WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Geospatial analysis based on GIS integrated with LADAR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, we describe multi-layered analyses of a high-resolution broad-area LADAR data set in support of expeditionary activities. High-level features are extracted from the LADAR data, such as the presence and location of buildings and cars, and then these features are used to populate a GIS (geographic information system) tool. We also apply line-of-sight (LOS) analysis to develop a path-planning module. Finally, visualization is addressed and enhanced with a gesture-based control system that allows the user to navigate through the enhanced data set in a virtual immersive experience. This work has operational applications including military, security, disaster relief, and task-based robotic path planning.

Fetterman MR; Freking R; Fernandez-Cull C; Hinkle CW; Myne A; Relyea S; Winslow J

2013-10-01

2

Geiger-mode ladar cameras  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of Geiger-mode LAser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) cameras is primarily defined by individual pixel attributes, such as dark count rate (DCR), photon detection efficiency (PDE), jitter, and crosstalk. However, for the expanding LADAR imaging applications, other factors, such as image uniformity, component tolerance, manufacturability, reliability, and operational features, have to be considered. Recently we have developed new 32×32 and 32×128 Read-Out Integrated Circuits (ROIC) for LADAR applications. With multiple filter and absorber structures, the 50-?m-pitch arrays demonstrate pixel crosstalk less than 100 ppm level, while maintaining a PDE greater than 40% at 4 V overbias. Besides the improved epitaxial and process uniformity of the APD arrays, the new ROICs implement a Non-uniform Bias (NUB) circuit providing 4-bit bias voltage tunability over a 2.5 V range to individually bias each pixel. All these features greatly increase the performance uniformity of the LADAR camera. Cameras based on these ROICs were integrated with a data acquisition system developed by Boeing DES. The 32×32 version has a range gate of up to 7 ?s and can cover a range window of about 1 km with 14-bit and 0.5 ns timing resolution. The 32×128 camera can be operated at a frame rate of up to 20 kHz with 0.3 ns and 14-bit time resolution through a full CameraLink. The performance of the 32×32 LADAR camera has been demonstrated in a series of field tests on various vehicles.

Yuan, Ping; Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Bai, Xiaogang; Boisvert, Joseph; McDonald, Paul; Labios, Eduardo; Morris, Bryan; Nicholson, John P.; Stuart, Gary M.; Danny, Harrison; van Duyne, Stephen; Pauls, Greg; Gaalema, Stephen

2011-05-01

3

HgCdTe APD-based linear-mode photon counting components and ladar receivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Linear mode photon counting (LMPC) provides significant advantages in comparison with Geiger Mode (GM) Photon Counting including absence of after-pulsing, nanosecond pulse to pulse temporal resolution and robust operation in the present of high density obscurants or variable reflectivity objects. For this reason Raytheon has developed and previously reported on unique linear mode photon counting components and modules based on combining advanced APDs and advanced high gain circuits. By using HgCdTe APDs we enable Poisson number preserving photon counting. A metric of photon counting technology is dark count rate and detection probability. In this paper we report on a performance breakthrough resulting from improvement in design, process and readout operation enabling >10x reduction in dark counts rate to ~10,000 cps and >104x reduction in surface dark current enabling long 10 ms integration times. Our analysis of key dark current contributors suggest that substantial further reduction in DCR to ~ 1/sec or less can be achieved by optimizing wavelength, operating voltage and temperature.

Jack, Michael; Wehner, Justin; Edwards, John; Chapman, George; Hall, Donald N. B.; Jacobson, Shane M.

2011-05-01

4

Spectral LADAR: active range-resolved three-dimensional imaging spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present the concept and experimental results for Spectral LADAR, an augmented LADAR imager combining three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight ranging with active multispectral sensing in the shortwave infrared (1080-1620 nm). The demonstrated technique is based on a nanosecond regime pulsed supercontinuum transmitter and spectrally multiplexed receiver that computes a high-resolution range value for each of 25 spectral bands. A low frame-rate prototype unit is described. Results demonstrating 3D imaging and material type classification of objects, especially those obscured by camouflage, are shown at effective stand-off ranges exceeding 40 m. These capabilities and the highly eye safe wavelengths at which the system operates make it suitable for applications in military imaging and robotic perception.

Powers MA; Davis CC

2012-04-01

5

Method to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of photon-counting chirped amplitude modulation ladar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Photon-counting chirped amplitude modulation (PCCAM) ladar employs Geiger mode avalanche photodiode as a detector. After the detector corresponding to the echo signal is reflected from an object or target, the modulation depth (MD) of the detection outputs has some certain loss relative to that of the transmitting signal. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of PCCAM ladar is mainly determined by the MD of detection outputs of the echo signal. There is a proper echo signal intensity that can decrease the MD loss and improve the SNR of the ladar receiver. In this paper, an improved PCCAM ladar system is presented, which employs an echo signal intensity optimization strategy with an iris diaphragm under different signal and noise intensities. The improved system is demonstrated with the background noise of a sunny day and the echo signal intensity from 0.1 to 10 counts/ns. The experimental results show that it can effectively improve the SNR of the ladar receiver compared with the typical PCCAM ladar system.

Zhang Z; Wu L; Zhang Y; Zhao Y

2013-01-01

6

Object Based Systems Engineering (OBSE).  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: (1) Communicate the background (past & current state) & motivation for Object Based Systems Engineering (OBSE); (2) Communicate the evolution of Systems Engineering practice; (3) Communicate the concepts of OBSE; (4) Communicate the roadblocks...

J. A. Fitch P. Mendonza

2011-01-01

7

Crossmodal object-based attention: auditory objects affect visual processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the object-based view, visual attention can be deployed to "objects" or perceptual units, regardless of spatial locations. Recently, however, the notion of object has also been extended to the auditory domain, with some authors suggesting possible interactions between visual and auditory objects. Here we show that task-irrelevant auditory objects may affect the deployment of visual attention, providing evidence that crossmodal links can also occur at an object-based level. Hence, in addition to the well documented control of visual objects over what we hear, our findings demonstrate that, in some cases, auditory objects can affect visual processing. PMID:15925569

Turatto, Massimo; Mazza, Veronica; Umiltà, Carlo

2005-06-01

8

Range accuracy of a gated-viewing system compared to a 3D flash LADAR under different turbulence conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

While a Gated-Viewing system primarily provides the intensity values of the captured laser radiation, it is also possible to determine range information in a static scenario by the sliding gates method. In this paper, we compare this method to a time-of-flight based 3-D Flash LADAR technique in terms of range accuracy under moderate and strong turbulence conditions. The first method requires several Gated-Viewing images (several laser pulses) with stepwise increased gate delay times. For a 3-D Flash LADAR system, one laser pulse is sufficient because for each pixel the range is determined by the time-of-flight method. We have combined a Gated-Viewing camera (640 × 480 pixels) as well as a 3-D Flash LADAR camera (128 × 128 pixels) with a pulsed 1.57 ?m laser source. The maximal laser pulse energy was 67 mJ. We have conducted field measurements at different times of day. Two reflectance panels and a vehicle at a distance of 2 km were recorded. The plates were positioned diagonal to the line of sight with an angle of about 45 degrees in order to determine range accuracies. In addition, a laser scintillometer provided atmospheric turbulence strength along the propagation path.

Göhler, Benjamin; Lutzmann, Peter

2010-10-01

9

Retratamento de LASIK com fotoablação personalizada versus fotoablação convencional utilizando o LADAR: Alcon LASIK retreatment with customized versus conventional photo-ablation using LADAR: Alcon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Avaliar os resultados do retratamento convencional (LADAR, Alcon) e do retratamento personalizado(LADARWave, Alcon) em olhos submetidos a LASIK primário convencional. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários consecutivos, de 38 olhos em 38 pacientes, submetidos a retratamento de LASIK para correção de miopia e astigmatismo. Os olhos operados foram divididos em dois grupos iguais. No primeiro grupo foi realizado o retratamento personalizado e, no outro, o retratamento convencional. As seguintes variáveis foram comparadas: acuidade visual de alto contraste e refração manifesta. A qualidade visual foi estimada e comparada através de inquérito subjetivo proposto aos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos comparando-se as variáveis estudadas. O equivalente esférico pós-retratamento foi de 0,36 no grupo convencional e de 0,47 no personalizado (p=0,079). A acuidade visual de Snellen foi de 0,91 e 0,87, respectivamente, com p=0,07. O total de aberrações pré-operatório foi maior do que o pós-operatório no grupo personalizado (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of conventional (Ladar, Alcon) and customized (LADARWave, Alcon) retreatment ineyes undergoing conventional primary LASIK. METHODS: Retrospective revision of consecutive clinical report forms of 38 eyes of 38 patients who underwent LASIK retreatment for myopia and astigmatism. The operated eyes were divided into two equal groups. In the first was performed customized retreatment and, in the other, conventional retreatment. The following variables were compared: high contrast visual acuity and manifest refraction. The visual quality was estimated and compared using subjective survey offered to patients. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the groups when comparing the variables studied. The spherical equivalent after retreatment was 0.36 in the conventional group and 0.47 in the custom (p = 0.079). Snelen visual acuity was 0.91 and 0.87, respectively (p = 0.07). The preoperative total aberrations was higher than the postoperative period in custom group (p <0.001). In the conventional group there was no difference for any aberration evaluated. Complaints of glare (p = 0.117), photophobia (p = 0.987) and vision fluctuation (p = 0.545) were statistically similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Comparing the custom and conventional surgery for primary LASIK retreatment with LADAR, Alcon, there wasno statistical difference in the quantity and quality of vision. Nevertheless, there was a higher percentage of patients with complaints in relation to the visual quality in the group undergoing conventional surgery. Custom surgery seems to have greater capacity to reduce the total aberrations than conventional.

Lucas Monferrari Monteiro Vianna; Heloisa Moraes do Nascimento; Mauro Campos

2011-01-01

10

Interactive experiments in object-based retrieval  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object-based retrieval is a modality for video retrieval based on segmenting objects from video and allowing end-users to use these objects as part of querying. This uses similarity between query objects and objects appearing in the video, and in theory allows retrieval based on what is actually app...

Sav, Sorin Vasile; Jones, Gareth J.F.; Lee, Hyowon; O'Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.

11

Object-based coding for plenoptic videos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new object-based coding system for a class of dynamic image-based representations called plenoptic videos (PVs) is proposed. PVs are simplified dynamic light fields, where the videos are taken at regularly spaced locations along line segments instead of a 2-D plane. In the proposed object-based ap...

Ng, KT; Wu, Q; Chan, SC; Shum, HY

12

Perceptual Load Modulates Object-Based Attention  

Science.gov (United States)

|Two experimental series are reported using both reaction time (RT) and a data-limited perceptual report to examine the effects of perceptual load on object-based attention. Perceptual load was manipulated across 3 levels by increasing the complexity of perceptual judgments. Data from the RT-based experiments showed object-based effects when the…

Ho, Ming-Chou; Atchley, Paul

2009-01-01

13

Target recognition of ladar range images using even-order Zernike moments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ladar range images have attracted considerable attention in automatic target recognition fields. In this paper, Zernike moments (ZMs) are applied to classify the target of the range image from an arbitrary azimuth angle. However, ZMs suffer from high computational costs. To improve the performance of target recognition based on small samples, even-order ZMs with serial-parallel backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs) are applied to recognize the target of the range image. It is found that the rotation invariance and classified performance of the even-order ZMs are both better than for odd-order moments and for moments compressed by principal component analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that combining the even-order ZMs with serial-parallel BPNNs can significantly improve the recognition rate for small samples. PMID:23128699

Liu, Zheng-Jun; Li, Qi; Xia, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Qi

2012-11-01

14

Coherent and incoherent synthetic-aperture imaging ladars and laboratory-space experimental demonstrations [Invited].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reviews our studies on coherent and incoherent synthetic-aperture imaging ladars (SAILs). Using optical diffraction, a systematic theory of side-looking SAIL was mathematically formulated and the necessary conditions for assuring a correct phase history are established. Based on optical transformation and regulation of wavefront, a down-looking SAIL of two distinctive architectures was invented and the basic principle, systematic theory, design equations, and necessary conditions are presented. An incoherent spotlight-mode SAIL was proposed, and detailed mathematically. To validate the concepts, laboratory experiments were conducted. The spatially and temporally dependent laser speckles are analyzed by applying the partial coherence theorem, and proposals to reduce their effect are given. Optical antennas and their components are discussed. It is shown that for down-looking SAIL the width of the scanning strip may be greatly increased without loss of high resolution, and the influences from atmospheric turbulence and unmodeled line-of-sight motion can be automatically compensated.

Liu L

2013-02-01

15

Speedy Object Detection Based on Shape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is a part of design of an audio system for in-house object detection system for visually impaired,low vision personnel by birth or by an accident ordue to old age. The input of the system will be scene andoutput as audio. Alert facility is provided based on severity levels of the objects (snake, broke glass etc) andalso during difficulties. The study proposed techniques to provide speedy detection of objects based onshapes and its scale. Features are extraction to have minimum spaces using dynamic scaling. From ascene, clusters of objects are formed based on thescale and shape. Searching is performed among theclusters initially based on the shape, scale, meancluster value and index of object(s). The minimumoperation to detect the possible shape of the object is performed. In case the object does not have alikelymatching shape, scale etc, then the several operations required for an object detection will not perform;instead, it will declared as a new object. In suchway, this study finds a speedy way of detecting objects.

Y. Jayanta Singh; Shalu Gupta

2013-01-01

16

Object manipulation facilitates kind-based object individuation of shape-similar objects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were partially replicated, showing that infants were able to individuate two natural-looking exemplars from different categories, but not two exemplars from the same category. In Experiment 3, infants failed to individuate two shape-similar exemplars (from Pauen, 2002a) from different categories. However, Experiment 4 revealed that allowing infants to manipulate objects shortly before the individuation task enabled them to individuate shape-similar objects from different categories. In Experiment 5, allowing object manipulation did not induce infants to individuate natural-looking objects from the same category. These findings suggest that object manipulation facilitates kind-based individuation of shape-similar objects by 12-month-olds. Keywords: Object individuation; Object shape; Object manipulation; Kind representations; Infancy

Kingo, Osman Skjold; KrØjgaard, Peter

2011-01-01

17

Retratamento de LASIK com fotoablação personalizada versus fotoablação convencional utilizando o LADAR: Alcon/ LASIK retreatment with customized versus conventional photo-ablation using LADAR: Alcon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO:Avaliar os resultados do retratamento convencional (LADAR, Alcon) e do retratamento personalizado(LADARWave, Alcon) em olhos submetidos a LASIK primário convencional. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários consecutivos, de 38 olhos em 38 pacientes, submetidos a retratamento de LASIK para correção de miopia e astigmatismo. Os olhos operados foram divididos em dois grupos iguais. No primeiro grupo foi realizado o retratamento personalizado e, (more) no outro, o retratamento convencional. As seguintes variáveis foram comparadas: acuidade visual de alto contraste e refração manifesta. A qualidade visual foi estimada e comparada através de inquérito subjetivo proposto aos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos comparando-se as variáveis estudadas. O equivalente esférico pós-retratamento foi de 0,36 no grupo convencional e de 0,47 no personalizado (p=0,079). A acuidade visual de Snellen foi de 0,91 e 0,87, respectivamente, com p=0,07. O total de aberrações pré-operatório foi maior do que o pós-operatório no grupo personalizado (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of conventional (Ladar, Alcon) and customized (LADARWave, Alcon) retreatment ineyes undergoing conventional primary LASIK. METHODS: Retrospective revision of consecutive clinical report forms of 38 eyes of 38 patients who underwent LASIK retreatment for myopia and astigmatism. The operated eyes were divided into two equal groups. In the first was performed customized retreatment and, in the other, conventional retreatment. The following (more) variables were compared: high contrast visual acuity and manifest refraction. The visual quality was estimated and compared using subjective survey offered to patients. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the groups when comparing the variables studied. The spherical equivalent after retreatment was 0.36 in the conventional group and 0.47 in the custom (p = 0.079). Snelen visual acuity was 0.91 and 0.87, respectively (p = 0.07). The preoperative total aberrations was higher than the postoperative period in custom group (p

Vianna, Lucas Monferrari Monteiro; Nascimento, Heloisa Moraes do; Campos, Mauro

2011-06-01

18

ROL: A Deductive Object Base Language  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a novel deductive object-oriented database language, called ROL (Rule-based Object Language), which is being developed at the University of Regina. ROL effectively integrates important features of object-oriented databases and deductive databases into a uniform framework. It supports object identity, complex objects, classes, class hierarchy, multiple inheritance with overriding, and schema. It also supports structured values such as functor objects and sets, treats them as first class citizens, and provides powerful mechanisms for representing both partial and complete information on sets. It is an extension of pure valued-oriented deductive languages such as Datalog and LDL (without grouping) and subsumes them as special cases. Another novelty is the introduction of a new ordering which can capture the intended semantics of nested sets. The ROL language is given a logical semantics based on this new ordering that accounts in a clean and declarative fashi...

Mengchi Liu

19

Comb-calibrated frequency-modulated continuous-wave ladar for absolute distance measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate a comb-calibrated frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW ladar) system for absolute distance measurements. The FMCW ladar uses a compact external cavity laser that is swept quasi-sinusoidally over 1 THz at a 1 kHz rate. The system simultaneously records the heterodyne FMCW ladar signal and the instantaneous laser frequency at sweep rates up to 3400 THz/s, as measured against a free-running frequency comb (femtosecond fiber laser). Demodulation of the ladar signal against the instantaneous laser frequency yields the range to the target with 1 ms update rates, bandwidth-limited 130 ?m resolution and a ~100 nm accuracy that is directly linked to the counted repetition rate of the comb. The precision is <100 nm at the 1 ms update rate and reaches ~6 nm for a 100 ms average. PMID:23938965

Baumann, Esther; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Coddington, Ian; Sinclair, Laura C; Knabe, Kevin; Swann, William C; Newbury, Nathan R

2013-06-15

20

Shape-based recognition of wiry objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present an approach to the recognition of complex-shaped objects in cluttered environments based on edge information. We first use example images of a target object in typical environments to train a classifier cascade that determines whether edge pixels in an image belong to an instance of the desired object or the clutter. Presented with a novel image, we use the cascade to discard clutter edge pixels and group the object edge pixels into overall detections of the object. The features used for the edge pixel classification are localized, sparse edge density operations. Experiments validate the effectiveness of the technique for recognition of a set of complex objects in a variety of cluttered indoor scenes under arbitrary out-of-image-plane rotation. Furthermore, our experiments suggest that the technique is robust to variations between training and testing environments and is efficient at runtime.

Carmichael O; Hebert M

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
21

Object-based neglect in number processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent evidence suggests that neglect patients seem to have particular problems representing relatively smaller numbers corresponding to the left part of the mental number line. However, while this indicates space-based neglect for representational number space little is known about whether and --if so --how object-based neglect influences number processing.To evaluate influences of object-based neglect in numerical cognition, a group of neglect patients and two control groups had to compare two-digit numbers to an internally represented standard. Conceptualizing two-digit numbers as objects of which the left part (i.e., the tens digit should be specifically neglected) we were able to evaluate object-based neglect for number magnitude processing.Object-based neglect was indicated by a larger unit-decade compatibility effect actually reflecting impaired processing of the leftward tens digits. Additionally, faster processing of within- as compared to between-decade items provided further evidence suggesting particular difficulties in integrating tens and units into the place-value structure of the Arabic number system.In summary, the present study indicates that, in addition to the spatial representation of number magnitude, also the processing of place-value information of multi-digit numbers seems specifically impaired in neglect patients.

Klein E; Moeller K; Zinsberger D; Zauner H; Wood G; Willmes K; Haider C; Gassner A; Nuerk HC

2013-01-01

22

An object-based programming interface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The object-oriented paradigm is very adaptable to look upon the program constructs as a framework which is derived from objects and the interactions. However, in the program composition process the inconsistency is often observed between the logical interpretation and systematic description about programs. It is very important to avoid or decrease such mismatches between the program editing phase and program coding phase, in the case that we understand the software composition process uniformly or effectively. In this paper, we address the inconsistency between the interpretation and description in the programming task firstly, and then propose an object-based programming method with respect to solving the inconsistency. Additionally, we show an experimental prototype system based on this object-oriented programming interface.

Watanabe, Toyohide [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Ogawa, Gunji [Fujitsu Aichi Engineering Ltd. (Japan)

1995-12-31

23

Spatio-activity based object detection  

CERN Multimedia

We present the SAMMI lightweight object detection method which has a high level of accuracy and robustness, and which is able to operate in an environment with a large number of cameras. Background modeling is based on DCT coefficients provided by cameras. Foreground detection uses similarity in temporal characteristics of adjacent blocks of pixels, which is a computationally inexpensive way to make use of object coherence. Scene model updating uses the approximated median method for improved performance. Evaluation at pixel level and application level shows that SAMMI object detection performs better and faster than the conventional Mixture of Gaussians method.

Springett, Jarrad

2008-01-01

24

Object Based Middleware for Grid Computing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: ?Grid? computing has emerged as an important new field, distinguished from conventional distributed computing by its focus on large-scale resource sharing, innovative applications and, in some cases, high-performance orientation. The role of middleware is to ease the task of designing, programming and managing distributed applications by providing a simple, consistent and integrated distributed programming environment. Essentially, middleware is a distributed software layer, which abstracts over the complexity and heterogeneity of the underlying distributed environment with its multitude of network technologies, machine architectures, operating systems and programming languages. Approach: This study brought out the development of supportive middleware to manage resources and distributed workload across multiple administrative boundaries is of central importance to Grid computing. Active middleware services that perform look-up, scheduling and staging are being developed that allow users to identify and utilize appropriate resources that provide sustainable system and user-level qualities of service. Results: Different middleware platforms support different programming models. Perhaps the most popular model is object-based middleware in which applications are structured into objects that interact via location transparent method invocation. Conclusion: The Object Management Group?s CORBA platform offer an Interface Definition Language (IDL) which is used to abstract over the fact that objects can be implemented in any suitable programming language, an object request broker which is responsible for transparently directing method invocations to the appropriate target object and a set of services such as naming, time, transactions, replication which further enhance the programming environment.

S. Muruganantham; P. K. Srivastha; Khanaa

2010-01-01

25

REBOL: Relative Expression-Based Object Language  

Science.gov (United States)

REBOL, the Relative Expression-Based Object Language, is a fascinating new scripting language developed at REBOL Technologies by Carl Sassenrath, the architect of the Amiga operating system. REBOL is intended to be used for Internet programming and, among its many features, it contains very easy-to-use networking capabilities. An example is this tiny line of REBOL code which retrieves a web page and emails it to a (fictitious) email address: "send fred@cs.wisc.edu read

Sassenrath, Carl.

26

Object Models For Model Based Applications  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the enterprise information systems environment, web based systems in general, and e-commerceapplications in particular, are required to face a very high pace of change. The evolution of such systems iscaused both by adaptation to the customer needs and enterprise continuous improvement strategies. Suchrapid change can be achieved adopting a model-based approach in which the application is customizedaccording to a model. The concept of model proposed in this paper is more wide that the one adopted inmost modeling languages such as UML. We propose an object model that allows an application access themodel according to different perspectives and abstraction levels.

Giorgio Bruno; Marco Torchiano

27

Model for Knowledge Bases of Computational Objects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the artificial intelligence field, knowledge representation and reasoning are important areas for intelligent systems, especially knowledge base systems and expert systems. Knowledge representation Methods has an important role in designing the systems. There have been many models for knowledge such as semantic networks, conceptual graphs, and neural networks. These models are useful tools to design intelligent systems. However, they are not suitable to represent knowledge in the domains of reality applications. In this paper, new models for knowledge representation called model for knowledge bases of computational objects will be presented. We also present the model for representing problems and algorithms, design methods using the model to construct applications.

Nhon Van Do

2010-01-01

28

Coherent and incoherent synthetic-aperture imaging ladars and laboratory-space experimental demonstrations [Invited].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews our studies on coherent and incoherent synthetic-aperture imaging ladars (SAILs). Using optical diffraction, a systematic theory of side-looking SAIL was mathematically formulated and the necessary conditions for assuring a correct phase history are established. Based on optical transformation and regulation of wavefront, a down-looking SAIL of two distinctive architectures was invented and the basic principle, systematic theory, design equations, and necessary conditions are presented. An incoherent spotlight-mode SAIL was proposed, and detailed mathematically. To validate the concepts, laboratory experiments were conducted. The spatially and temporally dependent laser speckles are analyzed by applying the partial coherence theorem, and proposals to reduce their effect are given. Optical antennas and their components are discussed. It is shown that for down-looking SAIL the width of the scanning strip may be greatly increased without loss of high resolution, and the influences from atmospheric turbulence and unmodeled line-of-sight motion can be automatically compensated. PMID:23385896

Liu, Liren

2013-02-01

29

Object Based Video Analysis, Interpretation and Tracking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of computers in different facets of human life is increasing everyday, from one of supplementing his needs to one of integrating in the different activities, he is involved. This has become more predominant with the prolific developments in communication and internet. This brings in a need to raise the level of computers to the level of human beings and a paradigm shift from hard computing to soft computing towards the turn of this century has reinforced this. The present focus of the study is on implementing visual capabilities in computers so that involvement and interaction with humans are easier. The paper presents the details of object based video analysis for conventional engineering applications.

A. Umamakeswari; A Rajaraman

2007-01-01

30

Object Manipulation Facilitates Kind-Based Object Individuation of Shape-Similar Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were partially replicated, showing that infants were…

Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

2011-01-01

31

[Electrophysiological bases of semantic processing of objects].  

Science.gov (United States)

How pictures and words are stored and processed in the human brain constitute a long-standing question in cognitive psychology. Behavioral studies have yielded a large amount of data addressing this issue. Generally speaking, these data show that there are some interactions between the semantic processing of pictures and words. However, behavioral methods can provide only limited insight into certain findings. Fortunately, Event-Related Potential (ERP) provides on-line cues about the temporal nature of cognitive processes and contributes to the exploration of their neural substrates. ERPs have been used in order to better understand semantic processing of words and pictures. The main objective of this article is to offer an overview of the electrophysiologic bases of semantic processing of words and pictures. Studies presented in this article showed that the processing of words is associated with an N 400 component, whereas pictures elicited both N 300 and N 400 components. Topographical analysis of the N 400 distribution over the scalp is compatible with the idea that both image-mediated concrete words and pictures access an amodal semantic system. However, given the distinctive N 300 patterns, observed only during picture processing, it appears that picture and word processing rely upon distinct neuronal networks, even if they end up activating more or less similar semantic representations. PMID:17291430

Kahlaoui, Karima; Baccino, Thierry; Joanette, Yves; Magnié, Marie-Noële

2007-02-01

32

Simulation of a Geiger-Mode Imaging LADAR System for Performance Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As LADAR systems applications gradually become more diverse, new types of systems are being developed. When developing new systems, simulation studies are an essential prerequisite. A simulator enables performance predictions and optimal system parameters at the design level, as well as providing sa...

Seongjoon Kim; Impyeong Lee; Yong Joon Kwon

33

Feature-based tactile object recognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tactile sensing offers powerful capabilities for robotic perception. Through the use of array-force sensors, precisely located surface information about objects in the workspace is available wherever the robot arm may reach. In order to use this information to identify objects and their placement, interpretation processes should employ proprioceptive information and should use tactile image features which reflect object characteristics. A technique is described for the generation of constraints on object identity and placement such that information from multiple sensor contacts may cooperate towards interpretation.

Browse RA

1987-06-01

34

SOPView+: An Object Browser which Supports Navigating Database by Changing Base Object  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we present the design and implementationof SOPView+, an object browser that supportsnavigating a large database by changing base object.Base object is an object which is a basis for navigation;forward navigation is provided for the reference pathsahead of the base object and backward navigation forthe ones behind it. SOPView+ allows users to changethe base object along the reference hierarchy among anumber of database objects; this makes it possible forthem to explore a large database until they find objectsof their interest on the limited screen space, solvingthe screen real estate problem. SOPView+ also supportsextended synchronized browsing, which synchronizesdisplaying objects along both forward and backwardnavigational paths.1 IntroductionIn object-oriented databases(OODBs), the unit ofstoring and retrieving information is an object[1]. TheOODB thus is a collection of a number of objects. Theobject usually contains plenty of reference informatio...

Sung-woo Chang; Hyoung-joo Kim

35

Contour Based Algorithm for Object Tracking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Video tracking system raises a wide possibility in today’s society. These systems are be used in various applications such as military, security, monitoring, robotic, and nowadays in day-to-day applications. However the video tracking systems still have many open problems and various research activities in a video tracking system are explores. This paper presents an algorithm for video tracking of any moving target with the use of edge detection technique within a window filter. The proposed system is suitable for indoor and outdoor applications. Our approach has the advantage of extending the applicability of tracking system and also, as presented here it improves theperformance of the tracker making feasible to be more accurate in detection and tracking objects. The goal of the tracking system is to analyze the video frames and estimate the position of a part of the input video frame (usually a moving object), our approach can detect and track any moving object and calculate its position. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to construct a motion tracking system for moving object. Where, at the end of this paper, the detail outcome and results are discussed using experimental results of the proposed technique.

A. M. Sallam; O. M. Elmouafy; R. A. Elbardany; A. M. Fahmy

2011-01-01

36

Image-Based Multiresolution Implicit Object Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We discuss two image-based 3D modeling methods based on a multiresolution evolution of a volumetric function′s level set. In the former method, the role of the level set implosion is to fuse (“sew” and “stitch”) together several partial reconstructions (depth maps) into a closed model. In the later, the level set′s implosion is steered directly by the texture mismatch between views. Both solutions share the characteristic of operating in an adaptive multiresolution fashion, in order to boost up computational efficiency and robustness.

Stefano Tubaro; Augusto Sarti

2002-01-01

37

Image-Based Multiresolution Implicit Object Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We discuss two image-based 3D modeling methods based on a multiresolution evolution of a volumetric function?s level set. In the former method, the role of the level set implosion is to fuse ("sew" and "stitch") together several partial reconstructions (depth maps) into a closed model. In the later, the level set?s implosion is steered directly by the texture mismatch between views. Both solutions share the characteristic of operating in an adaptive multiresolution fashion, in order to boost up computational efficiency and robustness.

Sarti Augusto; Tubaro Stefano

2002-01-01

38

Agents as objects with knowledge base state  

CERN Document Server

Advances in computer technology in general and computer networks in particular have significantly affected the requirements of modern applications, where the need to operate in decentralised environments is of primary importance. The conceptual models of the applications are also becoming complex and semantically rich.A promising technology towards the design and development of systems of such domains is agent based systems. Agents, having a knowledge component, act and interact with other agents and information sources in order to achieve some goals. Platforms intended for supporting the deve

Skarmeas, Nikolaos

1999-01-01

39

THE ADMINISTRATOR OBJECT PATTERN FOR ROLE-BASED ACCESS CONTROL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Object-Oriented paradigm approaches the software development by representing real world entities into classes of software objects. Object oriented design patterns facilitate small scale and large scale design reuse. This paper presents an object oriented design pattern, Administrator Object, to address the User-Role assignment problem in Role Based Access Control (RBAC). Two alternative solutions are proposed. The pattern is presented according to the Gang of Four template.

S. R. KODITUWAKKU

2010-01-01

40

Object-based integration of motion information during attentive tracking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How do observers track multiple moving objects simultaneously? Previous work has shown that adding conflicting texture motion to the tracked objects impairs tracking performance. Here, we test whether texture motion is integrated with object motion in an object-based manner, or whether adding conflicting texture motion to a display causes global interference effects. We added a moving texture onto the surface of tracked objects with the texture moving either in the same or opposite direction to the objects. In the critical trials, we presented both types of texture motion. In these trials, we found a selective impairment for the objects with opposite texture motion, suggesting that multiple motion information sources are integrated in an object-based manner during tracking. The integrated motion signals might be used to anticipate prospective object locations in order to enhance tracking.

Meyerhoff HS; Papenmeier F; Huff M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Interactive object-based retrieval using relevance feedback  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present an interactive, object-based video retrieval system which features a novel query formulation method that is used to iteratively refine an underlying model of the search object. As the user continues query composition and browsing of retrieval results, the system’s object mod...

Sav, Sorin; Lee, Hyowon; O'Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.

42

An object-based approach to plenoptic videos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes an object-based approach to plenoptic videos, where the plenoptic video sequences are segmented into image-based rendering (IBR) objects each with its image sequence, depth map and other relevant information such as shape information. This allows desirable functionalities such as...

Gan, ZF; Chan, SC; Ng, KT; Shum, HY

43

Multichannel Object-Based Audio Coding with Controllable Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper a new multichannel object-based audio coding scheme with scalable signal quality is proposed. The novel scheme is based on controlled downmixing and demixing. By means of a dedicated control mechanism, a number of distinct audio objects are mixed into a lower number of channels. The la...

Gorlow, Stanislaw; Habets, Emanuël; Marchand, Sylvain

44

Determinant of homography-matrix-based multiple-object recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Finding a given object in an image or a sequence of frames is one of the fundamental computer vision challenges. Humans can recognize a multitude of objects with little effort despite scale, lighting and perspective changes. A robust computer vision based object recognition system is achievable only if a considerable tolerance to change in scale, rotation and light is achieved. Partial occlusion tolerance is also of paramount importance in order to achieve robust object recognition in real-time applications. In this paper, we propose an effective method for recognizing a given object from a class of trained objects in the presence of partial occlusions and considerable variance in scale, rotation and lighting conditions. The proposed method can also identify the absence of a given object from the class of trained objects. Unlike the conventional methods for object recognition based on the key feature matches between the training image and a test image, the proposed algorithm utilizes a statistical measure from the homography transform based resultant matrix to determine an object match. The magnitude of determinant of the homography matrix obtained by the homography transform between the test image and the set of training images is used as a criterion to recognize the object contained in the test image. The magnitude of the determinant of homography matrix is found to be very near to zero (i.e. less than 0.005) and ranges between 0.05 and 1, for the out-of-class object and in-class objects respectively. Hence, an out-of-class object can also be identified by using low threshold criteria on the magnitude of the determinant obtained. The proposed method has been extensively tested on a huge database of objects containing about 100 similar and difficult objects to give positive results for both out-of-class and in-class object recognition scenarios. The overall system performance has been documented to be about 95% accurate for a varied range of testing scenarios.

Bangalore, Nagachetan; Kiran, Madhu; Suryaprakash, Anil

2013-02-01

45

A semantic description of learning objects based on an ontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The number of learning objects available on the Internet has significantly grown these last years and the problem of indexing and searching these learning objects is becoming crucial. Standards and norms of educative metadata such as LOM and SCORM have been proposed to handle this problem but in our opinion these proposals are not a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we propose to extend these standards with a semantic description of learning objects based on an ontology. A learning object is described by prerequisites, a content and an acquisition function. This allows defining powerful search tools and improves reusing. For reusing, we propose to define new learning objects by assembling existing objects. Assembling is specified by a composition graph composed by learning objects and composition operators (sequence, parallel, and alternative). In order to improve flexibility, we have introduced intentional objects. An intentional object is defined by a composition graph where (at least) one object has been replaced by an intentional query on the learning object repository. This model is used during the adaptive process of a learning object for a specific learner. We define a notion of quality on learning objects which mainly reflects their ability to reuse. This quality may be evaluated a posteriori using metrics on objects or controlled a priori using a type system. Our model has been implemented with Sesame, a RDF database which support SeRQL a powerful query language for RDF and RDFS.

Amel BOUZEGHOUB; Bruno DEFUDE; John-Freddy DUITAMA; Claire LECOCQ

2005-01-01

46

Issues in object-oriented data-base schemas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The successful use of data-base management systems in data-processing applications has created a substantial amount of interest in applying data-base techniques to such areas as knowledge bases and artificial intelligence (AI), computer-aided design (CAD), and office information systems (OIS). The practical applications of object-oriented data bases, such as CAD, AI, and OIS require the ability to dynamically make a wide variety of changes to the data-base schema. This process is called schema evolution, for which the author establishes a consistent and complete framework. Based on his framework, the MCC ODBS group implemented a schema manager within the prototype object-oriented data-base system, ORION. On top of the schema manager of ORION, a graphical editor PSYCHO was implemented. A technique is presented that enables users to manipulate schema versions explicitly and maintain schema-evolution histories in object-oriented data-base environments.

Kim, H.J.

1988-01-01

47

Automatic fuzzy object-based analysis of VHSR images for urban objects extraction  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an automatic approach for object extraction from very high spatial resolution (VHSR) satellite images based on Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA). The proposed solution requires no input data other than the studied image. Not input parameters are required. First, an automatic non-parametric cooperative segmentation technique is applied to create object primitives. A fuzzy rule base is developed based on the human knowledge used for image interpretation. The rules integrate spectral, textural, geometric and contextual object proprieties. The classes of interest are: tree, lawn, bare soil and water for natural classes; building, road, parking lot for man made classes. The fuzzy logic is integrated in our approach in order to manage the complexity of the studied subject, to reason with imprecise knowledge and to give information on the precision and certainty of the extracted objects. The proposed approach was applied to extracts of Ikonos images of Sherbrooke city (Canada). An overall total extraction accuracy of 80% was observed. The correctness rates obtained for building, road and parking lot classes are of 81%, 75% and 60%, respectively.

Sebari, Imane; He, Dong-Chen

2013-05-01

48

Petri Net Based Spatio-temporal Relationships for Moving Objects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the spatio-temporal constraint relationships of moving objects by employing Petri Net technology. The spatial constraints of moving objects are first presented in this study based on the V4I[1] theory, then the temporal constraints for moving objects are presented by applying this theory to temporal aspect. With the proposing of Moving Object Petri Net (MOPN) and Spatial Constraint Petri Net (SCPN) in this study, the spatio-temporal constraint relationships of moving objects are presented

Yong-shan Liu; Zhong-xiao Hao

2005-01-01

49

An object-based visual attention model for robotic applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By extending integrated competition hypothesis, this paper presents an object-based visual attention model, which selects one object of interest using low-dimensional features, resulting that visual perception starts from a fast attentional selection procedure. The proposed attention model involves seven modules: learning of object representations stored in a long-term memory (LTM), preattentive processing, top-down biasing, bottom-up competition, mediation between top-down and bottom-up ways, generation of saliency maps, and perceptual completion processing. It works in two phases: learning phase and attending phase. In the learning phase, the corresponding object representation is trained statistically when one object is attended. A dual-coding object representation consisting of local and global codings is proposed. Intensity, color, and orientation features are used to build the local coding, and a contour feature is employed to constitute the global coding. In the attending phase, the model preattentively segments the visual field into discrete proto-objects using Gestalt rules at first. If a task-specific object is given, the model recalls the corresponding representation from LTM and deduces the task-relevant feature(s) to evaluate top-down biases. The mediation between automatic bottom-up competition and conscious top-down biasing is then performed to yield a location-based saliency map. By combination of location-based saliency within each proto-object, the proto-object-based saliency is evaluated. The most salient proto-object is selected for attention, and it is finally put into the perceptual completion processing module to yield a complete object region. This model has been applied into distinct tasks of robots: detection of task-specific stationary and moving objects. Experimental results under different conditions are shown to validate this model.

Yu Y; Mann GK; Gosine RG

2010-10-01

50

Path-based rules in object-oriented programming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Object-oriented programming has recently emerged as one of the most important programming paradigms. While object-oriented programming clearly owes an intellectual debt to AI, it appears to be displacing some AI techniques, such as rule-based programming, from the marketplace. This need not be so as path-based rules-forward-chaining production rules that are restricted to follow pointers between objects-fit into the object-oriented paradigm in a clean and elegant way. The combination of path-based rules and object-oriented programming should be useful in AI applications, and in the more general problem of transferring AI techniques to the larger computer science community.

Crawford, J.M. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Dvorak, D.; Litman, D.; Mishra, A.; Patel-Schneider, P.F. [AT& T Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1996-12-31

51

Object detection of speckle image base on curvelet transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The speckle degrades quality of the image and makes interpretations, segmentation of objects harder. In this paper, we present a method for object detection of speckle image base on curvelet transform. The approximate properties and the high directional sensitivity of the curvelet transform make the new method for object detection of speckle image. We construct a method segmentation that provides a sparse expansion for typical images having smooth contours.

Nguyen Thanh Binh; Nguyen Chi Thanh

2007-01-01

52

Improved methods for object-based coding of plenoptic videos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plenoptic videos (PVs) are a class of dynamic image-based representations, where the videos are taken at regularly spaced locations along a line. To yield the better rendering quality in scenes with large depth variations and support the functionalities at the object level for rendering, an object-b...

Wu, Q; Chan, SC; Shum, HY

53

Virtual Conference Audio Reconstruction Based on Spatial Object  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposed a virtual conference audio reconstruction model based on spatial audio object. The aim of the model is to enhance the realistic experience of virtual conference. Firstly, the conference audio synthesis method is given according the principle of the virtual conference. Then the spatial audio parameters interaural level difference (ILD) are used to reconstruct the spatial sound field for each listener based on the theory of spatial audio object coding.

Bo Hang; Rui-Min Hu; Ye Ma

2010-01-01

54

A Method of Object-based De-duplication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, the world is increasingly awash in more and more unstructured data, not only because of the Internet, but also because data that used to be collected on paper or media such as film, DVDs and compact discs has moved online [1]. Most of this data is unstructured and in diverse formats such as e-mail, documents, graphics, images, and videos. In managing unstructured data complexity and scalability, object storage has a clear advantage. Object-based data de-duplication is the current most advanced method and is the effective solution for detecting duplicate data. It can detect common embedded data for the first backup across completely unrelated files and even when physical block layout changes. However, almost all of the current researches on data de-duplication do not consider the content of different file types, and they do not have any knowledge of the backup data format. It has been proven that such method cannot achieve optimal performance for compound files.In our proposed system, we will first extract objects from files, Object_IDs are then obtained by applying hash function to the objects. The resulted Object_IDs are used to build as indexing keys in B+ tree like index structure, thus, we avoid the need for a full object index, the searching time for the duplicate objects reduces to O(log n).We introduce a new concept of a duplicate object resolver. The object resolver mediates access to all the objects and is a central point for managing all the metadata and indexes for all the objects. All objects are addressable by their IDs which is unique in the universe. The resolver stores metadata with triple format. This improved metadata management strategy allows us to set, add and resolve object properties with high flexibility, and allows the repeated use of the same metadata among duplicate object.

Fang Yan; YuAn Tan

2011-01-01

55

Optical Aperture Synthesis Object's Information Extracting Based on Wavelet Denoising  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wavelet denoising is studied to improve OAS(optical aperture synthesis) object's Fourier information extracting. Translation invariance wavelet denoising based on Donoho wavelet soft threshold denoising is researched to remove Pseudo-Gibbs in wavelet soft threshold image. OAS object's information extracting based on translation invariance wavelet denoising is studied. The study shows that wavelet threshold denoising can improve the precision and the repetition of object's information extracting from interferogram, and the translation invariance wavelet denoising information extracting is better than soft threshold wavelet denoising information extracting.

2006-01-01

56

Concurrent processes of CDP in object-based file system  

Science.gov (United States)

An object-based storage system - integrating advantages of both NAS and SAN - can be applied in large-capacity, lowcost and large-scale storage systems built from commodity disk devices. The continuous data protection or CDP is a well-known technique that continuously captures or tracks data modifications and stores changes independent of primary data, enabling data recovery - from any point in the past. An efficient file system optimized for CDP plays an important role in object-based storage systems. In this paper, concurrent processes during data backup and data recovery operations are discussed in details. To fully take the advantage of distributed system architectures, we make the concurrent data operations as far as possible during read, write, and recovery processes. A new backup data object placement strategy is present to work in coordination with a replica strategy in object-based distributed file systems. Backup data object can be placed in other object storage servers (or OSS for short) instead of the OSS where the original data is residing, when the backup data object matches certain conditions. For data recovery, we make the related OSSes to concurrently perform data object movement. All these strategies can efficiently reduce system response times.

