuerzo y recursos invertidos en ellas. El problema fundamental es que no se les ha dado el seguimiento requerido, en virtud de que el éxito de los programas actuales debe medirse por el porcentaje de supervivencia en el c [...] ampo, así como por el crecimiento y rendimiento de madera y no por el número de plantas que se producen en los viveros. Además, para hacer de las plantaciones forestales una actividad económica rentable, es necesario proporcionar apoyos a los productores, a través del Gobierno Federal y la banca nacional. Bajo este contexto, el presente trabajo se realizó con datos obtenidos en el centro y sur de Quintana Roo, en los municipios de José María Morelos, Felipe Carrillo Puerto y Otón Pompeyo Blanco. La información recopilada es de tipo financiero (costos y beneficios ha-1) e indicadores financieros para plantaciones forestales comerciales, entre los que destacan: VPN = 162,344.2, TIR = 13.37 y B/C = 4.10, que les servirán a los productores y financiadores en el proceso de toma de decisiones. Finalmente, se analizan y discuten los indicadores financieros y el análisis de sensibilidad sobre su rentabilidad. Los resultados indican que las plantaciones pueden ser un buen negocio en Quintana Roo. Abstract in english Forest plantations operations in Mexico have not produced results according to the efforts and resources invested in them. The main problem is that they have not received the necessary follow-up as the success of the existing programs should be measured by the per cent of survival in the field, as w [...] ell as its growth and wood yield and not by the number of plants produced in the nursery. In addition, to make a profitable business out of forest plantations support must be provided to producers, in which the Federal Government and the national banks should be involved. In this context, this work was carried out with information from the Centre and South of Quintana Roo State, in the municipalities of José María Morelos, Felipe Carrillo Puerto and Othon Pompeyo Blanco. Financial information is presented (benefits, cost /ha-1) and financial indicators obtained for commercial forest plantations), being among the most important: VPN = 162,344.2, TIR = 13.37 and B/C = 4.10, which will be used to support producers and funders to make decisions. Finally, the financial indicators and the sensitivity on the profitability of forest plantations are analyzed and discussed. These results indicate that plantations can be an attractive business in Quintana Roo, México.

  1. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP(TM))is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTPTM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTPTM. The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial bankions (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  2. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under 4 climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future stem wood production and net ecosystem production of Pinus radiata plantations in southwestern Australia were estimated in this modelling study, which was conducted in order to determine the potential effects of anticipated severe rainfall reductions in the region. Four climate change and emission scenarios were considered as well as simulations of the present climate. Results of the study showed that stem wood production and NEP were not significantly influenced by moderate changes in temperature. However, stem wood production and NEP decreased significantly under the most pessimistic climate change scenarios. Results of the study suggested that a trade-off between the positive effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on plant and water use efficiency and the negative impacts of decreased rainfall and increased temperatures. Changes in heterotrophic respiration lagged behind changes in plant growth. It was concluded that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential will require modelling tools capable of characterizing interactions between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, as well as the potential range of climate change scenarios. 53 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  3. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  4. Plantation forestry in Brazil: the potential impacts of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most climatic changes predicted to occur in Brazil would replace yields of silvicultural plantations, mainly through increased frequency and severity of droughts brought on by global warming and by reduction of water vapor sources in Amazonia caused by deforestation. Some additional negative effects could result from changes in temperature, and positive effects could result from CO2 enrichment. The net effects would be negative, forcing the country to expand plantations onto less-productive land, requiring increased plantation area (and consequent economic losses) out of proportion to the climatic change itself. These impacts would affect carbon sequestration and storage consequences of any plans for subsidizing silviculture as a global warming mitigation option. Climate change can be expected to increase the area of plantations needed to supply projected internal demand for and exports of end products from Brazil. June-July-August (dry season) precipitation reductions indicated by simulations reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) correspond to rainfall declines in this critical season of approximately 34% in Amazonia, 39% in Southern Brazil and 61% in the Northeast. As an example, if rainfall in Brazilian plantation areas (most of which are now in Southern Brazil) were to decline by 50%, the area needed in 2050 would expand by an estimated 38% over the constant climate case, bringing the total area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. Thetotal area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. These large areas of additional plantations imply substantial social and environmental impacts. Further addition of plantation area as a global warming response option would augment these impacts, indicating the need for caution in evaluating carbon sequestration proposals. (author)

  5. Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere of the major land use types of the tropical rain forest margin area in South East Asia and quantification of the impact that land use change from undisturbed primary rain forest to pasture has on these interactions is task of subprogramme B1 within the DFG-funded project STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins). In order to fulfill the projects tasks the different major land use types have to be investigated and each ecosystem characterized one by one and compared to a reference site in an undisturbed primary rain forest, to see the changes in the atmosphere-biospheric interactions, i. e. in water and carbon household, with land use change and thus the impact on regional climate. One of the major land use types in the valleys around the Lore Lindu National Park on Sulawesi are Cacao plantations, Theobroma cacao. A site in the Palolo valley near the village Nopu was chosen as research site since the area there is covered with small Cacao fields which form to one big area of Cacao and matches the requirements of the applied research approach. Since Cacao trees need to be shaded especially when younger, shadow trees had been planted and trees of the former forest had been left standing to serve as wind breaks and sun shades. The plantations in Nopu, Palolo valley, consist not only of fields of cultivated Cacao, but also serve as environment and home to the farmers and their families. The whole area of Cacao plantation is interspersed with wooden farm houses, which are also sources of carbon dioxide due to cooking or small power plants etc. and thus have to be taken into account when looking at the carbon household of this specific ecosystem. An estimation of the components of the carbon and water household and the contribution of the humans living within this environment to the carbon household of Cacao plantations of this ecosystem is subject of this presentation. From December 2001 until April 2002 and June 2002 until now eddy-covariance measurements have been performed above a Cacao plantation in Nopu measuring time series of water vapour, CO2, air temperature, three-dimensional wind vector, photosyntetic active radiation and the surface temperature of the Cacao canopy at 10 Hz. Additionally, net radiation balance and soil heat fluxes have been measured. In order to assess the carbon input caused by the humans living in the ecosystem, a mapping of the site area has been carried out, including investigations of consumption of fire wood and use of machines, like generators for example. In order to obtain the energy balance equation of the canopy surface, also the radiation balance and the heat flux into the canopy have to be evaluated.

  6. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  7. A NOVEL ACYLATED FLAVONOIDIC GLYCOSIDE FROM THE WOOD OF CULTIVATED ACACIA NILOTICA (L. WILLD. EX. DELILE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Khanam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Acacia is a fast-growing plant that has high potential in commercial plantations in tropical areas. It is already being grown as a plantation crop for building and industrial raw materials, as well as for reforestation of difficult sites. Extensive cultivation of this promising tree would enrich the natural resources besides being useful for industrial raw material, waste land management, and afforestation. In addition, Acacia exhibits extensive medicinal values. In view of the medicinal importance of Acacia nilotica and the therapeutic utility of flavonoids, an attempt has been made to isolate novel flavonoids from the wood of cultivated A. nilotica. The extraction of crude ethanol extract from the A. nilotica wood was followed by fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol in increasing order of polarity of the solvent. The mixed ethyl acetate and methanol extract afforded three pure compounds through column chromtomatography and fractional crystallization. Among the isolated phenolic compounds, a new acylated flavonoidic glycoside, tricin-4?-O-?-(6??-hydroxycinnamic-glucoside (1 was isolated from the wood of A. nilotica together with two known compounds, gallic acid and apigenin. Their structures were established by chemical evidence, spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and ESI-MS, and by comparison with already existing spectroscopic data. The yield of novel tricin glucoside showed that it make up to 0.0786% of mixed ethyl acetate and acetone extract.

  8. Study of wood polymer combinations from woods of Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the studies conducted to upgrade inferior woods of Kashmir by the application of radiation polymerization process. The process has brought about improvements in the physical and mechanical properties of wood. Wood polymer composite samples have been studied for their use in flooring, wall panelling, roofing shingles, wood carving and in other decorative items. It has been shown that 10% ethyl silicate, when present along with methyl methacrylate or styrene, considerably improves the impact strength and such wood polymer composite samples do not crack even on nailing. Wood polymer composites have been tested for carving and it has been shown that with 50% polymer content, carving quality is preserved. It has also been shown that surface coated wood is more advantageous for use in roofing shingles. (author)

  9. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Wood residues in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest products industry is the third largest economic sector in Alberta, producing pulp and paper, dimensional lumber, paneling, and value added products, providing some 40,000 jobs . 'Value added' is a key component of expanding economic activity within the forest products sector. Wood residues can play a key role in obtaining more value from forest resources by providing new products, serving as feedstock to energy and chemical production, and playing a role in agriculture and land reclamation. One of the principal roles of the Forest Products Development Branch of the Alberta Economics Department is to encourage the development of the industry by creating new uses for these materials and developing awareness of the scope of the resource. Distances to markets, economic competition from conventional energy sources and coordination of research efforts are substantial barriers to further development that the Forest Products Development Branch has to face daily. Some notable successes in recent years are described. These include the Wood Residue Inventory and the Wood Residue Database that provide data on availability and principal location of wood residues, also a listing of contacts at the mills who produce the materials

  11. Welding of solid wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Žup?i?

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the up-to-date knowledge and results of the application of wood welding techniques at the Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb. Wood welding technologies have been developed as a new way of bonding timber by using high temperature generatedby friction and pressure. Timber is assembled without any adhesives. During the process the surface layer of timber (lignin, which is in direct contact with its counterpart, melts due to high pressure and temperature, which is usually generated by mechanical friction of the elements being connected. The cell structure in the interface area of timber is completely destroyed, while in the welding area the density is increased due to the destruction of wood cells. The cell walls are broken, as a result of exposure to high temperatures, mechanical pressure and chemical process, which occur during the cooling stage.Only natural materials are used in wood welding, which makes these products eco-friendly. In case of recycling, welded products may be disposed of just as natural timber, without the release of toxic substances.

  12. Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

    2013-03-01

    Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

  13. RETENTION AND PENETRATION OF CCA IN WOOD OF FIRST AND SECOND ROTATION OF Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lúcia Agostini Valle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989292This study aimed to evaluate the retention and penetration of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C as well as some wood properties of two rotations of two natural hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, aiming their use as treated wood. The study was conducted with material from commercial plantations, with 63 months of age. For the wood characterization, the relationship sapwood-heartwood, the basic density and the size of fibers and vessels were evaluated. For the evaluation of treated wood, the penetration and retention of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C were determined. Four trees per rotation and genetic material were used, which subsequently were split into three logs, in a total of 12 logs for each treatment. The preservative treatment was performed using the full cell process in autoclave using CCA solution with 2% concentration of active ingredients. The treatment process used was effective under the conditions required by the NBR 9480, with retention values ??higher than the minimum required by the standard, which is 6.5 kg/m3 of CCA per treated wood, and in addition, provided deep penetration and regular condom in sapwood of all timber treated. There are no restrictions on the use of wood from the first and second rotation for preservative treatment, based on the properties evaluated. There was no correlation between the type C CCA retention and wood properties evaluated.

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND INTRA-RING WOOD DENSITY PROFILES IN Gmelina arborea APPLYING X-RAY DENSITOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tomazelo-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Four annual tree-rings (2 of juvenile wood and 2 of mature wood were sampled from fast-growth plantations ofGmelina arborea in two climatic conditions (dry and wet tropical in Costa Rica. Each annual tree-ring was divided in equal parts ina radial direction. For each part, X-ray density as well as vessel percentage, length and width fiber, cell wall thickness and lumendiameter were measured. Wood density and profile patterns of cell dimension demonstrated inconsistency between juvenile andmature wood and climatic conditions. The Pearson correlation matrix showed that intra-ring wood density was positively correlatedwith the cell wall thickness and negatively correlated with vessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width. The forwardstepwise regressions determined that: (i intra-ring wood density variation could be predicted from 76 to 96% for anatomicalvariation; (ii cell wall thickness was the most important anatomical feature to produce intra-ring wood density variation and (iii thevessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width were the second most statically significant characteristics to intra-ring wooddensity, however, with low participation of the determination coefficient of stepwise regressions.

  15. Caracterización de la madera joven de Tectona grandis L. f. plantada en Brasil / Characterization of young wood Tectona grandis L. f. planted in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeimy Blanco, Flórez; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Tarcisio, Lima; Paulo Ricardo Gherardi, Hein; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva.

    Full Text Available La teca (Tectona grandis L. f.) es considerada una de las maderas más valiosas debido a sus excelentes propiedades físicas y estéticas. En Brasil esta especie está siendo ampliamente plantada dada su adaptación a las condiciones climáticas del país y a su corta edad de rotación (20 a 25 años). Un ci [...] clo rápido de crecimiento es factor determinante en la calidad y aptitud final de la madera considerando que se genera una mayor proporción de madera juvenil, en muchos casos con características inferiores a la madera adulta. En este sentido el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar algunas propiedades físicas y mecánicas de madera joven de Tectona grandis L. f. y compararlas con datos observados en maderas de plantaciones de la especie en otros lugares alrededor del mundo. Fueron determinadas la proporción de albura y duramen, excentricidad de la médula, densidad básica, contracciones dimensionales y propiedades mecánicas. Los resultados mostraron que, aunque se trata de madera joven, las características de la madera de plantaciones de teca en Brasil son semejantes a las maderas de teca adulta provenientes de otros lugares de plantación, fue determinado un alto contenido de duramen, alta estabilidad dimensional y mayor rigidez, comparado con lo encontrado en la literatura para ese nivel de edad, lo cual la hace apta para variedad de usos. Abstract in english Teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) is considered one of the most valuable timbers due to its excellent physical and aesthetic properties. In Brazil, this species is widely planted because of its adaptation to the climatic conditions of the country and its short rotation age (20-25 years). Rapid growth is [...] an important factor in the quality and end use suitability of the wood considering that it generates a higher proportion of juvenile wood, often with lower characteristics than mature wood. The aim of this study was to determinate some physical and mechanical properties of juvenile wood of Tectona grandis L. f. and compare with data observed in teakwood from plantations in other places around the world. The proportion of sapwood and heartwood, pith eccentricity, basic density, stiffness, strength and dimensional shrinkage were determined. The findings showed that, although it was non-mature wood, the characteristics of Brazil plantations teak wood resemble the mature teak wood from plantations elsewhere. The content of heartwood, dimensional stability and stiffness were higher than those found in the literature for teak wood with similar age range: so brazilian non-mature teak wood from plantations is suitable for a variety of uses.

  16. Advances in the phytochemistry of Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata: Extraction and quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity / Avances en la fitoquímica de Cuphea aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata: Extracción y cuantificación de los compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B.A., Cardenas-Sandoval; A.R., López-Laredo; B.P., Martínez-Bonfil; K., Bermúdez-Torres; G., Trejo-Tapia.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea aequipetala y Cuphea tanceolata son especies nativas de México utilizadas en medicina iradicional. Se estandarizó el procedimiento para obtener extractos y se determinó, en extractos metanólicos (obtenidos en agitación por 24 h), el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides totales de v [...] arios órganos de C. aequipetala, C. aequipetala var. hispida y C. lanceolata. Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas usando métodos in vitro (DPPH•+ y ABTS•+) y el de poder reductor del fosfomolibdeno. La concentración mas alta de compuestos fenólicos se presentó en las flores de C. lanceolata (62.79±0.06 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico (EAG)/g pesos seco (PS); mientras que la de flavonoides en las hojas de C. aequipetala (196.83±2.9 mg equivalentes de quercetina (EQ)/g PS). Las hojas de C. aequipetala var. hispida presentaron la actividad de captura de radicales libres DPPH (173.33±2.12 ?mol trolox/g PS), las flores de C. aequipetala la de captura de radicales libres ABTS (541.10±2.32 ?mol trolox/g PS) mientras que el poder reductor más alto se observó en las hojas de C. aequipetala (1186.25±3.17 ?mol trolox/g PS). Se encontró una correlación positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes. El análisis químico cualitativo mediante TLC indicó la prescencia del flavonoide quercetina 3-3-D-glucosido en todas las especies de Cuphea y de otros flavonoides menos polares en C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. es una fuente natural de compuestos fenólicos. Abstract in english Cuphea aequipetala and Cuphea lanceolata native to Mexico are used in folk medicine. Extraction procedure standardization was performed and the amount of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids was determined in methanol extracts (obtained by stirring for 24 h) from various organs of C. aequipetala, [...] C. aequipetala var. hispida and C. lanceolata. The antioxidant properties of extracts were compared using in vitro free radical-scavenging assays (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•+) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+)) and the reducing power of phosphomolybdenum (PPM). A significant correlation was found between antioxidant activity and the amount of antioxidant components. Flowers of C. lanceolata showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (62.79±0.05 mg gallic acid equivalfnts (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) and the highest content of flavonoids was found in leaves of C. aequipetala (196.83±2.9 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g DW). The highest free radical-scavenging fctivity against DPPH•+ was found in -eaves of C. aeqrnpetala var. hispida (173.33±2.12 ?mol trolox/g DW), for ABTS- in flowers ol C. aequipetala (541.10±2.32 ?mol trolox/g DW) and for 5PM in leaves oS C. aequipetala (1186.25±3.17 ?mol trolox/g DW). Qualitative analysis indicated the presence of the flavonoid quercetin 3-?-D-glucoside in all the species of Cuphea amongst other less polar flavonoids in C. aequipetala var. hispida. Cuphea spp. are prospective sources of phenolic compounds.

  17. Tree Plantation Will not Compensate Natural Woody Vegetation Cover Loss in the Atlantic Department of Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyi, MS.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with land use and land cover changes for a 33 years period. We assessed these changes for eight land cover classes in the south of Benin by using an integrated multi-temporal analysis using three Landsat images (1972 Landsat MSS, 1986 Landsat TM and 2005 Landsat ETM+. Three scenarios for the future were simulated using a first-order Markovian model based on annual probability matrices. The contribution of tree plantations to compensate forest loss was assessed. The results show a strong loss of forest and savanna, mainly due to increased agricultural land. Natural woody vegetation ("forest", "wooded savanna" and "tree and shrub savanna" will seriously decrease by 2025 due to the expansion of agricultural activities and the increase of settlements. Tree plantations are expected to double by 2025, but they will not compensate for the loss of natural woody vegetation cover. Consequently, we assist to a continuing woody vegetation area decrease. Policies regarding reforestation and forest conservation must be initiated to reverse the currently projected tendencies.

  18. In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L., extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L., sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena A Ferrari Mateus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2 hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates para el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos.

  19. Shady Plantations : Theorizing Coastal Shelter in Tamil Nadu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Frida

    2011-01-01

    This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between these, as they are realized in social encounters. This calls for a view of theory and analysis as generative of objects in the world, rather than applied to them from some fictitious elsewhere or posterity. Exploring the plantation and the shelter it offers as an intertwinement and simultaneity of practice and analysis, data and theory, I discuss anthropological knowledge-making as a truly lateral endeavour that engages in describing and cultivating a shared capacity for world-making, the challenge then being to find the right story of sameness and difference, without ascribing fixity and inevitability to our objects of knowledge.

  20. Potentials of Liquefied CCB Treated Waste Wood for Wood Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Humar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recovered wood is frequently contaminated with biocides and therefore its use is limited. Even more, wood, impregnated with classical chromated copper arsenate (CCA preservatives is classified as a hazardous waste, therefore solutions for reuse or recovery of this material are sought. One of the options, discussed in this paper is liquefaction and further applications of liquefied wood containing biocide remainings. In order to elucidate this possibilty, spruce and beech wood was impregnated with liquefi ed CCB treated and untreaded spruce wood of various concentrations and exposed to wood decay fungi according to the EN 113 procedure. In paralel, the leaching experiments (ENV 1250-2 were performed as well. The results do not clearly show that liquefied wood is bio-inactive. In most cases the mass loss by fungal attack is decreased compared to the untreated controls. On the other hand, copper leaching from spruce wood, impregnated with the liquefi ed CCB treated wood was significantly reduced. Thus, there are indications that the liquefied wood could be utilized as a binding agent for inorganic biocides.

  1. Effectiveness of selected preservatives in protecting Ugandan grown Eucalyptus grandis wood against termite attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E Ssemaganda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Termites are one of the major wood destroying agents in the tropics and with the increasing rate of deforestation, there is a need to protect wood from biodegradation in order to extend its service life. In this study the incidence and severity of termite attack on Eucalyptus grandis sapwood treated with CCA, used engine oil and neem extract were investigated. Sixty samples (20 × 20 × 300mm were prepared from the sapwood at mid-height of the tree of E. grandis and air seasoned for two weeks then treated with the preservatives. An area of 20m by 20m in a pine plantation and 15 plots of 1m by 1m were selected at random. Four samples, one from each treatment, were placed at the corners of the selected plots. Inspection and evaluation of stakes was made by visual assessments after every 30 days for any sign of termite attack for a period of 8 months. The specimens were removed from the ground, damage assessed and returned to the ground. After 4 weeks all the untreated wood samples had been attacked, neem extract treated wood samples were attacked after 17 weeks and used engine oil treated samples after 30 weeks. None of the CCA treated wood samples were attacked by the end of study period. Chi square analysis showed a high association between treatment and incidence as well as between treatment and severity. It was recommended that further research be carried out on neem extract using different concentrations.

  2. Effectiveness of selected preservatives in protecting Ugandan grown Eucalyptus grandis wood against termite attack

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I. E, Ssemaganda; P, Mugabi; S. B, Tumwebaze.

    Full Text Available Termites are one of the major wood destroying agents in the tropics and with the increasing rate of deforestation, there is a need to protect wood from biodegradation in order to extend its service life. In this study the incidence and severity of termite attack on Eucalyptus grandis sapwood treated [...] with CCA, used engine oil and neem extract were investigated. Sixty samples (20 × 20 × 300mm) were prepared from the sapwood at mid-height of the tree of E. grandis and air seasoned for two weeks then treated with the preservatives. An area of 20m by 20m in a pine plantation and 15 plots of 1m by 1m were selected at random. Four samples, one from each treatment, were placed at the corners of the selected plots. Inspection and evaluation of stakes was made by visual assessments after every 30 days for any sign of termite attack for a period of 8 months. The specimens were removed from the ground, damage assessed and returned to the ground. After 4 weeks all the untreated wood samples had been attacked, neem extract treated wood samples were attacked after 17 weeks and used engine oil treated samples after 30 weeks. None of the CCA treated wood samples were attacked by the end of study period. Chi square analysis showed a high association between treatment and incidence as well as between treatment and severity. It was recommended that further research be carried out on neem extract using different concentrations.

  3. Observations of evapotranspiration in a break of slope plantation susceptible to periodic drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Break of slope (BOS) plantations are advocated as a means of water table control in areas where groundwater flows through colluvial deposits overlying low permeability bedrock. It is also believed that BOS plantations can supplement their water use requirements by exploiting shallow groundwater at the breaks in topographic slope. Although BOS plantations are attracting much interest from landholders, relevant research on their hydrologic function is limited. We compared measurements of BOS plantation and pasture evapotranspiration during spring, when the weather was warm and soils moist, and late summer when drought conditions prevailed In spring we found that pasture evapotranspiration was 65% of that of the plantation, whereas in summer, pasture evapotranspiration was equivalent to only 35% of plantation evapotranspiration. Rainfall interception by the canopy of the plantation was found to be twice that of the pasture. The greater evapotranspiration of the plantation reinforces the notion that trees can help to reduce groundwater recharge and alleviate dryland salinity and water logging. During the summer drought period, daily plantation transpiration was only 20% of that measured during spring. This suggested that the plantation was not utilising groundwater supplies but was instead 'mining' soil moisture supplies. Isotopic analysis of soil and tree water supported this hypothesis. The BOS plantation we studied is not behaving in the manner expected, and our findining in the manner expected, and our findings raise some doubt as to mooted advantages of establishing plantations in 'break of slope' positions

  4. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  5. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  6. De novo characterization of the Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) transcriptome and analysis of candidate genes involved in cellulose and lignin biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Hua-Hong; Xu Li-Li; Tong Zai-Kang; Lin Er-Pei; Liu Qing-Po; Cheng Long-Jun; Zhu Mu-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) is an important timber species that accounts for 20–30% of the total commercial timber production in China. However, the available genomic information of Chinese fir is limited, and this severely encumbers functional genomic analysis and molecular breeding in Chinese fir. Recently, major advances in transcriptome sequencing have provided fast and cost-effective approaches to generate large expression datasets that have proven to be p...

  7. Cooling of wood briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    Adži? Miroljub M.; Savi? Radmilo A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 ...

  8. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  9. Nitrogen removal and its determinants in hybrid Populus clones for bioenergy plantations after two biennial rotations in two temperate sites in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris P

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of bioenergy coppice plantations is strongly affected by the Nitrogen (N balance, whose removal is very high due to the frequent harvest of large quantities of biomass composed of small-sized shoots. Poplar bioenergy coppice plantations could have a Nitrogen removal comparable to herbaceous crops. In this study, five hybrid poplar genotypes (“AF2”, “AF6”, “Monviso”, “83.148.041”, “I214” were compared for tree morphological traits related to yield, N removal in the harvested biomass and Nitrogen wood concentration (N% after two biennial coppice rotations in two experimental plantations located in northern Italy. N removal was primarily influenced by biomass production, and linear positive relationships between biomass yield and N removal were established. N removal also varied greatly among genotypes due to clonal differences in yield and in N%, in relation to significant differences among clones for their branching and sprouting habits. In the first rotation, branchiness was positively correlated to N% with a significant coefficient of determination (R2=0.813, while at the end of the second rotation it was also significantly correlated to the shoots per stool ratio (R2=0.804. “Monviso” and “83.148.041” were the clones showing the highest yield, but also a high N% associated to an high level of branchiness and shoots per stool ratio. Our results highlight that poplar genotype selection for sustainable N management should be aimed at genotypes with low wood N concentration, coupling high yield with low branching and sprouting habits as in the case of the clone “AF2”.