Yao, Jie; Cao, Qiang; Huang, Jianzhong

2009-08-01

57

A Secure and Robust Object-Based Video Authentication System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An object-based video authentication system, which combines watermarking, error correction coding (ECC), and digital signature techniques, is presented for protecting the authenticity between video objects and their associated backgrounds. In this system, a set of angular radial transformation (ART) coefficients is selected as the feature to represent the video object and the background, respectively. ECC and cryptographic hashing are applied to those selected coefficients to generate the robust authentication watermark. This content-based, semifragile watermark is then embedded into the objects frame by frame before MPEG4 coding. In watermark embedding and extraction, groups of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients are randomly selected, and their energy relationships are employed to hide and extract the watermark. The experimental results demonstrate that our system is robust to MPEG4 compression, object segmentation errors, and some common object-based video processing such as object translation, rotation, and scaling while securely preventing malicious object modifications. The proposed solution can be further incorporated into public key infrastructure (PKI).

Qi Tian; Qibin Sun; Dajun He

2004-01-01

58

Stereovision-Based Object Segmentation for Automotive Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obstacle detection and classification in a complex urban area are highly demanding, but desirable for pedestrian protection, stop & go, and enhanced parking aids. The most difficult task for the system is to segment objects from varied and complicated background. In this paper, a novel position-based object segmentation method has been proposed to solve this problem. According to the method proposed, object segmentation is performed in two steps: in depth map ( - plane) and in layered images ( - planes). The stereovision technique is used to reconstruct image points and generate the depth map. Objects are detected in the depth map. Afterwards, the original edge image is separated into different layers based on the distance of detected objects. Segmentation performed in these layered images can be easier and more reliable. It has been proved that the proposed method offers robust detection of potential obstacles and accurate measurement of their location and size.

Huang Yingping; Fu Shan; Thompson Chris

2005-01-01

59

Stereovision-Based Object Segmentation for Automotive Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obstacle detection and classification in a complex urban area are highly demanding, but desirable for pedestrian protection, stop & go, and enhanced parking aids. The most difficult task for the system is to segment objects from varied and complicated background. In this paper, a novel position-based object segmentation method has been proposed to solve this problem. According to the method proposed, object segmentation is performed in two steps: in depth map (X-Z plane) and in layered images (X-Y planes). The stereovision technique is used to reconstruct image points and generate the depth map. Objects are detected in the depth map. Afterwards, the original edge image is separated into different layers based on the distance of detected objects. Segmentation performed in these layered images can be easier and more reliable. It has been proved that the proposed method offers robust detection of potential obstacles and accurate measurement of their location and size.

Yingping Huang; Shan Fu; Chris Thompson

2005-01-01

60

Object-based image restoration for multilayer autofocusing  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a fully digital auto-focusing algorithm for restoring the image with differently out-of-focused objects, which can restore background as well as all objects. In this paper, we assume that out-of-focus blur is isotropic such as circle of confusion (COC) or two-dimensional Gaussian blur. Therefore, the proposed algorithm can segment and estimate the point spread function (PSF) by using the size of ramp in the one-dimensional step response. The proposed algorithm can be developed by object-based image segmentation and restoration algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed object-based image restoration algorithm can efficiently remove the space-variant out of focus blur from the image with multiple blurred objects.

Kim, Kiman; Hwang, Sunghyun; Shin, Jeongho; Paik, Joonki; Abidi, Besma; Abidi, Mongi A.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Robust Object-Based Watermarking Using Feature Matching  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a robust object-based watermarking algorithm using the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) in conjunction with a data embedding method based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). The message is embedded in the DCT domain of randomly generated blocks in the selected object region. To recognize the object region after being distorted, its SIFT features are registered in advance. In the detection scheme, we extract SIFT features from the distorted image and match them with the registered ones. Then we recover the distorted object region based on the transformation parameters obtained from the matching result using SIFT, and the watermarked message can be detected. Experimental results demonstrated that our proposed algorithm is very robust to distortions such as JPEG compression, scaling, rotation, shearing, aspect ratio change, and image filtering.

Pham, Viet-Quoc; Miyaki, Takashi; Yamasaki, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

62

Model-Based Software Testing for Object-Oriented Software  

Science.gov (United States)

Model-based testing is one of the best solutions for testing object-oriented software. It has a better test coverage than other testing styles. Model-based testing takes into consideration behavioural aspects of a class, which are usually unchecked in other testing methods. An increase in the complexity of software has forced the software industry…

Biju, Soly Mathew

2008-01-01

63

Vector ordinal optimization based multi-objective transmission planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The deregulation of the power industry has resulted in a restructured industry. The integrated power industry has been separated into generation companies, transmission company and distribution companies. Each individual market participant has its own goal of maximizing its profit in power system planning and power system operation. In this paper, the vector ordinal optimization (VOO) theory was applied to solve the multi-objective transmission expansion planning (TEP) problems. The weight-summation of multiple objectives was considered as a single objective. In order to reflect the interests of different market participants and the social benefit, the authors used the Transmission Economic Assessment Methodology (TEAM) to formulate the multi-objective TEP. The VOO solution algorithm was presented and tested based on the TEAM model. Numerical examples were presented to test the proposed VOO based solution algorithm. The 4 indices of the transmission economic assessment methodology were used as the 4 objectives for transmission planning. VOO uses crude models to estimate the indices of the TEAM base multi-objective optimization problem to determine a select subset of schemes to simulate and find solutions which have been termed as good enough. The calculation burden was reduced significantly by using this method. Test results on the modified IEEE 14-bus system show that the VOO is efficient and practical for solving multi-objective TEP problems. The test results show that the proposed VOO approach can find good enough solutions in a short time with less computational burden. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs., 1 appendix.

Min, X. [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China). School of Electric Power; Jin, Z. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

2008-07-01

64

Development of an Integrated Hyperspectral Imager and 3D-Flash LADAR for Terrestrial Characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of terrestrial ecosystems using remote sensing technology has a long history with using multi-spectral imagers for vegetation classification indices, ecosystem health, and change detection. Traditional multi-band imagers are now being replaced with more advanced hyperspectral imagers, which offer finer spectral resolution and more specific characterization of terrestrial reflectances. Recently, 3- dimensional (3D) imaging technologies, such as radar interferometry and scanning laser rangers, have added a vertical dimensional to the characterization of ecosystems. The combination of hyperspectral imagery with 3D LADAR allows for detailed analysis of terrestrial biomass, health and species identification. Recognizing the need, and the technical feasibility of this type of environmental assessment, the National Research Counsel has advocated two future NASA satellite missions to measure terrestrial ecosystem health and structure, the DESDynI and HyspIRI missions. These programs will orbit synthetic aperture radar, LADAR and hyperspectral imagers. To mitigate program risk it is desirable and prudent to first demonstrate the integration of these instruments on an airborne platform. Although systems developed for separate purposes have been flown on a single aircraft, the requirements and performance of a dual sensor system has not yet been developed nor integrated as a single unit. We demonstrate a development pathway from an aircraft platform with an integrated sensor suite, using a hyperspectral imager and a laser ranger for a comprehensive remote sensing characterization of terrestrial ecology.

Swanson, A. L.; Sandor-Leahy, S.; Shepanski, J.; Wong, C.; Bracikowski, C.; Abelson, L.; Helmlinger, M.; Bauer, D.; Folkman, M.

2009-05-01

65

A Wavelet - Based Object Watermarking System for MPEG4 Video  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efficient storage, transmission and use of video information are key requirements in many multimedia applications currently being addressed by MPEG-4. To fulfill these requirements, a new approach for representing video information which relies on an object-based representation, has been adopted. Therefore, object-based watermarking schemes are needed for copyright protection. This paper presents a novel object based watermarking solution for MPEG4 video authentication using the shape adaptive-discrete wavelet transform (SA-DWT). In order to make the watermark robust and transparent, the watermark is embedded in the average of wavelet blocks using the visual model based on the human visual system. Wavelet coefficients n least significant bits (LSBs) are adjusted in concert with the average. Simulation results shows that the proposed watermarking scheme is perceptually invisible and robust against many attacks such as lossy compression (e.g. MPEG1 and MPEG2,MPEG-4,H264)

A.Essaouabi; E.Ibnelhaj; F.Regragui

2010-01-01

66

Summarization-Based Image Resizing by Intelligent Object Carving.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Image resizing can be more effectively achieved with a better understanding of image semantics. In this paper, similar patterns that exist in many real-world images. are analyzed. By interactively detecting similar objects in an image, the image content can be summarized rather than simply distorted or cropped. This method enables the manipulation of image pixels or patches as well as semantic objects in the scene during image resizing process. Given the special nature of similar objects in a general image, the integration of a novel object carving operator with the multi-operator framework is proposed for summarizing similar objects. The object removal sequence in the summarization strategy directly affects resizing quality. The method by which to evaluate the visual importance of the object as well as to optimally select the candidates for object carving is demonstrated. To achieve practical resizing applications for general images, a template matching-based method is developed. This method can detect similar objects even when they are of various colors, transformed in terms of perspective, or partially occluded. To validate the proposed method, comparisons with state-of-the-art resizing techniques and a user study were conducted. Convincing visual results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Dong W; Zhou N; Lee TY; Wu F; Kong Y; Zhang X

2013-07-01

67

Segmentation of object-based video of gaze communication  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aspects of video communication based on gaze interaction are considered. The overall idea is to use gaze interaction to control video, e.g. for video conferencing. Towards this goal, animation of a facial mask is demonstrated. The animation is based on images using Active Appearance Models (AAM). Good quality reproduction of (low-resolution) coded video of an animated facial mask as low as 10-20 kbit/s using MPEG-4 object based video is demonstated.

Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

2005-01-01

68

An Object-Based Approach to Modelling and  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In protection systems, when traditional technology is replaced by software, the functionalityand complexity of the system is likely to increase. The quantitative evidence normally providedfor safety certification of traditional systems cannot be relied upon in software-basedsystems. Instead there is a need to provide qualitative evidence. As a basis for the requiredqualitative evidence, we propose an object-based approach that allows modelling of both theapplication and software domains. From the object class model of a system and a formal specificationof the failure properties of its components, we generate a graph of failure propagationover object classes, which is then used to generate a graph in terms of object instances in orderto conduct fault tree analysis. The model is validated by comparing the resulting minimalcut sets with those obtained from the fault tree analysis of the original system. The approachis illustrated on a case study based on a protection system from the Nuclear Industry.

R. De Lemos; B. Mavko; S. Riddle; A. Saeed

69

A New Approach to Object Based Fuzzy Database Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The requirements in diversified application domains like Engineering, Scientific technology, Multimedia, Knowledge management in expert systems etc shift the momentum of current trends in designing database models to an innovative concept of Object Based fuzzy Database Model. The ongoing research concentrates on representing the imprecise information by taking object modelling methodology and fuzzy techniques through different levels of class hierarchy and abstractions. Still, a formal definition of fuzzy class is not yet given by which we can represent all standards of fuzzy objects and attributes. In this paper, we redefine the fuzzy class in an efficient manner and propose the structure of the fuzzy class using more effective generalized techniques to develop a new object based fuzzy data model in order to manipulate imprecise information and exposed to wider range of applicability. Also, we define a formal framework for generalized fuzzy constraints which can be applied effectively to fuzzy specialized classes in fuzzy class hierarchy.

Debasis Dwibedy; Dr. Laxman Sahoo; Sujoy Dutta

2013-01-01

70

Geophysics-based method of locating a stationary earth object  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A geophysics-based method for determining the position of a stationary earth object uses the periodic changes in the gravity vector of the earth caused by the sun- and moon-orbits. Because the local gravity field is highly irregular over a global scale, a model of local tidal accelerations can be compared to actual accelerometer measurements to determine the latitude and longitude of the stationary object.

Daily, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohde, Steven B. (Corrales, NM); Novak, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-20

71

An object-based methodology for knowledge representation in SGML  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An object-based methodology for knowledge representation and its Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) implementation is presented. The methodology includes class, perspective domain, and event constructs for representing knowledge within an object paradigm. The perspective construct allows for representation of knowledge from multiple and varying viewpoints. The event construct allows actual use of knowledge to be represented. The SGML implementation of the methodology facilitates usability, structured, yet flexible knowledge design, and sharing and reuse of knowledge class libraries.

Kelsey, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)|New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Hartley, R.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Webster, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-11-01

72

Multi-objective Optimization using Chaos Based PSO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a novel optimization method, chaos has gained lots of attentions and applications in the past few years. Chaos movement can go through all states unrepeated according to the rule of itself in some area. It was introduced into the optimization strategy to accelerate the optimum seeking operation in this study. A chaos based particle swarm optimization strategy was developed to solve multi-objective optimization problems. The proposed approach is validated using several benchmark test functions and metrics on evolutionary multi-objective optimization. Results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed strategy and that can be considered a viable alternative to solve multi-objective optimization problems.

Bingqun Ren; Weizhou Zhong

2011-01-01

73

BOSD: Business Object Based Flexible Software Development for Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The enterprise software need adapt to new requirements from the continuous change management. The recent development methods have increased the flexibility of software. However, previous studies have ignored the stability of business object and the particular business relationships to support the software development. In this paper, a coarse-grained business object based software development, BOSD, is presented to resolve this problem. By analyzing the characteristics of variable requirement, business objects are abstracted as the separately-developed unit from business process, and are assembled to system through their relationships. The methodology of BOSD is combined with MDA (Model Driven Architecture) and implemented on the semiautomatic platform.

Jindan Feng; Dechen Zhan; Lanshun Nie; Xiaofei Xu

2010-01-01

74

Video Based Moving Object Tracking by Particle Filter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Usually, the video based object tracking deal with non-stationary image stream that changes over time. Robust and Real time moving object tracking is a problematic issue in computer vision research area. Most of the existing algorithms are able to track only inpredefined and well controlled environment. Some cases, they don’t consider non-linearity problem. In our paper, we develop such a system which considers color information, distance transform (DT) based shape information and also nonlinearity. Particle filtering has been proven very successful for non-gaussian and non-linear estimation problems. We examine the difficulties of video based tracking and step by step we analyze these issues. In our firstapproach, we develop the color based particle filter tracker that relies on the deterministic search of window, whose color content matches a reference histogram model. A simple HSV histogram-based color model is used to develop this observation system. Secondly, wedescribe a new approach for moving object tracking with particle filter by shape information. The shape similarity between a template and estimated regions in the video scene is measured by their normalized cross-correlation of distance transformed images. Our observation system of particle filter is based on shape from distance transformed edge features. Template is created instantly by selecting any object from the video scene by a rectangle. Finally, inthis paper we illustrate how our system is improved by using both these two cues with non linearity.

Md. Zahidul Islam; Chi-Min Oh; Chil-Woo Lee

2009-01-01

75

Implementing Wait-Free Objects on Priority-Based Systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

)James H. Anderson, Srikanth Ramamurthy, and Rohit JainDepartment of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel HillAbstractWait-free objects are often implemented through the use of a "helping scheme", whereby one process "helps" one or moreother processes to complete an operation. This paper presents several new helping schemes that can be generally applied toefficiently implement a variety of different objects on priority-based uniprocessor and multiprocessor systems. Examples of suchsystems include lock-free multiprocessor kernels and real-time systems. Our helping schemes reduce overhead by exploitingthe way in which processes are scheduled for execution in priority-based systems. We illustrate the use of these schemesby presenting wait-free implementations of linked lists and a multi-word compare-and-swap primitive. Performance resultsare presented that show that on priority-based systems our object implementations are an improvement over implementations...

76

Object reconstruction in block-based compressive imaging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A block-based compressive imaging (BCI) system using sequential architecture is presented in this paper. Feature measurements are collected using the principal component analysis (PCA) projection. The linear Wiener operator and a nonlinear method based on the Field-of-Expert (FoE) prior model are used for object reconstruction. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the superior reconstruction performance of the FoE-based method over the Wiener operator. In addition, the effects of system parameters, such as the object block size, the number of features per block, and the noise level to the BCI reconstruction performance are discussed with different kinds of objects. Then an optimal block size is defined and studied for BCI.

Ke J; Lam EY

2012-09-01

77

Handling Fuzzy Complex Objects In Knowledge-Based Systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HANDLING FUZZY COMPLEX OBJECTSIN KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMSMeltem TURHANM.S. in Computer EngineeringSupervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adnan YaziciFebruary 1994, 121 pagesIn this study a prototype of a knowledge-based system to represent and implementfuzzy complex objects along with their possible incomplete and missingattribute values is developed, and is implemented by utilizing a logic programminglanguage, namely Turbo-Prolog. The work also includes the formaldescription of the proposed knowledge-based system of such objects. The prototypecan represent, update, query and retrieve these fuzzy complex objects.Keywords: fuzzy, complex, logic, Prolog.Science code: 619.02.03iiiOZBILGIYE DAYALi SISTEMLERDEFUZZY KARMAS¸iK NESNELERINIS¸LENMESIMeltem TURHANYuksek Lisans Tezi, Bilgisayar Muhendisligi Anabilim DaliTez Yoneticisi: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adnan YaziciS¸ubat 1994, 121 sayfaBu tezde, mantiksal programlama dili Turbo-Prolog kullanilarak fuzzy, karma¸sikve ayni zamanda e...

Meltem Turhan

78

An improved template tracking method based on rigid extended object  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose an improved Lucas-Kanade template tracking method with drift correction, which can be applied in rigid extended object. Due to error accumulation, primary template tracking method leads to template drift and loses object gradually. In order to alleviate template drift, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) feature is used to correct the template drift. SIFT feature is invariant to scale, rotation even affine transformation, so, according to matching SIFT key-points between frames, the affine parameters of object transformation can be computed, then the current template position can be obtained by affine parameters and primary template position. The experiment results prove that the improved template tracking method based on SIFT drift correction can more accurately track the rigid extended object and can alleviate the tracking position drifting effectively.

Zhang, Jianwei; Peng, Zhenming

2013-09-01

79

Object information based interactive segmentation for fatty tissue extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymph nodes are very important factors for diagnosing gastric cancer in clinical use, and are usually distributed within the fatty tissue around the stomach. When extracting fatty tissues whose structures and textures are complicated, automatic extraction is still a challenging task, while manual extraction is time-consuming. Consequently, semi-automatic extraction, which allows introducing interactive operations, appears to be more realistic. Currently, most interactive methods need to indicate the position and main features in both the object and background. However, it is easier for radiologists to only mark object information. Due to this issue, a new Object Information based Interactive Segmentation (OIIS) method is proposed in this paper. Different from the most existing methods, OIIS just needs to input the object information, while the background information is not required. Experimental results and comparative studies show that OIIS is effective for fatty tissue extraction. PMID:24034738

Zhou, Zhi-Guo; Liu, Fang; Jiao, Li-Cheng; Li, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Gou, Shui-Ping; Wang, Shuang

2013-08-02

80

Qualitative map learning based on covisibility of objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autonomous map construction is one of the most fundamental and significant issues in intelligent mobile robot research. While a variety of map construction methods have been proposed, most require some quantitative measurements of the environment and a mechanism of precise self-localization. This paper proposes a novel map construction method using only qualitative information about "how often two objects are observed simultaneously." This method is based on heuristics--"closely located objects are likely to be seen simultaneously more often than distant objects" and a well-known multivariate data analysis technique-multidimensional scaling. A significant feature of this method is that it requires neither quantitative sensor measurements nor information about the robot's own position. Simulation and experimental results demonstrated that this method is sufficiently practical for capturing a qualitative spatial relationship among identifiable landmark objects rapidly.

Yairi T; Hori K; Hirama K

2005-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

Fuzzy-Rule-Based Object Identification Methodology for NAVI System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present an object identification methodology applied in a navigation assistance for visually impaired (NAVI) system. The NAVI has a single board processing system (SBPS), a digital video camera mounted headgear, and a pair of stereo earphones. The captured image from the camera is processed by the SBPS to generate a specially structured stereo sound suitable for vision impaired people in understanding the presence of objects/obstacles in front of them. The image processing stage is designed to identify the objects in the captured image. Edge detection and edge-linking procedures are applied in the processing of image. A concept of object preference is included in the image processing scheme and this concept is realized using a fuzzy-rule base. The blind users are trained with the stereo sound produced by NAVI for achieving a collision-free autonomous navigation.

R. Nagarajan; G. Sainarayanan; Sazali Yaacob; Rosalyn R. Porle

2005-01-01

82

Dominance Based Crossover Operator for Evolutionary Multi-objective Algorithms  

CERN Multimedia

In spite of the recent quick growth of the Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization (EMO) research field, there has been few trials to adapt the general variation operators to the particular context of the quest for the Pareto-optimal set. The only exceptions are some mating restrictions that take in account the distance between the potential mates - but contradictory conclusions have been reported. This paper introduces a particular mating restriction for Evolutionary Multi-objective Algorithms, based on the Pareto dominance relation: the partner of a non-dominated individual will be preferably chosen among the individuals of the population that it dominates. Coupled with the BLX crossover operator, two different ways of generating offspring are proposed. This recombination scheme is validated within the well-known NSGA-II framework on three bi-objective benchmark problems and one real-world bi-objective constrained optimization problem. An acceleration of the progress of the population toward the Pareto se...

Roudenko, O; Roudenko, Olga; Schoenauer, Marc

2005-01-01

83

Emerald: an object-based language for distributed programming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Distributed systems have become more common, however constructing distributed applications remains a very difficult task. Numerous operating systems and programming languages have been proposed that attempt to simplify the programming of distributed applications. Here a programing language called Emerald is presented that simplifies distributed programming by extending the concepts of object-based languages to the distributed environment. Emerald supports a single model of computation: the object. Emerald objects include private entities such as integers and Booleans, as well as shared, distributed entities such as compilers, directories, and entire file systems. Emerald objects may move between machines in the system, but object invocation is location independent. The uniform semantic model used for describing all Emerald objects makes the construction of distributed applications in Emerald much simpler than in systems where the differences in implementation between local and remote entities are visible in the language semantics. Emerald incorporates a type system that deals only with the specification of objects - ignoring differences in implementation. Thus, two different implementations of the same abstraction may be freely mixed.

Hutchinson, N.C.

1987-01-01

84

Metadata management for CDP in object-based file system  

Science.gov (United States)

Object-based storage system integrates advantage of both NAS and SAN, can be applied in large-capacity, low-cost and large-scale storage systems which are built from commodity devices. Continuous data protection (CDP) is a methodology that continuously captures or tracks data modifications and stores changes independent of the primary data, enabling recovery points from any point in the past. An efficient file system optimized for CDP is needed to provide CDP feature in object-based storage system. In this thesis, a new metadata management method is present. All necessary meta data information are recorded when changes happened to file system. We have a journal-like data placement algorithm to store these metadata. Secondly, this metadata management method provides both CDP feature and Object-based feature. Two type write operations are analyzed to reduce storage space consumption. Object-based data allocation algorithm can take the advantage of distributed file system to concurrently process CDP operations over storage nodes. Thirdly, history revisions and recovery operations are discussed. Finally, the experiment test result is present and analyzed.

Yao, Jie; Cao, Qiang; Huang, Jianzhong

2009-08-01

85

Vision-based autonomous grasping of unknown piled objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer vision techniques have been used to develop a vision-based grasping capability for autonomously picking and placing unknown piled objects. This work is currently being applied to the problem of hazardous waste sorting in support of the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Operations Program

1994-01-01

86

Object based data access at the D0 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The D OE Experiment at Fermilab is currently participating in the FNAL Computing Division's ''Computing for Analysis Project'' (CAP) to investigate object based data storage and access. Following a short description of the CAP system architecture, the D OE data model is explored. A brief discussion of the method of operation of the CAP system leads into a concluding section

1995-01-01

87

Object-based high contrast travel time tomography  

CERN Multimedia

We consider travel time tomography problems involving detection of high contrast, discrete high velocity structures. This results in a discrete nonlinear inverse problem, for which traditional grid-based models and iterative linearized least-squares reconstruction algorithms are not suitable. This is because travel paths change significantly near the high contrast velocity structure, making it more difficult to inversely calculate the travel path and infer the velocity along the path. We propose a model-based approach to describe the high velocity structure using pre-defined elementary objects. Compared to a grid-based model, our approach has complexity that increases as a function of the number of objects, rather than increasing with the number of cells (usually very large). A new reconstruction algorithm is developed that provides estimates of the probability that a high velocity structure appears at any point in the region of interest. Simulation results show that our method can efficiently sample the mode...

Lin, Yenting

2013-01-01

88

Multi Objective AODV Based On a Realistic Mobility Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Routing is one of the most important challenges in ad hoc network. Numerous algorithms have been presented and one of the most important of them is AODV. This algorithm like many other algorithm calculate optimum path while pays no attention to environment situations, mobility pattern and mobile nodes status. However several presented algorithm have considered this situation and presented algorithm which named environment aware or mobility based. But in them have not considered realistic movement and environment such as obstacles, pathways and realistic movement pattern of the mobile nodes. This article present new algorithm based on AODV which find optimum path based on multi objectives. These objectives have been mined from a realistic mobility model, internal status of the mobile nodes and its status in routing. In this method the objectives are optional and each node can consider a couple of them in routing. Therefore this method supports GPS less mobile nodes. Evaluation of the new method shows that considering multi objectives influence routing metrics and can improve some of them.

Hamideh Babaei; Morteza Romoozi

2010-01-01

89

Nanoscale synthesis and characterization of graphene-based objects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graphene-based nano-objects such as nanotrenches, nanowires, nanobelts and nanoscale superstructures have been grown by surface segregation and precipitation on carbon-doped mono- and polycrystalline nickel substrates in ultrahigh vacuum. The dominant morphologies of the nano-objects were nanowire and nanosheet. Nucleation of graphene sheets occurred at surface defects such as step edges and resulted in the directional growth of nanowires. Surface analysis by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has clarified the structure and functionality of the novel nano-objects at atomic resolution. Nanobelts were detected consisting of bilayer graphene sheets with a nanoscale width and a length of several microns. Moiré patterns and one-dimensional reconstruction were observed on multilayer graphite terraces. As a useful functionality, application to repairable high-resolution STM probes is demonstrated.

Daisuke Fujita

2011-01-01

90

Improvement of range accuracy of photon counting chirped AM ladar using phase postprocessing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photon counting detection of Geiger mode avalanche photodiode is discrete due to its dead time, therefore the intermediate frequency (IF) spectrum is also discrete after the mixing and fast Fourier transform processing. When the peak of the IF spectrum is in the interval of the discrete IF spectrum, it limits the range accuracy without obtaining the exact position of the desired target in the interval. In this paper, the phase postprocessing method is proposed, which extracts not only the frequency of the IF signal, but also the phase of the IF signal that was not exploited before. The theoretical analysis demonstrates significant improvements in the range accuracy of the ladar and the simulation verifies the validity of the method. PMID:23670774

Zhang, Zijing; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Long; Su, Jianzhong

2013-04-10

91

A CDP method in an object-based file system  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in large-capacity, low-cost storage devices have led to active research in design of large-scale storage system built from commodity devices. These storage systems are composed of thousands of storage device and require an efficient file system to provide high system bandwidth and petabyte-scale data storage. Object-based file system integrates advantage of both NAS and SAN, can be applied in above environment. Continuous data protection (CDP) is a methodology that continuously captures or tracks data modifications and stores changes independent of the primary data, enabling recovery points from any point in the past. All changes to files and file metadata are stored and managed. A CDP method in Object-based file system is presented in this thesis to improve the system reliability. Firstly, we can get detail at byte level of every write request because data protection operates at the file system level. It can consume less storage space. Secondly, every object storage server can compute the recovery strip data object independently to decrease the recovery time. Thirdly a journal-like metadata management way is introduced to provide metadata optimization for CDP.

Yao, Jie; Cao, Qiang; Li, Huaiyang

2008-12-01

92

A Learning Object Approach To Evidence based learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the philosophy, development and framework of the body of elements formulated to provide an approach to evidence-based learning sustained by Learning Objects and web based technology Due to the demands for continuous improvement in the delivery of healthcare and in the continuous endeavour to improve the quality of life, there is a continuous need for practitioner's to update their knowledge by accomplishing accredited courses. The rapid advances in medical science has meant increasingly, there is a desperate need to adopt wireless schemes, whereby bespoke courses can be developed to help practitioners keep up with expanding knowledge base. Evidently, without current best evidence, practice risks becoming rapidly out of date, to the detriment of the patient. There is a need to provide a tactical, operational and effective environment, which allows professional to update their education, and complete specialised training, just-in-time, in their own time and location. Following this demand in the marketplace the information engineering group, in combination with several medical and dental schools, set out to develop and design a conceptual framework which form the basis of pioneering research, which at last, enables practitioner's to adopt a philosophy of life long learning. The body and structure of this framework is subsumed under the term Object oriented approach to Evidence Based learning, Just-in-time, via Internet sustained by Reusable Learning Objects (The OEBJIRLO Progression). The technical pillars which permit this concept of life long learning are pivoted by the foundations of object oriented technology, Learning objects, Just-in-time education, Data Mining, intelligent Agent technology, Flash interconnectivity and remote wireless technology, which allow practitioners to update their professional skills, complete specialised training which leads to accredited qualifications. This paper sets out to develop and implement a range of teaching and learning strategies that would accommodate the flexibility required by such a scheme. At the same time the specific requirements of individual programmes are satisfied. The body of elements provide an integrated path taking students through the range of operational, tactical and strategic issues involved in Web Based Learning, sustained by learning object abstract framework and Agent technology, within a distant learning context.

Zabin Visram; Bruce Elson; Patricia Reynolds

2005-01-01

93

Object Recognition Based on Image Segmentation and Clustering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study deals with object recognition based on image segmentation and clustering. Acquiring prior information of an image is done via two separate processes. Approach: The first process deals with detecting object parts of an image and integration of detected parts into several clusters. All these cluster centers form the visual words. The second process deals with over segmenting the image into super pixels and formation of larger sub region using Mid-level clustering algorithm, since it incorporates various information to decide the homogeneity of a sub region. Results: The outcome of the two processes are used for the similarity graph representation for object segmentation as proposed. In order to model the relationship between the shape and color or texture matrix representation has been used. Mask map ensures that the probability of each super pixel to harp inside an object. Conclusion: The basic whim is to integrate all the priors into an uniform framework. Thus the ORBISC can handle size, color, texture and pose variations better than those methods that focus on the objects only.

S. Thilagamani; N. Shanthi

2011-01-01

94

Data Warehouse Requirements Analysis Framework: Business-Object Based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Detailed requirements analysis plays a key role towards the design of successful Data Warehouse (DW) system. The requirements analysis specifications are used as the prime input for the construction of conceptual level multidimensional data model. This paper has proposed a Business Object based requirements analysis framework for DW system which is supported with abstraction mechanism and reuse capability. It also facilitate the stepwise mapping of requirements descriptions into high level design components of graph semantic based conceptual level object oriented multidimensional data model. The proposed framework starts with the identification of the analytical requirements using business process driven approach and finally refine the requirements in further detail to map into the conceptual level DW design model using either Demand-driven of Mixed-driven approach for DW requirements analysi

Anirban Sarkar

2012-01-01

95

OBEST: The Object-Based Event Scenario Tree Methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation have been used in risk assessment studies for many years. This report details how features of these two methods can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology with some of the best features of each. The resultant Object-Based Event Scenarios Tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible (especially those that exhibit inconsistent or variable event ordering, which are difficult to represent in an event tree analysis). Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST method uses a recursive algorithm to solve the object model and identify all possible scenarios and their associated probabilities. Since scenario likelihoods are developed directly by the solution algorithm, they need not be computed by statistical inference based on Monte Carlo observations (as required by some discrete event simulation methods). Thus, OBEST is not only much more computationally efficient than these simulation methods, but it also discovers scenarios that have extremely low probabilities as a natural analytical result--scenarios that would likely be missed by a Monte Carlo-based method. This report documents the OBEST methodology, the demonstration software that implements it, and provides example OBEST models for several different application domains, including interactions among failing interdependent infrastructure systems, circuit analysis for fire risk evaluation in nuclear power plants, and aviation safety studies

2001-01-01

96

OBEST: The Object-Based Event Scenario Tree Methodology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation have been used in risk assessment studies for many years. This report details how features of these two methods can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology with some of the best features of each. The resultant Object-Based Event Scenarios Tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible (especially those that exhibit inconsistent or variable event ordering, which are difficult to represent in an event tree analysis). Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST method uses a recursive algorithm to solve the object model and identify all possible scenarios and their associated probabilities. Since scenario likelihoods are developed directly by the solution algorithm, they need not be computed by statistical inference based on Monte Carlo observations (as required by some discrete event simulation methods). Thus, OBEST is not only much more computationally efficient than these simulation methods, but it also discovers scenarios that have extremely low probabilities as a natural analytical result--scenarios that would likely be missed by a Monte Carlo-based method. This report documents the OBEST methodology, the demonstration software that implements it, and provides example OBEST models for several different application domains, including interactions among failing interdependent infrastructure systems, circuit analysis for fire risk evaluation in nuclear power plants, and aviation safety studies.

WYSS, GREGORY D.; DURAN, FELICIA A.

2001-03-01

97

A curve evolution approach to object-based tomographic reconstruction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we develop a new approach to tomographic reconstruction problems based on geometric curve evolution techniques. We use a small set of texture coefficients to represent the object and background inhomogeneities and a contour to represent the boundary of multiple connected or unconnected objects. Instead of reconstructing pixel values on a fixed rectangular grid, we then find a reconstruction by jointly estimating these unknown contours and texture coefficients of the object and background. By designing a new "tomographic flow", the resulting problem is recast into a curve evolution problem and an efficient algorithm based on level set techniques is developed. The performance of the curve evolution method is demonstrated using examples with noisy limited-view Radon transformed data and noisy ground-penetrating radar data. The reconstruction results and computational cost are compared with those of conventional, pixel-based regularization methods. The results indicate that the curve evolution methods achieve improved shape reconstruction and have potential computation and memory advantages over conventional regularized inversion methods.

Feng H; Karl WC; Castañon DA

2003-01-01

98

DMD-based multi-object spectrograph on Galileo telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

Next-generation infrared astronomical instrumentation for ground-based and space telescopes could be based on MOEMS programmable slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy (MOS). This astronomical technique is used extensively to investigate the formation and evolution of galaxies. We propose to develop a 2048x1080 DMD-based MOS instrument to be mounted on the Galileo telescope and called BATMAN. A two-arm instrument has been designed for providing in parallel imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. The two arms with F/4 on the DMD are mounted on a common bench, and an upper bench supports the detectors thanks to two independent hexapods. Very good optical quality on the DMD and the detectors will be reached. ROBIN, a BATMAN demonstrator, has been designed, realized and integrated. It permits to determine the instrument integration procedure, including optics and mechanics integration, alignment procedure and optical quality. First images have been obtained and measured. A DMD pattern manager has been developed in order to generate any slit mask according to the list of objects to be observed; spectra have been generated and measured. Observation strategies will be studied and demonstrated for the scientific optimization strategy over the whole FOV. BATMAN on the sky is of prime importance for characterizing the actual performance of this new family of MOS instruments, as well as investigating the operational procedures on astronomical objects. This instrument will be placed on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo at the beginning of next year, in 2014.

Zamkotsian, Frederic; Spano, Paolo; Lanzoni, Patrick; Bon, William; Riva, Marco; Nicastro, Luciano; Molinari, Emilio; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Zerbi, Filippo; Valenziano, Luca

2013-03-01

99

Object {open_quotes}request{close_quotes} based clustering for method processing in object-oriented database system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Static grouping (clustering) of component objects in a complex object at the server has been an active area of research in client/server based object oriented database systems. We present a client-driven object grouping approach. A client executing a method makes dynamic decisions and groups objects for a request to the server. The client requires run-time and statically analyzed information for the method to make its decisions. Complex object skeletons are used for navigating the complex object. We have conducted experimental studies to evaluate our approach. We have used a prototype object-oriented database system called O-Raid for our experiments.

Goel, S.; Bhargava, B. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

1996-12-31

100

CAD-based 3D object representation for robot vision  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article explains that most existing vision systems rely on models generated in an ad hoc manner and have no explicit relation to the CAD/CAM system originally used to design and manufacture these objects. The authors desire a more unified system that allows vision models to be automatically generated from an existing CAD database. A CAD system contains an interactive design interface, graphic display utilities, model analysis tools, automatic manufacturing interfaces, etc. Although it is a suitable environment for design purposes, its representations and the models it generates do not contain all the features that are important in robot vision applications. In this article, the authors propose a CAD-based approach for building representations and models that can be used in diverse applications involving 3D object recognition and manipulation. There are two main steps in using this approach. First, they design the object's geometry using a CAD system, or extract its CAD model from the existing database if it has already been modeled. Second, they develop representations from the CAD model and construct features possibly by combining multiple representations that are crucial in 3D object recognition and manipulation.

Bhanu, B.; Ho, C.C.

1987-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

Corner Sort for Pareto-Based Many-Objective Optimization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nondominated sorting plays an important role in Pareto-based multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs). When faced with many-objective optimization problems multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs) with more than three objectives, the number of comparisons needed in nondominated sorting becomes very large. In view of this, a new corner sort is proposed in this paper. Corner sort first adopts a fast and simple method to obtain a nondominated solution from the corner solutions, and then uses the nondominated solution to ignore the solutions dominated by it to save comparisons. Obtaining the nondominated solutions requires much fewer objective comparisons in corner sort. In order to evaluate its performance, several state-of-the-art nondominated sorts are compared with our corner sort on three kinds of artificial solution sets of MOPs and the solution sets generated from MOEAs on benchmark problems. On one hand, the experiments on artificial solution sets show the performance on the solution sets with different distributions. On the other hand, the experiments on the solution sets generated from MOEAs show the influence that different sorts bring to MOEAs. The results show that corner sort performs well, especially on many-objective optimization problems. Corner sort uses fewer comparisons than others.

Wang H; Yao X

2013-03-01

102

A fast moving objects detection algorithm based on motion estimation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a fast moving objects detection algorithm, based on motions estimation, is proposed. Our algorithm consists of three main parts: Firstly, we use Enhanced Predictive Zonal Search(EPZS) method to match patches between video frames, Then, moving objects contour information is extracted by applying Tree Structure Moving Compensation (TSMC) technique into interesting patch subdivision and matching. Finally, we extract the patches of the target by the statistics of motion vectors. By applying EPZS we can quickly detect the moving target and get its information .Experiment shows that the algorithm can quickly and efficiently detected moving target and its contour from adjacent frames. Compared with other algorithms, this algorithm has better usability and faster processing speed while not be affected by the moving of camera.

Li, Zhida; Yu, Changsheng; Xie, Shixiong

2013-08-01

103

Analysis of manufacturing based on object oriented discrete event simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes SIMMEK, a computer-based tool for performing analysis of manufacturing systems, developed at the Production Engineering Laboratory, NTH-SINTEF. Its main use will be in analysis of job shop type of manufacturing. But certain facilities make it suitable for FMS as well as a production line manufacturing. This type of simulation is very useful in analysis of any types of changes that occur in a manufacturing system. These changes may be investments in new machines or equipment, a change in layout, a change in product mix, use of late shifts, etc. The effects these changes have on for instance the throughput, the amount of VIP, the costs or the net profit, can be analysed. And this can be done before the changes are made, and without disturbing the real system. Simulation takes into consideration, unlike other tools for analysis of manufacturing systems, uncertainty in arrival rates, process and operation times, and machine availability. It also shows the interaction effects a job which is late in one machine, has on the remaining machines in its route through the layout. It is these effects that cause every production plan not to be fulfilled completely. SIMMEK is based on discrete event simulation, and the modeling environment is object oriented. The object oriented models are transformed by an object linker into data structures executable by the simulation kernel. The processes of the entity objects, i.e. the products, are broken down to events and put into an event list. The user friendly graphical modeling environment makes it possible for end users to build models in a quick and reliable way, using terms from manufacturing. Various tests and a check of model logic are helpful functions when testing validity of the models. Integration with software packages, with business graphics and statistical functions, is convenient in the result presentation phase.

Eirik Borgen; Henning Neerland; Jan O. Strandhagen

1990-01-01

104

Cloud Aggregation and Bursting for Object Based Sharable Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing promises innate scalability and high availability at low cost. So far cloud storage deployments were subject to big companies but an increasing amount of available open-source systems allow also smaller private cloud installations. In this paper we discuss cloud aggregation and cloud bursting with their empirical review. Based on the review we map class and object in the sharable small clouds for making clouds more efficient. We also consider some of the security concern for the cloud computing for authorized data sharing between clouds.

Mr. Pradeep Kumar Tripathi; Prof. Surendra Mishra; Mr. Pankaj Kawadkar

2011-01-01

105

An object-based methodology for knowledge representation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An object based methodology for knowledge representation is presented. The constructs and notation to the methodology are described and illustrated with examples. The ``blocks world,`` a classic artificial intelligence problem, is used to illustrate some of the features of the methodology including perspectives and events. Representing knowledge with perspectives can enrich the detail of the knowledge and facilitate potential lines of reasoning. Events allow example uses of the knowledge to be represented along with the contained knowledge. Other features include the extensibility and maintainability of knowledge represented in the methodology.

Kelsey, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)|New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Hartley, R.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Webster, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-11-01

106

Detecting Algorithm for Moving Objects Based on Bayesian Judging Criterion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of accuracy for judging threshold under the complicated circumstance. In the detecting system, threshold is one of the most important factor, it decides the accuracy of the detecting result. Because the circumstance is changing, the threshold is asked to adapt the change. The traditional algorithm can hardly satisfy the need of the system. Bayesian model is an efficient system based on statistics rule, and it can give a better detecting result. In order to adapt the change of the light in a same video sequence, Bayesian judging criterion is used to detect object, void warm price and falling report price is considered comprehensively, combined with likelihood function and Bayesian risk assessment, an adaptive threshold is obtained. The threshold is determined by mean and variance of the image, so it is an optimal threshold changed with every image. The optimal threshold is used to separate object from background. Compared with the traditional threshold, it can suit different circumstance. The experimental result shows that the background noise can be removed with the dynamic threshold and the moving object can be detected accurately.

Yingxia Liu; Faliang Chang

2011-01-01

107

Multi-objective reliability-based optimization with stochastic metamodels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper addresses continuous optimization problems with multiple objectives and parameter uncertainty defined by probability distributions. First, a reliability-based formulation is proposed, defining the nondeterministic Pareto set as the minimal solutions such that user-defined probabilities of nondominance and constraint satisfaction are guaranteed. The formulation can be incorporated with minor modifications in a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (here: the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II). Then, in the perspective of applying the method to large-scale structural engineering problems--for which the computational effort devoted to the optimization algorithm itself is negligible in comparison with the simulation--the second part of the study is concerned with the need to reduce the number of function evaluations while avoiding modification of the simulation code. Therefore, nonintrusive stochastic metamodels are developed in two steps. First, for a given sampling of the deterministic variables, a preliminary decomposition of the random responses (objectives and constraints) is performed through polynomial chaos expansion (PCE), allowing a representation of the responses by a limited set of coefficients. Then, a metamodel is carried out by kriging interpolation of the PCE coefficients with respect to the deterministic variables. The method has been tested successfully on seven analytical test cases and on the 10-bar truss benchmark, demonstrating the potential of the proposed approach to provide reliability-based Pareto solutions at a reasonable computational cost.

Coelho RF; Bouillard P

2011-01-01

108

A Query Language for List-Based Complex Objects  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a language for querying list-based complex objects. The language is shown to express precisely the polynomial-time generic list-object functions. The iteration mechanism of the language is based on a new approach wherein, in addition to the list over which the iteration is performed, a second list is used to control the number of iteration steps. During the iteration, the intermediate results can be moved to the output list as well as re-inserted into the list being iterated over. A simple syntactic constraint allows the growth rate of the intermediate results to be tightly controlled which, in turn, restricts the expressiveness of the language to PTIME. Data Parallel Systems Inc., 4617 Morningside Dr., Bloomington, IN, 47408; email: colby@dpsi.com y University of Regina, Dept. of Comp. Science, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2, Canada, email: saxton@cs.uregina.ca z Indiana University, Comp. Science Dept., Bloomington, IN 47405-4101, email: vgucht@cs.indiana.edu. 1 Intro...

Latha S. Colby; Lawrence V. Saxton; Dirk Van Gucht

109

An Object-oriented Design and Push Web Server based Framework for Physical Object Interactions and Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the substantial issues in ubiquitous computing is the automatic processing of information from real world objects and enabling their interactions in the background. This scenario requires a framework on which such information processing and object interaction can be supported. This article presents our research progress in developing a framework based on the object-oriented design approach and the use of a push web server. With the concept of object abstraction, an object can hide its internal structure from the outside world, which can make the object secure. Moreover, object interaction can be conducted via message exchanges, which makes the interface simple and standardized and the heterogeneous objects can be easily handled as well. Instead of using the traditional pull web server, a push web server, i.e., Comet, which runs on top of HTTP protocol is used to exchange messages. To this, object interactions can be operated smoothly and seamlessly in real time with shorter delay.

Runhe Huang; Kei Nakanishi; Jianhua Ma; Bernady O. Apduhan

2008-01-01

110

Mobile object retrieval in server-based image databases  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing number of mobile phones equipped with powerful cameras leads to huge collections of user-generated images. To utilize the information of the images on site, image retrieval systems are becoming more and more popular to search for similar objects in an own image database. As the computational performance and the memory capacity of mobile devices are constantly increasing, this search can often be performed on the device itself. This is feasible, for example, if the images are represented with global image features or if the search is done using EXIF or textual metadata. However, for larger image databases, if multiple users are meant to contribute to a growing image database or if powerful content-based image retrieval methods with local features are required, a server-based image retrieval backend is needed. In this work, we present a content-based image retrieval system with a client server architecture working with local features. On the server side, the scalability to large image databases is addressed with the popular bag-of-word model with state-of-the-art extensions. The client end of the system focuses on a lightweight user interface presenting the most similar images of the database highlighting the visual information which is common with the query image. Additionally, new images can be added to the database making it a powerful and interactive tool for mobile contentbased image retrieval.

Manger, D.; Pagel, F.; Widak, H.

2013-05-01

111

Model quality objectives based on measurement uncertainty. Part I: Ozone  

Science.gov (United States)

Since models are increasingly used for policy support their evaluation is becoming an important issue. One of the possible evaluations is to compare model results to measurements. Statistical performance indicators then provide insight on model performance but do not tell whether model results have reached a sufficient level of quality for a given application. In a previous work Thunis et al. (2012, referred to as T2012) proposed a Model Quality Objective (MQO) based on the root mean square error between measured and modeled concentrations divided by the measurement uncertainty. In T2012 the measurement uncertainty was assumed to remain constant regardless of the concentration level. In the current work this assumption is overcome by quantifying all possible sources of uncertainty for the particular case of O3. Based on these uncertainty source quantifications, a simple relationship is proposed to formulate the measurement uncertainty which is then used to update the MQO and Model Performance Criteria (MPC) proposed in T2012 with more accurate values. The MQO and MPC calculated based on the European monitoring network AIRBASE data provide insight on the expected model results quality for a given application, depending on the geographical area and station type. These station specific MQOs and MPCs have the main advantage of relating expected model performances to the underlying measurement uncertainties.

Thunis, P.; Pernigotti, D.; Gerboles, M.

2013-11-01

112

A full featured component object oriented based architecture testing tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object-orientation has rapidly become accepted as the preferred paradigm for large-scale system design. The product created during Software Development effort has to be tested since bugs may get introduced during its development. In this research work we 1) establish a requirement specification for a comprehensive software testing tool. 2) This will involve studying the feature set offered by existing software testing tools and their limitations. This will be able to overcome the limitations of limited feature sets of existing software tools. 3) To propose a comprehensive architecture of a software testing tool, this will include most of the features required for a software testing tool. 4) The purpose is to avoid compatibility problems which are incurred by interfacing various tools to utilize individual tools strengths. Also, as different tools are having different user interfaces, it takes effort to learn, how to use them. A full featured, comprehensive tool is a solution to all of these problems. We intend to propose the object oriented methodology based architectures for the comprehensive tool.

Sarita Singh Bhadauria; Abhay Kothari; Lalji Prasad

2011-01-01

113

Implementation and Comparison of Kernel and Silhouette Based Object Tracking  

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Full Text Available Object tracking in video sequences is one of the important ongoing exploration areas in the field of computer vision. Computer vision is an arena that comprises methods for acquiring, processing, analyzing images and also covers the essential technology of automatic image analysis which is used in various fields. The aim of object tracking is to find the trajectory of the target objects through a number of frames from an image sequence. Object Tracking is identification of interesting object, especially on tracking of walkers or moving vehicles. Tracking is an interesting problem owing to, object occlusion, varying of illumination, unexpected object motion and camera motion. Normally many algorithms were developed for successful tracking. Object Tracking is mainly classified of three stages: object extraction, object recognition and tracking, and decisions about activities. In this paper we have implemented some algorithms and comparison table are analyzed.

Mr. Joshan Athanesious J , Mr. Suresh P

2013-01-01

114

Appearance Based Approach for Human and Object Tracking.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have implemented a system for tracking humans and detecting human- object interactions. Persistent tracking of humans and objects in a video sequence is an important task in surveillance application. Pose and illumination variations, occlusion, appeara...

M. Balcells Capellades

2002-01-01

115

Object Persistence: A Framework Based On Design Patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The poster presents a framework for providing object persistence in object-oriented programming languages without modifying the run-time system or the language itself. The framework does not rely on any kind of special programming language features. It only uses basic object-oriented programming tec...

Kienzle, Jörg; Romanovsky, Alexander

116

Resultados a curto prazo de ceratotomia lamelar pediculada (LASIK) para correção de hipermetropia com o sistema Ladar Vision de excimer laser/ Short-term results of hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with the Ladar Vision excimer laser system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do LASIK (ceratotomia lamelar pediculada) hipermetrópico utilizando-se o sistema Ladar Vision de excimer laser. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 28 olhos de 17 pacientes com hipermetropia de +1,00 a +3,00 D (grupo 1) e 29 olhos de 18 pacientes com hipermetropia de + 3,25 a + 6,00 D (grupo 2), submetidos à cirurgia de LASIK, com o Sistema Ladar Vision de excimer laser. Acuidade visual sem correção, melhor acui (more) dade visual corrigida e refração sob cicloplegia foram avaliadas em um, três e seis meses de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: No grupo 1, o equivalente esférico médio pré-operatório, sob cicloplegia, era de + 2,14 ± 0,64 D, passando para + 0,44 ± 0,38 D no sexto mês de pós-operatório. No grupo 2, o equivalente esférico médio pré-operatório era de +4,26 ± 0,75 D, diminuindo para +1,14 ± 0,63 D no sexto mês de pós-operatório. 3,4% dos olhos do grupo 2 perderam três linhas de visão no primeiro mês de pós-operatório. No grupo 1, não houve perda de duas ou mais linhas de visão. CONCLUSÕES: O LASIK hipermetrópico com o sistema Ladar Vision mostrou-se procedimento eficaz e seguro. Pacientes do grupo 2 parecem estar sob maior risco de perda de linhas de melhor acuidade visual corrigida no pós-operatório. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To analyze the efficacy and safety of hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis using the Ladar Vision excimer laser system. METHODS: Twenty-eight eyes of 17 patients with hyperopia from +1.00 to +3.00 D (group 1), and 29 eyes of 18 patients with hyperopia from +3.25 to +6.00 D (group 2) that had LASIK for hyperopia with the Ladar Vision, were retrospectively analyzed. Uncorrected visual acuity, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity and cycloplegic refraction were (more) evaluated 1 , 3 and 6 months after surgery. RESULTS: In group 1, the mean preoperative cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) was +2.14 ± 0.64 D and 6-month postoperative SE was +0.44 ± 0.38 D. In group 2, the mean preoperative SE was +4.26 ± 0.75 D and the 6-month postoperative SE was +1.14 ± 0.63 D. 3.4% of the eyes in group 2 and none of the eyes in group 1 lost 2 or more lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in the first postoperative month. CONCLUSIONS: LASIK with the Ladar Vision excimer laser system is an effective and safe procedure to correct hyperopia. Patients in group 2 appear to be at greater risk for loss of lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity.

Nunes, Larissa Madeira; Francesconi, Cláudia Maria; Campos, Mauro; Schor, Paulo

2004-02-01

117

Resultados a curto prazo de ceratotomia lamelar pediculada (LASIK) para correção de hipermetropia com o sistema Ladar Vision de excimer laser Short-term results of hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with the Ladar Vision excimer laser system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do LASIK (ceratotomia lamelar pediculada) hipermetrópico utilizando-se o sistema Ladar Vision de excimer laser. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 28 olhos de 17 pacientes com hipermetropia de +1,00 a +3,00 D (grupo 1) e 29 olhos de 18 pacientes com hipermetropia de + 3,25 a + 6,00 D (grupo 2), submetidos à cirurgia de LASIK, com o Sistema Ladar Vision de excimer laser. Acuidade visual sem correção, melhor acuidade visual corrigida e refração sob cicloplegia foram avaliadas em um, três e seis meses de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: No grupo 1, o equivalente esférico médio pré-operatório, sob cicloplegia, era de + 2,14 ± 0,64 D, passando para + 0,44 ± 0,38 D no sexto mês de pós-operatório. No grupo 2, o equivalente esférico médio pré-operatório era de +4,26 ± 0,75 D, diminuindo para +1,14 ± 0,63 D no sexto mês de pós-operatório. 3,4% dos olhos do grupo 2 perderam três linhas de visão no primeiro mês de pós-operatório. No grupo 1, não houve perda de duas ou mais linhas de visão. CONCLUSÕES: O LASIK hipermetrópico com o sistema Ladar Vision mostrou-se procedimento eficaz e seguro. Pacientes do grupo 2 parecem estar sob maior risco de perda de linhas de melhor acuidade visual corrigida no pós-operatório.PURPOSE: To analyze the efficacy and safety of hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis using the Ladar Vision excimer laser system. METHODS: Twenty-eight eyes of 17 patients with hyperopia from +1.00 to +3.00 D (group 1), and 29 eyes of 18 patients with hyperopia from +3.25 to +6.00 D (group 2) that had LASIK for hyperopia with the Ladar Vision, were retrospectively analyzed. Uncorrected visual acuity, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity and cycloplegic refraction were evaluated 1 , 3 and 6 months after surgery. RESULTS: In group 1, the mean preoperative cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) was +2.14 ± 0.64 D and 6-month postoperative SE was +0.44 ± 0.38 D. In group 2, the mean preoperative SE was +4.26 ± 0.75 D and the 6-month postoperative SE was +1.14 ± 0.63 D. 3.4% of the eyes in group 2 and none of the eyes in group 1 lost 2 or more lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in the first postoperative month. CONCLUSIONS: LASIK with the Ladar Vision excimer laser system is an effective and safe procedure to correct hyperopia. Patients in group 2 appear to be at greater risk for loss of lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity.

Larissa Madeira Nunes; Cláudia Maria Francesconi; Mauro Campos; Paulo Schor

2004-01-01

118

Robust object-based encoding in visual working memory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, researchers have begun to investigate how nonspatial perceptual information is extracted into visual working memory (VWM), focusing particularly on object-based encoding (OBE). That is, whenever even one feature-dimension is selected for entry into VWM, the others are also extracted automatically. While there is evidence supporting robust OBE in VWM, some researchers have argued that it is restricted to certain conditions, suggesting that OBE might be weak. The current study analyzed the experimental differences between prior studies revealing OBE and the ones that failed, and suggested that there were three critical differences in the experimental settings. Studies supporting robust OBE predominantly were conducted by probing an "irrelevant-change distracting effect," in which a change of stored irrelevant-feature dramatically affects performance. To examine whether OBE in VWM is robust or weak, we manipulated these three aspects under the irrelevant-change distracting effect to check whether OBE could be erased. In three experiments, we found similar degrees of the distracting effect between the experimental condition (controlling these factors) and the control condition; this suggests that these factors do not affect OBE. We conclude that robust OBE exists in VWM.

Shen M; Tang N; Wu F; Shui R; Gao Z

2013-01-01

119

Multimedia Learning Systems Based on IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM).  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the "hottest" topics in recent information systems and computer science is metadata. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) appears to be a very powerful mechanism for representing metadata, because of the great variety of LOM Objects. This is on of the reasons why the LOM standard is repeatedly cited in projects in the field of eLearning Systems.…

Holzinger, Andreas; Kleinberger, Thomas; Muller, Paul

120

Material-Based Object Segmentation Using Near-Infrared Information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a framework to incorporate near-infrared (NIR) information into algorithms to better segment objects by isolating material boundaries from color and shadow edges. Most segmentation algorithms assign individual regions to parts of the object that are colorized differently. Similarly, the p...

Salamati, Neda; Süsstrunk, Sabine

 
 
 
 
121

The Emergence of Kind-Based Object Individuation in Infancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments investigated whether 12-month-old infants use perceptual property information in a complex object individuation task, using the violation-of-expectancy looking time method (Xu, 2002; Xu & Carey, 1996). Infants were shown two objects with different properties emerge and return behind an occluder, one at a time. The occluder was…

Xu, Fei; Carey, Susan; Quint, Nina

2004-01-01

122

A Moving Object Detection Algorithm Based on Color Information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper designed a new algorithm of moving object detection for the aim of quick moving object detection and orientation, which used a pixel and its neighbors as an image vector to represent that pixel and modeled different chrominance component pixel as a mixture of Gaussians, and set up different mixture model of Gauss for different YUV chrominance components. In order to make full use of the spatial information, color segmentation and background model were combined. Simulation results show that the algorithm can detect intact moving objects even when the foreground has low contrast with background.

Fang, X H [Institute of Command and Technology of Equipment, Beijing, 101416 (China); Xiong, W [Institute of Command and Technology of Equipment, Beijing, 101416 (China); Hu, B J [Institute of Command and Technology of Equipment, Beijing, 101416 (China); Wang, L T [Unit 92941, PLA, Huludao, Liaoning, 125000 (China)

2006-10-15

123

A Moving Object Detection Algorithm Based on Color Information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper designed a new algorithm of moving object detection for the aim of quick moving object detection and orientation, which used a pixel and its neighbors as an image vector to represent that pixel and modeled different chrominance component pixel as a mixture of Gaussians, and set up different mixture model of Gauss for different YUV chrominance components. In order to make full use of the spatial information, color segmentation and background model were combined. Simulation results show that the algorithm can detect intact moving objects even when the foreground has low contrast with background

2006-01-01

124

Exploiting database technology for object based event storage and retrieval  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the storage and retrieval of experimental data on relational databases. Physics experiments carried out using reactors and particle accelerators, generate huge amount of data. Also, most of the data analysis and simulation programs are developed using object oriented programming concepts. Hence, one of the most important design features of an experiment related software framework is the way object persistency is handled. We intend to discuss these issues in the light of the module developed by us for storing C++ objects in relational databases like Oracle. This module was developed under the POOL persistency framework being developed for LHC, CERN grid. (author)

2005-01-01

125

A Robust Object Tracking Approach based on Mean Shift Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object tracking has always been a hotspot in the field of computer vision, which has a range of applications in real word. The object tracking is a critical task in many vision applications. The main steps in video analysis are two: detection of interesting moving objects and tracking of such objects from frame to frame. Most of tracking algorithms use pre-defined methods to process. In this study, we introduce the Mean shift tracking algorithm, which is a kind of important no parameters estimation method, then we evaluate the tracking performance of Mean shift algorithm on different video sequences. Experimental results show that the Mean shift tracker is effective and robust tracking method.

Zhang Xiaojing; Yajie Yue; Chenming Sha

2013-01-01

126

Objective Based Flexible Business Process Management Using the Map Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the proposal, a flexible business process management axed on the objective concept and for the process lifecycle is presented. The main feature of this approach is that the map model is used as the key element to drive the construction and execution of flexible business processes. An analysis phase starts with a model which fully considers the objective and sub-objectives of the business process, when defining it. A design phase uses the map model for specifying and representing the possible plans that are capable of achieving the predefined objective and this will be done in a modular manner. Examples are presented from a case study in the travel agency Numédia. The architecture of the execution engine for, so defined, business process map modeling is presented for its interpretation and its execution. Finally, an evaluation of the degree of flexibility brought by proposed management is given.

A. Bentellis; Z. Boufaida

2009-01-01

127

Robotic grasping of unknown objects: A knowledge-based approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we demonstrate a general-purpose robotic grasping system for use in unstructured environments. Using computer vision and a compact set of heuristics, the system automatically generates the robot arm and hand motions required for grasping an unmodeled object. The utility of such a system is most evident in environments where the robot will have to grasp and manipulate a variety of unknown objects, but where many of the manipulation tasks may be relatively simple. Examples of such domains are planetary exploration and astronaut assistance, undersea salvage and rescue, and nuclear waste site clean-up. This work implements a two-stage model of grasping: stage one is an orientation of the hand and wrist and a ballistic reach toward the object; stage two is hand preshaping and adjustment. Visual features are first extracted from the unmodeled object. These features and their relations are used by an expert system to generate a set of valid reach/grasps for the object. These grasps are then used in driving the robot hand and arm to bring the fingers into contact with the object in the desired configuration. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the functioning of the system. 27 refs., 38 figs.

Stansfield, S.A.

1989-06-01

128

Multi-object vehicles detection algorithm based on computer vision  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focused on analyzing the algorithm of multi-object vehicles detection and picking up in the vision field when the camera is fixed. From the perspective of given condition and environment, combining the key and difficult points, according to the continual vision sequence recorded by camera, discussing and analyzing the several realization algorithms of the multi-moving vehicles detection, extraction, identification and classification. On this basis we present modification and improvement of the relevant algorithms. Therefore in the limit of given condition, effectively increasing the real-time, object, robustness and adaptability multi-moving vehicles detection and extracting.

Liang, Shengzhuo; Xu, Shuting; Hao, Chao

2013-03-01

129

Objective, Way and Method of Faculty Management Based on Ergonomics  

Science.gov (United States)

The core problem that influences educational quality of talents in colleges and universities is the faculty management. Without advanced faculty, it is difficult to cultivate excellent talents. With regard to some problems in present faculty construction of colleges and universities, this paper puts forward the new objectives, ways and methods of…

WANG, Hong-bin; Liu, Yu-hua

2008-01-01

130

Ontology-Based Annotation of Learning Object Content  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper proposes a framework for building ontology-aware learning object (LO) content. Previously ontologies were exclusively employed for enriching LOs' metadata. Although such an approach is useful, as it improves retrieval of relevant LOs from LO repositories, it does not enable one to reuse components of a LO, nor to incorporate an explicit…

Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Devedzic, Vladan

2007-01-01

131

Object Based Real Time Lossless Video Compression – A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes video compression in real time.The aim is to achieve higher compression ratio in losslesscompression. Efficient compression is achieved by separating themoving objects from stationary background and compactlyrepresenting their shape, motion, and the content. Videocompression techniques are used to make efficient use of theavailable bandwidth. Lossless means that the output from thedecompressor is bit-for-bit identical with the original input to thecompressor. The decompressed video should be completelyidentical to original. In addition to providing improved codingefficiency in real time the technique provides the ability toselectively encode, decode, and manipulate individual objects in avideo stream. The technique used results in video coding that ahigh compression ratio can be obtained without any loss in data inreal time.

Preeti Markan; Balwinder Singh

2012-01-01

132

Hierarchical Object Category Recognition Technique for Image Based Search System  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present an object category recognition method for an information search system which is queried by camera of mobile phone or by servers of internet services. In such a system, processing speed is an important requirement. To improve processing speed, the hierarchical object category recognition technique proposed by Serre(23) is modified using Haar-Like features, vector quantization of feature models, and reduction of processing area. In addition, by retaining the information of each feature's position, it compensates the accuracy which is a little reduced in exchange of processing speed. We implemented this method to web server, and proved this system can work in practical processing time. Through the experiment for Caltech-101 image database and natural scene category images, we also confirm the accuracy of our approach.

Minagawa, Takuya; Saito, Hideo

133

Application of Object-Based Industrial Controls for Cryogenics  

CERN Multimedia

The first application of the CERN Unified Industrial Control system (UNICOS) has been developed for the 1.8 K refrigerator at point 1.8 in mid-2001. This paper presents the engineering methods used for application development, in order to reach the objectives of maintainability and reusability, in the context of a development done by an external consortium of engineering firms. It will also review the lessons learned during this first development and the improvements planned for the next applications.

Casas-Cubillos, J; Gomes, P; Pezzetti, M; Sicard, Claude Henri; Varas, F J

2002-01-01

134

Real-time Object Detection Based on ARM9  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object detection applications are associated with real-time performance constraints that originate from the embedded system that they are often deployed in. Our Embedded system using ARM 32 bit Microcontroller has the feature of image/video processing by using various features and classification algorithms have been proposed for object detection. It overcomes the performance in terms of sensors and hardware cost is also very high. So, our design Embedded system that detects partially visible pedestrians with low false alarm rate and high speed wherever they enter the camera view. This system takes captured image by means of web camera connected to ARM microcontroller through USB and the image is processed by using image processing technique. Image processing is a signal processing for which the input is an image, whether it is a photograph or a video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image. The captured image undergoes spatio temporal reference samples in terms of both back ground and fore ground estimation, evaluation and spatial Gaussian kernel to provide high quality image of object detection that detected image is continuously displayed on display unit and the data is stored in pen drive connected to it.

M.Vijay babu

2013-01-01

135

Finger Readjustment Algorithm for Object Manipulation Based on Tactile Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a novel algorithm which registers pressure information from tactile sensors installed over the fingers of a robotic hand in order to perform manipulation tasks with objects. This algorithm receives as an input the joint trajectories of the fingers which have to be executed and adapts it to the real contact pressure of each finger in order to guarantee that undesired slippage or contact?breaking is avoided during the execution of the manipulation task. This algorithm has been applied not only for the manipulation of normal rigid bodies but also for bodies whose centre of mass can be changed during the execution of the manipulation task.

Juan Antonio Corrales Ramo?n; Fernando Torres Medina; Ve?ronique Perdereau

2013-01-01

136

Managing Security In Object-Based Distributed Systems Using Ponder  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Security management involves specification anddeployment of access control policies as well asactivities such as registration of users or logging andauditing events for dealing with access to criticalresources or security violations. The managementactions to be performed when an event occurs depend onthe enterprise policy. Reusable composite policyspecifications are important to cater for the complexityof large enterprise information systems. Analysingpolicies for conflicts is essential for the safe operation ofthe system. This paper describes the Ponder languagefor specifying policies for security management ofDistributed Systems. Ponder is declarative, stronglytypedand object-oriented which makes the languageflexible, scalable and adaptable to a wide range ofsecurity requirements.

Nicodemos Damianou; Naranker Dulay; Emil Lupu; Morris Sloman

137

Tracking object's type changes with fuzzy based fusion rule  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper the behavior of three combinational rules for temporal/sequential attribute data fusion for target type estimation are analyzed. The comparative analysis is based on: Dempster's fusion rule proposed in Dempster-Shafer Theory; Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule no. 5 (PCR5), proposed in Dezert-Smarandache Theory and one alternative class fusion rule, connecting the combination rules for information fusion with particular fuzzy operators, focusing on the t-norm based Conjunctive rule as an analog of the ordinary conjunctive rule and t-conorm based Disjunctive rule as an analog of the ordinary disjunctive rule. The way how different t-conorms and t-norms functions within TCN fusion rule influence over target type estimation performance is studied and estimated.

Tchamova, Albena; Smarandache, Florentin

2009-01-01

138

An object oriented computer-based patient record reference model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the context of health care information systems based on client/server architecture, we address the problem of a common Computer-based Patient Record (CPR). We define it as a collection of faithful observations about patients care, with respect to the free expression of physicians. This CPR model supports several views of the medical data, in order to provide applications with a comprehensive and standardized access to distributed patient data. Finally, we validated our CPR approach as a primary data model server for an application for hypertensive patient management.

Doré L; Lavril M; Jean FC; Degoulet P

1995-01-01

139

Research on the Project Portfolio Technology Based on Functional Objective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The portfolio technology is used to solve project portfolio problems from strategic-level and tactical-level, namely, project portfolios based on goals and similarities, respectively. On the basis of analyzing and proposing the type of portfolio of project, we analyzed the relation between the project functional goals and the project, introduced the project portfolio technology of functional goals. On this basis, we studied the principle and process of the project portfolio technology which is based on project functional goals and the formation of program were studied accordingly.

Jingchun Feng; Xin Zhang; Zhanjun Liu; Haiyang Li

2011-01-01

140

A survey – Quality based Object Oriented Software Fault Prediction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software fault prediction is the most efficient methodology to improve the quality of the products. To improve the quality it is essential to find the error or fault as quick as possible. To determine and advance the development of product there are different prediction approaches are available like correction cost prediction, test effort prediction, software fault prediction (SFP), security prediction and so on. This paper survey the variety of methods and metrics used to improve the quality of the object oriented software. We compared different prediction models and proposed the methodology with the datasets they used for easy understanding. Software fault prediction using different techniques to improve the qualityand the error free software delivery. This paper gives overview about the prediction models for software in design and implementation phase and also it discuss trends which are currently used software faultprediction.

R.Sathyaraj; S.Prabu

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Objective Clustering of Proteins Based on Subcellular Location Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of proteomics is the complete characterization of all proteins. Efforts to characterize subcellular location have been limited to assigning proteins to general categories of organelles. We have previously designed numerical features to describe location patterns in microscope images and developed automated classifiers that distinguish major subcellular patterns with high accuracy (including patterns not distinguishable by visual examination). The results suggest the feasibility of automatically determining which proteins share a single location pattern in a given cell type. We describe an automated method that selects the best feature set to describe images for a given collection of proteins and constructs an effective partitioning of the proteins by location. An example for a limited protein set is presented. As additional data become available, this approach can produce for the first time an objective systematics for protein location and provide an important starting point for discovering sequence motifs that determine localization.

Chen Xiang; Murphy Robert F.

2005-01-01

142

An Object Web-based Approach to Earthquake  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Computer simulations and sophisticated data processing will be key to substantialgains in understanding the earthquake process. Emerging information technologiesmake possible a major change in the way computers are used and datais accessed. An outline of a realizable computational infrastructure includesstandardization of data accessibility, harnessing high-performance computingalgorithms, and packaging simulation elements as distributed objects acrosswide networks. These advances promise to reduce dramatically the frustrationand cost of doing earthquake science as they transform the fragmentary natureof the field into one of integration and community1: GEM Computational Infrastructure: GEMCIWe are designing a building a modern computational environment GEMCI to support differenttypes of activities in the earthquake simulation field (Fox 2000[1]). It is built assuming largescaleparallel machines used to perform simulations and with powerful distributed networks tosupport scientists around the world collaborating on a given problem. The components ofGEMCI can be divided into eight areas.

Geoffrey C. Fox; Ken Hurst; Andrea Donnellan; Jay Parker

143

Research on the Project Portfolio Technology Based on Functional Objective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The portfolio technology is used to solve project portfolio problems from strategic-level and tactical-level, namely, project portfolios based on goals and similarities, respectively. On the basis of analyzing and proposing the type of portfolio of project, we analyzed the relation between the proje...

Jingchun Feng; Xin Zhang; Zhanjun Liu; Haiyang Li

144

Tracking object's type changes with fuzzy based fusion rule  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the behavior of three combinational rules for temporal/sequential attribute data fusion for target type estimation are analyzed. The comparative analysis is based on: Dempster's fusion rule proposed in Dempster-Shafer Theory; Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule no. 5 (PCR5), prop...

Tchamova, Albena; Dezert, Jean; Smarandache, Florentin

145

Object-oriented programming of PLC based on IEC 1131  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The software development for programmable logical controllers is usually based on low-level languages such as the instruction list or the ladder diagram. At the same time, the programmer looks at a machine or an assembly system in a bit-oriented way: he translates the operational sequences into logi...

Weule, Hartmut; Spath, Dieter; Schelberg, Hans-Joachim

146

Relational and Object-Oriented Methodology in Data Bases Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Database programming languages integrate concepts of databases and programming languages to provide both implementation tools for data-intensive applications and high-level user interfaces to databases. Frequently, database programs contain a large amount of application knowledge which is hidden in the procedural code and thus difficult to maintain with changing data and user views. This paper presents a first attempt to improve the situation by supporting the integrated definition and management of data and rules based on a setoriented and predicative approach. The use of database technology for integrated fact and rule base management is shown to have some important advantages in terms of fact and rule integrity, question-answering, and explanation of results.

Marian Pompiliu CRISTESCU; Gabriel SOFONEA; Eugen COJOCARIU

2006-01-01

147

Hierarchial object-based geostatistical modeling of fluvial reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a novel approach to modeling braided stream fluvial reservoirs. The approach is based on a hierarchical set of coordinate transformations involving relative stratigraphic coordinates, translations, rotations, and straightening functions. The emphasis is placed on geologically-sound geometric concepts and realistically attainable conditioning statistics including areal and vertical facies proportions. The equations for the eight-fold coordinate transformation, a new analytical channel cross section shape, and a real example with 20 wells are presented.

Deutsch, C.V.; Wang, L.

1996-12-31

148

Objective image quality assessment based on support vector regression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective image quality estimation is useful in many visual processing systems, and is difficult to perform in line with the human perception. The challenge lies in formulating effective features and fusing them into a single number to predict the quality score. In this brief, we propose a new approach to address the problem, with the use of singular vectors out of singular value decomposition (SVD) as features for quantifying major structural information in images and then support vector regression (SVR) for automatic prediction of image quality. The feature selection with singular vectors is novel and general for gauging structural changes in images as a good representative of visual quality variations. The use of SVR exploits the advantages of machine learning with the ability to learn complex data patterns for an effective and generalized mapping of features into a desired score, in contrast with the oft-utilized feature pooling process in the existing image quality estimators; this is to overcome the difficulty of model parameter determination for such a system to emulate the related, complex human visual system (HVS) characteristics. Experiments conducted with three independent databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system in predicting image quality with better alignment with the HVS's perception than the relevant existing work. The tests with untrained distortions and databases further demonstrate the robustness of the system and the importance of the feature selection. PMID:20100674

Narwaria, Manish; Lin, Weisi

2010-01-22

149

Objective image quality assessment based on support vector regression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective image quality estimation is useful in many visual processing systems, and is difficult to perform in line with the human perception. The challenge lies in formulating effective features and fusing them into a single number to predict the quality score. In this brief, we propose a new approach to address the problem, with the use of singular vectors out of singular value decomposition (SVD) as features for quantifying major structural information in images and then support vector regression (SVR) for automatic prediction of image quality. The feature selection with singular vectors is novel and general for gauging structural changes in images as a good representative of visual quality variations. The use of SVR exploits the advantages of machine learning with the ability to learn complex data patterns for an effective and generalized mapping of features into a desired score, in contrast with the oft-utilized feature pooling process in the existing image quality estimators; this is to overcome the difficulty of model parameter determination for such a system to emulate the related, complex human visual system (HVS) characteristics. Experiments conducted with three independent databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system in predicting image quality with better alignment with the HVS's perception than the relevant existing work. The tests with untrained distortions and databases further demonstrate the robustness of the system and the importance of the feature selection.

Narwaria M; Lin W

2010-03-01

150

Efficient Fast Object-Tracking Scheme Based on Motion-vector-located Pattern Match  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the process of object tracking, the major problem is how to mark the tracking box of the object. Moreover, multi-objects tracking is also difficult. This paper proposed and efficient fast object-tracking scheme based on motion-vector-located pattern match, which adopts motion vector of Mpeg2 to m...

Liubai Li

151

Novel 3-D Object Recognition Methodology Employing a Curvature-Based Histogram  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a new object recognition algorithm employing a curvature-based histogram is presented. Recognition of three-dimensional (3-D) objects using range images remains one of the most challenging problems in 3-D computer vision due to its noisy and cluttered scene characteristics. The key breakthroughs for this problem mainly lie in defining unique features that distinguish the similarity among various 3-D objects. In our approach, an object detection scheme is developed to identify targets underlining an automated search in the range images using an initial process of object segmentation to subdivide all possible objects in the scenes and then applying a process of object recognition based on geometric constraints and a curvature-based histogram for object recognition. The developed method has been verified through experimental tests for its feasibility confirmation.

Liang-Chia Chen; Hoang Hong Hai; Xuan-Loc Nguyen; Hsiao-Wen Wu

2013-01-01

152

Resultados a curto prazo de ceratotomia lamelar pediculada (LASIK) para correção de hipermetropia com o sistema Ladar Vision de excimer laser  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do LASIK (ceratotomia lamelar pediculada) hipermetrópico utilizando-se o sistema Ladar Vision de excimer laser. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 28 olhos de 17 pacientes com hipermetropia de +1,00 a +3,00 D (grupo 1) e 29 olhos de 18 pacientes com hipermetropia de + 3,25 a + 6,00 D (grupo 2), submetidos à cirurgia de LASIK, com o Sistema Ladar Vision de excimer laser. Acuidade visual sem correção, melhor acuidade visual corrigida e refração sob cicloplegia foram avaliadas em um, três e seis meses de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: No grupo 1, o equivalente esférico médio pré-operatório, sob cicloplegia, era de + 2,14 ± 0,64 D, passando para + 0,44 ± 0,38 D no sexto mês de pós-operatório. No grupo 2, o equivalente esférico médio pré-operatório era de +4,26 ± 0,75 D, diminuindo para +1,14 ± 0,63 D no sexto mês de pós-operatório. 3,4% dos olhos do grupo 2 perderam três linhas de visão no primeiro mês de pós-operatório. No grupo 1, não houve perda de duas ou mais linhas de visão. CONCLUSÕES: O LASIK hipermetrópico com o sistema Ladar Vision mostrou-se procedimento eficaz e seguro. Pacientes do grupo 2 parecem estar sob maior risco de perda de linhas de melhor acuidade visual corrigida no pós-operatório.

Nunes Larissa Madeira; Francesconi Cláudia Maria; Campos Mauro; Schor Paulo

2004-01-01

153

Intra-Inter Triplet Object Interaction Mechanism in Triplet-Based Hierarchical Interconnection Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object oriented languages usually avoid direct message passing, due to its complicated implementation, though that is the promising way to communicate in concurrently inherited objects. With the advancement in the high performance computing system, interaction between parallel application objects onto physical cores becomes one of the significant issues, which is not fully explored yet. In object oriented programming attribute data is included in objects and their state can be changed using the methods. Objects enable massage passing to other objects interacting with each other. Comprehensive problems can be molded by object-oriented methodology, and solves difficult program running object-oriented programs.Cores communicate with each other through communicator and groups in MPI, but in our reference architecture TBHIN (Triplet Based Hierarchical Interconnection Network), the cores are already faction in Triplets. We propose IITOIM Model to improve the performance with efficient intra-inter triplet cores communication mechanism between the objects in TBHIN

Shahnawaz Talpur; Imran Ali Qureshi; Shahnawaz Farhan Khahro

2013-01-01

154

Real-Time Occlusion Handling in Augmented Reality Based on an Object Tracking Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To produce a realistic augmentation in Augmented Reality, the correct relative positions of real objects and virtual objects are very important. In this paper, we propose a novel real-time occlusion handling method based on an object tracking approach. Our method is divided into three steps: selecti...

Yuan Tian; Tao Guan; Cheng Wang

155

Memory-based multiagent coevolution modeling for robust moving object tracking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The three-stage human brain memory model is incorporated into a multiagent coevolutionary process for finding the best match of the appearance of an object, and a memory-based multiagent coevolution algorithm for robust tracking the moving objects is presented in this paper. Each agent can remember, retrieve, or forget the appearance of the object through its own memory system by its own experience. A number of such memory-based agents are randomly distributed nearby the located object region and then mapped onto a 2D lattice-like environment for predicting the new location of the object by their coevolutionary behaviors, such as competition, recombination, and migration. Experimental results show that the proposed method can deal with large appearance changes and heavy occlusions when tracking a moving object. It can locate the correct object after the appearance changed or the occlusion recovered and outperforms the traditional particle filter-based tracking methods.

Wang Y; Qi Y; Li Y

2013-01-01

156

Analysis of Multicast-based Object Replication Strategies in Distributed Systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper concerns another model, namely, the shared object model. It is arefinement of the shared memorywhere the unit of replication is an object. Severalexperimental distributed systemsbased on objects exist: Eden [2], Emerald[9], Clouds [19], Amoeba/Orca [24], Guide [5]. They define architectures basedon objects which hide most of the problems inherent in distribution thus providinglocation, access and execution transparency. This work has been donein the framework of the Guide project, whose aim is to explore distributedcomputing structured in terms of objects and based on a set of workstationsinterconnected via a local area network. The Guide model is based on sharedpersistent objects. The system offers a strongly typed object-oriented programminglanguage [16] and provides system support for object persistency,This is an extended version of a paper presented at the 13th International Conference on DistributedComputing Systems, Pittsburgh (USA), May 1993.

Andrzej Duda

157

A New Spatio-Temporal MRF Framework for Video-based Object Segmentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we propose a general framework for video-based object segmentation using a new spatio-temporal Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Video-based object segmentation has the potential to improve the performance of static image segmentation by fusing in- formation over the temporal scale. Bui...

Huang, Rui; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Metaxas, Dimitris

158

Object Classification based Context Management for Identity Management in Internet of Things  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As computing technology is becoming more tightly coupled into dynamic and mobile world of the Internet of Things (IoT), security mechanism is more stringent, flexible and less intrusive. Scalability issue in IoT makes identity management (IdM) of ubiquitous objects more challenging, and there is a need of context-aware access control solution for IdM. Confronting uncertainty of different types of objects in IoT is not easy. This paper presents the logical framework for object classification in context aware IoT, as richer contextual information creates an impact on the access control. This paper proposes decision theory based object classification to provide contextual information and context management. Simulation results show that the proposed object classification is useful to improve network lifetime. Results also give motivation of object classification in terms of energy consumption. This paper also presents proof of concept and time analysis of the proposed decision theory based object classification.

Mahalle, Parikshit N.; Prasad, Neeli R.

2013-01-01

159

A Web-based Animator for Object Specifications in a Persistent Environment  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present an animation tool for the formal specification languageTROLL light. The system allows the manipulation and querying ofobjects and navigation through object hierarchies. A Web-based user interfacesimplifies the usage of the system.1 IntroductionFormal approaches are important for the development of correct and reliable softwaresystems. But, formal methods often are difficult to understand and use for end users.In the following, we present an animation tool for the object-oriented specificationlanguage TROLL light. The animation system allows the validation of conceptualmodels while ease of use is guaranteed by a Web-based user interface.2 Object Specification with TROLL lightThe language TROLL light is employed for describing static and dynamic propertiesof objects. We achieve this by offering language features to specify object structureas well as object behavior [2]. Following the object paradigm has the advantage thatall relevant information concerning one...

Mark Richters; Martin Gogolla

160

The TACO approach to establishing risk-based corrective action objectives for a former industrial facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Illinois' Tiered Approach to Corrective Action Objectives (35 Ill Adm Code Part 742) regulations have been used to evaluate site-specific remediation objectives for a site contaminated with methylene chloride. Remediation objectives evaluated through this approach have provided the opportunity to implement a technically feasible cleanup of the site. Site-specific soil cleanup objectives of 24 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for the unsaturated soils and 2,000 mg/kg for the underlying saturated soils were established. These cleanup objectives were based on the use of a city ordinance prohibiting well installation and groundwater use within one-half mile of the site and did not require the use of an engineered barrier which would have to be maintained throughout the life of the facility. Without the city ordinance and risk-based cleanup objectives, the cleanup objective would have been 0.02 mg/kg, making remediation of the site technically and economically infeasible.

Pope, J.L.; Nienkerk, M.M.

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Self-Localization and Stream Field Based Partially Observable Moving Object Tracking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Self-localization and object tracking are key technologies for human-robot interactions. Most previous tracking algorithms focus on how to correctly estimate the position, velocity, and acceleration of a moving object based on the prior state and sensor information. What has been rarely studied so far is how a robot can successfully track the partially observable moving object with laser range finders if there is no preanalysis of object trajectories. In this case, traditional tracking algorithms may lead to the divergent estimation. Therefore, this paper presents a novel laser range finder based partially observable moving object tracking and self-localization algorithm for interactive robot applications. Dissimilar to the previous work, we adopt a stream field-based motion model and combine it with the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF) to predict the object goal directly. This algorithm can keep predicting the object position by inferring the interactive force between the object goal and environmental features when the moving object is unobservable. Our experimental results show that the robot with the proposed algorithm can localize itself and track the frequently occluded object. Compared with the traditional Kalman filter and particle filter-based algorithms, the proposed one significantly improves the tracking accuracy.

Kuo-Shih Tseng; Angela Chih-Wei Tang

2009-01-01

162

Moving Object Detection Based on the Histograms of Oriented Gradients and Cloud Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features and the cloud model approach for the moving object detection from video sequences. Our model is based on the HOG features for the moving object and then uses the cloud model to find the moving object. First the HOG features are described from the image and then a HOG map is used by the cloud model to detect the moving object. The experiment shows our method is relative effect and has advantage in the detecting moving object.

Yuyong Cui; Zhiyuan Zeng; Bitao Fu; Weihong Cui

2012-01-01

163

View-based discriminative probabilistic modeling for 3D object retrieval and recognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In view-based 3D object retrieval and recognition, each object is described by multiple views. A central problem is how to estimate the distance between two objects. Most conventional methods integrate the distances of view pairs across two objects as an estimation of their distance. In this paper, we propose a discriminative probabilistic object modeling approach. It builds probabilistic models for each object based on the distribution of its views, and the distance between two objects is defined as the upper bound of the Kullback-Leibler divergence of the corresponding probabilistic models. 3D object retrieval and recognition is accomplished based on the distance measures. We first learn models for each object by the adaptation from a set of global models with a maximum likelihood principle. A further adaption step is then performed to enhance the discriminative ability of the models. We conduct experiments on the ETH 3D object dataset, the National Taiwan University 3D model dataset, and the Princeton Shape Benchmark. We compare our approach with different methods, and experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our approach.

Wang M; Gao Y; Lu K; Rui Y

2013-04-01

164

View-based 3D object retrieval and recognition using tangent subspace analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Light field is a novel image-based representation of 3D object, in which each 3D object is described by a group of images captured from many viewpoints. It is irrelevant to the complexity of the 3D scenario or objects. Due to this advantage, we propose a 3D object retrieval framework based on light field. An effective distance measure through subspace analysis of light field data is defined, and our method makes use of the structural information hidden in the images of light field. To obtain a more reasonable distance measure, the distance in low dimensional spaces is supplemented. Additionally, our algorithm can handle the problem of arbitrary camera numbers and positions when capturing the light field. In our experiment, a standard 3D object database is adopted, and our proposed distance measure shows better performance than the "LFD" in 3D object retrieval and recognition.

Wang, Fan; Li, Fei; Dai, Qionghai; Er, Guihua

2008-01-01

165

Study on Objective Integrated Control of New Energy Power Projects Based on Reliability Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the research status of objective control theory of new energy power projects, analysed the system components of power projects, proposed the subsystem reliability control theory directed at four objectives, gave reliability control standards and calculation methods of four objectives, obtained the objective integrated method of subsystem reliability, used disjoint minimal path sets method to deal with the minimal path sets in the project construction process, proposed system reliability control theory of new energy power projects, then combined the known reliability control standards to assess project reliability, finally established objective integrated control model of new energy power projects based on reliability theory. Finally an simple example proves that the proposed objective integrated control model is simple and practical.  

Yunna Wu; Zezhong Li; Lirong Liu

2013-01-01

166

Moving Object Localization Using Sound-Based Positioning System with Doppler Shift Compensation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sound-based positioning systems are a potential alternative low-cost navigation system. Recently, we developed such an audible sound-based positioning system, based on a spread spectrum approach. It was shown to accurately localize a stationary object. Here, we extend this localization to a moving object by compensating for the Doppler shift associated with the object movement. Numerical simulations and experiments indicate that by compensating for the Doppler shift, the system can accurately determine the position of an object moving along a non-linear path. When the object moved in a circular path with an angular velocity of 0 to 1.3 rad/s, it could be localized to within 25 mm of the actual position. Experiments also showed the proposed system has a high noise tolerance of up to ?25 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) without compromising accuracy.