  10. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less stemwood since half of the canopy (Acacias) are dominated, and the other half does not benefit much in terms of tree growth compared to absorbed light. The eventual benefit of the nitrogen-fixing species is not visible in the mixture with 50% of each species. More attention has to be paid to introducing acacias in an additive series with the same density of eucalyptus trees as in the monospecific stands.

  11. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

  12. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (Wc; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (Wa) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha-1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha-1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

  13. Below-ground biomass production and allometric relationships of eucalyptus coppice plantation in the central highlands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short rotations of Eucalyptus plantations under coppice regime are extensively managed for wood production in Madagascar. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass production and partitioning and their potential in terms of carbon sequestration. If above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on established allometric relations, below-ground (BGB) estimates are much less common. The aim of this work was to develop allometric equations to estimate biomass of these plantations, mainly for the root components. Data from 9 Eucalyptus robusta stands (47–87 years of plantation age, 3–5 years of coppice-shoot age) were collected and analyzed. Biomass of 3 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weight of AGB components (leaves, branches and stems) were estimated as a function of basal area of all shoots per stump and dry weight for BGB components (mainly stump, coarse root (CR) and medium root (MR)) were estimated as a function of stump circumference. Biomass was then computed using allometric equations from stand inventory data. Stand biomass ranged from 102 to 130 Mg ha?1 with more than 77% contained in the BGB components. The highest dry weight was allocated in the stump and in the CR (51% and 42% respectively) for BGB parts and in the stem (69%) for AGB part. Allometric relationships developed herein could be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations which present similar stand density and growing conditions; anyhow, more is needed to be investigated in understanding biomass production and partitioning over time for this kind of forest ecosystem. -- Highlights: ? We studied the potential of old eucalyptus coppices in Madagascar to mitigate global warming. ? Biomass measurement, mainly for below-ground BGB (stump, coarse-medium-and fine roots) was provided. ? BGB allometry relationships for short rotation forestry under coppice were established. ? BGB were found to be important with their 102-130MgC ha-1 (<77% of the C in the studied ecosystem). ? Importance of the study in a country like Madagascar for developing CDM and REDD activities.

  14. De novo characterization of the Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata transcriptome and analysis of candidate genes involved in cellulose and lignin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hua-Hong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata is an important timber species that accounts for 20–30% of the total commercial timber production in China. However, the available genomic information of Chinese fir is limited, and this severely encumbers functional genomic analysis and molecular breeding in Chinese fir. Recently, major advances in transcriptome sequencing have provided fast and cost-effective approaches to generate large expression datasets that have proven to be powerful tools to profile the transcriptomes of non-model organisms with undetermined genomes. Results In this study, the transcriptomes of nine tissues from Chinese fir were analyzed using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. Approximately 40 million paired-end reads were obtained, generating 3.62 gigabase pairs of sequencing data. These reads were assembled into 83,248 unique sequences (i.e. Unigenes with an average length of 449 bp, amounting to 37.40 Mb. A total of 73,779 Unigenes were supported by more than 5 reads, 42,663 (57.83% had homologs in the NCBI non-redundant and Swiss-Prot protein databases, corresponding to 27,224 unique protein entries. Of these Unigenes, 16,750 were assigned to Gene Ontology classes, and 14,877 were clustered into orthologous groups. A total of 21,689 (29.40% were mapped to 119 pathways by BLAST comparison against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database. The majority of the genes encoding the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathways of cellulose and lignin were identified in the Unigene dataset by targeted searches of their annotations. And a number of candidate Chinese fir genes in the two metabolic pathways were discovered firstly. Eighteen genes related to cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were cloned for experimental validating of transcriptome data. Overall 49 Unigenes, covering different regions of these selected genes, were found by alignment. Their expression patterns in different tissues were analyzed by qRT-PCR to explore their putative functions. Conclusions A substantial fraction of transcript sequences was obtained from the deep sequencing of Chinese fir. The assembled Unigene dataset was used to discover candidate genes of cellulose and lignin biosynthesis. This transcriptome dataset will provide a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetics research of C. lanceolata.

  15. Labile carbon dynamics in a Florida Slash pine plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses simulation model of a 29-yr-old slash pine plantation extended to include a separate labile carbon pool and estimates of the growth and maintenance components of respiration of pine foliage, stems and branches, and roots. New tissue growth is examined and results of the model are given

  16. Soil physical properties influence "black truffle" fructification in plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Ponce, Rafael; Ágreda, Teresa; Águeda, Beatriz; Aldea, Jorge; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Modrego, María Pilar

    2014-04-01

    Although the important effects of pH and carbonate content of soils on "black truffle" (Tuber melanosporum) production are well known, we poorly understand the influence of soil physical properties. This study focuses on physical soil characteristics that drive successful production of black truffles in plantations. Seventy-eight Quercus ilex ssp. ballota plantations older than 10 years were studied in the province of Teruel (eastern Spain). Soil samples were analyzed for various edaphic characteristics and to locate T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizae. The influence of cultivation practices, climatic features, and soil properties on sporocarp production was assessed using multivariate analyses. Low contents of fine earth and silt and high levels of bulk density, clay content, and water-holding capacity appear to promote fructification. Watering is also highly positive for truffle fructification. We develop and discuss a logistic model to predict the probability of truffle fructification in field sites under consideration for truffle plantation establishment. The balance between water availability and aeration plays a crucial role in achieving success in black truffle plantations. PMID:24487451

  17. Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First a map of grass contamination (of May 1986) in Styria, Austria and the sites of plantation of medical herbs are given. Then tables of radioactivity of several dried herbs and of infusions, tinctures and essential oils are presented. There is no danger to the users of drugs. 2 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (qui)

  18. New machines for energy willow harvest in small plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiec, Witold; Stachowicz, Feliks; Trzepieci?ski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The production of plant biomass in a small farms requires the application of agricultural machines adjusted for the scale of production. In the article new patented machines for small plantations of energy crops have been presented. These agricultural solutions have been worked out by authors and a part of them is still developing in cooperation with the biomass producers. ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ?????, ??...

  19. MECHANICALLY-INDUCED WOOD WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pizzi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically-induced vibration welding of flat wood surfaces and rotation welding of wood dowels, without any adhesives, gave strength values comparable to those obtained with adhesive bonded joints. The joints obtained have strength up to structural level but can only be used for interior joinery and furniture. The reasons of the welding effect are presented and explained both at the wood anatomical and molecular level

  20. Wood-plastic composites using woods native to Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced polymerization of methylmethacrylate and copolymerization of styrene-acrylonitrile mixture in mamrase Carpinus betulus was carried out by means of ?-ray, under different moisture levels and additives. Under all conditions the degree of polymerization was as high as 60%. No pronounced differences were observed in the kinetics of the polymerization of MMA either with moisture content of wood nor with kind and amount of additives. At high moisture (80% RH) content the dimensional stability of wood-PMMA was increased four fold as compared with untreated wood. The hardness increased about 100% for a weight conversion of monomer of about 30 to 40%. Hardness of this wood-polymer composite is comparable to that of the best noble woods in the world. (author)

  1. Optimizing the extraction yield of polyprenols from needles of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook using response surface methodology and its antioxidative activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An improved optimization method was used, combining a single-factor experiment and Response Surface Methodology to optimize the medium for the extraction yield of polyprenols from the needles of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was used with extraction temperatures, extraction times, and liquid-solid ratio as independent variables to understand and optimize the extraction yield of polyprenols. A mathematical model with a high coefficient of determination was obtained and could be employed to optimize polyprenols extraction. From the optimized values of extraction temperature 71.4 ?, extraction time 5.96 h, and liquid-solid ratio 9.3:1, the extraction yield of polyprenols was 1.22 ± 0.04% (N = 3, which agreed closely with the predicted value (1.27%. Besides, polyprenols were demonstrated to have a strong antioxidative ability in vitro. Scavenging percentages of superoxide radical and DPPH by polyprenols were up to 75.6% and 56.9%, respectively.

  2. Mining for treatment-specific and general changes in target compounds and metabolic fingerprints in response to herbivory and phytohormones in Plantago lanceolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Rabea; Müller, Caroline

    2011-09-01

    Induction studies focusing on target metabolites may not reveal metabolic changes occurring in plants after various challenges. By contrast, metabolic fingerprinting can be a powerful tool to find patterns that are either treatment-specific or general and was therefore used to depict plant responses after various challenges. Plants of Plantago lanceolata were challenged by mechanical damage, specialist herbivores (aphids or sawfly larvae), generalist herbivores (Lepidopteran caterpillars) or phytohormones (jasmonic or salicylic acid). After 3 d of treatment, local and systemic leaves were analyzed for characteristic target metabolites (iridoid glucosides and verbascoside) by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and for metabolic fingerprints by liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Whereas only marginal changes in target metabolite concentrations were found, metabolic fingerprints were substantially affected especially by generalist and phytohormone treatments. By contrast, mechanical damage and specialist herbivory caused fewer changes. Responses to generalists partly overlapped with the changes caused by jasmonic acid, but many additional peaks were up-regulated. Furthermore, many peaks were co-induced by jasmonic and salicylic acid. The surprisingly high co-induction of peaks by both phytohormones suggests that the signaling pathways regulate a set of common targets. Furthermore, only metabolic fingerprinting could reveal that herbivores induce additional species-specific pathways beyond these phytohormone responses. PMID:21592133

  3. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WOOD TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov A. P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an example of usage of the tool for round-wood transport planning from the Decision Support System “Forest Logistic Toolset” for com-pare of two approaches to the organization of international wood transportation

  4. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  5. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 ?m, and 7.1 ?m, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70°C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

  6. Wood Resources of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to 'The Book of Siamese Plant Names' issued by the Royal Forest Department in 1948, exactly one thousand species of trees in Thailand had been identified before that date. Many more species, including such remarkable ones as Prunus .javanica (T & B) Mig. and Betula anoides Ham., which are typical of the temperate zone, were later added to the list. Of the total number mentioned, 280 species have been registered under the Thai Forest Act as reserved species which cannot be cut without permission from the authority. Timbers of real commercial value, however, are comparatively few in number and those with high production figures for the fiscal year 1966 are listed in Table I where the wood density of each species is also given. Only twenty years ago, very few species superior in natural durability, strength, dimensional stability and working quality were offered in local timber markets, including Bangkok. Recently, as the demand for timbers increased enormously and with the development of wood-consuming industry, nearly all tree species have become valuable. Some soft species, such as Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl., which were previously considered to be unusable, have also become important raw materials for pulp and paper, plywood and particle-board manufacturing. Trees of smaller size are also continuously needed for the fabrication of construction materials

  7. Wood bending using microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a new technique of wood bending where microwave irradiation is used to heat and soften wet wood specimens. Compared to the traditional steaming procedure, this procedure offers many advantages : (i) as the heating occurs inside the specimen, complete softening is obtained very quickly; (ii) temperature can be easily controlled in order to obtain the best processing conditions; (iii) the benefit will be especially big in the case of large specimens whose pretreatment may take hours with steaming; (iv) in general, the applicability of wood bending is enlarged, i.e. new wood species and specimens with lower quality can endure larger deformations with a reduced loss. In the case where drastic strain levels are required, the forming and setting operations should be done inside the microwave oven, in order to take advantage of the additional ''mechano-sorptive'' flexibility appearing when wood dries under load

  8. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  9. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  10. Predicting the morphological characteristics and basic density of Eucalyptus wood using the NIRS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Cássia Viana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to apply the near infrared spectroscopy technique (NIRS for fast prediction of basic density and morphological characteristics of wood fibers in Eucalyptus clones. Six Eucalyptus clones aged three years were used, obtained from plantations in Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce and Santa Bárbara, in Minas Gerais state. The morphological characteristics of the fibers and basic density of the wood were determined by conventional methods and correlated with near infrared spectra using partial least square regression (PLS regression. Best calibration correlations were obtained in basic density prediction, with values 0.95 for correlation coefficient of cross validation (Rcv and 3.4 for ratio performance deviation (RPD, in clone 57. Fiber length can be predicted by models with Rcv ranging from 0.61 to 0.89 and standard error (SECV ranging from 0.037 to 0.079 mm. The prediction model for wood fiber width presented higher Rcv (0.82 and RPD (1.9 values in clone 1046. Best fits to estimate lumen diameter and fiber wall thickness were obtained with information from clone 1046. In some clones, the NIRS technique proved efficient to predict the anatomical properties and basic density of wood in Eucalyptus clones.

  11. Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Giordano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last decades, dramatic changes in agricultural practices have led to important modifications of land-use, as well as landscape structure, and to a general biodiversity loss in agro-ecosystems. During 2008 we investigated the small mammal communities of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF stands in Northern Italy. We live-trapped small mammals, during summer and autumn, in different types of SRF stands and surrounding habitats and compared capture rates. We evaluated the influence on small mammals abundance of the distance between the stands and other habitats offering woody or bushy cover. Our results showed that SRF plantations are widely exploited by small mammals, especially in autumn and that capture rate is the highest in “double-row” stands. The distance from woods or other arboriculture stands was negatively correlated to small mammals abundance. We conclude that SRF plantations can be considered a suitable habitat for small mammals and may work as a “corridor habitat” between fragmented patches of suitable habitats.
    Riassunto Uso degli impianti a turno breve da parte dei micrommamiferi, in relazione alla loro struttura e isolamento Negli ultimi decenni profondi cambiamenti nelle pratiche agricole hanno causato modifiche nella tipologia di uso dei terreni, così come nella struttura del paesaggio, che hanno portato a una generale perdita di biodiversità negli agroecosistemi. Nel corso del 2008 abbiamo studiato le comunità di micromammiferi nelle piantagioni di pioppo per la produzione di biomassa (SRF nel Nord Italia. Con l’uso di live-traps abbiamo effettuato due sessioni di cattura, una estiva e una autunnale, nei diversi tipi di impianto delle SRF e negli ambienti circostanti, per comparare le frequenze di cattura. Abbiamo quindi analizzato l’influenza che la distanza tra i diversi ambienti con copertura arborea ha sull’abbondanza dei micromammiferi. Dal nostro studio è emerso che le SRF sono largamente sfruttate dai micromammiferi, soprattutto in autunno e che il successo di cattura è massimo negli impianti a file binate. L’abbondanza dei micromammiferi è risultata inversamente correlata alla distanza dagli ambienti che offrono copertura, come boschi o altri impianti di arboricoltura. I risultati hanno mostrato che le SRF possono considerarsi un ambiente idoneo per i micromammiferi, ed esse potrebbero funzionare da habitat di collegamento tra i frammenti di altri habitat utilizzati dai micromammiferi.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4443

  12. Acoustical classification of woods for string instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shigeru

    2007-07-01

    Two basic types of wood are used to make stringed musical instruments: woods for soundboards (top plates) and those for frame boards (back and side plates). A new way to classify the acoustical properties of woods and clearly separate these two groups is proposed in this paper. The transmission parameter (product of propagation speed and Q value of the longitudinal wave along the wood grain) and the antivibration parameter (wood density divided by the propagation speed along the wood grain) are introduced in the proposed classification scheme. Two regression lines, drawn for traditional woods, show the distinctly different functions required by soundboards and frame boards. These regression lines can serve as a reference to select the best substitute woods when traditional woods are not available. Moreover, some peculiarities of Japanese string instruments, which are made clear by comparing woods used for them with woods used for Western and Chinese instruments, are briefly discussed. PMID:17614512

  13. Do changes in carbon allocation account for the growth response to potassium and sodium applications in tropical Eucalyptus plantations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epron, Daniel; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Almeida, Julio C R; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Ponton, Stephane; Sette, Carlos R; Delgado-Rojas, Juan S; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms that account for the impact of potassium (K) fertilization and its replacement by sodium (Na) on tree growth is key to improving the management of forest plantations that are expanding over weathered tropical soils with low amounts of exchangeable bases. A complete randomized block design was planted with Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) to quantify growth, carbon uptake and carbon partitioning using a carbon budget approach. A combination of approaches including the establishment of allometric relationships over the whole rotation and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall at the end of the rotation were used to estimate aboveground net production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux and gross primary production (GPP). The stable carbon isotope (?(13)C) of stem wood ?-cellulose produced every year was used as a proxy for stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Potassium fertilization increased GPP and decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground. Aboveground net production was strongly enhanced, and because leaf lifespan increased, leaf biomass was enhanced without any change in leaf production, and wood production (P(W)) was dramatically increased. Sodium application decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground in a similar way, and enhanced GPP, ANPP and P(W), but to a lesser extent compared with K fertilization. Neither K nor Na affected ?(13)C of stem wood ?-cellulose, suggesting that water-use efficiency was the same among the treatments and that the inferred increase in leaf photosynthesis was not only related to a higher stomatal conductance. We concluded that the response to K fertilization and Na addition on P(W) resulted from drastic changes in carbon allocation. PMID:22021011

  14. Impacts of afforestation and silviculture on the soil C balance of tropical tree plantations: belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epron, D.; Koutika, L.; Mareschal, L.; Nouvellon, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forest plantations will provide a large part of the global wood supply which is anticipated to increase sharply in the next decades, becoming a valuable source of income in many countries, where they also contribute to land use changes that impact the global carbon (C) cycle. Tropical forest plantations established on previous grasslands are potential C sinks offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When they are managed on short rotations, the aboveground biomass is frequently removed and transformed into wood products with short lifetimes. The soil is thus the only compartment for durable C sequestration. The soil C budget results from the inputs of C from litterfall, root turnover and residues left at logging stage, balanced by C losses through heterotrophic respiration and leaching of organic C with water flow. Intensive researches have been conducted these last ten years in eucalypt plantations in the Congo on the effects of management options on soil fertility improvement and C sequestration. Our aim is to review important results regarding belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion in relation to management options. We will specifically address (i) the soil C dynamics after afforestation of a tropical savannah, (ii) the impact of post-harvest residue management, and (iii) the beneficial effect of introducing nitrogen fixing species for C sequestration. Our results on afforestation of previous savannah showed that mechanical soil disturbance for site preparation had no effect on soil CO2 efflux and soil C balance. Soil C increased after afforestation despite a rapid disappearance of the labile savannah-derived C because a large fraction of savannah-derived C is stable and the aboveground litter layer is as the major source of CO2 contributing to soil CO2 efflux. We further demonstrated that the C stock in and on the soil slightly increased after each rotation when large amounts of residues are left at logging stage and that most of eucalypt-derived C is recovered in the fine particulate organic matter fraction (0.25-0.05 mm) and the organo-mineral fraction (poor tropical soils, and mixed-species plantation with nitrogen fixing trees might be an important strategy of reforestation or afforestation to offset C emissions.

  15. Wireless Group Control System Applied in Plantation Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper have a study of the wireless group control system applied in plantation irrigation system. China is a fresh water resources scarce country, agricultural irrigation occupies a large part of the water resources. Because long-term use of traditional farming patterns, low utilization rate of irrigation water, irrigation water wasted is a very serious problem. In order to improve the irrigation efficiency and spare the water resource, based on an example of a large plantation in Shandong Province, this study designs a wireless group control system according to the specific situation of the irrigation wells dispersed. It realizes the communication between the main control room and 13 dispersed wells through wireless network. In the distributed sub-stations, we use the Frequency Converter to drive the lift pump to achieve the precise allocation of irrigation water, the saving effect is significant. Besides, the paper especially introduces the software realization of the wireless communication.

  16. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ober, Holly K.; Degroote, Lucas W.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantatio...

  17. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Marliane Ca?ssia Soares; Paula, Thiago Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to eval...

  18. Effects of Silviculture and Genetics on Branch/Knot Attributes of Coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir and Implications for Wood Quality—A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eini C. Lowell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir is the most commercially important timber species in the US Pacific Northwest due to its ecological prevalence and its superior wood attributes, especially strength and stiffness properties that make it highly prized for structural applications. Its economic significance has led to extensive establishment and management of plantations over the last few decades. Cultural treatments and genetic improvement designed to increase production of utilizable wood volume also impact tree morphology and wood properties. Many of these impacts are mediated by crown development, particularly the amount and distribution of foliage and size and geometry of branches. Natural selection for branch architecture that optimizes reproductive fitness may not necessarily be optimal for stem volume growth rate or for wood properties controlling the quality of manufactured solid wood products. Furthermore, Douglas-fir does not self-prune within the rotation lengths currently practiced. This paper synthesizes extensive Douglas-fir research in the Pacific Northwest addressing: (1 the effects of silviculture and genetics on branch structure and associated consequences for wood quality and the product value chain; and (2 methods to measure, monitor, modify, and model branch attributes to assist managers in selecting appropriate silvicultural techniques to achieve wood quality objectives and improve the value of their Douglas-fir resource.

  19. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

  20. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation

  1. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

  2. Financial and energy analyses of woody biomass plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an economic analysis of a short rotation woody crop (SRWC) plantation system established the financial and energy costs of woody biomass and related net values for the total system. A production model for commercial-sized Populus plantations was developed from a series of research projects sponsored by the U.S,. Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. The design was based on hybrid poplar planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cutting ha-1. Growth was forecast at 16 Mg(OD) ha-1 yr-1 on a six-year rotation cycle. All inputs associated with plantation establishment, annual operations, and land use were identified on a financial and energy cost basis (Strauss et al. 1989). Net values for the system projected a minimum financial profit and a major net energy gain. Financial profit was limited by the high market value of energy inputs as compared to the low market value of the energy output. The net energy gain was attributed to the solar energy captured through photosynthesis. Principal input costs to the overall system, on both a financial and energy basis, were land rent and the harvesting/transportation requirements

  3. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ??of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  4. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adži? Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  5. Chipper Woods Bird Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chipper Woods Bird Observatory (CWBO) is a non-profit organization committed to bringing "good science to the conservation of birds and their habitats through scientific research, scientific training and educational programs designed for all age groups." The CWBO website contains a nice variety of bird information and images for budding birders. The siteâ??s Bird Photos section provides good quality images and information for an extensive selection of birds including the Peregrine Falcon, Barn Swallow, Tufted Titmouse, Scarlet Tanager, and many more. Various bird-related topics -â?? such as migrating geese, owl pellets, West Nile Virus, and Bald Eagle Restoration -â?? are covered as well. The CWBO website contains checklists for Indiana birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. The site also offers a banding summary, newsletter, list of publications, and short quiz for kids. The CWBO site is available in Spanish and English.

  6. National wood in dealings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the authors analyze the management of state enterprise Forests of the Slovak Republic. The firm manages long-term loss. Economic losses are caused mainly because the company is controlled by government political parties. There has also been found that the in the branch plant in Liptovsky Hradok foresters are missing twenty thousand cubic meters of timber worth in excess of one million Euros. Only in this race bad debts amounted to four million Euros. In 2007 timber production reached more than 3.9 million m3. Plant is already preparing a recovery plan. It has increased the production of wood chips. The company produces just over one hundred thousand tons annually chips yet. In the future it wants to produce five hundred thousand.

  7. Wood : A sustainable building material ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood is a renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size has shrinked by 30% since the preindustrial times and in countries like China (with a historic tradition for wooden architecture) we could observe enormous desertification. What does this mean for the use of wood in modern architecture ? A critical reflection is needed. In too many cases, sustainability with wood is only proclaimed but does not stand close examination. In its extreme, this originally healthy building material thoughtlessly is turned into a toxic structure. But based on a deeper look into contradictions and revealing the potentials of using wood, the lecture focuses on the positive and highly inspiring examples and presents wooden architecture at its best.

  8. Caracterización dasométrica e índice de sitio en plantaciones de caoba en Tabasco, México / Dasometric characterization and site index in mahogany plantations in Tabasco, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guadalupe, Pérez González; Marivel, Domínguez-Domínguez; Pablo, Martínez-Zurimendi; Jorge D., Etchevers Barra.