Slamet Widodo; Tomoo Shiigi; Naoki Hayashi; Hideo Kikuchi; Keigo Yanagida; Yoshiaki Nakatsuchi; Yuichi Ogawa; Naoshi Kondo

2013-01-01

167

Real-Time Occlusion Handling in Augmented Reality Based on an Object Tracking Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To produce a realistic augmentation in Augmented Reality, the correct relative positions of real objects and virtual objects are very important. In this paper, we propose a novel real-time occlusion handling method based on an object tracking approach. Our method is divided into three steps: selection of the occluding object, object tracking and occlusion handling. The user selects the occluding object using an interactive segmentation method. The contour of the selected object is then tracked in the subsequent frames in real-time. In the occlusion handling step, all the pixels on the tracked object are redrawn on the unprocessed augmented image to produce a new synthesized image in which the relative position between the real and virtual object is correct. The proposed method has several advantages. First, it is robust and stable, since it remains effective when the camera is moved through large changes of viewing angles and volumes or when the object and the background have similar colors. Second, it is fast, since the real object can be tracked in real-time. Last, a smoothing technique provides seamless merging between the augmented and virtual object. Several experiments are provided to validate the performance of the proposed method.

Yuan Tian; Tao Guan; Cheng Wang

2010-01-01

168

The differential effects of reward on space- and object-based attentional allocation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estimating reward contingencies and allocating attentional resources to a subset of relevant information are the most important contributors to increasing adaptability of an organism. Although recent evidence suggests that reward- and attention-based guidance recruits overlapping cortical regions and has similar effects on sensory responses, the exact nature of the relationship between the two remains elusive. Here, using event-related fMRI on human participants, we contrasted the effects of reward on space- and object-based selection in the same experimental setting. Reward was either distributed randomly or biased a particular object. Behavioral and neuroimaging results show that space- and object-based attention is influenced by reward differentially. Space-based attentional allocation is mandatory, integrating reward information over time, whereas object-based attentional allocation is a default setting that is completely replaced by the reward signal. Nonadditivity of the effects of reward and object-based attention was observed consistently at multiple levels of analysis in early visual areas as well as in control regions. These results provide strong evidence that space- and object-based allocation are two independent attentional mechanisms, and suggest that reward serves to constrain attentional selection.

Lee J; Shomstein S

2013-06-01

169

VoroNet: A scalable object network based on Voronoi tessellations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we propose the design of VoroNet, an object-based peer to peer overlay network relying on Voronoi tessellations, along with its theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation. VoroNet differs from previous overlay networks in that peers are application objects themselves and get ide...

Beaumont, Olivier; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Marchal, Loris; Rivière, Etienne

170

Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms Design based on Support Vector Regression Metamodeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to solve the multi-objective optimization problem in the complex engineering, in this paper a NSGA-II multi-objective optimization algorithms based on Support Vector Regression Metamodeling is presented, Appropriate design parameter samples are selected by experimental design theorie...

Qi Zhang

171

The Object-Based Simon Effect: Grasping Affordance or Relative Location of the Graspable Part?  

Science.gov (United States)

Reaction time is often shorter when the irrelevant graspable handle of an object corresponds with the location of a keypress response to the relevant attribute than when it does not. This object-based Simon effect has been attributed to an affordance for grasping the handle with the hand to the same side. Because a grasping affordance should…

Cho, Dongbin; Proctor, Robert W.

2010-01-01

172

Attention-Guided Organized Perception and Learning of Object Categories Based on Probabilistic Latent Variable Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a probabilistic model of object category learning in conjunction with attention-guided organized perception. This model consists of a model of attention-guided organized perception of object segments on Markov random fields and a model of learning object categories based on a probabilistic latent component analysis. In attention guided organized perception, concurrent figure-ground segmentation is performed on dynamically-formed Markov random fields around salient preattentive points and co-occurring segments are grouped in the neighborhood of selective attended segments. In object category learning, a set of classes of each object category is obtained based on the probabilistic latent component analysis with the variable number of classes from bags of features of segments extracted from images which contain the categorical objects in context and an object category is represented by a composite of object classes. Through experiments using two image data sets, it is shown that the model learns a probabilistic structure of intra-categorical composition and inter-categorical difference of object categories and achieves high performance in object category recognition.

Masayasu Atsumi

2013-01-01

173

Object-based learning in higher education: The pedagogical power of museums  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following a special conference focused on object-based learning in higher education at University College London (UCL), this paper provides the overview for a series of subsequent papers which explore the value of object-based learning, including the pedagogical framework for museum learning in the university classroom and practice led examples from a range of disciplines. Object-based learning in higher education draws on many of the learning strategies already known to inform students, including active learning and experiential learning; this collection of papers draws together examples of object-based learning pioneered at UCL and seeks to encourage enhanced use of university collections in new, pedagogically powerful, modes.

Helen J. Chatterjee

2010-01-01

174

Environmental Assessment of Remove Objects Along Flightline at Davis- Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona.  

Science.gov (United States)

NAME OF THE PROPOSED ACTION: Remove Objects Along Flight Line at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (DMAFB), Arizona. The purpose is to protect lives and USAF property, maximize the safety and efficiency of runway operations, meet constant availability standard...

J. Buzon S. Collinsworth T. Gurdikian B. Hoppy R. E. Lamb

2005-01-01

175

Adaptive critic neural network-based object grasping control using a three-finger gripper.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grasping of objects has been a challenging task for robots. The complex grasping task can be defined as object contact control and manipulation subtasks. In this paper, object contact control subtask is defined as the ability to follow a trajectory accurately by the fingers of a gripper. The object manipulation subtask is defined in terms of maintaining a predefined applied force by the fingers on the object. A sophisticated controller is necessary since the process of grasping an object without a priori knowledge of the object's size, texture, softness, gripper, and contact dynamics is rather difficult. Moreover, the object has to be secured accurately and considerably fast without damaging it. Since the gripper, contact dynamics, and the object properties are not typically known beforehand, an adaptive critic neural network (NN)-based hybrid position/force control scheme is introduced. The feedforward action generating NN in the adaptive critic NN controller compensates the nonlinear gripper and contact dynamics. The learning of the action generating NN is performed on-line based on a critic NN output signal. The controller ensures that a three-finger gripper tracks a desired trajectory while applying desired forces on the object for manipulation. Novel NN weight tuning updates are derived for the action generating and critic NNs so that Lyapunov-based stability analysis can be shown. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme successfully allows fingers of a gripper to secure objects without the knowledge of the underlying gripper and contact dynamics of the object compared to conventional schemes. PMID:15384532

Jagannathan, S; Galan, Gustavo

2004-03-01

176

Learning to recognize objects on the fly: a neurally based dynamic field approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autonomous robots interacting with human users need to build and continuously update scene representations. This entails the problem of rapidly learning to recognize new objects under user guidance. Based on analogies with human visual working memory, we propose a dynamical field architecture, in which localized peaks of activation represent objects over a small number of simple feature dimensions. Learning consists of laying down memory traces of such peaks. We implement the dynamical field model on a service robot and demonstrate how it learns 30 objects from a very small number of views (about 5 per object are sufficient). We also illustrate how properties of feature binding emerge from this framework.

Faubel C; Schöner G

2008-05-01

177

Learning to detect objects in images via a sparse, part-based representation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study the problem of detecting objects in still, gray-scale images. Our primary focus is the development of a learning-based approach to the problem that makes use of a sparse, part-based representation. A vocabulary of distinctive object parts is automatically constructed from a set of sample images of the object class of interest; images are then represented using parts from this vocabulary, together with spatial relations observed among the parts. Based on this representation, a learning algorithm is used to automatically learn to detect instances of the object class in new images. The approach can be applied to any object with distinguishable parts in a relatively fixed spatial configuration; it is evaluated here on difficult sets of real-world images containing side views of cars, and is seen to successfully detect objects in varying conditions amidst background clutter and mild occlusion. In evaluating object detection approaches, several important methodological issues arise that have not been satisfactorily addressed in previous work. A secondary focus of this paper is to highlight these issues and to develop rigorous evaluation standards for the object detection problem. A critical evaluation of our approach under the proposed standards is presented.

Agarwal S; Awan A; Roth D

2004-11-01

178

[Competency-based medical education: National Catalogue of Learning Objectives in surgery].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Competency-based medical education is a prerequisite to prepare students for the medical profession. A mandatory professional qualification framework is a milestone towards this aim. The National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) of the German Medical Faculty Association (MFT) and the German Medical Association will constitute a basis for a core curriculum of undergraduate medical training. The Surgical Working Group on Medical Education (CAL) of the German Association of Surgeons (DGCH) aims at formulating a competency-based catalogue of learning objectives for surgical undergraduate training to bridge the gap between the NKLM and the learning objectives of individual medical faculties. This is intended to enhance the prominence and visibility of the surgical discipline in the context of medical education. On the basis of different faculty catalogues of learning objectives, the catalogue of learning objectives of the German Association of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery and the Swiss Catalogue of Learning Objectives representatives of all German Surgical Associations cooperated towards a structured selection process of learning objectives and the definition of levels and areas of competencies. After completion the catalogue of learning objectives will be available online on the webpage of the DGCH.

Kadmon M; Bender MJ; Adili F; Arbab D; Heinemann MK; Hofmann HS; König S; Küper MA; Obertacke U; Rennekampff HO; Rolle U; Rücker M; Sader R; Tingart M; Tolksdorf MM; Tronnier V; Will B; Walcher F

2013-04-01

179

A New Control Structure Model Based on Object-oriented Petri Nets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Petri nets in object-oriented modeling, based on the objects introduced a special internal changes - the control changes, the introduction of objects in the controller, a control structure based on object-oriented Petri nets (CS-OOPN) model, and described the CS-OOPN modeling steps of the described of CS-OOPN modeling. The model overcomes the traditional object-oriented Petri nets modeling of flexible processes and systems lack the flexibility of the shortcomings can be more intuitive, flexible to describe the work flow. Finally, using this model for a group management system and for modeling equipment procurement, and approval departments CS-OOPN model as an example, find its associated matrix, tree coverage and P-invariant, the correlation analysis to prove that building the model has good performance and to meet the system requirements change and restructuring.

Yan-pei Liu; Yuesheng Gu; Jun Chen

2012-01-01

180

OBJECT RECOGNITION SYSTEM USING TEMPLATE MATCHING BASED ON SIGNATURE AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper an object recognition system using template matching is implemented. Since objects are represented by either an external or internal descriptors, a combination of using signature, principal component analysis and color is used. The system efficacy is measured by applying it to recognize an image of a chessboard with a set of objects (pieces). The output of the system includes the pieces names, locations and color. The signature feature is used to distinguish the pieces types based on their external shape but when it falls short, the principal components analysis is used instead. The object color is also obtained. The matching between features is carried out based on Euclidean distance metric .The proposed system is implemented, trained, and tested using Matlab based on a set of collected samples representing chessboard images. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in recognizing the pieces locations, types, and color.

Inad A. Aljarrah; Ahmed S. Ghorab; Ismail M. Khater

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Modeling and Analysis for Obstacle Avoidance of a Behavior-Based Robot with Objected Oriented Methods  

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Full Text Available Object Modeling Technique is widely applied in the field of software engineering; and in this paper we applied this technique to model a mobile robot including its behaviors and interactions with environment. The paper first describes key background knowledge about object oriented analysis in software engineering, behavior based robotics and their similarities. Then, based on these similarities, the paper uses object oriented methods of software engineering, such as unified modeling language (UML), to analyze and model the architecture; and to design behaviors for a behavior-based robot, which is expected to wander with autonomous obstacle avoidance in unknown environment. Object oriented methods permit a translation from conceptual behavior models to computer programming representations, and separate concrete control algorithms from robot modeling. With this approach, the paper implements a fuzzy algorithm for obstacle avoidance behavior of the constructed behavior models in a physical robot, and made experiments in the given indoor environment.

Qian Zhang; Yong-Fei Zhang; Shi-Yin Qin

2009-01-01

182

Object and camera movement tracking based on 2D hint extraction  

Science.gov (United States)

Objects and camera movements are important clues, which can be used for a better video and image understanding for content-based image and video indexing. In this paper, we propose a new general technique for object and 3D camera movement detection based on 2D hints extracted from 2D images. Our approach consists of extracting first 2D hints based on object contours and calculating their different order derivatives. We then apply our pattern matching method to obtain objects movement vectors, and with help of 3D projection theory, we detect the camera movement description in the 3D space. The further work we have been undertaking shows that 2D and 3D hints combined with movement vectors can lead to 3D scene description. Some experimental evidence is also provided.

Ardebilian Fard, Mohsen; Chen, Liming

1999-08-01

183

Automatic Multi-Level Thresholding Segmentation Based on Multi-Objective Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new multi-level image thresholding technique, called Automatic Threshold based on Multi-objective Optimization "ATMO" that combines the flexibility of multi-objective fitness functions with the power of a Binary Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm "BPSO", for searching the "optimum" number of the thresholds and simultaneously the optimal thresholds of three criteria: the between-class variances criterion, the minimum error criterion and the entropy criterion. Some examples of test images are presented to compare our segmentation method, based on the multi-objective optimization approach with Otsu’s, Kapur’s and Kittler’s methods. Our experimental results show that the thresholding method based on multi-objective optimization is more efficient than the classical Otsu’s, Kapur’s and Kittler’s methods.

L. DJEROU,; N. KHELIL; N. H. DEHIMI; M. BATOUCHE

2012-01-01

184

LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

2013-01-01

185

An Object-Oriented Architecture for a Web-Based CAI System.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the design and implementation of an object-oriented World Wide Web-based CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system. The goal of the design is to provide a flexible CAI/ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) framework with full extendibility and reusability, as well as to exploit Web-based software technologies such as JAVA, ASP (a…

Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hoshide, Takahide; Seshimo, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshimi

186

On-line object tracking method based on co-training  

Science.gov (United States)

The tracking method based on Co-Training framework considers the object tracking as a semi-supervised learning problem. This paper proposes a new on-line tracking method based on Co-Training framework. The method fuses two features to describe the object and do randomizing affine deformation with positive examples to increase the number of positive examples. Experimental results demonstrate, the on-line tracking method based on Co-training framework can work robustly in long-term tracking and the drift of tracking can be effectively avoided.

Lai, Jianhong; Peng, Zhenming; Yang, Yong

2012-11-01

187

A Study on Software-based Sensing Technology for Multiple Object Control in AR Video  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Researches on Augmented Reality (AR) have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.

Sungmo Jung; Jae-gu Song; Dae-Joon Hwang; Jae Young Ahn; Seoksoo Kim

2010-01-01

188

A study on software-based sensing technology for multiple object control in AR video.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Researches on Augmented Reality (AR) have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker'should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.

Jung S; Song JG; Hwang DJ; Ahn JY; Kim S

2010-01-01

189

Foreground object detection using top-down information based on EM framework.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we present a novel foreground object detection scheme that integrates the top-down information based on the expectation maximization (EM) framework. In this generalized EM framework, the top-down information is incorporated in an object model. Based on the object model and the state of each target, a foreground model is constructed. This foreground model can augment the foreground detection for the camouflage problem. Thus, an object's state-specific Markov random field (MRF) model is constructed for detection based on the foreground model and the background model. This MRF model depends on the latent variables that describe each object's state. The maximization of the MRF model is the M-step in the EM framework. Besides fusing spatial information, this MRF model can also adjust the contribution of the top-down information for detection. To obtain detection result using this MRF model, sampling importance resampling is used to sample the latent variable and the EM framework refines the detection iteratively. Besides the proposed generalized EM framework, our method does not need any prior information of the moving object, because we use the detection result of moving object to incorporate the domain knowledge of the object shapes into the construction of top-down information. Moreover, in our method, a kernel density estimation (KDE)-Gaussian mixture model (GMM) hybrid model is proposed to construct the probability density function of background and moving object model. For the background model, it has some advantages over GMM- and KDE-based methods. Experimental results demonstrate the capability of our method, particularly in handling the camouflage problem.

Liu Z; Huang K; Tan T

2012-09-01

190

Soft object deformation monitoring and learning for model-based robotic hand manipulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper discusses the design and implementation of a framework that automatically extracts and monitors the shape deformations of soft objects from a video sequence and maps them with force measurements with the goal of providing the necessary information to the controller of a robotic hand to ensure safe model-based deformable object manipulation. Measurements corresponding to the interaction force at the level of the fingertips and to the position of the fingertips of a three-finger robotic hand are associated with the contours of a deformed object tracked in a series of images using neural-network approaches. The resulting model captures the behavior of the object and is able to predict its behavior for previously unseen interactions without any assumption on the object's material. The availability of such models can contribute to the improvement of a robotic hand controller, therefore allowing more accurate and stable grasp while providing more elaborate manipulation capabilities for deformable objects. Experiments performed for different objects, made of various materials, reveal that the method accurately captures and predicts the object's shape deformation while the object is submitted to external forces applied by the robot fingers. The proposed method is also fast and insensitive to severe contour deformations, as well as to smooth changes in lighting, contrast, and background.

Cretu AM; Payeur P; Petriu EM

2012-06-01

191

An Object-Based Approach to Modelling and Analysis of Failure Properties  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In protection systems, when traditional technology is replaced by software, the functionalityand complexity of the system is likely to increase. The quantitative evidence normally providedfor safety certification of traditional systems cannot be relied upon in software-basedsystems. Instead there is a need to provide qualitative evidence. As a basis for the requiredqualitative evidence, we propose an object-based approach that allows modelling of both theapplication and software domains. From the object class model of a system and a formal specificationof the failure properties of its components, we generate a graph of failure propagationover object classes, which is then used to generate a graph in terms of object instances in orderto conduct fault tree analysis. The model is validated by comparing the resulting minimalcut sets with those obtained from the fault tree analysis of the original system. The approachis illustrated on a case study based on a protection system from...

R. De Lemos; B. Mavko; S. Riddle; A. Saeed

192

Key Object Discovery and Tracking Based on Context-Aware Saliency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an online key object discovery and tracking system based on visual saliency. We formulate the problem as a temporally consistent binary labelling task on a conditional random field and solve it by using a particle filter. We also propose a context?aware saliency measurement, which can be used to improve the accuracy of any static or dynamic saliency maps. Our refined saliency maps provide clearer indications as to where the key object lies. Based on good saliency cues, we can further segment the key object inside the resulting bounding box, considering the spatial and temporal context. We tested our system extensively on different video clips. The results show that our method has significantly improved the saliency maps and tracks the key object accurately.

Geng Zhang; Zejian Yuan; Nanning Zheng

2013-01-01

193

???????????Pareto???????? Pareto Multi-Objective Distribution Network Reconfiguration Based on Improved Niche Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????5???“????????????Pareto????????”?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Pareto??????????????????????????????????????Pareto??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Distribution network reconfiguration can improve the operation security, economy and power qua- lity of distribution network, for the current national construction and application of distribution automation system it has great significance. This paper presents a multi-objective distribution network optimal reconfi- guration of the particle swarm algorithm which based on a niche technology, the introduction of the concept of Pareto optimal to achieve a true sense of the multi-objective optimization; apply the particle swarm algori- thm to achieve the search of the Pareto optimal solution set of multi-objective reconfiguration, using niche technology and mutation operators to maintain the population diversity and dispersion, improved particle swarm algorithm global convergence reliability and convergence speed. Theoretical analysis and numerical results show that: distribution network reconfiguration based on niche particle swarm optimization meet the requirements in the speed and accuracy, and have more practical significance than the single-objective op- timization.

???; ???

2011-01-01

194

A Fast Object Tracking Approach Based on the Motion Vector in a Compressed Domain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Particle set sampling and weighting are both at the core of particle filter?based object tracking methods. Aiming to optimally represent the object?s motion state, a large amount of particles ? in the classical particle method ? is a prerequisite. The high?cost calculation of these particles significantly slows down the convergence of the algorithm. To this problem, a prior approach which originated from the process of video compressing and uncompressing is introduced to optimize the phase of particle sampling, making the collected particles centre on and cover the object region in the current image. This advantage dramatically reduces the number of particles required by the regularized particle sampling method, solving the problem of the high computational cost for tracking objects, while the performance of the algorithm is stable.

Hui-bin Wang; Jie Shen; Zhe Chen; Jun-lei Shen

2013-01-01

195

Genetic Algorithm-Based Multi-objective Optimisation for QoS-Aware Web Services Composition  

Science.gov (United States)

Finding an optimal solution for QoS-aware Web service composition with various restrictions on qualities is a multi-objective optimisation problem. A popular multi-objective genetic algorithm, NSGA-II, is studied in order to provide a set of optimal solutions for QoS-based service composition. Experiments with different numbers of abstract and concrete services confirm the expected behaviour of the algorithm.

Li, Li; Yang, Pengyi; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Zili; Cheng, Peng

196

Object-oriented data-base system for computer-aided design applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this research program is to study the engineering environment for computer-aided design (CAD). Because of the iterative nature of the design process, a data-base management system is needed to handle all design-related information. The data-base system plays a crucial and central role in a CAD environment. This study is on exploring the feasibility and desirability of designing an integrated data-base system that can overcome some limitations of conventional business-oriented database systems. To this end, an Object-Oriented Database system (OODS) is presented that uses a semantic data model and an object-oriented operation approach. The OODS reflects the modular characteristics of CAD objects. It is shown that this OODS can precisely represent many complex engineering objects and permit efficient manipulations of them. The implementation of a subset of the Object-Oriented Database System on an Apollo computer is described. The implementation, known as an Integrated Engineering Simulation Environment (IESE), uses three levels of abstraction to model engineering objects.

Liu, Y.

1987-01-01

197

Efficient Spam Filtering System Based on Smart Cooperative Subjective and Objective Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the spam filtering techniques are based on objective methods such as the content filtering and DNS/reverse DNS checks. Recently, some cooperative subjective spam filtering techniques are proposed. Objective methods suffer from the false positive and false negative classification. Objective methods based on the content filtering are time consuming and resource demanding. They are inaccurate and require continuous update to cope with newly invented spammer’s tricks. On the other side, the existing subjective proposals have some drawbacks like the attacks from malicious users that make them unreliable and the privacy. In this paper, we propose an efficient spam filtering system that is based on a smart cooperative subjective technique for content filtering in addition to the fastest and the most reliable non-content-based objective methods. The system combines several applications. The first is a web-based system that we have developed based on the proposed technique. A server application having extra features suitable for the enterprises and closed work groups is a second part of the system. Another part is a set of standard web services that allow any existing email server or email client to interact with the system. It allows the email servers to query the system for email filtering. They can also allow the users via the mail user agents to participate in the subjective spam filtering problem.

Samir A. Elsagheer Mohamed

2013-01-01

198

An object-oriented knowledge base management technology for supporting scientific research and applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces an object-oriented knowledge base management technology which has a number of desirable features. First, an object-oriented semantic association model OSAM* provides general structural constructs to model complex objects and their various types of semantic associations. It also allows the user to define the behavioral properties of objects through user-defined operations and knowledge rules, which results in an active knowledge base management system (KBMS). Second, a pattern-based query language, OQL, allows complex search conditions and constraints to be easily specified. Third, a set of intelligent graphical interface tools greatly eases scientists` tasks in defining and querying complex knowledge bases. Fourth, the system can be extended to meet the changing requirements of applications by extending the modeling capabilities of the data model, and by modifying the structure of system components. Lastly, the efficiency of processing large knowledge bases is achieved by using a transputer-based multiprocessor system and some multi-wavefront parallel processing algorithms. A prototype KBMS with the above features has been developed which runs on IBM and SUN workstations.

Su, S.Y.W.; Kamel, N. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Database Systems Research and Development Center

1993-12-31

199

Implementing Wait-Free Objects on Priority-Based Systems (Extended Abstract)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

)James H. Anderson, Srikanth Ramamurthy, and Rohit JainDepartment of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel HillAbstractWait-free objects are often implemented through the use of a "helping scheme", whereby one process "helps" one or moreother processes to complete an operation. This paper presents several new helping schemes that can be generally applied toefficiently implement a variety of different objects on priority-based uniprocessor and multiprocessor systems. Examples of suchsystems include lock-free multiprocessor kernels and real-time systems. Our helping schemes reduce overhead by exploitingthe way in which processes are scheduled for execution in priority-based systems. We illustrate the use of these schemesby presenting wait-free implementations of linked lists and a multi-word compare-and-swap primitive. Performance resultsare presented that show that on priority-based systems our object implementations are an improvement over implementations...

200

Multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for SSSC-based controller design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, an evolutionary multi-objective optimization approach is employed to design a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)-based controller. The design objective is to improve the transient performance of a power system subjected to a severe disturbance by damping the multi-modal oscillations namely; local mode, inter-area mode and inter-plant mode. A genetic algorithm (GA)-based solution technique is applied to generate a Pareto set of global optimal solutions to the given multi-objective optimization problem. Further, a fuzzy-based membership value assignment method is employed to choose the best compromise solution from the obtained Pareto solution set. Simulation results are presented and compared with a PI controller under various disturbances namely; three-phase fault, line outage, loss of load and unbalanced faults to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach. (author)

Panda, Sidhartha [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, National Institute of Science and Technology, Berhampur, Orissa 761008 (India)

2009-06-15

 
 
 
 
201

JTpack90: A parallel, object-based, Fortran 90 linear algebra package  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have developed an object-based linear algebra package, currently with emphasis on sparse Krylov methods, driven primarily by needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory parallel unstructured-mesh casting simulation tool Telluride. Support for a number of sparse storage formats, methods, and preconditioners have been implemented, driven primarily by application needs. They describe the object-based Fortran 90 approach, which enhances maintainability, performance, and extensibility, the parallelization approach using a new portable gather/scatter library (PGSLib), current capabilities and future plans, and present preliminary performance results on a variety of platforms.

Turner, J.A.; Kothe, D.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ferrell, R.C. [Cambridge Power Computing Associates, Ltd., Brookline, MA (United States)

1997-03-01

202

Double Polarization SAR Image Classification based on Object-Oriented Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposed to use double polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image to classify surface feature, based on DEM. It takes fully use of the polarization information and external information. This pa-per utilizes ENVISAT ASAR APP double-polarization data of Poyang lake area in Jiangxi Province. Com-pared with traditional pixel-based classification, this paper fully uses object features (color, shape, hierarchy) and accessorial DEM information. The classification accuracy improves from the original 73.7% to 91.84%. The result shows that object-oriented classification technology is suitable for double polarization SAR’s high precision classification.

Xiuguo Liu; Yongsheng Li; Wei Gao; Lin Xiao

2010-01-01

203

On Evaluating Interaction and Communication Schemes for Automation Applications based on Real-Time Distributed Objects  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper compares interaction and communicationmechanisms used in distributed control systems, focusingon object-oriented and component-based development. Thestandard communication model used in distributed objectorientedsystems is the remote method invocation. We arguethat this client/server oriented model has some severe drawbackswhen used in a control system where objects may haveto broadcast information, spontaneously communicate environmentalchanges and where control autonomy is a crucialrequirement. Therefore, we compare the traditional way ofobject invocation with a port-based scheme and the modelof event channels. An application scenario from robot controlis used to highlight similarities and differences amongthese mechanisms.1

Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Joerg Kaiser; Carlos Mitidieri; Claudio Villela; Leandro Buss Becker; Ovg Universitt Magdeburg

204

View-invariant object category learning, recognition, and search: how spatial and object attention are coordinated using surface-based attentional shrouds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How does the brain learn to recognize an object from multiple viewpoints while scanning a scene with eye movements? How does the brain avoid the problem of erroneously classifying parts of different objects together? How are attention and eye movements intelligently coordinated to facilitate object learning? A neural model provides a unified mechanistic explanation of how spatial and object attention work together to search a scene and learn what is in it. The ARTSCAN model predicts how an object's surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or "attentional shroud". All surface representations dynamically compete for spatial attention to form a shroud. The winning shroud persists during active scanning of the object. The shroud maintains sustained activity of an emerging view-invariant category representation while multiple view-specific category representations are learned and are linked through associative learning to the view-invariant object category. The shroud also helps to restrict scanning eye movements to salient features on the attended object. Object attention plays a role in controlling and stabilizing the learning of view-specific object categories. Spatial attention hereby coordinates the deployment of object attention during object category learning. Shroud collapse releases a reset signal that inhibits the active view-invariant category in the What cortical processing stream. Then a new shroud, corresponding to a different object, forms in the Where cortical processing stream, and search using attention shifts and eye movements continues to learn new objects throughout a scene. The model mechanistically clarifies basic properties of attention shifts (engage, move, disengage) and inhibition of return. It simulates human reaction time data about object-based spatial attention shifts, and learns with 98.1% accuracy and a compression of 430 on a letter database whose letters vary in size, position, and orientation. The model provides a powerful framework for unifying many data about spatial and object attention, and their interactions during perception, cognition, and action.

Fazl A; Grossberg S; Mingolla E

2009-02-01

205

Semi-Automatic Objects Recognition in Urban Areas Based on Fuzzy Logic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three dimensional object extraction and recognition (OER) from geographic data has been definitely one of more important topic in photogrammetry for quite a long time. Today, the capability of rapid generating high-density DSM increases the supply of geographic information but the discrete nature of the measuring makes more difficult to recognize correctly and to extract 3D objects from these surface. The proposed methodology wants to semi-automate some geographic objects clustering operations, in order to perform the recognition process. The clustering is a subjective process; the same set of data items often needs to be partitioned differently based on the application. Fuzzy logic gives the possibility to use in a mathematical process the uncertain information typical of human reasoning. The concept at the base of our proposal is to use the information contained in Image Matching or LiDAR DSM, and typically understood by the human operator, in a fuzzy recognition process able to combine the different input in order to perform the classification. So the object recognition approach proposed in our workflow integrates 3D structural descriptive components of objects, extracted from DSM, into a fuzzy reasoning process in order to exploit more fully all available information, which can contribute to the extraction and recognition process and, to handling the object’s vagueness. The recognition algorithm has been tested with to different data set and different objectives. An important issue is to apply the typical human process which allows to recognize objects in a range image in a fuzzy reasoning process. The investigations presented here have given a first demonstration of the capability of this approach.

Federico Prandi; Raffaella Brumana; Francesco Fassi

2010-01-01

206

Region-Based Image Retrieval Using an Object Ontology and Relevance Feedback  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An image retrieval methodology suited for search in large collections of heterogeneous images is presented. The proposed approach employs a fully unsupervised segmentation algorithm to divide images into regions and endow the indexing and retrieval system with content-based functionalities. Low-level descriptors for the color, position, size, and shape of each region are subsequently extracted. These arithmetic descriptors are automatically associated with appropriate qualitative intermediate-level descriptors, which form a simple vocabulary termed object ontology. The object ontology is used to allow the qualitative definition of the high-level concepts the user queries for (semantic objects, each represented by a keyword) and their relations in a human-centered fashion. When querying for a specific semantic object (or objects), the intermediate-level descriptor values associated with both the semantic object and all image regions in the collection are initially compared, resulting in the rejection of most image regions as irrelevant. Following that, a relevance feedback mechanism, based on support vector machines and using the low-level descriptors, is invoked to rank the remaining potentially relevant image regions and produce the final query results. Experimental results and comparisons demonstrate, in practice, the effectiveness of our approach.

Michael G. Strintzis; Ioannis Kompatsiaris; Vasileios Mezaris

2004-01-01

207

Research on digital holographic interferometry based on EALCD in three dimensional deformation measurements of objects  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, with the occurrence of photoelectric sensitive devices such as charge-coupled device (CCD) and electrical addressed liquid crystal display (EALCD), particularly with the development in the computer technology, digital holography interferometry has been developing rapidly. Digital holography was one of the important techniques in the field of three-dimensional non-contact testing. In order to realize the digitalization and real-time of the holographic interferometry, the digital holographic interferometry system based on EALCD and CCD for displacement and three dimensional deformation measurement of objects is established. The hologram and reconstructed hologram are recorded by CCD. The hologram is reconstructed by EALCD instead of holographic plate. The interference fringes which caused by micro displacement and deformation has been realized by this system. The reconstruction images of objects and holographic interference fringes are all preferable. In this paper, the holographic reconstruction and interference fringe has been enhanced and denoised by compiling program based on MATLAB and C++ in digital image processing. The single algorithm cannot meet the requirement of the experiment, so various algorithms were used in combination in order to enhance image quality and make interpretation and calculation more convenient. The straight fringes reflect the micro displacement of the object, the bending fringes represent the deformation of the object. Based many advantages of CCD and EALCD, the actual holographic interferogram with high contrast can be obtained quickly in our experiments, which the precise measurement of micro displacement and three-dimensional deformation of objects can be acquired

Li, Quan-yong; Mu, Da; Guo, Jun; Sun, Jie; Wang, Wen-sheng

2012-10-01

208

Efficient Fast Object-Tracking Scheme Based on Motion-vector-located Pattern Match  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process of object tracking, the major problem is how to mark the tracking box of the object. Moreover, multi-objects tracking is also difficult. This paper proposed and efficient fast object-tracking scheme based on motion-vector-located pattern match, which adopts motion vector of Mpeg2 to mark the moving targets in static video in order to mark and locate the targets automatically and quickly. Then, extract multi-dimensional characteristics from the initial targets taken by motion vector and make the model. Then accurately identifies the particles of larger weight and combines with inertia factor of velocity through matching the original data and the observations of particle filter. The matching of the characteristics of the new particle and the original one is more accurate and faster because of adopting the method of pattern classifying. The experiments show that the algorithm had good tracking performance and strong robustness.

Liubai Li

2012-01-01

209

Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms Design based on Support Vector Regression Metamodeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to solve the multi-objective optimization problem in the complex engineering, in this paper a NSGA-II multi-objective optimization algorithms based on Support Vector Regression Metamodeling is presented. Appropriate design parameter samples are selected by experimental design theories, and the response samples are obtained from the experiments or numerical simulations, used the SVM method to establish the metamodels of the objective performance functions and constraints, and reconstructed the original optimal problem. The reconstructed metamodels was solved by NSGA-II algorithm and took the structure optimization of the microwave power divider as an example to illustrate the proposed methodology and solve themulti-objective optimization problem. The results show that this methodology is feasible and highly effective, and thus it can be used in the optimum design of engineering fields.

Qi Zhang; Guangchun Yang; Rui Tang; Guoqi Xiang

2013-01-01

210

Moving Object Classification Method Based on SOM and K-means  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We do research on moving object classification in traffic video. Our aim is to classify the moving objects into pedestrians, bicycles and vehicles. Due to the advantage of self-organizing feature map (SOM), an unsupervised learning algorithm, which is simple and self organization, and the common usage of K-means clustering method, this paper combines SOM with K-means to do classification of moving objects in traffic video, constructs a system including four parts, and proposes a method based on bidirectional comparison of centroid to do tracking, and an improved method to obtain initial background when using background subtraction method to detect motion of moving objects. Experimental results show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.

Jian Wu; Jie Xia; Jian-ming Chen; Zhi-ming Cui

2011-01-01

211

A prototype distributed object-oriented architecture for image-based automatic laser alignment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Designing a computer control system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a complex undertaking because of the system's large size and its distributed nature. The controls team is addressing that complexity by adopting the object-oriented programming paradigm, designing reusable software frameworks, and using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for distribution. A prototype system for image-based automatic laser alignment has been developed to evaluate and gain experience with CORBA and OOP in a small distributed system. The prototype is also important in evaluating alignment concepts, image processing techniques, speed and accuracy of automatic alignment objectives for the NIF, and control hardware for aligment devices. The prototype system has met its inital objectives and provides a basis for continued development

1996-01-01

212

[A method of object detection for remote sensing-imagery based on spectral space transformation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Object detection is an intermediate link for remote sensing image processing, which is an important guarantee of remote sensing application and services aspects. In view of the characteristics of remotely sensed imagery in frequency domain, a novel object detection algorithm based on spectral space transformation was proposed in the present paper. Firstly, the Fourier transformation method was applied to transform the image in spatial domain into frequency domain. Secondly, the wedge-shaped sample and overlay analysis methods for frequency energy were used to decompose signal into different frequency spectrum zones, and the center frequency values of object's features were acquired as detection marks in frequency domain. Finally, object information was detected with the matched Gabor filters which have direction and frequency selectivity. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm here performs better and it has good detection capability in specific direction as well.

Wu GP; Xiao PF; Feng XZ; Wang K

2013-03-01

213

The Research of Examination Paper Generation Based on Index System Metrics and Multi-Objective Strategy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the examination paper generated with computer by the algorithms of random and backtracking takes on inferior quality and inefficient, and the question of generating examination paper with computer has the character of multi-ob-jective because of the index system metrics, the genetic algorithm with multi-objective strategy optimization is proposed to solve this problem. Mapping the index system to multi-objective functions and optimizing the computing with multi-objective strategy are employed in the algorithm. The genetic algorithm experiment based on the multi-objective strategy optimization shows that the result has the advantages getting tradeoff between performance and quality, and having the ability to tune the performance and quality to meet the user’s requirements.

Yan Li; Ji-Qiang Tang

2012-01-01

214

A prototype distributed object-oriented architecture for image-based automatic laser alignment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Designing a computer control system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a complex undertaking because of the system`s large size and its distributed nature. The controls team is addressing that complexity by adopting the object-oriented programming paradigm, designing reusable software frameworks, and using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for distribution. A prototype system for image-based automatic laser alignment has been developed to evaluate and gain experience with CORBA and OOP in a small distributed system. The prototype is also important in evaluating alignment concepts, image processing techniques, speed and accuracy of automatic alignment objectives for the NIF, and control hardware for aligment devices. The prototype system has met its inital objectives and provides a basis for continued development.

Stout, E.A.; Kamm, V.J.M.; Spann, J.M.; Van Arsdall, P.J.

1996-10-15

215

Recommendation and Students’ Authoring in Repositories of Learning Objects: A Case-Based Reasoning Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a Case-Based Reasoning approach for the personalized recommendation and the students’ authoring tasks in on-line repositories of Learning Objects (LOs). The recommender combines content-based filtering techniques together with collaborative filtering mechanisms. Students’ authoring tasks include the incorporation of ratings of the existing LOs and new LOs, which are peer reviewed. This approach is going to be applied to a repository with more than 200 programming examples written in different programming languages.

Mercedes Gomez-Albarran; Guillermo Jimenez-Diaz

2009-01-01

216

Mapping Urban Tree Species Using Very High Resolution Satellite Imagery: Comparing Pixel-Based and Object-Based Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We assessed the potential of multi-spectral GeoEye imagery for biodiversity assessment in an urban context in Bangalore, India. Twenty one grids of 150 by 150 m were randomly located in the city center and all tree species within these grids mapped in the field. The six most common species, collectively representing 43% of the total trees sampled, were selected for mapping using pixel-based and object-based approaches. All pairs of species were separable based on spectral reflectance values in at least one band, with Peltophorum pterocarpum being most distinct from other species. Object-based approaches were consistently superior to pixel-based methods, which were particularly low in accuracy for tree species with small canopy sizes, such as Cocos nucifera and Roystonea regia. There was a strong and significant correlation between the number of trees determined on the ground and from object-based classification. Overall, object-based approaches appear capable of discriminating the six most common species in a challenging urban environment, with substantial heterogeneity of tree canopy sizes.

Shivani Agarwal; Lionel Sujay Vailshery; Madhumitha Jaganmohan; Harini Nagendra

2013-01-01

217

aDORe: a modular, standards-based Digital Object Repository  

CERN Multimedia

This paper describes the aDORe repository architecture, designed and implemented for ingesting, storing, and accessing a vast collection of Digital Objects at the Research Library of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aDORe architecture is highly modular and standards-based. In the architecture, the MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration Language is used as the XML-based format to represent Digital Objects that can consist of multiple datastreams as Open Archival Information System Archival Information Packages (OAIS AIPs).Through an ingestion process, these OAIS AIPs are stored in a multitude of autonomous repositories. A Repository Index keeps track of the creation and location of all the autonomous repositories, whereas an Identifier Locator registers in which autonomous repository a given Digital Object or OAIS AIP resides. A front-end to the complete environment, the OAI-PMH Federator, is introduced for requesting OAIS Dissemination Information Packages (OAIS DIPs). These OAIS DIPs can be the stored OAIS ...

Van de Sompel, Herbert; Liu, X; Balakireva, L; Schwander, T; Sompel, Herbert Van de; Bekaert, Jeroen; Liu, Xiaoming; Balakireva, Luda; Schwander, Thorsten

2005-01-01

218

Combining scale-space and similarity-based aspect graphs for fast 3D object recognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes an approach for recognizing instances of a 3D object in a single camera image and for determining their 3D poses. A hierarchical model is generated solely based on the geometry information of a 3D CAD model of the object. The approach does not rely on texture or reflectance information of the object's surface, making it useful for a wide range of industrial and robotic applications, e.g., bin-picking. A hierarchical view-based approach that addresses typical problems of previous methods is applied: It handles true perspective, is robust to noise, occlusions, and clutter to an extent that is sufficient for many practical applications, and is invariant to contrast changes. For the generation of this hierarchical model, a new model image generation technique by which scale-space effects can be taken into account is presented. The necessary object views are derived using a similarity-based aspect graph. The high robustness of an exhaustive search is combined with an efficient hierarchical search. The 3D pose is refined by using a least-squares adjustment that minimizes geometric distances in the image, yielding a position accuracy of up to 0.12 percent with respect to the object distance, and an orientation accuracy of up to 0.35 degree in our tests. The recognition time is largely independent of the complexity of the object, but depends mainly on the range of poses within which the object may appear in front of the camera. For efficiency reasons, the approach allows the restriction of the pose range depending on the application. Typical runtimes are in the range of a few hundred ms.

Ulrich M; Wiedemann C; Steger C

2012-10-01

219

Intelligent Video Object Classification Scheme using Offline Feature Extraction and Machine Learning based Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Classification of objects in video stream is important because of its application in many emerging areas such as visual surveillance, content based video retrieval and indexing etc. The task is far more challenging because the video data is of heavy and highly variable nature. The processing of vid...

Chandra Mani Sharma; Alok Kumar Singh Kushwaha; Rakesh Roshan; Rabins Porwal; Ashish Khare

220

Multi-Objective PSO- and NPSO-based Algorithms for Robot Path Planning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper two novel Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based algorithms are presented for robot path planning with respect to two objectives, the shortest and smoothest path criteria. The first algorithm is a hybrid of the PSO and the Probabilistic Roadmap (PRM) methods, in which the PSO serve...

MASEHIAN, E.; SEDIGHIZADEH, D.

 
 
 
 
221

Lossy to lossless object-based coding of 3-D MRI data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a fully three-dimensional object-based coding system exploiting the diagnostic relevance of the different regions of the volumetric data for rate allocation. The data are first decorrelated via a 3D discrete wavelet transform. The implementation via the lifting steps scheme allows to map ...

Menegaz, Gloria; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

222

Feature selection methods for object-based classification of sub-decimeter resolution digital aerial imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the availability of numerous spectral, spatial, and contextual features, the determination of optimal features and class separabilities can be a time consuming process in object-based image analysis (OBIA). While several feature selection methods have been developed to assist OBIA, a robust c...

223

The object-based Simon effect: grasping affordance or relative location of the graspable part?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reaction time is often shorter when the irrelevant graspable handle of an object corresponds with the location of a keypress response to the relevant attribute than when it does not. This object-based Simon effect has been attributed to an affordance for grasping the handle with the hand to the same side. Because a grasping affordance should differentially affect keypress responses only when they are made with different hands, we conducted three experiments that measured the object-based Simon effect for frying pan stimuli using between- and within-hand response sets. When the relevant stimulus dimension was color, neither the object-based Simon effect nor the location-based Simon effect varied across response sets. When upright-inverted orientation judgments were made for the frying pan and for nongraspable stimuli derived from it, there again was no significant difference in size of the between- and within-hand Simon effects for any of the stimuli. The results provide evidence that the Simon effect for graspable frying pan stimuli is because of relative location of the handle and not to a grasping affordance.

Cho DT; Proctor RW

2010-08-01

224

Peptide identification via constrained multi-objective optimization: Pareto-based genetic algorithms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automatic data-base independent peptide identification from collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data is made difficult by large plateaus in the fitness landscapes of scoring functions and the fuzzy nature of the constraints that is due to noise in the data. Two different scoring functions are combined into a parallel multi-objective optimization framework.

Malard, Joel M.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cannon, William R.; Mooney, Ryan W.; Baxter, Douglas J.

2005-12-10

225

Competency-Based Training: Objective Structured Clinical Exercises (OSCE) in Marriage and Family Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

|The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical "Examination" (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to…

Miller, John K.