    Full Text Available Se hizo una caracterización dasométrica y se determinó la calidad de sitio, en ocho plantaciones de Swietenia macrophylla King, en parcelas permanentes establecidas en el trópico de México. Las plantaciones estudiadas presentaban edades de 7 a 16 años, densidades de establecimiento de plantación de [...] 156 árb.ha-1 a 1111 árb.ha-1; la supervivencia de 40% a 100%, altura dominante de 4,39 m a 23,45 m, área basal de 2,3 m²ha-1 a 15,7 m²ha-1, volumen de madera con corteza de 14 m³ha-1 a 185 m³ha-1, índice de Reineke de 176 a 505. Con base en la caracterización dasométrica se determinó que las plantaciones con mayor productividad se encuentran en la zona de La Chontalpa. Para determinar la calidad de sitio de estas plantaciones se probaron modelos de Bertalanffy, Chagoya, Logística, Monomolecular, Weibull, Korf y Wescom. El modelo de Korf presentó mejor coeficiente de determinación con alta confiabilidad para realizar la estimación de crecimiento en altura en árboles de la especie estudiada. Con la ecuación obtenida se determinó la evolución de la altura dominante con la edad y el índice de sitio para cada una de las plantaciones. Los índices de sitio para Swietenia macrophylla King en el estado de Tabasco se clasificaron como: baja (11,5 m), media (14,5 m) y alta (17,5 m) con edad base de 10 años. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, se puede considerar el potencial productivo de esta especie para futuros establecimientos en las zonas con mayores posibilidades. Abstract in english A dasometric characterization was made and the site quality was determined in eight mahogany plantations, in permanent plots established in the Tropical region of Mexico. Plantations studied were about 7 to 16 years old, starting densities of plantations from 156 to 1111 tree.ha-1; survival from 40% [...] to 100%, dominant height from 4,39 m to 23,45 m, basal area from 2,3 m²ha-1 to 15,7 m²ha-1, volume of wood with bark from 14 m²ha-1 to 185 m³ha-1, Reineke index from 176 to 505. With the dasometric characterization basis, it was determined that plantations with increased productivity are located in the area of Chontalpa. To determine the quality of mahogany plantations areas, several models were tested: Bertalanffy, Chagoya, Logistics, Monomolecular, Weibull, Korf and Wescom. The Korf model resulted in a best fit with a probability of (?

  9. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF WOOD AND WOOD BASED MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodolfo de Melo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The wood, as well as other construction materials, presents changes in this stiffness and strength when submitted to a long time loading. This phenomenon is important in the analyses resistance capacity of structural materials. Mechanically, the wood behaves as aviscous-elastic solid. However, over time, the structural elements submitted to permanent or cyclic loading presents some deformation, which denotes a viscous-elastic behavior. This characteristic is influenced mainly on the intensity and duration of loading. In this study a review of rheological phenomenon is presented, showing up the causes and effects for a better understanding, which is essential for the appropriate and efficient use of the wood and wood composites as structural materials.

  10. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  11. Reptiles in Monterey pine plantations of the Coastal Range of Central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra V, Uribe; Cristián F, Estades.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Chile, most of the timber industry depends on Monterey pine (Pinus radíala (D. Don.)) plantations, which now cover more than 1.5 million ha. In spite of the intensive management of these plantations, they are home to a large number of wildlife species. One of the least known groups in [...] this type of environment are reptiles. For this reason, we conducted a study on the distribution and abundance of reptiles at plantations of different ages in seven sites in the Coastal Range of Central Chile. RESULTS: From seven species that could be potentially found in the study region, a total of five species were recorded, with Liolaemus lemniscatus (Gravenhorst) being the most abundant (with up to 160 ind*ha-1). Detectability of species was similar in young and mature plantations but Liolaemus tenuis (Duméril and Bibron), the most colorful species, showed a higher detection probability than the other species. The highest abundance of reptiles was found in young plantations, and the density of L. lemniscatus and Liolaemus chiliensis (Lesson) declined significantly with plantation development. Liolaemus schroederi (Müller and Hellmich) increased significantly its numbers in 4- to 5-year-old plantations and remained with similar densities in mature plantations. L. tenuis density was low in all plantations and showed no relationship with age. The snake Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann) was recorded very few times and only in young plantations. Vegetation characteristics explained a significant proportion of the variation in the abundance of reptiles, with dense understories negatively affecting the abundance of lizards, likely by reducing the amount of heat and sunlight reaching the plantation's interior. The type of microhabitats with the highest number of lizard records was scrub and harvest debris. CONCLUSIONS: This work confirms the role of pine plantations as habitat for an important proportion of reptile species in South Central Chile and provides some relationships with management variables that can be used to enhance the contribution of these artificial forests to biodiversity conservation.

  12. Mangrove Plantation as a Tourist Attraction in San Juan Batangas, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Jane M. Miranda; Joy O. Reyes; Anne Tan; Letlet C. Villanueva; Sarah Mae F. Zara; Amada G. Banaag; Renato Rosales

    2013-01-01

    This study about the Mangrove Plantation in San Juan, Batangas, Philippines aimed to identify the potential of mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction; to describe the status of mangroves, the programs offered by the government; to determine the level of support given by the government; to determine the benefits of the mangroves; and to propose an action plan that will develop the mangrove plantation as a tourist attraction. The study used descriptive method in order to determine the need...

  13. Phytocoenological characteristics in poplar plantations in the protected region of the central Danube basin

    OpenAIRE

    Gali? Z.; Orlovi? S.; Vasi? Verica; Galovi? Vladislava; Klašnja Bojana; Stojanovi? D.; Babi? Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Following the water regulation along the Danube river, the area of natural forests decreases and the vegetation is fragmented. The goal of the study was to survey the recent phytocenological characteristics of the region of the protected floodplain outside the dam. We surveyed three site types in poplar plantations near Novi Sad. In the poplar plantations phytocoenological relevés were made. The elevation of the study plantations is between 75 and 76 m a.s.l. The most represented speci...

  14. Components of Soil Respiration and its Monthly Dynamics in Rubber Plantation Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhixiang Wu; Limin Guan; Bangqian Chen; Chuan Yang; Guoyu Lan; Guishui Xie; Zhaode Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Our objective was to quantify four components and study effect factors of soil respiration in rubber plantation ecosystems. Providing the basic data support for the establishment of the trade of rubber plantation ecosystem carbon source/sink. Methods: We used Li-6400 (IRGA, Li-COR) to quantitate four components of soil respiration in rubber plantation ecosystems at different ages. Soil respiration can be separated as four components: heterotrophic respiration (Rh), Respiration of roots (...

  15. Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, P S; Bhattacharjee, Subhalaxmi; Dey, Animesh; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Bhattacharya, Dipto

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of earthworm communities was carried out in the rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) of different age groups in West Tripura to understand the impact of such exotic and monoculture plantation in biodiversity conservation. Earthworm communities were studied on monthly basis over a period of one year (2006-2007) in the 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 year-old plantations. Among twelve earthworm species collected from the studied sites, six species belonged to Octochaetidae [Eutyphoeus assomensis Stephenson, Eutyphoeus comillahnus Michaelsen, Lennogaster chittagongensis (Stephensen), Octochaetona beatrix Gates, Dichogaster offinis Michaelsen, Lennogaster yeicus (Stephensen)], two species each to Megascolecidae [Metaphire houlleti (Perrier), Konchurio sp. 1] and Moniligastridae [Drowida nepalensis Michaelsen, Drawida papillifer papillifer Stephenson], one species each to Glossoscolecidae [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller)] and Ocnerodrilidae [Gordiodrilus elegans Beddard]. Exotic species P corethrurus, M. houlleti and native peregrine species like D. nepolensis and D. papillifer papillifer were distributed in all the age groups of plantation, while other species showed restricted distribution. P. corethrurus contributed more than 60% biomass and 70% density of earthworm communities in rubber plantation. With aging of rubber plantations both the densities and biomasses of earthworms increased. High contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin in the litters of 3 and 10 year-old-rubber plantations through their effects on food intake, probably resulted to low biomass values of earthworms in those age groups of plantation. With further increase in the age of plantations beyond 10 years, polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin contents decreased. Accordingly the biomass of earthworms increased with increase in the age of plantation. Soil moisture increased with increase in the age of plantation and there was a good positive correlation between soil moisture and earthworm biomass (p < 0.01). Density, biomass and dominance of earthworms increased while species diversity, species richness and species evenness of earthworm community were decreased with increase in the age of rubber plantation. PMID:24006808

  16. Food Preferences of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, a Nuisance Pest in Rubber Tree Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K. V.

    2009-01-01

    Massive invasion of the litter dwelling beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), numbering about 0.5 to 4 million per residential building following summer showers, and their prolonged stay in a state of dormancy, make them an extreme nuisance in rubber tree plantation belts of the Western Ghats in south India. Food preference of post-dormancy adults, larvae and teneral adults stages towards tender, mature and senescent leaves were assessed in three choice and no choice ...

  17. Mapping Deciduous Rubber Plantation Areas and Stand Ages with PALSAR and Landsat Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and updated finer resolution maps of rubber plantations and stand ages are needed to understand and assess the impacts of rubber plantations on regional ecosystem processes. This study presented a simple method for mapping rubber plantation areas and their stand ages by integration of PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. The L-band PALSAR 50-m mosaic images were used to map forests (including both natural forests and rubber trees and non-forests. For those PALSAR-based forest pixels, we analyzed the multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from 2000 to 2009. We first studied phenological signatures of deciduous rubber plantations (defoliation and foliation and natural forests through analysis of surface reflectance, Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and generated a map of rubber plantations in 2009. We then analyzed phenological signatures of rubber plantations with different stand ages and generated a map, in 2009, of rubber plantation stand ages (?5, 6–10, >10 years-old based on multi-temporal Landsat images. The resultant maps clearly illustrated how rubber plantations have expanded into the mountains in the study area over the years. The results in this study demonstrate the potential of integrating microwave (e.g., PALSAR and optical remote sensing in the characterization of rubber plantations and their expansion over time.

  18. Why Simulate a Sample of Recycled Wood?

    OpenAIRE

    Bouslamti, A.; Irle, M. A.; Belloncle C; Salvador, V.; Bondu, M.; Hulo, S.; Caron, B.

    2012-01-01

    Wood products follow the same cycle as other materials: manufacture, use and disposal. For certain applications, chemical additives are added to wood to increase its durability against biological and physical attack. At the end of life, waste wood is chipped or crushed before being recovered as raw material for new products or as fuel for energy. In recycled wood, there is the potential that some wood particles are contaminated by hazardous substances, such as organic or heavy metal preservat...

  19. In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 / Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena A, Ferrari Mateus; Cacilda M, Duarte Rios Faria¹; Renato V, Botelho; Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Silvana G, Martins Ferreira; Welton L, Zaluski.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates pa [...] ra el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2)nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne [...] incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2) hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.

  20. Genetics of Eucalyptus wood properties

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Carolyn

    2002-01-01

    Traditional methods of assessing wood properties are both destructive and expensive, limiting the numbers of samples that can be processed. Over the past decade, non-destructive sampling techniques and new assessment methods have been developed leading to a large increase in the numbers of trees and traits that can be evaluated. This technology has enabled the assessment of progeny trials to determine the patterns of variation, degree of genetic control and economic importance of many wood tr...

  1. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese dos frutos e sementes de Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.3567 Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruits and seeds of Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.3567

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marzinek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Clusia lanceolata Cambess é espécie arbustiva da Mata Atlântica. Caracteriza-se por ser dioica, com flores estaminadas e pistiladas grandes, vistosas, de coloração rosa, apresentando a parte interna vinácea. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie, visando classificar corretamente o seu tipo de fruto e, também, confirmar a origem do apêndice carnoso que envolve as sementes. O material botânico utilizado constou de flores em antese e frutos, em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento, coletados de dois espécimes. Os estudos morfológicos e anatômicos foram realizados segundo técnicas usuais. O fruto é cápsula septífraga, esférica, de coloração verde-avermelhado. O exocarpo é unisseriado; o mesocarpo parenquimático contém numerosos ductos secretores e feixes vasculares, de disposição principalmente longitudinal. O endocarpo é derivado da epiderme interna do ovário e de três a quatro camadas subepidérmicas, cujas células alongam-se tangencialmente e a parede que delimita o lóculo sofre lignificação. A abertura se faz pela sutura carpelar, por meio de uma faixa de células parenquimáticas de tamanho reduzido, que se bifurca em direção aos lóculos no meio dos septos. Os óvulos anátropos bitegumentados, com endotélio e hipóstase, originam sementes também anátropas, exotégmicas e envolvidas por arilo de origem funicular e exostomal. O embrião é hipocotilar.Clusia lanceolata Cambess. is a shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. The plant is dioecious, with large, showy, pink staminate and pistillate flowers that are wine-colored internally. The morphological and structural aspects of the fruits and seeds of this species are described here in order to correctly classify the fruit type and to determine the origin of the fleshy appendage that surrounds the seeds. The botanical material utilized here contained flowers in anthesis and fruits in four stages of development, and were collected from two different plants. The morphological and anatomical studies were performed according to traditional techniques. The fruit is a septifrage, spherical capsule with a reddish-green coloration. The exocarp is uniseriate; the parenchymatous mesocarp contains numerous secretory ducts and vascular bundles arranged in predominantly longitudinal positions. The endocarp is derived from the internal epidermis of the ovary and has from three to four subepidermal layers whose component cells are tangentially elongated, and the cell walls lining the locule become lignified. The fruits open by means of the carpelar suture, along a stand of small parenchymous cells that bifurcate in the direction of the locules, in the midst of the septum. The anatropous bi-tegumented ovules, with an endothelium and hypostase, give rise to seeds that are likewise anatropous, exotegmic, and wrapped in an aril that has a funicular and exostomal origin. The embryo is hypocotylar.

  2. The response of macroinvertebrates to artificially enhanced detritus levels in plantation streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Pretty

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves and wood from vegetation surrounding headwater streams constitute a major food source for aquatic invertebrates, providing they are retained upon the streambed and not transported downstream. This study investigated the response of aquatic invertebrates to artificially increased detritus retention, in an effort to reproduce the naturally occurring build up of dead organic matter associated with streams in old-growth forest. The background detrital standing stock in streams in Kielder Forest (Northumberland, UK was low, approximately 32 gm-2. Two streams flowing through dense conifer plantation and one in open broadleaved woodland were manipulated by the addition of logs over a 10 m stream reach. After several months, log addition significantly enhanced detrital standing stocks in both conifer and broadleaved streams. Total invertebrate abundance, taxon richness and the numbers of certain numerically dominant families were significantly higher in experimental than reference reaches in both conifer and broadleaved streams. This response was most marked for detritivores, whilst non-detritivore groups often showed no response to the manipulation. Whilst in the short term the responses to enhanced retention may reflect a redistribution of the local fauna, it is argued that over a longer time-scale, a genuine increase in invertebrate density and diversity could occur. Allowing old-growth forest to develop in planted valley bottoms may be a viable management option for conservation. If established alongside streams, it would ensure continuous input of woody material and the fauna may benefit from the resulting increase in detritus retention. Keywords: forestry, detritivores, old-growth conifers, river management, woody debris

  3. Wood ash disposal and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood ash is becoming a major disposal problem to the forest products industry as solid waste regulations become more stringent and as landfill costs escalate. The objective of this paper is to present information on wood ash that can be used to evaluate disposal and utilization alternatives. This paper reviews the literature on the chemical and physical properties of ash, methods of disposal and utilization, land application practices, and regulations concerning disposal. Wood ash has been used for centuries as a source of potash and lime for agricultural fields. Based on the properties of wood ash and the disposal alternatives, land application appears to be a safe, relatively simple and economical method for ash disposal. For example, several ash producers in the Northeast and Northwest currently land apply wood ash based on the liming requirements of the soil. Wood ash is a valuable liming agent and soil amendment which should be recycled back to the land rather than being concentrated and buried in a landfill

  4. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

  5. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  6. Uniformização da cor da madeira jovem de teca pela termorretificação / Color uniformization of the young teak wood by heat treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana de Oliveira, Lopes; Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia; Alexandre Miguel do, Nascimento; João Vicente de Figueiredo, Latorraca.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a uniformidade da cor da madeira de teca (peças contendo cerne e alburno) após a aplicação de tratamentos termorretificadores. A madeira utilizada foi oriunda de árvores jovens (12 anos) provenientes de plantios de diferentes espaçamentos. Amostras de madeira com [...] 150 x 75 x 20 mm foram termorretificadas a 180 e 200 ºC, durante 2h30. As análises colorimétricas foram realizadas com o auxílio de um espectrofotômetro no espaço CIE-L*a*b*. Os tratamentos termorretificadores proporcionaram maior uniformidade às peças de madeira de teca, sendo o tratamento a 200 ºC o mais efetivo, o que demonstra o potencial da termorretificação para a obtenção de produtos de madeira de maior valor agregado. A cor da madeira termorretificada a 180 ºC apresentou maior uniformidade no espaçamento menos adensado, entretanto ele não apresentou efeito na uniformidade da cor da madeira termorretificada a 200 ºC. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the uniformity of the color of the teak wood (pieces containing heartwood and sapwood) after application of heat treatments. The wood was originated from young trees (12 years old) from plantations of different spacings. Wood samples of 150 x 75 x 20 mm were [...] heat treated at 180 and 200 ºC during 2:30 hours. Color analysis were performed by using a spectrophotometer in the CIE-L*a*b* space. Heat treatments provided greater uniformity to the teak wood pieces and the treatment at 200 ºC was the most effective, which demonstrates the potential of heat treatment to obtain wood products of higher added value. The color of the wood heat-treated at 180 ºC had higher uniformity in the least dense spacing; however, it had no effect on color uniformity of the wood heat-treated at 200 ºC.

  7. Disaster risk assessment at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzani A. Makhado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004 and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR 2002. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, single factor was also applied. This study found that Roburnia Plantation is highly exposed to fire risks. The mean (± s.d. output from the Wisner risk equation shows that fire is the highest risk at 7.7 ± 0.3, followed by harsh weather conditions at 5.6 ± 0.4 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 2.3 ± 0.2. Similarly, the mean (± s.d. output from the UNISDR risk equation also shows that fire is the highest risk at 2.9 ± 0.2, followed by harsh weather conditions at 2.2 ± 0.3 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 1.3 ± 0.2. There was no significant deference in the risk analysis outputs (p = 0.13. This study also found that the number of fire incidents were low during summer, but increased during winter and spring. This variation is mainly due to a converse relationship with rainfall, because the availability of rain moistens the area as well as the fuel. When the area and fuel is moist, fire incidents are reduced, but they increase with a decrease in fuel moisture.

  8. Assessment of radiation health risk in Cameron Highlands tea plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to the natural radiation is quite common except that the level varies from one place to another. The level of radiation will depend on the type of rocks and soil on that particular area, where the granitic rocks tend to contribute more to the background radiation. The present study was conducted in two of the Tea Plantations in Cameron Highlands, where it has been in operation for more than 50 years. The landscape is hilly type and the workers have to pluck the tea leaves manually. Practically, there are spending long hours in the plantation area. There were thirteen locations for soil sampling and surface dose in-situ measurement. Soil samples were taken back to the UiTM laboratory in Shah Alam for further analysis. Samples were clean, dried, ground and sieve to obtain homogenous samples before analysis. Samples were packed in a plastic container around 400 g, sealed and leave it for 3 weeks to allow radionuclides to reach secular equilibrium, before counting using gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector. The spectrum was analysed using gamma vision software to calculate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K. From the radium equivalent values, one can estimate the external hazard index, the absorb dose and cumulative effective dose received by the person who spend their time in the study area. The results show the external hazard index more than one for one of the tea plantation, but the cumulative effective dose tation, but the cumulative effective dose is still below the recommended level. (author)

  9. Mapping the expansion and distribution of willow plantations for bioenergy in Sweden: Lessons to be learned about the spread of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Where and when farmers will adopt new energy crops is a key issue for the proper development of a country's energy strategy on renewables based in bioenergy. This paper analyses the spread of willow cultivation for bioenergy in Sweden, during the period 1986-2005, linked to the changes in the policies of promotion of wood-energy crops and to the local economic framework. To perform the study, a geostatistic method based on kernel analysis is applied, in order to identify the spatial grouping patterns of growers and plantations, and the areas where cultivation was successful. The analysis of the resulting figures shows that the development of an infrastructure and a market for willow chips are essential pre-conditions for the development of short rotation coppice for bioenergy. The results of this study confirm that probably the most important factor in the location of willow plantations is the existence of consumers that can guarantee a long-term demand for willow chips. The tools and methods presented, and its analysis, can provide a better understanding of the interactions between the biomass producers, the energy consumers and the different local and national actors. (author)

  10. Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity of herbs of harvests 1986 and 1987 - both from the regions of Styria (Austria) with the most important fallout from Chernobyl - are compared. As expected, the radioactive contamination from harvest 1987 is much lower than that from 1986, restricted to Cs 134 and Cs 137 and very low absolutely. Values of soil contamination in the plantation regions are also listed. Hypotheses on the mechanism of radioactivity uptake from the contaminated soils, in particular the importance of potassium-containing fertilizers, are put forward. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (qui)

  11. Short-rotation eucalypt plantations in Brazil: Social and environmental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais (Brasil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    1995-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the historical and current legislative, social, and environmental aspects of the establishment of large-scale eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The report consolidates the vast experience and knowledge relating to these forest plantation systems and highlights lessons learned and new trends. The overview should prove useful to those interested in comparing or beginning similar endeavors.

  12. WOOD MODIFICATION BY HEAT TREATMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Esteves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood heat treatment has increased significantly in the last few years and is still growing as an industrial process to improve some wood properties. The first studies on heat treatment investigated mainly equilibrium mois-ture, dimensional stability, durability and mechanical properties. Mass loss, wettability, wood color, and chemical transformations have been subsequently extensively studied, while recent works focus on quality control, modeling, and study the reasons for the improvements. This review explains the recent interest on the heat treatment of wood and synthesizes the major publications on this subject on wood properties, chemical changes, wood uses, and quality control.

  13. Wood waste production for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood wastes are a product of regular selective thinning. Selective thinning is done along silvicultural lines, mostly with a view to obtaining a large proportion of high-grade wood products. In so far the widely deplored discrepancy between expenditure for forest care and profits from the sale of the accruing types of wood does not necessarily mean that wood waste production is ineconomical. In fact, wood waste production is economical as long as the cost of handling wood wastes is balanced by profits. (orig.)

  14. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)

  15. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new Russian architects appeared. With their own aesthetics.After Pavlov had left Irkutsk, near his house appeared another one, it was not a log house, and its style was glaringly unfriendly. And soon the Fisherman's House burnt down. Not with vexation, but naturally, with smoke and fire. The author of the building next door considers the rebuilding of the lost house unpractical.

  16. Life History, Aggregation and Dormancy of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, from the Rubber Plantations of Moist South Western Ghats

    OpenAIRE

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K. V.; Jobi, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Life history, aggregation and dormancy of rubber plantation litter beetle Luprops tristis Fabricius, (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) is described from rubber plantation belts in the western slopes of Western Ghats from the south Indian state of Kerala. The life cycle lasted 12 months, including the 5 larval instars lasting 1 month, the 3 day pupal stage, and the adult stage that can last 11 months. The adult stage includes an inactive dormancy phase of 9 months in shelters and 1 month each of act...

  17. Genetic diversity in Populus nigra plantations from west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Alimohamadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt strategies for forest conservation and development,it is necessary to estimate the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in existing populations of poplar in Iran. In this study, the genetic diversity between eight stands of Populus nigra established in Kermanshah province was evaluated on the basis of molecular and morphological markers. To amplify microsatellite loci (WPMS09, WPMS16 and WPMS18, DNA extraction from young and fresh leaveswas done. Various conditions of the PCR assay were examined and to evaluate the morphological variation of the morphological characters leaves (consist of 19 traits were measured. In addition, height growth was measured, to evaluate the growth function of the stands in homogeneous conditions. Genetic diversity in termof polymorphic loci was 0%, because three investigated microsatellite loci were monomorphic. The total number of alleles for 3 microsatellite loci was 6 (na = 2, ne = 2, heo = 1, hee = 0.51. Genetic identity based on Nei was 100%, so genetic distance was 0%. The whole sampled trees represented the same thus the genotype. No significant differences between the mean values of all morphological characters and height growth were revealed. Observed genetic similarity gave indication that same ramets had been selected to plant in poplar plantation established in Kermanshah province.These results suggest the need for an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity in selected ramets for planting in plantation to avoid repetition.

  18. Nutrient cycling in a RRIM 600 clone rubber plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murbach Marcos Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Few reports have been presented on nutrient cycling in rubber tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. This experiment was carried out to evaluate: the effect of K rates on the amount of nutrients transfered to the soil in a 13-year old Hevea brasilensis RRIM 600 clone plantation, nutrient retranslocation from the leaves before falling to the soil, and nutrient loss by dry rubber export. The experiment started in 1998 and potassium was applied at the rates of 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of K2O under the crowns of 40 rubber trees of each plot. Literfall collectors, five per plot, were randomly distributed within the plots under the trees. The accumulated literfall was collected monthly during one year. The coagulated rubber latex from each plot was weighed, and samples were analyzed for nutrient content. Increasing K fertilization rates also increased the K content in leaf literfall. Calcium and N were the most recycled leaf nutrients to the soil via litterfall. Potassium, followed by P were the nutrients with the highest retranslocation rates. Potassium was the most exported nutrient by the harvested rubber, and this amount was higher than that transfered to the soil by the leaf literfall.

  19. SMALL WOODEN OBJECTS USING EUCALYPT SAWMILL WOOD WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato da Silva Vieira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest industries look for multiple utilizations for their timber production. In Brazil, the genus Eucalyptus has a great potential for solid wood products; however, only a small amount of Eucalyptus is used as sawn timber. About 50% of the log volume ends up as waste during mechanical processing, resulting in serious economic and environmental problems. In most cases, such residue is discarded at random or used as fuel, and in this context the sustainable management of processing industrial waste is an urgent necessity. Parallel to this, Eucalyptus has not been employed for small wooden object (SWO production. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of small wooden objects produced with Eucalyptus urophylla, E. camaldulensis, and E. grandis waste from sawmilling. Brazilian craftsmen manufactured SWOs with Eucalyptus, and these crafted objects were presented at exhibits and trade fairs for assessment. The proposed small wooden objects made with Eucalyptus residues exhibited satisfactory performance and achieved excellent acceptance by the visitors. This work gave evidence that the use of sawmill waste as raw material for small wooden object manufacture has potential to generate income for economically underprivileged communities near to a plantation.