2010-01-01

226

A Novel Objective Image Quality Metric for Image Fusion Based on Renyi Entropy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, a novel objective image quality metric is proposed. The proposed metric can be used for image fusion evaluation without a reference image. The proposed metric is an extension of Mutual Information (MI) metric based on Renyi entropy which is a single parameter generalization of Sha...

Youzhi Zheng; Zheng Qin; Liping Shao; Xiaodong Hou

227

Multisensor based generation of templates for object tracking in complex scenarios  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Protection and surveillance of persons and facilities is frequently associated with automatic tracking of striking objects like vehicles or persons in an image sequence. It is well known that common methods based on template matching imply problems concerning the automatic generation of realistic te...

Witte, C.; Jäger, K.; Armbruster, W.; Hebel, Marcus

228

Modeling and efficient optimization for object-based scalability and some related problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MPEG-4 is the first visual coding standard that allows coding of scenes as a collection of individual audio-visual objects. We present mathematical formulations for modeling object-based scalability and some functionalities that it brings with it. Our goal is to study algorithms that aid in semi-automating the authoring and subsequent selective addition/dropping of objects from a scene to provide content scalability. We start with a simplistic model for object-based scalability using the "knapsack problem"--a problem for which the optimal object set can be found using known schemes such as dynamic programming, the branch and bound method and approximation algorithms. The above formulation is then generalized to model authoring or multiplexing of scalable objects (e.g., objects encoded at various target bit-rates) using the "multiple choice knapsack problem." We relate this model to several problems that arise in video coding, the most prominent of these being the bit allocation problem. Unlike previous approaches to solve the operational bit allocation problem using Lagrangean relaxation, we discuss an algorithm that solves linear programming (LP) relaxation of this problem. We show that for this problem the duality gap for Lagrange and LP relaxations is exactly the same. The LP relaxation is solved using strong duality with dual descent--a procedure that can be completed in "linear" time. We show that there can be at most two fractional variables in the optimal primal solution and therefore this relaxation can be justified for many practical applications. This work reduces problem complexity, guarantees similar performance, is slightly more generic, and provides an alternate LP-duality based proof for earlier work by Shoham and Gersho (1988). In addition, we show how additional constraints may be added to impose inter-dependencies among objects in a presentation and discuss how object aggregation can be exploited in reducing problem complexity. The marginal analysis approach of Fox (1966) is suggested as a method of re-allocation with incremental inputs. It helps in efficiently re-optimizing the allocation when a system has user interactivity, appearing or disappearing objects, time driven events, etc. Finally, we suggest that approximation algorithms for the multiple choice knapsack problem, which can be used to quantify complexity vs. quality tradeoff at the encoder in a tunable and universal way.

Batra P

2000-01-01

229

Comprehensive Analysis with KVM Techniques and Implementation Of Object Pool Based On J2ME RMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available J2ME services play an important role in the field of Communication industry. In this paper, we discuss and analyze the consumptive behaviour based on object pool with RMS capabilities. We discuss and analyze different aspects of RMS mining techniques and their behaviour in mobile devices. We also analyze the better method or rule of implementing services which is more suitable for mobile devices. The method this paper mentioned has benefit to analyze large numbers of data in consumptive behaviours and provides some instructions to improve better marketing in concerned fields. In this paper we use J2ME components like CLDC (Connected Limited Device Configuration) and MIDP (Mobile Information Device Profile) with data mining services (DMS) that provide local storage, a user interface, and networking capabilities that runs on mobile computing devices. We also discuss the need of Object Pool in mobile devices to enhance the capability of mobile devices. Object pool model based on RMS is proposed. Aimed to solve the Memory peak problem in J2ME, on the basis of object pool design pattern, an object pool model used RMS is designed and implemented.

Ms. Nandika Sood; Mr. Amit Sinhal

2011-01-01

230

Intelligent Video Object Classification Scheme using Offline Feature Extraction and Machine Learning based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Classification of objects in video stream is important because of its application in many emerging areas such as visual surveillance, content based video retrieval and indexing etc. The task is far more challenging because the video data is of heavy and highly variable nature. The processing of video data is required to be in real-time. This paper presents a multiclass object classification technique using machine learning approach. Haar-like features are used for training the classifier. The feature calculation is performed using Integral Image representation and we train the classifier offline using a Stage-wise Additive Modeling using a Multiclass Exponential loss function (SAMME). The validity of the method has been verified from the implementation of a real-time human-car detector. Experimental results show that the proposed method can accurately classify objects, in video, into their respective classes. The proposed object classifier works well in outdoor environment in presence of moderate lighting conditions and variable scene background. The proposed technique is compared, with other object classification techniques, based on various performance parameters.

Chandra Mani Sharma; Alok Kumar Singh Kushwaha; Rakesh Roshan; Rabins Porwal; Ashish Khare

2012-01-01

231

Web Services Based Learning Objects Generator for Device-Independent M-Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning objects, which are the base component of m-learning system, are usually target to modifications in contexts and formats. The device- dependent applications of hand-held devices have proven to be ineffective for creating m-learning courseware. Learning Objects Metadata (LOM) is the most popular standard specification for learning objects but lacks the ability to facilitate platforms descriptions. This paper outlines various aspects of design and implementation of Web Services Oriented Rendering Architecture (WSORA) which combines LOM Editor with any available published web services. This arrangement is devised in order to make a device-independent m-learning gateway between different mobile devices, such as cell phones, PDA’s, palmtops, and laptops and the vast learning objects available on the World Wide Web. The key technologies behind WSORA are extending the IEEE LOM base scheme structure, LOM Editor, device-independent LO generator, and web services. The major advantage of WSORA is thus achieved to give mobile devices of different types clean and quick access to learning objects customarily designed for desktop browsers.

Akram Moh. Alkouz

2006-01-01

232

Burned Area Mapping in Greece Using SPOT-4 HRVIR Images and Object-Based Image Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The devastating series of fire events that occurred during the summers of 2007 and 2009 in Greece made evident the need for an operational mechanism to map burned areas in an accurate and timely fashion to be developed. In this work, Système pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT)-4 HRVIR images are introduced in an object-based classification environment in order to develop a classification procedure for burned area mapping. The development of the procedure was based on two images and then tested for its transferability to other burned areas. Results from the SPOT-4 HRVIR burned area mapping showed very high classification accuracies ( 0.86 kappa coefficient), while the object-based classification procedure that was developed proved to be transferable when applied to other study areas.

Anastasia Polychronaki; Ioannis Z. Gitas

2012-01-01

233

User-specific interfaces for clinical data-management systems: an object-based approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multiple user-specific visual interfaces are desirable in any computer-based clinical data-management system that is used by different people with different jobs to perform. The programming and maintenance problems of supporting multiple user interfaces to a single information system can be addressed by separating user-interface functionality from data-management subsystems, and by building user interfaces from object-based software components whose functionality is bound to an underlying server-client data-management architecture. Experience with this approach in a patient-tracking system suggests that this object-based approach is viable in the design of a user interface for a clinical information system.

Wilton R

1992-01-01

234

Implementation of intelligent nuclear material diagnosis module based on the component object model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the implementation techniques of intelligent nuclear material surveillance system based on the COM (Component Object Model) and SOM (Self Organized Mapping) was described. The surveillance system that is to be developed is consist of CCD cameras, neutron monitors, and PC for data acquisition. To develop the system, the properties of the COM based software development technology was investigated, and the characteristics of related platform APIs was summarized. This report could be used for the developers who want to develop the intelligent surveillance system for various experimental environments based on the DVR and sensors using Borland C++ Builder.

Lee, Sang Yoon; Song, Dae Yong; Ko, Won Il; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Ho Dong

2003-08-01

235

Subjective and objective outcome measures of computer-based vision restoration training.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of objective and subjective outcome measures of Vision Restoration Training (VRT) for visual field recovery in partially blind patients. This is of interest because the patient's subjective improvement cannot be inferred from objective changes in visual field charts. DESIGN: Nineteen patients with visual system lesions underwent visual field tests (objective measure) before and after six months of VRT. Subjective outcome was determined by pre- and post-training interviews (open narration, questions on activities of daily living, ratings). Interview content was quantified by determining the response frequency for relevant content categories. Drawings of perceived visual field size were used as a subjective topographical measure. Subjective training results were compared to objective visual field size (perimetry). RESULTS: Visual field size increased significantly over the training period. Patients' subjective evaluations depended on the size and location of regained areas, but also on specific evaluation of safe navigation, mobility, reading, and communication. Patients with objective increase of visual field size also reported subjective improvements in daily life. CONCLUSIONS: Computer-based training can improve visual field size as well as subjective visual performance. The patients' subjective experience should be included in treatment evaluation to ensure the meaningfulness of training beyond perimetric measures.

Poggel DA; Mueller I; Kasten E; Bunzenthal U; Sabel BA

2010-01-01

236

A New Design Method based on Cooperative Data Mining from Multi-Objective Design Space  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a new multi-objective parameter design method that uses the combination of the following data mining techniques: analysis of variance, self-organizing map, decision tree analysis, rough set theory, and association rule. This method first aims to improve multiple objective functions simultaneously using as much predominant main effects of different design variables as possible. Then it resolves the remaining conflictions between the objective functions using predominant interaction effects of design variables. The key to realizing this method is the obtaining of various design rules that quantitatively relate levels of design variables to levels of objective functions. Based on comparative studies of data mining techniques, the systematic processes for obtaining these design rules have been clarified, and the points of combining data mining techniques have also been summarized. This method has been applied to a multi-objective robust optimization problem of an industrial fan, and the results show its superior capabilities for controlling parameters to traditional single-objective parameter design methods like the Taguchi method.

Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Obayashi, Shigeru; Jeong, Shinkyu

237

Generalization Improvement of Radial Basis Function Network Based on Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of unsupervised and supervised learning of RBF networks is discussed with Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO). This study presents an evolutionary multi-objective selection method of RBF networks structure. The candidates of RBF networks structures are encoded into particles in PSO. These particles evolve toward Pareto-optimal front defined by several objective functions with model accuracy and complexity. This study suggests an approach of RBF network training through simultaneous optimization of architectures and connections with PSO-based multi-objective algorithm. Present goal is to determine whether MOPSO can train RBF networks and the performance is validated on accuracy and complexity. The experiments are conducted on two benchmark datasets obtained from the machine learning repository. The results show that; the best results are obtained for our proposed method that has obtained 100 and 80.21% classification accuracy from the experiments made on the data taken from breast cancer and diabetes diseases database, respectively. The results also show that our approach provides an effective means to solve multi-objective RBF networks and outperforms multi-objective genetic algorithm.

S.N. Qasem; S.M. Shamsuddin

2010-01-01

238

Object Search for the Internet of Things Using Tag-based Location Signatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, an object search solution for the Internet of Things (IoT) is proposed. This study first differentiates localization and searching. Localization is to calculate an object’s current location. Searching is to return a set of locations where a target object could be. It is possible that the locations of the returned set are not contiguous. Searching accuracy can be improved if the number of the returned locations is small. Even though localization technique is applicable to searching applications, a simpler and easier solution will attract more enterprise users. In this paper, based on a concept called location signature, defined by a set of reference tags, an object searching method named Location Signature Search (LSS) is proposed. The study of LSS shows that the searching accuracy can be very high if a location signature is not shared by too many locations. Since location signatures are affected by the deployment of the reference tags, trade-off between searching accuracy and implementation cost is achievable. A real world experiment is conducted in this research. The results show that LSS indeed is a practical method for object searching applications.

Jung-Sing Jwo; Ting-Chia Chen; Mengru Tu

2012-01-01

239

Similarity searching for chest CT images based on object features and spatial relation maps.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an object-based image retrieval system for chest CT image databases is proposed. Based on the scheme of the content-based image retrieval method, we proposed an image segmentation method which combines the anatomical knowledge of the chest and the well-known watershed segmentation algorithm. The purpose of segmentation is to identify the mediastinum and the two lung lobes in a chest CT image. The ARGs (attributed relational graphs) are chosen to describe the features of segmented objects. Then, image database is constructed by the feature vectors of images. In database searching, two searching modes are provided that are "query by example" and "query by object". Our system uses Euclidean distance to measure the similarity between the image in query and the image in database. The system output the 30 most similar images in the chest CT image database as query results. The experimental results show that the average precision of our system is about 80% which is impressive in a totally automatic medical image retrieval system. Moreover, query concentrated in certain objects features usually show better result than the regular query by example. The possible reasons are discussed. PMID:17271928

Yu, Sung-Nien; Chiang, Chih-Tsung

2004-01-01

240

Similarity searching for chest CT images based on object features and spatial relation maps.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, an object-based image retrieval system for chest CT image databases is proposed. Based on the scheme of the content-based image retrieval method, we proposed an image segmentation method which combines the anatomical knowledge of the chest and the well-known watershed segmentation algorithm. The purpose of segmentation is to identify the mediastinum and the two lung lobes in a chest CT image. The ARGs (attributed relational graphs) are chosen to describe the features of segmented objects. Then, image database is constructed by the feature vectors of images. In database searching, two searching modes are provided that are "query by example" and "query by object". Our system uses Euclidean distance to measure the similarity between the image in query and the image in database. The system output the 30 most similar images in the chest CT image database as query results. The experimental results show that the average precision of our system is about 80% which is impressive in a totally automatic medical image retrieval system. Moreover, query concentrated in certain objects features usually show better result than the regular query by example. The possible reasons are discussed.

Yu SN; Chiang CT

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Reconstruction and 3D visualisation based on objective real 3D based documentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reconstructions based directly upon forensic evidence alone are called primary information. Historically this consists of documentation of findings by verbal protocols, photographs and other visual means. Currently modern imaging techniques such as 3D surface scanning and radiological methods (computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) are also applied. Secondary interpretation is based on facts and the examiner's experience. Usually such reconstructive expertises are given in written form, and are often enhanced by sketches. However, narrative interpretations can, especially in complex courses of action, be difficult to present and can be misunderstood. In this report we demonstrate the use of graphic reconstruction of secondary interpretation with supporting pictorial evidence, applying digital visualisation (using 'Poser') or scientific animation (using '3D Studio Max', 'Maya') and present methods of clearly distinguishing between factual documentation and examiners' interpretation based on three cases. The first case involved a pedestrian who was initially struck by a car on a motorway and was then run over by a second car. The second case involved a suicidal gunshot to the head with a rifle, in which the trigger was pushed with a rod. The third case dealt with a collision between two motorcycles. Pictorial reconstruction of the secondary interpretation of these cases has several advantages. The images enable an immediate overview, give rise to enhanced clarity, and compel the examiner to look at all details if he or she is to create a complete image.

Bolliger MJ; Buck U; Thali MJ; Bolliger SA

2012-09-01

242

Implementing Highly-Available WWW Servers based on Passive Object Replication  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper we investigate issues related to buildinghighly-available World Wide Web (WWW) servers on workstationclusters. We present a novel architecture that includesa dynamic Domain Name System (DNS) and a WWWserver based on passive object replication. This architectureallows to reduce the service down-time of a WWWserver without impacting on the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol(HTTP) protocol (and thus on the WWW client software). We implement this architecture in our departmentand we show some experimental results that analyze, givena batch of HTTP requests, the average response time to arequest and the average time of WWW service unavailabilitydue to object crashes.

Roberto Baldoni; Simona Bonamoneta

243

Object-Relational Database Based Category Data Model for Natural Language Interface to Database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domain specific question answering technique allows users to use natural language to express their queries so that users need not have the knowledge about the structures of the information source. Forsuch an application relational model is not suitable as it is not a natural way to represent real world knowledge. Using relational model for representing information source results in scattered relations ofdata about the real world objects. In this paper an effective category model is presented to organize information according to their contents based on object-relational database. For the discussion of the category model railway domain is used in the paper.

Avinash J. Agrawal; Dr. O. G. Kakde

2011-01-01

244

Fuzzy preference based interactive fuzzy physical programming and its application in multi-objective optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interactive Fuzzy Physical Programming (IFPP) developed in this paper is a new efficient multi-objective optimization method, which retains the advantages of physical programming while considering the fuzziness of the designer's preferences. The fuzzy preference function is introduced based on the model of linear physical programming, which is used to guide the search for improved solutions by interactive decision analysis. The example of multi-objective optimization design of the spindle of internal grinder demonstrates that the improved preference conforms to the subjective desires of the designer.

Zhang, Xu [Dalian University of Technology, Liaoning (China); Huang, Hong Zhong [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Sichuan (China); Yu, Lanfeng [Southwest JiaoTong University, Sichuan (China)

2006-06-15

245

An Index Structure for Fast Query Retrieval in Object Oriented Data Bases Using Signature Weight Declustering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An important question in information retrieval is how to create a database index which can be searched efficiently for the data one seeks. One such technique called signature file based access method is preferred for its easy handling of insertion and update operations. Most of the proposed methods use either efficient search method or tree based intermediate data structure to filter data objects matching the query. Use of search techniques retrieves the objects by sequentially comparing the positions of 1s in it. Such methods take longer retrieval time. On the other hand tree based structures traverse multiple paths making comparison process tedious. This study describes a new indexing technique for object-oriented data bases using the dynamic balancing of B+ tree called SD (Signature Declustering) tree. The SD-tree represents all 1s in signatures in a compact manner that results in saving of insertion and searching time. Analytical experiments have been conducted by varying the signature length and the distribution of signature weight. The study clearly indicates the advantage of fast retrieval time in a way quite different from the other methods suggested in the past.

I. Elizabeth Shanthi; R. Nadarajan

2009-01-01

246

A New Object-Based System for Fractal Video Sequences Compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel object-based fractal monocular and stereo video compression scheme with quadtree-based motion and disparity compensation is proposed in this paper. Fractal coding is adopted and each object is encoded independently by a prior image segmentation alpha plane, which is defined exactly as in MPEG-4. The first n frames of right video sequence are encoded by using the Circular Prediction Mapping (CPM) and the remaining frames are encoded by using the Non Contractive Interframe Mapping (NCIM). The CPM and NCIM methods accomplish the motion estimation/ compensation of right video sequence. According to the different coding or user requirements, the spatial correlations between the left and right frames can be explored by partial or full affine transformation quadtree-based disparity estimation/ compensation, or simply by applying CPM/NCIM on left video sequence. The testing results with the nature monocular and stereo video sequences provide promising performances at low bit rate coding. We believe it will be a powerful and efficient technique for the object-based monocular and stereo video sequences coding.

Kamel Belloulata; Shiping Zhu

2007-01-01

247

Reflection-mode optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy based on a reflective objective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We developed a new reflection-mode optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) based on the cooperation of a reflective objective and an ultrasonic transducer. The reflective objective is used to produce nearly diffraction-limited optical focusing, and the excited ultrasound waves are then directly detected by an ultrasonic transducer that was placed in the central cone of the objective. This new design avoids the coupling between optical focusing and ultrasound transmission in the reflection mode. Moreover, the proposed system is able to provide lateral resolution of 1.2 ?m at 580 nm, penetration depth of 0.9 mm in biological tissues, and a work distance of 6.0 mm. We present in vivo imaging of the microvasculature in mouse ears and in vitro imaging of red blood cells (RBCs), which demonstrate the capability of the system to study microcirculation.

Wang H; Yang X; Liu Y; Jiang B; Luo Q

2013-10-01

248

Color-Based Tracking of Heads and Other Mobile Objects at Video Frame Rates  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We develop a simple and very fast method for object tracking based exclusively on color information in digitized video images. Running on a Silicon Graphics R4600 Indy system with an IndyCam, our algorithm is capable of simultaneously tracking objects at full frame size (640 Theta 480 pixels) and video frame rate (30 fps). Robustness with respect to occlusion is achieved via an explicit hypothesis-tree model of the occlusion process. We demonstrate the efficacy of our technique in the challenging task of tracking people, especially tracking human heads and hands. 1. Introduction A variety of problems of current interest in computer vision require the ability to track moving objects [2], whether for purposes of surveillance [9], manufacturing, video compression [6], visually "aware" information kiosks [19], etc. The fundamental challenges that drive much of the research in this field are the enormous data bandwidths implied by high resolution frames at high frame rates, a desire for ...

Paul Fieguth; Demetri Terzopoulos

249

Kernel Based Approach toward Automatic object Detection and Tracking in Surveillance Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A modified object-tracking algorithm that uses the flexible Metric Distance Transform kernel and multiple features for the Mean shift procedure is proposed and tested. The Faithful target separation based on RGB joint pdf of the target region and that of a neighborhood surrounding the object is obtained. The non-linear log-likelihood function maps the multimodal object/background distribution as positive values for colors associated with foreground, while negative values are marked for background. This replaces the more usual Epanechnikov kernel (E-kernel), improving target representation and localization without increasing the processing time, minimizing the similarity measure using the Bhattacharya coefficient. The algorithm is tested on several image sequences and shown to achieve robust and reliable frame-rate tracking.

Amir Aliabadian; Esmaeil Akbarpour; Mohammad Yosefi

2012-01-01

250

Pareto optimality-based multi-objective transmission planning considering transmission congestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the deregulated environment, transmission congestion is one major problem that needs to be handled in power system operation and network expansion planning. This paper aims to enhance the transmission system capability and have the congestion alleviated using the multi-objective transmission expansion planning (MOTEP) approach. A system congestion index called the congestion surplus is presented to measure the congestion degree of the transmission system. The proposed MOTEP approach optimizes three objectives simultaneously, namely the congestion surplus, investment cost and power outage cost. An improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) is adopted to solve the proposed model. A ranking method based on Euclidean distance is presented for decision-making in the Pareto-optimal set. The effectiveness of both the improved SPEA and the proposed multi-objective planning approach has been tested and proven on the 18-bus system and the 77-bus system, respectively. (author)

Wang, Yi; Cheng, Haozhong; Hu, Zechun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Chun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Yao, Liangzhong [AREVA T and D Technology Centre, Stafford ST17 4LX (United Kingdom); Ma, Zeliang; Zhu, Zhonglie [Department of Development Planning, East China Power Grid Co. Ltd., Shanghai (China)

2008-09-15

251

Man-made Object Detection Based on Texture Clustering and Geometric Structure Feature Extracting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic aerial image interpretation is one of new rising high-tech application fields, and it’s proverbially applied in the military domain. Based on human visual attention mechanism and texture visual perception, this paper proposes a new approach for man-made object detection and marking by extracting texture and geometry structure features. After clustering the texture feature to realize effective image segmentation, geometry structure feature is obtained to achieve final detection and marking. Thus a man-made object detection methodology is designed, by which typical man-made objects in complex natural background, including airplanes, tanks and vehicles can be detected. The experiments sustain that the proposed method is effective and rational.

Fei Cai; Honghui Chen; Jianwei Ma

2011-01-01

252

IDEOMS: An Integrated Document Environment based on OMS Object-Oriented Database System  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we describe an integrated document management system based on the object-oriented database system OMS. The underlying idea is to replace the current vision of a file system with that of a document database system, thereby offering higher-level user support for the management of all forms of computer-stored information and work activities. The object-oriented database system provides access to existing tools such as editors and compilers through object methods, while providing standard database features for managing dependencies between documents, queries and controlled information sharing. In particular, the OMS system supports powerful methods for document classification independent of the type of the documents. This extended database view of a file system allows the users to handle documents at a logical level of abstraction independent of the physical file system. 1 Introduction In most implementations of file systems in modern operating systems, the level of abstrac...

G. Rivera; M. C. Norrie; A. Steiner

253

Visual statistical learning based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five experiments examined what is learned based on the perceptual and semantic information of objects in visual statistical learning (VSL). In the familiarization phase, participants viewed a sequence of line drawings and detected repetitions of various objects. In a subsequent test phase, they watched 2 test sequences (statistically related triplets vs. unrelated foils) and decided whether the first or second sequence was more familiar based on the familiarization phase. In Experiment 1A, the test sequences comprised line drawings; in Experiment 1B, they comprised word stimuli representing each line drawing. The results showed that performance for statistically related triplets was greater than chance. In Experiments 2 and 3 containing the forward ABC and backward CBA triplets in the test, the results showed the importance of temporal order, especially in line drawings. In Experiment 4, in which the forward triplets were pitted against the backward triplets, we showed that temporal order is still important for the expression of VSL with word stimuli. Finally, in Experiment 5, we replicated the results of Experiments 2 and 3 even with the images of visual objects. These results suggest the parallel processes on the visual features and semantic information of objects in VSL.

Otsuka S; Nishiyama M; Nakahara F; Kawaguchi J

2013-01-01

254

Object detection and tracking method of AUV based on acoustic vision  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a new framework for object detection and tracking of AUV including underwater acoustic data interpolation, underwater acoustic images segmentation and underwater objects tracking. This framework is applied to the design of vision-based method for AUV based on the forward looking sonar sensor. First, the real-time data flow (underwater acoustic images) is pre-processed to form the whole underwater acoustic image, and the relevant position information of objects is extracted and determined. An improved method of double threshold segmentation is proposed to resolve the problem that the threshold cannot be adjusted adaptively in the traditional method. Second, a representation of region information is created in light of the Gaussian particle filter. The weighted integration strategy combining the area and invariant moment is proposed to perfect the weight of particles and to enhance the tracking robustness. Results obtained on the real acoustic vision platform of AUV during sea trials are displayed and discussed. They show that the proposed method can detect and track the moving objects underwater online, and it is effective and robust.

Zhang, Tie-dong; Wan, Lei; Zeng, Wen-jing; Xu, Yu-ru

2012-12-01

255

Recovering Use Case Diagrams from Object Oriented Code: an MDA-based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modernization of legacy systems requires the existence of technicalframeworks for information integration and tool interoperability that allow managing new platform technologies, design techniques and processes. MDA (Model Driven Architecture), adopted by the OMG (Object Management Group), is aligned with this requirement. Reverse engineering techniques play a crucial role in system modernization. In light of these issues, this article describes a framework to reverse engineering MDA models from object oriented code. This framework distinguishes three different abstraction levelslinked to models, metamodels and formal specifications. At model level,transformations are based on static and dynamic analysis. At metamodel level, transformations are specified as OCL (Object Constraint Language)contracts between MOF (Meta Object Facility) metamodels which control the consistency of these transformations. The level of formal specification includes algebraic specifications of MOF metamodels and metamodel-based transformations. This article shows how to reverse engineering use case diagrams from Java code in the MDA context focusing on transformations at model and metamodel levels. We validate our approach by using Eclipse Modeling Framework, Ecore metamodels and ATL (Atlas Transformation Language).

Claudia T. Pereira; Liliana I. Martinez; Liliana M. Favre

2012-01-01

256

Object Tracking with an Evolutionary Particle Filter Based on Self-Adaptive Multi-Features Fusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Particle filter algorithms are widely used for object tracking in video sequences, but the standard particle filter algorithm cannot solve the validity of particles ideally. To solve the problems of particle degeneration and sample impoverishment in a particle filter tracking algorithm, an improved object tracking algorithm is proposed, which combines a multi?feature fusion method and a genetic evolution mechanism. The algorithm dynamically computes the feature’s fusion weight by the discriminability of each vision feature and then constructs the important density function based on selecting a feature’s fusion method adaptively. Moreover, a self?adaptive genetic evolutionary mechanism is introduced into the particle resampling process and makes the particle become an agent with the ability of dynamic self?adaption. With self?adaptive crossover and mutation operators, the evolution system produces a large number of new particles, which can better approximate the true state of the tracking object. The experimental results show that the proposed object tracking algorithm surpasses the conventional particle filter on both robustness and accuracy, even though the tracking object is very challenging regarding illumination variation, structural deformation, the interference of similar targets and occlusion.

Zhang Xiaowei; Liu Hong; Sun Xiaohong

2013-01-01

257

IMPLEMENTATION OF OBJECT TRACKING SYSTEM USING REGION FILTERING ALGORITHM BASED ON SIMULINK BLOCKSETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Video tracking is the process of locating a moving object in time that is visualized by camera and are widely used in surveillance, animation and robotics Tracking describes the process of recording movement and translating that movement onto a digital model. The set of constraints that produce the most accurate tracking is the one that describes better the action performed. The key difficulty in video tracking is to associate target locations in consecutive video frames, especially when the objects are moving fast relative to the frame rate. Here, a video tracking system is been employed in which motion model describes how the image of the target might change for different possible motions of the object to track. The role of the tracking algorithm adopted for this system is to analyze the video frames to estimate the motion parameters. These parameters characterize the location of the target. In this research, three features are been extracted from each moving objects such as centroid, area, average luminance. Finally the similarity function is applied to tracking and the attempt proves that the chosen method has good performance under dynamic circumstances for real time tracking. Simulink is integrated with MATLAB to build a model for object tracking and data transfer is easily handled between the programs. The Simulink based customizable framework is designed for rapid simulation, implementation, and verification of video and image processing algorithms and systems.

DR.P.SUBASHINI; MS.M.KRISHNAVENI; MR. VIJAY SINGH

2011-01-01

258

Identification of the lateral position of a virtual object based on echoes by humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Echolocation offers a promising approach to improve the quality of life of people with blindness although little is known about the factors influencing object localisation using a 'searching' strategy. In this paper, we describe a series of experiments using sighted and blind human listeners and a 'virtual auditory space' technique to investigate the effects of the distance and orientation of a reflective object and the effect of stimulus bandwidth on ability to identify the right-versus-left position of the object, with bands of noise and durations from 10-400 ms. We found that performance reduced with increasing object distance. This was more rapid for object orientations where mirror-like reflection paths do not exist to both ears (i.e., most possible orientations); performance with these orientations was indistinguishable from chance at 1.8 m for even the best performing listeners in other conditions. Above-chance performance extended to larger distances when the echo was artificially presented in isolation, as might be achieved in practice by an assistive device. We also found that performance was primarily based on information above 2 kHz. Further research should extend these investigations to include other factors that are relevant to real-life echolocation.

Rowan D; Papadopoulos T; Edwards D; Holmes H; Hollingdale A; Evans L; Allen R

2013-06-01

259

Diversity Based on Entropy: A Novel Evaluation Criterion in Multi-objective Optimization Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quality assessment of Multi-objective Optimization algorithms has been a major concern in the scientific field during the last decades. The entropy metric is introduced and highlighted in computing the diversity of Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms. In this paper, the definition of the entropy metric and the approach of diversity measurement based on entropy are presented. This measurement is adopted to not only Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm but also Multi-objective Immune Algorithm. Besides, the key techniques of entropy metric, such as the appropriate principle of grid method, the reasonable parameter selection and the simplification of density function, are discussed and analyzed. Moreover, experimental results prove the validity and efficiency of the entropy metric. The computational effort of entropy increases at a linear rate with the number of points in the solution set, which is indeed superior to other quality indicators. Compared with Generational Distance, it is proved that the entropy metric have the capability of describing the diversity performance on a quantitative basis. Therefore, the entropy criterion can serve as a high-efficient diversity criterion of Multi-objective optimization algorithms.

Wang LinLin; Chen Yunfang

2012-01-01

260

Empirical analysis of web-based user-object bipartite networks  

CERN Multimedia

Understanding the structure and evolution of web-based user-object networks is a significant task since they play a crucial role in e-commerce nowadays. This Letter reports the empirical analysis on two large-scale web sites, audioscrobbler.com and del.icio.us, where users are connected with music groups and bookmarks, respectively. The degree distributions and degree-degree correlations for both users and objects are reported. We propose a new index, named collaborative clustering coefficient, to quantify the clustering behavior based on the collaborative selection. Accordingly, the clustering properties and clustering-degree correlations are investigated. We report some novel phenomena well characterizing the selection mechanism of web users and outline the relevance of these phenomena to the information recommendation problem.

Shang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

A fusion algorithm for joins based on collections in Odra (Object Database for Rapid Application development)  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we present the functionality of a currently under development database programming methodology called ODRA (Object Database for Rapid Application development) which works fully on the object oriented principles. The database programming language is called SBQL (Stack based query language). We discuss some concepts in ODRA for e.g. the working of ODRA, how ODRA runtime environment operates, the interoperability of ODRA with .net and java .A view of ODRA's working with web services and xml. Currently the stages under development in ODRA are query optimization. So we present the prior work that is done in ODRA related to Query optimization and we also present a new fusion algorithm of how ODRA can deal with joins based on collections like set, lists, and arrays for query optimization.

Satish, Laika

2011-01-01

262

Structured Continuous Objective-Based Assessment of Resident?s Performance at Point of Care (SCOPA)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assessment of the clinical performance of physicians-in-training is an important task. The critical care rotation is a mandatory rotation for most residency training programs and is designed to ensure the graduation of trainees who are able to initiate lifesaving management during medical emergencies. Ensuring that each resident fulfills the objectives of the rotation is of paramount importance. Unfortunately, the current assessment methods are subjective and suffer from many threats to validity and reliability that make the assessment inaccurate. In this review, the current assessment method is analyzed, and causes for inaccuracy are identified. A new model for assessment that is continuous, structured, objective-based and at the point of care (SCOPA) is proposed based on the best available assessment methods. Such a model might be useful for the assessment of trainee?s performance in critical care as well as non-critical care rotations.

Hijazi Mohammed

2005-01-01

263

Job Scheduling Model for Cloud Computing Based on Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is an emerging high performance computing environment with a large scale, heterogeneous collection of autonomous systems and flexible computational architecture. To improve the overall performance of cloud computing, with the deadline constraint, a task scheduling model is established for reducing the system power consumption of cloud computing and improving the profit of service providers. For the scheduling model, a solving method based on multi-objective genetic algorithm (MO-GA) is designed and the research is focused on encoding rules, crossover operators, selection operators and the method of sorting Pareto solutions. Based on open source cloud computing simulation platform CloudSim, compared to existing scheduling algorithms, the results show that the proposed algorithm can obtain a better solution, and it provides a balance for the performance of multiple objects.

Jing Liu; Xing-Guo Luo; Xing-Ming Zhang; Fan Zhang; Bai-Nan Li

2013-01-01

264

A Dynamic Interval Based Circular Safe Region Algorithm for Continuous Queries on Moving Objects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moving object database (MOD) engine is the foundation of Location-Based Service (LBS) information systems. Continuous queries are important in spatial-temporal reasoning of a MOD. The communication costs were the bottleneck for improving query efficiency until the rectangular safe region algorithm partly solved this problem. However, this algorithm can be further improved, as we demonstrate with the dynamic interval based continuous queries algorithm on moving objects. Two components, circular safe region and dynamic intervals were adopted by our algorithm. Theoretical proof and experimental results show that our algorithm substantially outperforms the traditional periodic monitoring and the rectangular safe region algorithm in terms of monitoring accuracy, reducing communication costs and server CPU time. Moreover, in our algorithm, the mobile terminals do not need to have any computational ability.

Shengsheng Wang; Chen Zhang

2011-01-01

265

Object-Based Classification of Urban Areas Using VHR Imagery and Height Points Ancillary Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Land cover classification of very high resolution (VHR) imagery over urban areas is an extremely challenging task. Impervious land covers such as buildings, roads, and parking lots are spectrally too similar to be separated using only the spectral information of VHR imagery. Additional information, therefore, is required for separating such land covers by the classifier. One source of additional information is the vector data, which are available in archives for many urban areas. Further, the object-based approach provides a more effective way to incorporate vector data into the classification process as the misregistration between different layers is less problematic in object-based compared to pixel-based image analysis. In this research, a hierarchical rule-based object-based classification framework was developed based on a small subset of QuickBird (QB) imagery coupled with a layer of height points called Spot Height (SH) to classify a complex urban environment. In the rule-set, different spectral, morphological, contextual, class-related, and thematic layer features were employed. To assess the general applicability of the rule-set, the same classification framework and a similar one using slightly different thresholds applied to larger subsets of QB and IKONOS (IK), respectively. Results show an overall accuracy of 92% and 86% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.88 and 0.80 for the QB and IK Test image, respectively. The average producers’ accuracies for impervious land cover types were also 82% and 74.5% for QB and IK.

Bahram Salehi; Yun Zhang; Ming Zhong; Vivek Dey

2012-01-01

266

The role of object-based learning in transferable skills development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper considers how object-based learning (OBL) can be used to complement reflective skills development systems, which are commonplace in UK universities. It describes how some UCL students had difficulty understanding the concept of such a system and in choosing skills to develop. We therefore began developing a series of OBL activities, which could be used to help students understand how the system should be used and to identify their skill strengths and weaknesses.

Jenny Marie

2010-01-01

267

A Novel Objective Image Quality Metric for Image Fusion Based on Renyi Entropy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, a novel objective image quality metric is proposed. The proposed metric can be used for image fusion evaluation without a reference image. The proposed metric is an extension of Mutual Information (MI) metric based on Renyi entropy which is a single parameter generalization of Shannon entropy. Renyi MI measures the total amount of information that fused image contains about source images. Also, the overlapping information problem is considered by using Generalized Normalized MI to avoid its influence. Experimental results show that the presented metric well correlated with human subjective evaluations and it is much better than conventional MI metrics based on Shannon entropy and Tsallis entropy.

Youzhi Zheng; Zheng Qin; Liping Shao; Xiaodong Hou

2008-01-01

268

Fast Multi-Object Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on C-V Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multi-objective image segmentation is a frequently encountered problem. The classical C-V algorithm has the shortage about multi-iterative operations and the computational time is too long to segment the large size image. On the base of analysis upon the relationship between the image size and the number of iterations and time to get the right result, the article proposes a fast image segmentation algorithm based on local C-V active contour model which are based on threshold segmentation and the connected component labeling to segment the large size image with multiple objectives. In the first step, a coarse segmentation is obtained by using the OTSU method, then label and cut the image with the fast non-recursion pixel marking algorithm of connected domains. The segmentation is used as an initial solution in the C-V model. The analysis and experimental results indicate that the improved C-V algorithm can get the right result quickly compared with classical C-V algorithm. It is fast and effective to segment the large size image with multiple objectives.

Zhu Lei; Yang Jing

2011-01-01

269

Object-Based Image Analysis of Downed Logs in Disturbed Forested Landscapes Using Lidar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Downed logs on the forest floor provide habitat for species, fuel for forest fires, and function as a key component of forest nutrient cycling and carbon storage. Ground-based field surveying is a conventional method for mapping and characterizing downed logs but is limited. In addition, optical remote sensing methods have not been able to map these ground targets due to the lack of optical sensor penetrability into the forest canopy and limited sensor spectral and spatial resolutions. Lidar (light detection and ranging) sensors have become a more viable and common data source in forest science for detailed mapping of forest structure. This study evaluates the utility of discrete, multiple return airborne lidar-derived data for image object segmentation and classification of downed logs in a disturbed forested landscape and the efficiency of rule-based object-based image analysis (OBIA) and classification algorithms. Downed log objects were successfully delineated and classified from lidar derived metrics using an OBIA framework. 73% of digitized downed logs were completely or partially classified correctly. Over classification occurred in areas with large numbers of logs clustered in close proximity to one another and in areas with vegetation and tree canopy. The OBIA methods were found to be effective but inefficient in terms of automation and analyst’s time in the delineation and classification of downed logs in the lidar data.

Samuel D. Blanchard; Marek K. Jakubowski; Maggi Kelly

2011-01-01

270

Multi-objective optimum design of fast tool servo based on improved differential evolution algorithm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The flexure-based mechanism is a promising realization of fast tool servo (FTS), and the optimum determination of flexure hinge parameters is one of the most important elements in the FTS design. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization approach to optimizing the dimension and position parameters of the flexure-based mechanism, which is based on the improved differential evolution algorithm embedding chaos and nonlinear simulated anneal algorithm. The results of optimum design show that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance and a well-balanced compromise is made between two conflicting objectives, the stroke and natural frequency of the FTS mechanism. The validation tests based on finite element analysis (FEA) show good agreement with the results obtained by using the proposed theoretical algorithm of this paper. Finally, a series of experimental tests are conducted to validate the design process and assess the performance of the FTS mechanism. The designed FTS reaches up to a stroke of 10.25 {mu}m with at least 2 kHz bandwidth. Both of the FEA and experimental results demonstrate that the parameters of the flexure-based mechanism determined by the proposed approaches can achieve the specified performance and the proposed approach is suitable for the optimum design of FTS mechanism and of excellent performances.

Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Shaoxin [Jilin University, Changchun (China)

2011-12-15

271

Automated spine and vertebrae detection in CT images using object-based image analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although computer assistance has become common in medical practice, some of the most challenging tasks that remain unsolved are in the area of automatic detection and recognition. The human visual perception is in general far superior to computer vision algorithms. Object-based image analysis is a relatively new approach that aims to lift image analysis from a pixel-based processing to a semantic region-based processing of images. It allows effective integration of reasoning processes and contextual concepts into the recognition method. In this paper, we present an approach that applies object-based image analysis to the task of detecting the spine in computed tomography images. A spine detection would be of great benefit in several contexts, from the automatic labeling of vertebrae to the assessment of spinal pathologies. We show with our approach how region-based features, contextual information and domain knowledge, especially concerning the typical shape and structure of the spine and its components, can be used effectively in the analysis process. The results of our approach are promising with a detection rate for vertebral bodies of 96% and a precision of 99%. We also gain a good two-dimensional segmentation of the spine along the more central slices and a coarse three-dimensional segmentation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23946190

Schwier, M; Chitiboi, T; Hülnhagen, T; Hahn, H K

2013-08-14

272

Automated spine and vertebrae detection in CT images using object-based image analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although computer assistance has become common in medical practice, some of the most challenging tasks that remain unsolved are in the area of automatic detection and recognition. The human visual perception is in general far superior to computer vision algorithms. Object-based image analysis is a relatively new approach that aims to lift image analysis from a pixel-based processing to a semantic region-based processing of images. It allows effective integration of reasoning processes and contextual concepts into the recognition method. In this paper, we present an approach that applies object-based image analysis to the task of detecting the spine in computed tomography images. A spine detection would be of great benefit in several contexts, from the automatic labeling of vertebrae to the assessment of spinal pathologies. We show with our approach how region-based features, contextual information and domain knowledge, especially concerning the typical shape and structure of the spine and its components, can be used effectively in the analysis process. The results of our approach are promising with a detection rate for vertebral bodies of 96% and a precision of 99%. We also gain a good two-dimensional segmentation of the spine along the more central slices and a coarse three-dimensional segmentation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Schwier M; Chitiboi T; Hülnhagen T; Hahn HK

2013-09-01

273

Compression scheme by use of object-segmented sub-image array transformed from computational elemental image array based on multiple objects in 3D integral imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we address a highly enhanced compression scheme in the condition of multiple objects in Integral Imaging (InIm) by use of sub-images (SIs) to segment each object and to remove the Motion Vector (MV) of residual image array transformed from Sub-Image Array (SIA). In the pick-up process, SIA is generated from EIA after the perspectives passing through virtual pinhole array is recorded as Elemental Image Array (EIA). The similarity enhancement among SIs expects compression efficiency to improve, but the compression efficiency of the EIA in the picked-up condition of multiple objects does not correspond to that of the picked-up condition of a simplified object. In the proposed scheme, the depth of objects is computed by two adaptive SIs located at horizontal left and right side from the reference SI positioned to the center of the SIA. A depth map image generated from two adaptive the SIs and a reference SI is applied to segment each object considering to the distance between those. Therefore, an adaptive objectsegmented SI is obtained and, which is motion-estimated from the original SIA based on MSE to generate the motioncompensated object-segmented SIA and which SIAs from each segmented object are finally combined as the motioncompensated SIA, and which based on multiple objects is transformed to residual SIA to minimize the spatial redundancy and which SIA is compressed by MPEG-4. The proposed algorithm shows the enhanced compression efficiency than that of the baseline JPEG and the conventional EIA compression scheme.

Lee, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Han; Kang, Ho-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Soo

2012-10-01

274

A portable, GUI-based, object-oriented client-server architecture for computer-based patient record (CPR) systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Software applications for computer-based patient records require substantial development investments. Portable, open software architectures are one way to delay or avoid software application obsolescence. The Clinical Management System at Temple University School of Dentistry uses a portable, GUI-based, object-oriented client-server architecture. Two main criteria determined this approach: preservation of investment in software development and a smooth migration path to a Computer-based Patient Record. The application is separated into three layers: graphical user interface, database interface, and application functionality Implementation with generic cross-platform development tools ensures maximum portability.