  20. Wood gasification - Top or flop?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article asks the question if wood gasification technology is ripe for the market. This technology can be used for the generation of gas which can in turn be used for the generation of electrical power. Two basic choices that can be made concerning the use of wood energy are discussed - steam generation for steam turbines or the generation of synthetic gas for use in gas turbines, gas engines or in Stirling motors. The processes available for the gasification of wood are listed and discussed. Experience gained in this sector in Switzerland is examined, as are the high costs and difficult amortisation of the installations. The situation in Europe is also discussed. The author is of the opinion that further work should be undertaken to bring the technology to market ripeness.

  1. FLEXURAL FATIGUE OF LAMINATED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Bondarev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Local damage accumulation in goods and construction elements ultimately leading to a failure occurs due to fluctuating load effect. Results and conclusions. The results of the analysis of the experimentally obtained analytical dependences of strength characteristics and resistance to cracks of profiled laminated wood during bending in products and designs are presented. This products and designs operate under static and cyclic loading. Stresses under which cracks form in pilot samples are established from the results, as well as maximum permissible lengths of cracks for static and cyclic load. Effect of natural and technological defects of laminated wood is taken into account. Recommendation on application of laminated wood in products and designs which experience force cyclic loading under operation are given.

  2. The environmental assessment of the wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors analysed the emissions from residential boilers burning wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. Three boilers, selected with respect to age, design, connection to heat storage tank, and type of biofuel, were included in the study. The emissions captured comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAC) and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). We have used the Life Cycle Inventory method in order to identify the main stressors generated by the wood combustion stage. In this purpose, we have analysed one type of old boiler, one type of modern boiler and a multi-fuel boiler, which can burn wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. In this article, we selected only the wood combustion stage because it is the most important according to the emissions produced. (authors)

  3. Sustainability Assessment of a Self-Consumption Wood-Energy Chain on Small Scale for Heat Generation in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Verani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of a small-scale self-consumption wood-energy chain for heat generation in central Italy was analyzed from a technical, economic and energetic point of view. A micro-chain was developed within the CRA-ING farm at Monterotondo (Rome, Italy: The purpose of this system was to produce biomass for supplying a heating plant within the CRA-ING property as a substitute for diesel fuel. A poplar short rotation coppice, established with clones AF2, AF6 and Monviso, fed the micro-chain. The rotation was biennial. The average plantation production (Mgd.m.·ha?1·year?1 was 10.2, with a maximum of 13.53 for the twin-rows AF2 and a minimum of 8.00 for the single-row Monviso. The economic assessment was based on the Net Present Value (NPV method and the equivalent annuity cost, and found an average saving of 15.60 €·GJ?1 of heat generated by the wood chips heating system in comparison with the diesel heating system over a 10 year lifetime of the thermal power plant. The energy assessment of the poplar plantation, carried out using the Gross Energy Requirements method, reported an energy output/input ratio of 12.3. The energy output/input ratio of the whole micro-chain was 4.5.

  4. Preparation of coloured wood plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made into the possibility of using fat, as well as alcohol- and water-soluble dyes for radiation-chemical dying of polymers and plastics filled with wood. The use of fat-soluble azo and anthraquinone dyes permits obtaining intensely colored wood-plastic materials based on methyl methacrylate by way of gamma radiation with doses of up to 3 Mrad. At a dose above 5 Mrad, a marked tarnishing of the dye or a change in color and stains are observed. Dyes in styrene withstand higher radiation doses without any significant destruction

  5. Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg-1 for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries.

  6. Regeneración natural del matorral espinoso tamaulipeco en una plantación de Eucalyptus spp. / Natural regeneration of the tamaulipan thornscrub in an Eucalyptus spp. plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dinorah Dalila, Martínez Hernández; Javier, Jiménez Pérez; Eduardo, Alanís Rodríguez; José Isidro, Uvalle Sauceda; Pamela Anabel, Canizales Velázquez; Luis, Rocha Domínguez.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones forestales con especies exóticas generan controversia a nivel mundial y tal es el caso de la presencia de eucaliptos en México. En el presente estudio se caracterizó la regeneración natural de vegetación leñosa en el Matorral Espinoso Tamaulipeco (MET), que se localiza en el noreste [...] del país, dentro de una plantación original de Eucalyptus spp. La investigación se llevó a cabo 27 años después de su establecimiento y en ella se instalaron 11 sitios de muestreo de 250 m² (10 x 25 m) para evaluar todos los ejemplares con crecimiento secundario que presentaran un diámetro basal (d0.50) mayor o igual a 0.5 cm. Los datos recabados permitieron estimar índices de riqueza y diversidad, así como abundancia relativa, dominancia y frecuencia; con estos números se calculó el Índice de Valor de Importancia. Se demostró que en la zona existe renovación de las especies de interés en la siembra original y los parámetros poblacionales propios son similares a las de otras áreas con características parecidas; además se presentó sucesión ecológica, después de haber sido sujetas a actividades agrícolas, pecuarias y forestales (matarrasa). Se registró alta densidad (4 301 ind ha-1) y mayor cantidad de individuos de clases diamétricas bajas ( Abstract in english Forest plantations with exotic species are of great controversy worldwide. This research characterizes the natural regeneration of woody vegetation of Tamaulipan thornscrub (MET) in a plantation of Eucalyptus spp. Eleven sampling sites of 250 m² (10 x 25 m) were established in the plantation area an [...] d all wood species larger than one centimeter of basal diameter were registered and measured. Richness and diversity indices as well as values of relative abundance, dominance, frequency were estimated which were used to calculate the Importance Value Index. Results show that there is natural regeneration of native woody species under the plantation of Eucalyptus spp.; density, crown area, richness and diversity values were similar to other regenerated areas after agricultural activities, livestock and forestry (clear cutting). High density (4 301 ind ha-1) and more individuals of lower diameter classes (

  7. WOOD COLOR CHANGES BY AMMONIA FUMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Mikle?i?,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of ammonia gas on wood color changes in response to an increasing demand for dark colored wood specimens. The darker wood color in ammonia fuming is accomplished through chemical reactions between ammonia gas and wood compounds. We exposed oak, maple, spruce, and larch wood samples to ammonia gas for 16 days. During fuming, the color changes were studied using CIE L*a*b* parameters. After fuming, the changes in extractives content, tannin, and nitrogen content were analyzed. The chemical changes of wood and residues of wood extractives after fuming were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Oak wood reacted intensively with ammonia gas in a very short time, and the darkening was prominent for all the investigated wood species. It was established that tannin had no major influence on color changes of maple and larch wood in the ammonia-fuming process. The FTIR spectra of fumed wood indicated involvement of carbonyl groups, and the FTIR spectra of wood extractives indicated involvement of carbonyl, aromatic, and alcohol groups in reaction with ammonia gas.

  8. The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

  9. An interdisciplinary framework to evaluate bioshield plantations: Insights from peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico; Shanker, Kartik

    2015-02-01

    Bioshields or coastal vegetation structures are currently amongst the most important coastal habitat modification activities in south-east Asia, particularly after the December 2004 tsunami. Coastal plantations have been promoted at a large scale as protection against severe natural disasters despite considerable debate over their efficacy as protection measures. In this paper, we provide an interdisciplinary framework for evaluating and monitoring coastal plantations. We then use this framework in a case study in peninsular India. We conducted a socio-ecological questionnaire-based survey on government and non-government organizations directly involved in coastal plantation efforts in three 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami affected states in mainland India. We found that though coastal protection was stated to be the primary cause, socio-economic factors like providing rural employment were strong drivers of plantation activities. Local communities were engaged primarily as daily wage labour for plantation rather than in the planning or monitoring phases. Application of ecological criteria has been undermined during the establishment and maintenance of plantations and there was a general lack of awareness about conservation laws relating to coastal forests. While ample flow of international aid has fuelled the plantation of exotics in the study area particularly after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, the long term ecological consequences need further evaluation and rigorous monitoring in the future.

  10. Community perceptions towards the establishment of an urban forest plantation: a case of Dzivaresekwa, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mureva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of urban forest communities not only depend on the government and nongovernmental organizations, but also strongly rely on local community stewardship. A study was carried out to assess community perceptions on the establishment of an urban forest plantation among urban residents in Dzivaresekwa, an urban area in Harare. Randomized systematic sampling was used to select 150 households and one resident per household was interviewed using a pretested questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The objectives of the study were to determine how age and gender and employment status variables, were related to the urban residents’ perceptions towards establishment of a forest plantation in an urban area. Most females (58.3% viewed the plantation as a threat while most men (51.7% viewed the plantation as a recreational area. The highest proportion (61.9% of the middle age group (21-40 years perceived the plantation as a source of employment. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.040 between gender and the general perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. However, there was no statistically significant relationship (p = 0.203 between age groups and the perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. It is concluded that the community had diverse perceptions on urban community forestry.

  11. BIOMASS AND WOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Sclerolobium paniculatum IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri da Rocha Marmo de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work studied the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics ofSclerolobium paniculatum Vogel var. subvelutinum wood of a plantation of 18 years old, under different levels of soil fertilization. Theinfluences of fertilization in the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics showed no significantresults. The results showed an average production of biomass per hectare of 92.55t. The results disclose that the cultivated carvoeiro,with 18 years old, have fibers with 14.03mm of diameter; 3.41mm of thickness and 708mm length; basic specific gravity of 0.52g/cm3;83.84% of volatile material; 15.65% of fixed carbon; calorific power of 4,671kcal/kg.

  12. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust : Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.

  13. Wood and concrete polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several ways to prepare and use wood and concrete polymer composites. The most important improvements in the case of concrete polymer composites are obtained for compressive and tensile strengths. The progress in this field in United States and other countries is discussed in this rview. (M.S.)

  14. Wood quality of white willow

    OpenAIRE

    André Leclercq

    1997-01-01

    Based upon an exhaustive work made by Sacré (1974) and a review of the literature sine 1960, the author gathered together the anatomical, physical and mechanical characteristics, the machining behaviour (industrial sawing, planing, surfacing, shaping, mortising and nailing) and wood end-uses of white willow.

  15. Delville Wood Memorial, Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    General view of the Delville Wood Memorial from the Cape Town art gallery, showing the lay-out of the site. The memorial, surrounded by classical columns and surmounted by a statuary group in bronze, is placed in a formal garden with balustrades, lawns and pool.

  16. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations / Balanço de N em solos sob plantações de eucalipto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt, Barreto; Antonio Carlos da, Gama-Rodrigues; Emanuela Forestieri da, Gama-Rodrigues; Nairam Félix de, Barros.

    1239-12-01

    Full Text Available O entendimento da participação de reservas orgânicas de N no suprimento de plantações de eucalipto é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que maximizem a eficiência no uso de N por essa cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de reservas orgânicas de N em diferente [...] s compartimentos no sistema solo-planta e a contribuição desses compartimentos no suprimento de N em plantações de eucalipto em diferentes idades de cultivo (1, 3, 5 e 13 anos). Para estimar a contribuição das reservas orgânicas, foram empregados três modelos: o modelo I considerou os estoques do N contido na serapilheira e na biomassa microbiana do solo e o N disponível no solo (N mineral); o modelo II considerou os estoques de N no solo, o N potencialmente mineralizável e a exportação de N na colheita da madeira; e o modelo III (balanço de N) foi definido pela diferença entre o estoque inicial de N no solo (0-10 cm) e a exportação de N, somada a uma aplicação de fertilizante nitrogenado. O modelo I mostrou que as reservas de N poderiam suprir de 27 a 70 % da demanda de N pelo eucalipto entre as idades. O modelo II mostrou que o estoque de N no solo pode ser suficiente para quatro a cinco rotações de cinco anos. Pelo balanço de N, o estoque de N seria suficiente para suprir a demanda desse nutriente pelo eucalipto por mais de 15 rotações de cinco anos. As reservas orgânicas contribuem para o fornecimento de N em diferentes magnitudes e, em conjunto, são suficientes para atender à demanda de N pelo eucalipto por várias rotações de cultivo. Abstract in english An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N) pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the so [...] il-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years). Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N); Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance) was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm) and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.

  17. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations Balanço de N em solos sob plantações de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years. Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N; Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.O entendimento da participação de reservas orgânicas de N no suprimento de plantações de eucalipto é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que maximizem a eficiência no uso de N por essa cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de reservas orgânicas de N em diferentes compartimentos no sistema solo-planta e a contribuição desses compartimentos no suprimento de N em plantações de eucalipto em diferentes idades de cultivo (1, 3, 5 e 13 anos. Para estimar a contribuição das reservas orgânicas, foram empregados três modelos: o modelo I considerou os estoques do N contido na serapilheira e na biomassa microbiana do solo e o N disponível no solo (N mineral; o modelo II considerou os estoques de N no solo, o N potencialmente mineralizável e a exportação de N na colheita da madeira; e o modelo III (balanço de N foi definido pela diferença entre o estoque inicial de N no solo (0-10 cm e a exportação de N, somada a uma aplicação de fertilizante nitrogenado. O modelo I mostrou que as reservas de N poderiam suprir de 27 a 70 % da demanda de N pelo eucalipto entre as idades. O modelo II mostrou que o estoque de N no solo pode ser suficiente para quatro a cinco rotações de cinco anos. Pelo balanço de N, o estoque de N seria suficiente para suprir a demanda desse nutriente pelo eucalipto por mais de 15 rotações de cinco anos. As reservas orgânicas contribuem para o fornecimento de N em diferentes magnitudes e, em conjunto, são suficientes para atender à demanda de N pelo eucalipto por várias rotações de cultivo.

  18. Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    D. Dzaba; D. Nganga; L. Moundzeo; J. Pandzou

    2011-01-01

    This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E). The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane...

  19. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality.

  20. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (?B(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ?B(w)/ANPP and ?B(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ?B(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by a 15% lower GPP and by a 15% lower fraction of GPP allocated to wood growth, thus partially supporting our second hypothesis: mixing the two species led to shifts in C allocations from above- to belowground, and from growth to litter production, for both species. PMID:22588515

  1. Photodegradation of pesticides in float system effluent from tobacco plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. de C. de S., Schneider; B. V., Trolli; M. da S., Mazuim; G., Hauch; N. de M., Baccar; E. L., Machado.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several crops can generate liquid effluent containing pesticide residues. In the region of the Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brazil, one type of effluent results from the float system used in the tobacco seedling plantation. This system is an alternative that substitutes for the conventional seedbeds of to [...] bacco production. The tobacco is germinated on polystyrene tray beds on a water blade that may contain pesticides residues following the transplant of seedlings to the farm. In this paper, we have simulated in the laboratory, the photo-degradation of the pesticides present in the effluent of the float system, including the pesticides metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid. Photolysis and photoperoxidation were the methods used. The experiments were performed with a mercury vapor light bulb of 80, 125 and 250 W. The obtained results show that the photodegradation of the metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid in an optimized system presents considerable reproducibility and high degradation, requiring less time.

  2. Crown structure of Picea omorika trees in the plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsti? M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Serbian spruce (Picea omorika Pan?/Purkyn? plantations in the western Serbia. The paper presents results of the analysis of crown development. The following elements were analyzed: total tree height, height of the crown base, absolute and relative crown length, maximal crown diameter, coefficient of crown spreading and degree of crown girth. We discuss approaches to the modeling of tree crown growth and development, growing under favorable environmental and stand conditions, without anomalies in development. In order to establish the relationship between analyzed factors, regression analyses were applied. Data fitting was by the analytic method, by the implementation of Prodan’s functions of growth, linear and parabolic function. Received models can be used for the simulation of various growth and developing processes in forest.

  3. PLUM PLANTATION VALUE BASED ON REAL OPTION CONTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lari Hadelan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to stress the modern methods of project value analysis based on valuation of opportunities emerged during the project’s life. Traditional appraisal methodology can hardly incorporate option value and quantify management flexibility. Therefore, traditional investment appraisal should be completed with option value evaluation (Real Option. The appliance of option quantification is showed on a model of plum and plum brandy production as an extension activity. Results of traditional NPV analysis for 1 ha of plum production imply to be unacceptable. On the other hand, economic analysis of extended plum brandy production indicates high profitability. It implies that plum plantation has an option calculated using Black-Scholes and Binomial model. Plum production strategic NPV that includes option value is in this case 2 950.54 EUR indicating acceptability of investment.

  4. Nutrient losses in forest plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic nutrients are lost from terrestrial ecosystems through the harvesting of plant products, leaching, soil erosion and volatilization of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. In this study, carried out in a tropical rain forest ecosystem in Sabah, Malaysia, losses of inorganic nutrients through log removal and runoff/leaching to stream water were compared in clear-fellings, harvested and prepared for planting in two different ways: (i) tractor logging/burning; (ii) and manual logging/no burning. The major findings of the study were that nutrient losses in stream water were reduced by 50% and growth of the planted forest was twice as fast on the catchment where soil disturbance was minimized and burning not used. Weeds were more abundant after burning, and the extra weeding needed increased costs for plantation establishment. Ways of decreasing the loss of inorganic nutrients when clear-felling tropical rain forests are discussed. 32 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Caractérisation des plantations privées de teck (Tectona grandis L.f.) du département de l'Atlantique au Sud-Bénin

    OpenAIRE

    Atindogbe, G.; Fonton, NH.; Fandohan, B.; Lejeune, P

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of private teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in the Atlantic Department of South Benin. Teak plantations are an undeniable asset, representing socio-economic and environmental importance in South Benin. Plantation owners see teak as an asset, enabling them to supplement their income through timber production and sales. Sustainable management of teak plantations requires a high level of knowledge and understanding of the resource by plantation owners. The snowball sampli...

  6. Wood pellets : a worldwide fuel commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspects of the wood pellet industry were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Details of wood pellets specifications were presented, and the wood pellet manufacturing process was outlined. An overview of research and development activities for wood pellets was presented, and issues concerning quality control were discussed. A chart of the effective calorific value of various fuels was provided. Data for wood pellet mill production in Canada, the United States and the European Union were provided, and various markets for Canadian wood pellets were evaluated. Residential sales as well as Canadian overseas exports were reviewed. Production revenues for British Columbia and Alberta were provided. Wood pellet heat and electricity production were discussed with reference to prefabricated boilers, stoves and fireplaces. Consumption rates, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and fuel ratios for wood pellets and fossil fuels were compared. Price regulating policies for electricity and fossil fuels have prevented the domestic expansion of the wood pellet industry. There are currently no incentives for advanced biomass combustion to enter British Columbia markets, and this has led to the export of wood pellets. It was concluded that climate change mitigation policies will be a driving force behind market expansion for wood pellets. tabs., figs

  7. Why Simulate a Sample of Recycled Wood?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Bouslamti; M.A, Irle; Belloncle, C; V, Salvador; M, Bondu; S, Hulo; B, Caron.

    Full Text Available Wood products follow the same cycle as other materials: manufacture, use and disposal. For certain applications, chemical additives are added to wood to increase its durability against biological and physical attack. At the end of life, waste wood is chipped or crushed before being recovered as raw [...] material for new products or as fuel for energy. In recycled wood, there is the potential that some wood particles are contaminated by hazardous substances, such as organic or heavy metal preservatives. Therefore there is a need for a quality control method of assessing recovered wood that is on the one hand sufficiently precise and on the other not too expensive to preclude the use of recycling wood in to new products. This paper covers some preliminary research that is part of a large study that aims to develop a robust analytical method for recovered wood. However the extreme variability of recovered wood makes it difficult to develop such protocols on real recovered wood samples. Consequently, model chip piles with known contamination levels were created to simulate real world recovered wood samples.

  8. Why Simulate a Sample of Recycled Wood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bouslamti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood products follow the same cycle as other materials: manufacture, use and disposal. For certain applications, chemical additives are added to wood to increase its durability against biological and physical attack. At the end of life, waste wood is chipped or crushed before being recovered as raw material for new products or as fuel for energy. In recycled wood, there is the potential that some wood particles are contaminated by hazardous substances, such as organic or heavy metal preservatives. Therefore there is a need for a quality control method of assessing recovered wood that is on the one hand sufficiently precise and on the other not too expensive to preclude the use of recycling wood in to new products. This paper covers some preliminary research that is part of a large study that aims to develop a robust analytical method for recovered wood. However the extreme variability of recovered wood makes it difficult to develop such protocols on real recovered wood samples. Consequently, model chip piles with known contamination levels were created to simulate real world recovered wood samples.

  9. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment rate fully comparable to a tertiary effluent quality with regard to biodegradable organic material and eutrophying nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Introductory analyses of the costs of a wastewater irrigated willow plantation for bio-fuel production indicate that the benefits of the wastewater treatment per se appear to be greater than the benefits from the increased production of wood chips. The risks of contamination via faecal micro-organisms of animals and humans seem possible to reduce or eliminate if proper precautions are taken. The awareness of the hygienic aspects is among the most important issues to deal with concerning the public acceptance. The gathered opinion from the members of the multidisciplinary project team is that the concept of recycling wastewater or fractions of wastewater within willow plantations for combined energy production and wastewater treatment would be worth developing on a wider scale. Experiences from a few full-scale facilities in Sweden are well in accordance with the findings outlined here. The fact that wastewater could be treated at reasonable costs might encourage the municipal sector as well as the energy and agricultural industry in Europe to further expand the concept with increased willow plantation areas as a consequence. This would increase the opportunities for an over all better environment for generations to come.

  10. Wood-burning on the offensive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of fire, people all over the world have been using bio energy in the form of wood. Today bio energy is available as wood, bark, chips, pellets, wood briquettes, straw, 'energy grass', waste, biogas s (from manure), landfill gas (from dump sites), alcohols and bio diesel. In Norway, bio energy is mostly used for heating. This is because of the availability of hydroelectric power, which is rather used for mechanical energy. No less than 25 per cent of Norwegian homes are using wood-burning as their most important energy source. More than 800 000 wood-burning stoves are in use in Norway and wood-burning for heating has increased during the last years. In many countries strict environmental requirements are imposed on the waste gases from wood-burning. As is discussed in this article, much work has been done to increase the efficiency of the stoves and to reduce their emissions. Economical considerations are also given

  11. Characteristics of Wood ASH/OPC Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ABDULLAHI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the behaviour of wood ash / OPC concrete. Chemical analysis of wood ash, bulk density, sieve analysis and specific gravity of wood ash and aggregates, consistency, setting time and slump test of the fresh paste were conducted to determine the suitability of the materials for concrete making. Mix ratio of 1:2:4 and percentage replacement level of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 percents of cement by wood ash were used. 150mm´150mm cubes were cast, cured and crushed at 28 and 60 days to determine their compressive strength. Test result indicates that the wood ash is slightly pozzolanic, water demand increases as the ash content increases and the setting time of the paste increases as the ash content increases. Compressive strength of wood ash / OPC concrete it increases with age at curing with optimum replacement of cement by wood ash of 20%.

  12. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognouabi Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs. In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13 had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%. The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR, a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits.

  13. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008. The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in eastern Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology 132, 306-314. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approach. Catena 85, 231-236. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F., Bodi, M.B. 2009. Effects of ants on water and soil losses from organically-managed citrus orchards in eastern Spain. Biologia 64, 527-531. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009b. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34, 1822-1830. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 117-123. 10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A.,Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., Caravaca. F. 2010. Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research 109, 110-115. 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005. García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28, 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a Spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) in Northern Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development 24, 188-204. DOI 10

  14. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellets of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  15. Variation in Wood Properties and Growth in Some Clones of <i>Populus deltoides</i> Bartr. ex Marsh

    OpenAIRE

    Pande, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with within ramet radial, intra- and inter-clonal variations in the wood element’s dimensions and specific gravity of 10 clones of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. The growth parameters namely ramet height and DBH were also considered for the study. Study material was collected from the 10 clones of Populus deltoids raised by WIMCO Plantations Ltd. at Rudrapur (Udhamsingh Nagar), India. Three clones were parent viz. G48, S7C8 (female) and G3 (male). Other clones re...

  16. Thermal Conductivity Coefficients of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

    OpenAIRE

    O?rs, Yalc??n

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the thermal conductivity coefficient of wooden material is needed in many fields of application. It this study, the thermal conductivity coefficients of the woods of cedrus (cedrus libani a.Richard), fir (Abies cornmulleriana Mattf.), Populus nigra (Populus tremula L.), and beech (Fagus orientalis lipsky), the wooden materials most widely used in our country in furniture, decoration and construction have been determined in 12% moisture and saturated conditions for the differ...

  17. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  18. The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody R. Stallings

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

  19. A note on 18th- and 19th-century plantation inventories from Martinique

    OpenAIRE

    Myriam Cottias

    1990-01-01

    Exploration of Martiniquan slave inventories in the 18th and 19th centuries. The author shows that each plantation had its own mode of classifying slaves: by age, by age and sex, by family groups or following some other order.

  20. Redistribution of the solar radiation and the rain inside of coffee plantations (Arabic Coffea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following review presents a series of studies on microclimates of non-shaded and shaded conditions of coffee plantations (Coffea arabica L.) in Colombia. Likewise, The redistribution of solar radiation and the temperature, as well as the energy balance, of the coffee plant and the crop are described. The results on the components of water balance and transport of nutrients within the coffee plantations are reported

  1. Depletion of soil organic carbon and nitrogen under Pinus taeda plantations in Southern Brazilian grasslands (Campos)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesmeier, M.; Dick, D. P.; Rumpel, C.; Dalmolin, R. S. D.; Hilscher, Andre?; Knicker, Heike

    2009-01-01

    Establishment of pine (Pinus spp.) plantations on grasslands could increase carbon (C) sequestration to counteract increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the grasslands of the southern Brazilian highland (Campos), large areas have been converted to Pinus plantations over the last 30 years. In order to assess the impact of this land-use change on the amount and composition of soil organic matter (SOM), we investigated a grassland pasture site (G), and both an 8-year-old (P8) a...

  2. Estimation and economic evaluation of aboveground carbon storage of Tectona grandis plantations in Western Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Derwisch, Sebastian; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Olschewski, Roland; Hölscher, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Tropical tree plantations may play an important role in mitigating CO2 emissions through their potential to capture and sequester carbon from the atmosphere. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as well as voluntary initiatives provide economic incentives for afforestation and reforestation efforts through the generation and sale of carbon credits. The objectives of our study were to measure the carbon (C) storage potential of 1, 2 and 10-years old Tectona grandis plantations in the provinc...

  3. Woody species recruitment under monospecific plantations of pioneer trees - facilitation or inhibition?

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade DFV; Coelho GC

    2012-01-01

    The successional model of forest restoration is based on the facilitation process, in which the establishment of pioneer tree species favors the late successional tree species. We tested the hypothesis of facilitation through a case study, comparing tree species diversity in the understory of two Neotropical native tree species plantations, Trema micrantha (L.) Blüme (Cannabaceae) and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae). Results obtained under the plantations were compared with an adjacent ...

  4. Characteristics of Soil Fauna Communities and Habitat in Small-Holder Cocoa Plantation in South Konawe

    OpenAIRE

    Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid; Tati Suryati Syamsudin; Franciscus Xaverius Susilo; Endah Sulistyawati; Hasbullah Syaf

    2013-01-01

    The composition of soil fauna community have played an important role in regulating decomposition and nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystems (include cocoa plantation). Changes in food availability and conditions in the soil habitat can affect the abundance and diversity of soil fauna. This study aimed: (i) to analyze the pattern of changes in soil fauna community composition and characteristic of soil habitat based on the increasing age of cocoa plantation, and (ii) to identify taxa of soil fau...

  5. Phosphorus cycling in fast growing forest plantations: availability, plant uptake and the role of forest floor

    OpenAIRE

    Romanyà i Socoró, Joan

    1993-01-01

    [eng] The research reported in this thesis focuses on studying the effects of naturally occurring mycorrhiza and the role of forest floor in the cycling of P in fast growing forest plantations. In order to study the effects of mycorrhizae on forest soils fertility and the subsequent seedling growth response, radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) seedlings were grown in pots using the soil collected from a mature (23 year old) radiata pine plantation. The experiment was arranged in a two factor ...

  6. Can Management Improve the Value of Shade Plantations for the Endemic Species of Sao Tome Island?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lima, Ricardo F.; Viegas, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa and coffee are among the most valuable tropical crops, with much of their production in areas of high biodiversity. Although this could suggest a conflict between agricultural expansion and biodiversity conservation, these crops are normally grown in shade plantations—a more biodiversity-friendly agroforestry system. Using São Tomé Island as a case study, we examined if shade plantation can benefit biodiversity by protecting extinction-prone island endemic species. We found that shade plantations held rich assemblages, even in comparison with forest: we estimated 30 bird and 74 tree species occurring in plantations compared to 24 bird and 108 tree species in forests. However, the structure of the assemblages was significantly different between ecosystems, with an average dissimilarity of 33.8 percent and 87.9 percent for birds and trees, respectively. Shade plantations had consistently less endemic species than the forest; we estimated a drop from 17 to 13 in birds and from 17 to 3 in trees. We also found that despite marked differences in the response of bird species to the vegetation characteristics of shade plantations, there was a strong positive link between aboveground tree biomass and endemic species richness and abundance. These results show that shade plantations hold assemblages impoverished in endemic species, but that management can improve their value for the conservation of these species. Finally, we suggest that biodiversity-friendly certification and carbon markets are used to implement and guarantee the long-term economical sustainability of practices that favor the endemic species in São Tomé's shade plantations.

  7. Rehabilitation of monotonous exotic coniferous plantations: A case study of spontaneous establishment of different tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Jona?sova?, M.; Hees, A. F. M.; Prach, K.

    2006-01-01

    Conversion of plantations of exotic coniferous species, such as Norway spruce (Picea abies), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), into more natural woodland is intended in two national parks in the province of Drenthe, The Netherlands. For that purpose, artificial gaps in the plantations were made and natural regeneration of both indigenous and exotic species was investigated. A total of 87 sample plots were analysed, each 100 m2 in size, and located under ...

  8. Vital status of trees plantations of the Shevchenko park in Zaporizhzhya city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Yalovenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The tree plantation’s vital status of the Shevchenko Park in Zaporizhzhya city was estimated according to N. P. Krasinsky’s method modified by Y. Z. Kulagin. The vitality of individual plants and stands as a whole was assessed according to V. A. Alekseev. The growth class of tree stands and the influence of the age class on the forest capacity class were determined. The defectiveness of tree stems in the park was estimated.

  9. Effect of water and nutrient supply on root distribution in an Eucalyptus globulus plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabião, António; Madeira, M.; Steen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Water and nutrients were supplied to an Eucalyptus globulus plantation in a controlled experiment in west central Portugal. The trees were planted in a sandy soil at a spacing of 3x3 m. The experiment consisted of four treatments: irrigation, irrigation plus fertilization, fertilization without irrigation, and a rain fed and unfertilized control. The quantification of root biomass was carried out 13 mo after planting. When the plantation was 31 mo old, a trench was dug in the soil touncover t...

  10. An Assessment of Tree Plantation Activity among Smallholders in the District of Ranau, Sabah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lintangah

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the tree plantation activity among smallholders in the District of Ranau, Sabah. There were six range areas involved, namely Kundasang, Randagong, Nalapak, Lohan-Bongkud, Timbua and Perancangan. The objectives of the study have been to identify the type of tree species planted, the distribution of tree plantation areas, the planting practiced, and the perception of small holders towards tree plantation activity. Data were gathered by direct observation, interviews, questionnaire, as well as secondary data, which were collected from related agencies such as the Agricultural Department and the Rubber Industrial Board in Ranau. There were 47 observations of plantation areas recorded, and the farmers involved were interviewed. The study has identified that Hevea brasiliensis and Durio zibethinus of the agriculture crops' tree were the most types planted by the small holders. Species planted under the category of other selected plantation trees were Acacia sp. (40 %, Tectona grandis (29 %, Pinus sp. (18 %, Azadirachta excels, Neolamarckia cadamba, Octomeles sumatrana and Eucalyptus sp.(13 %. The species of Acacia sp., Tectona grandis, Octomeles sumatrana and Eucalyptus sp. were found at Randagong, Lohan-Bongkud, Timbua and Perancangan while Pinus sp. was mainly found at Kundasang. Azadirachta excelsa, Neolamarckia cadamba and Octomeles sumatrana were only found at Timbua, Lohan and Nalapak. The study has also revealed that the tree plantations among the small holders in Ranau were influenced by land areas owned by the farmer, and the willingness to wait for the long term outcome of the investment. Integrated planting among trees and various crops was applied in order to maximize the usage of the available land. The tree plantation under the category of agriculture crops was mainly for the purpose of economic income, while other selected plantation trees were cultivated for landscaping, long term investment and also for soil protection.

  11. Soil carbon stocks decrease following conversion of secondary forests to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha(-1) in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha(-1) to an increase of 8 Mg C ha(-1). In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes. PMID:23894456

  12. Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) Plantations Provide Additional Habitats for Vascular Plant Species in Agricultural Mosaic Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Sarah; Bolte, Andreas; Weih, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Increasing loss of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes is often debated in the bioenergy context, especially with respect to non-traditional crops that can be grown for energy production in the future. As promising renewable energy source and additional landscape element, the potential role of short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations to biodiversity is of great interest. We studied plant species richness in eight landscapes (225 km2) containing willow and poplar SRC plantations (1,600 m2)...

  13. Wood Waste Derived Fuel: State of the Ard and Development Prospects in France : Focus on Construction and Demolition Wood Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Wood wastes are mainly originated from forestry, wood industry and construction and demolition sites activities. Among them, three types of wood waste can be identified: untreated wood waste (raw wood considered as biomass), slightly treated wood wastes (issued from coating or gluing treatments) and highly treated wood wastes (issued from impregnation treatments with CCA and creosote, and considered as hazardous wastes).  According to the regulation, management of wastes in Europe is oriente...

  14. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  15. Investigation of diverse leaf-wood and coniferous wood regardin their usability for the production of wood-plastic-combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By impregnation with an acrylic monomer mixture and by polymerization with gamma radiation wood-plastic combinations with high dimensional stability have been made from 34 wood species. Data for monomer uptake, density, hardness, impact bending, swelling by volume and weight, and weatherability are presented. Furthermore the attempt of an aesthetic evaluation of the wood-plastic combinations has been made. The optical impression has been compared with the technological behaviour. As a result several wood species turned out to be especially suitable for the production of wood-plastic combinations of high quality. These woods are ramin, lime, abachi, walnut, bubinga, niangon and mutenye, with some restrictions also spruce, okoume, corola pine and dibetou. (author)

  16. Examining Young's modulus for wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetry considerations, dimensional analysis and simple approximations are used to derive a formula for Young's modulus of a simple anisotropic system, a straight-layer wood bar whose fibre axis makes an angle with respect to the bar's longitudinal axis. Agreement between the derived formula and experiment (carried out in far from ideal conditions) is within 10%. Improvements and extensions are suggested for this undergraduate physics experiment

  17. Palm Kernel based Wood Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake is a by-product of palm kernel oil industry. The production of palm kernel cake is more than 5000 million tons annually in the past few years. This quantity is expected to rise further in the future due to production of bio-diesel. Currently palm kernel cake is used for animal feed supplement such as cattle and goat. Due to indigestible compounds in palm kernel cake, it is less suitable for animals such as poultry, fish and swine. However palm kernel cake contains about 20% protein, with this protein composition palm kernel cake can be used as ingredient of protein based resin. Unlike soya bean which contain higher protein composition and can be used directly as ingredient of protein based resin, palm kernel cake require protein enhancement before it can be used for this purposes. In this study, wood adhesive was produced using palm kernel cake with protein content enhancement as a base ingredient. Soya protein extract was selected as a protein enhancement of palm kernel cake. Here the enhanced protein content palm kernel cake was reacted with polyetheleneimine and maleic anhydride at alkali environment. The experimental study was conducted at various compositions and various strength of alkali. The wood adhesive produced was tested on type II plywood. Japanese Agriculture Standard of strength and durability test was employed for the characterization of the adhesive produced. Results show that, palm kernel cake can be used as ingredient of protein based wood adhesive. In certain condition the mixture of palm kernel and soya protein show that the wood adhesive produced better strength and reliability compared to unmixed soya protein extract.

  18. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux...

  19. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  20. Isolation of lignin from wood

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis was to know well the different lignin isolation methods from various wood species and black liquor, and then the lignin obtained was identified by spectrophotometric methods which were UV and FTIR spectroscopy, to analyze and compare the physical and chemical properties of lignin, such as lignin content and color with different pH values, and their chemical structures, etc. The experimental part of this study was performed in the laboratory of Saimaa...

  1. Evaluation of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Poplar Plantations in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil physical and chemical properties and some quantitative characteristics of Populus deltoides Marsh (clone 79.51 plantations and relationships between them were evaluated in Guilan plain of north of Iran. Two same aged poplar plantations with low and high qualities were selected. In each poplar plantation, fifteen sample plots with systematic sampling method were selected. In each sample plot diameter at breast height (DBH as well as height of all trees within them was determined. Soil samples were taken from 0-20cm in each plot and soil texture, water holding capacity (WHC, bulk density (B.D and particle density (P.D as well as soil porosity, O.C, N, available P and exchangeable K were determined for each soil sample in laboratory. Tree data and soil properties between two plantations were analysed using independent samples t-test (Student’s t test at p < 0.05. The results showed that among soil physical properties, percentage of clay, sand, B.D and WHC and amongst soil chemical properties O.C, N, available P and exchangeable K were significantly different between two plantations. Heavy textured soils with high B.D are undesirable for growing of populus deltoides in study area. The results also indicated that poor quality plantations has negative effect on soil nutrient and reduces its fertility. Reduction of nutrient availability had negative effects on quantity and quality of poplar trees.

  2. Carbon stock of oil palm plantations and tropical forests in Malaysia : A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kho, Lip Khoon; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, the main land change process is the establishment of oil palm plantations on logged-over forests and areas used for shifting cultivation, which is the traditional farming system. While standing carbon stocks of old-growth forest have been the focus of many studies, this is less the case for Malaysian fallow systems and oil palm plantations. Here, we collate and analyse Malaysian datasets on total carbon stocks for both above- and below-ground biomass. We review the current knowledge on standing carbon stocks of 1) different forest ecosystems, 2) areas subject to shifting cultivation (fallow forests) and 3) oil palm plantations. The forest ecosystems are classified by successional stage and edaphic conditions and represent samples along a forest succession continuum spanning pioneer species in shifting cultivation fallows to climax vegetation in old-growth forests. Total carbon stocks in tropical forests range from 4 to 384MgC/ha, significantly wider than the range of total carbon stocks of oil palm plantations, 2 to 60MgC/ha. Conversion of old-growth forest areas to oil palm plantations leads to substantial reduction in carbon storage, while conversion of forest fallows to oil palm plantations may sustain or even increase the standing carbon stock.

  3. Avian species diversity in oil palm plantations of Agusan Del Sur and Compostela Valley, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly M. Cagod

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm trees have become the most expanding equatorial crops in the world and theirproduct, palm oil, is produced, traded and used more than any other vegetable oil worldwide. Theexpansion of oil palm cultivation, however, is frequently cited as a major factor causing deforestationthat may result in biodiversity losses in tropical countries. In this study, an assessment of the avifaunain oil palm plantations in Agusan del Sur and Compostela Valley, Mindanao, Philippines was done fromApril 2010 to July 2010. Sampling sites were categorized based on the age/growth of palm trees. Linetransect method, mist netting and birdwatching were used to gather data on avifauna. Eighty-eightspecies were recorded. Species richness, abundance, and number of endemic species were also recordedto be higher in mature plantations than in young plantations. A significant difference was noted in birdabundance found in the different age groups of oil palm plantations in Agusan del Sur. Thirty-oneendemic species were recorded, one of which is Mindanao endemic. Three vulnerable species,Gallicolumba criniger (Mindanao bleeding-heart, Alcedo argentata (silvery kingfisher and Ficedulabasilanica (little slaty flycatcher were recorded both in the young and mature plantations. TheAethopyga primigenius (grey-hooded sunbird, a near threatened species was recorded in matureplantations only. The presence of these vulnerable species in all study sites indicates the need to protectthe degraded secondary residual forest and forest patches along the plantation.

  4. System analysis of a bio-energy plantation: full greenhouse gas balance and energy accounting (POPFULL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Berhongaray, G.; Broeckx, L.; De Groote, T.; ElKasmioui, O.; Fichot, R.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Verlinden, M.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    In recent year the environmental impact of fossil fuels and their reduced availability are leading to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources, among them bio-energy. However, the cost/benefit in establishing, managing, and using these plantations for energy production should be quantified together with their environmental impact. In this project we are performing a full life cycle analysis (LCA) balance of the most important greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O and O3), together with full energy accounting of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with fast-growing trees. We established the plantation two years ago and we have been monitoring net fluxes of CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, in combination with biomass pools (incl. soil) and fluxes, and volatile organic carbon (VOCs). This poplar plantation will be monitored for another two years then harvested and transformed into bio-energy. For the energy accounting we are performing a life cycle analysis and energy efficiency assessments over the entire cycle of the plantation until the production of electricity and heat. Here we present an overview of the results from the first two years from the plantation establishment, and some of the projections based on these first results.

  5. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  6. Carbon sequestration via wood burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 +/- 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  7. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  8. Extraction of chromium, copper, and arsenic from CCA-treated wood by using wood vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Ahn, Byoung Jun; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, wood vinegar was used to extract chromium, copper, and arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The extraction efficiency for CCA elements was evaluated using various concentrations of wood vinegar, extraction temperatures, and extraction periods. The extraction efficiency for CCA elements increased with increasing the concentration of wood vinegar and the extraction conditions, resulting in maximal removal rate of copper (95.7%), followed by arsenic (92.7%) and chromium (86.3%). Since wood vinegar afforded high levels of copper extraction, its use was extended to copper-based preservative-treated wood, wherein significant extraction of copper up to 97.6% and 95.7% was obtained from alkaline copper quats (ACQ)- and copper azole (CuAz)-treated sawdust, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the application of wood vinegar for the extraction of metal elements from CCA-treated wood. PMID:22781144

  9. Cold-atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour for improved wood plastics composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekobou, William; Pedrow, Patrick; Englund, Karl; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2009-10-01

    Plastic composites have become a large class of construction material for exterior applications. One of the main disadvantages of wood plastic composites resides in the weak adhesion between the polar and hydrophilic surface of wood and the non-polar and hydrophobic polyolefin matrix, hindering the dispersion of the flour in the polymer matrix. To improve interfacial compatibility wood flour can be pretreated with environmentally friendly methods such as cold-atmospheric pressure plasma. The objective of this work is therefore to evaluate the potential of plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour to improve the compatibility with polyolefins. This presentation will describe the reactor design used to modify wood flour using acetylene plasma polymerization. The optimum conditions for plasma polymerization on wood particles will also be presented. Finally preliminary results on the wood flour surface properties and use in wood plastic composites will be discussed.

  10. Degradation of lime wood painting supports

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Maria Popescu; Yusaku Sakata; Mihaela Carmen Popescu; Akioshi Osaka; Cornelia Vasile

    2005-01-01

    Degradation of wood, being a natural process, leads to destruction of wooden objects of historic and cultural value, resulting in loss of cultural heritage. Wood can survive centuries or even thousands of years, if kept in an environment, which limits microbial activity. In an unfavourable environment physical, chemical and morphological modifications of wood also take place as a result of biodegradation. It is important to know the type of degradation and how the processes influence material...

  11. Identification of beetles attacking wood during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Taskirawati, Ira; Arif, Astuti; Patimah

    2011-01-01

    several timber trading businesses located in Bantaeng, South Sulawesi. The attacked beetle species were identified according to their morphology and the condition of attacked woods including form, frass, tunnels and bored holes. Results showed that there were 12 families of beetles attacking different wood species at the research sites. Among them, eight families were identified as wood destroying beetles. They were Lyctidae attacking Vatica spp, Paraserianthes falcataria, Anis...

  12. Non destructive Control tool for wood traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentealba, Cecilia; Choffel, Denise; Charpentier, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The concept of traceability is defined according to the standard ISO 8402 like “the ability for the retrieval of the history and use or location of an article or an activity through a registered identification”. Their implementation in the wood industry is delayed because of the limits of classical automatic identification systems in regard to the nature of wood and the features of the manufacturing processes. This paper presents a new solution for the wood products identification. This i...

  13. Anisotropy of wood in the microwave region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood is transparent for microwaves and due to its anisotropic structure has anisotropic dielectric properties. A laboratory experiment that allows for the qualitative demonstration and quantitative measurements of linear dichroism and birefringence in the microwave region is presented. As the proposed experiments are based on the anisotropy (of wood), which is evident from the observable anisotropic structure of wood, they may serve as a demonstration for explaining the anisotropic properties in crystals in the optical region.

  14. Study of wood polymer combinations for various woods of Kashmir - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the studies conducted to upgrade inferior woods in Kashmir by the method of radiation polymerisation. The normal qualities of wood are retained and modifications brought about in unfavourable properties such as softness, dimensional instability, hygroscopicity and compressibility. Various changes in properties of wood after the modifications are discussed. It is shown that 50% of polymer content in wood considerably improves the physical and mechanical properties. (author)

  15. Extraction of oil palm plantations on the undulating terrains in the Borneo using PALSAR Global Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Y.; Ishii, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Nagai, S.; Suzuki, R.

    2013-12-01

    Conversions of forests and peat swamps into oil palm plantations might cause decrease of net ecosystem production, change of water stream and loss of biodiversity. Most of the oil plantations in the South East Asia have been expanded in the past decade. For monitoring the distribution and condition of these plantations, the PALSAR Global Mosaic data set (PGM) have been utilized. This PGM is one of the L-Band Synthetic Aparture Radar (SAR) data sets orthorectified and mosaicked (unified). Unlike optical satellite imagery, the L-band SAR is useful especially for cloudy tropic regions. In addition, PGM have high resolution (about 10 m) and contains cross polarization (HV) SAR data which is useful for observation of forest because cross polarization SAR data contain data of the volume scattering which reflect the volume of plant bodies. On the other hand, topographic effect in PGM is not reduced sufficiently because of low resolution of DEM utilized to make PGM. As a result, pixel value of PGM is affected by the highlight effect especially in undulating terrains. These undulating terrains consist of rises which have about 10m height, exist in about 100m horizontal interval and cause striped patterns on SAR images. These patterns result in difficulty in extracting oil palm plantation using SAR imagery in the undulating terrains. However, many papers extracting oil palm plantations didn't show the accuracy of distributions extracted as oil palm plantation in the undulating terrains and thus it isn't clear how well oil palm plantations on the undulating terrains can be extracted. In this study, we carried out a supervised classification and extracted oil palm plantations in the north-west of Borneo Island. The Island is a part of the South East Asia and contains undulating terrains. In this extraction, we used the PGM data, a learning model and the training data made from PGM data, aerial photograph, high resolution optical satellite data and field survey data. After extraction, we assessed accuracy of the area extracted as oil palm plantations on undulating terrains using land cover maps made from high resolution aerial photo graph, optical satellite imagery and field survey data. In addition, we discussed the distribution of each land covers in a feature space (scatter diagram for many types of values such as pixel value and filtered pixel value which belong to each land covers) and discussed the structure of the learning model for extraction. As a result, we confirmed that the oil palm plantations on the undulating terrains can be extracted with high accuracy when PGM is used.

  16. Effects of Converting Secondary Forest on Peat to Oil Palm Plantation on Carbon Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chng H. Ywih

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Peat has been identified as one of the major groups of soils found in Malaysia. Sarawak as the largest state in Malaysia has the biggest reserve of peat-land. There are about 1.5 million ha of peat-land in Sarawak, which are relatively under developed. As is the case with any plant, oil palm trees do sequester carbon as they grow. Nevertheless, the process of clearing forest in order to establish a plantation may release more carbon. The carbon losses may be greater when the plantation established on peat-land, which store vast amounts of carbon but release it as they are drained. Little study has been done on the comparison of soil organic matter, soil organic carbon and yield of humic acids when secondary forest on peat soil is converted to oil palm plantation. The objectives of this study were to: (i Quantify Soil Organic Matter (SOM, Soil Organic Carbon (SOC, Humic Acids (HA and stable carbon upon the conversion of secondary forest on peat to different ages of oil palm plantation and (ii Compare carbon sequestration of a secondary forest with different ages of oil palm plantation. Approach: Soil samples were collected from the secondary forest, 1, 3, 4 and 5 year old oil palm plantation at the Tatau district. Ten samples were taken at random with a peat auger at 0-25 and 25-50 cm depths. The bulk densities at these depths were determined by the coring method. The bulk density method was used to quantify the total carbon, total organic carbon, total organic matter, total nitrogen, humic acids and stable carbon at the stated sampling depths on per hectare basis. Results: There were no significant differences in the amounts of stable C of both secondary forest and different ages of oil palm plantations at 0-25 and 25-50 cm. The amounts of stable C of secondary forest, 1, 3, 4 and 5 year old oil palm plantation at the depth of 0-25 cm were generally higher than those in the 25-50 cm although there were no significant differences between the depths. This was attributed to higher yield of HA in the secondary forest, 1, 3, 4 and 5 year old oil palm plantation soil partly due to better humification at the depth of 0-25 cm. Conclusion: Conversion of secondary forest on peat to initial stages of oil palm plantation did not exert any differences in the amount of C sequestered.

  17. Diversidad de termitas (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae en plantaciones de caucho en Puerto López (Meta, Colombia Diversity of termites (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae in rubber-tree plantations in Puerto López (Meta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Patricia PINZÓN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron la diversidad y la abundancia relativa de termitas en asociación con plantaciones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis de diferentes edades en un núcleo forestal de la altillanura bien drenada de los Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta. Se muestrearon tres edades de plantación en dos épocas climáticas: lluviosa de 2009 (mayo, julio y seca de 2010 (febrero, marzo, utilizando el método de transecto con modificaciones. Se encontraron 10 especies pertenecientes a las familias Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae y Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae. La diversidad de termitas en plantaciones de caucho mayores a dos años fue predominantemente xilófaga y humívora siendo Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus y Grigiotermes sp. las especies con mayor frecuencia. La diversidad y abundancia de termitas xilófagas en asociación con el cultivo del caucho fue favorecida por la disponibilidad de recursos en las plantaciones de mayor desarrollo pero en ningún caso se observó actividad dañina sobre el cultivo. Los resultados sugieren un papel importante de H. convexinotatus en el reciclaje de residuos de madera, especialmente, en los rodales de mayor edad.The diversity and relative abundance of termites in association with rubber-tree (Hevea brasiliensis plantations was estimated for different aged stands in well-drained plateau in the Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta. Three plantation ages were surveyed in two climate seasons: rainy in 2009 (May, June and dry in 2010 (February, March, using the transect method with modifications. Ten species were found belonging to the families Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae and Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae. Termite diversity in rubber plantations older than two years was predominately xylophagous and saprophagous, with Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus and Grigiotermes sp. being the most common species. The diversity and abundance of xylophagous termites in association with rubber trees was favored by the availability of resources in the more well developed plantations, but in no case was any damaging activity observed in the crop. The results suggest an important role for H. convexinotatus in the recycling of wood residues, especially in the older tree plantations.