Schleyer TK

1995-01-01

275

High Quality Prime Farmland extraction pattern based on object-oriented image analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

High Quality Prime Farmland (HQPF) is high, stable yields based on land consolidation of prime farmland, and has its important impact upon China's food security. To make clear the status-in-quo of the HQPF is important to its construction and management. However, it is difficult to get the spatial distribution information of the constructed HQPF enough rapidly in mountainous area using ground investigation, as well as hard to satisfy the requirements of large-scale promotion. A HQPF extraction framework based on object-oriented image analysis is discussed and applied to aerial imageries of Tonglu County. The approach can be divided into 3 steps: image segmentation, feature analysis & feature selection and extraction rules generation. In the image segmentation procedure, canny operator is used in edge detection, an edge growth algorithm is used to link discontinuous edge, and region labelling is carried out to generate image object. In the feature analysis & selection procedure, object-oriented feature analysis and feature selection methods are also discussed to construct a feature subset with fine divisibility for HQPF extraction. In the extraction rules generation procedure, the C4.5 algorithm is used to establish and trim the decision tree, then HQPF decision rules are generated from the decision tree. Compared with supervised classification (MLC classifier, ERDAS 8.7) and another object-oriented image analysis method (FNEA, e-Cognition4.0), the accuracy assessment shows that the extraction results by the object-oriented extraction patters have a high level of category consistency, size consistency and shape consistency.

Liu, Yong-xue; Li, Man-chun; Chen, Zhen-jie; Li, Fei-xue; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Bo; Tan, Lu

2008-10-01

276

Confidence-Level-Based New Adaptive Particle Filter for Nonlinear Object Tracking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nonlinear object tracking from noisy measurements is a basic skill and a challenging task of mobile robotics, especially under dynamic environments. The particle filter is a useful tool for nonlinear object tracking with non?Gaussian noise. Nonlinear object tracking needs the real?time processing capability of the particle filter. While the number in a traditional particle filter is fixed, that can lead to a lot of unnecessary computation. To address this issue, a confidence?level? based new adaptive particle filter (NAPF) algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm the idea of confidence interval is utilized. The least number of particles for the next time instant is estimated according to the confidence level and the variance of the estimated state. Accordingly, an improved systematic re?sampling algorithm is utilized for the new improved particle filter. NAPF can effectively reduce the computation while ensuring the accuracy of nonlinear object tracking. The simulation results and the ball tracking results of the robot verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Xiaoyong Zhang; Jun Peng; Wentao Yu; Kuo-chi Lin

2012-01-01

277

Digital Image Watermarking for Arbitrarily Shaped Objects Based On SA-DWT  

CERN Multimedia

Many image watermarking schemes have been proposed in recent years, but they usually involve embedding a watermark to the entire image without considering only a particular object in the image, which the image owner may be interested in. This paper proposes a watermarking scheme that can embed a watermark to an arbitrarily shaped object in an image. Before embedding, the image owner specifies an object of arbitrary shape that is of a concern to him. Then the object is transformed into the wavelet domain using in place lifting shape adaptive DWT(SADWT) and a watermark is embedded by modifying the wavelet coefficients. In order to make the watermark robust and transparent, the watermark is embedded in the average of wavelet blocks using the visual model based on the human visual system. Wavelet coefficients n least significant bits (LSBs) are adjusted in concert with the average. Simulation results shows that the proposed watermarking scheme is perceptually invisible and robust against many attacks such as loss...

Essaouabi, A; Fegragui, F

2009-01-01

278

Remote Sensing in Mapping Mangrove Ecosystems — An Object-Based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past few decades, clearing for shrimp farming has caused severe losses of mangroves in the Mekong Delta (MD) of Vietnam. Although the increasing importance of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has brought significant financial benefits to the local communities, the rapid and largely uncontrolled increase in aquacultural area has contributed to a considerable loss of mangrove forests and to environmental degradation. Although different approaches have been used for mangrove classification, no approach to date has addressed the challenges of the special conditions that can be found in the aquaculture-mangrove system in the Ca Mau province of the MD. This paper presents an object-based classification approach for estimating the percentage of mangroves in mixed mangrove-aquaculture farming systems to assist the government to monitor the extent of the shrimp farming area. The method comprises multi-resolution segmentation and classification of SPOT5 data using a decision tree approach as well as local knowledge from the region of interest. The results show accuracies higher than 75% for certain classes at the object level. Furthermore, we successfully detect areas with mixed aquaculture-mangrove land cover with high accuracies. Based on these results, mangrove development, especially within shrimp farming-mangrove systems, can be monitored. However, the mangrove forest cover fraction per object is affected by image segmentation and thus does not always correspond to the real farm boundaries. It remains a serious challenge, then, to accurately map mangrove forest cover within mixed systems.

Quoc Tuan Vo; Natascha Oppelt; Patrick Leinenkugel; Claudia Kuenzer

2013-01-01

279

Reference Point Based Multi-Objective Optimization Using Hybrid Artificial Immune System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last decade, the field of Artificial Immune System (AIS) is progressing slowly and steadily as a branch of Computational Intelligence (CI).There has been increasing interest in the development of computational models inspired by several immunological principles. Although there are advantages of knowing the range of each objective for Pareto-optimality and the shape of the Pareto-optimal frontier itself in a problem for an adequate decision-making, the task of choosing a single preferred Pareto optimal solution is also an important task. In this paper, a Reference Point Based Multi-Objective Optimization Using hybrid Artificial intelligent approach based on the clonal selection principle of Artificial Immune System (AIS) and Neural Networks is proposed. And, instead of one solution, a preferred set of solutions near the reference points can be found. Modified Multi-objective Immune System Algorithm (MISA) is proposed with real parameters value not binary coded parameters, uniform and non uniform mutation operator is applied to the clones produced. Real parameter MISA works on continuous search space.

Waiel F. Abd El-Wahed; Elsayed M. Zaki; Adel M. El-Refaey

2010-01-01

280

Object-based change detection: dimension of damage in residential areas of Abu Suruj, Sudan  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the importance of Change Detection, especially in the field of crisis management, this paper discusses the advantage of object-based Change Detection. This project and the used methods give an opportunity to coordinate relief actions strategically. The principal objective of this project was to develop an algorithm which allows to detect rapidly damaged and destroyed buildings in the area of Abu Suruj. This Sudanese village is located in West-Darfur and has become the victim of civil war. The software eCognition Developer was used to per-form an object-based Change Detection on two panchromatic Quickbird 2 images from two different time slots. The first image shows the area before, the second image shows the area after the massacres in this region. Seeking a classification for the huts of the Sudanese town Abu Suruj was reached by first segmenting the huts and then classifying them on the basis of geo-metrical and brightness-related values. The huts were classified as "new", "destroyed" and "preserved" with the help of a automated algorithm. Finally the results were presented in the form of a map which displays the different conditions of the huts. The accuracy of the project is validated by an accuracy assessment resulting in an Overall Classification Accuracy of 90.50 percent. These change detection results allow aid organizations to provide quick and efficient help where it is needed the most.

Demharter, Timo; Michel, Ulrich; Ehlers, Manfred; Reinartz, Peter

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

Moving Object Tracking and Avoidance Algorithm for Differential Driving AGV Based on Laser Measurement Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposed an algorithm to track the obstacle position and avoid the moving objects for differential driving Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV) system in industrial environment. This algorithm has several abilities such as: to detect the moving objects, to predict the velocity and direction of moving objects, to predict the collision possibility and to plan the avoidance maneuver. For sensing the local environment and positioning, the laser measurement system LMS-151 and laser navigation system NAV-200 are applied. Based on the measurement results of the sensors, the stationary and moving obstacles are detected and the collision possibility is calculated. The velocity and direction of the obstacle are predicted using Kalman filter algorithm. Collision possibility, time, and position can be calculated by comparing the AGV movement and obstacle prediction result obtained by Kalman filter. Finally the avoidance maneuver using the well known tangent Bug algorithm is decided based on the calculation data. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm is verified using simulation and experiment. Several examples of experiment conditions are presented using stationary obstacle, and moving obstacles. The simulation and experiment results show that the AGV can detect and avoid the obstacles successfully in all experimental condition.

Pandu Sandi Pratama; Sang Kwun Jeong; Soon Sil Park; Sang Bong Kim

2013-01-01

282

Detection and object-based classification of offshore oil slicks using ENVISAT-ASAR images.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to propose and test a multi-level methodology for detection of oil slicks in ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) imagery, which can be used to support the identification of hydrocarbon seeps. We selected Andrusov Ridge in the Central Black Sea as the test study area where extensive hydrocarbon seepages were known to occur continuously. Hydrocarbon seepage from tectonic or stratigraphic origin at the sea floor causes oily gas plumes to rise up to the sea surface and form thin oil films called oil slicks. Microwave sensors like synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are very suitable for ocean remote sensing as they measure the backscattered radiation from the surface and show the roughness of the terrain. Oil slicks dampen the sea waves creating dark patches in the SAR image. The proposed and applied methodology includes three levels: visual interpretation, image filtering and object-based oil spill detection. Level I, after data preparation with visual interpretation, includes dark spots identification and subsets/scenes creation. After this process, the procedure continues with categorization of subsets/scenes into three cases based on contrast difference of dark spots to the surroundings. In level II, by image and morphological filtering, it includes preparation of subsets/scenes for segmentation. Level III includes segmentation and feature extraction which is followed by object-based classification. The object-based classification is applied with the fuzzy membership functions defined by extracted features of ASAR subsets/scenes, where the parameters of the detection algorithms are tuned specifically for each case group. As a result, oil slicks are discriminated from look-alikes with an overall classification accuracy of 83% for oil slicks and 77% for look-alikes obtained by averaging three different cases. PMID:21380923

Akar, Sertac; Süzen, Mehmet Lutfi; Kaymakci, Nuretdin

2011-03-08

283

Multi-equipment condition based maintenance optimization by multi- objective genetic algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: This paper deals with the optimization of the condition based maintenance (CBM) applied on manufacturing multi-equipment system under cost and benefit criteria.Design/methodology/approach: The system is modeled using Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and optimized by means of the application of a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA).Findings: Solution for the joint optimization of the condition based maintenance model applied on several equipment has been obtained.Research limitations/implications: The developed approach has been successfully applied to the optimization of condition based maintenance activities of a hubcap production system composed by three plastic injection machines and a painting station, for management decision support.Originality/value: This paper provides a solution for the joint optimization of CBM strategies applied on several equipments

Š. Val?uha; A. Goti; J. Úradní?ek; I. Navarro

2011-01-01

284

A Grid Based Cooperative Co-evolutionary Multi-Objective Algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a well performing approach in the context of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) is investigated due to its complexity. This approach called NSCCGA is based on previously introduced approach called NSGA-II. NSCCGA performs better than NSGA-II but with a heavy load of computational complexity. Here, a novel approach called GBCCGA is introduced based on MOCCGA with some modifications. The main difference between GBCCGA and MOCCGA is in their niching technique which instead of the traditional sharing mechanism in MOCCGA, a novel grid-based technique is used in GBCCGA. The reported results show that GBCCGA performs roughly the same as NSCCGA but with very low computational complexity with respect to the original MOCCGA.

Fard, Sepehr Meshkinfam; Hamzeh, Ali; Ziarati, Koorush

285

Using Rule-Based Reasoning and Object-Oriented Methodologies to Diagnose Diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Diabetes mellitus or diabetes epidemic is one of the high prevalence diseases worldwide with increased number of disability, complications and death toll. An early diagnosis helps patients and medical practitioners to reduce the burden of diabetes. Approach: In this research, we propose a framework for a system using rule-based reasoning and object-oriented methodologies to diagnose both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Results: Extensive literature reviews were carried out and questionnaires were distributed to medical practitioners to build the knowledge base. This knowledge base stores the rules needed to perform a diagnosis. Conclusion: This study only presents the proposed framework and not the system itself. We believe that great improvements can be provided to the medical practitioners and also the diabetics with the implementation of this system in future.

Vithyatheri Govindan; Vimala Balakrishnan; Huck-Soo Loo

2012-01-01

286

Evaluation of the reliability of transport networks based on the stochastic flow of moving objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In transport networks, human beings are moving objects whose moving direction is stochastic in emergency situations. Based on this idea, a new model-stochastic moving network (SMN) is proposed. It is different from binary-state networks and stochastic-flow networks. The flow of SMNs has multiple-saturated states, that correspond to different flow values in each arc. In this paper, we try to evaluate the system reliability, defined as the probability that the saturated flow of the network is not less than a given demand d. Based on this new model, we obtain the flow probability distribution of every arc by simulation. An algorithm based on the blocking cutset of the SMN is proposed to evaluate the network reliability. An example is used to show how to calculate the corresponding reliabilities for different given demands of the SMN. Simulation experiments of different size were made and the system reliability precision was calculated. The precision of simulation results also discussed.

2008-01-01

287

A Feature Selection Method Based on ? - Fuzzy Similarity Measures Using Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feature selection (FS) is considered to be an important preprocessing step in machine learning and pattern recognition, and feature evaluation is the key issue for constructing a feature selection algorithm. Feature selection process can also reduce noise and this way enhance the classification accuracy. In this article, feature selection method based on ? - fuzzy similarity measures by multi objective genetic algorithm (FSFSM – MOGA) is introduced and performance of the proposed method on published data sets from UCI was evaluated. The results show the efficiency of the method is compared with the conventional version. When this method multi-objective genetic algorithms and fuzzy similarity measures used in CFS method can improve it.

Hassan Nosrati Nahook,; Mahdi Eftekhari,

2013-01-01

288

Extracting Objects and Events from MPEG Videos for Highlight-based Indexing and Retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic recognition of highlights from videos is a fundamental and challenging problem for content-based indexing and retrieval applications. In this paper, we propose techniques to solve this problem using knowledge supported extraction of semantics, and compressed-domain processing is employed for efficiency. Firstly, knowledgebased rules are utilized for shot detection on extracted DCimages, and statistical skin detection is applied for human object detection. Secondly, through filtering outliers in motion vectors, improved detection of camera motions like zooming, panning and tilting are achieved. Video highlight high-level semantics are then automatically extracted via low-level analysis in the detection of human objects and camera motion events, and finally these highlights are taken for shot-level annotation, indexing and retrieval. Results using a large test video data set have demonstrated the accuracy and robustness of the proposed techniques.

Jinchang Ren; Jianmin Jiang; Juan Chen; Stan S. Ipson

2010-01-01

289

Context based Coding of Binary Shapes by Object Boundary Straightness Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new lossless compression scheme for bilevel images targeted at binary shapes of image and video objects is presented. The scheme is based on a local analysis of the digital straightness of the causal part of the object boundary, which is used in the context definition for arithmetic encoding. Tested on individual images of binary shapes and binary layers of digital maps the algorithm outperforms PWC, JBIG and MPEG-4 CAE. On the binary shapes the code lengths are reduced by 21%, 25%, and 42%, respectively. On the maps the reductions are 34%, 32%, and 59%, respectively. The algorithm is also more efficient than the state-of-the-art and more complex free tree coder for most of the binary shape and map test images.

Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, SØren

2004-01-01

290

An Artificial Physics Optimization Algorithm for Multi-Objective Problems Based on Virtual Force Sorting Proceedings  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to maintain the diversity of non-dominated solutions in multi-objective optimization algorithms efficiently the authors have proposed a multi-objective artificial physics optimization algorithm based on virtual force sorting (VFMOAPO). Adopting quick-sort idea, the individuals in non-dominated solutions set were sorted by the total virtual force exerting on the other individuals. So the non-dominated solution set was pruned and the individual with the maximal sum of virtual force exerting on the other individuals was selected as the global best solution. Some benchmark functions were tested for comparing the performance of VFMOAPO with MOPSO, NSGA and SPEA. The simulation results show the algorithm is feasible and competitive.

Wang, Yan; Zeng, Jian-Chao; Tan, Ying

291

Multi-objective Optimization of RFID Network Based on Genetic Programming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the widespread application of RFID tags, the layout of RFID readers under guaranteed the rate of coverage, RFID network load balance and communication quality which becomes a major focus of current research on RFID network. Present study analyzes the characteristics of RFID network and the disadvantages of current optimization methods on readers network, by establishing the mathematical optimization model of RFID network, a kind of method that multi-objective optimization of RFID network based on Genetic Programming is proposed and the evolutional topological operators, terminal set and fitness functions are designed. Finally, it realized the module of the multi-objective optimization algorithm, the number of readers and the layout of readers automatic optimization. The experimental results show that it has higher efficiency, faster convergence rate and good accuracy. It can keep well balance between topology and parameter search. This research has important reference value in the theory and practice.

Pan Weijie; Li Shaobo; Xie Qingsheng; Yang Guanci

2011-01-01

292

Comparison of Planar Parallel Manipulator Architectures based on a Multi-objective Design Optimization Approach  

CERN Multimedia

This paper deals with the comparison of planar parallel manipulator architectures based on a multi-objective design optimization approach. The manipulator architectures are compared with regard to their mass in motion and their regular workspace size, i.e., the objective functions. The optimization problem is subject to constraints on the manipulator dexterity and stiffness. For a given external wrench, the displacements of the moving platform have to be smaller than given values throughout the obtained maximum regular dexterous workspace. The contributions of the paper are highlighted with the study of 3-RPR, 3-RPR and 3-RPR planar parallel manipulator architectures, which are compared by means of their Pareto frontiers obtained with a genetic algorithm.

Chablat, Damien; Ur-Rehman, Raza; Wenger, Philippe

2010-01-01

293

Deformable Volume Object Modeling With A Particle-Based System For Medical Applications  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we describe a general method for reconstruction and animation of volumetricdeformable objects. First, the initial data, defined by planar contours, are fitted with aclosed periodic parametric surface. Then, this rigid model is used as a closed boundary,which is filled in by particles. For this, new particles are progressively generated withinthe boundary. When a new particle is introduced, there will be an interaction betweenthis particle and all the existing particles. They will collide the boundaries. Then we letthe system evolve under physically-based forces, until the particles reach an equilibriumstate. We have defined some simple rules for the new particle generation.In the scope of a medical application, we want to simulate the motion and the formalteration of the internal anatomical objects. So we have introduced the necessary toolsto handle the dynamic and deformable behavior of cancerous tissues and organs. Ourparticle system seems adequate to be int...

Fabrice Jaillet; Behzad Shariat; Denis Vandorpe

294

Target Object Identification and Location Based on Multi-sensor Fusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For an unknown environment, how to make a mobile robot identify a target object and locate it autonomously, this is a very challenging question. In this paper, a novel multi-sensor fusion method based on a camera and a laser range finder (LRF) for mobile manipulations is proposed. Although a camera can acquire large quantities of information, it does not directly get the 3D data of the environment. Moreover, the camera image processing is complex and easily influenced from the change in ambient light. In view of the ability of the LRF to directly get the 3D coordinates of the environment and its stability against outside influence, and the superiority of the camera to acquire rich color information, the combination of the two sensors by making use of their advantages is employed to obtain more accurate measurement as well as to simplify information processing. To overlay the camera image with the measurement point cloud of the pitching LRF and to reconstruct the 3D image which includes pixel depth information, the homogeneous transformation model of the system is built. Then, based on the combination of the color features from the camera image and the shape features from the LRF measurement data, the autonomous identification and location of target object are achieved. In order to extract the shape features of the object, a two-step method is introduced, and a sliced point cloud algorithm is proposed for the preliminary classification of the measurement data of the LRF. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the experimental testing and analysis carried out on the mobile manipulator platform. The experimental results show that by this method, the robot can not only identify target object autonomously, but also determine whether it can be operated, and acquire a proper grasping location.

Yong Jiang, Hong-Guang Wang, Ning Xi

2013-01-01

295

Balancing multiple objectives using a classification-based forest management system in Changbai Mountains, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contemporary forest management often consists of multiple objectives, including restoration of human-impacted forested landscapes toward their range of natural variability (RNV) and sustainable levels of timber production. Balancing multiple management objectives is often challenging due to intrinsic conflicts between these objectives and a lack of reference conditions for evaluating the effectiveness of forest restoration efforts. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape model to assess how well a classification-based forest management (CFM) system could achieve multiple objectives in a Korean pine broadleaf mixed forest ecosystem at Changbai Mountain in Northeast China. The CFM system divided the forest landscape into three management areas (Commercial Forest, Special Ecological Welfare Forest, and General Ecological Welfare Forest), each with its own management objectives and prescriptions, but with an overall goal of increasing the ecological and economic sustainability of the entire landscape. The zoning approach adopted in the Chinese CFM system is very similar to the TRIAD approach that is being advocated for managing public forests in Canada. In this study, a natural disturbance scenario and seven harvest scenarios (one identical to the current harvest regime and six alternative scenarios) were simulated to examine how tree species composition, age structure, and timber production at the landscape level can be affected by different strategies under the CFM system. The results indicated that the current forest management regime would not only fail to reach the designated timber production level but also move the forest landscape far away from its RNV. In order to return the currently altered forest landscape to approach its RNV while providing a stable level of timber production over time, harvest intensities should be reduced to a level that is equivalent to the amount of timber removals that would occur under the natural disturbances; and the establishment of forest plantations is also required.

Zhao F; Yang J; Liu Z; Dai L; He HS

2011-12-01

296

Enable Energy Efficiency of Object Tracking using Sentinel based Multisensor Sleep Scheduling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a way of lifetime extension, the energy efficiency has become a crucial criterion in the design of object tracking sensor networks (OTSN). In this paper, we propose a sentinel based sleep scheduling called Sleep Scheduling Protocol (SSP) to reduce the number of the awakened sensor nodes with less performance loss while existing solutions either suffer from increasing of event detecting delays or computing overhead. SSP is built upon cluster based network structure. Each cluster contains group of sensor nodes divided in terms of geometric information. Sentinels will be selected from each cluster for probing object moving trajectory and maintaining communication routes. In the approach, sentinels will remain active or be scheduled to periodic sleep. The rest of the nodes remain sleeping until being waked up by sentinels and only maintain low communication power to stay accessible for energy saving. We compare SSP with three sleep based scheduling protocols via simulation. The results show that SSP can reduce average energy consumption but with reasonable detection probability and delay.  

Tingting Fu; Peng Liu; Y.Fun Hu

2012-01-01

297

Development of risk-based data quality objectives for waste characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work is to provide a method for developing data quality objectives (DQOs) based on human health risk criteria to support waste characterization and remediation efforts for single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford site. Data quality objectives provide decision makers with information on the type, quality, and quantity of data needed to characterize waste and make closure decision; they also help focus the work and minimize the resources (worker impact, cost, and schedule). For the SST characterization project, DQOs were developed using a risk-based code that integrates source term, transport, and exposure models. Preliminary DQOs for SST waste characterization and remediation at the Hanford site were developed using a health risk-based code that integrates source term, transport, and exposure models. The large number of analytes under consideration for characterization were prioritized according to their risk contribution, and detection limit goals were developed to identify potentially inadequate analytical methods. These DQOs will help determine the most efficient use of resources to characterize, remediate, and close SSTs.

1991-01-01

298

A novel fractal monocular and stereo video codec with object-based functionality  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the classical fractal video compression method, an improved monocular fractal compression method is proposed which includes using more effective macroblock partition scheme instead of classical quadtree partition scheme; using improved fast motion estimation to increase the calculation speed; using homo-I-frame like in H.264, etc. The monocular codec uses the motion compensated prediction (MCP) structure. And stereo fractal video coding is proposed which matches the macroblock with two reference frames in left and right views, and it results in increasing compression ratio and reducing bit rate/bandwidth when transmitting compressed video data. The stereo codec combines MCP and disparity compensated prediction. And a new method of object-based fractal video coding is proposed in which each object can be encoded and decoded independently with higher compression ratio and speed and less bit rate/bandwidth when transmitting compressed stereo video data greatly. Experimental results indicate that the proposed monocular method can raise compression ratio 3.6 to 7.5 times, speed up compression time 5.3 to 22.3 times, and improve the image quality 3.81 to 9.24 dB in comparison with circular prediction mapping and non-contractive interframe mapping. The PSNR of the proposed stereo video coding is about 0.17 dB higher than that of the proposed monocular video coding, and 0.69 dB higher than that of JMVC 4.0 on average. Comparing with the bit rate resulted by the proposed monocular video coding and JMVC 4.0, the proposed stereo video coding achieves, on average, 2.53 and 21.14 Kbps bit rate saving, respectively. The proposed object-based fractal monocular and stereo video coding methods are simple and effective, and they make the applications of fractal monocular and stereo video coding more flexible and practicable.

Zhu, Shiping; Li, Liyun; Wang, Zaikuo

2012-12-01

299

Towards task-based assessment of CT performance: system and object MTF across different reconstruction algorithms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate a measurement method for evaluating the resolution properties of CT imaging systems across reconstruction algorithms, dose, and contrast. METHODS: An algorithm was developed to extract the task-based modulation transfer function (MTF) from disk images generated from the rod inserts in the ACR phantom (model 464 Gammex, WI). These inserts are conventionally employed for HU accuracy assessment. The edge of the disk objects was analyzed to determine the edge-spread function, which was differentiated to yield the line-spread function and Fourier-transformed to generate the object-specific MTF for task-based assessment, denoted MTF(Task). The proposed MTF measurement method was validated against the conventional wire technique and further applied to measure the MTF of CT images reconstructed with an adaptive statistical iterative algorithm (ASIR) and a model-based iterative (MBIR) algorithm. Results were further compared to the standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. Measurements were performed and compared across different doses and contrast levels to ascertain the MTF(Task) dependencies on those factors. RESULTS: For the FBP reconstructed images, the MTF(Task) measured with the inserts were the same as the MTF measured from the wire-based method. For the ASIR and MBIR data, the MTF(Task) using the high contrast insert was similar to the wire-based MTF and equal or superior to that of FBP. However, results for the MTF(Task) measured using the low-contrast inserts, the MTF(Task) for ASIR and MBIR data was lower than for the FBP, which was constant throughout all measurements. Similarly, as a function of mA, the MTF(Task) for ASIR and MBIR varied as a function of noise--with MTF(Task) being proportional to mA. Overall greater variability of MTF(Task) across dose and contrast was observed for MBIR than for ASIR. CONCLUSIONS: This approach provides a method for assessing the task-based MTF of a CT system using conventional and iterative reconstructions. Results demonstrated that the object-specific MTF can vary as a function of dose and contrast. The analysis highlighted the paradigm shift for iterative reconstructions when compared to FBP, where iterative reconstructions generally offer superior noise performance but with varying resolution as a function of dose and contrast. The MTF(Task) generated by this method is expected to provide a more comprehensive assessment of image resolution across different reconstruction algorithms and imaging tasks.

Richard S; Husarik DB; Yadava G; Murphy SN; Samei E

2012-07-01

300

An IPM-APSO based hybrid method for multiple objective minimizations using TCPS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an Interior Pont Method (IPM) and variant of Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) based hybrid method to solve optimal power flow in power system incorporating Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) such as Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter (TCPS) for minimization of multiple objectives. The proposed IPM-APSO algorithm identifies the optimal values of generator active-power output and the adjustment of reactive power control devices. The proposed optimization process with IPM-APSO is presented with case study example using IEEE 30-bus test system to demonstrate its applicability. The results are presented to show the feasibility and potential of this new approach.

M.Balasubba Reddy; Dr.Y.P. Obulesh; Dr.S. Sivanaga Raju

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Dynamic Verification of an Object-Rule Knowledge Base Using Colored Petri Nets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a formal description for the dynamic verification of an Object-Rule Hybrid Knowledge-based System (HKBS), capitalizing on the work carried out within the verification framework of Frame-Rule Hybrid Expert Systems. The main idea is to model an HKBS by means of a Colored Petri Network (CPN). In this way, method invocations, state class changes, rules and productions will be modeled as components of the CPN. Detection and analysis of the HKBS will be carried out by the construction and analysis of the markings graph, which results from the inference process.

Chakib Tadj; Toufik Laroussi

2006-01-01

302

Developing a framework for monitoring coastal habitats using aerial imagery and object-based image analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denmark contains major areas of coastal habitats, including a significant part of the European area of coastal dunes and salt marshes. The natural dynamics in coastal habitats are a prerequisite for the maintenance of their structure and biodiversity, yet very little research on the implications of decreased habitat dynamics exists. A valuable source of land cover changes are historical aerial imagery of which Denmark has unique datasets.This poster presents an object-based image analysis approach for mapping and monitoring af coastal habitat stucture, which integrates the high spectral resolution and consistency of satellite imagery, with the high spatial resolution of aerial imagery.

Juel, Anders

303

Multi-object Segmentation Based on Improved Pulse Coupled Neural Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces an approach for image segmentation by using pulse coupled neural network (PCNN), based on the phenomena of synchronous pulse bursts in the animal visual cortexes. The synchronous bursts of neurons with different input were generated in the proposed PCNN model to realize the multi-object segmentation. The criterion to automatically choose the dominant parameter (the linking strength ?), which determines the synchronous-burst stimulus range, was described in order to stimulate its application in automatic image segmentation. Segmentations on several types of image are implemented with the proposed method and the experimental results demonstrate its validity.

Dansong Cheng; Xianglong Tang; Jiafeng Liu; Xiaofang Liu

2009-01-01

304

Double-exposure phase calculation method in electronic speckle pattern interferometry based on holographic object illumination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multiple-exposure phase calculation procedures are widely used in electronic speckle pattern interferometry to calculate phase maps of displacements. We developed a double-exposure process based on holographic illumination of the object and the idea of the spatial carrier phase-shifting method to examine transient displacements. In our work, computer-generated holograms and a spatial light modulator were used to generate proper coherent illuminating masks. In this adjustment all phase-shifted states were at our disposal from one recorded speckle image for phase calculation. This technique can be used in the large scale of transient measurements. In this paper we illustrate the principle through several examples.

Séfel R; Kornis J

2011-08-01

305

Optimization of Enterprise Information System based on Object-based Knowledge Mesh and Binary Tree with Maximum User Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with an approach to the optimization of enterprise information system (EIS) based on the object-based knowledge mesh (OKM) and binary tree. Firstly, to explore the optimization of EIS by the user’s function requirements, an OKM expression representation based on the user’s satisfaction and binary tree is proposed. Secondly, based on the definitions of the fuzzy function-satisfaction degree relationships on the OKM functions, the optimization model is constructed. Thirdly, the OKM multiple set operation expression is optimized by the immune genetic algorithm and binary tree, with the steps of the OKM optimization presented in detail as well. Finally, the optimization of EIS is illustrated by an example to verify the proposed approaches.

Haiwang Cao; Chaogai Xue

2012-01-01

306

Efficient Reconstruction of Dielectric Objects Based on Integral Equation Approach with Gauss-Newton Minimization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reconstruction of unknown objects by microwave illumination requires efficient inversion for measured electromagnetic (EM) scattering data. In the integral equation approach for reconstructing dielectric objects based on the Born iterative method (BIM) or its variations, the volume integral equations (VIEs) are involved because the imaging domain is fully inhomogeneous. When solving the forward scattering integral equation (FSIE), the Nystr¨om method is used since the traditional method of moments (MoM) may be inconvenient due to the inhomogeneity of the imaging domain. The benefits of the Nystr¨om method include the simple implementation without using any basis and testing functions and low requirement on geometrical discretization. When solving the inverse scattering integral equation (ISIE), the Gauss-Newton minimization approach (GNMA) with a line search method (LSM) and multiplicative regularization method (MRM) is employed. The LSM can optimize the search of step size in each iteration while the MRM may reduce the number of numerical experiments for choosing the regularization parameter. Numerical examples for reconstructing typical dielectric objects under limited observation angles are presented to illustrate the inversion approach.

Tong M; Yang K; Sheng WT; Zhu ZY

2013-08-01

307

Culture belief based multi-objective hybrid differential evolutionary algorithm in short term hydrothermal scheduling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Culture belief is integrated into multi-objective differential evolution. ? Chaotic sequence is imported to improve evolutionary population diversity. ? The priority of convergence rate is proved in solving hydrothermal problem. ? The results show the quality and potential of proposed algorithm. - Abstract: A culture belief based multi-objective hybrid differential evolution (CB-MOHDE) is presented to solve short term hydrothermal optimal scheduling with economic emission (SHOSEE) problem. This problem is formulated for compromising thermal cost and emission issue while considering its complicated non-linear constraints with non-smooth and non-convex characteristics. The proposed algorithm integrates a modified multi-objective differential evolutionary algorithm into the computation model of culture algorithm (CA) as well as some communication protocols between population space and belief space, three knowledge structures in belief space are redefined according to these problem-solving characteristics, and in the differential evolution a chaotic factor is embedded into mutation operator for avoiding the premature convergence by enlarging the search scale when the search trajectory reaches local optima. Furthermore, a new heuristic constraint-handling technique is utilized to handle those complex equality and inequality constraints of SHOSEE problem. After the application on hydrothermal scheduling system, the efficiency and stability of the proposed CB-MOHDE is verified by its more desirable results in comparison to other method established recently, and the simulation results also reveal that CB-MOHDE can be a promising alternative for solving SHOSEE.

2013-01-01

308

An objective assessment method of digital image mosaic artifacts visibility based on visual perception  

Science.gov (United States)

The difference of illumination between to-be-mosaicked images will cause mosaic artifacts when digital images are mosaicked. An objective assessment method of digital images mosaic artifacts visibility based on human visual perception has been studied in this paper. The process of the method are as follows; 1) the gradient errors image is obtained according to the to-be-mosaicked images, 2) the just noticeable difference (JND) of reference image is derived by considering the human visual frequency sensitivity, the brightness mask effects and texture mask effects on visual resolution comprehensively; 3) the mosaic artifacts image which is perceptible visually can be acquired by subtracting the JND threshold values from the wavelet coefficients of gradient errors image in wavelet domain. The mosaic artifacts visibility (MAV) of digital image is constructed to use as an objective assessment index of image stitching seam visibility by considering the average value and information entropy of the mosaic artifacts image comprehensively. The experiment indicates that the objective assessment results of digital image mosaic artifacts visibility by MAV index are consistent with those of the subjective perceptual method basically.

Yu, Hongsheng; Jin, Weiqi; Liu, Xiusheng

2010-05-01

309

Method for objectively and quantifiably evaluating noise fret degree in vehicle based on auditory model  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for objectively and quantifiably evaluating noise fret degree in a vehicle based on an auditory model, in particular to an evaluation method of psychoacoustics and vehicle sound quality. The method comprises the following steps: designing a dummy head model imitating a processing mechanism of the middle ear and the inner ear of a human body to the sound by usingan auditory peripheral calculation model collecting vehicle noise signals under the working conditions of uniform, accelerated and idle speed pre-treating the noise sample and processing the loudness in specification obtaining a psychoacoustics parameter by using a sound quality calculation model obtaining subjective evaluation result test data by using a grouped and paired comparison methodcalculating and painting a correlated scatter plot chart between each parameter and the ranking value of the subjective evaluation result and analyzing and calculating to obtain the objectively quantifiable model of the subjective fret degree under each working condition. The invention can realize the psychoacoustic parameter calculation of objectively evaluating the sound quality with differentvehicle types, gears and speeds, wherein the calculated value has good pertinence and consistency with the evaluated result of the subjective evaluation method. The invention has stable evaluated result and high reliability, and can improve the sound quality and competitiveness of vehicles combined with the design of new CAE cars.

JIE LIANG; BINGWU LU; XIE JUN; DENGFENG WANG; TONGHANG ZHAO; WENJUN JIANG; QIANG SUN

310

An interactive system for creating object models from range data based on simulated annealing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In hazardous applications such as remediation of buried waste and dismantlement of radioactive facilities, robots are an attractive solution. Sensing to recognize and locate objects is a critical need for robotic operations in unstructured environments. An accurate 3-D model of objects in the scene is necessary for efficient high level control of robots. Drawing upon concepts from supervisory control, the authors have developed an interactive system for creating object models from range data, based on simulated annealing. Site modeling is a task that is typically performed using purely manual or autonomous techniques, each of which has inherent strengths and weaknesses. However, an interactive modeling system combines the advantages of both manual and autonomous methods, to create a system that has high operator productivity as well as high flexibility and robustness. The system is unique in that it can work with very sparse range data, tolerate occlusions, and tolerate cluttered scenes. The authors have performed an informal evaluation with four operators on 16 different scenes, and have shown that the interactive system is superior to either manual or automatic methods in terms of task time and accuracy.

Hoff, W.A.; Hood, F.W.; King, R.H. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Robotics and Intelligent Systems

1997-05-01

311

Real-time underwater object detection based on an electrically scanned high-resolution sonar  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper describes an approach to real time detection and tracking of underwater objects, using image sequences from an electrically scanned high-resolution sonar. The use of a high resolution sonar provides a good estimate of the location of the objects, but strains the computers on board, because of the high rate of raw data. The amount of data can be cut down by decreasing the scanned area, but this reduces the possibility of planning an optimal path. In the paper methods are described, that maintains the wide area of detection, without significant loss of precision or speed. This is done by using different scanning patterns for each sample. The detection is based on a two level threshold, making processing fast. Once detected the objects are followed through consecutive sonar images, and by use of an observer the estimation errors on position and velocities are reduced. Intensive use of different on-board sensors also makes it possible to scan a map of a larger area of the seabed in world coordinates. The work is in collaboration with partners under MAST-C-T90-0059

Henriksen, Lars

1994-01-01

312

Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Humans can perform a multitude of different actions with their hands (manipulations). In spite of this, so far there have been only a few attempts to represent manipulation types trying to understand the underlying principles. Here we first discuss how manipulation actions are structured in space and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal anchors also provide us with information about when to pay attention to additional important information, for example when to consider trajectory shapes and relative poses between objects. As a consequence a highly condensed representation emerges by which different manipulations can be recognized and encoded. Examples of manipulations recognition and execution by a robot based on this representation are given at theend of this study.

Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.

2013-01-01

313

An efficient multi-objective optimization algorithm based on swarm intelligence for engineering design  

Science.gov (United States)

As there is a growing interest in applications of multi-objective optimization methods to real-world problems, it is essential to develop efficient algorithms to achieve better performance in engineering design and resources optimization. An efficient algorithm for multi-objective optimization, based on swarm intelligence principles, is presented in this article. The proposed algorithm incorporates a Pareto dominance relation into particle swarm optimization (PSO). To create effective selection pressure among the non-dominated solutions, it uses a variable size external repository and crowding distance comparison operator. An efficient mutation strategy called elitist-mutation is also incorporated in the algorithm. This strategic mechanism effectively explores the feasible search space and speeds up the search for the true Pareto-optimal region. The proposed approach is tested on various benchmark problems taken from the literature and validated with standard performance measures by comparison with NSGA-II, one of the best multi-objective evolutionary algorithms available at present. It is then applied to three engineering design problems. The results obtained amply demonstrate that the proposed approach is efficient and is able to yield a wide spread of solutions with good coverage and convergence to true Pareto-optimal fronts.

Janga Reddy, M.; Nagesh Kumar, D.

2007-01-01

314

Intuitive Terrain Reconstruction Using Height Observation-Based Ground Segmentation and 3D Object Boundary Estimation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile robot operators must make rapid decisions based on information about the robot’s surrounding environment. This means that terrain modeling and photorealistic visualization are required for the remote operation of mobile robots. We have produced a voxel map and textured mesh from the 2D and 3D datasets collected by a robot’s array of sensors, but some upper parts of objects are beyond the sensors’ measurements and these parts are missing in the terrain reconstruction result. This result is an incomplete terrain model. To solve this problem, we present a new ground segmentation method to detect non-ground data in the reconstructed voxel map. Our method uses height histograms to estimate the ground height range, and a Gibbs-Markov random field model to refine the segmentation results. To reconstruct a complete terrain model of the 3D environment, we develop a 3D boundary estimation method for non-ground objects. We apply a boundary detection technique to the 2D image, before estimating and refining the actual height values of the non-ground vertices in the reconstructed textured mesh. Our proposed methods were tested in an outdoor environment in which trees and buildings were not completely sensed. Our results show that the time required for ground segmentation is faster than that for data sensing, which is necessary for a real-time approach. In addition, those parts of objects that were not sensed are accurately recovered to retrieve their real-world appearances.

Wei Song; Kyungeun Cho; Kyhyun Um; Chee Sun Won; Sungdae Sim

2012-01-01

315

Round-tip dielectrophoresis-based tweezers for single micro-object manipulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present an efficient methodology to manipulate a single micro-object using round-tip positive dielectrophoresis-based tweezers. The tweezers consist of a glass needle with a round-tip and a pair of thin gold-film electrodes. The round-tip, which has a radius of 3µm, is formed by melting a finely pulled glass needle and concentrates the electric field at the tip of the tweezers, which allows the individual manipulation of single micro-objects. The tweezers successfully captured, conveyed, and positioned single cell-sized liposomes with diameters of 5-23µm, which are difficult to manipulate with conventional manipulation methodologies, such as optical tweezers or glass micropipettes, due to the similarities between their optical properties and those of the media, as well as the ease with which they are deformed or broken. We used Stokes' drag theory to experimentally evaluate the positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) force generated by the tweezers as a function of the liposome size, the content of the surrounding media, and the applied AC voltage and frequency. The results agreed with the theoretically deduced pDEP force. Finally, we demonstrated the separation of labeled single cells from non-labeled cells with the tweezers. This device can be used as an efficient tool for precisely and individually manipulating biological micro-objects that are typically transparent and flexible. PMID:23570681

Kodama, Taiga; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kawano, Ryuji; Kamiya, Koki; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

2013-03-21

316

An interactive system for creating object models from range data based on simulated annealing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In hazardous applications such as remediation of buried waste and dismantlement of radioactive facilities, robots are an attractive solution. Sensing to recognize and locate objects is a critical need for robotic operations in unstructured environments. An accurate 3-D model of objects in the scene is necessary for efficient high level control of robots. Drawing upon concepts from supervisory control, the authors have developed an interactive system for creating object models from range data, based on simulated annealing. Site modeling is a task that is typically performed using purely manual or autonomous techniques, each of which has inherent strengths and weaknesses. However, an interactive modeling system combines the advantages of both manual and autonomous methods, to create a system that has high operator productivity as well as high flexibility and robustness. The system is unique in that it can work with very sparse range data, tolerate occlusions, and tolerate cluttered scenes. The authors have performed an informal evaluation with four operators on 16 different scenes, and have shown that the interactive system is superior to either manual or automatic methods in terms of task time and accuracy

1997-01-01

317

A Review of a Goal Directed Visual Perception System using Object based Top down Attention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tendency of the human being to apply the selective attention mechanism so as to determine about a truly intelligent perception system, which has the cognitive capability of learning and thinking about how to perceive the environment on its own. There are two attention mechanisms involved one of which is the top–down and the other bottom–up that correspond to the goal-directed and automatic perceptual behaviors, respectively. In this paper we review an artificial system with goal-directed visual perception approach and which uses the object-based top–down visual attention mechanism. This system will able us to determine the perception to an object of interest according to the current task, context and learned knowledge. This system can be mainly divided into three successive stages: first one is preattentive processing, second one top–down attentional selection and last is post-attentive perception. In first stage that is preattentive processing we consider an input scene which gets divided into what we say similar proto-objects, out of these one is then selected by applying the top–down attention and finally it is sent to the post-attentive perception stage for analysis and final outcome.