  18. Diversidad de termitas (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae) en plantaciones de caucho en Puerto López (Meta, Colombia) / Diversity of termites (Isoptera: Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae) in rubber-tree plantations in Puerto López (Meta, Colombia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olga Patricia, PINZÓN; Ana María, Hernández; Leonardo Andrés, Malagón.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron la diversidad y la abundancia relativa de termitas en asociación con plantaciones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis) de diferentes edades en un núcleo forestal de la altillanura bien drenada de los Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta). Se muestrearon tres edades de plantación en dos época [...] s climáticas: lluviosa de 2009 (mayo, julio) y seca de 2010 (febrero, marzo), utilizando el método de transecto con modificaciones. Se encontraron 10 especies pertenecientes a las familias Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae) y Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae). La diversidad de termitas en plantaciones de caucho mayores a dos años fue predominantemente xilófaga y humívora siendo Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus y Grigiotermes sp. las especies con mayor frecuencia. La diversidad y abundancia de termitas xilófagas en asociación con el cultivo del caucho fue favorecida por la disponibilidad de recursos en las plantaciones de mayor desarrollo pero en ningún caso se observó actividad dañina sobre el cultivo. Los resultados sugieren un papel importante de H. convexinotatus en el reciclaje de residuos de madera, especialmente, en los rodales de mayor edad. Abstract in english The diversity and relative abundance of termites in association with rubber-tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations was estimated for different aged stands in well-drained plateau in the Llanos Orientales (Puerto López, Meta). Three plantation ages were surveyed in two climate seasons: rainy in 2009 ( [...] May, June) and dry in 2010 (February, March), using the transect method with modifications. Ten species were found belonging to the families Termitidae (Apicotermitinae, Termitinae, Nasutitermitinae, Syntermitinae) and Rhinotermitidae (Heterotermitinae). Termite diversity in rubber plantations older than two years was predominately xylophagous and saprophagous, with Anoplotermes spp., Heterotermes convexinotatus and Grigiotermes sp. being the most common species. The diversity and abundance of xylophagous termites in association with rubber trees was favored by the availability of resources in the more well developed plantations, but in no case was any damaging activity observed in the crop. The results suggest an important role for H. convexinotatus in the recycling of wood residues, especially in the older tree plantations.

  19. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m3 of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m-3). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r2>0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (Cu??, Cr??and As??) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ -1) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  20. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M.; Soares-filho, Britaldo S.; Asner, Gregory P.; Trigg, Simon N.; Gaveau, David A.; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansio...

  1. Testing different methods of forest height and aboveground biomass estimations from ICESat/GLAS data in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdadi, N.; Le Maire, G.; Fayad, I.; Bailly, J. S.; Nouvellon, Y.; Lemos, C.; Hakamada, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) has provided a useful dataset for estimating forest heights in many areas of the globe. Most of the studies on GLAS waveforms have focused on natural forests and only a few were conducted over forest plantations. This work set out to estimate the stand-scale dominant height and aboveground biomass of intensively managed Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil using the most commonly used models developed for natural forests. These forest plantations are v...

  2. Estimating the bioenergy potential of Pinus radiata plantations in Chile / Estimación del potencial bioenergético de las plantaciones de Pinus radiata, en Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Acuña; Miguel, Espinosa; Jorge, Cancino; Rafael, Rubilar; Fernando, Muñoz.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó el potencial bioenergético para la producción de electricidad y bioetanol de las plantaciones de Pinus radiata D. Don en Chile, usando como base datos la superfcie de plantaciones por clase de edad y región administrativa. Mediante ecuaciones de densidad de la madera por clase de edad y re [...] gión, contenido de humedad de la madera y efciencia de una hipotética planta generadora de energía eléctrica, se estimó la electricidad producida por la biomasa a la edad de cosecha incluyendo los residuos de ésta. La producción de bioetanol fue estimada en 275 L por tonelada seca. El análisis de incertidumbre de la producción de bioenergía se obtuvo mediante funciones de densidad de probabilidades y un supuesto de 1,83 millones de ha de plantaciones de P. radiata al año 2030. Los parámetros empleados incluyen la edad de rotación, incremento medio anual, tasa de plantación anual, producción de residuos según edad de rotación y efciencia de la planta eléctrica. Las simulaciones fueron realizadas para un horizonte de 20 años (2010-2030). El modelo seguido estima que el potencial de generación de biomasa de los residuos de cosecha forestal y de la madera fustal de las plantaciones de P. radiata, podría cubrir el 83,4% de la capacidad instalada de energía eléctrica del Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC), que asciende a 294,8 PJ el año 2008 y casi cuadriplica (381%) al año 2030. Según el modelo, la biomasa de residuos podría suplir el 25% o el 15% de la mezcla de un 2 y 5% de gasolina con bioetanol, respectivamente, para el 2010. Si se considera además la biomasa fustal estos valores ascienden a 190 y 76%, respectivamente. Abstract in english The bioenergy potential for electricity and ethanol production of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Chile was modeled, on a regional basis, using radiata pine plantations areas by age class. Wood basic density equations based on age and growing region, wood moisture content variability, and the ef [...] fciency of a hypothetical power plant were used to estimate the amount of electricity produced by biomass at harvesting age including logging residues. Bioethanol yield was estimated at 275 L t-1 of dry biomass. The uncertainty of the bioenergy production were analyzed using probabilistic distribution functions and an estimate of 1.83 million ha-1 of radiata pine plantations by year 2030. Parameters considered for the uncertainty analyses included the rotation age, mean annual increment, annual planting rate, logging residue production by harvesting age, and power plant effciency. Simulations were projected for 20 years (2010-2030). The results of our model suggest that biomass of logging residues and bolewood of radiata pine plantations would produce 294.8 PJ by 2008, which would cover 83.4% of the current installed capacity of the Chile Power Central Interconnected System, and could increase to four times the 2008 estimate (381%) by 2030. Model predictions suggest that bioethanol produced using biomass residues could supply 15 to 25% of gasoline blends at 2% (E98) and 5% (E95), respectively, by year 2010. Bolewood biomass could supply 76% and 190%.

  3. Climate protection and carbon in wood. Comparison of management strategies; Klimaschutz und Kohlenstoff in Holz. Vergleich verschiedener Strategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, J.

    2008-11-05

    Forests are important for climate protection: They sequester and store carbon, and provide timber for wood products and fossil fuel substitution. These functions interact in a complex way. From a climate protection point of view it is desirable to optimize these interactions, i.e. to maximize the amount of carbon stored in the whole system (called ''forest-timber-option'') and to analyse what impact a management decision at the local level has with regard to the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Inventory methods to estimate the total amount of carbon in a forest are needed. Classical forest inventories assess above-ground tree volume. To estimate total carbon in accordance with the requirements of the Kyoto-Protocol, these inventories need to be expanded with regard to the assessment of disturbances, dead wood decomposition, soil carbon, and the estimation of carbon from volume. Methods invented here can also be used to assess local-level management activities, or to ''factor out'' non-human-induced changes in carbon pools. The optimization of the ''forest-timber-option'' is restricted due to regulations of the Kyoto-Protocol, because forest-related measures are accounted for under other sectors than wood and timber use. Harvested timber is estimated as an ''emission'' from the forest, and forest owners have no benefit from the use of wood for industrial purposes. Here, an inclusion of forestry in emission trading schemes can be advantageous. Alternative ways to produce wood are short-rotation coppice plantations on agricultural soils. Information about growth and yield potentials are scarce for the regions where land availability is high. Aspen (P. tremula, P. tremuloides) was parameterized in an eco-physiological forest growth model (''4C'') to assess these potentials on sites in Eastern Germany under current and under changing climatic conditions. The results indicate that growth potentials are more sensitive to soil quality than to climatic conditions. Potential yields allow for incomes comparable to standard agriculture, but biodiversity and groundwater recharge may be negatively affected by large-scale plantations. An optimization of the ''forest-timber-option'' requests the use of timber from forests. Harvested timber substitutes additional 70 % of carbon from fossil fuels. Forests under total protection do store more carbon than managed forest, but not equivalent to the substitution effects. Total protection of forests is thus no viable means for climate protection under Central European conditions. (orig.)

  4. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  5. Radiation-induced chemical modification of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations, describing the effect of ionizing radiation on wood and its main components and methods for production of wood-plastic composites by means of radiation-induced chemical modification are generalized. Domestic and foreign experience in their production is systematized; physico-mechanical characteristics of new material, simulation and calculation of irradiating devices, as well as calculation and experimental study of ?-radiation attenuation both by wood material and by wood of different species are given. Gamma sources (60Co isotope, a hot loop of a nuclear reactor) as well as electron accelerators are considered as ionizing radiation sources

  6. Wood-energy in Europe: resources, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A voluntaristic policy for the development of wood fuel would contribute to save energy and to protect the environment. Different strategies of development exist at the European scale as demonstrated by a recent report ordered by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME). This paper gives a synthesis of this report. It deals successively with: the European wood resources (the northern and continental forests, the mountain and bocage regions, the Mediterranean forests); the 3 main resources: forest exploitation, wood transformation, recycling of waste wood; the different economical status of wood resources; the place of wood-fuel in the economy: estimation, complementarity of industrial and energy uses; technological files and perspectives of development: collection, transport, conditioning, fuel production and supply, technologies of energy production from wood (domestic heating, collective heating, cogeneration and mixed wood-coal combustion); future markets; strategy of development: forestry and agriculture, management, producers, environmental aspects, afforestation of abandoned lands, employment...; policies of European, national and regional authorities: political and financial help, regulations and standardizations, financial helps and fiscal policy, inter-region cooperation and R and D, advice and communication; contribution of wood-fuel to the energy supply of Europe. (J.S.)

  7. Characteristics of Wood ASH/OPC Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, M

    2006-01-01

    The study presents the behaviour of wood ash / OPC concrete. Chemical analysis of wood ash, bulk density, sieve analysis and specific gravity of wood ash and aggregates, consistency, setting time and slump test of the fresh paste were conducted to determine the suitability of the materials for concrete making. Mix ratio of 1:2:4 and percentage replacement level of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 percents of cement by wood ash were used. 150mm´150mm cubes were cast, cured and crushed at 28 and 60 days t...

  8. Wood Species Classification and Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohan 1 ,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic wood recognition has not yet been well established mainly due to lack of research in this area and the difficulty in obtaining the wood database. In this paper, an automatic wood recognition system based on image processing, feature extraction and artificial neural networks was designed. The proto-type PC-based wood recognition system is capable of classifying 30 different tropical Malaysian woods, according to their species based on the macroscopic wood anatomy. Image processing is carried out using our newly developed in-house image processing library referred to as “Visual System Development Platform”. The textural wood features are extracted using a co-occurrence matrix approach, known as grey-level co-occurrence matrix. A multi-layered neural network based on the popular back-propagation algorithm is trained to learn the wood samples for the classification purposes. The system can provide wood identification within seconds, eliminating the need for laborious human recognition. The results obtained show a high rate of recognition accuracy, proving that the techniques used are suitable to be implemented for commercial purposes.

  9. Kuidas tuua Eestisse Tiger Woods / Raul Ranne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ranne, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Reaalselt arvestades on tõenäosus, et Eestit väisab golfistaar Tiger Woods, muidugi olematu. Teoreetiliselt on see siiski võimalik. Vestlusest Jõelähtme golfiväljakut opereeriv Estonian Golf Country Clubi presidendi Mait Schmidtiga

  10. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T. [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  11. FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pirraglia,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental composition, and net heating value of “light roasted” wood were assessed. The heating value of the eucalypts and pellets was enhanced by 19% (average, compared to the original material, while the moisture and volatiles content were drastically reduced. This reduction leads to an increase in the amount (w/w of carbon, enhancing the energy content in the material. Thus, torrefaction is useful for improving the heating value of woody biomass, consuming little external energy due to recirculation and burning of gases for the process. The pellets showed increased energy density, providing improved properties for transportation and handling.

  12. Propriedades físicas da madeira de teca termorretificada / Physical properties of heat-treated teak wood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana de Oliveira, Lopes; Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia; Alexandre Miguel do, Nascimento; João Vicente de Figueiredo, Latorraca.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito de tratamentos termorretificadores nas propriedades físicas (densidade e teor de umidade) da madeira de teca (Tectona grandis L. f.), proveniente de plantios de diferentes espaçamentos. Amostras de madeira de cerne e alburno foram termorretificadas a 1 [...] 80ºC e 200ºC durante 2 horas e 30 minutos. A termorretificação afetou mais a densidade do cerne do que a densidade do alburno. As madeiras de cerne e alburno apresentaram uma redução média de 52% no teor de umidade de equilíbrio, após a termorretificação. O espaçamento entre árvores também afetou as propriedades físicas da madeira após a termorretificação. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat treatments on the physical properties (density and moisture content) of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) wood from plantations of different spacings. Heartwood and sapwood samples were heat treated at 180 ºC and 200 ºC for 2 hours and 30 mi [...] nutes. Heat treatment produced greater effect on heartwood density compared with sapwood density. Heartwood and sapwood presented an average reduction of 52% in equilibrium moisture content after heat treatment. Tree spacing also affected the physical properties of wood after heat treatment.

  13. Allelic Variation in Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (LoCAD Associated with Wood Properties of Larix olgensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD catalyzes the key step in the lignin monomer biosynthesis pathway, but little is known about CADs in larch (Larix olgensis. Larch is one of the most important conifer plantation species and is used worldwide for reforestation and paper making. However, the presence of lignin is a significant barrier in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. In the current study, 240 individuals from the Northeast Forest University provenance progeny trial population were evaluated, and 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified in the CAD gene. We used a candidate gene-based association mapping approach to identify CAD gene allelic variants that were associated with growth and wood property traits in L. olgensis. We found that LoCAD harbors high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP diversity (?T = 0.00622 and ?W = 0.00646. The results of an association analysis indicated that nine SNPs and six haplotypes were significantly associated with wood property and growth traits, explaining between 1.35% and 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. There were strong associations between SNP (g.590G > T and SNP (g.1184A > T in LoCAD. These SNPs might represent two quantitative trait nucleotides that are important for the analysis of lignin content.

  14. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  15. The effect of wood extractives on the thermal stability of different wood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebani, A.N.; Reenen, A.J. van [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Meincken, M. [Department of Forest and Wood Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)], E-mail: mmein@sun.ac.za

    2008-05-30

    This study compares the thermal stability of different wood species, which is an important factor for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPCs), and investigates the effect of extraction on thermal properties. The chemical composition of four wood species -Quercus alba, Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia cyclops - has been determined, as the species is expected to affect the thermal stability of wood. Subsequently, the hot-water (HW) extractives, ethanol/cyclohexane (E/C) extractives and both extractives were eliminated from the wood via Soxhlet extraction and the thermal stability of the wood determined with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under identical conditions. The results suggest that a higher cellulose and lignin content leads to better thermal stability of wood in different temperature regimes. In all cases, the removal of extractives improved the thermal stability of the wood. The effect of combined extractions was more pronounced than of an individual extraction and E/C-extraction caused less improvement in the thermal stability of wood than HW extraction. The degradation of the investigated wood extractives occurred at low rates over a broad temperature range. Pure cellulose exhibited superior thermal stability compared to wood, but differences were observed between the investigated wood species.

  16. The effect of wood extractives on the thermal stability of different wood species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares the thermal stability of different wood species, which is an important factor for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPCs), and investigates the effect of extraction on thermal properties. The chemical composition of four wood species -Quercus alba, Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia cyclops - has been determined, as the species is expected to affect the thermal stability of wood. Subsequently, the hot-water (HW) extractives, ethanol/cyclohexane (E/C) extractives and both extractives were eliminated from the wood via Soxhlet extraction and the thermal stability of the wood determined with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under identical conditions. The results suggest that a higher cellulose and lignin content leads to better thermal stability of wood in different temperature regimes. In all cases, the removal of extractives improved the thermal stability of the wood. The effect of combined extractions was more pronounced than of an individual extraction and E/C-extraction caused less improvement in the thermal stability of wood than HW extraction. The degradation of the investigated wood extractives occurred at low rates over a broad temperature range. Pure cellulose exhibited superior thermal stability compared to wood, but differences were observed between the investigated wood species

  17. Certified enterprise with plantation forest management: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Erica Busch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation occurring in Brazil increased society's perception of environmental problems arising from them. Because of this awareness, lumber companies faced the challenge of demonstrating to consumers how they are reducing the environmental impacts of their operations. As a means of marketing, many suppliers of certified wood advertise themselves as practitioners of environmental responsibility. This study aimed to analyze a certified forest company, as a case study, in order to verify if the process brought environmental benefits and social responsibility. Results indicated that forest management certification has brought advances in mitigating the impacts of forestry operations on the environment, forest workers and local communities.

  18. Methodology for mapping non-forest wood elements using historic cadastral maps and aerial photographs as a basis for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalos, Jan; Engstová, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a method for analysing long-term structural changes in non-forest wood elements, using a newly developed classification system and relevant landscape characteristics. Although these non-forest wood elements are biotopes that have positive effects for the ecological stability of the landscape little is known about their long-term dynamics. The newly developed knowledge of the historical impact of various landscape management practices on non-forest wood elements can be applied in landscape planning procedures (e.g. planning ecological networks) in order to ensure relevant landscape management in the future. The method was applied in two contrasting study sites, Honbice (244 ha) and Krida (268 ha), located in east Bohemia and north Bohemia, in the Czech Republic. The study was based on old cadastral maps (from 1839 to 1843), black and white aerial photographs (from 1938, 1950, 1966, 1975 to 2006) and field control data from 2006. At the Honbice study site, the proportion of non-forest wood elements increased from 2.0 to 2.9% of the study site, due to large plantations of scattered vegetation in the open landscape. On the other hand, more than half of the wood vegetation in the village was cut down between 1966 and 2006. In addition, the relative length of the tree alleys decreased from 0.021 km ha(-1) to 0.018 km ha(-1) between 1950 and 1966. At the Krida study site, there was a significant increase in non-forest vegetation (from 2.4 to 8.2%), due to abandonment of the landscape (former military area). As the village disappeared, the total amount of scattered vegetation grew, due to the natural succession process. The relative length of the tree alleys decreased from 0.009 km ha(-1) to 0.005 km ha(-1). The method that was applied and based on the analysis of long-term structural changes in non-forest wood elements, using a (newly developed) classification system and relevant landscape characteristics has proved to be a suitable procedure for making a detailed description of long-term structural changes in non-forest wood elements in the landscape. The detailed classification system can be used most efficiently when it is applied to rather small territories. Some characteristics display a similar ability to describe changes in non-forest wood structures (e.g. relative length, proportion of the category). PMID:19939552

  19. GIS-facilitated spatial narratives : Danish plantations in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the implementation and dissemination of spatial narratives within a geographical information system context with specific reference to portable GPS-enabled devices. The overall goal is to establish a framework for the creation of computer assisted 'guided tours' based on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML-file defines extended functionality for navigating within the narrative as well as additional data layers.

  20. Matching species and sites for biomass plantations in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for matching species and sites for biomass plantations in Hawaii were utilized to estimate biomass yields and production costs for Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, and Leucaena leucocephala. The 'analogous site' method matches the environmental conditions, including soil, rainfall, temperature, and insolation parameters, of well-characterized experimental biomass research sites which produce known yields of these species with similar land areas, or with those areas that can be made similar through soil amendments and improvement, where no field trials exist. The result is the identification of sites with biomass growth, yield, and cost performances which are analogous to the experimental site. The 'regression model' method relates known site-specific biomass productivity with environmental and soil conditions and management practices developed from sites featuring widely different and distinct environmental conditions. Equations then enable the prediction of biomass performance and production costs for each species at any location statewide. The analytical results, using a geographical information system database and the above methods, are presented in map form to expedite the site selection process which indicates expected biomass yield and cost for several fast-growing tropical hardwood species in Hawaii

  1. SOCIAL EXCLUSION: GUATEMALAN YOUTH WITHIN COFFEE PLANTATIONS AT SOCONUSCO CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Itzel Ramírez-Ramos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexico's southern border is the entry point for different migratory flows, mainly from Central America, these flows have taken place under socioeconomic contexts and conditions which demand the constant livelihood strategies pursuit from people. This paper is focused on the agricultural laborers from Guatemalan origin, within coffee plantation farms at the Soconusco, Chiapas. The main objective is arguing how the lack of access -or restricted access- to education and the precarious inclusion to work and migration, have positioned youth population of migrant laborers, from Guatemalan origin, into social processes of social exclusion and vulnerability. It is concluded that conditions generated from these processes, preclude the generation of different work expectations, the access to a higher quality of life and the social mobility in a men and woman development crucial stage. The exposed information comes from quantitative and qualitative research methods. A nonrandom survey was applied to 129 families; 20 semi-structured interviews for children and adolescents within farms and 25 to actors involved in the recognition and performance of the human rights of migrant children in the southern Mexican border area.

  2. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ...0579-AD28 Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal...exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter the United...regulations that apply to wood packaging material from all other...

  3. Biomass Production of Common Alder (Alnus glutinosa /L./ Gaertn. in Pure Plantations and Mixed Plantations with Willow Clones (Salix sp. in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Seletkovi?

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, Croatian energy policy was directed towards the increase of renewable energy sources in the total balance. It resulted in an increased interest for breeding fast-growing hardwoods in short rotations. Although common alder is not so productive in short rotations as some willows and poplars, insufficient development of the biomass market and increased awareness for conservation of domestic forest tree species, makes it favorable for raising plantations as it is the indigenous forest tree species that can be grown in longer rotations, if needed. The estimate of above-ground dry biomass per tree (trunk and branches up to 7 cmin diameter as well as production of biomass per hectare was made in 4 experimental plantations. The research included two mixed plantations of common alder open-pollinated families with willow clones (Salix sp. and two pure common alder plantations. Experimental plantations, aged 14 and 16 years, are located in two different sites. The estimated family mean values for dry biomass varied between 12.5 and 70.9 kg per tree. The results showed considerable differences between families as well as between different silvicultural treatments. The estimated production of the common alder dry biomass varied between 27.4 and 87.5 t/ha with mean annual increments (MAI between 1.9 and 6.3 t ha –1 year –1. It was shown that willow clones have a negative influence on the alder biomass in mixed plantations, at the studied plantation age. Willow clones have shown greater biomass production, compared with common alder, in spite the fact that its planting density was far lower. Although the planting density of common alder trees was lower compared to other studies, the average biomass production is within the framework of other results, which indicates significant potential of biomass production in local conditions. The additive variance was not statistically significant for the biomass trait, which was probably caused by the dominant influence of microenvironmental factors (weed, game during the growth, but also by a small number of studied families. Statistically significant interactions of investigated families with silvicultural treatments and sites have been shown, which directs to the genetically caused differences in the adaptability of families on studied site and growth differences.

  4. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  5. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S.A.; Bensley, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  6. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Villani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  7. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD POLYACRYLONITRILE COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abid Ali; Suman, Dr K. N. S.; Kesava Rao, Dr V. V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Wood polyacrolonitrile composite (WPC) from neem ,mango andcork wood was synthesized. The process was carried out through benzoyl peroxide(0.05mol/l)catalyzed impregnation polymerization of acrylonitrile,4mol/l,6mol/l into cork woodand mango wood in benzene medium at 75+-10c.The properties of WPCs over untreated woods were evaluated in terms of compressive test ,hardness of wood were improvedwith impregnation of polyacrylonitrile .Impregnation of polyacyrlonitrile (PAN) into neem wood,mango ...

  8. [Nutrient accumulation and cycling in pure and mixed plantations of Azadirachta indica and Acacia auriculiformis in a dry-hot valley, Yunnan Province, southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng-Jie; Li, Kun; Tang, Guo-Yong; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Li, Bin

    2014-07-01

    To ease the implementation of effective nutrient management for plantations with different vegetation restoration patterns and to assist in the selection of appropriate species and forestation patterns, nutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) accumulation and cycling were investigated and compared in three plantations (10-year-old Azadirachta indica, Acacia auriculiformis and mixed A. indica--A. auriculiformis plantations) in Yuanmou Valley, a dry-hot valley of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China. The result showed that total nutrient accumulations were 333.05, 725.61 and 533.85 kg x hm(-2) in pure plantations of A. indica and A. auriculiformis, and in A. indica--A. auriculiformis mixed plantation, respectively. The nutrient accumulation of various organs was ranked as branches > stems > roots > leaves > bark in the A. indica plantation and branches > stems > leaves > roots > bark both in the A. auriculiformis plantation and in the mixed plantation. Changes in accumulation of various nutrients in the mixed plantation were similar to that in the A. auriculiformis plantation (Ca > N > K > Mg > P), which were different from the A. indica plantation (Ca > K > N > Mg > P). Annual net nutrient accumulation, return and absorption in these plantations ranged from 62.72 to 162.19 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1), 48.82 to 88.86 kg x hm-2 a-1 and 111.54 to 251.05 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively, which were all the highest in the A. auriculiformis planta- tion, followed by the mixed plantation, and were the lowest in the A. indica plantation. The nutrient utilization coefficient, the cycling coefficient and the recycling period were estimated to be from 0.34 to 0.39, 0.35 to 0.44, and 6.54 to 8.17 a, respectively. The lower nutrient return and circulation rate of N or P in the A. indica plantation showed that this plantation had a poor ability to maintain soil fertility, while the highest nutrient circulation rate of N or P was observed in the A. auriculiformis plantation that displayed the advantage in maintaining soil nutrients and stand productivity. The nutrient return and nutrient absorption in the mixed plantation were 167.2% and 186.2%, of those in the A. indica plantation, and the circulation rate of N, P and K were higher than those in the A. indica plantation, while the recycling period of Ca in mixed plantation was 50% shorter than that in A. auriculiformis plantation. Soil fertility and nutrient supply were improved in the A. indica and A. auriculiformis mixed plantation. PMID:25345036

  9. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's...

  10. Business environment in the wood fuels field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this publication the business environment in the wood fuels sector and the internal and external factors affecting it are studied. It has been considered important to describe both the present situation and future possibilities of the business in order to develop it so that the planned increase in the use of wood fuels can be achieved

  11. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. wo processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt-...

  12. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - < #2...

  13. Wood Variety Recognition on Mobile Devices.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Pavel; Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 2013, ?. 93 (2013), s. 52-52. ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA102/08/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : wood recognition * Markov random fields Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/vacha-wood variety recognition on mobile devices.pdf

  14. Scarcity on the market for wood wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the market for wood wastes in the Netherlands and how this affects the targets to use biomass. Several types of biomass must be imported, not only wood wastes, but also e.g. olive stones and cacao shells

  15. The legacy of George L. Beckford’s plantation economy thesis in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Besson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Plantation Economy, Land Reform and the Peasantry in a Historical Perspective: Jamaica 1838-1980. CLAUS STOLBERG & SWITHIN WILMOT(eds.- Kingston: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 1992. 145 pp. (Paper n.p. This interdisciplinary collection focuses on the integration of Jamaica's classical plantation economy with the world economy, and the impact of the plantation economy on the peasantry, land reform, and agrarian modemization in Jamaica from emancipation in 1838 up to 1980. The eight papers comprising the volume were, as a one-page editorial "Introduction" outlines, presented at a symposium at the University of the West Indies, Mona, and are dedicated to the late Professor George Beckford whose work on persistent poverty in plantation economies championed the Jamaican peasantry. As such, the book is a welcome addition to the literature on the Caribbean plantation-peasant interface. However, the chapters are uneven in quality, with some reflecting analytical weaknesses and a lack of historical depth. Typographical errors, grammatical mistakes, and poor documentation are also noticeable. In addition, contrasting perspectives emerge among the contributors and this is not addressed by the editors.

  16. Replacing rubber plantations by rain forest in Southwest China--who would gain and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlheim, Michael; Börger, Tobias; Frör, Oliver

    2015-02-01

    The cultivation of rubber trees in Xishuangbanna Prefecture in China's Yunnan Province has triggered an unprecedented economic development but it is also associated with severe environmental problems. Rubber plantations are encroaching the indigenous rain forests at a large scale and a high speed in Xishuangbanna. Many rare plant and animal species are endangered by this development, the natural water management is disturbed, and even the microclimate in this region has changed over the past years. The present study aims at an assessment of the environmental benefits accruing from a reforestation project partly reversing the deforestation that has taken place over the past years. To this end, a Contingent Valuation survey has been conducted in Xishuangbanna to elicit local residents' willingness to pay for this reforestation program that converts existing rubber plantations back into forest. It is shown that local people's awareness of the environmental problems caused by increasing rubber plantation is quite high and that in spite of the economic advantages of rubber plantation there is a positive willingness among the local population to contribute financially to a reduction of existing rubber plantations for the sake of a partial restoration of the local rain forest. These results could be used for the practical implementation of a Payments for Eco-System Services system for reforestation in Xishuangbanna. PMID:25604061

  17. Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dzaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E. The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane plantations of the Niari valley amounts to 50 tons per hectare. This carbon sequestration presents important values ranging from 60 to 80 tons per hectare (p<0.05 during the first two years of the new sprout (R 570 and Co 997 and a more or less stationary level up to the tenth new sprout of sugar cane for the variety NCO 376. These results depend on the environment conditions, the burning of sugarcane fields before harvesting to facilitate the processing of sugarcanes and also the flexibility in terms of adaptability of the sugarcane varieties cultivated. The sugarcane plantations contribute a great deal in the struggle against climate changes and their use in terms of bio fuel.

  18. Monitoring expansion of plantations in Lao tropical forests using Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phompila, Chittana; Lewis, Megan; Clarke, Kenneth; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2014-11-01

    Clearing of native forest for plantation expansion is a significant component of land use change in many tropical regions. The continuing expansion of plantations has many environmental consequences, including the loss and fragmentation of habitat, alteration of nutrient cycling processes, reduction in environmentally sequestered carbon, increased soil erosion and land degradation, and loss of biodiversity. The primary goal of this research was to develop and test remote sensing methods to detect the expansion of plantations in the southern part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). We used Landsat satellite imagery acquired between 2003 and 2012. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to three Landsat temporal image pairs (2003-2006, 2006-2009 and 2009-2012) to identify areas of change. Change identification accuracy was evaluated by comparison against 1,240 random sample locations which had been independently classified from Google Earth imagery from 2006 and 2012. It was found that one of the principal components detected change in areas of plantation in the study area, with producer's accuracy of 92% and user's accuracy of 79%. This method was relatively easy to implement, involved no image purchase costs, and could be used by ecologists or forestry managers seeking to monitor forest loss or plantation expansion.

  19. Rubber and pulp plantations represent a double threat to Hainan's natural tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Cannon, Charles H; Slik, J W Ferry; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Dai, Zhi-Cong

    2012-04-15

    Hainan, the largest tropical island in China, belongs to the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot and harbors large areas of tropical forests, particularly in the uplands. The Changhua watershed is the cradle of Hainan's main river and a center of endemism for plants and birds. The watershed contains great habitat diversity and is an important conservation area. We analyzed the impact of rubber and pulp plantations on the distribution and area of tropical forest in the watershed, using remote sensing analysis of Landsat images from 1988, 1995 and 2005. From 1988 to 1995, natural forest increased in area (979-1040 sq km) but decreased rapidly (763 sq km) over the next decade. Rubber plantations increased steadily through the study period while pulp plantations appeared after 1995 but occupied 152 sq km by 2005. Rubber and pulp plantations displace different types of natural forest and do not replace one another. Because pulp is not as profitable as rubber and existing pulp processing capacity greatly exceeds local supply, considerable pressure exists on remaining upland forests. We recommend for future management that these plantation forests be reclassified as 'industrial', making a clear policy distinction between natural and industrial forestry. Additionally, the local government should work to enforce existing laws preventing forest conversion on marginal and protected areas. PMID:22208399

  20. Do Extensive Rubber Plantation Influences Local Environment? A Case Study From Tripura, Northeast India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Majumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tripura is the second largest Natural Rubber (NR producing state of India. As most of the NR plantation in the state is rain dependent, it is observed that fluctuation in monsoon poses a serious threat to plantation growth of NR crops. The effect of such shift and fluctuation in climate ranges from surface and ground water level variation, air quality and soil preservation. At present no assessment is available to critically review the impact of large scale NR plantation on environment. In the present paper the effect and impact of annual rainfall deficit, depleted ground water level, average local atmospheric temperature variation and rainfall ground water recharge on NR plantation is studied for the state of Tripura. Considering the large scale accelerated NR plantation in the state, an attempt has been made to figure out the consequences related to water management. The multidirectional environmental threat to the state comprising annual rainfall deficit of 23.3 %, depleted ground water level and significant rise in average atmospheric temperature may severely hit the production of NR in the region. Moreover, the estimated requirement of water to produce ribbed smokes sheet (RSS will may escalate to more than 152140 kiloliters in the next ten years. The predicted amount of wastewater generated (directly or indirectly in RSS collection and industry processing effluents may cause large environmental issue due to their open disposal in many cases. Hence, also claims a threat to the rubber production and growth of the sector.

  1. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  2. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  3. THE EFFECT OF WOOD ACETYLATION ON THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF WOOD-POLYSTYRENE COMPOSITES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JUSTO, LISPERGUER; CYNTHIA, DROGUETT; BEATRIZ, RUF; MARIO, NUÑEZ.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood-plastic composites are probably one of the most dynamic sectors of today’s plastic industry. Although the technology is not new, there is growing interest in the new design possibilities offered by this marriage of materials. In the world, polystyrene (PS) is the third most utilized thermoplast [...] ic after polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP). The uses of PS are different from those of PE and PP because PS’s glass transition temperature (Tg) is approximately 90ºC, and PS is rigid and brittle below this temperature (environmental conditions).One method used to increase PS impact resistance is to include wood fiber, due to a number of potential advantages, as a suitable candidate in fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The principal disadvantage is a poor adhesion between wood and the polymer due to the different chemical structure and polarity. The study’s objective is to investigate the influence of an acetylation reaction on wood flour to reduce wood’s polarity and to improve the affinity and adhesion between polystyrene and wood. Pinus radiata wood flour was acetylated with acetic anhydride, and acetylated wood-polystyrene composites with 20, 40 and 50 % of wood content by weight were prepared. Composites prepared with unmodified wood in the same composition were used to study the influence of the acetylation reaction on thermal behavior of wood-plastic materials. Glass transition temperatures ( Tg ) of acetylated wood-polystyrene composites were compared with pure polystyrene and unmodified wood-polystyrene composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA ) was utilized to determine Tg and Fourier transform infrared ( FTIR ) was used to study the changes in functional groups during the acetylation process. DMA showed changes in polystyrene’s Tg when mixed with wood. The major effect was the significant increase of 8º C in 50/50 of acetylated wood- polystyrene composites, showing that the use of acetylated wood flour produces wood-plastic composites with better thermal stability than non-acetylated wood

  4. THE EFFECT OF WOOD ACETYLATION ON THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF WOOD-POLYSTYRENE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUSTO LISPERGUER

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood-plastic composites are probably one of the most dynamic sectors of today’s plastic industry. Although the technology is not new, there is growing interest in the new design possibilities offered by this marriage of materials. In the world, polystyrene (PS is the third most utilized thermoplastic after polyethylene (PE and polypropylene (PP. The uses of PS are different from those of PE and PP because PS’s glass transition temperature (Tg is approximately 90ºC, and PS is rigid and brittle below this temperature (environmental conditions.One method used to increase PS impact resistance is to include wood fiber, due to a number of potential advantages, as a suitable candidate in fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The principal disadvantage is a poor adhesion between wood and the polymer due to the different chemical structure and polarity. The study’s objective is to investigate the influence of an acetylation reaction on wood flour to reduce wood’s polarity and to improve the affinity and adhesion between polystyrene and wood. Pinus radiata wood flour was acetylated with acetic anhydride, and acetylated wood-polystyrene composites with 20, 40 and 50 % of wood content by weight were prepared. Composites prepared with unmodified wood in the same composition were used to study the influence of the acetylation reaction on thermal behavior of wood-plastic materials. Glass transition temperatures ( Tg of acetylated wood-polystyrene composites were compared with pure polystyrene and unmodified wood-polystyrene composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA was utilized to determine Tg and Fourier transform infrared ( FTIR was used to study the changes in functional groups during the acetylation process. DMA showed changes in polystyrene’s Tg when mixed with wood. The major effect was the significant increase of 8º C in 50/50 of acetylated wood- polystyrene composites, showing that the use of acetylated wood flour produces wood-plastic composites with better thermal stability than non-acetylated wood

  5. Soil Erosion Protection Potential of Young Paulownia Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchich, Avgusta; Djodjov, Christo

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is removal of soil and rock particles by water, wind, ice and gravity. It is widely recognized as a global soil threat. Soils impacted by different forms of erosion cover large areas around the world. While landscape, soil and climate conditions trigger soil erosion processes, the vegetation cover reduces the soil erosion risk. About 60 % of the area of agricultural land in Bulgaria is under erosion risk, which necessitates implementation of series of measures for soil erosion control. The aim of this study is to determine the erosion protection potential and the loss of soil nutrients of young Paulownia plantation. Field experiments have been set up under unirrigated conditions at the experimental field for soil erosion studies of the N. Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnology and Plant Protection near Suhodol. The local soils are Chromic Luvisols, moderately eroded. The altitude is 750 m and the slope gradient is 80. The experiment consists of four field plots for soil erosion studies, three of which planted with Paulownia Bellissima and a reference one with bare soil. The plants have been planted at a distance of 2 m between adjacent rows and 1 m between each two plants within the row. The size of each field plot is 32 m2 (4 m width and 8 m length). The plots are equipped with containers for collecting the surface runoff caused by erosive rainfall events. Biometrics, including the root-striking of the plants, their growth in height, foliage cover (projection) and stem diameter, was studied from May 13th to October 21st. The data reported cover the results from the studies during the first vegetation period after planting in the Spring of 2013. During the year four erosive rainfalls were observed with a total amount of 79.2 mm, resulting to a total amount of soil loss of 772 kg/ha from a planted plot and 551 kg/ha from bear soil. The total surface runoff is 156.7 m3/ha from planted plot and 153.1 m3/ha from bare soil. The total losses of N-NO3- are 0.994 kg/ha from plated plots and 0.718 kg/ha from bare soils and the losses of N-NH4+ are respectively 0.042 and 0.117 kg/ha. The results from biometrics showed that 58 % of the plants were found to have stroken roots; an average growth of 0.3 m and a mean increase in the number of leaves with 3 were recorded. The results reported here show that the losses of soil and nutrients from the field plots planted with Paulownia Bellissima are about 40 % higher than these from the plot with bare soil. This discouraging result needs further experimental and theoretical analyses. The research throughout the following years will give further information about the soil erosion protection potential of young Paulownia plantation.

  6. Global options for biofuels from plantations according to IMAGE simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the contribution of biofuels to the renewable energy supply and the transition towards it are discussed for the energy crops miscanthus, eucalyptus, poplar, wheat and sugar cane. Bio-electricity appears to be the most suitable option regarding energetic and financial aspects and in terms of avoided CO2 emissions. The IMAGE 2.0 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system, and mainly used here for making more realistic estimates. Dynamic calculations are performed to the year 2100. An IMAGE 2.0-based Conventional Wisdom scenario simulates, among other things, future energy demand and supply, future food production, future land cover patterns and future greenhouse gas emissions. Two biofuel scenarios are described in this report. The first consists of growing energy crops on set asides. According to a 'Conventional Wisdom' scenario, Canada, the U.S. and Europe and to a lesser extent Latin America will experience set asides due to a declining demand in agricultural area. The second biofuel scenario consists of growing energy crops on set asides and on 10% of the agricultural area in the developing countries. Growing energy crops on all of the areas listed above leads to an energy production that consists of about 12% of the total non-renewable energy use in 2050, according to the 'Conventional Wisdom' scenario. Furthermore, the energy related CO2 emisse, the energy related CO2 emissions are reduced with about 15% in 2050, compared to the Conventional Wisdom scenario. Financial aspects will have great influence on the success of growing energy crops. However, energy generated from biomass derived from plantations is currently more expensive than generating it from traditional fuels. Levying taxes on CO2 emissions and giving subsidies to biofuels will reduce the cost price difference between fossil fuels and biofuels

  7. Occurrence of Platypus mutatus Chapuis (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) in a brazilwood experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil / Ocorrência de Platypus mutatus Chapuis (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) em um bosque experimental no sudeste do Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graziele S., Girardi; Rosana A., Giménez; Márcia R., Braga.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O cerne da madeira de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil, Pernambuco, ibirapitanga) é considerado o material mais adequado para a construção de arcos de violinos devido às suas propriedades vibracionais e a estabilidade. Embora a madeira dessa leguminosa seja resistente à deterioração causada por [...] fungos apodrecedores e cupins, um bosque experimental de pau-brasil no Sudeste do Brasil vem sendo atacado pelo besouro de ambrosia Platypus mutatus Chapuis (= Megaplatypus mutatus e P. sulcatus). Esse coleóptero invadiu cerca de 3% das árvores, principalmente na região central do bosque. A infestação por larvas e insetos adultos foi maior durante a estação seca (inverno) quando comparada ao período chuvoso (primavera e verão). Abstract in english The hardwood of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood, Pernambuco, ibirapitanga) is currently the most profitable material used for violin bow due to the unique vibrational properties and dimensional stability. Although this species is resistant to the wood decay caused by termites and rot fungi, an [...] experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil has been attacked by the ambrosia beetle Platypus mutatus Chapuis (= Megaplatypus mutatus and P. sulcatus). This species invaded ca. 3% of the individuals, mainly in the central part of the plantation. Infestation by larvae and adults was higher during the dry season (winter) when compared to the rainy period (spring and summer).

  8. Types de contact village-plantation à Sri Lanka (1840-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric MEYER

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available La partie humide de Sri Lanka (montagnes du centre et du quart sud-ouest associait initialement riziculture, cultures sur brûlis et cocoteraies. L’économie de plantation s’y étant développée à partir de 1840, elle est devenue le lieu d’un contact villageplantation généralement décrit comme un cas classique de dualisme. Un examen microstructurel révèle plusieurs types principaux de configurations, l’un caractérisé par un dualisme effectif, un autre par une interpénétration poussée, le dernier par une intégration. L’approche diachronique montre l’importance des bouleversements, dans les structures foncières et l’utilisation du sol, introduits par les plantations. L’analyse des flux de main-d’oeuvre et de produits permet de préciser le contenu des échanges entre les deux éléments du couple village-plantation.

  9. Contribution of a mixed forest plantation to avifauna conservation at Rio Cauca canyon, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The avifauna of a forest mixed plantation at Cauca river canyon in Caldas department; was monitored during 10 months. Fifty nine understory resident species were captured,10% of them presented high sensibility to habitat perturbation (forest specialists). Only those species with low sensibility (generalists) presented differences between monthly numbers of captures. Other 50 species associated to the plantation, including two endemic and 26% boreal migratory species were registered visually and/or by its vocalizations. The results suggest that this plantation plays a key role in the conservation of local avifauna, is habitat both for species associated with natural forests and for those with less habitat requirements. This type of reforestation with native species could be a restoration model for other degraded areas from the region.

  10. The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jody R., Stallings.

    Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry pla [...] ntations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

  11. The Impact of Accounting Earnings on Stock Returns: The Case of Malaysia’s Plantation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Pik Har

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to examine, (1 the effect of ROA, ROE and ROCE on stock return for plantation companies listed on the Main Board of Bursa Malaysia, in two distinct economic periods, prior to (2004-2006 and during (2007-2008 an economic recession and, (2 the resiliency of the plantation industry in Malaysia. Simple linear regression was used in analyzing the data. It was revealed that ROE had the highest explanatory power in explaining the variation in stock returns. ROA and ROCE were discovered to have a positive and significant relationship to stock returns only during the economic period prior to a recession. It was also discovered that the plantation industry in Malaysia is very resilient and is not adversely affected by an economic recession.

  12. Short communication. Restoring mono culture plantation using stand spatial structure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, G.; Ding, G.; Wang, H.; Zang, Y.; Liang, W.; An, Y.; He, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: To improve the quality of mono culture plantations in China. Area of study: Structure-based forest management was conducted in Rocky Mountain Area of Northern China. Material and methods: Stand spatial structure indicators of mingling degree, uniform angle index, neighborhood comparison and opening degree were comparably investigated to understand the changes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantations. Main results: The results indicated that structure-based forest management accounted for 0.403 and 0.448 of the significant variations in mingling degree and opening degree increments, and had no essential changes in uniform angle index and neighborhood comparison. Structure-based forest management is greatly beneficial to plantation quality, and it can be a source of improvement on stand structure. Research highlights: This improved information is essential to provide a firm basis for future policy-making on how best to restore degraded forests in China as well as the rest of the world. (Author) 12 refs.

  13. Assessing the likely impacts of climate change on pests, diseases and weeds of Australia's temperate plantation forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: Australia's plantation forests presently cover some 163 milllion hectares, accounting for 105 billion tonnes of carbon. Plantation forests also account for approximately two thirds of the A$18 billion value of turnover in Australia's forest product industries (Bureau of Resource Sciences 2006). Plantation forests also play a small but significant role in mitigating the effects of climate change through sequestration of carbon into durable timber products. However, climate change is likely to pose several direct and indirect challenges to this important industry. One of the indirect challenges is likely to come through changes in the distribution, relative abundance and population dynamics of both native and exotic insects, diseases and weeds (collectively pests) (Sutherst etal. 2007). A series of case studies involving key pests of Eucalypt and Pine plantations are used to explore the likely impacts of climate change on plantation productivity. Global climate model (GCM) scenarios from Ozclim are used with CLIMEX to project changes in the potential distribution and relative abundance of these pests. The GCM results are also used to generate synthetic weather sequences for future climate scenarios. These weather sequences are used in DYMEX models of pest population dynamics to explore non-linear responses of the pest populations. In turn, the DYMEX results are fed into a process-based plant growth model (CABALA), for the three major plantation speABALA), for the three major plantation species in order to assess the likely effects of changing pest populations associated with climate, change on plantation productivity

  14. Alterações na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis causadas pela adubação mineral / Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Roberto, Sette Jr; José Carlos de, Deus Jr; Mario, Tomazello Filho; Franciane Andrade de, Pádua; Francine Neves, Calil; Jean Paul, Laclau.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversificada e importante aplicação do lenho das plantações de eucalipto de rápido crescimento exige a análise do efeito dos fertilizantes minerais na qualidade do lenho. Dessa forma, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar as características anatômicas e a densidade aparente do lenho de árvores de [...] Eucalyptus grandis, plantadas no espaçamento 3m x 2m e fertilizadas com potássio e sódio (no plantio, no 6º e no 12° mês). Foram selecionadas 15 árvores (5 árvores/tratamento) com 6 anos das quais foram cortadas amostras do lenho a 1,3 m de altura (DAP), para a análise das características anatômicas (fibras e vasos) e física (densidade aparente). Os resultados apontaram que as árvores de eucalipto que receberam aplicação de fertilizantes minerais não sofreram alterações significativas na densidade aparente média do lenho, com modelos dos perfis radiais comuns nos três tratamentos, caracterizados pelo aumento dos valores da região próxima à medula em direção à casca. A fertilização mineral influenciou as características anatômicas do lenho das árvores de eucalipto: o tratamento com sódio foi responsável pela diminuição na espessura da parede e pelo aumento no diâmetro do lume; no tratamento com potássio foram detectados vasos de maior diâmetro tangencial. Abstract in english The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing) fert [...] ilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month). Fifteen (15) 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment), cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m) were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels) and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  15. Water use, water limitation, and water use efficiency in a Eucalyptus plantation / Utilización del agua, limitación hídrica y eficiencia del uso del agua en una plantación de Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSE LUIZ, STAPE; DAN, BINKLEY; MICHAEL G, RYAN; ANTONIO, DO NASCIMENTO GOMES.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Millones de hectáreas de Eucalyptus son intensamente manejadas en el mundo entero para la producción de madera, pero la ecofisiología del efecto de la limitación de los recursos naturales en su crecimiento continuo, poco cuantificados. Fue estudiada la ecología de la producción de un plantío clonal [...] de 3,4 años de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla en un terreno arenoso, durante dos años (lluvioso y otro normal) en el noreste del Brasil. La producción de madera fue medida y estimado el uso del agua para el bosque (agua transpirada) en los tratamientos control y bajo riego. La disponibilidad hídrica limitó el crecimiento, y la biomasa leñosa creció de 36,6 Mg ha-1 para los dos tratamientos, para 107,0 y 141,0 Mg ha-1 después de 2 años, para los tratamientos control y bajo riego, respectivamente. El promedio de la productividad para los 2 años fue 52% superior para el tratamiento bajo riego (42,8 Mg ha-1 año-1 versus 28,1 Mg ha-1 año-1). El uso del agua fue similar entre los tratamientos control y bajo riego durante el año lluvioso, pero la irrigación aumentó el uso del agua en 37% en el año con precipitación normal. La eficacia del uso del agua (producción de madera por m3 de agua transpirada) en el tratamiento control aumentó en el año normal (1,8 kg madera/m³ de agua), en el año húmedo (3,3 kg madera/m³ de agua), y la irrigación aumentó la eficacia del uso del agua en 18% en el año lluvioso, 75% en el año normal, y 32% como promedio de los 2 años. En conjunto con nuestro trabajo anterior sobre la eficacia del uso del agua por un gradiente de precipitación, estos resultados indican que una eficacia superior del uso del agua se debe esperar con el aumento del uso del agua por el Eucalyptus. Abstract in english Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production worldwide, but the ecophysiology of resource limitation on growth remains poorly quantified. We investigated the production ecology of a 3.4- to 5.4- year-old plantation of clonal Eucalypus grandis x urophylla in northeas [...] tern Brazil on a sandy Oxisol during two years (one wet, and one with normal rainfall). We measured wood production and estimated water use (transpired water) in control and irrigated treatments. Water supply limited growth; wood biomass increased from 36.6 Mg ha-1 for both treatments to 107.0 and 141.0 Mg ha-1 after 2 years for the control and irrigated plots. Across both years, irrigation increased wood productivity by 52% (42.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1 versus 28.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1). Water use was similar between the control and irrigated treatments during the wet year, but irrigation increased water use by 37% in the normal rainfall year. The efficiency of water use (wood production per m3 of transpired water) in the control treatment increased from the normal year (1.8 kg wood/m³ of water) to the wet year (3.2 wood/m³ of water), and irrigation increased water use efficiency by 18% in the wet year, 75% in the normal year, and 32% across both years. In combination with prior work on water use efficiency across a geographic gradient in rainfall, these irrigation results indicate that increasing water use efficiency should be expected with increasing water use by Eucalyptus.