Aniket D. Pathak, Priti Subramanium

2013-01-01

318

Optimal reactive power flow incorporating static voltage stability based on multi-objective adaptive immune algorithm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

People have paid more attention to enhancing voltage stability margin since voltage collapses happened in some power systems recently. This paper proposes an optimal reactive power flow (ORPF) incorporating static voltage stability based on a multi-objective adaptive immune algorithm (MOAIA). The main idea of the proposed algorithm is to add two parts to an existing immune algorithm. The first part defines both partial affinity and global affinity to evaluate the antibody affinity to the multi-objective functions. The second part uses adaptive crossover, mutation and clone rates for antibodies to maintain the antibodies diversity. Hence, the proposed algorithm can achieve a dynamic balance between individual diversity and population convergence. The paper describes ORPF's multi-objective functional mathematical model and the constraint conditions. The problems associated with the antibody are also discussed in detail. The proposed method has been tested in the IEEE-30 system and compared with IGA (immune genetic algorithm). The results show that the proposed algorithm has improved performance over the IGA. (author)

Xiong, Hugang; Cheng, Haozhong [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, DongChuang Road 800, Shanghai (China); Li, Haiyu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

2008-05-15

319

Optimal reactive power flow incorporating static voltage stability based on multi-objective adaptive immune algorithm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

People have paid more attention to enhancing voltage stability margin since voltage collapses happened in some power systems recently. This paper proposes an optimal reactive power flow (ORPF) incorporating static voltage stability based on a multi-objective adaptive immune algorithm (MOAIA). The main idea of the proposed algorithm is to add two parts to an existing immune algorithm. The first part defines both partial affinity and global affinity to evaluate the antibody affinity to the multi-objective functions. The second part uses adaptive crossover, mutation and clone rates for antibodies to maintain the antibodies diversity. Hence, the proposed algorithm can achieve a dynamic balance between individual diversity and population convergence. The paper describes ORPF's multi-objective functional mathematical model and the constraint conditions. The problems associated with the antibody are also discussed in detail. The proposed method has been tested in the IEEE-30 system and compared with IGA (immune genetic algorithm). The results show that the proposed algorithm has improved performance over the IGA.

Xiong Hugang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, DongChuang Road 800, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: Gloryxiong@yahoo.com.cn; Cheng Haozhong [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, DongChuang Road 800, Shanghai (China); Li Haiyu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

2008-05-15

320

Simultaneous Optimization for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Parameters Based on Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compared to conventional vehicles Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) provide fairly high fuel economy with lower emissions. To enhance HEV performance in terms of fuel economy and emissions, and ensure user satisfaction with driving performance, the need for simultaneous optimization for the main parameters of powertrain components and control system is inevitable. However, this problem is challenging due to the large amount of coupling design parameters, conflicting design objectives and nonlinear constraints. Considering the defect of the methods which convert multi-objective optimization problems into single-objective ones, a comprehensive methodology based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithms II (NSGA II) to achieve parameter optimization for powertrain components and control system simultaneously and successfully find the Pareto-optimal solutions set is presented in this paper. A case simulation is carried out and simulated by ADVISOR, The simulation results show that this method can produce many Pareto-optimal solutions and a satisfactory solution can be selected by decision-makers according to their requirements. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithms proposed in this paper.

Lincun Fang; Shiyin Qin; Gang Xu; Tianli Li; Kemin Zhu

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Round-tip dielectrophoresis-based tweezers for single micro-object manipulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we present an efficient methodology to manipulate a single micro-object using round-tip positive dielectrophoresis-based tweezers. The tweezers consist of a glass needle with a round-tip and a pair of thin gold-film electrodes. The round-tip, which has a radius of 3µm, is formed by melting a finely pulled glass needle and concentrates the electric field at the tip of the tweezers, which allows the individual manipulation of single micro-objects. The tweezers successfully captured, conveyed, and positioned single cell-sized liposomes with diameters of 5-23µm, which are difficult to manipulate with conventional manipulation methodologies, such as optical tweezers or glass micropipettes, due to the similarities between their optical properties and those of the media, as well as the ease with which they are deformed or broken. We used Stokes' drag theory to experimentally evaluate the positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) force generated by the tweezers as a function of the liposome size, the content of the surrounding media, and the applied AC voltage and frequency. The results agreed with the theoretically deduced pDEP force. Finally, we demonstrated the separation of labeled single cells from non-labeled cells with the tweezers. This device can be used as an efficient tool for precisely and individually manipulating biological micro-objects that are typically transparent and flexible.

Kodama T; Osaki T; Kawano R; Kamiya K; Miki N; Takeuchi S

2013-09-01

322

A comparison of the accuracy of pixel based and object based classifications of integrated optical and LiDAR data  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison of the accuracy of pixel based and object based classifications of integrated optical and LiDAR data Land cover maps are generally produced on the basis of high resolution imagery. Recently, LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data have been brought into use in diverse applications including land cover mapping. In this study we attempted to assess the accuracy of land cover classification using both high resolution aerial imagery and LiDAR data (airborne laser scanning, ALS), testing two classification approaches: a pixel-based classification and object-oriented image analysis (OBIA). The study was conducted on three test areas (3 km2 each) in the administrative area of Kraków, Poland, along the course of the Vistula River. They represent three different dominating land cover types of the Vistula River valley. Test site 1 had a semi-natural vegetation, with riparian forests and shrubs, test site 2 represented a densely built-up area, and test site 3 was an industrial site. Point clouds from ALS and ortophotomaps were both captured in November 2007. Point cloud density was on average 16 pt/m2 and it contained additional information about intensity and encoded RGB values. Ortophotomaps had a spatial resolution of 10 cm. From point clouds two raster maps were generated: intensity (1) and (2) normalised Digital Surface Model (nDSM), both with the spatial resolution of 50 cm. To classify the aerial data, a supervised classification approach was selected. Pixel based classification was carried out in ERDAS Imagine software. Ortophotomaps and intensity and nDSM rasters were used in classification. 15 homogenous training areas representing each cover class were chosen. Classified pixels were clumped to avoid salt and pepper effect. Object oriented image object classification was carried out in eCognition software, which implements both the optical and ALS data. Elevation layers (intensity, firs/last reflection, etc.) were used at segmentation stage due to proper wages usage. Thus a more precise and unambiguous boundaries of segments (objects) were received. As a results of the classification 5 classes of land cover (buildings, water, high and low vegetation and others) were extracted. Both pixel-based image analysis and OBIA were conducted with a minimum mapping unit of 10m2. Results were validated on the basis on manual classification and random points (80 per test area), reference data set was manually interpreted using ortophotomaps and expert knowledge of the test site areas.

Gajda, Agnieszka; Wójtowicz-Nowakowska, Anna

2013-04-01

323

Object-based image analysis and data mining for building ontology of informal urban settlements  

Science.gov (United States)

During recent decades, unplanned settlements have been appeared around the big cities in most developing countries and as consequence, numerous problems have emerged. Thus the identification of different kinds of settlements is a major concern and challenge for authorities of many countries. Very High Resolution (VHR) Remotely Sensed imagery has proved to be a very promising way to detect different kinds of settlements, especially through the using of new objectbased image analysis (OBIA). The most important key is in understanding what characteristics make unplanned settlements differ from planned ones, where most experts characterize unplanned urban areas by small building sizes at high densities, no orderly road arrangement and Lack of green spaces. Knowledge about different kinds of settlements can be captured as a domain ontology that has the potential to organize knowledge in a formal, understandable and sharable way. In this work we focus on extracting knowledge from VHR images and expert's knowledge. We used an object based strategy by segmenting a VHR image taken over urban area into regions of homogenous pixels at adequate scale level and then computing spectral, spatial and textural attributes for each region to create objects. A genetic-based data mining was applied to generate high predictive and comprehensible classification rules based on selected samples from the OBIA result. Optimized intervals of relevant attributes are found, linked with land use types for forming classification rules. The unplanned areas were separated from the planned ones, through analyzing of the line segments detected from the input image. Finally a simple ontology was built based on the previous processing steps. The approach has been tested to VHR images of one of the biggest Algerian cities, that has grown considerably in recent decades.

Khelifa, Dejrriri; Mimoun, Malki

2012-11-01

324

Combining TerraSAR-X and SPOT-5 data for object-based landslide detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslide detection and classification is an essential requirement in pre- and post-disaster hazard analysis. In earlier studies landslide detection often was achieved through time-consuming and cost-intensive field surveys and visual orthophoto interpretation. Recent studies show that Earth Observation (EO) data offer new opportunities for fast, reliable and accurate landslide detection and classification, which may conduce to an effective landslide monitoring and landslide hazard management. To ensure the fast recognition and classification of landslides at a regional scale, a (semi-)automated object-based landslide detection approach is established for a study site situated in the Huaguoshan catchment, Southern Taiwan. The study site exhibits a high vulnerability to landslides and debris flows, which are predominantly typhoon-induced. Through the integration of optical satellite data (SPOT-5 with 2.5 m GSD), SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data (TerraSAR-X Spotlight with 2.95 m GSD) and digital elevation information (DEM with 5 m GSD) including its derived products (e.g. slope, curvature, flow accumulation) landslides may be examined in a more efficient way as if relying on single data sources only. The combination of optical and SAR data in an object-based image analysis (OBIA) domain for landslide detection and classification has not been investigated so far, even if SAR imagery show valuable properties for landslide detection, which differ from optical data (e.g. high sensitivity to surface roughness and soil moisture). The main purpose of this study is to recognize and analyze existing landslides by applying object-based image analysis making use of eCognition software. OBIA provides a framework for examining features defined by spectral, spatial, textural, contextual as well as hierarchical properties. Objects are derived through image segmentation and serve as input for the classification process, which relies on transparent rulesets, representing knowledge. Through class modeling, an iterative process of segmentation and classification, objects can be addressed individually in a region-specific manner. The presented approach is marked by the comprehensive use of available data sets from various sources. This full integration of optical, SAR and DEM data conduces to the development of a robust method, which makes use of the most appropriate characteristics (e.g. spectral, textural, contextual) of each data set. The proposed method contributes to a more rapid and accurate landslide mapping in order to assist disaster and crisis management. Especially SAR data proves to be useful in the aftermath of an event, as radar sensors are mostly independent of illumination and weather conditions and therefore data is more likely to be available. The full data integration allows coming up with a robust approach for the detection and classification of landslides. However, more research is needed to make the best of the integration of SAR data in an object-based environment and for making the approach easier adaptable to different study sites and data.

Friedl, B.; Hölbling, D.; Füreder, P.

2012-04-01

325

A hygrothermal building model based on the object-oriented modeling language Modelica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hygrothermal models are used to compute the coupled transport processes of heat and moisture for 1- or multi-dimensional cases. However, boundary conditions must be user-defined before starting the simulation. Models that take into account a multi-zonal building or single components of the building envelope are able to analyze cases with strong reciprocal effects between the climate in the room and the behavior of the building components. This paper worked with the hypothesis that if a hygrothermal building model is also linked with an-object-oriented modeling approach like Modelica, it is possible to configure complex hygrothermal models with little effort. It was suggested that an object-oriented approach promises to have significant advantages on signal-oriented tools like MATLAB/SIMULINK. An outline of the development of object-oriented hygrothermal models was presented. Physical models of the simulation tools WUFI and SMILE were used. Initial steps in the research considered a Modelica-implementation of a thermal and a hygrothermal wall model, and a comparative evaluation with the well-validated WUFI. Further Modelica models for air volume, windows, zones, inhabitants, and the building environment were presented in order to achieve a model library for simulating whole buildings. Coupled hygrothermal physical effects in the building envelope were also considered. Details of the physical wall model were provided, as well as a numerical wall model with 1 node. It was concluded that due to the object-oriented modeling it was comparably easy to extend the new implemented thermal wall model into a hygrothermal model. Initial results showed good agreement of the Modelica wall model compared to WUFI. It was noted that further development of the model and corresponding validation is planned. The overall aim of the ongoing study is to implement a complete modeling library based on Modelica that consists of hygrothermic wall and room models as well as models for windows, air volumes, environment and inhabitants. 5 refs., 12 figs.

Nytsch-Geusen, C. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Computer Architecture and Software Technology, Berlin (Germany); Nouidui, T.; Holm, A. [Fraunhofer IBP, Holzkirchen (Germany); Haupt, W. [Munich Technical Univ., Munich (Germany)

2005-07-01

326

Resonance optical manipulation of nano-objects based on nonlinear optical response.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Optical manipulation is a technique to control the mechanical motion of small objects by using electromagnetic radiation force. Optical tweezers are the most popular tool to trap and move microparticles suspended in a medium. Recent interest has been shifting to manipulating nano-objects considerably smaller than the wavelength of light. Since the radiation force exerted on nano-objects is extremely small, an innovative method is necessary to make this concept feasible. Utilizing the resonant optical response of the objects to electronic transitions is one of the promising ways to approach nanoscale optical manipulation, and several advances in this direction have been made recently. Despite experimental studies on resonance optical tweezers showing favorable results, conventional theories have been unable to explain the results though demonstrations of resonant manipulations for traveling and standing waves have shown favorable results. In the present article, we provide a perspective view of resonance optical manipulation based on nonlinear optical response that we have recently proposed. This idea coherently elucidates recently reported puzzling phenomena appearing in studies concerning resonance optical tweezers that contradict the conventional understanding of resonance optical trapping. Further, this concept opens up the possibility to develop potentially powerful manipulation techniques because the nonlinear optical response involves processes with considerably greater degrees of freedom than those of the linear optical response. As examples, we propose a method for trapping single organic molecules that is more effective than ever before, selectively pulling the molecules with a particular transition energy, and our proposed method allows for high-spatial-resolution optical manipulation beyond the diffraction limit.

Kudo T; Ishihara H

2013-08-01

327

A core competency-based objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) can predict future resident performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the ability of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) administered in the first month of residency to predict future resident performance in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. METHODS: Eighteen Postgraduate Year 1 (PGY-1) residents completed a five-station OSCE in the first month of postgraduate training. Performance was graded in each of the ACGME core competencies. At the end of 18 months of training, faculty evaluations of resident performance in the emergency department (ED) were used to calculate a cumulative clinical evaluation score for each core competency. The correlations between OSCE scores and clinical evaluation scores at 18 months were assessed on an overall level and in each core competency. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant correlation between overall OSCE scores and overall clinical evaluation scores (R = 0.48, p < 0.05) and in the individual competencies of patient care (R = 0.49, p < 0.05), medical knowledge (R = 0.59, p < 0.05), and practice-based learning (R = 0.49, p < 0.05). No correlation was noted in the systems-based practice, interpersonal and communication skills, or professionalism competencies. CONCLUSIONS: An early-residency OSCE has the ability to predict future postgraduate performance on a global level and in specific core competencies. Used appropriately, such information can be a valuable tool for program directors in monitoring residents' progress and providing more tailored guidance.

Wallenstein J; Heron S; Santen S; Shayne P; Ander D

2010-10-01

328

Validating an objective video-based dyskinesia severity score in Parkinson's disease patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dyskinesia is a common side effect of prolonged dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease patients. Assessing the severity of dyskinesia could help develop better pharmacological and surgical interventions. We have developed a semi-automatic video-based objective dyskinesia quantifying measure called the severity score (SVS) that was evaluated on 35 patient videos. We present a study to evaluate the utility of our severity score and compare its performance to clinical ratings of neurologists. In addition to the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) score for each video, four neurologists provided three sets of time lapsed ratings and rankings of the 35 videos using a specifically developed protocol. The statistical analysis of our data using Kendall's tau-b and intra-class correlations shows that (a) ranking patient videos based on severity is suitable for studying the utility of the SVS, and (b) SVS exhibits moderate utility to quantify dyskinesia severity when compared to manual assessment of dyskinesia by neurologists using the UDysRS. These results support the effective use of SVS as an objective measure to quantify dyskinesia and the rationale for a ranking system that complements traditional rating scales.

Rao AS; Dawant BM; Bodenheimer RE; Li R; Fang J; Phibbs F; Hedera P; Davis T

2013-02-01

329

Multi-Objective PSO- and NPSO-based Algorithms for Robot Path Planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper two novel Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based algorithms are presented for robot path planning with respect to two objectives, the shortest and smoothest path criteria. The first algorithm is a hybrid of the PSO and the Probabilistic Roadmap (PRM) methods, in which the PSO serves as the global planner whereas the PRM performs the local planning task. The second algorithm is a combination of the New or Negative PSO (NPSO) and the PRM methods. Contrary to the basic PSO in which the best position of all particles up to the current iteration is used as a guide, the NPSO determines the most promising direction based on the negative of the worst particle position. The two objective functions are incorporated in the PSO equations, and the PSO and PRM are combined by adding good PSO particles as auxiliary nodes to the random nodes generated by the PRM. Both the PSO+PRM and NPSO+PRM algorithms are compared with the pure PRM method in path length and runtime. The results showed that the NPSO has a slight advantage over the PSO, and the generated paths are shorter and smoother than those of the PRM and are calculated in less time.

MASEHIAN, E.; SEDIGHIZADEH, D.

2010-01-01

330

A Color-Texture Based Segmentation Method To Extract Object From Background  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extraction of flower regions from complex background is a difficult task, it is an important part of flower image retrieval, and recognition .Image segmentation denotes a process of partitioning an image into distinct regions. A large variety of different segmentation approaches for images have been developed. Image segmentation plays an important role in image analysis. According to several authors, segmentation terminates when the observer’s goal is satisfied. For this reason, a unique method that can be applied to all possible cases does not yet exist. This paper studies the flower image segmentation in complex background. Based on the visual characteristics differences of the flower and the surrounding objects, the flower from different backgrounds are separated into a single set of flower image pixels. The segmentation methodology on flower images consists of five steps. Firstly, the original image of RGB space is transformed into Lab color space. In the second step ‘a’ component of Lab color space is extracted. Then segmentation by two-dimension OTSU of automatic threshold in ‘a-channel’ is performed. Based on the color segmentation result, and the texture differences between the background image and the required object, we extract the object by the gray level co-occurrence matrix for texture segmentation. The GLCMs essentially represent the joint probability of occurrence of grey-levels for pixels with a given spatial relationship in a defined region. Finally, the segmentation result is corrected by mathematical morphology methods. The algorithm was tested on plague image database and the results prove to be satisfactory. The algorithm was also tested on medical images for nucleus segmentation.

Saka Kezia; I. Santi Prabha; V. Vijaya Kumar

2013-01-01

331

Development of the competency-based objective resident education using virtual patients system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires U.S. physician training programs to teach and evaluate their trainees in six core competencies. Developing innovative methods to meet the ACGME requirements is an ongoing area of research in medical education. Here we describe the development of the Competency-based Objective Resident Education using Virtual Patients (CORE-VP) system, a web-based virtual patient simulator to teach and measure the ACGME core competencies. The user interface was built on Wavemaker technology including AJAX and javascript. A Flash component allows graphical navigation of the physical exam and linking of digital images and video to desired anatomic areas. The system contains tools for case authorship, management and execution and permits linking of files or web-based hypermedia content. Each case is designed to mimic a real-life patient encounter and includes history, physical exam, laboratory/ radiology, diagnosis and management. Automa­ted, multi-factorial, evaluation metrics were developed for each ACGME core competency. Upon completion of a case trainees receive immediate feedback in the form of an automated Performance Summary. We have developed a web-based virtual patient simulator called CORE-VP to teach and measure the ACGME core competencies. Work is currently underway to test and validate the system.

Taylor Sawyer; Alan Stein; Holly Olson; Christopher Becket Mahnke

2011-01-01

332

Objective differentiation of force-based laparoscopic skills using a novel haptic simulator.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a growing need for effective surgical simulators to train the novice resident with a core skill set that can be later used in advanced operating room training. The most common simulator-based laparoscopic skills curriculum, the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Skills (FLS), has been demonstrated to effectively teach basic surgical skills; however, a key deficiency in current surgical simulators is lack of validated training for force-based or haptic skills. In this study, a novel haptic simulator was examined for construct validity by determining its ability to differentiate between the force skills of surgeons and novices. METHODS: A total of 34 participants enrolled in the study and were divided into two groups: novices, with no previous surgical experience and surgeons, with some level of surgical experience (including upper level residents and attendings). All participants performed a force-based task using grasping, probing, or sweeping motions with laparoscopic tools on the simulator. In the first session, participants were given 3 trials to learn specific forces associated with locations on a graphic; after this, they were asked to reproduce forces at each of the locations in random order. A force-based metric (score) was used to record performance. RESULTS: On probing and grasping tasks, novices applied significantly greater overall forces than surgeons. When analyzed by force levels, novices applied greater forces on the probing task at lower and mid-range forces, for grasping at low-range forces ranges and, for sweeping at high-range forces. CONCLUSIONS: The haptic simulator successfully differentiated between novice and surgeon force skill level at specific ranges for all 3 salient haptic tasks, establishing initial construct validity of the haptic simulator. Based on these results, force-based simulator metrics may be used to objectively measure haptic skill level and potentially train residents. Haptic simulator development should focus on the 3 salient haptic skills (grasping, probing, and sweeping) where precise force application is necessary for successful task outcomes.

Singapogu RB; Smith DE; Long LO; Burg TC; Pagano CC; Burg KJ

2012-11-01

333

Informatics in radiology: use of CouchDB for document-based storage of DICOM objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Picture archiving and communication systems traditionally have depended on schema-based Structured Query Language (SQL) databases for imaging data management. To optimize database size and performance, many such systems store a reduced set of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) metadata, discarding informational content that might be needed in the future. As an alternative to traditional database systems, document-based key-value stores recently have gained popularity. These systems store documents containing key-value pairs that facilitate data searches without predefined schemas. Document-based key-value stores are especially suited to archive DICOM objects because DICOM metadata are highly heterogeneous collections of tag-value pairs conveying specific information about imaging modalities, acquisition protocols, and vendor-supported postprocessing options. The authors used an open-source document-based database management system (Apache CouchDB) to create and test two such databases; CouchDB was selected for its overall ease of use, capability for managing attachments, and reliance on HTTP and Representational State Transfer standards for accessing and retrieving data. A large database was created first in which the DICOM metadata from 5880 anonymized magnetic resonance imaging studies (1,949,753 images) were loaded by using a Ruby script. To provide the usual DICOM query functionality, several predefined "views" (standard queries) were created by using JavaScript. For performance comparison, the same queries were executed in both the CouchDB database and a SQL-based DICOM archive. The capabilities of CouchDB for attachment management and database replication were separately assessed in tests of a similar, smaller database. Results showed that CouchDB allowed efficient storage and interrogation of all DICOM objects; with the use of information retrieval algorithms such as map-reduce, all the DICOM metadata stored in the large database were searchable with only a minimal increase in retrieval time over that with the traditional database management system. Results also indicated possible uses for document-based databases in data mining applications such as dose monitoring, quality assurance, and protocol optimization.

Rascovsky SJ; Delgado JA; Sanz A; Calvo VD; Castrillón G

2012-05-01

334

Intra-Inter Triplet Object Interaction Mechanism in Triplet-Based Hierarchical Interconnection Network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object oriented languages usually avoid direct message passing, due to its complicated implementation, though that is the promising way to communicate in concurrently inherited objects. With the advancement in the high performance computing system, interaction between parallel application objects on...

Shahnawaz Talpur; Imran Ali Qureshi; Shahnawaz Farhan Khahro

335

Integrated waste management in batch chemical industry based on multi-objective optimization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: A multi-objective optimization methodology for hazardous liquid waste management is presented in this paper using industrially based LCA models and operating constraints. This approach is used to optimize the handling of waste streams introducing flexible mixing policy scenarios compared to the rigid policy scenarios of the industrial system. It is shown that increasing the degrees of freedom for the waste mixing reduces significantly both the operating cost and the environmental impact by avoiding the use of utilities. Moreover, the influence of waste availability as function of production planning without waste storage is analyzed in several multiperiod optimizations. There, it is demonstrated that this saving potential can be further increased by integration of multiperiod production planning with waste management policies, up to the level of 40% for the environmental impact, and more than 50% for the operating cost, compared to the industrial base case. In some specific cases, a proper matching of production planning and waste mixing policies can also turn the waste treatment into a source of profit exploiting energy production from the incineration process. IMPLICATIONS: This study reveals the savings potential of more flexible policies in waste management, in particular waste mixing of liquid waste in batch chemical industries treated in incineration, wet air oxidation, wastewater treatment plants, or recovered by distillation. Through a multi-objective optimization framework including models for operating costs and life-cycle inventories based on industrial data, operating constraints from industrial practice, and terminal constraints from legislation, savings potentials up to 50% for the operation cost and 40% for the environmental impact are demonstrated in two case studies.

Rerat C; Papadokonstantakis S; Hungerbühler K

2013-03-01

336

Enhanced Genetic Algorithm based computation technique for multi-objective Optimal Power Flow solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optimal Power Flow (OPF) is used for developing corrective strategies and to perform least cost dispatches. In order to guide the decision making of power system operators a more robust and faster OPF algorithm is needed. OPF can be solved for minimum generation cost, that satisfies the power balance equations and system constraints. But, cost based OPF solutions usually result in unattractive system losses and voltage profiles. In the present paper the OPF problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem, where optimal control settings for simultaneous minimization of fuel cost and loss, loss and voltage stability index, fuel cost and voltage stability index and finally fuel cost, loss and voltage stability index are obtained. The present paper combines a new Decoupled Quadratic Load Flow (DQLF) solution with Enhanced Genetic Algorithm (EGA) to solve the OPF problem. A Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) based approach with strongly dominated set of solutions is used to form the pareto-optimal set. A hierarchical clustering technique is employed to limit the set of trade-off solutions. Finally a fuzzy based approach is used to obtain the optimal solution from the tradeoff curve. The proposed multi-objective evolutionary algorithm with EGA-DQLF model for OPF solution determines diverse pareto optimal front in just 50 generations. IEEE 30 bus system is used to demonstrate the behavior of the proposed approach. The obtained final optimal solution is compared with that obtained using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Fuzzy satisfaction maximization approach. The results using EGA-DQLF with SPEA approach show their superiority over PSO-Fuzzy approach. (author)

Kumari, M. Sailaja; Maheswarapu, Sydulu [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal (India)

2010-07-15

337

Flux variability scanning based on enforced objective flux for identifying gene amplification targets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to reduce time and efforts to develop microbial strains with better capability of producing desired bioproducts, genome-scale metabolic simulations have proven useful in identifying gene knockout and amplification targets. Constraints-based flux analysis has successfully been employed for such simulation, but is limited in its ability to properly describe the complex nature of biological systems. Gene knockout simulations are relatively straightforward to implement, simply by constraining the flux values of the target reaction to zero, but the identification of reliable gene amplification targets is rather difficult. Here, we report a new algorithm which incorporates physiological data into a model to improve the model’s prediction capabilities and to capitalize on the relationships between genes and metabolic fluxes. Results We developed an algorithm, flux variability scanning based on enforced objective flux (FVSEOF) with grouping reaction (GR) constraints, in an effort to identify gene amplification targets by considering reactions that co-carry flux values based on physiological omics data via “GR constraints”. This method scans changes in the variabilities of metabolic fluxes in response to an artificially enforced objective flux of product formation. The gene amplification targets predicted using this method were validated by comparing the predicted effects with the previous experimental results obtained for the production of shikimic acid and putrescine in Escherichia coli. Moreover, new gene amplification targets for further enhancing putrescine production were validated through experiments involving the overexpression of each identified targeted gene under condition-controlled batch cultivation. Conclusions FVSEOF with GR constraints allows identification of gene amplification targets for metabolic engineering of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of desired bioproducts. The algorithm was validated through the experiments on the enhanced production of putrescine in E. coli, in addition to the comparison with the previously reported experimental data. The FVSEOF strategy with GR constraints will be generally useful for developing industrially important microbial strains having enhanced capabilities of producing chemicals of interest.

Park Jong; Park Hye; Kim Won; Kim Hyun; Kim Tae; Lee Sang

2012-01-01

338

An object-based approach to integration of software to support management and reporting of marine ecosystem survey data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An object-based software to support distributed databases and data reporting from combined fisheries and environmental surveys is presented. The key abstraction of this system is expressed as a generic station (data) object. The station object consists of a nested data structure, to store a master r...

Ostrowski, Marek

339

Objektno usmerjena analiza podatkov daljinskega zaznavanja : Object-based image analysis of remote sensing data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Na podro?ju daljinskega zaznavanja se razvijajo razli?ne metode in tehnologije za brezkontaktno in stroškovno u?inkovito izdelavo kart pokrovnosti/rabe tal na velikih obmo?jih ter drugih tematskih kart. Osrednjega pomena za zadostno razpoložljivost in zanesljivost takšnih kart za raziskave zemeljskega površja je razvoj u?inkovitih postopkov analize in klasifikacije posnetkov. Za klasifikacijo satelitskih posnetkov nizke in srednje lo?ljivosti (njihova prostorska lo?ljivost je kve?jemu primerljiva z velikostjo geografskih objektov) zadostuje uporaba pikselsko usmerjene klasifikacije, pri kateri posami?ni piksel razvrstimo v najprimernejši razred na podlagi njegovih spektralnih lastnosti. Ko pove?ujemo prostorsko lo?ljivost posnetkov, pikselska klasifikacija ni ve? u?inkovita. Bistveno se namre? spremeni razmerje med velikostjo piksla na eni ter razsežnostjo in detajlom opazovanih elementov (objektov) geografske stvarnosti na drugi strani. V zadnjem desetletju se zato vse bolj uveljavlja objektno usmerjen pristop obdelave podob. Ta združuje segmentacijo, ki je temeljna faza za razmejevanje geografskih elementov, in klasifikacijo, ki je semanti?no (kontekstualno) podprta. Segmentacija razdeli podobo na homogene skupine pikslov (segmente), semanti?na klasifikacija pa jih nato razvrš?a v razrede na podlagi njihovih spektralnih, geometri?nih, teksturnih in drugih lastnosti. Namen prispevka je predstaviti teoreti?no utemeljitev in metodologijo objektno usmerjene obdelave v daljinskem zaznavanju, podati pregled stanja na podro?ju ter opozoriti na nekatere omejitve tehni?nih rešitev ; Remote sensing has developed various methods and technologies for contactless and cost-effective mapping of large area land cover/land use maps and other thematic maps. The key factor for the availability and reliability of these maps for use in Earth sciences is the development of effective procedures for satellite data analysis and classification. The most appropriate approach for classifying low and medium resolution satellite images (pixel size is coarser than, or at best similar to, the size of geographical objects) is pixel-based classification in which an individual pixel is classified into the closest class based on its spectral similarity. With increasing spatial resolution, pixel-based classification methods became less effective, since the relationship between the pixel size and the dimension of the observed objects on the Earth's surface has changed significantly. Therefore object-oriented classification has become increasingly popular over the past decade. This combines segmentation (which is a fundamental phase of the approach) and contextual classification. Segmentation divides the image into homogeneous pixel groups (segments), which are – during the semantic classification process - arranged into classes based on their spectral, geometric, textural and other features during. The intent of this paper is to present the theoretical argumentation and methodology of object-based image analysis of remote sensing data, provide an overview of the field and point out certain restrictions as regards the current operational solutions.

Tatjana Veljanovski; Urša Kanjir; Krištof Oštir

2011-01-01

340

Object-based image analysis of remote sensing data ; Objektno usmerjena analiza podatkov daljinskega zaznavanja  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Na podro?ju daljinskega zaznavanja se razvijajo razli?ne metode in tehnologije za brezkontaktno in stroškovno u?inkovito izdelavo kart pokrovnosti/rabe tal na velikih obmo?jih ter drugih tematskih kart. Osrednjega pomena za zadostno razpoložljivost in zanesljivost takšnih kart za raziskave zemeljskega površja je razvoj u?inkovitih postopkov analize in klasifikacije posnetkov. Za klasifikacijo satelitskih posnetkov nizke in srednje lo?ljivosti (njihova prostorska lo?ljivost je kve?jemu primerljiva z velikostjo geografskih objektov) zadostuje uporaba pikselsko usmerjene klasifikacije, pri kateri posami?ni piksel razvrstimo v najprimernejši razred na podlagi njegovih spektralnih lastnosti. Ko pove?ujemo prostorsko lo?ljivost posnetkov, pikselska klasifikacija ni ve? u?inkovita. Bistveno se namre? spremeni razmerje med velikostjo piksla na eni ter razsežnostjo in detajlom opazovanih elementov (objektov) geografske stvarnosti na drugi strani. V zadnjem desetletju se zato vse bolj uveljavlja objektno usmerjen pristop obdelave podob. Ta združuje segmentacijo, ki je temeljna faza za razmejevanje geografskih elementov, in klasifikacijo, ki je semanti?no (kontekstualno) podprta. Segmentacija razdeli podobo na homogene skupine pikslov (segmente), semanti?na klasifikacija pa jih nato razvrš?a v razrede na podlagi njihovih spektralnih, geometri?nih, teksturnih in drugih lastnosti. Namen prispevka je predstaviti teoreti?no utemeljitev in metodologijo objektno usmerjene obdelave v daljinskem zaznavanju, podati pregled stanja na podro?ju ter opozoriti na nekatere omejitve tehni?nih rešitev ; Remote sensing has developed various methods and technologies for contactless and cost-effective mapping of large area land cover/land use maps and other thematic maps. The key factor for the availability and reliability of these maps for use in Earth sciences is the development of effective procedures for satellite data analysis and classification. The most appropriate approach for classifying low and medium resolution satellite images (pixel size is coarser than, or at best similar to, the size of geographical objects) is pixel-based classification in which an individual pixel is classified into the closest class based on its spectral similarity. With increasing spatial resolution, pixel-based classification methods became less effective, since the relationship between the pixel size and the dimension of the observed objects on the Earth's surface has changed significantly. Therefore object-oriented classification has become increasingly popular over the past decade. This combines segmentation (which is a fundamental phase of the approach) and contextual classification. Segmentation divides the image into homogeneous pixel groups (segments), which are – during the semantic classification process - arranged into classes based on their spectral, geometric, textural and other features during. The intent of this paper is to present the theoretical argumentation and methodology of object-based image analysis of remote sensing data, provide an overview of the field and point out certain restrictions as regards the current operational solutions.

Tatjana Veljanovski; Urša Kanjir; Krištof Oštir

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Design based Object-Oriented Metrics to Measure Coupling and Cohesion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The object oriented design and object oriented development environment are currently popular in software organizations due to the object oriented programming languages. As the object oriented technology enters into software organizations, it has created new challenges for the companies which used only product metrics as atool for monitoring, controlling and maintaining the software product. This paper presents the new object oriented metrics namely for coupling of class by counting the number of associated classes within a class & total associated class and cohesion at the method and function level for cohesion to estimates object oriented software. In order to this, we discuss in this paper object oriented issues and measures with analysis of object oriented metrics through coupling and cohesion to check the complexity with weight count method. We also discuses the estimation process after analysis of proposed object oriented metrics to measures and check the better performance of object oriented metrics in comparison to other object oriented metrics.

PREETI GULIA; Dr. RAJENDER SINGH CHHILLAR

2011-01-01

342

Determination of the Traveling Speed of a Moving Object of a Video Using Background Extraction and Region Based Segmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the determination of the traveling speed of a moving object of a video clip based on subsequent object detection techniques. After preprocessing of the original image sequence, which is sampled from the video camera, the target moving object is detected with the improved algorithm in which the moving object region can be extracted completely through several processing of background extraction and region based segmentation such as region-connection, region- merging, and region-clustering methods. Among the multiple moving objects of the video, the target object has been detected based on particular criteria of region that it occupies. Then the results of these processing can be used to determine the traveling speed of the target moving object from changes of its coordinate position from the video frames. Among the different video file format, Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) format has been used to examine our experiments.

Md. Shafiul Azam; Md. Rashedul Islam; Md. Omar Faruqe

2011-01-01

343

Satellite Image Pansharpening Using a Hybrid Approach for Object-Based Image Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS), Brovey Transform (BT), and Smoothing-Filter-Based-Intensity Modulation (SFIM) algorithms were used to pansharpen GeoEye-1 imagery. The pansharpened images were then segmented in Berkeley Image Seg using a wide range of segmentation parameters, and the spatial and spectral accuracy of image segments was measured. We found that pansharpening algorithms that preserve more of the spatial information of the higher resolution panchromatic image band (i.e., IHS and BT) led to more spatially-accurate segmentations, while pansharpening algorithms that minimize the distortion of spectral information of the lower resolution multispectral image bands (i.e., SFIM) led to more spectrally-accurate image segments. Based on these findings, we developed a new IHS-SFIM combination approach, specifically for object-based image analysis (OBIA), which combined the better spatial information of IHS and the more accurate spectral information of SFIM to produce image segments with very high spatial and spectral accuracy.

Brian Alan Johnson; Ryutaro Tateishi; Nguyen Thanh Hoan

2012-01-01

344

Linking market-based energy efficiency programs to economic growth, sustainable development and climate change objectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Market-based energy efficiency programs provide a means to simultaneously meet energy and environmental objectives, while also stimulating economic growth. Cost-effective energy efficiency programs provide a no regrets strategy for reducing air emissions. The case study presents in this paper applies economic and energy modeling techniques to examine the aggregate economic and environmental benefits of building sector energy efficiency programs initiated by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). While research by energy efficiency and environmental advocates has emphasized the long-term economic benefits of pursuing energy efficiency measures, such research is typically based on engineering estimates of technical potential of various technologies. In contrast, the data presented in this paper are derived, to the extent possible, from on-site evaluations at specific customer locations in New York. More importantly, this paper focuses on proven program mechanisms, developed and successfully applied by NYSERDA, for overcoming market barriers and delivering the energy efficiency measures. The analysis provides compelling evidence that investments in energy efficiency are good business, not only for program participants, but for society in general. As New York enters the next century, market-based energy efficiency programs can provide customers and government decision-makers with the tools necessary to move toward a more sustainable economy that is growing, clean, and efficient. Furthermore, NYSERDA's energy efficiency programs and open planning process provide a model of implementation that can be replicated in other states to provide benefits similar to those identified in this study.

Smith, P.R.; DeCotis, P.A.; Michael, K.S.

1998-07-01

345

Ecosystem-based management objectives for the North Sea: riding the forage fish rollercoaster  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The North Sea provides a useful model for considering forage fish (FF) within ecosystem-based management as it has a complex assemblage of FF species. This paper is designed to encourage further debate and dialogue between stakeholders about management objectives. Changing the management of fisheries on FF will have economic consequences for all fleets in the North Sea. The predators that are vulnerable to the depletion of FF are Sandwich terns, great skua and common guillemots, and to a lesser extent, marine mammals. Comparative evaluations of management strategies are required to consider whether maintaining the reserves of prey biomass or a more integral approach of monitoring mortality rates across the trophic system is more robust under the ecosystem approach. In terms of trophic energy transfer, stability, and resilience of the ecosystem, FF should be considered as both a sized-based pool of biomass and as species components of the system by managers and modellers. Policy developers should not consider the knowledge base robust enough to embark on major projects of ecosystem engineering. Management plans appear able to maintain sustainable exploitation in the short term. Changes in the productivity of FF populations are inevitable so management should remain responsive and adaptive.

Dickey-Collas, M.; Engelhard, G. H.

2013-01-01

346

MICROLENSING-BASED ESTIMATE OF THE MASS FRACTION IN COMPACT OBJECTS IN LENS GALAXIES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimate the fraction of mass that is composed of compact objects in gravitational lens galaxies. This study is based on microlensing measurements (obtained from the literature) of a sample of 29 quasar image pairs seen through 20 lens galaxies. We determine the baseline for no microlensing magnification between two images from the ratios of emission line fluxes. Relative to this baseline, the ratio between the continua of the two images gives the difference in microlensing magnification. The histogram of observed microlensing events peaks close to no magnification and is concentrated below 0.6 mag, although two events of high magnification, ?m ? 1.5, are also present. We study the likelihood of the microlensing measurements using frequency distributions obtained from simulated microlensing magnification maps for different values of the fraction of mass in compact objects, ?. The concentration of microlensing measurements close to ?m ? 0 can be explained only by simulations corresponding to very low values of ? (10% or less). A maximum likelihood test yields ? = 0.05+0.09-0.03 (90% confidence interval) for a quasar continuum source of intrinsic size rs0?2.6x1015 cm. This estimate is valid in the 0.1-10 M sun range of microlens masses. We study the dependence of the estimate of ? with rs0, and find that ? ?s0?16 cm. High values of ? are possible only for source sizes much larger than commonly expected (rs0>>2.6x1016 cm). Regarding the current controversy about Milky Way/LMC and M31 microlensing studies, our work supports the hypothesis of a very low content in MACHOS (Massive Compact Halo Objects). In fact, according to our study, quasar microlensing probably arises from the normal star populations of lens galaxies and there is no statistical evidence for MACHOS in the dark halos.

2009-12-01

347

Object-based gully feature extraction using high spatial resolution imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

Gully erosion is responsible for a substantial amount of soil loss and is generally considered an indicator of desertification. Hence, mapping these gully features provides essential information needed on sediment production, identification of vulnerable areas for gully formation, land degradation, and environmental and socio-economical effects. This paper investigates the use of object-oriented image analysis (OOA) to extract gully erosion features from satellite imagery, using a combination of topographic, spectral, shape (geometric) and contextual information obtained from IKONOS and GEOEYE-1 data. A rule-set was developed and tested for a semi-arid to sub-humid region in Morocco. The percentage of gully system area indicated negligible overestimations between the reference area and the OOA area in two sub-watersheds (0.03% and 1.77%). We also observed that finer gully-related edges within the complex gully systems were better identified semi-automatically than was possible by manual digitization, suggesting higher detection accuracy. OOA-based gully mapping is quicker and more objective than traditional methods, and is thus better suited to provide essential information for land managers to support their decision making processes, and for the erosion research community.

Shruthi, Rajesh B. V.; Kerle, Norman; Jetten, Victor

2011-11-01

348

[IR spectral-analysis-based range estimation for an object with small temperature difference from background].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is a typical passive ranging technology that estimation of distance of an object is based on transmission characteristic of infrared radiation, it is also a hotspot in electro-optic countermeasures. Because of avoiding transmitting energy in the detection, this ranging technology will significantly enhance the penetration capability and infrared conceal capability of the missiles or unmanned aerial vehicles. With the current situation in existing passive ranging system, for overcoming the shortage in ranging an oncoming target object with small temperature difference from background, an improved distance estimation scheme was proposed. This article begins with introducing the concept of signal transfer function, makes clear the working curve of current algorithm, and points out that the estimated distance is not unique due to inherent nonlinearity of the working curve. A new distance calculation algorithm was obtained through nonlinear correction technique. It is a ranging formula by using sensing information at 3-5 and 8-12 microm combined with background temperature and field meteorological conditions. The authors' study has shown that the ranging error could be mainly kept around the level of 10% under the condition of the target and background apparent temperature difference equal to +/- 5 K, and the error in estimating background temperature is no more than +/- 15 K.

Fu XN; Wang J; Yang L

2013-01-01

349

Sugar content of popular sweetened beverages based on objective laboratory analysis: focus on fructose content.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The consumption of fructose, largely in the form of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), has risen over the past several decades and is thought to contribute negatively to metabolic health. However, the fructose content of foods and beverages produced with HFCS is not disclosed and estimates of fructose content are based on the common assumption that the HFCS used contains 55% fructose. The objective of this study was to conduct an objective laboratory analysis of the sugar content and composition in popular sugar-sweetened beverages with a particular focus on fructose content. Twenty-three sugar-sweetened beverages along with four standard solutions were analyzed for sugar profiles using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in an independent, certified laboratory. Total sugar content was calculated as well as percent fructose in the beverages that use HFCS as the sole source of fructose. Results showed that the total sugar content of the beverages ranged from 85 to 128% of what was listed on the food label. The mean fructose content in the HFCS used was 59% (range 47-65%) and several major brands appear to be produced with HFCS that is 65% fructose. Finally, the sugar profile analyses detected forms of sugar that were inconsistent with what was listed on the food labels. This analysis revealed significant deviations in sugar amount and composition relative to disclosures from producers. In addition, the tendency for use of HFCS that is higher in fructose could be contributing to higher fructose consumption than would otherwise be assumed.

Ventura EE; Davis JN; Goran MI

2011-04-01

350

Deformable Volume Object Modeling With A Particle-Based System For Medical Applications  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we describe a general method for reconstruction and animation of volumetricdeformable objects. First, the initial data, defined by planar contours, are fitted with aclosed periodic parametric surface. Then, this rigid model is used as a closed boundary,which is filled in by particles. For this, new particles are progressively generated withinthe boundary. When a new particle is introduced, there will be an interaction betweenthis particle and all the existing particles. They will collide the boundaries. Then we letthe system evolve under physically-based forces, until the particles reach an equilibriumstate. We have defined some simple rules for the new particle generation.In the scope of a medical application, we want to simulate the motion and the formalteration of the internal anatomical objects. So we have introduced the necessary toolsto handle the dynamic and deformable behavior of cancerous tissues and organs. Ourparticle system seems adequate to be integrated in a much more complete model of thehuman body, which could help the physicians during the treatment.1

Universit'e Lyon I; Fabrice Jaillet; Behzad Shariat; Denis Vandorpe; Address Ligim

351

Environmental flow assessments in estuaries based on an integrated multi-objective method  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrated multi-objective method for environmental flow assessments was developed that considered variability of potential habitats as a critical factor in determining how ecosystems respond to hydrological alterations. Responses of habitat area, and the magnitude of those responses as influenced by salinity and water depth, were established and assessed according to fluctuations in river discharge and tidal currents. The requirements of typical migratory species during pivotal life-stage seasons (e.g., reproduction and juvenile growth) and natural flow variations were integrated into the flow-needs assessment. Critical environmental flows for a typical species were defined based on two primary objectives: (1) high level of habitat area and (2) low variability of habitat area. After integrating the water requirements for various species with the maximum acceptable discharge boundary, appropriate temporal limits of environmental flows for ecosystems were recommended. The method was applied in the Yellow River estuary in eastern Shandong province, China. Our results show that, while recommended environmental flows established with variability of potential habitats in mind may not necessarily benefit short-term survival of a typical resident organism on a limited temporal or spatial scale, they may encourage long-term, stable biodiversity and ecosystem health. Thus, short-term ecosystem losses may be compensated by significant long-term gains.

Sun, T.; Xu, J.; Yang, Z. F.

2013-02-01

352

Mental rotation performance in soccer players and gymnasts in an object-based mental rotation task  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effect of motor expertise on an object-based mental rotation task was investigated. 60 males and 60 females (40 soccer players, 40 gymnasts, and 40 non-athletes, equivalent males and females in each group) solved a psychometric mental rotation task with both cube and human figures. The results revealed that all participants had a higher mental rotation accuracy for human figures compared to cubed figures, that the gender difference was reduced with human figures, and that gymnasts demonstrated a better mental rotation performance than non-athletes. The results are discussed against the background of the existing literature on motor experts, mental rotation performance as well as the importance of the testing situation and the test construction.

Jansen, Petra; Lehmann, Jennifer

2013-01-01

353

Inference and Plausible Reasoning in a Natural Language Understanding System Based on Object-Oriented Semantics  

CERN Multimedia

Algorithms of inference in a computer system oriented to input and semantic processing of text information are presented. Such inference is necessary for logical questions when the direct comparison of objects from a question and database can not give a result. The following classes of problems are considered: a check of hypotheses for persons and non-typical actions, the determination of persons and circumstances for non-typical actions, planning actions, the determination of event cause and state of persons. To form an answer both deduction and plausible reasoning are used. As a knowledge domain under consideration is social behavior of persons, plausible reasoning is based on laws of social psychology. Proposed algorithms of inference and plausible reasoning can be realized in computer systems closely connected with text processing (criminology, operation of business, medicine, document systems).

Ostapov, Yuriy

2012-01-01

354

A feature-based object-oriented expert system to model and support product design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a computer program to model and support product design is presented. The product is represented through a hierarchical structure that allows the user to navigate across the product’s components, and it aims at facilitating each step of the detail design process. A graphical interface was also developed, which shows visually to the user the contents of the product structure. Features are used as building blocks for the parts that compose the product, and object-oriented methodology was used as a means to implement the product structure. Finally, an expert system was also implemented, whose knowledge base rules help the user design a product that meets design and manufacturing requirements.

Nilson Luiz Maziero; João Carlos Espíndola Ferreira; Fernando Santana Pacheco; Marcelo Fabrício Prim

2000-01-01

355

A feature-based object-oriented expert system to model and support product design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a computer program to model and support product design is presented. The product is represented through a hierarchical structure that allows the user to navigate across the product?s components, and it aims at facilitating each step of the detail design process. A graphical interface was also developed, which shows visually to the user the contents of the product structure. Features are used as building blocks for the parts that compose the product, and object-oriented methodology was used as a means to implement the product structure. Finally, an expert system was also implemented, whose knowledge base rules help the user design a product that meets design and manufacturing requirements.

Maziero Nilson Luiz; Ferreira João Carlos Espíndola; Pacheco Fernando Santana; Prim Marcelo Fabrício

2000-01-01

356

Convex objective function-based design method developed for minimizing side lobe.  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence of multiple local solutions makes it very difficult to search for filter parameters to achieve a desired side lobe level during the design of superresolution pupil filters. To deal with the difficult issue of side lobe control in the designing process, a convex objective function-based design method is developed through phase rotation and variable replacement to transform the complicated solving process with multiextreme subintervals into a simple optimization process with a convex interval. A group of constant annular complex superresolving filters are designed using the developed method. The comparison of the superresolving filters designed in this way with the well-known continuous phase filter and 3-zone multiphase diffractive superresolution filters proves the validity of the developed method. PMID:18670563

Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Chenguang

2008-08-01

357

Convex objective function-based design method developed for minimizing side lobe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The existence of multiple local solutions makes it very difficult to search for filter parameters to achieve a desired side lobe level during the design of superresolution pupil filters. To deal with the difficult issue of side lobe control in the designing process, a convex objective function-based design method is developed through phase rotation and variable replacement to transform the complicated solving process with multiextreme subintervals into a simple optimization process with a convex interval. A group of constant annular complex superresolving filters are designed using the developed method. The comparison of the superresolving filters designed in this way with the well-known continuous phase filter and 3-zone multiphase diffractive superresolution filters proves the validity of the developed method.

Liu J; Tan J; Zhao C

2008-08-01

358

Objective Error Criterion for Evaluation of Mapping Accuracy Based on Sensor Time-of-Flight Measurements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An objective error criterion is proposed for evaluating the accuracy of maps of unknown environments acquired by making range measurements with different sensing modalities and processing them with different techniques. The criterion can also be used for the assessment of goodness of fit of curves or shapes fitted to map points. A demonstrative example from ultrasonic mapping is given based on experimentally acquired time-of-flight measurements and compared with a very accurate laser map, considered as absolute reference. The results of the proposed criterion are compared with the Hausdorff metric and the median error criterion results. The error criterion is sufficiently general and flexible that it can be applied to discrete point maps acquired with other mapping techniques and sensing modalities as well.

Billur Barshan

2008-01-01

359

AN APPROACH FOR OBJECT FINDING USING MOBILE ROBOTS BASED ON ACO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) for mobile robot. This paper describes theanalysis and design of a new class of mobile robots. These small robots are intended to be simple andinexpensive, and will all be physically identical, thus constituting a homogeneous team of robots. Theyderive their usefulness from their group actions, performing physical tasks and making cooperativedecisions as a Coordinated Team. This method based on heuristic concept is used to obtain globalsearch. Since the proposed method is very efficient, thus it can perform object finding very quickly. In theprocess of doing so, we first use ACO to obtain the shortest obstructed distance, which is an effectivemethod for arbitrary shape obstacles.

Amita.PMeshram; Smita .R. Kapse

2011-01-01

360

The method of the regular placement of flat geometric objects based on geometric transformations ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ??????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We study the location of flat geometric objects in the band. A method for obtaining a valid placement of two geometric objects, the method of finding the area of a valid placement of two convex and non-convex two geometric objects, a method for finding rational placement options repetitive geometric object in the band.??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????. ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????.

?. ?. ????????; ?. ?. ??????

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Coastal aquifer management based on surrogate models and multi-objective optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

The demand for fresh water in coastal areas and islands can be very high, especially in summer months, due to increased local needs and tourism. In order to satisfy demand, a combined management plan is proposed which involves: i) desalinization (if needed) of pumped water to a potable level using reverse osmosis and ii) injection of biologically treated waste water into the aquifer. The management plan is formulated into a multiobjective optimization framework, where simultaneous minimization of economic and environmental costs is desired; subject to a constraint to satisfy demand. The method requires modeling tools, which are able to predict the salinity levels of the aquifer in response to different alternative management scenarios. Variable density models can simulate the interaction between fresh and saltwater; however, they are computationally intractable when integrated in optimization algorithms. In order to alleviate this problem, a multi objective optimization algorithm is developed combining surrogate models based on Modular Neural Networks [MOSA(MNN)]. The surrogate models are trained adaptively during optimization based on a Genetic Algorithm. In the crossover step of the genetic algorithm, each pair of parents generates a pool of offspring. All offspring are evaluated based on the fast surrogate model. Then only the most promising offspring are evaluated based on the exact numerical model. This eliminates errors in Pareto solution due to imprecise predictions of the surrogate model. Three new criteria for selecting the most promising offspring were proposed, which improve the Pareto set and maintain the diversity of the optimum solutions. The method has important advancements compared to previous methods, e.g. alleviation of propagation of errors due to surrogate model approximations. The method is applied to a real coastal aquifer in the island of Santorini which is a very touristy island with high water demands. The results show that the algorithm is capable of solving complex multi-objective optimization problems effectively with significant reduction in computational time compared to previous methods (it requires only 5% of the NSGA -II algorithm time). Further, as indicated in the figure below, the Pareto solution obtained by the much faster MOSA(MNN) algorithm, is better than the solution obtained by the NSGA-II algorithm.

Mantoglou, A.; Kourakos, G.

2011-12-01

362

MultiMiTar: a novel multi objective optimization based miRNA-target prediction method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Machine learning based miRNA-target prediction algorithms often fail to obtain a balanced prediction accuracy in terms of both sensitivity and specificity due to lack of the gold standard of negative examples, miRNA-targeting site context specific relevant features and efficient feature selection process. Moreover, all the sequence, structure and machine learning based algorithms are unable to distribute the true positive predictions preferentially at the top of the ranked list; hence the algorithms become unreliable to the biologists. In addition, these algorithms fail to obtain considerable combination of precision and recall for the target transcripts that are translationally repressed at protein level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the proposed article, we introduce an efficient miRNA-target prediction system MultiMiTar, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier integrated with a multiobjective metaheuristic based feature selection technique. The robust performance of the proposed method is mainly the result of using high quality negative examples and selection of biologically relevant miRNA-targeting site context specific features. The features are selected by using a novel feature selection technique AMOSA-SVM, that integrates the multi objective optimization technique Archived Multi-Objective Simulated Annealing (AMOSA) and SVM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MultiMiTar is found to achieve much higher Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.583 and average class-wise accuracy (ACA) of 0.8 compared to the others target prediction methods for a completely independent test data set. The obtained MCC and ACA values of these algorithms range from -0.269 to 0.155 and 0.321 to 0.582, respectively. Moreover, it shows a more balanced result in terms of precision and sensitivity (recall) for the translationally repressed data set as compared to all the other existing methods. An important aspect is that the true positive predictions are distributed preferentially at the top of the ranked list that makes MultiMiTar reliable for the biologists. MultiMiTar is now available as an online tool at www.isical.ac.in/~bioinfo_miu/multimitar.htm. MultiMiTar software can be downloaded from www.isical.ac.in/~bioinfo_miu/multimitar-download.htm.

Mitra R; Bandyopadhyay S

2011-01-01

363

An Object-Based Method for Estimation of River Discharge from Remotely-Sensed Imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

High resolution satellite and aerial imagery of fluvial systems contain much information about planform river channel features. However, not much is known about how these forms quantitatively related to river channel process, specifically, discharge. This research explores methods for remote image-based river discharge estimation through Object-Based Image Processing (OBIA) and GIS techniques. Previous efforts in image-based discharge estimation have relied primarily on manual delineation of river features and the input of reach-averaged values of these features into statistically based models for estimation. In addition to analyzing OBIA techniques for channel feature delineation and measurement, this approach investigates techniques of discharge estimation model design, validation, and correction along a reach, utilizing variation in “standard” channel features (e.g. water surface width), along with less tangible channel feature metrics derived from OBIA. Rather than predefine the channel unit of analysis, this work also considers the accuracy of model parameters derived from a range of channel scales, from longer reach-averaged to cross-sectional. High resolution (1 m) color infrared orthoimagery from 2005 and 2009 National Agricultural Inventory Program (NAIP) of 50 river reaches (ranging in discharge from approximately 13 m3s-1 to 856 m3s-1) were utilized for this analysis. These reaches, all near United States Geological Survey (USGS) river gages in California, USA, were split randomly and evenly into 25 reaches each for model design and validation, respectively. This approach allows better isolation of error resulting from user bias in channel feature measurement, and moves toward a more precise, standardized system of measurement for remotely observable channel form.

Burgett, D. A.; Blesius, L.; Davis, J. D.

2010-12-01

364

Objective assessment in residency-based training for transoral robotic surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a robotic surgery training regimen integrating objective skill assessment for otolaryngology and head and neck surgery trainees consisting of training modules of increasing complexity leading up to procedure-specific training. In particular, we investigated applications of such a training approach for surgical extirpation of oropharyngeal tumors via a transoral approach using the da Vinci robotic system. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective blinded data collection and objective evaluation (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills [OSATS]) of three distinct phases using the da Vinci robotic surgical system in an academic university medical engineering/computer science laboratory setting. METHODS: Between September 2010 and July 2011, eight otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents and four staff experts from an academic hospital participated in three distinct phases of robotic surgery training involving 1) robotic platform operational skills, 2) set up of the patient side system, and 3) a complete ex vivo surgical extirpation of an oropharyngeal tumor located in the base of tongue. Trainees performed multiple (four) approximately equally spaced training sessions in each stage of the training. In addition to trainees, baseline performance data were obtained for the experts. Each surgical stage was documented with motion and event data captured from the application programming interfaces of the da Vinci system, as well as separate video cameras as appropriate. All data were assessed using automated skill measures of task efficiency and correlated with structured assessment (OSATS and similar Likert scale) from three experts to assess expert and trainee differences and compute automated and expert assessed learning curves. RESULTS: Our data show that such training results in an improved didactic robotic knowledge base and improved clinical efficiency with respect to the set up and console manipulation. Experts (e.g., average OSATS, 25; standard deviation [SD], 3.1; module 1, suturing) and trainees (average OSATS, 15.9; SD, 3.9; week 1) are well separated at the beginning of the training, and the separation reduces significantly (expert average OSATS, 27.6; SD, 2.7; trainee average OSATS, 24.2; SD, 6.8; module 3) at the conclusion of the training. Learning curves in each of the three stages show diminishing differences between the experts and trainees, which is also consistent with expert assessment. Subjective assessment by experts verified the clinical utility of the module 3 surgical environment, and a survey of trainees consistently rated the curriculum as very useful in progression to human operating room assistance. CONCLUSIONS: Structured curricular robotic surgery training with objective assessment promises to reduce the overhead for mentors, allow detailed assessment of human-machine interface skills, and create customized training models for individualized training. This preliminary study verifies the utility of such training in improving human-machine operations skills (module 1), and operating room and surgical skills (modules 2 and 3). In contrast to current coarse measures of total operating time and subjective assessment of error for short mass training sessions, these methods may allow individual tasks to be removed from the trainee regimen when skill levels are within the standard deviation of the experts for these tasks, which can greatly enhance overall efficiency of the training regimen and allow time for additional and more complex training to be incorporated in the same time frame.

Curry M; Malpani A; Li R; Tantillo T; Jog A; Blanco R; Ha PK; Califano J; Kumar R; Richmon J

2012-10-01

365

Model quality objectives based on measurement uncertainty. Part II: NO2 and PM10  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating measurement uncertainty for NO2 and PM10 is a complex issue that is normally addressed by experimentalists specifically for every type of instrument and measurement. On the other hand, an estimate of the maximum expected measurement uncertainty is needed when a numerical model is to be evaluated against observations, as proposed in Thunis et al. (2012, referred to as T2012). In a companion paper (Thunis et al., 2013, referred to as T2013) a simplified formulation of the measurement uncertainty in function of the measured concentration is proposed and applied to the simpler case of Ozone. In this paper the same approach is applied for NO2 and PM10, but using different techniques for the uncertainty estimation. For NO2 the Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement JCGM (2008, referred to as GUM) approach is used and applied on each urban AirBase (1997) measurement over the year 2009. For PM10, the method of the Guide for the Demonstration of Equivalence (ECWG, 2010) is used on data obtained with two different PM samplers used in parallel either during specific monitoring campaign or as available within the AirBase database. The resulting concentration dependent measurement uncertainties are then used to update the MQO (Model Quality Objective) and MPC (Model Performance Criteria) proposed in T2012. An estimate of the measurement uncertainty for annual means is proposed as well.

Pernigotti, D.; Gerboles, M.; Belis, C. A.; Thunis, P.

2013-11-01

366

Quasi-Feature based Panoramic Video Creation for Multiview Object Tracking System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present an efficient approach to building a panoramic video from mutiview cameras and to tracking objects. The proposed panoramic video creation module consists of two functions: (i) selecting four quasi-feature points in two adjacent frames acquired by corresponding multiple cameras and (ii) mosaicing the two images. Four pairs of selected quasi-feature points play a role of similarity reference in registering two adjacent frames. The mosaicing step uses the direct linear transformation (DLT) algorithm. The proposed tracking algorithm uses the active contour model (ASM), which is robust against partial occlusion. The proposed tracking module consists of four functions: (i) landmark point assignment, (ii) principal component analysis (PCA), (iii) modeling of local structure, and (iv) model fitting. While most conventional panoramic image creation methods are pixel-based, the proposed feature-based method provides more accurate tracking result. In the experiment, the created panoramic images exhibit high quality, which enables robust, real-time video tracking.

Changhan Park; Kyung-Hoon Bae

2009-01-01

367

Object-based encoding in visual working memory: A life span study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies on development of visual working memory (VWM) predominantly focus on VWM capacity and spatial-based information filtering in VWM. Here we explored another new aspect of VWM development: object-based encoding (OBE), which refers to the fact that even if one feature dimension is required to be selected into VWM, the other irrelevant dimensions are also extracted. We explored the OBE in children, young adults, and old adults, by probing an "irrelevant-change distracting effect" in which a change of stored irrelevant feature dramatically affects the performance of task-relevant features in a change-detection task. Participants were required to remember two or four simple colored shapes, while color was used as the relevant dimension. We found that changes to irrelevant shapes led to a significant distracting effect across the three age groups in both load conditions; however, children showed a greater degree of OBE than did young and old adults. These results suggest that OBE exists in VWM over the life span (6-67 years), yet continues to develop along with VWM.

Zhang Q; Shen M; Tang N; Zhao G; Gao Z

2013-01-01

368

Object-based encoding in visual working memory: A life span study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies on development of visual working memory (VWM) predominantly focus on VWM capacity and spatial-based information filtering in VWM. Here we explored another new aspect of VWM development: object-based encoding (OBE), which refers to the fact that even if one feature dimension is required to be selected into VWM, the other irrelevant dimensions are also extracted. We explored the OBE in children, young adults, and old adults, by probing an "irrelevant-change distracting effect" in which a change of stored irrelevant feature dramatically affects the performance of task-relevant features in a change-detection task. Participants were required to remember two or four simple colored shapes, while color was used as the relevant dimension. We found that changes to irrelevant shapes led to a significant distracting effect across the three age groups in both load conditions; however, children showed a greater degree of OBE than did young and old adults. These results suggest that OBE exists in VWM over the life span (6-67 years), yet continues to develop along with VWM. PMID:23962736

Zhang, Qiong; Shen, Mowei; Tang, Ning; Zhao, Guohua; Gao, Zaifeng

2013-08-20

369

Object-based analysis of hyperspectral and thermal infrared satellite imagery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The use of satellite imagery for nuclear safeguards applications today is very much limited to visible and short-wave infrared data, due to at least two reasons: First, from a technical point of view, these data provide the best spatial resolution in the sub-meter range for the analysis of small-scale nuclear-related activities. Second, from the user's point, the (visual) interpretation of visible and near-infrared data is more obvious rather than the analysis of thermal infrared, hyperspectral or radar image data requiring extensive pre-processing and knowledge on the sensor. However, also satellite data from thermal infrared, hyperspectral and microwave sensors involve information being relevant for nuclear monitoring. The given paper proposes an object-bases procedure for the combined analysis of high-resolution optical, thermal infrared and hyperspectral satellite imagery for different nuclear safeguards-related tasks. Some case studies using ASTER, HYPERION and QUICKBIRD data will demonstrate the advantages of this approach. 1. MONITORING OF URANIUM MINES AND MILLING. Under Integrated Safeguards all States having signed the additional protocol are obliged to declare the whole states production of uranium. Information on the production of individual mines and concentration plants have to be provided on request to the IAEA. In order to be able to verify the States declaration and to guarantee the absence of undeclared mining and/or milling activities, satellite imagery data are also taken into consideration Safeguards-related information identifiable by satellite imagery are signs of water, power and chemical usage, level of mining respectively milling activities, geographic extent of mining activities and the presence of other industrial activities associated with mining or milling respectively. The question whether hyperspectral data may be used to determine the surface mineralogy of exposed uranium tailings, has been controversially discussed recently. According to those results, analysing solely hyperspectral image data will not be lead to the identification of uranium activities or to the differentiation of uranium mining activities from other types of mining respectively. Nevertheless, hyperspectral data provide relevant information and thus the context within other remotely acquired data, such as high resolution imagery, can be interpreted. An object-based procedure is developed in order to use both the hyperspectral information and the shape and topology features from the high-resolution imagery. By this means, the classification accuracy and the interpretation of the site could be enhanced. 2. MONITORING THE OPERATIONAL STATUS OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES. Since different materials (soils, plants, water, man-made materials) selectively absorb shortwave solar energy and radiate the long-wave (thermal) energy in a specific way, it is possible to determine the type of material based on the thermal emission characteristics of the material - in case the atmospheric conditions and other influencing factors are known. Moreover, thermal data could be used to evaluate whether significant changes have taken place in the thermal characteristics of these materials over time. Thus, the use of thermal infrared imagery for the monitoring of (heat generating) nuclear facilities seems to be reasonable, even though the spatial resolution of satellite-based thermal infrared sensor bands is still limited to 60m (LANDSAT 7) and 90m (ASTER) respectively. The image data given by the thermal infrared system enables the user to analyse thermal differences between the area of interest and its neighbourhood and thus to derive information on the operational status of the facility. The description of an object as 'cold' or 'warm' compared to its neighbourhood has to be given in connection with the material and environmental parameters. Environmental influences may overlay or modify the natural or artificial thermal radiation or even result in thermal anomalies. The thermal behaviour of two different materials during the course o f th

2006-01-01

370

Sugar content of popular sweetened beverages based on objective laboratory analysis: focus on fructose content.  

Science.gov (United States)

The consumption of fructose, largely in the form of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), has risen over the past several decades and is thought to contribute negatively to metabolic health. However, the fructose content of foods and beverages produced with HFCS is not disclosed and estimates of fructose content are based on the common assumption that the HFCS used contains 55% fructose. The objective of this study was to conduct an objective laboratory analysis of the sugar content and composition in popular sugar-sweetened beverages with a particular focus on fructose content. Twenty-three sugar-sweetened beverages along with four standard solutions were analyzed for sugar profiles using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in an independent, certified laboratory. Total sugar content was calculated as well as percent fructose in the beverages that use HFCS as the sole source of fructose. Results showed that the total sugar content of the beverages ranged from 85 to 128% of what was listed on the food label. The mean fructose content in the HFCS used was 59% (range 47-65%) and several major brands appear to be produced with HFCS that is 65% fructose. Finally, the sugar profile analyses detected forms of sugar that were inconsistent with what was listed on the food labels. This analysis revealed significant deviations in sugar amount and composition relative to disclosures from producers. In addition, the tendency for use of HFCS that is higher in fructose could be contributing to higher fructose consumption than would otherwise be assumed. PMID:20948525

Ventura, Emily E; Davis, Jaimie N; Goran, Michael I

2010-10-14

371

Multi-objective optimization of gear forging process based on adaptive surrogate meta-models  

Science.gov (United States)

In forging industry, net shape or near net shape forging of gears has been the subject of considerable research effort in the last few decades. So in this paper, a multi-objective optimization methodology of net shape gear forging process design has been discussed. The study is mainly done in four parts: building parametric CAD geometry model, simulating the forging process, fitting surrogate meta-models and optimizing the process by using an advanced algorithm. In order to maximally appropriate meta-models of the real response, an adaptive meta-model based design strategy has been applied. This is a continuous process: first, bui Id a preliminary version of the meta-models after the initial simulated calculations; second, improve the accuracy and update the meta-models by adding some new representative samplings. By using this iterative strategy, the number of the initial sample points for real numerical simulations is greatly decreased and the time for the forged gear design is significantly shortened. Finally, an optimal design for an industrial application of a 27-teeth gear forging process was introduced, which includes three optimization variables and two objective functions. A 3D FE nu merical simulation model is used to realize the process and an advanced thermo-elasto-visco-plastic constitutive equation is considered to represent the material behavior. The meta-model applied for this example is kriging and the optimization algorithm is NSGA-II. At last, a relatively better Pareto optimal front (POF) is gotten with gradually improving the obtained surrogate meta-models.

Meng, Fanjuan; Labergere, Carl; Lafon, Pascal; Daniel, Laurent

2013-05-01

372

Perceptual and motor-based responses to hand actions on objects: evidence from ERPs.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We carried out a study examining the electrophysiological responses when participants made object decisions to objects and non-objects subject to congruent and incongruent hand-grip actions. Despite the grip responses being irrelevant to the task, event-related potentials were sensitive to the handg...

Kumar, S; Yoon, EY; Humphreys, GW

373

A preference-based approach to deriving breeding objectives: applied to sheep breeding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using internet-based software known as 1000Minds, choice-experiment surveys were administered to experts and farmers from the Irish sheep industry to capture their preferences with respect to the relative importance - represented by part-worth utilities - of target traits in the definition of a breeding objective for sheep in Ireland. Sheep production in Ireland can be broadly separated into lowland and hill farming systems; therefore, each expert was asked to answer the survey first as if he or she were a lowland farmer and second as a hill farmer. In addition to the experts, a group of lowland and a group of hill farmers were surveyed to assess whether, and to what extent, the groups' preferences differ from the experts' preferences. The part-worth utilities obtained from the surveys were converted into relative economic value terms per unit change in each trait. These measures - referred to as 'preference economic values' (pEVs) - were compared with economic values for the traits obtained from bio-economic models. The traits 'value per lamb at the meat processor' and 'lamb survival to slaughter' were revealed as being the two most important traits for the surveyed experts responding as lowland and hill farmers, respectively. In contrast, 'number of foot baths per year for ewes' and 'number of anthelmintic treatments per year for ewes' were the two least important traits. With the exception of 'carcase fat class' (P < 0.05), there were no statistically significant differences in the mean pEVs obtained from the surveyed experts under both the lowland and hill farming scenarios. Compared with the economic values obtained from bio-economic models, the pEVs for 'lambing difficulty' when the experts responded as lowland farmers were higher (P < 0.001); and they were lower (P < 0.001) for 'carcase conformation class', 'carcase fat class' (less negative) and 'ewe mature weight' (less negative) under both scenarios. Compared with surveyed experts, pEVs from lowland farmers differed significantly for 'lambing difficulty', 'lamb survival to slaughter', 'average days to slaughter of lambs', 'number of foot baths per year for ewes', 'number of anthelmintic treatments per year for ewes' and 'ewe mature weight'. Compared with surveyed experts, pEVs from hill farmers differed significantly for 'lambing difficulty', 'average days to slaughter of lambs' and 'number of foot baths per year for ewes'. This study indicates that preference-based tools have the potential to contribute to the definition of breeding objectives where production and price data are not available.

Byrne TJ; Amer PR; Fennessy PF; Hansen P; Wickham BW

2012-05-01

374

Train traffic scheduling method considering passengers flowing model based on object-oriented model; Object shiko ni motozuku jokyakuryu wo koryoshita ressha dia sakusei shuho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we propose a new scheduling and operating method for railway systems based on passengers flowing model. The method is constructed by two level, a higher level named by the scheduling level and a lower level named by the operating level. In the scheduling level, several important diagram factors that include the type of train, stop stations and stop time, and a desire dial performance which include fast achievement, lower congestion will be determined by veteran operators. In the operating level, based on those important diagram factors determined from higher level, the detail train diagram is made both by train traffic simulations and passengers flowing simulations using object-oriented technique. The results obtained from the operating level will be feedback to the higher level in order to modify some key diagram factors, and then the lower level will do again, this interactive process will be continued until a desire performance could be obtained. 11 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Harada, M. [Oki Electric Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Gao, H.; Abe, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Abe, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nakao, K. [Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan)

1998-02-01

375

Object-based attentional effects in response to eye-gaze and arrow cues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have demonstrated that central cues, such as eyes and arrows, reflexively trigger attentional shifts. However, it is not clear whether the attention induced by these two cues can be attached to objects within the visual scene. In the current study, subjects' attention was directed to one of two objects (square outlines) via the observation of uninformative directional arrows or eye gaze. Then, the objects rotated 90° clockwise or counter-clockwise to a new location and the target stimulus was presented within one of these two objects. Results showed that independent of the cue type participants responded faster to targets in the cued object than to those in the uncued object. This suggests that in dynamic displays, both gaze and arrow cues are able to trigger reflexive shifts of attention to objects moving within the visual scene. PMID:23732953

Marotta, Andrea; Casagrande, Maria; Lupiáñez, Juan

2013-06-01

376

Object-based attentional effects in response to eye-gaze and arrow cues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies have demonstrated that central cues, such as eyes and arrows, reflexively trigger attentional shifts. However, it is not clear whether the attention induced by these two cues can be attached to objects within the visual scene. In the current study, subjects' attention was directed to one of two objects (square outlines) via the observation of uninformative directional arrows or eye gaze. Then, the objects rotated 90° clockwise or counter-clockwise to a new location and the target stimulus was presented within one of these two objects. Results showed that independent of the cue type participants responded faster to targets in the cued object than to those in the uncued object. This suggests that in dynamic displays, both gaze and arrow cues are able to trigger reflexive shifts of attention to objects moving within the visual scene.

Marotta A; Casagrande M; Lupiáñez J

2013-07-01

377

Robust Mobile Object Tracking Based on Multiple Feature Similarity and Trajectory Filtering  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a new algorithm to track mobile objects in different scene conditions. The main idea of the proposed tracker includes estimation, multi-features similarity measures and trajectory filtering. A feature set (distance, area, shape ratio, color histogram) is defined for each tracked object to search for the best matching object. Its best matching object and its state estimated by the Kalman filter are combined to update position and size of the tracked object. However, the mobile object trajectories are usually fragmented because of occlusions and misdetections. Therefore, we also propose a trajectory filtering, named global tracker, aims at removing the noisy trajectories and fusing the fragmented trajectories belonging to a same mobile object. The method has been tested with five videos of different scene conditions. Three of them are provided by the ETISEO benchmarking project (http://www-sop.inria.fr/orion/ETISEO) in which the proposed tracker performance has been compared with other seven...

Chau, Duc Phu; Thonnat, Monique; Corvee, Etienne

2011-01-01

378

Detecting Slums from SPOT Data in Casablanca Morocco Using an Object Based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Casablanca, Morocco's economic capital continues today to fight against the proliferation of informal settle- ments affecting its urban fabric illustrated especially by the slums. Actually Casablanca represents 25% of the total slums of Morocco [1]. These are the habitats of all deprived of healthy sanitary conditions and judged precarious from the perspective humanitarian and below the acceptable. The majority of the inhabi- tants of these slums are from the rural exodus with insufficient income to meet the basic needs of daily life. Faced with this situation and to eradicate these habitats, the Moroccan government has launched since 2004 an entire program to create cities without slums (C.W.S.) to resettle or relocate families. Indeed the process control and monitoring of this program requires first identifying and detecting spatial habitats. To achieve these tasks, conventional methods such as information gathering, mapping, use of databases and statistics often have shown their limits and are sometimes outdated. It is within this framework and that of the great German Morocco project “Urban agriculture as an integrative factor of development that fits our project de- tection of slums in Casablanca. The use of satellite imagery, particulary the HSR, has the advantage of providing the physical coverage of urban land but it raises the difficulty of choosing the appropriate method to apply.This paper is actually to develop new approaches based mainly on object-oriented classification of high spatial resolution satellite images for the detection of slums.This approach has been developed for mapping the urban land through by integration of several types of information (spectral, spatial, contextual ...) (Hofmann, P ., 2001, Herold et al. 2002b; Van Der Sande et al., 2003, Benz et al., 2004, Nobrega et al., 2006). In order to refine the result of classification, we applied mathematical morphology and in particular the closing filter. The data from this classification (binary image), which then will be used in a spatial data- base (ArcGIS).

Hassan Rhinane; Atika Hilali; Aziza Berrada; Mustapha Hakdaoui

2011-01-01

379

Aquarius' Object-Oriented, plug and play component-based flight software  

Science.gov (United States)

The Aquarius mission involves a combined radiometer and radar instrument in low-Earth orbit, providing monthly global maps of Sea Surface Salinity. Operating successfully in orbit since June, 2011, the spacecraft bus was furnished by the Argentine space agency, Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE). The instrument, built jointly by NASA's Caltech/JPL and Goddard Space Flight Center, has been successfully producing expectation-exceeding data since it was powered on in August of 2011. In addition to the radiometer and scatterometer, the instrument contains an command & data-handling subsystem with a computer and flight software (FSW) that is responsible for managing the instrument, its operation, and its data. Aquarius' FSW is conceived and architected as a Component based system, in which the running software consists of a set of Components, each playing a distinctive role in the subsystem, instantiated and connected together at runtime. Component architectures feature a well-defined set of interfaces between the Components, visible and analyzable at the architectural level. As we will describe, this kind of an architecture offers significant advantages over more traditional FSW architectures, which often feature a monolithic runtime structure. Component-based software is enabled by Object-Oriented (OO) techniques and languages, the use of which again is not typical in space mission FSW. We will argue in this paper that the use of OO design methods and tools (especially the Unified Modeling Language), as well as the judicious usage of C++, are very well suited to FSW applications, and we will present Aquarius FSW, describing our methods, processes, and design, as a successful case in point.

Murray, A.; Shahabuddin, M.

380

Monitoring Urban Tree Cover Using Object-Based Image Analysis and Public Domain Remotely Sensed Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban forest ecosystems provide a range of social and ecological services, but due to the heterogeneity of these canopies their spatial extent is difficult to quantify and monitor. Traditional per-pixel classification methods have been used to map urban canopies, however, such techniques are not generally appropriate for assessing these highly variable landscapes. Landsat imagery has historically been used for per-pixel driven land use/land cover (LULC) classifications, but the spatial resolution limits our ability to map small urban features. In such cases, hyperspatial resolution imagery such as aerial or satellite imagery with a resolution of 1 meter or below is preferred. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) allows for use of additional variables such as texture, shape, context, and other cognitive information provided by the image analyst to segment and classify image features, and thus, improve classifications. As part of this research we created LULC classifications for a pilot study area in Seattle, WA, USA, using OBIA techniques and freely available public aerial photography. We analyzed the differences in accuracies which can be achieved with OBIA using multispectral and true-color imagery. We also compared our results to a satellite based OBIA LULC and discussed the implications of per-pixel driven vs. OBIA-driven field sampling campaigns. We demonstrated that the OBIA approach can generate good and repeatable LULC classifications suitable for tree cover assessment in urban areas. Another important finding is that spectral content appeared to be more important than spatial detail of hyperspatial data when it comes to an OBIA-driven LULC.

L. Monika Moskal; Diane M. Styers; Meghan Halabisky

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Development of novel hybrid flexure-based microgrippers for precision micro-object manipulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the process of developing a microgripper that is capable of high precision and fidelity manipulation of micro-objects. The design adopts the concept of flexure-based hinges on its joints to provide the rotational motion, thus eliminating the inherent nonlinearities associated with the application of conventional rigid hinges. A combination of two modeling techniques, namely, pseudorigid body model and finite element analysis was utilized to expedite the prototyping procedure, which leads to the establishment of a high performance mechanism. A new hybrid compliant structure integrating cantilever beam and flexural hinge configurations within microgripper mechanism mainframe has been developed. This concept provides a novel approach to harness the advantages within each individual configuration while mutually compensating the limitations inherent between them. A wire electrodischarge machining technique was utilized to fabricate the gripper out of high grade aluminum alloy (Al 7075T6). Experimental studies were conducted on the model to obtain various correlations governing the gripper performance as well as for model verification. The experimental results demonstrate high level of compliance in comparison to the computational results. A high amplification characteristic and maximum achievable stroke of 100 microm can be achieved. PMID:19566225

Mohd Zubir, Mohd Nashrul; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Tian, Yanling

2009-06-01

382

Robust Stereo-Vision Based 3D Object Reconstruction for the Assistive Robot FRIEND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A key requirement of assistive robot vision is the robust 3D object reconstruction in complex environments for reliable autonomous object manipulation. In this paper the idea is presented of achieving high robustness of a complete robot vision system against external influences such as variable illumination by including feedback control of the object segmentation in stereo images. The approach used is to change the segmentation parameters in closed-loop so that object features extraction is driven to a desired result. Reliable feature extraction is necessary to fully exploit a neuro-fuzzy classifier which is the core of the proposed 2D object recognition method, predecessor of 3D object reconstruction. Experimental results on the rehabilitation assistive robotic system FRIEND demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

RISTIC-DURRANT, D.; GRIGORESCU, S. M.; GRASER, A.; COJBASIC, Z.; NIKOLIC, V.

2011-01-01

383

Grasping and manipulation of deformable objects based on internal force requirements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of grasping and manipulation of deformable objects by a three finger robot hand has been carried out. It is proved that the required fingertip grasping forces and velocities vary with change in object size due to deformation. The variation of the internal force with the change in fingertip and object contact angle has been investigated in detail. From the results it is concluded that it is very difficult to manipulate an object if the finger contact angle is not between 30 o and 70 o, as the internal forces or velocities become very large outside this range. Hence even if the object is inside the work volume of the three fingers it would still not be possible to manipulate it. A simple control model is proposed which can control the grasping and manipulation of a deformable object. Experimental results are also presented to prove the proposed method.

Sohil Garg; Ashish Dutta

2008-01-01

384

Porous media microstructure reconstruction using pixel-based and object-based simulated annealing: comparison with other reconstruction methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reservoir rocks physical properties are usually obtained in laboratory, through standard experiments. These experiments are often very expensive and time-consuming. Hence, the digital image analysis techniques are a very fast and low cost methodology for physical properties prediction, knowing only geometrical parameters measured from the rock microstructure thin sections. This research analyzes two methods for porous media reconstruction using the relaxation method simulated annealing. Using geometrical parameters measured from rock thin sections, it is possible to construct a three-dimensional (3D) model of the microstructure. We assume statistical homogeneity and isotropy and the 3D model maintains porosity spatial correlation, chord size distribution and d 3-4 distance transform distribution for a pixel-based reconstruction and spatial correlation for an object-based reconstruction. The 2D and 3D preliminary results are compared with microstructures reconstructed by truncated Gaussian methods. As this research is in its beginning, only the 2D results will be presented. (author)

Diogenes, Alysson N.; Santos, Luis O.E. dos; Fernandes, Celso P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Appoloni, Carlos R. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

2008-07-01

385

A hybrid evolutionary algorithm for multi-objective anatomy-based dose optimization in high-dose-rate brachytherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multiple objectives must be considered in anatomy-based dose optimization for high-dose-rate brachytherapy and a large number of parameters must be optimized to satisfy often competing objectives. For objectives expressed solely in terms of dose variances, deterministic gradient-based algorithms can be applied and a weighted sum approach is able to produce a representative set of non-dominated solutions. As the number of objectives increases, or non-convex objectives are used, local minima can be present and deterministic or stochastic algorithms such as simulated annealing either cannot be used or are not efficient. In this case we employ a modified hybrid version of the multi-objective optimization algorithm NSGA-II. This, in combination with the deterministic optimization algorithm, produces a representative sample of the Pareto set. This algorithm can be used with any kind of objectives, including non-convex, and does not require artificial importance factors. A representation of the trade-off surface can be obtained with more than 1000 non-dominated solutions in 2-5 min. An analysis of the solutions provides information on the possibilities available using these objectives. Simple decision making tools allow the selection of a solution that provides a best fit for the clinical goals. We show an example with a prostate implant and compare results obtained by variance and dose-volume histogram (DVH) based objectives.

Lahanas M; Baltas D; Zamboglou N

2003-02-01

386

A hybrid evolutionary algorithm for multi-objective anatomy-based dose optimization in high-dose-rate brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multiple objectives must be considered in anatomy-based dose optimization for high-dose-rate brachytherapy and a large number of parameters must be optimized to satisfy often competing objectives. For objectives expressed solely in terms of dose variances, deterministic gradient-based algorithms can be applied and a weighted sum approach is able to produce a representative set of non-dominated solutions. As the number of objectives increases, or non-convex objectives are used, local minima can be present and deterministic or stochastic algorithms such as simulated annealing either cannot be used or are not efficient. In this case we employ a modified hybrid version of the multi-objective optimization algorithm NSGA-II. This, in combination with the deterministic optimization algorithm, produces a representative sample of the Pareto set. This algorithm can be used with any kind of objectives, including non-convex, and does not require artificial importance factors. A representation of the trade-off surface can be obtained with more than 1000 non-dominated solutions in 2-5 min. An analysis of the solutions provides information on the possibilities available using these objectives. Simple decision making tools allow the selection of a solution that provides a best fit for the clinical goals. We show an example with a prostate implant and compare results obtained by variance and dose-volume histogram (DVH) based objectives.

2003-02-07

387

A flexible object-based software framework for modeling complex systems with interacting natural and societal processes.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-based framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations. The DIAS infrastructure makes it feasible to build and manipulate complex simulation scenarios in which many thousands of objects can interact via dozens to hundreds of concurrent dynamic processes. The flexibility and extensibility of the DIAS software infrastructure stem mainly from (1) the abstraction of object behaviors, (2) the encapsulation and formalization of model functionality, and (3) the mutability of domain object contents. DIAS simulation objects are inherently capable of highly flexible and heterogeneous spatial realizations. Geospatial graphical representation of DIAS simulation objects is addressed via the GeoViewer, an object-based GIS toolkit application developed at ANL. DIAS simulation capabilities have been extended by inclusion of societal process models generated by the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET), another object-based framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory. By using FACET models to implement societal behaviors of individuals and organizations within larger DIAS-based natural systems simulations, it has become possible to conveniently address a broad range of issues involving interaction and feedback among natural and societal processes. Example DIAS application areas discussed in this paper include a dynamic virtual oceanic environment, detailed simulation of clinical, physiological, and logistical aspects of health care delivery, and studies of agricultural sustainability of urban centers under environmental stress in ancient Mesopotamia.

Christiansen, J. H.

2000-06-15

388

Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA). Part 1: Introduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to existing literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA) systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the degree of automation, accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and timeliness of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO) guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. The present first paper provides a multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches that augments similar analyses proposed in recent years. In line with constraints stemming from human vision, this SWOT analysis promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS) image understanding system (RS-IUS), from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive) image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive) image preliminary classification. Hence, a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage accomplishes image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the second part of this work a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive) RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a) computational theory (system design); (b) information/knowledge representation; (c) algorithm design; and (d) implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™) is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a symbolic syntactic inference system, like SIAM™, is made available to the RS community for operational use in a RS-IUS pre-attentive vision first stage, to accomplish multi-scale image segmentation and multi-granularity image pre-classification simultaneously, automatically and in near real-time.

Andrea Baraldi; Luigi Boschetti

2012-01-01

389

Real-time underwater object detection based on an electrically scanned high-resolution sonar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper describes an approach to real time detection and tracking of underwater objects, using image sequences from an electrically scanned high-resolution sonar. The use of a high resolution sonar provides a good estimate of the location of the objects, but strains the computers on board, because...

Henriksen, Lars

390

Shadows remain segmented as selectable regions in object-based attention paradigms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is unclear how shadows are processed in the visual system. Whilst shadows are clearly used as an important cue to localise the objects that cast them, there is mixed evidence regarding the extent to which shadows influence the recognition of those objects. Furthermore experiments exploring the pe...

de-Wit, Lee; Milner, David; Kentridge, Robert

391

Dominance-Based Pareto-Surrogate for Multi-Objective Optimization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mainstream surrogate approaches for multi-objective problems build one approximation for each objective. Mono-surrogate approaches instead aim at characterizing the Pareto front with a single model. Such an approach has been recently introduced using a mixture of regression Support Vector Machine (S...

Loshchilov, Ilya; Schoenauer, Marc; Sebag, Michèle