  16. Implementation of new technologies in wood industry and their effect in wood products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVA ÇAUSHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania. This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic market demand. The remaining 20% of domestic market needs in wood furniture are afforded by import. Small entities do not make serious investment in technology. Big enterprises such as Ardeno in Tirana, Biçaku in Durres, Shaga in Tirana, Ital-wood in Elbasan, Dafinori in Shkoder, etc., have made remarkable investments in their technology. They have installed several mechanized lines of production. So, Ital-wood has invested in a mechanized saw timber production line; Bicaku in wood panels coated with PVC lines; Dafinori in a wood handrail production technologic line; Ardeno in wooden chairs production technologic lines, and Shaga in the production of furniture with particle panels. These enterprises are using modern numerical command machines, vacuum presses for gluing PVC, cutting equipment for panels with laser ray, finishing lines with electrostatic field, modern lines of pneumatic transport for wood dust etc. These investments in new technologies have increased the quantity and quality of native wood products.

  17. Morphology of wood species affecting wood-thermoplastic interaction: microstructure and mechanical adhesion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    William, Gacitua; Michael, Wolcott.

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research presented here is to relate anatomical features of wood species that affect the interactions between polymeric phases and performance of wood plastic composites (WPC). These interactions are related to the probable interlocking volume and surface area for stress tr [...] ansfer in a WPC. Composites were produced from different wood species and analyzed using SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Results showed that wood species with high interfacial areas may increase mechanical interlocking, reflected in the viscous constant of the Maxwell model. A complicating factor is that the relation of cell wall thickness-lumen diameter and the interconnectivity between wood cells in a wood, affect the potential for cell collapse. When wood cells collapse, the penetration of the thermoplastic into the wood structure is almost always ceased. The collapse of wood cells during extrusion-injection molding processes reduced the potential surface for stress transfer between phases affecting the mechanical properties of composites. Undamaged wood cells may potentially be filled with HDPE thermoplastic enhancing modulus and increase the strength of WPC.

  18. INFLUENCE OF LIQUEFIED AND CCB CONTAINING LIQUEFIED WOOD ON GROWTH OF WOOD DECAY FUNGI

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, Hrastnik; F, Budija; M, Humar; M, Petri& #269; .

    2013-05-28

    Full Text Available There are high amounts of post-consumed protected waste wood removed from service every year. The residual biocides, including copper, chromium and boron from CCB (Cu, Cr, B) in post-consumed wood that was protected with biocides may cause environmental problems during waste management, for example [...] during land filling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out if Cu and Cr in the processed waste wood, previously treated with CCB, can be re-used as a wood preservative or in coatings made of liquefied wood. Liquefaction of CCB containing waste wood could be as well the first step in the elimination process of metals. So, the optimal conditions for liquefaction of CCB (Cu, Cr and B) containing black poplar (Populus nigra L.) wood were established and compared with liquefaction of uncontaminated black poplar wood. The reactants for liquefaction of black poplar wood sawdust were ethylene glycol (EG) and sulphuric acid. It was observed that in the last stages of the liquefaction process, the presence of Cu, Cr and B did not have any influence on liquefaction yield (LY), while their influence was observed in first stages of the solvolytic reaction. Investigations of fungicidal properties of uncontaminated and CCB containing liquefied wood showed higher antifungal efficacy of liquefied wood without Cu, Cr and B than of liquefied wood that contained CCB. In the tested concentration range, the presence of Cu even promoted the growth of selected wood decay fungi. One of the reasons for higher toxicity of liquefied black poplar sawdust without Cu, Cr and B, was its very low pH value.

  19. INFLUENCE OF LIQUEFIED AND CCB CONTAINING LIQUEFIED WOOD ON GROWTH OF WOOD DECAY FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Hrastnik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are high amounts of post-consumed protected waste wood removed from service every year. The residual biocides, including copper, chromium and boron from CCB (Cu, Cr, B in post-consumed wood that was protected with biocides may cause environmental problems during waste management, for example during land filling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out if Cu and Cr in the processed waste wood, previously treated with CCB, can be re-used as a wood preservative or in coatings made of liquefied wood. Liquefaction of CCB containing waste wood could be as well the first step in the elimination process of metals. So, the optimal conditions for liquefaction of CCB (Cu, Cr and B containing black poplar (Populus nigra L. wood were established and compared with liquefaction of uncontaminated black poplar wood. The reactants for liquefaction of black poplar wood sawdust were ethylene glycol (EG and sulphuric acid. It was observed that in the last stages of the liquefaction process, the presence of Cu, Cr and B did not have any influence on liquefaction yield (LY, while their influence was observed in first stages of the solvolytic reaction. Investigations of fungicidal properties of uncontaminated and CCB containing liquefied wood showed higher antifungal efficacy of liquefied wood without Cu, Cr and B than of liquefied wood that contained CCB. In the tested concentration range, the presence of Cu even promoted the growth of selected wood decay fungi. One of the reasons for higher toxicity of liquefied black poplar sawdust without Cu, Cr and B, was its very low pH value.

  20. Interferometric processing of C-band SAR data for the improvement of stand age estimation in rubber plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisasongko, Bambang H.; Paull, David J.; Panuju, Dyah R.

    2015-01-01

    Rubber ranks the second largest plantation in Indonesia after oil palm. While oil palm plantations have been exploited mainly by large companies, many rubber plantations are still managed by peasant farmers who maintain its biodiversity. Due to its broad and scattered location, monitoring tropical rubber plantation is a crucial application of active remote sensing. In this paper, the backscatter coefficient of Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) is compared to interferometric coherence to study the relationship between stand age and SAR parameters. It is shown that VV polarized C-band SAR achieves its saturation level in plantations aged about 5-10 years. Extension of saturation level can be achieved by processing an interferometric pair of ASAR data, which results in interferometric coherence. In this paper, coherence can take up to 20 years stand age to achieve prior to saturation. Since stand age is highly related to biomass, this finding argues that the biomass can be best estimated using coherence.

  1. Simulation of a rubber plantation productivity in central Cambodia using the individual-based dynamic vegetation model SEIB-DGVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, T.; SATO, H.; Shinjiro, Ph. D., F.

    2013-12-01

    To provide a useful tool for building strategy of forest plantation management, we developed the Spatially Explicit Individual-Based (SEIB) Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) applicable to simulate productivity of tree plantations (SEIB-PP). Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers that are being replaced. Describing both primary and latex productivities in rubber plantations via SEIB-PP is, therefore, important to understanding the climatic impacts on productive processes. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia, and here, we show some examples of projections: the rubber plantation production under future climate change conditions.

  2. Carbon sequestration and water use of a young hybrid poplar plantation in north-central Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid poplar (HP) is an important fast-growing crop with the potential to provide a reliable supply of biomass for the pulp and bioenergy industries while also sequestering carbon (C) in the soil. We used the eddy-covariance technique to measure CO2, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes above a three-year-old HP plantation on high productivity land near St Albert, Alberta. Measurements showed that the annual C balance of the plantation shifted from a C source of about 1.54 Mg C ha?1 y?1 in the 2nd year (2010) to a C sink of 0.80 Mg C ha?1 y?1 in the 3rd year (2011). Water use or evapotranspiration (E) for 1 June – 31 October increased from 272 mm in 2010 to 321 mm in 2011, and exceeded the respective values of total precipitation of 251 mm and 298 mm for the same period. Annual E in 2010 of 364 mm was less than annual precipitation of 398 mm. In 2011, annual E (442 mm) exceeded annual P (411 mm) by 31 mm; it also exceeded the annual plantation water use Ewb, estimated using a water balance method assuming no drainage from the root zone, by 40 mm. However, both courses of cumulative E and Ewb closely followed cumulative P. Monthly E increased with increasing net radiation and gross primary productivity. Growing season mean albedo increased from 0.16 in 2010 to 0.21 in 2011 and was consistent with the increase in broadband NDVI. Values of albedo during winter months (November–April) exceeded 0.80. The results suggested that as the plantation grows, growing season albedo, annual C sequestration, and annual water use will increase with the possibility that the latter may exceed annual precipitation. This emphasizes the need to study the long-term sustainability of HP plantations in relation to annual P and its temporal distribution, especially when HP plantations will likely be established on large contiguous areas to supply biomass feedstock for the expanding pulp and bioenergy industries in Western Canada. -- Highlights: •The plantation was a C source of 1.54 Mg C ha?1 y?1 in the 2nd year. •It shifted to a C sink of 0.80 Mg C ha?1 y?1 in the 3rd year. •Annual water use increased from 364 mm in the 2nd year to 442 mm in the 3rd year. •Water use in the 3rd year exceeded annual precipitation (411 mm). •The need to study long-term sustainability of HP plantations is emphasized

  3. Rehabilitation of an old palm-tree plantation in Ivory Coas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abodou Ake, N.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In the "Sous-prefecture" of Anyama, South-east of Ivory Coast, an old palm-tree plantation run at village level had to be replaced by another activity such as cassava cultivation or broiler production. The success of such a rehabilitation is closely associated with an adequate choice of the new agricultural activity, with technical competence, with the acceptance of the new techniques and with an appropriate regional extension service. The conjunction of all these factors has made the operation a success. The poultry production is more profitable than cassava to substitute palm-oil plantation in the context concerned.

  4. The Study of the Ecological Problems of Eucalyptus Plantation and Sustainable Development in Maoming Xiaoliang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the eucalyptus plantation industry develops rapidly in Xiaoliang Soil and Water Conservation Station of Maoming city, Guangdong Province. It has brought enormous economic benefits for regional economicdevelopment, and also brings many ecological problems. Based on the analysis about the advantages and disadvantages of the eucalyptus plantation industry development, the researches about the laws of its development and characteristics, and the exploration about good strategies for its sustainable development, this paper has important realistic significance to promote the healthy and steady development of regional economy.

  5. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations Balanço de N em solos sob plantações de eucalipto

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto; Antonio Carlos da Gama-Rodrigues; Emanuela Forestieri da Gama-Rodrigues; Nairam Félix de Barros

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N) pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years). Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: M...

  6. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CALLISTO M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  7. Incidences and severity of vascular wilt in Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maid, Mandy; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidences and severity of vascular wilt disease associated with dieback in stands of commercial Acacia mangium plantations. The study revealed that the prevalence of the symptoms is high between 50 to 60% in two plantations, where it is found scattered in the plots that were surveyed. The incidence of the disease in each plot is low between 0 to 6%. The disease symptoms were more often found where the symptom syndrome in a chronic (level 3) or critical state (level 4). This suggests that the causal pathogen has the ability to penetrate into the tissues of the plants and only display symptoms at the latest stage.

  8. Growth performance of cork oak plantations recently established on farmlands in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dettori S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, significant forestry activities have taken place in Sardinia thanks to EU Regulation 2080/92 funds. Some 80% of the afforestated surface has been planted with holm oak and cork oak. The latter also characterizes 89% of the reforestation area. Given the funding source, plantations have been established on farmlands. Growth performances of these recent cork oak stands have been quantitatively evaluated and compared with the performances of two experimental plots. In Gallura (north-east of Sardinia, that is the traditional cork production area and still is economically the most important cork district of the island, these new cork oak plantations have an average size of 28 ha. They have been established on lands that, before plantation, were either pastures (30% or arable lands (70%. Plantation failures are limited to 8.8% of the total (in term of mass and seem independent of environmental factors or plantations species composition (conifers have been frequently used as secondary species. Average growth of the stem, measured above cork at collar height, is in the range 4 to 8mm/year with a mean value of 5.5mm/year. No correlation appears with either environmental conditions or species composition of the plantations. In the first experimental plot, soil management practices (natural vegetation removal vs its cutting and mulching does not differentiate young plants growth trends. In the control subplots (no removal stem collar diameter is 20% smaller. Localized manual hoeing around trunk base increased the diameters by 13% but reduced cork thickness by 21%. The second experimental plot allows comparisons among 27 Mediterranean proveniences of cork oak. The trial exhibits reduced genetic influence: diameters and heights growth are significantly different only among extreme groups. In conclusion, reduced growth performances of the plantations established in farmlands is due, to some extent, to the limitations inherent with private land management (constrained to costs minimization and, on the other hand, to the generally very limited thickness of Gallura soils. Demand for good quality commercial cork is steadily raising. To sustain the request, in the short term, it would be necessary to extend financial support for plantations care, from 5 to 10 years, or even up to the first stripping (virgin cork.

  9. Determination of Specific Leaf Area and Leaf Area-leaf Mass Relationship in Oil Palm Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Awal, M. A.; Wan Ishak; J. Endan; M. Haniff

    2004-01-01

    Specific leaf area (SLA), the ratio of leaf area to leaf mass is the most important determinant of oil palm growth, which is used in growth monitoring of oil palm and many crop simulation models to estimate total leaf area. Leaf dry weight and leaf area were determined by destructive methods in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study was to obtain suitable linear model for estimation of leaf area and calculation SLA of oil palm plantation with less error of estimation. The SLA was pl...

  10. Measurements and modelling of interception loss from a Eucalyptus plantation in southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of interception loss from a nine year old plantation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Karnataka, southern India, are described. Annual interception losses are low, ?10% of the rainfall, compared with many other tree species. The results are used to optimize the parameters in a detailed stochastic model operating on hourly data. This model is used to develop a simpler daily model allowing the extrapolation of the results no longer time periods and the prediction of interception loss using only measurements of daily rainfall. The implications of these results are considered in the context to the total water use of eucalypt plantation

  11. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refsrom Estonian forests 3 refs

  12. Wood impregnation of yeast lees for winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomero, Felipe; Bertani, Paolo; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Benito, Santiago; Morata, Antonio; Suárez-Lepe, José A

    2015-03-15

    This study develops a new method to produce more complex wines by means of an indirect diffusion of wood aromas from yeast cell-walls. An exogenous lyophilized biomass was macerated with an ethanol wood extract solution and subsequently dried. Different times were used for the adsorption of polyphenols and volatile compounds to the yeast cell-walls. The analysis of polyphenols and volatile compounds (by HPLC/DAD and GC-MS, respectively) demonstrate that the adsorption/diffusion of these compounds from the wood to the yeast takes place. Red wines were also aged with Saccharomyces cerevisiae lees that had been impregnated with wood aromas and subsequently dried. Four different types of wood were used: chestnut, cherry, acacia and oak. Large differences were observed between the woods studied with regards to their volatile and polyphenolic profiles. Sensory evaluations confirmed large differences even with short-term contact between the wines and the lees, showing that the method could be of interest for red wine making. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential of using woods other than oak in cooperage. PMID:25308662

  13. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  14. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  15. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Crescimento e produção de plantios comerciais de eucalipto estimados por duas categorias de modelos / Growth and yield of commercial plantations of eucalyptus estimated by two categories of models

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Vinícius Oliveira, Castro; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Fabrina Bolzan, Martins; Helio Garcia, Leite.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e comparar duas categorias de modelos de crescimento e produção em plantios comerciais de eucalipto. Para isso, foram ajustados um modelo de crescimento e produção para povoamento e outro para árvore individual, por meio de equações simultâneas e redes neurais a [...] rtificiais, respectivamente. O volume de madeira por área foi estimado em diferentes idades e classes de produtividade. Foram avaliados dados de 63 parcelas permanentes de plantios clonais, não desbastados, do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, com os dados de 33 parcelas utilizados para o ajuste do modelo e o treinamento das redes neurais, e os das 30 parcelas restantes, para a validação dos modelos. As duas categorias de modelos ajustaram-se bem aos dados observados. No entanto, na validação dos modelos com dados independentes, o volume de madeira por área foi mais bem estimado com o modelo para árvore individual. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate and compare two categories of growth and yield models of commercial plantations of eucalyptus. For that, a whole stand model, and an individual tree growth model were adjusted through simultaneous equations and artificial neural networks, respectively. Wood [...] volume per area was estimated for tree different ages and productivity classes. Data of 63 permanent plots of unthinned clonal hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were evaluated, from which those referring to 33 plots were used for model fitting and neural network training, and those referring to the other 30 plots were used for model validation. The two categories of models adjusted well to the observed data. However, for the validation of the models with independent data, the wood volume per area was better estimated with the individual tree growth model.

  17. Emissions from wood domestic heating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much research has been carried out to study emissions from wood domestic heating appliances. This work reviews the available emission factors about pollutants produced in different types of wood domestic heating appliances. The main sources of pollutants are older stoves that in most cases are used as an additional heating appliance. These stoves causes higher emissions than modern appliances. Then, substitution of an old type wood appliance with a modern appliance or boiler or a pellet boilers, would reduce considerably emissions in this sector. The efficiency of this measure is estimated for each pollutant. (author)

  18. Study on polymer wood production by radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy radiation is an excellent initiator for the polymerization of monomer-impregnated wood. This method of wood upgrading was first tried in 1958. Since then, many works have been carried through in that field. - This study attempts to report as comprehensively as possible on the current state of this sector of applied radiochemistry. The bases of radiation chemistry are briefly touched. The monomers and wood types that come into question as well as the techniques are discussed. The article deals with questions related to the possibilities of use and the economic efficiency. (orig./HP)

  19. Irradiation effects in wood and cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For cellulosic materials the predominant effect of high energy radiation is depolymerisation and degradation by chain scission, although there is some evidence that crosslinking or cellulose stabilisation can occur under certain conditions. When the cellulose is in the form of a natural product such as wood, where it is intimately associated with other polysaccharides, lignins, resins and gums, the effects of radiation can be significantly modified. Examination of cellulose produced by chemical pulping treatment of wood which had been previously given small doses of radiation, showed significant differences in the extent of cellulose depolymerisation with different wood species. The relevance of this work to the paper pulp industry will also be discussed. (author)

  20. Strong air pollution from old wood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to this article, wood-firing is the major source of suspended dust in Norway. Old stoves emit about six times as much as new stoves. Only seven percent of the wood-firing takes place in modern, clean-burning stoves. In Oslo, where replacement of old stoves has been publicly supported, this fraction is even less. The emission of carbon dioxide from burning wood does not count as climate gas emission since the amount of CO2 released from a burning tree equals the amount that was fixed in the growing tree, and it would have been released anyhow by the decaying tree if not burned

  1. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    A. W. Noraida; A. S. Abdul-Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there wa...

  2. Environmental assessment of domestic wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, more than 6 million families are concerned with the domestic use of wood energy. The wood energy plan of ADEME aims at encouraging the development of wood energy in three sectors: domestic, collective/tertiary, industrial. In that context, ADEME commissioned BIO Intelligence Service a life cycle assessment of collective and industrial heating in order to give objective environmental information and to analyse the strength and weakness of wood heating. Three scenarios were defined according to the origin of wood: firewood, granules and sawmill chips. The study also proposes a comparison to other heating systems: gas, fuel oil and electricity. The life cycle analysis applied to domestic heating consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of the whole linked steps: extraction of fuel, distribution, final use... Every system under study has been divided according to three main stages: - Extraction of raw materials; - Transport of fuels until the place of storage or distribution; - Use (combustion or upstream production of energy in the case of electricity). The environmental impacts are estimated with the following indicators: - Non renewable primary energy balance sheet; - Global warming potential; - Air acidification potential; - Eutrophication potential; - Emissions of toxic metals in air and in soils. The results show that wood heating have the best energy and global warming balance sheets. For air acidification, the combustion stage is pre-dominant ron, the combustion stage is pre-dominant regardless of the energy resource. This is mainly due to nitrogen and sulphur oxides airborne emissions. For wood heating, preparation requires fuel consumption which also contributes significantly to nitrogen oxides emissions. The comparison with conventional energy shows that the wood scenarios are well positioned in relation to fuel and electricity for this indicator. Gas appears to be the best heating option for this indicator. The contribution eutrophication is also due to nitrogen oxides airborne emissions of during combustion. The preparation of wood and transport has a significant contribution to nitrogen oxides air-borne emissions. The natural gas heating and electricity appear to be most beneficial for this indicator. For wood heating, the combustion stage accounts for 95% of air emissions of toxic metals. The natural gas heating is proving to be the most advantageous while heating with wood present the most damaging. The wood heating also emerges as the least well-positioned for emissions of toxic metals in soils. This is linked to the metals contained in ash, half of which is regarded as applied in the garden. The main means to improve the environmental balance sheet are: - Optimisation of the fuel supply chain (Increasing energy efficiency of processes for example); - Increasing combustion efficiency would improve the environmental impacts linked to airborne emissions of pollutants. (author)

  3. Plasma-chemical surface engineering of wood

    OpenAIRE

    A. Soko?owska; J. Szaw?owski; I. Fr?ckowiak; Rudnicki, J.; P. Boruszewski; Beer, P (Pieter); A. Olszyna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Wood infiltrated with nano-silica hydrosol forms a “weak”, irregular composite of components bound with hydrogen bonds only. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of low-energy ions bombardment on the structure and properties of the surface of this composite. The aim of these investigations was to produce a shallow “buried” layer of a dense wood-ceramic composite on a wood surface .Design/methodology/approach: D.c. glow-discharge in N2/H2 (9:11) atmosphere under ...

  4. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650 trees in total. Weed control was practiced during the previous 3 years using post emergence herbicides under no-tillage over about 2/3 of the field, and over the remaining 1/3 by mechanical weeding using a rotary cultivator. For yield mapping, olives were collected manually using rods to shake the tree shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m resolution). In addition, 91 cores of soil were taken at a depth of 0–30 cm on a 30-m systematic sampling grid corresponding to a density of 10 soil samples per ha. The soil properties measured were penetration resistance, soil texture, organic matter, pH, P, NO3–N, K, Mg, Zn, Mn, Fe, B and Ca contents. The effect of the method of weed control on the soil condition for post emergence herbicides under no-tillage versus rotary cultivation was evaluated on the basis of soil organic matter content and penetration resistance. The data were analyzed using both descriptive statistics and geostatistical methods. Maps were created as a basis for site-specific management of P, K and lime, and these were applied 15 days after harvest in the winter of 2008. The results indicated considerable spatial variation in yield and soil properties. The soil organic matter content was about 22% greater and the penetration resistance about 26% less in the areas under no-tillage. The mean pH increased from 5.9 to 7.0 as a result of lime application in the areas with pH below 6.5.

  5. Impact of Community Involvement in Urban Plantation and Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif-ur-Rehman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the value of plants in creating a positive community atmosphere, urban planners have looked at the role of plants in several related areas such as environmental preferences and perceptions, neighborhood satisfaction and economic impact including residential property value and value to recreation and tourism. In urban tree-planting planning, sociological factors may be more important than biological factors in terms of tree survival because planting without community involvement in planning or implementations lacks support at the grass root level and is therefor open to all kind of hazards. Faisalabad is the third biggest city of Pakistan and is presently undergoing a developmental transition form a sort of semi-rural to an urban outfit with new roads, parks, green belts and waterways under construction and old ones being renovated. A research study was designed to assess the changing requirements and responses of the population of residential areas and institutions of the city in respect of landscaping/tree plantation. A questionnaire was developed to document the perception of people visiting the sites and interviews were held with the residents who were prepared to donate funds for landscaping activities. The landscape plan/design was developed on the basis of document analysis according to the requirements of the people both visiting and residing there. Different features like walking tracks, dust bins, child play areas, flowering shrubs for semi privacy and trees for complete privacy were included in the landscape design. All the selected trees and shrubs were evergreen because they require minimum maintenance and contributed more to greenery in the dry environment. The design received a quick response from the community and had great impact on Faisalabad environment. All the wasteland in the interior city has been greatly improved and it helped to curb pollution, enhance blodiversity and beautify the city at the same time. The general community as well as industrial communities funded the projects, which showed that whole community as well as improve upon the environment, which ultimately reflected the changing attitude of citizens of Faisalabad towards landscaping. It was also evident that without community involvement, urban planning cannot work no matter planning and execution process.

  6. Aggregate stability in citrus plantations. The impact of drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Arcenegui, V.

    2012-04-01

    Soil aggregate stability is a key property for soil and water conservation, and a synthetic parameter to quantify the soil degradation. Aggregation is relevant in soils where vegetation cover is scarce (Cerdà, 1996). Most of the research carried out to determine the soil aggregate stability was done in forest soils (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011) and little is done on farms (Cerdà, 2000). The research have show the effect of vegetation cover on soil aggregate stability (Cerdà, 1998) but little is known when vegetation is scarce, rare or not found such it can be seeing in agriculture soils. Then, aggregation is the main factor to control the soil losses and to improve the water availability. Moreover, agriculture management can improve the soil aggregate characteristics and the first step in this direction should be to quantify the aggregate stability. There is no information about the aggregate stability of soils under citrus production, although the research did show that the soil losses in the farms with citrus plantations is very high (Cerdà et al., 2009), and that aggregation should play a key role as the soils are bare due to the widespread use of herbicides. From 2009 to